Mulligan Connie J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP. Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. Results We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic. Conclusion The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around
Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.
Macholdt, Enrico; Lede, Vera; Barbieri, Chiara; Mpoloka, Sununguko W; Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark
Although southern African Khoisan populations are often assumed to have remained largely isolated during prehistory, there is growing evidence for a migration of pastoralists from eastern Africa some 2,000 years ago, prior to the arrival of Bantu-speaking populations in southern Africa. Eastern Africa harbors distinctive lactase persistence (LP) alleles, and therefore LP alleles in southern African populations may be derived from this eastern African pastoralist migration. We sequenced the lactase enhancer region in 457 individuals from 18 Khoisan and seven Bantu-speaking groups from Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia and additionally genotyped four short tandem repeat (STR) loci that flank the lactase enhancer region. We found nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which the most frequent is -14010(∗)C, which was previously found to be associated with LP in Kenya and Tanzania and to exhibit a strong signal of positive selection. This allele occurs in significantly higher frequency in pastoralist groups and in Khoe-speaking groups in our study, supporting the hypothesis of a migration of eastern African pastoralists that was primarily associated with Khoe speakers. Moreover, we find a signal of ongoing positive selection in all three pastoralist groups in our study, as well as (surprisingly) in two foraging groups.
Experiences of mobile pastoralists often attest to a wide range of contradictions about the presumed advantages of formal education. While effort to 'reach' pastoralists has intensified under the global Education for All movement, there remain considerable difficulties in finding ways to make formal education relate to pastoralist livelihoods and complement endogenous knowledge. This paper examines how these dynamics play out across models of formal and non-formal education service provision, and identifies innovations that offer promising ways forward: Alternative Basic Education, Open and Distance Learning, and Pastoralist Field Schools.
Make yourself understood in business. This brand new self-study book is the perfect way for business people who spend a lot of time on the phone or in meetings and want to improve their spoken English, getting their message across effectively. The focus is on the key language required to speak English accurately in business. 'Collins English for Business' is a new series of self-study skills books which focus on the language you really need to do business in English - wherever you are in the world. Each title includes tips on how to communicate effectively and how to communicate inter-culturally. Other titles in the series: Listening and Writing. * Powered by COBUILD - using the real language of business English * Contents: Twenty 4-page units cover the key areas, such as Networking and Small Talk, Telephoning, Telephone and Video Conferencing, Presentations and Interviews. * Each unit contains: - Exercises focused on vocabulary or key structures - Grammar tips - Key phrases * Audio CD: dialogues are recorded...
Breton, Gwenna; Schlebusch, Carina M; Lombard, Marlize; Sjödin, Per; Soodyall, Himla; Jakobsson, Mattias
The ability to digest milk into adulthood, lactase persistence (LP), as well as specific genetic variants associated with LP, is heterogeneously distributed in global populations. These variants were most likely targets of selection when some populations converted from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist or farming lifestyles. Specific LP polymorphisms are associated with particular geographic regions and populations; however, they have not been extensively studied in southern Africa. We investigate the LP-regulatory region in 267 individuals from 13 southern African populations (including descendants of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agropastoralists), providing the first comprehensive study of the LP-regulatory region in a large group of southern Africans. The "East African" LP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (14010G>C) was found at high frequency (>20%) in a strict pastoralist Khoe population, the Nama of Namibia, suggesting a connection to East Africa, whereas the "European" LP SNP (13910C>T) was found in populations of mixed ancestry. Using genome-wide data from various African populations, we identify admixture (13%) in the Nama, from an Afro-Asiatic group dating to >1,300 years ago, with the remaining fraction of their genomes being from San hunter-gatherers. We also find evidence of selection around the LCT gene among Khoe-speaking groups, and the substantial frequency of the 14010C variant among the Nama is best explained by adaptation to digesting milk. These genome-local and genome-wide results support a model in which an East African group brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa and admixed with local hunter-gatherers to form the ancestors of Khoe people.
Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein
Rangeland degradation, a worldwide problem, is serious in China, especially in the Northern provinces. To assess the pastoralists' perceptions toward rangeland trend and degradation, a survey was conducted in Ningxia, North China. Data were collected from a total of 284 pastoralists in six Ningxia c
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pastoralists in low-income countries usually live in close proximity to their animals and thus represent an important repository of information about livestock disease. Since wild and domestic animals often mix freely whilst grazing, pastoralists are also able to observe first-hand the diseases that are present in wildlife and as such are key informants in disease outbreaks in sylvatic animals. We report here the findings of the first study of the knowledge and role of Masai pastoralists in mange in wildlife and livestock in Masai Mara, Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we describe the knowledge of mange accrued by 56 Masai pastoralists in Kenya and how they respond to it in both wildlife and livestock. In total, 52 (93% pastoralists had a clear idea of the clinical appearance of mange, 13 (23% understood its aetiology and 37 (66% knew that mites were the causal agent. Thirty-nine (69% believed that mange cross-infection between domestic and wild animals occurs, while 48 (85% had observed mange in domestic animals including sheep (77%, goats (57%, dogs (24% and cattle (14%. The pastoralists had also observed wild animals infected with mange, above all lions (19%, gazelles (14%, cheetahs (12% and wildebeests (2%. In 68% of cases Masai pastoralists treat mange infection or apply control measures, most commonly via the topical use of acaricides (29% and/or the reporting of the outbreak to the veterinary authorities (21%. In the period 2007-2011, Kenya Wildlife Service received 24 warnings of 59 wild animals with mange-like lesions from the Masai Mara pastoralist community. The reported species were cheetah, lion, wild dog, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. CONCLUSION: Masai pastoralists have good knowledge of mange epidemiology and treatment. Their observations and the treatments they apply are valuable in the control of this disease in both wild and domestic animals.
Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Mertz, Ole; Rasmussen, Kjeld;
In West Africa, the channels for information flow from meteorological services to end-users, such as pastoralists, are relatively limited. As meteorological information is key to improving productivity for pastoralists, it represents a challenge at both local and national level to develop...... an efficient information dissemination system. However, few studies have focused specifically on pastoralists as end-users, and the best mode of delivering meteorological information to pastoralists remains unknown. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Burkina Faso using a combination of qualitative...
Full Text Available This study explores the nature of education for pastoralists in Mongolia as it has changed with the introduction of a market-based economy. Pastoralists face the challenge of sustaining their livelihoods in the wake of modernization and its ideologies embedded even in the education available to pastoralists. This study explores the strengths and weaknesses of non formal education and its ability to provide education for Mongolian pastoralists. Perhaps thinking outside the box about education and learning in Mongolia can shed light on global education issues.
Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.
From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…
Educationally, pastoralists appear to be a paradox. From the perspective of official education, they are a complete failure, scoring badly in terms of enrollment, achievement, attainment, and gender balance. However, pastoralists are far from being unskilled. Their daily lives require them to perform tasks involving high levels of individual and…
Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Mertz, Ole; Rasmussen, Kjeld;
There has been an increasing focus on providing better weather, climate, and resource information for decision making in drylands. This study explores what kind of information pastoralists in the Sahel received in 2013 and how they responded to this information. Moreover, the study assesses whether...... the disseminated information corresponds to the actual needs of pastoralists. The overall objective is thus to identify the outcome of providing weather, climate, and resource information to pastoralists and thereby to explore whether and how various products may guide their mobility and decision-making patterns....... The results show that few of the interviewed pastoralists receive the seasonal rainfall forecasts, which have been produced since 1998 by the Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa. The pastoralists who did receive the forecasts used the information to adjust their crop cultivation strategies rather than...
Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Kraemer, K; Schweigert, F; Bonfoh, B; Crump, L; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J
Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, particularly in remote communities such as mobile pastoralists. The nutritional and vitamin A status of this population is not well-documented in Chad. This study assessed serum retinol levels among women and children under five-year-old in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralist and rural-settled communities, who are similarly exposed to risk factors such as gastrointestinal parasitic infection, anaemia and emaciation. The novel method of portable fluorometry was used for the first time to measure β-carotene and retinol levels in a pastoral nomadic area. Moderate level blood retinol deficiency (level blood retinol deficiency. In nomadic communities, women and children had blood retinol levels close to normal. Deficiency of retinol was strongly linked with lifestyle (nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled) among women and lifestyle and age among children. The results support an ecological linkage between human retinol levels and livestock milk retinol. This study shows the feasibility of portable retinol and β-carotene measurement in human blood as well as human and animal milk under remote field conditions, but the approach requires further validation.
Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.
To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…
En ny form for samfundsvidenskabeligt set uklart sprogbrug anvendes stadig oftere i organisation og politik. Ord som "sammenhængskraft", "myndighedsbetjening" og "kvalitetsløft" kritiseres ofte og kaldes varm luft eller new speak. Jeg vil hævde, at ordene i new speak rummer et dobbelt perspektiv......, uddannelse, militær etc.). Derfor er der gået varm luft og new speak i politisk og organisatorisk sprogbrug. Hvor funktionssystemer internt betjener sig af binært kodet kommunikation, må meddelelser mellem funktionssystemer nemlig afstå fra den klare veldefinerede tale. ...
Wesley M. Sarmento
Full Text Available Community-based conservation approaches that keep people on landscapes increasingly complement preservationist models of reserves without people. Evaluations of community conservation have shown that economic incentives and socioeconomics primarily drive people’s attitudes and perceptions. Work at Mongolia’s Ikh Nart Nature Reserve demonstrates how to achieve successful conservation by integrating local people into the overall program. Using a short questionnaire, we interviewed pastoralist families across two soums (similar to a U.S. county in Ikh Nart. We examined (1 pastoralists’ perceived threats to argali sheep (Ovis ammon, (2 socioeconomic differences among pastoralists, and (3 differences between pastoralists from different soums. We found that 15 years of conservation activities—education, research, and modest ecotourism—that occurred in the northern soum led to influences on people’s perceptions toward argali conservation. Compared with pastoralists from southern Ikh Nart, pastoralists from the northern part of the reserve more likely knew that argali are protected and understood primary threats to the species. Socioeconomic factors, such as age, sex, and wealth, did not significantly influence responses. The negligible economic incentives in Ikh Nart did not lead to response differences. Our results demonstrate that conservation can influence people across socioeconomic classes without providing large economic incentives.
Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.
Hesse, Ced; Cotula, Lorenzo
While climatic fluctuations have always been a defining feature of dryland areas, and pastoralists have developed resilient livelihood systems to cope with difficult climates, global climate change is raising new challenges for pastoral systems in Africa and elsewhere. Action at local, national and international levels is needed to prevent destitution and help pastoral groups respond to the changing environment.
Full Text Available Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results: Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI 1.5–4.7%. The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%. Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure
Wario, Hussein T; Roba, Hassan G; Kaufmann, Brigitte
Understanding the perception of environmental resources by the users is an important element in planning its sustainable use and management. Pastoralist communities manage their vast grazing territories and exploit resource variability through strategic mobility. However, the knowledge on which pastoralists' resource management is based and their perception of the grazing areas has received limited attention. To improve this understanding and to document this knowledge in a way that can be communicated with 'outsiders', we adopted a participatory mapping approach using satellite imagery to explore how Borana pastoralists of southern Ethiopia differentiated and characterized their grazing areas. The Borana herders conceptualized their grazing areas as set of distinctive grazing units each having specific names and characteristics. The precise location and the borders of each grazing unit were identified on the satellite image. In naming of the grazing units, the main differentiating criteria were landforms, vegetation types, prevalence of wildlife species, and manmade features. Based on the dominant soil type, the grazing units were aggregated into seasonal grazing areas that were described using factors such as soil drainage properties, extent of woody cover, main grass species, and prevalence of ecto-parasites. Pastoralists ranking of the seasonal grazing areas according to their suitability for cattle grazing matched with vegetation assessment results on the abundance of desirable fodder varieties. Approaching grazing area differentiation from the pastoralists' perspectives improves the understanding of rangeland characteristics that pastoralists considered important in their grazing management and visualization of their mental representation in digital maps eases communication of this knowledge.
Wario, Hussein T.; Roba, Hassan G.; Kaufmann, Brigitte
Understanding the perception of environmental resources by the users is an important element in planning its sustainable use and management. Pastoralist communities manage their vast grazing territories and exploit resource variability through strategic mobility. However, the knowledge on which pastoralists' resource management is based and their perception of the grazing areas has received limited attention. To improve this understanding and to document this knowledge in a way that can be communicated with `outsiders', we adopted a participatory mapping approach using satellite imagery to explore how Borana pastoralists of southern Ethiopia differentiated and characterized their grazing areas. The Borana herders conceptualized their grazing areas as set of distinctive grazing units each having specific names and characteristics. The precise location and the borders of each grazing unit were identified on the satellite image. In naming of the grazing units, the main differentiating criteria were landforms, vegetation types, prevalence of wildlife species, and manmade features. Based on the dominant soil type, the grazing units were aggregated into seasonal grazing areas that were described using factors such as soil drainage properties, extent of woody cover, main grass species, and prevalence of ecto-parasites. Pastoralists ranking of the seasonal grazing areas according to their suitability for cattle grazing matched with vegetation assessment results on the abundance of desirable fodder varieties. Approaching grazing area differentiation from the pastoralists' perspectives improves the understanding of rangeland characteristics that pastoralists considered important in their grazing management and visualization of their mental representation in digital maps eases communication of this knowledge.
Full Text Available The study focuses on land holding rights of the Fulani pastoralists and its effect on their agropastoral production system. It was discovered that among the land holding rights options available for land users in Yoruba communities where the Fulanis are settled, leasehold right was the viable option for the pastoralists. The implications of this is that the Fulani pastoralists cannot use the allotted lands for viable social and economic activities such as building of modern houses, establishment of small cottage industry and cultivation of permanent or cash crops such as Oil palm, Cacao, Kola etc since they are holding the land in their custody on a temporary basis. Therefore, their economic activities were limited to production of arable crops. From the average land size of about 5 ha available to majority of the pastoralist, between 0.5 and 1 ha are used for building livestock sheds, residential housing units and storage silos. Land size of about 1ha or more are cultivated for crop production and grazing pad. The situation of the pastoralists calls for government intervention in order to ensure that they have access to secured land rights. This is essential as it will make it possible for the pastoralists to become empowered to use allotted land for viable economic activities that would enhance their living status and meaningfully impact on the economy and development of their areas of settlement.
; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....
Behmanesh, Bahareh; Barani, Hossein; Abedi Sarvestani, Ahmad; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Sharafatmandrad, Mohsen
In a changing world, the prevalence of land degradation is becoming a serious problem, especially in countries with arid and semi-arid rangelands. There are many techniques to assess rangeland degradation that rely on scientific knowledge but ignore indigenous people. Indigenous people have accumulated precious knowledge about land management through generations of experience. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out how indigenous people assess rangeland degradation and how their ecological knowledge can be used for rangeland degradation assessment. Interviews were conducted with the pastoralists of two sites (Dasht and Mirza Baylu), where part of both areas is located in Golestan National Park (north-eastern Iran). A structured questionnaire was designed based on 17 indicators taken from literature and also primary discussions with pastoralists in order to evaluate land degradation. A qualitative Likert five-point scale was used for scoring rangeland degradation indicators. The results revealed that pastoralists pay more attention to edaphic indicators than to vegetative and other indicators. There were significant differences between the inside and outside of the park in terms of rangeland degradation indicators for both sites. The results show that the rangelands outside of the park in both sites were degraded compared to those inside of the park, especially in the areas close to villages. It can be concluded that pastoralists have a wealth of knowledge about the vegetation and grazing animal habits that can be used in rangeland degradation assessment. It is therefore necessary to document their ecological indigenous knowledge and involve them in the process of rangeland-degradation assessment.
Spengler, Robert; Frachetti, Michael; Doumani, Paula; Rouse, Lynne; Cerasetti, Barbara; Bullion, Elissa; Mar'yashev, Alexei
Archaeological research in Central Eurasia is exposing unprecedented scales of trans-regional interaction and technology transfer between East Asia and southwest Asia deep into the prehistoric past. This article presents a new archaeobotanical analysis from pastoralist campsites in the mountain and desert regions of Central Eurasia that documents the oldest known evidence for domesticated grains and farming among seasonally mobile herders. Carbonized grains from the sites of Tasbas and Begash illustrate the first transmission of southwest Asian and East Asian domesticated grains into the mountains of Inner Asia in the early third millennium BC. By the middle second millennium BC, seasonal camps in the mountains and deserts illustrate that Eurasian herders incorporated the cultivation of millet, wheat, barley and legumes into their subsistence strategy. These findings push back the chronology for domesticated plant use among Central Eurasian pastoralists by approximately 2000 years. Given the geography, chronology and seed morphology of these data, we argue that mobile pastoralists were key agents in the spread of crop repertoires and the transformation of agricultural economies across Asia from the third to the second millennium BC.
Blackwell, P J
The global warming trend of climate change is having severe adverse effects on the livelihoods of the Turkana pastoralists of northwestern Kenya. Care has to be taken in making assertions about the impact of climate change. The biggest effects may come not from lower average rainfall but from a widening of the standard deviation as weather extremes become more frequent. In a region already prone to drought, disease and conflict, climate change, access to modern weapons and new viral livestock diseases are now overwhelming pastoralists' coping capacity and deepening the region's roughly 30-year dependency on famine relief. This article examines the livelihood strategies of the Turkana and several poverty reduction programmes currently established, while addressing the reality that traditional pastoralism may no longer be a viable livelihood option, given the effects of climate change, disease and the ensuing conflict over diminishing resources. The findings conclude that the future for traditional Turkana pastoralists is dismal because they continue to depend on an environment that may no longer support them. Humanitarians are recommended to shift their focus to advocate and invest in alternative livelihood strategies that generate economic independence and help the Turkana adapt to their changing environment.
Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R. Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping
While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.
De Bruijn, M; Amadou, A; Lewa Doksala, E; Sangaré, B
The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system. This paper analyses the triangle of mobility, communication, and insecurity in order to understand the present-day situation of the nomadic and semi-nomadic Fulani pastoralists and their identity dynamics. The Fulani find themselves caught in between these conflicts, which end their mobility and often lead to the loss of their herds. Will they be able to keep their mobile lifestyle and identity? This article is based on qualitative case studies and the biographical narratives of nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists who have lived through conflict and violence in Cameroon, Chad and Mali. These case studies show that, despite the fact that mobile pastoralism has become difficult as a consequence of the conflicts and loss of cattle, the 'mobile' identity is very present and reinforced with the help of mobile telephony, through which social networks and 'wealth in people' are sustained.
Liao, Chuan; Ruelle, Morgan L; Kassam, Karim-Aly S
The proliferation of woody plants has been observed on rangelands globally and has significant impacts on subsistence livestock production. However, adaptation strategies to such environmental changes remain largely unexamined. This paper investigates pastoralists' adaptations to such environmental changes in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia by integrating pastoralists' ecological knowledge, surveys of plant species composition, and census data on livestock holdings. The results indicated that a proliferation of woody plants and corresponding decline in herbaceous species would have negative impact on forage values for cattle and sheep, whereas goats would remain relatively unaffected, and camels would benefit. While census data showed declines in household herd size from 2000 to 2014, pastoralists have been adapting to the proliferation of woody plants by doubling their goat holdings, and wealthier households are investing in camels. These changes in livestock holdings based on indigenous ecological knowledge will mitigate the negative impacts of vegetation shifts on livestock production, and facilitate adaptive environmental management in the pastoral systems.
Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8% of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3% of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected. Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to TB diagnosis and treatment. However, little is known about factors associated with treatment delay of pulmonary TB among pastoralists. Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted on 129 pulmonary TB patients in pastoralist community. The study was conducted in three health centers and a hospital. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (provider's delay were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Findings A total of 129 new smear positive pulmonary TB patients participated in the study. The median total delay was 97 days. The median patient and health provider delays were 63 and 34 days, respectively. Ninety six percent of the patients were delayed for more than the twenty one days cutoff point. Patient delay was positively associated with first visit to traditional healer/private clinic/drug shop, rural residence, being illiterate, living in more than 10 kilometers from health facility; severity of illness at first presentation to health facility. Provider delay was positively associated with rural residence, being illiterate, patient with good functional status, patients in contact with more than two health providers, and place of first visit being traditional healer/private clinic/drug shop. Conclusions This study showed that majority of smear positive patients delayed either for diagnosis or treatment, thus continue to serve as reservoirs of infection. This indicates that there is a need for intervention to decrease patient and provider delays. Effort to reduce delays in pastoralist communities should focus on improving access to services in rural communities, engaging traditional and
Full Text Available The Van (forest Gujjars, surviving as forest pastoralists in the central part of the Indian Himalaya, are a people who, due to their nomadic lifestyle, have since colonial rule found themselves at the margin of Indian society. This paper will look at the relationship between the Van Gujjars and their forest base in a historical perspective from colonial rule to ′conservation of nature′ and the ′rights of forest dwellers′ and further discuss how changing codes and rules of power affect the society-citizen-nature / forest relationship for the community. We will look back into history and see how a system of strict control and regulation of Van Gujjars as nomadic pastoralists without a fixed address, initiated during colonial time, was continued by the national state of India after independence. We will further discuss how a history of unequal treatment and marginalisation of Van Gujjar pastoralists has continued into the present. What is manifest here is ′the forest′ as a contested space: a site of power struggles, where forest dwellers are threatened with displacement in order to provide space, first for modern forestry and revenue producing land, and later for conservation of nature. The paper further looks at the latest developments where the Van Gujjars now have obtained domicile rights such as voters′ rights and have been linked with Government services for education and health. It finishes by discussing the new possibilities and hopes for the community provided by the The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights Act.
Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, S. A.
Full Text Available This paper examines factors that predispose pastoralist women to social and environmental vulnerability and how the women cope with their livelihoods when their husbands relocate with cattle during dry season. The paper adopts a case study research design to select Kwara State of Nigeria where focus groups discussions and interviews were held to elicit information. It was found that food insecurity, low incomes, seasonal changes, conflict, and culture deter women from sustaining a well-being. The study recommends that organisations and policy makers should capitalise on indigenous knowledge when designing measures to reduce people’s vulnerability as this would enhance their livelihood sustainability.
de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…
Full Text Available In many regions around the world the pastoral economy shifted from subsistence-oriented to a market-oriented production. Pastoral goods acquired monetary value and became a market commodity that entailed changes in the production system and in the attitude towards livestock. On the Tibetan plateau this shift did not follow a linear way. Until the 1950s, most consumption requirements could be satisfied with animal products. Economic exchange relations were essential to provide grain requirements, at least for those households who relied exclusively on animal husbandry. During the Mao era, animal husbandry was carried out in line with state targets and the produce was delivered according to central planning. In the late 1970s the transition towards a market-oriented production began. This paper discusses the recent reactions of pastoralists to the new realities in one specific area on the eastern Tibetan plateau. This shift from pastoral products to market commodities, the commercial network established as well as the market places for pastoral produce, are examined in this paper. These facts show that the pastoralists in question successfully market their produce. The research area, Dzoge county, is located on the eastern border area of the Tibetan plateau, where different ethnic groups live in proximity to each other. Grassland predominates the landscape, used by nomads as pastures for livestock breeding (yak, sheep and horses. Mobile animal husbandry and the marketing of the livestock products are decisive to guarantee the livelihood of the majority of the population.
Full Text Available When it comes to education for mobile pastoralists, Mongolia is an exceptional case. Until fifty years ago, herders comprised the majority of the Mongolian population. Although a satellite of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian People’s Republic was a state in which mobile pastoralism was not challenged, and herders were not constructed as social outcasts. Equally exceptional was the country’s modernisation, witnessed in its decided alignment with equal opportunities. In Mongolia, it was not ‘nomadism’ that was associated with backwardness, but illiteracy. Policy-makers aimed to combine spatial with social mobility by building schools further and further out in the grasslands, employing locals as teachers, and fostering interplay between modern formal education and extensive animal husbandry. Yet after 1990, when development discourse pigeon-holed post-socialist Mongolia as a Third World country, the so-called shock therapy led to severe cuts in education. Herders were essentialised as ‘nomads’, which caused donor-driven policies of educational planning to construe pastoralists as challenges. Ironically, during the initial decade of Education for All, the younger generation had—for the first time in Mongolia’s history—less educational opportunities than their parents. This article discusses narratives of inclusion and the political consequences of ascribed social identities.
Mertz, Ole; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Vang Rasmussen, Laura
Conflicts between pastoralists and farmers in the Sahel mainly arise from competition over land and water resources or because of livestock damage to crops. Rather than being linked to larger environmental change processes such as climate change, conflicts are often caused by inappropriate zoning of land, governance and unequal power relations between stakeholders. However, conflicts may be affected by more short-term weather and resource information that guide mobility of pastoralists. In this paper, we therefore explore if improved weather and resource information and improvement in its communication could prevent conflicts or reduce their severity. Based on a survey of key stakeholders involved in dissemination of weather and resource information and studies on pastoral access to and use of information, we conclude that improved information may both reduce and increase the level of conflict, depending on the context. Communication of information will need to go beyond just the weather and resource information and also include the multiple options for herd movements as well as providing information on herd crowding and potential conflict areas.
Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.
Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of
Joseph L. Fox
Full Text Available In 1993 the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR of China established the 300 000 km2 Chang Tang Nature Preserve on the northwestern Tibetan plateau, an action precipitated by rapidly diminishing populations of chiru (Tibetan antelope and wild yak. Some 30 000 nomadic pastoralists use areas within this reserve for livestock grazing, with many having traditionally depended in part on hunting for supplementary subsistence and trade. Following a 1997 request from TAR leaders for international assistance in addressing the conservation issues associated with the creation of this reserve, the TAR Forestry Bureau and the Network for University Co-operation Tibet — Norway began a 3-year research collaboration program in 2000 to outline human-wildlife interactions and conservation priorities in the western part of the reserve. To date, four excursions (2-6 weeks each have been made to the western Chang Tang region, and investigations of interactions between pastoralists and wildlife conservation objectives have been initiated in an area of about 5000 km2, including the 2300 km2 Aru basin located at 5000 m elevation at the northern edge of pastoralist inhabitation. The Aru site is unique in that nomads have only recently returned to this previously off-limits basin. But, as in surrounding areas, the people's lives are undergoing changes recently influenced by the introduction of permanent winter houses, changing international trade in shahtoosh and cashmere wool, and a move towards stricter hunting regulations. The northwestern Chang Tang, with the Aru basin as a prime site, represents one of the last strongholds of the endangered chiru and wild yak, as well as home to Tibetan gazelle, kiang, Tibetan argali, blue sheep, wolf, snow leopard and brown bear. In autumn 2000, for example, with approximately 12 000 of the wild ungulates (mostly the migratory chiru within the Aru basin along with some 8000 domestic livestock, issues of land use overlap and possible
Yenny Rahmawati; Ertin Ertin
Recently there have been debates on assessing students’ performances on speaking since the cultural and subjective issues embedded in bringing awareness on how teachers construct their speaking assessment. The main focus of this paper is a way to design assessment for speaking suitable for the Indonesian context at a university level. This paper stresses the criteria of effective assessment proposed by Brown and Abeywicrama which consists of a specific criterion, an appropriate task, a maximu...
Full Text Available Recently there have been debates on assessing students’ performances on speaking since the cultural and subjective issues embedded in bringing awareness on how teachers construct their speaking assessment. The main focus of this paper is a way to design assessment for speaking suitable for the Indonesian context at a university level. This paper stresses the criteria of effective assessment proposed by Brown and Abeywicrama which consists of a specific criterion, an appropriate task, a maximum output and practical and a reliable scoring procedure. It is recommended that teachers develop their speaking assessment which is appropriate and contextual.
Ning, Chao; Gao, Shizhu; Deng, Boping; Zheng, Hongxiang; Wei, Dong; Lv, Haoze; Li, Hongjie; Song, Li; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu
The complete mitochondrial genome of one 700-year-old individual found in Tashkurgan, Xinjiang was target enriched and sequenced in order to shed light on the population history of Tashkurgan and determine the phylogenetic relationship of haplogroup U5a. The ancient sample was assigned to a subclade of haplogroup U5a2a1, which is defined by two rare and stable transversions at 16114A and 13928C. Phylogenetic analysis shows a distribution pattern for U5a2a that is indicative of an origin in the Volga-Ural region and exhibits a clear eastward geographical expansion that correlates with the pastoral culture also entering the Eurasian steppe. The haplogroup U5a2a present in the ancient Tashkurgan individual reveals prehistoric migration in the East Pamir by pastoralists. This study shows that studying an ancient mitochondrial genome is a useful approach for studying the evolutionary process and population history of Eastern Pamir.
Gabli, Abdelhafid; Agabou, Amir; Gabli, Zahra
A 31-months study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus. Five hundred eight human and 4955 animal sera were screened with the Rose Bengal plate test and the complement fixation test for confirmation. Uterine fluids from aborting goats were subjected to microbiological analyses to determine the biovars responsible for abortions. The overall seroprevalence was 0.98% among animals and 15.84% among herds. A significant correlation was recorded between occurrence of brucellosis and herd size (r = 0.4046, P Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the only aetiology of brucellosis-associated abortion in goats of the studied region.
Full Text Available We investigated vegetation dynamics in relation to livestock grazing as perceived by pastoral farmers in different regions of Botswana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect farmers' understanding of vegetation changes and causes within three different grazing lands. The pastoral farmers' description of dominant vegetation differed significantly both at the local and district level, which suggests that rangelands consist of patches dominated by different grasses and woody vegetation. Most pastoralists indicated that grass composition has undergone changes, and unpalatable grasses such as Aristida congesta and Megaloprotachne albescens are increasing. The different factors perceived by pastoral farmers to cause changes in vegetation composition included rainfall, overgrazing, and fire. Bush encroachment is considered to be more common in communal grazing land than in ranches. According to pastoral farmers, the ranching system is less degrading to the environment and more sustainable for livestock production than is communal grazing.
Schelling, E; Daoud, S; Daugla, D M; Diallo, P; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J
As a part of an interdisciplinary research and action programme, morbidity and nutritional patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities: Fulani and Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, of two prefectures in Chad. The predominant morbidity pattern of Chadian nomadic pastoralists (representing approximately 10% of the total population of the country) had not been documented so far. A total of 1092 women, men and children was examined by a physician and interviewed during two surveys in the dry season and one in the wet season (1999--2000). Participants with no complaint were rare. Pulmonary disorders (e.g. bronchitis) were most often diagnosed for children under 5 years of age. Of the adult participants, 4.6% were suspected of tuberculosis. Febrile diarrhoea occurred more often during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was precarious. Malaria was only rarely clinically diagnosed among Arabs during the dry season, whereas Fulani, who stayed in the vicinity of Lake Chad, were also affected during this period. A 24-h dietary recall showed that less Arab women than men consumed milk during the dry season (66% versus 92%). Malnutrition was only documented for 3 out of 328 children (0--14 years). Arab women in childbearing age had a higher proportion of children not surviving when compared to Fulani women (0.2 versus 0.07). This study identified several implications for reseach and interventions in nomadic settings. Innovative and integrated health services for nomads can possibly be extended to many settings as nomadic pastoralists have in common a similar way of life driven by the needs of their animals.
While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…
Abdi, Ismail H; Affognon, Hippolyte D; Wanjoya, Anthony K; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis, have previously been associated with unusually heavy rainfall and extensive flooding. The disease is a serious public health problem in Africa and the Middle East, and is a potential global health threat. In Kenya, outbreaks of the disease have disproportionately affected impoverished pastoralist communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding RVF among the pastoralists of North Eastern Kenya, and to establish the determinants of KAP on RVF. A cross-sectional study involving 392 pastoralists living in Ijara district (Masalani and Ijara wards) was carried out using an interview questionnaire. All respondents interviewed (100%) had heard about RVF disease. They recognized that the disease is dangerous (99%), and had a positive attitude towards vaccination of animals (77%). However, few respondents knew that abortion (11%) and high mortality of young animals (10%) were key signs of RVF in animals. Very few (4%) use any form of protection when handling sick animals to avoid infection. Significant factors associated with knowledge were being in a household with a history of RVF infection (OR = 1.262, 95% CI = 1.099-1.447), having more livestock (OR = 1.285, 95% CI = 1.175-1.404) and the place of residence, Masalani (OR = 0.526, 95% CI = 0.480-0.576). Overall knowledge score on RVF was found to be a significant predictor of good preventive practice of the disease (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 1.047-1.101). Despite the positive attitude that pastoralist communities have towards the prevention of RVF, there exist gaps in knowledge and good practices on the disease. Therefore there is need for public health education to address these gaps, and to identify and facilitate the removal of barriers to behavioural change related to the prevention of RVF.
Mwangi, M. N.; Desanker, P. V.
Drought is the most injurious impact of climate change that decimates lives and hinders socioeconomic development in most rangelands of Kenya. Several scientific evidences indicate that global climate change will increase frequency and intensity of droughts. This will have important ramification for ecosystems and social systems in the rangelands of southeastern Kenya, and correctly so. These rangelands are fragile and degraded; and the inhabitants are mostly poverty-stricken. Nomadic pastoralism is the chief source of livelihood in this region; it relies on local natural pastures. Besides, pressures from land use change constitute an additional exposure, of nomadic pastoralism, to vulnerabilities of this climatic hazard. This region is highly prone to droughts; it is currently recovering from a devastating drought that started in early 2005 and terminated at the start this year. Most important, and like most societies in sub-Saharan Africa, inadequate adaptive capacity among nomadic pastoralists of Kenya, exacerbates deleterious impacts of drought. The livelihood of these pastoralists, therefore, stands to be destabilized. This study presents findings from an on-going research in Kajiado District of southeastern Kenya. Impacts of and adaptation strategies to recurrent and prolonged droughts among the nomadic Maasai pastoralist are presented. The study concludes with possible future scenarios of this form of pastoralism from which climate change actors can draw from.
Pino, Barbara Gonzalez
Presents a practical oral testing model that fits speaking tests into the syllabus and course grade, links teaching and testing approaches, tests interactive and individual performance, uses new and old materials, and compares impromptu and prepared performance. (Author/CB)
POP, Anisoara; CRISAN, Raluca
Oral communication is a key productive skill to form in any business context. Implementation of voice and video asynchronous speaking tools with Business English (BE) students represents a steep learning curve with multiple positive outcomes: enriched production and content, more memorable learning experiences, sharing of student voices in the public space, increased awareness and learner autonomy. Moreover, asynchronous speaking tools offer a democratic medium where all the students rather t...
Testing speaking ability offers plenty of scope for meeting the criteria for communicative testing.The article describes the model of CLA,analyzes basic factors involved in speaking competence,discusses what is a communicative language test of speaking,and suggests some factors that should be taken into consideration when designing a communicative language test of speaking.
Testing speaking ability offers plenty of scope for meeting the criteria for communicative testing. The article describes the model of CLA,analyzes basic factors involved in speaking competence,discusses what is a communicative language test of speaking,and suggests some factors that should be taken into consideration when designing a communicative language test of speaking.
Wako, D D; Younan, M; Tessema, T S; Glücks, I V; Baumann, M P O
The camel disease terminology of pastoralists in northern Kenya differentiates between two respiratory disease complexes of camels. Participatory epidemiology data were collected in 2011 in three camel keeping communities (Gabra, Garri, and Somali) and analysed to assess the validity of this differentiation. Further queries assessed recurrence of the disease in the same animal, most affected age group, relative frequency of occurrence, morbidity rates, mortality rates and response to antibiotic treatment. Based on matrix scoring the cardinal symptom nasal discharge was significantly correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 1 (RDC1; Somali Hergeb, Gabra & Garri Furri) while cough was correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 2 (RDC2; Somali Dhuguta, Gabra Qufa, Garri Dhugud). RDC1 appears to occur regularly every year and does not respond to antibiotic treatments while outbreaks of RDC2 are only observed at intervals of several years and treated cases do generally respond to antibiotics. While RDC1 is more severe in calves, RDC 2 is mostly associated with respiratory disease in adults. Elements of this differentiation appear to be in agreement with other authors who differentiate between camel influenza (PI3 virus) and bacterial camel pneumonia, respectively.
Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.
Full Text Available In the drylands of northern Kenya, as elsewhere in Africa, traditional pastoralist social-ecological systems are undergoing profound transformations. Diminishing resource availability, changing social values and governance systems, and new resource management institutions challenge the capacity of communities for effective common pool resource management. Individuals’ values and environmental perceptions play a substantial role in decision making regarding resource use and management. Additionally, social capital within communities can influence cooperative and adaptive resource management. We studied five Laikipia Maasai communities in Kenya, which share a common natural environment, history, and political organization. We surveyed pastoralists’ perceptions of the adequacy of two ecosystem services, forage availability and livestock abundance. We also assessed indicators of three forms of social capital: reciprocity, sanctioning, and norms of fairness. Four communities established set-aside conservation areas through partnership with external organizations. In those communities, we examined residents’ perceptions of five different potential ecological and economic benefits from the conservation areas. We found that communities varied in residents’ perceptions of grazing resource adequacy, the economic sufficiency of their livestock herds, and the benefits of conservation areas. Communities also varied in measures of social capital. We contextualize our findings in terms of the rules and conditions governing each conservation area, the roles of social capital, and the challenges of resource-use trade-offs when perceptions diverge. We conclude that taking stock of perceptions and values placed on ecosystem services is a crucial element of formulating plans for sustainable resource management and navigating trade-offs in the future.
Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this
Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…
This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…
Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…
Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)
Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…
Wilbur, Michael P.
Focuses on decision of "Journal of Counseling and Development" to discontinue "Personally Speaking" section of the journal. Author discusses his own personal/professional history and explains importance of being able to speak personally and honestly about ourselves, supporting others' ability to speak personally and honestly about themselves, and…
Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.
Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M
Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly
Levels:Low intermediateProblems:In teaching science students English,one may find it the most difficult to get them to speak inEnglish.Although speaking is one of the four skills required,it is often neglected and given up by moststudents and teachers as well.It is true that there are many difficulties in organizing such a large class as30-40 students to practise within a comprehensive course.Even if a teacher devoted most of the class timeto oral practice,this would only be about two minutes with each student.Using games to force them tospeak is one of the solutions to solve the problem.
@@ It's gone on long enough: I've been in China for six months and existed on vocabulary of roughly 500 Chinese words plus a handful of characters to get by.Since many foreigners living full time in Beijing speak an impressive amount of Mandarin,my relative ineptitude is beginning to make me feel like a social pariah in expat circles as well as severely limiting my ability to befriend local people.
Even after many years of study,students make frequent mistakes in English. In addition, many students still need a long time to think of what they want to say. For some reason, in spite of all the studying, students are still not quite fluent.When I teach, I use one technique that helps students not only speak more accurately, but also more fluently. That technique is dictations.
Ouda, James Bill; Opiyo, Rose Atieno; Wambiya, Pascal
Conditions of learning are critical in determining quality of education. There have been real concerns raised by stakeholders regarding the quality of education for pastoralists in public primary schools in Kajiado Central District in Kenya. Interventions have been put in place to address the issue of quality education. One such intervention is…
Lee, Sang Min; Thorn, Antoinette; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras; Ha, Jung Hee; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.
John Gambo Laah
Full Text Available The paper aims at assessing the impact of Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN Milk-Flow Project on the livelihoods of pastoralists in Ladugga Grazing Reserve in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 242 pastoralists in Ladugga. To complement the quantitative source of data, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs were conducted to assess the benefits and impact of the Milk Flow Project. A total of four (4 FGD sand four (4 IDIs were held with Fulani pastoralists and stakeholders in Ladugga Grazing Reserve. The mean age for male respondents was 55 years while that of the females was 42 years. The result reveals that the milk-flow project has led to: formation and membership of cooperative societies; significant increase in milk production and consequently income; a reduction in morbidity and mortality rates of cows due to better health seeking behaviours; the development of pasture farms and an increase in school enrolment. The paper suggested the need to encourage more private sector participation in supporting pastoralists’ livelihoods within the grazing reserve systems.
Ng'asike, John Teria
This dissertation discusses the findings of an ethnographic exploratory study of Turkana nomadic pastoralist children's sociocultural practices of their everyday lifestyles and science curriculum and instruction in Kenyan early childhood curriculum. The study uses the findings from Turkana elders to challenge the dominant society in Kenya that draws from Western education ideology to unfairly criticize Turkana traditional nomadic cultural practices as resistant to modern education. Yet Turkana people have to rely on the cultural knowledge of their environment for survival. In addition, the community lives in abject poverty caused by the harsh desert environment which has contributed to parents' struggle to support their children's education. Cultural knowledge of Turkana people has received support in research demonstrating the role cultural lifestyles such as nomadic pastoralism play as important survival strategy that enable people to adapt to the harsh desert environment to ensure the survival of their livestock critical for their food security. The study documented ways in which the Kenya national education curriculum, reflecting Western assumptions about education, often alienates and marginalises nomadic children, in its failure to capture their cultural Indigenous knowledge epistemologies. The research investigated the relationships between Turkana children's sociocultural practices of pastoralist lifestyles and the national science curriculum taught in local preschools and first grade science classrooms in Kenya and the extent to which Turkana children's everyday life cultural practices inform science instruction in early childhood grades. Multiple ethnographic methods such as participant and naturalistic observation, focus group interviews, analysis of documents, archival materials, and cultural artifacts were used to explore classrooms instruction and Indigenous sociocultural practices of the Turkana nomads. The findings from the elders' narratives
All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…
Of all the four skills listening,speaking,reading and writing,speaking seems to be the most important one.During the teaching process,there are so many difficuties in speaking that the students cannot solve.In the paper,it is mentioned some approaches to improve the speaking ability of the students,they are useful and efficient for teaching.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that social organization may affect the distribution of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK within local communities of natural resource users in multiple ways. However, in this line of research the potential role of informal relationships has mostly been overlooked. In this article, we contribute toward filling this research gap by studying how two types of informal relationships, namely migration partnership and friendship, affect the distribution of TEK within a community of seminomadic pastoralists from the Kutch area, Gujarat, India. Using social network analysis, we map three networks, migration, men friendship, and women friendship, and compare with similarity-based quantitative approaches the clusters extracted from these networks in relation to four domains of TEK: knowledge about soils, about ethnoveterinary practices, about sheep breeds, and in ethnobotany. Our results show that (1 migration clusters are associated to significant variations in three TEK domains, while (2 friendship clusters are associated to minor variations. We relate these results to the importance of common practical experiences involved by joint migration. Moreover, kin relations are shown to strongly underlie friendship and migration relations, and as such appear as a potential driver of the dynamics of the local TEK system. We conclude by advocating for a better inclusion of such informal relationships in future research on local TEK dynamics, following recent developments in studies on natural resource governance.
Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A
This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate how can speaking tasks be designed to improve different aspects of speaking.The author will first analyze three different aspects and introduce four criteria which can use to define the meaning of task.The result about whether the learner achieves the goal of the task is very important since evaluation of the outcome is the vital way to judge a task is successful or not.After getting to know the definition of task,communicative effectiveness will be analyzed from the angle of its two dimensions.The level of communicative effectiveness can decide the outcome of learner production in the speaking task.Task implementation cannot be ignored in the research of task designing since the feedback from it would enlighten the operation of task design.
Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L; Kelsey, Jason M
Inner speaking is a common and widely discussed phenomenon of inner experience. Based on our studies of inner experience using Descriptive Experience Sampling (a qualitative method designed to produce high fidelity descriptions of randomly selected pristine inner experience), we advance an initial phenomenology of inner speaking. Inner speaking does occur in many, though certainly not all, moments of pristine inner experience. Most commonly it is experienced by the person as speaking in his or her own naturally inflected voice but with no sound being produced. In addition to prototypical instances of inner speaking, there are wide-ranging variations that fit the broad category of inner speaking and large individual differences in the frequency with which individuals experience inner speaking. Our observations are discrepant from what many have said about inner speaking, which we attribute to the characteristics of the methods different researchers have used to examine inner speaking.
Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Hamit, M A; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J
Malnutrition, resulting from various etiologies, is common in rural Chadian women and children. This cross-sectional study assessed the spectrum of parasitic infection and level of anemia and their effect on nutritional status in settled and mobile pastoral mothers and children near Lake Chad. Intestinal parasites were evaluated using direct fecal smears and the Kato-Katz technique. Malaria status was determined using Paracheck-Pf(®) rapid diagnostic test, and anemia was assessed with the Hemocue photometer. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric parameters. At the end of the 2008 wet season, the prevalence of malnutrition was 36% [confidence interval (CI) 30-42] among women and 15% (CI 11-18) among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 75% (CI 68-83) among women and 60% (CI 53-66) among children. The predominant helminth species was Ascaris lumbricoides while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most common protozoan. The hookworm prevalence was 14% (CI 8-20) in women and 18% (CI 13-23) in children. Malaria prevalence was low among women (1%, CI 0.5-2) and children (3% CI 2-5). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of parasitic infection between the mobile pastoralist and rural sedentary populations. Thirty-four percent (CI 27-40) of nonpregnant women, 53% (CI 34-72) of pregnant women, and 27% (CI 23-32) of children were anemic. In subjects infected with Plasmodium, all women and 54% (CI 22-85) of children were anemic. Malnutrition was significantly associated with anemia in mothers and with selected intestinal parasites, anemia and age in their children.
Dean, Kevin W.
Asserts that impromptu speaking should be viewed as an event which develops students' organizational ability, creative thinking, audience analysis, and delivery skills. Presents various techniques to aid students and coaches in pre-tournament preparation for impromptu speaking. (MM)
Experiencing English: Listening and Speaking is widely used by most colleges for non-English majors.The achievement in speaking and listening has a close relationship with students’ learning attitude and teachers’ guide towards English.
Experiencing English: Listening and Speaking is widely used by most colleges for non-English majors.The achievement in speaking and listening has a close relationship with students' learning attitude and teachers’ guide towards English.
How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.
Jensen, Ole B.
This paper engages with the way we understand ‘place' by telling a story about transformation and urban intervention related to transportation, infrastructure and socio-technical mobility systems. By looking into a case of North American urban development with a focus on urban mobility we argue f...... space ‘if only it could speak'....
The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…
This chapter imaginatively engages with the ways in which place is understood by telling a story about urban transformation in Seattle. Empirically this is explored by “giving voice” to the reconstruction of State Route 99 (SR99) in downtown Seattle (a project estimated to cost in excess of US$3 ...... look “if only it could speak.”...
Sofyan A. Gani; Dian Fajrina; Rizaldy Hanifa
This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learnin...
Pubic speaking has syntactic, lexical, phonological and rhetorical features. The stylistic features of public speaking can be summarized as follows: The language used in public speaking is formal. Public speaking requires that the language and style be standard and neither too frozen nor too intimate. The use of rhetoric devices makes a speech effective and convincing. The delivering mode of a public speech has both the characteristics of oral English and written English.
Speaking is a productive skill and it is acknowledged to be hard for learners to master. Certain elements related to phonetics in discourse analysis, which play a significant role in EFL teaching of speaking, seem to be neglected. This paper analyses three of these elements:pause, intonation and tonic syllable, and their application in the teaching of speaking.
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…
Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba
The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…
<正>In general,Chinese high school students have been weak in communicating in English.They are too shy to speak in public.So they can’t speak English fluently.That’s a great problem.In class,we should improve students’abilities while learning English,such as listening ability,speaking ability,reading ability,writing ability and translating ability.But I think that students’speaking ability is the most important one in the five abilities.So how can we improve students’speaking ability?
As we know, we have four factors including listening, speaking, reading and writing in our English learning. The speaking factor is the basic one among these. It is a common knowledge that language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. But today's education is not "teaching students in accordance with their talents." According to the speaking situation of the students and the analysis of the reason which leads to their present speaking situations, the teacher should take some measures that can raise the students' interest to present their speaking situations and to improve their ability in many aspects.
Mongolian rangelands have been used for livestock production for hundreds of years. A pastoralist culture has been a key aspect of Mongolia throughout its 800-year history. Approximately 65% of Mongolia’s rural herders live at or below the poverty line, and there are few opportunities to improve r...
Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.
Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin
The Neglect Of SpeakingSpeaking is commonly neglected in classrooms in China.Our students can do quite well inexaminations,but they can not answer very simple questions in English.The problem is serious andit demands urgent attention and immediate action.In this essay I will illustrate how the problem can besolved in detail.I will do this by suggesting some speaking activities.
Kristensen, Peter Marcus
Emerging powers like China, India and Brazil are receiving growing attention as objects in International Relations (IR) discourse. Scholars from these emerging powers are rarely present as subjects in mainstream IR discourse, however. This paper interrogates the conditions for scholars in emerging...... powers to speak back to the mainstream discipline. It argues, first, that ‘theory speak’ is rare from scholars based in periphery countries perceived to be ‘emerging powers’. Despite increasing efforts to create a ‘home-grown’ theoretical discourse in China, India and Brazil, few articles in mainstream...
Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh
This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…
Wessel-Tolvig, Bjørn Nicola; Paggio, Patrizia
Many studies try to explain thought processes based on verbal data alone and often take the linguistic variation between languages as evidence for cross-linguistic thought processes during speaking. We argue that looking at co-speech gestures might broaden the scope and shed new light on differen...... for the thinking part of the thinking-for-speaking hypothesis....
Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo
The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…
Katchen, Johanna E.
The outline of a 2-hour-per-week public speaking course developed over the past 3 years for sophomore English language majors at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, is described. The course is built around rhetorical modes, with informative speaking (e.g., process and comparison/contrast), the focus of the first semester and persuasive speaking…
YueYueWang; Lan Xiao
There are various approaches to progress speaking competence of foreign language.The author analyzes some promoted conditions created to enable learners to improve oral English proficiency.Some personal teaching experience and suggestions are presented to aid learners' improvement on speaking.
Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…
Preston, C. Thomas, Jr.
Argues that a substantive differentiation of extemporaneous and impromptu forensic speaking events is possible and appropriate. Offers suggestions to distinguish the literal argumentative skills inherent to extemporaneous speaking from the metaphorical advocacy ideally inherent in impromptu speaking. (PRA)
Fear of public speaking: How can I overcome it? How can I overcome my fear of public speaking? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Fear of public speaking is a common phobia. It can range from ...
Speaking plays a crucial role in communication. Its importance is emphasized by many researchers. For example, In Bowman’s (2010) article Critically Speaking, he mentions that‘language is a window into culture, and speaking language is a ‘bridge’ for most people to understand other people’s belief systems (Bowman, 2010. p. 76). Paul Jones (2010) emphasizes that speaking another language is a lively way for Americans to become ‘capable of seeing beyond American ways.’ (Jones, 2010. p. 71) Lynch (2009) puts forward that how important it is for a language learner to master speaking if he/she really wants to ‘acquire’ the language but not only ‘learn’ it. As an English teacher, it is believed that speaking is one of the important elements in the four language learning skills. In the essay, a general literature review on teaching speaking will be conducted and some useful principles will be extracted.
C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.
Citra Priski Abadi
Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to describe factors contributing the development of speaking skill, and to describe techniques and strategies used by the teachers to develop speaking skill in EFL English Course (PEACE English Academy and PEACE Camp 4 Boy in Pare, Kediri, East Java. The research design used was an ethnography principle. The subjects of the study were 80 students of PEACE English Academy from 4 class levels, PEACE Camp 4 boy, 4 teachers and 1 home principle. The data were gained from observations, interview, and artifact and field notes. The findings depicted that (1 teachers as the main factor of presage variable were observed using many kinds of strategies, and techniques for developing speaking skills, and (2 appropriate speaking techniques and strategies were used to develop speaking skill in the mentioned different speaking class levels. The strategies and techniques are realized because teachers as the main factor applied some unique ways–how to make the English language classroom to be a lot of fun and dynamic place, to enhance students’ motivation, and to build English atmosphere in class and outside class as well. Keywords: speaking skill, teaching technique and strategy, factors, EFL English course
It has been commonplace for students to com-plain about their oral lessons.This paper arises froma thought of concrete problems facing Chinese high-school graduates who are unable to speak English well.Based on three elements that are crucial to languagelearning,the paper will focus on developing students’speaking abilities.In the paper,the teachers’ role ishighlighted.The students will find it the most effec-tive way to improve their speaking abilities if themethod is applied under the proper direction of aqualified teacher.
JUNAIDI MISTAR; ATIK UMAMAH
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 7...
The paper presents the reasons why most Chinese non-English major students can not speak English well. Then it offers several solutions to the problem. Three steps in speaking practice are suggested. Using the texts as starters for question and answer practice is an efficient way for speaking practice. On the basis of question-and-answer practice, the students can be led into the practice of describing pictures in pairs. Once paired work is started, the students can move onto text-related paired practice in which there is a lot of negotiation of meaning. In the final step, group work can be used as a means for discussion and problem solving. The students will find it a most encouraging way to practice speaking ability.
Nowadays,English learning has become more and more important for Chinese student.English is primarily used to communicate with others.From this point,students’ speaking ability should be paid more attention to.This thesis focuses on the effective and specific ways,such as free talk or discussion,duty report and so on,to create a good language surrounding to improve their speaking ability.
Three activities for developing speaking skills of advanced English as second language students are presented. Impromptu speaking, extemporaneous speaking, and debate activities are designed to train students to organize concepts, develop spontaneous oral skills, and enhance confidence and clarity of thought. Impromptu speaking develops…
Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…
Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald
Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.
Boattini, Alessio; Castrì, Loredana; Sarno, Stefania; Useli, Antonella; Cioffi, Manuela; Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; De Fanti, Sara; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata
East Africa (EA) has witnessed pivotal steps in the history of human evolution. Due to its high environmental and cultural variability, and to the long-term human presence there, the genetic structure of modern EA populations is one of the most complicated puzzles in human diversity worldwide. Similarly, the widespread Afro-Asiatic (AA) linguistic phylum reaches its highest levels of internal differentiation in EA. To disentangle this complex ethno-linguistic pattern, we studied mtDNA variability in 1,671 individuals (452 of which were newly typed) from 30 EA populations and compared our data with those from 40 populations (2970 individuals) from Central and Northern Africa and the Levant, affiliated to the AA phylum. The genetic structure of the studied populations--explored using spatial Principal Component Analysis and Model-based clustering--turned out to be composed of four clusters, each with different geographic distribution and/or linguistic affiliation, and signaling different population events in the history of the region. One cluster is widespread in Ethiopia, where it is associated with different AA-speaking populations, and shows shared ancestry with Semitic-speaking groups from Yemen and Egypt and AA-Chadic-speaking groups from Central Africa. Two clusters included populations from Southern Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Despite high and recent gene-flow (Bantu, Nilo-Saharan pastoralists), one of them is associated with a more ancient AA-Cushitic stratum. Most North-African and Levantine populations (AA-Berber, AA-Semitic) were grouped in a fourth and more differentiated cluster. We therefore conclude that EA genetic variability, although heavily influenced by migration processes, conserves traces of more ancient strata.
Full Text Available The participants of this study, the aim of which was to determine the importance of speaking in career according to senior manager and speaking traits which a director should have, constitute fifteen senior manager who are working as counselor, deputy counselor, general director and chairman who were assigned by minister, prime minister or president. In this study which was based on qualitative data, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data obtained was descriptively analyzed. According to senior managers, speaking was an important issue in terms of introduction of the institution to the public, creation of a positive image of the institution, achievement of prestige and commication with the workers by the director. It was determined that senior managers qualify their speaking as “good” level and they see themselves competent. According to senior managers, the speaking traits that a manager should have are classified as; planning traits, articulation/pronunciation, explanation traits and speaking traits that are used in communication process with working personnel. It was proposed taking part of speaking education in higher education programs for all branches of jobs and development of new programs regarding speaking education for managers.
To successfully assess how language learners enhance their performance and achieve language learning goals, the four macro skills of listening, speaking reading and writing are usually the most frequently assessed and focused areas. However, speaking, as a productive skill, seems intuitively the most important of all the four language skills…
Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.
This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…
Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing
This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Josefa J. Mardijono
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the humanistic strategies woven into the EFL speaking class activities. The speaking class, which the writer used for her study, is the highest level of speaking course offered in the curriculum of the English Department of Petra Christian University, to develop students' English speaking skills, particularly in public speaking. The humanistic strategies are based on the assumption that a "supportive and co-operative group atmosphere" ((Hadfield, 1995, p.15 will enhance learning to bring out the best of the students. The primary aims are to help the students, through active participation, to develop more positive feelings about themselves and their classmates, to co-operate and support each other to grow and excel at their speech performance. Based on the students' evaluation and the teacher's observation of the students' public speech performance and their academic achievement, it can be concluded that the humanistic strategies have created a co-operative and supportive group atmosphere and has given positive effects on the students' speech performance. This is also a rewarding experience for the teacher.
Full Text Available Speaking is the most important language skill. The language user’s capability will be immediately understood and measured through the skill because this is the most visible proficiency. Difficulties of teaching speaking vary dependent upon the class size. Teaching speaking in big classes is more difficult than teaching of it in small classes. The main constraint is the time allotment. To answer the problem, speaking teachers should be creative to set the intensive classroom activities. If this is true, they need to identify students speaking skill to understand their alertness for the following language instructions. Besides that, they are also responsible to identify their basic need in the class whether this is only for question and answer, dialog, discussion, debate, or others. To anticipate the time constraints, the teachers engage to select the possible methods and strategies for presenting the interesting instructional materials. At the end, teachers should divide the time allotment adjust and proportionally for their students so they are able to self-express and share ideas in those interactive classroom situations.
Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.
Of the four skills in learning English, speaking, to some extent ,sets an obstacle for most Chinese students. Therefore, it is up to English teachers to investigate into the factors and to find out solutions to solve the problem. Firstly, by speaking English accurately and fluently, English teachers will demonstrate the elegance of the language itself vividly. And with a harmonious and friendly relationship between teachers and students and a good English-learning atmosphere, students will be extremely motivated to participate into the well-designed English-speaking activities .Besides, while making assessment of students' performance, teachers are expected to use encouragement principles to fill students with the sense of success. As for their mistakes, teachers can apply the three-step method to help them to self-correct.
The basic aim of English teaching is to enable students to acquire the basic knowledge of FL language system so that they develop the ability to use English in listening, speaking, reading and writing, But among the four kinds of language skills of Chinese learners of English, oral skills are found to be the weakest, which are certainly incompatible with the demands of the increasingly growing intercultural communication. With the development of the economic globalization, communicative competence has been valued greatly. As a result, oral English has been paid much more attention than before by many English learners and English teachers. So the teaching of speaking must be strengthened. This paper is going to explore and analyze the problems of hindering the students＇ development of oral skills and discuss the strategies to help them to improve their speaking ability.
Bellando, Jayne; Fussell, Jill J; Lopez, Maya
Given the increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is likely that busy primary care providers (PCP) are providing care to individuals with ASD in their practice. Autism Speaks provides a wealth of educational, medical, and treatment/intervention information resources for PCPs and families, including at least 32 toolkits. This article serves to familiarize PCPs and families on the different toolkits that are available on the Autism Speaks website. This article is intended to increase physicians' knowledge on the issues that families with children with ASD frequently encounter, to increase their ability to share evidence-based information to guide treatment and care for affected families in their practice.
Martín, Mario Daniel
Abstract This article addresses the issue of advice given to immigrant parents to speak English only with their children in Australia, as reflected in the Spanish-speaking community. The article shows that something that appears to be down to chance, i.e. whether this advice is given or not, has a social explanation. This social explanation is based on understanding several social variables such as the ethnic identity of the adviser and the year in which the advice was given, as we...
Citra Priski Abadi
The main objectives of this study are to describe factors contributing the development of speaking skill, and to describe techniques and strategies used by the teachers to develop speaking skill in EFL English Course (PEACE English Academy and PEACE Camp 4 Boy in Pare, Kediri, East Java). The research design used was an ethnography principle. The subjects of the study were 80 students of PEACE English Academy from 4 class levels, PEACE Camp 4 boy, 4 teachers and 1 home principle. The data wer...
Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Mehdi, S Q; Edmonds, Christopher A; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Lin, Alice A; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K; Ramesh, A; Usha Rani, M V; Thakur, Chitra M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Majumder, Partha P; Underhill, Peter A
Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.
Carolyn K. Lesorogol
Full Text Available Over the last several decades there has been a transformation of the Samburu pastoral commons to new forms of land tenure and use. Government led land adjudication in the 1970s and 1980s established new forms of land ownership including group ranches and, in some places, complete privatization of land into individual parcels. An important question is what forms of land use and social relations emerge in the wake of land adjudication, and with what consequences? Can a “new commons” arise following transformation of the traditional commons? We address these questions by examining the aftermath of privatization in a Samburu community. Through ethnographic observations and interviews, we gain insight into peoples’ understanding of land use and current norms and practices and propose two diverse visions of the future – the “pastoralist imperative” of continued extensive livestock production and “future farmers” seeking a more settled, crop and wage labour-based livelihood. Using computer simulation models of the environment and households we conduct scenario analyses tracing the effects of land use practices and choices resulting from these different perspectives on variables such as livestock wealth, household income and food requirements, and ecological resources including grasses and shrubs. Our analysis suggests that privatization has yielded a “new commons” combining elements of individual ownership with shared management. These institutional innovations enable a continuation of extensive livestock production with new livelihood strategies that include a degree of land enclosure such as cultivation and land leasing. The analysis indicates that seemingly contradictory norms and practices can co-exist on the same land allowing considerable flexibility in production of livestock and crops. However, the models also demonstrate the limits that may be reached, particularly if common access is heavily curtailed.
Gray Peter B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Minor alleles of the human dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD2/TaqI A and DRD4/48 bp, are related to decreased functioning and/or numbers of their respective receptors and have been shown to be correlated with body mass, height and food craving. In addition, the 7R minor allele of the DRD4 gene is at a higher frequency in nomadic compared to sedentary populations. Here we examine polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DRD4 genes with respect to body mass index (BMI and height among men in two populations of Ariaal pastoralists, one recently settled (n = 87 and the other still nomadic (n = 65. The Ariaal live in northern Kenya, are chronically undernourished and are divided socially among age-sets. Results Frequencies of the DRD4/7R and DRD2/A1 alleles were 19.4% and 28.2%, respectively and did not differ between the nomadic and settled populations. BMI was higher in those with one or two DRD4/7R alleles in the nomadic population, but lower among the settled. Post-hoc analysis suggests that the DRD4 differences in BMI were due primarily to differences in fat free body mass. Height was unrelated to either DRD2/TaqI A or DRD4/48 bp genotypes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the DRD4/7R allele may be more advantageous among nomadic than settled Ariaal men. This result suggests that a selective advantage mediated through behaviour may be responsible for the higher frequency of the 7R alleles in nomadic relative to sedentary populations around the world. In contrast to previous work, we did not find an association between DRD2 genotypes and height. Our results support the idea that human phenotypic expression of genotypes should be rigorously evaluated in diverse environments and genetic backgrounds.
Levy, David L., Ed.
This document comprises the three issues of Volume 14 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1999 issue contains articles on National Child's Day, joint custody presumptions, changes in children's life and…
Levy, David L., Ed.
This document compiles the six issues of Volumes 15 and 16 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 2000 issue contains articles on Wisconsin's shared parenting law, the U.S. Senate's consideration of a…
Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles
Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…
Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch
The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children identified? (3)…
Parker, Douglas A.
This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…
Examination of stereotypes about polite speech found that women are expected to speak more politely than men regardless of sex of addressee topic. Men are expected to use different forms for requests for masculine, feminine, and neutral actions and different forms of requests for male and female addressees. (CMG)
Ettlinger, Marc; Lanter, Jennifer; Van Pay, Craig K.
Does the language we speak affect the way we think, and if so, how? Previous researchers have considered this question by exploring the cognitive abilities of speakers of different languages. In the present study, we looked for evidence of linguistic relativity within a language and within participants by looking at memory recall for monolingual…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.
Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena
This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…
Man uses essentially the same structures for eating as he does for speaking. Speech, however, is accomplished by elaborating upon the basic ingestion functions of these structures. It is theorized that the appropriate and efficient use of these motile organs in eating should lead eventually to more appropriate and efficient patterns of speech. For…
Kim, Jungtae; Craig, Daniel A.
Videoconferencing offers new opportunities for language testers to assess speaking ability in low-stakes diagnostic tests. To be considered a trusted testing tool in language testing, a test should be examined employing appropriate validation processes [Chapelle, C.A., Jamieson, J., & Hegelheimer, V. (2003). "Validation of a web-based ESL test."…
The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic, which will decide the success of the speech. In the paper, we are go⁃ing to discuss how to select a topic in public speaking, and we’ll mainly talk about the following: the speaker, the occasion and the audience, selecting a topic, specific methods for choosing a topic and available topics.
Weyers, Joseph R.
The teaming of ACTFL and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education resulted in the requirement that teacher candidates speak at the Advanced Low (AL) or higher level on the Oral Proficiency scale. Providing the means to help candidates meet that minimum standard for certification is a fundamental consideration. This article…
This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…
This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...
This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...
Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on...
With the opening-up of China,English teaching has been getting more and more attention.People are enthusiastic about learning English.As a result,English teaching and reform are coming to a turning point,which predicts a bright future in English education in China.Now,a 9-year voluntary education program is put forward in China.A Standard English course is being used to replace the former teaching outline.The new standard adopts the international system according to which English language education is divided into 9 levels.This has changed the old style of teaching,which attaches importance to grammar and vocabulary.Adopting the new standard helps to develop the senior students’ability to use English in their daily life,by focusing on arousing their interest,and encouraging their participation. The new method will place less stress on“reading and writing”,in favor of“listening”and“speaking”.So now,speaking is getting more and more important in middle high school English teaching. This paper discuss how to improve students’speaking ability and expound the theme through three aspects as follows:⒈The importance of speaking.⒉Some barriers in the process of speaking communication.⒊Essential methods for improving students’speaking ability. The issue will be discussed from the perspective of a teacher of English in junior middle school and a possible conclusion will bereached with the help of some theoretical and practical support.
Based on his own experiences with public speaking courses, the instructor of a speech communication course for adults brings students to the task of speaking in front of the room gradually to reduce speech anxiety or communication apprehension. During successive class sessions, students speak sitting in their seats, standing beside their seats,…
Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.
Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
Ingram, D. E.
The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…
With the fast development of science and technology, English is becoming more and more important. Concerning English learning, we should focus our attention on listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. Comparatively speaking, listening and speaking skills are more practical. But how to improve these skills? ……
@@ With the fast development of science and technology, English is becoming more and more important. Concerning English learning, we should focus our attention on listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. Comparatively speaking, listening and speaking skills are more practical. But how to improve these skills?
Saenz, Terry Irvine; Felix, Denise M.
This study surveyed the literacy practices of 45 English-speaking parents of Latino kindergarten through second graders using English questionnaires. The results of the survey were similar in many respects to other studies of English-speaking Latinos and unlike studies of Spanish-speaking Latinos. Respondents reported numbers of children's books…
Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Chi, Lin-Yang; Weismer, Gary; Wang, Yu-Tsai
The effects of the use of cochlear implant (CI) on speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics and the relationships between speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics for children are clinically important. The purposes of this study were to report on the comparisons for speaking rate and vowel space area, and their relationship with speech intelligibility, between 24 Mandarin-speaking children with CI and 24 age-sex-education level matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants were audio recorded as they read a designed Mandarin intelligibility test, repeated prolongation of each of the three point vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ five times, and repeated each of three sentences carrying one point vowel five times. Compared to the NH group, the CI group exhibited: (1) mild-to-moderate speech intelligibility impairment; (2) significantly reduced speaking rate mainly due to significantly longer inter-word pauses and larger pause proportion; and (3) significantly less vowel reduction in the horizontal dimension in sustained vowel phonation. The limitations of speech intelligibility development in children after cochlear implantation were related to atypical patterns and to a smaller degree in vowel reduction and slower speaking rate resulting from less efficient articulatory movement transition.
Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…
This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…
Johnson, Karen Hill
Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…
English as a language tool has been taken more and more seriously,but as language ability,students still find it difficult to acquire it.In order to solve this problem,the writer of this thesis has a study on how to improve students' speaking ability.The first part is an introductory part which tells the basic issues about the study.Part two analyzes the nature of listening and speaking as well as their interrelated relationship.Part Three concerns about the practical procedures of applying this teaching method in real classroom.In part four,the writer has an assessment on this teaching method.Part five is the concluding part,where the writer presents the main achievements and noteworthy issues in applying this approach.
People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.
Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.
Could nurses use their political influence more effectively? From social media to tweeting, why do nurses stay quiet when they could harness their political power? Writing in Primary Health Care, professor of nursing Mary Chiarella argues that nurses, considered one of the most ethical groups of voters, have influence to speak out about the dangers of global warming on people's health. Ms Chiarella encourages nurses to engage professionally to save the planet.
This paper analyzes the characteristics of the IELTS Speaking Test against the requirements for effective testing in Bachman and Palmer’s (1996) test usefulness framework, which include the six qualities of reliability, validity, authenticity, inter-activeness, practicality and impact. In particular, it examines the test on criteria including fluency and coherence;lexical resource;grammatical range and accuracy;and pronunciation (IETLS official website). It includes a judgment about its value.
Alpaslan, Rosie Stott
Ankara : The Program of Curriculum and Instruction İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references leaves 73-79. More importance is being given to developing English speaking skills as technological developments are making the world a smaller place. English has been defined as a global language and it is inevitable that English has become the second language that is predominantly studied in Turkey. ...
@@ Introduction Speaking is intuitively the most important of all the four skills in foreign language learning. However, speaking is regarded as the most difficult micro-skill of the four. Classroom-based speaking practice normally focuses on mechanically practising artificial materials or specific grammar points which are irrelevant to the real world. In addition,speaking is usually taught by teachers without considering its close relationship with the social context. As a result, students easily get frustrated since they cannot understand or be understood by native speakers even though they do a good job in language classrooms.Therefore, the principles of developing speaking skills should be taken into consideration as a good starting point. Speaking is an integral part of people's daily life. It has formed a part of the shared social activity of talking, which means speaking cannot be isolated from the social context.Moreover, language acquisition theory proposes to build up a natural speaking environment. Since developing speaking skills is a demanding task which takes time, students may easily become de-motivated if they lose confidence or encounter difficulties. Based on those assumptions,this essay will argue that the students should be motivated to develop speaking skills in a socio-cultural context, in a natural environment. The essay will explore why the principles should be followed and how to apply them in classrooms.
Hoit, Jeannette D; Lansing, Robert W; Dean, Kristen; Yarkosky, Molly; Lederle, Amy
Dyspnea (breathing discomfort) is a serious and pervasive problem that can have a profound impact on quality of life. It can manifest in different qualities (air hunger, physical exertion, chest/lung tightness, and mental concentration, among others) and intensities (barely noticeable to intolerable) and can influence a person's emotional state (causing anxiety, fear, and frustration, among others). Dyspnea can make it difficult to perform daily activities, including speaking and swallowing. In fact, dyspnea can cause people to change the way they speak and swallow in their attempts to relieve their breathing discomfort; in extreme cases, it can even cause people to avoid speaking and eating/drinking. This article provides an overview of dyspnea in general, describes the effects of dyspnea on speaking and swallowing, includes data from two survey studies of speaking-related dyspnea and swallowing-related dyspnea, and outlines suggested protocols for evaluating dyspnea during speaking and swallowing.
Full Text Available This study investigates Chinese Language Speaking Anxiety and its associated factors among college-level students who learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL in the U.S. Although the Speaking Anxiety scores of the participants were not high on average, but frequency analyses showed that quite a number of learners experienced high levels of anxiety when speaking Chinese. The results of ANOVA analyses indicated that gender had a significant effect on Speaking Anxiety, but proficiency level and the elective-required status did not. Correlation and multiple regression results showed that perceived difficulty level of the Chinese language, self-perceived language learning ability, and self-perceived achievement in Chinese classes were significant predictors of Speaking Anxiety and altogether accounted for 21.4% of the variance in Speaking Anxiety.
Full Text Available Implementing speech community strategy to enhance students English speaking ability. This classroom action research describes how the implementation of speech community strategy increases the students’ English speaking ability. The research stages consist of planning, implementing, observing, evaluating and reflecting. The study indicates that the providing of speech community can increase English speaking ability at students of SMA Sekar Kemuning Islamic Boarding School Cirebon
Tercan, Gülşah; Dikilitaş, Kenan
Anxiety is one of the key issues in the acquisition of speaking by EFL learners in instructed language teaching context. Although extensively studied, speaking anxiety, there are still areas to be explored. With this in mind, this study investigates the causes of anxiety among foreign language learners with special refernce to “speaking” as a skill. The major aim is to find out to what extent different variables such as proficiency level, onset of learning, and gender affect speaking anxiety...
not to speak of与not to say是两个极易令人混淆的短语，它们结构相近，可在含义上却是貌合神离、南辕北辙。许多英文词典对not to speak of的释义为“without even speaking/considering of”,“not to mention”,“ to say nothing of”, “practically not”,
Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez
Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.
Baum, Neil; Boughton, Leonarda
Every public speaker has encountered, or most likely will encounter, a difficult member of the audience who disrupts their presentation. This is a source of anxiety and discomfort, not only for the presenter, but for the audience as well. Learning how to manage the disruptive audience member is an art form, just like being a good public speaker. A professional speaker knows how to handle this disruption without making the audience uncomfortable and without embarrassing the disruptor. This article discusses ways to manage the disruptive audience member and will help those of you who do public speaking to tactfully and professionally disengage someone who is ruining your program.
The study of second Language Acquisition (SLA) is always one of the most important researching aspects in the field of applied linguistics. The correlations of how well one can acquire Second Language (SL) and the beginning age is one of the hot issues in the SLA, for it is theoretically and practically significant. This paper analyses the difference be-tween adults and children Second Language Acquisition. This paper also analyzed the importance of current adult learn-ing English listening and speaking ,the difficulties they faced of the learning process and made the proposal to help re-solve problems
Comprehensive Prep for the TOEFL Increase your TOEFLʼ iBT score by increasing your speaking and writing scores. How? By using the strategy called argument mapping. Why argument mapping? Because the TOEFLʼ iBT speaking and writing sections are all argument-based tasks. That means if you want high speaking and writing scores, you must know how to map out (develop and deliver) spoken and written arguments, quickly and proficiently. With argument mapping, you will be able to do just that. Best of all, you can apply argument mapping to all six speaking tasks and both writing tasks. That means you w
Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin
Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.
Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.
This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…
Fenstermacher, Gary D.
Responds to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" suggesting that philosophers and educators are actually speaking to one another, copiously and productively, though the conversation sometimes takes other, less direct modes. The paper asks whether they should be talking to each other, suggesting that…
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…
Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate
Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect. PMID:28228738
Reviews four books on speech research: (1) "The Speech Chain: The Physics and Biology of Spoken Language" (Peter B. Denes and Elliot N. Pinson); (2) "Speaking: From Intention to Articulation" (Willem J. M. Levelt); (3) "Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition" (Richard R. Day); and (4) "Speaking" (Martin Bygate). (eight…
Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos
This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…
Ramezani, Raana; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezzati; Kiasi, Mohammad Aghajanzadeh
The current study sought to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and speaking ability among EFL students at Payame Noor University (PNU) of Rasht. This research concerned determining the fact that whether language students who are as critical thinker, perform better in their speaking ability or not. In order to answer the…
Objective: To gain practice with public speaking. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 5% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: None; (f) Additional requirements: None. This assignment offers students an opportunity to speak on a familiar (and…
Preston, C. Thomas, Jr.
To gain insight into whether debate judges actually do treat impromptu speaking as miniextemporaneous speaking, a study compared the comments judges wrote to extemporaneous speakers with those they wrote to impromptu speakers during the first two rounds of a forensic tournament. Approximately 1,000 comments from 152 ballots (102 impromptu and 50…
Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei
The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…
Compared with reading, writing and listening, there has been a paucity of empirical data documenting learners' experiences of speaking English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) in different learning contexts in spite of the fact that developing the ability to speak in a second or foreign language is widely…
Frazier, Stefan; Phillabaum, Scott
This paper reports the results of a survey of California TESOL educators about issues related to nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs). A good deal of research suggests that NNESTs are as effective, if not more so, than native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and that their treatment in today's work world should be reconsidered; in…
This report describes a semester of teaching a group of non-native English-speaking students, aged 17 to 40 years and how the instructor identified three elements that appeared to be necessary for a task-based, advanced English speaking class. The three elements were: (1) ongoing needs assessment; (2) collaboration between instructor and students…
Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate
Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.
Smith, Allan B.; Roberts, Jenny; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane
Purpose: This study evaluated whether developmental reading disability could be predicted in children at the age of 30 months, according to 3 measures of speech production: speaking rate, articulation rate, and the proportion of speaking time allocated to pausing. Method: Speech samples of 18 children at high risk and 10 children at low risk for…
This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…
De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…
Last, Ellen; DeMuth, Robert J.
This guide contains classroom activities designed to encourage effective listening and speaking instruction at all developmental levels. Called the Comprehensive Listening and Speaking Sequence (CLASS), the activities are developed in three parts. The pre-kindergarten through grade three sequence provides learning activities that may be used by…
Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.
Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills training…
This article describes an experiment involving an oral English programme conducted over a four-month period with a group of learners of ESL in Huizhou University.The programme wasdesigned to examine whether method in the development of subjects’listening and speaking skills,with particular reference to speaking.
The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…
De La Mare, Danielle M.
Using Critical Communication Pedagogy, this semester-long service-learning approach to public speaking requires students to apply public speaking concepts to a speech they develop and deliver to a specific community audience, to examine their own biases, and to explore and evaluate various strategies for adapting to their audience.
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasrollahi Shahri, Mohammad Naseh
The present article lies at the intersection of research on teacher cognition and speaking competence in a second language. It is a qualitative analysis of teacher accounts of speaking in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Iran. More specifically, the study is an exploration of three EFL teachers' conceptions of learning and…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasrollahi Shahri, Mohammad Naseh
The present article lies at the intersection of research on teacher cognition and speaking competence in a second language. It is a qualitative analysis of teacher accounts of speaking in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Iran. More specifically, the study is an exploration of three EFL teachers' conceptions of learning…
Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on a subject matter at university and apply an innovative approach to improving their speaking skills. The methodology applied was focused on guided individual learning (GIL, with gradually increasing amount of spontaneity in public talks on the subject matter, starting with prepared short talks on an ESP issue leading to group discussions; moving on to Power Point presentations, involving spontaneous deviations from the subject and followed by question time; further, adding some complex subject matter, such as a discussion on a problematic professional subject suggested by learning materials; and, eventually, speaking impromptu on an issue, with a high level of control of one’s speaking skills. The research method of the learners’ attitudes employed the survey on learner attitudes to four different speaking activities in the classroom, which included short talks, Power Point Presentations, discussions and speaking impromptu. The questionnaire was administered to students of two different specializations by the end of the semester. The respondents were students who studied Psychology and Social Work at the Faculty of Social Policy, at Mykolas Romeris University in Vilnius, Lithuania. The respondents were asked to indicate the degree of difficulty they had with the various speaking activities on the Likert’s scale ranging from “very difficult” (1 to “very easy” (5. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to developing speaking
Full Text Available Finding resources and activities which will interest students and promote speaking in a self-access resource can be challenging. This article describes how the School of English at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT, Christchurch, New Zealand, works to enable speaking practice in their Language Self Access Centre (LSAC. The activities which students are encouraged to do were produced consequent to research and an examination of good practice world- wide within the field of autonomy in language learning. The article will explore some basic design principles and conditions which were followed with the aim of creating maximal “comprehensible outputs” for speaking (Anderson, Maclean & Lynch, 2004, and, at the same time, creating conditions for these speaking tasks which would optimise development of autonomous language use (Thornbury, 2005. This is followed by an analysis of how the resources provided in a designated speaking area in the LSAC fulfil these principles and conditions, and how they may foster autonomous learning.
English speaking ability is one of the most direct ways and standards to judge whether one ’s English is good or not. How to improve English speaking ability is always a heated topic among English learners. Many educators have examined that reading English aloud has been attested to be an effective method of learning English, especially improving English speaking abili-ty. This paper, through a questionnaire survey, is to analyze the relationship between students ’oral English outcome and their reading aloud, followed by the reasons why reading aloud affects English speaking ability, attempting to find out effective strate-gies to help English learners to improve their English speaking ability.
Laborda, Mario A; Schofield, Casey A; Johnson, Emily M; Schubert, Jessica R; George-Denn, Daniel; Coles, Meredith E; Miller, Ralph R
Prior studies indicate extinguished fear often partially returns when participants are later tested outside the extinction context. Cues carried from the extinction context to the test context sometimes reduce return of fear, but it is unclear whether such extinction cues (ECs) reduce return of fear of public speaking. Here we assessed return of fear of public speaking, and whether either of two types of ECs can attenuate it. Participants gave speeches of increasing difficulty during an exposure practice session and were tested 2 days later in a different context. Testing occurred in the presence of physical ECs, after mentally rehearsing the exposure session, or without either reminder. Practice reduced fear of public speaking, but fear partially returned at test. Neither physical nor mental ECs reduced partial return of fear of public speaking. The return of extinguished fear of public speaking, although small, was reliable, but not appreciably sensitive to presence of ECs.
Bedore, L M
Accurate assessment of the morpho-syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children depends on the clinician's understanding of the morpho-syntactic system and on the development of tasks that obligate the use of structures of interest. In this article, the nature and acquisition of the Spanish morpho-syntactic system is outlined. The aspects of the system that are likely to be difficult for children with language impairments and those that are critical to communicative competence are emphasized, as the clinician must take these into account when planning assessment tasks. The analysis of spontaneous language samples and the use of structured probes are discussed as alternatives for assessment. The naturalness and linguistic demands of assessment tasks are also considered because they are critical to understanding children's performance on morpho-syntactic tasks.
Abstract: The aims of the study are to describe: 1. Speaking strategies that are most frequently used by the students of the English Department in Tarbiyah Faculty; 2. The contribution of Students’ Speaking-Related LLS in developing their speaking ability; and, 3. The contribution of students’ learning motivation in the development of their speaking skills. speaking test, strategy inventory for language learning (SILL), and learning motivation questionnaire were employed to collect the data. ...
El-Sakka, Samah Mohammed Fahim
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching some self-regulated strategies to Egyptian university students on improving their speaking proficiency and reducing their speaking anxiety. The design of the study was a one group pre-posttest quasi experimental design. Forty 3rd- year EFL university students were selected to form the…
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas
This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.
Great impromptu speaking, reciting and singing are never just an isolated impromptu act. It is the result of endless practice to perfect performance that can then be given impromptu. One of the main objectives of learning English as a Second Language (ESL) is to be able to speak English impromptu, not just on the stage or in front of an audience but also in a casual meeting, on the street or during a formal meeting in a board-room. In fact to be able to speak “impromptu” should be the Holy Gr...
Full Text Available Abstract: The aims of the study are to describe: 1. Speaking strategies that are most frequently used by the students of the English Department in Tarbiyah Faculty; 2. The contribution of Students’ Speaking-Related LLS in developing their speaking ability; and, 3. The contribution of students’ learning motivation in the development of their speaking skills. speaking test, strategy inventory for language learning (SILL, and learning motivation questionnaire were employed to collect the data. The research findings revealed that there were thirty-four speaking strategies which were most frequently used by high, average, and low achievement students. The findings also showed that bothe students’ speaking strategies and motivation give significant contribution on students’ speaking ability. Thus, speaking lecturers are expected to be able to implement innovative and varied teaching techniques.
Arthur C. Custance
Full Text Available It is taken for granted that the first man, being half-ape, 'spoke’ by copying them. Research shows that such grunts and cries cannot ‘evolve' into cultured speech because the speech organs and brain structure required for human language are entirety different from those needed for of animal communication. The difference in animal and human thinking processes is not merely one of degree but rather of kind. This difference is seen in the use of signs vs. symbols, of emotional and situational language v.v. conceptual, objective language. No animal communication system can account for the human one. Perhaps, then, speech is instinctive? No, for people, however primitive, have been found without a language. Yet unless spoken to, one does not learn to speak as demonstrated by feral (wild children and deaf-mutes(like Helen Keller. So the question is - who spoke to the first human being - Adam to teach him? About all that scientific investigation can do is to demonstrate what cannot be the origin of this extraordinary trait of human nature. The only light we have is from revelation. The first two chapters of Genesis not only tell us Who spoke first but also how the process of language was acquired. But the implications of the necessity of this unique faculty in terms of his humanity and the purpose of his very creation are profound.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SPEAKS- student dataset contains individual level information from a sample of college students on GLS funded campuses. These data include student demographics,...
North, Max M; Schoeneman, Curt M; Mathis, James R
The major goal of this research case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in the treatment of the fear of public speaking. A twenty-eight-year-old Caucasian male was selected from questionnaires distributed to a class of undergraduate students enrolled at Kennesaw State University. Two assessment measures were used in this study. The first measure used was the Attitude Towards Public Speaking (ATPS) Questionnaire. The second measure used was the eleven-point Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) scale. These measurements assessed the anxiety, avoidance, attitudes and disturbance associated with the subject's fear of public speaking before and after each VRT treatment session. This case study of public speaking fear indicates that VRT may be used as an effective treatment method for reducing self-reported anxiety.
Breakey, Lisa K
Although there are some individuals who have a true phobia of speaking in a public forum, public speaking is usually near the top of any list of activities that most individuals dislike, fear, or avoid. Such nonphobic speakers are the subjects of this article. They comprise individuals who, for various reasons, are (or fear they will be) inadequate speakers. This article is based on extensive clinical experience with such individuals. It describes some basic causes for these fears; considers evaluative and treatment procedures; and provides a rationale for the involvement of the speech-language pathologist in "wellness" management. For the purposes of this article, public speaking is defined as speaking before any group of individuals, regardless of the group's size.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162873.html Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak New device ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An artificial "voice box" has provided long-term relief for a ...
Internet today is not only a kind of high-technology,but also considered to be a kind of cultural phenomenon.As its carrier,cyber-speak has brought convenient and quick communication since its advent.But due to unbalanced development of Internet and misuse of cyber-speak,traditional Chinese language is influenced negatively.In this paper,through questionnaire about Internet conducted among 20 young interviewees and 20 senior interviewees,results shows that the young are more willing to accept cyber-speak and even use it in daily communication,but unlimited use,plus senior citizens' conservative attitude toward Internet,brings about the communicative gap to some extent.In fact,as a kind of complementary part of our traditional language,cyber-speak will not affect direct communication with right understanding and reasonable use.
SpeakUP TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Laboratory Services To prevent health care errors, patients are ... making health care safe. That includes doctors, nurses, laboratory technologists, phlebotomists (health care staff who take blood), ...
... troubling emotional symptoms or who have a disability struggle with self-esteem. To ask for what you ... that you could say to yourself. SMA-3719 Speaking Out for Yourself—A Self-Help Guide Page ...
王玉明; 王晨; 吴闻博; 陈文娟; 何倩倩
English public speaking proves to play a significant role in the speaker’s whole person education, which has been gain⁃ing increasing attention among scholars at home and abroad. The paper analyzes possible relations between them and argues that great importance and awareness are supposed to be attached to the development and promotion of English public speaking espe⁃cially among English majors for them to be more versatile and more competitive both in job markets and in work places.
Full Text Available The currentstudyaimsatinvestigatingtheimpactofAudio/Voiceconferencing,asanewapproachtoteaching speaking, on the speakingperformanceand/orspeakingband score ofIELTScandidates.Experimentalgroupsubjectsparticipated in an audio conferencing classwhile those of the control group enjoyed attending in a traditional IELTS Speakingclass. At the endofthestudy,allsubjectsparticipatedinanIELTSExaminationheldonNovemberfourthin Tehran,Iran.To compare thegroupmeansforthestudy,anindependentt-testanalysiswasemployed.Thedifferencebetween experimental and control groupwasconsideredtobestatisticallysignificant(P<0.01.Thatisthecandidates in experimental group have outperformed the ones in control group in IELTS Speaking test scores.
Nowadays,English learning has become more and more important for Chinese student.English is primarily used to communicate with others.From this point,students' speaking ability should be paid more attention to.This thesis focuses on the effective and specific ways,such as free talk or discussion,duty report and so on,to create a good language surrounding to improve their speaking ability.
Permission to Speak: A Novel Formal Foundation for Access Control Oleg Sokolsky Nikhil Dinesh, Insup Lee, Aravind Joshi Report Documentation Page...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 04 NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3...DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Permission to Speak: A Novel Formal Foundation for Access Control 5a. CONTRACT
This paper describes the non-linguistic problems that prevent students from expressing themselves effectively at a more advanced level. It then proposes the integration of thinking instruction with the teaching of speaking skills by arguing why and how effective thinking can improve the content and effectiveness of students' utterances. The last part of the paper discusses specific ways of developing thinking in the speaking skills class.
..., speaking and writing. 7301.102 Section 7301.102 Administrative Personnel INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking or... that the outside teaching, speaking or writing is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by...
Nurul Iman Ahmad Bukhari
Full Text Available This paper describes the pilot study in implementing a public speaking module for a primary school level. The module development was structured according to ASSURE Model with the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT as the basis used in designing the module activities. One group of Year 4 students from an Islamic integrated school was selected and the research method employed was the quasi-experimental research with pre and post-tests as well as interviews with the English teachers on the students’ performance and self-confidence. Students were also interviewed to identify their self confidence level before and after the implementation of the public speaking module. This research project is hoped to increase students’ oral proficiency along with increasing self-confidence in public speaking at a young age, and to propose the implementation of this module as reference in primary education. Keywords: public speaking, primary school, oral proficiency, self-confidence, CLT
Oral English classes are offered at most colleges and Universities in China and often are taught by an inexperienced foreign teacher. Unfortunately, there is no uniformity in the way it is presented to students or in the way student performance is assessed. Every teacher seems to have a different methodology and assessment procedure. Although the supposed objective of the course is to improve the student's ability to speak English, the actual results are of questionable value. As well, an apparent lack of progress can lead to a lessening of a student's initiative to learn English.The teaching of oral English in China should be standardized. There should be a universally recognized teaching methodology and textual materials for both the teachers and the students. An effective and fair method of assessment.is also required. Teachers should receive guidance and support from their respective colleges and universities. Textual materials need to be supplied, classes need to be limited in size (e. g. oral English classes should not exceed 30 students), classroom seating arrangements should be flexible to allow for groups to interact, and most importantly,schools need to provide an effective and standard teaching methodology.Oral English classes can be a valuable learning experience for both the student and teacher by improving and broadening cultural understanding. They can increase a student's confidence in his or her ability to speak English and improve English pronunciation, stress and modulation.
Balemir, Serkan Hasan
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2009. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2009. Includes bibliographical references leaves 87-91. This study investigated the sources of foreign language speaking anxiety and the relationship between proficiency levels and degree of foreign language speaking anxiety. The study was conducted at Hacettepe University, with the participation of 234 students from the departments of Basic E...
Li, Tsun-kit, Jonathan; 李駿傑
The terrible fear of public speaking negatively affects the academic performance among university students. Since effective communication skills are crucial for career success, many people now see TED talks as the new golden standard of public speaking. Traditional public speaking courses are not effective in reducing the fear of public speaking. There could be more effective ways to improve public speaking. This research aimed to find out whether watching TED talks would be a more effect...
Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.
Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne
This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.
Full Text Available Curriculum of Elementary Turkish Lesson (Grade 6, 7, 8 consists of listening/watching, reading, writing abilities with learning grammar area. However, exercises about speaking ability are restricted. The main purpose of this study is to expose perceptions of students of elementary 8th grade about “speaking” concept by the means of metaphors. The participants for this study included 83 students from Şehit Piyade Binbaşı Zafer Kılıç Elementary School and Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Elementary School both located in Elazığ. To collect the study data, each participant was asked to complete the prompt “Speaking is like … because …” The content analysis technique was used to analyze study data. According to the results, a big amount of students (96.4% have developed metaphors about speaking; 3.6% have developed negative metaphors.
It is commonly experienced by teachers that they meet silent learners in speaking class,especiallyin an EFL setting at the tertiary level in China.This paper attempts to diagnose the problems inthe current curriculum,curriculum materials and teaching methods used to teach the productiveskill of speaking,which are supposed to be the direct cause of students in"losing their voices",Itbegins with a brief description of the teaching and learning situation in a teachers’ college which isalso typical at other tertiary levels as well.Concrete examples of modification to the teaching ofthe skill are provided with the hope to give back"voices"to the silent students in speaking class.
Net-speak bring us great changes in our communication, especially, in our cyber communication. Net-speak make it easier for people to communicate with each other in the internet. This paper, viewed from sociolinguistic theory, uses examples to study how Net-speak are demonstrated in its linguistic form and how Net-speak convey the meanings to the communicators. Mean⁃while, the paper discusses the reasons for the usage of Net-speak. Finally, the paper implies how to benefit Net-speak in our cyber communication.
Mohammad Javad Riasati
Full Text Available A common problem faced by many language teachers, both in EFL and ESL settings, is the students’ unwillingness to speak and participate in classroom activities. The present study delves into this issue by reviewing studies concerning this issue to figure out how different researchers have attempted to identify the causes of students’ reticence and lack of participation. The study aims to come up with some practical techniques and strategies teachers can employ in order to discover causes of reticence among language learners and thus make them more willing to speak in language classrooms.
The students have learned English in the middle school, They learned the skills of reading writing listening and speaking. But of the four skills, speaking is usually the poorest for the students of learning English in China, most of students are lack of reading ,they learned English just for exam, but in vocational school, reading is the skill that the students will be judged upon . A lots of problems exist in the English teaching especially in the teaching of reading. In this paper, the importance and methods of reading will be further discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1 caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2 during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3 as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del
Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un s
Describes a small but successful intercollegiate competitive public speaking program. Success was related to formation of good student-teacher relationships, a productive organizational psycho-environment, and careful teaching of public speaking fundamentals. (Author/RC)
Popov, Nadia; Heruti, Irit; Levy, Sigal; Lulav-Grinwald, Doron; Bar-Sela, Gil
Illness perception influences health and illness behaviors. This study was designed to estimate illness perception differences between Russian-speaking and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients. Changes in illness perception associated with time spent in Israel among Russian-speaking patients were also evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated differences in illness perception of patients exposed to Chernobyl's consequences. A total of 144 oncology patients (77 Hebrew-speaking, 67 Russian-speaking) completed personal data questionnaires and The illness perception questionnaire revised, translated into Russian for this study. Significantly more Russian-speaking oncology patients perceived their illness as chronic and having negative consequences on life (p speaking oncology patients tend to have a more negative perception of cancer compared to Hebrew-speaking patients. Time spent in Israel may create more positive perceptions of cancer among these patients. No illness perception differences were found concerning Chernobyl consequences.
Speaking is very essential for second language learners.The final aim of language teachers is to help learners use the language flexibly.The essay discusses the existing problems in teaching speaking.
Horn, Catherine; Dworkin, Gary
The report, Yearning to Break Free: Ohio Superintendents Speak Out, describes findings of a survey of 246 Ohio school superintendents about critical issues facing the state's educational system. In particular, the intent of the study was to examine how superintendents might do more with fewer resources. The authors conclude that Ohio districts…
A discussion of the language skills of Maya-speaking children in Mexico describes the relationship of Maya and Spanish languages in this population's education and reports on a study of the construction of orthography by these children. The study first examines how language is used in literacy education and the difficulties of literacy in a…
Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Appel, Christine; Ó Ciardubháin, Colm; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source techno-pedagogical solution to facilitate online oral language production and interaction. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed method
Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…
Clark, John L. D., Ed.
The following papers are presented in the conference proceedings: (1) "Development and Current Use of the FSI Oral Interview Test," by H. Sollenberger; (2) "Interview Testing in Non-European Languages," by W. Lovelace; (3) "Measuring Second Language Speaking Ability in New Brunswick's Senior High Schools," by M. Albert; (4) "Using the FSI…
Newcombe, Lynda Pritchard
Examines why only a limited number of adults who enroll in Welsh courses in Wales obtain fluency or become integrated in a Welsh-speaking community. Argues that many of the barriers these learners face come from outside the classroom and that the implementation of more innovative approaches could decrease the dropout rate. (Author/VWL)
This study aims to examine social competence of Chinese immigrant children and its associations with age, length of attendance in childcare, gender, generational status and proficiencies in English and Mandarin Chinese. One hundred Mandarin-speaking children aged three to five years from 15 childcare centres in Sydney were assessed by normed…
As one of the four important communication skills, speaking has long been neglected in the language teaching, while oral English teaching has always been the weak points in college English education. Since China began to reform and open the door to the ou
Many teachers like to use Question-Answer technique in their English language teaching class. To what extent is such technique useful? A programme was set up to test whether it is a good method in the development of students ’ oral English skill. The result showed a marked improvement in subjects’ speaking ability.
Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.
Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…
Cardona de Divale, Maria Victoria
A search was conducted on the Internet for software available for bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The only programs found under this heading were 18 programs for learning Spanish. Five of the least expensive were selected for review using a standardized scale for evaluating children's software. Four of the programs were found to be…
Full Text Available This paper reports on students’ pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger with the less competent ones (hereafter, weaker; therefore, eight pairs were observed during the lesson. The task given to the students was to express ‘Agree and Disagree’ in the context of giving opinions related to social life. Based on the observations, the task was successfully implemented by six pairs; thus, the two others faced some problems. From the first pair, it was seen that the stronger student had intimated the weaker one into speaking during the task. The other pair, who was both of the same native, did not converse in English as expected and mostly used their native language to speak with one another presumably due to respect from the stronger student towards the weaker one. In situations like this, when pair-work becomes unproductive, rotating pairs is recommended to strengthen information sharing and assigning roles to avoid a student from taking over the activity from his or her pair. In conclusion, pairing international learners with mixed speaking proficiency by teachers must be conducted as effectively as possible by initially identifying their ability and learning culture to profoundly expand the students’ language resources.
Research indicates that about 40% of the population fear public speaking. There is a wide variety of possible causes for this unwillingness to communicate: a lack of skills, social introversion, alienation, lack of fluency in English, and communication apprehension. Despite the fact that evidence indicates everyone may have some difficulty with…
Films are a very effective medium for language teaching,especially in teaching listening and speaking. This paperdiscusses the advantages of using films in teaching that course tonon-English majors. Finally the author introduces someworkable ways of using films in aural-oral classes.
In this paper I examine the citations in recent review articles in applied linguistics to point out that there appears to be a distinct lack of overlap between references to work in four inter-related areas--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. I then point to areas of research where I think it particularly important to consider these…
Pavlenko, Aneta, Ed.
Until recently, the history of debates about language and thought has been a history of thinking of language in the singular. The purpose of this volume is to reverse this trend and to begin unlocking the mysteries surrounding thinking and speaking in bi- and multilingual speakers. If languages influence the way we think, what happens to those who…
Cross-linguistic research on motion events has shown that Spanish speakers and English speakers have different patterns of thinking for speaking about motion, both linguistically and gesturally (for a review, see Stam, 2010b). Spanish speakers express path linguistically with verbs, and their path gestures tend to occur with path verbs, whereas…
Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others
The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…
Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students' critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) when incorporated into English teacher…
Schornack, Gary R.; Beck, Charles E.
As employers increase the use of teams and telecommuting in the workplace, the need for improved communication also accelerates both in written and oral modes. For oral communication or public speaking, a review of recent literature indicates this renewed emphasis, with numerous articles highlighting the need coming from disciplines ranging from…
Stones, Thomas P.
This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…
Achmad, Diana; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah
This paper reports on students' pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger)…
Jackson-Maldonado, D; Thal, D; Marchman, V; Bates, E; Gutierrez-Clellen, V
This paper describes the early lexical development of a group of 328 normal Spanish-speaking children aged 0;8 to 2;7. First the development and structure of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas is described. Then five studies carried out with the instrument are presented. In the first study vocabulary development of Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers is compared to that of English-speaking infants and toddlers. The English data were gathered using a comparable parental report, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. In the second study the general characteristics of Spanish language acquisition, and the effects of various demographic factors on that process, are examined. Study 3 examines the differential effects of three methods of collecting the data (mail-in, personal interview, and clinic waiting room administration). Studies 4 and 5 document the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results show that the trajectories of development are very similar for Spanish- and English-speaking children in this age range, that children from varying social groups develop similarly, and that mail-in and personal interview administration techniques produce comparable results. Inventories administered in a medical clinic waiting room, on the other hand, produced lower estimates of toddler vocabulary than the other two models.
Pawlak, Miroslaw; Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa; Majer, Jan
Developing the ability to speak in a foreign language is an arduous task. This is because it involves the mastery of different language subsystems, simultaneous focus on comprehension and production, and the impact of a range of social factors. This challenge is further compounded in situations in which learners have limited access to the target…
Dickmeyer, Scott G.; Givens, Alan
A study examined forensic competitor preference in choosing quotations for analysis in the event of impromptu speaking. Subjects were 62 competitors in one year and 59 competitors in the next year at an invitational tournament at a large midwestern university. The quotations for the tournament were divided into two groups. The first year, subjects…
Vining, Christine B.
Understanding how young children are socialized to the process and products of storytelling as part of everyday family life is important for language and literacy instruction. A language socialization framework was used to understand storytelling practices on the Navajo Nation. This study examined how three young English-speaking Navajo children,…
Zhang, Xiuqin; Head, Katie
This paper describes an oral English course for non-English majors at a university in the People's Republic of China. In the first year of the course, the students were very resistant to participating in group-based speaking activities, and their end-of-year results were disappointing. In the second year, the teacher decided to involve the…
Fortune, Rachael Naismith
This overview of information and referral services for Spanish speaking people surveys the problems and successes of bicultural-bilingual programs as they have evolved in the past decade, emphasizing the need for innovative and nontraditional approaches to these services for minority ethnic groups. Brief descriptions of information and referral…
Ahmed, Nehad Faisal
The issue of language learning anxiety has been widely researched and investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) settings. However, there have been very few studies conducted on this issue in Kurdistan, specifically about speaking anxiety in English classes. This study, therefore, aims to investigate Kurdish students' perceptions about…
Full Text Available This study deals with speaking achievement of eighth semester students in English Department of one university in Nusa Tenggara Barat - Indonesia in academic year 2013/2014. The purpose of this study was to find out factors that help students succeed in learning speaking. The method of this research is qualitative research that focuses on case study. The subjects of this study were the eighth semester students who got an A in Speaking I, II and III subjects. Four students were recruited as the research subjects consisting of one female and three males. The data about the students were obtained from the academic databases in the English Department. In collecting the data, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The data, then, were analyzed through some stages namely transcribing data, reducing data, displaying data and drawing conclusion. The result of this study showed that factors contributing to students speaking achievement consist of internal and external factors. The internal factors include motivation and interests, while the external factors involve family, school condition and society.
Language test is widely used in our daily life for various purposes, while a lot of language tests fail to include listening or speaking for one reason or another. The question that whether this type of test is still valid enough to serve test purposes and have a positive washback for English learning has come up.
Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Vahtrick, Louisa
Taking a dynamic usage-based perspective, this longitudinal case study compares the development of sentence complexity in speaking versus writing in two beginner Taiwanese learners of English (identical twins) in an extensive corpus consisting of 100 oral and 100 written texts of approximately 200 words produced by each twin over 8 months. Three…
Litualy, Samuel Jusuf
This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…
Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya
The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…
Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodi; Fu, Danling
This article presents two separate but related studies on native-English speaking (NES) instructors' teaching writing practice in Chinese universities. One study is a case study that explores the teaching practice of three NES instructors' writing instruction in a southern Chinese university as well as students' responses to their practice.…
Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…
Tucson Public Library, AZ.
The document gives a partial listing of magazines of special interest to the Mexican American and Spanish speaking community in Tucson, Arizona. The journals are grouped in 4 broad categories: there are 8 listings for popular journals (women's magazines, home decoration, and crafts); 12 for news; 8 for Mexican American cultural studies; and 9…
Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania
The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.
This handbook describes the background, characteristics, and education and language needs of Vietnamese-speaking students in the United States. The handbook was designed to increase understanding of the Vietnamese language and culture among bilingual education specialists and other school personnel, especially in the California public schools.…
"Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…
Wilson, Jane; Fang, Chloe; Rollins, Jenice; Valadez, Destinee
This project sought to gain a closer look at the contrast of oral language opportunities experienced by English learners and native speakers of English in order to draw implications for practicing teachers. Specifically, the authors explored how often and when English learners and native speakers of English engage in academic speaking in K-8…
Become Proficient in Speaking and Writing GOOD ENGLISH. The book offers practical advice for writing proper and attractive prose. It will help improve one's communication ability and skill. The topics cover Common Errors, Confusing set of Figures of Speech, Foreign Words and Phrases and various aspects of Grammar and Syntax....
This article presents the syllabus for the course "Professional Rhetorics: Bridging the Gap Between Writing, Speaking, & Digital Media." The course is designed to help students develop into effective rhetors for today's professional environments, and it will do so by exploring numerous rhetorical strategies associated with oral,…
A library school to serve the English-speaking Caribbean has been set up with Unesco assistance at the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. This article examines the potential demand for librarians in the region, discusses various problems facing the profession and prospects for the future. (15 references) (Author)
Ramlah A. Nawi
Full Text Available Great impromptu speaking, reciting and singing are never just an isolated impromptu act. It is the result of endless practice to perfect performance that can then be given impromptu. One of the main objectives of learning English as a Second Language (ESL is to be able to speak English impromptu, not just on the stage or in front of an audience but also in a casual meeting, on the street or during a formal meeting in a board-room. In fact to be able to speak “impromptu” should be the Holy Grail of teaching and learning ESL, more important than reading, writing and listening. So how come it is not given the priority it deserves – and how come it seems such a difficult goal? We believe it is because teachers and learners neglect to emphasize and practice the key to learning impromptu speaking. That key we believe is practice, practice and more practice. We can remember songs from our kindergarten years and we can still sing them because we practiced, practiced and practiced them. We believe that the teaching of ESL often overlooks the critical importance of lots of practice to create depth of learning and that creative methods of practicing need to be taught and practiced in ESL courses until such methods become deeply habitual, in fact they become a new personal paradigm. If our students aim to become great at ESL, they, too, must take continuous never-ending practice to heart.
Cohen, Steven D.; Wei, Thomas E.
Oral communication courses traditionally help students identify the proper arrangement of words to convey particular images. Although instructors emphasize the importance of speaking powerfully, they often struggle to find effective ways to teach their students "how" to deliver a message that resonates with the audience. Given the clear importance…
Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya
Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…
Speaking skill is different from writing skill. Writing is a formal skill, so as a writer he or she must be consistently follow the formal procedures. It is different from the speaking skill which doesn‘t so strict in accommodating the formal rules. The Writing of script at Speaking 2 lecture is the focus of this study because the scripts are presented after they prepare for having conversation. Through writing the speaking script the students learn carefully of khow to deli...
Dwi Astuti Wahyu Nurhayati
Creating encouragement among students to speak up and to write is not easy. It is seen on their responses of joining speaking and writing class; most students suppose that speaking and writing English are difficult especially to utter and organize their ideas freely. Problems of speaking include inhibition, nothing to say, low participation, mother-tongue use; writing problems include they lack ideas, organizing of ideas, rhetoric or pattern of thought, cohesion and coherence. However to cope...
Hadi Salehi; Marziyeh Ebrahimi; Susan Sattar; Mohammad Shojaee
The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre- intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners’ success in their speaking classes. To determine the degree of correlation among degree of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems, and success in speaking classes, a validate...
Castro, J. M.
Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single event. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be.If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentation interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. "The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking." Scott Berkun, 2010
Castro, J. M.
Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely rewarding and gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, get to reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single session. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be. If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentations interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. 'The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking.' Scott Berkun, Confessions of a Public Speaker, 2010
English Speaking is the skill that the students will be judged upon most in real-life situations. This article written to discuss how to have the the optional course-English Speaking Training in high schools to train the students English speaking abil-ity.
Knight, Misty L.; Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Stewart, Frances
Research indicates that the fear of public speaking is an extraordinarily common phobia and that a significant portion of the population experiences some form of anxiety over public speaking. Although there is a great deal of research available on the etiology of public speaking anxiety, there is far less research available on interventional…
Anderson-Hsieh, Janet; Koehler, Kenneth
A study investigated the effect of foreign accent and speaking rate on native English speaker comprehension. Three native Chinese speakers and one native speaker of American English read passages at different speaking rates. Comprehension scores showed that an increase in speaking rate and heavily accented English decreased listener comprehension.…
Namdar, Sara; Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh
Speaking proceeds under the constraint of time. While speaking, speakers are under constant pressure to follow the message being received and to formulate rapid responses to their partners. In the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Speaking Test, the communicative nature of the interview creates an ideal situation for applicants…
Phillabaum, Scott; Frazier, Stefan
Recent research on how TESOL professionals educate nonnative English-speaking students in MA programs indicates a general conviction that native-speaking and nonnative-speaking MA students should be treated equally during their studies in MA programs. Absent from this discussion and much of the literature on this topic, however, are the voices of…
Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura
As educators, the authors know the importance of teaching reading and writing, but they often overlook speaking and listening skills. They believe that if they have class discussions on a regular basis, students are "naturally" learning to speak and to listen. However, that is not the case. On the contrary, speaking and listening skills are ones…
YAO Jing; LI Ming-jun
Freshmen and sophomores in universities of China usually have Listening and Speaking class. A two-period listening and speaking lesson is designed by taking full use of the teaching material and taking the modern listening and speaking teaching theories into consideration.
Safari, Mahshad; Koosha, Mansour
Regarding the fundamental role of speaking in language skills, this study intended to investigate the effects of speaking portfolio as an alternative form of assessment for assessing Iranian EFL learners' speaking ability at the intermediate and advanced proficiency levels and also its impact on their attitudes. Accordingly, from the population of…
Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.
Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo
Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas
This study aimed to explore pre-service English teachers' perceptions of teaching speaking in Turkey, the importance they give to this language skill, and their self-evaluation of their speaking competence. With case design and maximum variation sampling approach, seven pre-service English teachers' beliefs about speaking skills were gathered in…
Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Hertz, B.; Kerkhof, P.
PowerPoint presentations are often criticized for the excessive use of text on the
slides. In a study of 97 academic scholars, we found that presenters indeed used
substantially more text than is advised. Speaking anxiety was found to be related to
the time spent on preparing and rehears
Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen
Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…
Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu
This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…
Banakou, Domna; Slater, Mel
When we carry out an act, we typically attribute the action to ourselves, the sense of agency. Explanations for agency include conscious prior intention to act, followed by observation of the sensory consequences; brain activity that involves the feed-forward prediction of the consequences combined with rapid inverse motor prediction to fine-tune the action in real time; priming where there is, e.g., a prior command to perform the act; a cause (the intention to act) preceding the effect (the results of the action); and common-sense rules of attribution of physical causality satisfied. We describe an experiment where participants falsely attributed an act to themselves under conditions that apparently cannot be explained by these theories. A life-sized virtual body (VB) seen from the first-person perspective in 3D stereo, as if substituting the real body, was used to induce the illusion of ownership over the VB. Half of the 44 experimental participants experienced VB movements that were synchronous with their own movements (sync), and the other half asynchronous (async). The VB, seen in a mirror, spoke with corresponding lip movements, and for half of the participants this was accompanied by synchronous vibrotactile stimulation on the thyroid cartilage (Von) but this was not so for the other half. Participants experiencing sync misattributed the speaking to themselves and also shifted the fundamental frequency of their later utterances toward the stimulus voice. Von also contributed to these results. We show that these findings can be explained by current theories of agency, provided that the critical role of ownership over the VB is taken into account.
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the primary and secondary transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates reinvestment centers included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Reinvestment centers highlight communities that...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional roadways included in the Louisiana Speaks community growth option of compact and dispersed development (Option B)....
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates potential fixed-transit stations included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of compact development...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional roadways included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of dispersed development (Option A)....
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional roadways included in the Louisiana Speaks community growth option of compact development (Option C). This network...
Bradlow, Ann R; Kim, Midam; Blasingame, Michael
Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses). Replicating prior work, L2 speaking rates were significantly slower than L1 speaking rates both across-groups (monolinguals' L1 English vs bilinguals' L2 English), and across L1 and L2 within bilinguals. Critically, within the bilingual group, L1 speaking rate significantly predicted L2 speaking rate, suggesting that a significant portion of inter-talker variation in L2 speech is derived from inter-talker variation in L1 speech, and that individual variability in L2 spoken language production may be best understood within the context of individual variability in L1 spoken language production.
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...
Yong Mei Fung
Full Text Available ESL learners often experience anxiety and feel uncomfortable when speaking in the target language. This paper examines the anxiety level of polytechnic students when speaking English and the effects of board game on their speaking performance. The participants were selected from two intact classes which were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups comprising 30 students each. Data were obtained from pre- and post-treatment speaking tests and questionnaire. The questionnaire measuring anxiety factors was adapted from Yaikhong and Usaha (2012 and Woodrow (2006. The board game “What Say You” employed during the treatment was a speaking activity which required players to speak on a topic within a given time frame. The experimental group played the board games over six sessions. The results from the experimental and control groups showed significant difference in the pre- and post-treatment speaking test scores. However, the speaking performance of the experimental group revealed significantly higher scores. Students who were initially hesitant and passive were more willing to speak and were able to present and justify their ideas more confidently as compared to the control group after the treatment. The findings reveal that the board game is a useful tool to engage learners’ participation in class and to enhance the speaking ability of low-proficiency ESL learners. Keywords: anxiety level, board game, speaking ability, low-proficiency students, ESL learners
Lowell, Soren Y; Hylkema, Jennifer A
The effect of speaking context on four cepstral- and spectral-based acoustic measures was investigated in 20 participants with normal voice. Speakers produced three different continuous speaking tasks that varied in duration and phonemic content. Cepstral and spectral measures that can be validly derived from continuous speech were computed across the three speaking contexts. Cepstral peak prominence (CPP), low/high spectral ratio, and the standard deviation (SD) of the low/high spectral ratio did not significantly differ across speaking contexts, and correlations for the first two measures were strong among the three speaking tasks. The SD of the CPP showed significant task differences, and relationships between the speaking contexts were generally moderate. These findings suggest that in speakers with normal voice, the differing phonemic content across several frequently used speaking stimuli minimally impacted group means for three clinically relevant cepstral- and spectral-based acoustic measures.
MacEntee, Michael I; Wong, Sabrina T; Smith, André; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, S Ross; Graf, Peter; Soheilipour, Shimae
This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada.
Speaking skill is an important component in the student's communicative competence. The testing of this skill is indispensable with its functions of providing useful feedback and motivating students. Where direct face-to-face oral test is impossible when large number of candidates involved, language lab or computer can be used to carry out various testing tasks in the evaluation of the students' oral communicative competence.
Public speaking is a part of everyday situations. With our self presentation we build our credibility and we socilize with people around us. Everybody can be a good speaker. It is not about being born carismatic, it is a process which demands a lot of practice, good preparation and opportunities that bring experience. The fear is one of the strongest emotions, which influences our body functions and our emotional capabilities. The children fears are conseqences of too much or too little con...
Jeanjean, Thomas; Stolowy, Hervé; Lesage, Cédric
In this study the authors analyze the factors associated with the publication of an English-language annual report in non-English-speaking countries. Using a sample of 3,994 firms from 27 countries in 2003, they find that about 50% of the sample firms issue annual reports in English. Our findings suggest that the decision to publish an English annual report is related to the internationalization process (via foreign sales), language barriers (via language distance and language importance), go...
Anxiety has an important influence on two language learning as one of the affective factors in language learning. Peo-ple usually think that excessive anxiety can interfere with the learning of English, especially the spoken English. This paper mainly studies the reasons of causing anxiety, strategies of solving speaking anxiety and help students overcome affective barriers, enhanc-ing the level of spoken english.
De Mente, Boye
Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.
Juhasz, Audrey Constance
As the Latino portion of the United States population continues to grow each year, more and more children in the United States leave their Spanish-speaking homes and enter English immersion schools. Throughout their lives, these children are likely to shift language preferences from their home language, to the language of the community. However, maintaining development in their first language would be a benefit to them in multiple ways. Identifying factors within bilingual homes that influenc...
The research mainly discuss that public speeches should be made and delivered in accordance of speaking situation. By investigating different sample public speeches, it can be found that proper use of“context of situation”plays an important role in making public speeches appropriate both in linguistic scope and in social scope. The research also gives some suggestions on writ⁃ing of public speeches.
Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were coded by two raters who made judgments concerning the specific emotion category in which the responses belonged. Five- and 6-year-olds were quite accurate in labeling facial expressions of happiness, anger, and sadness but far less accurate for facial expressions of fear, surprise, and disgust. An improvement in accuracy as a function of age was found for fear and surprise only. Labeling facial expressions of disgust proved to be very difficult for the children, even for the 11-year-olds. In order to examine the fit between the model proposed by Widen and Russell (2003 and our data, we looked at the number of participants who had the predicted response patterns. Overall, 88.52% of the participants did. Most of the participants used between 3 and 5 labels, with correspondence percentages varying between 80.00% and 100.00%. Our results suggest that the model proposed by Widen and Russell is not limited to English-speaking children, but also accounts for the sequence of emotion labeling in French-Canadian children.
In the history of formal English education in Japan, grammar used to be the mainstream. In the secondary education system, teachers used to spend many hours teaching grammar to the students. However, it has been replaced by the aural/oral method of teaching a foreign language. There was even a remark that teaching grammar hinders students from communicating fluently. Literally, there was a time when grammar was set aside in formal English education. However, the author noticed that in grammar classes, the students speak English more loudly and confidently without much hesitation than in other types of English classes. One of the reasons is that they are not worried about the contents of the speeches. They are simply concentrating on the forms. They are not afraid of making major mistakes, and the errors they make are minor so they do not feel embarrassed in public. The atmosphere of the grammar classes is very positive and the students enjoy speaking English. In this paper, the author shows how grammar classes can contribute to the acquisition of the students＇ speaking abilities and manners. ＂Learning grammar was a precious experience＂, one student reported after the course.
Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.
Full Text Available This paper is a report of a research and development project conducted in a speaking skill for the first-year students of State Institute for Islamic Studies Imam Bonjol Padang, academic year 2012/2013. Mingle as a technique in teaching speaking proposed by Pollard and Hess in 1997 was developed into a new model. Using ADDIE model as proposed by Dick and Carey in 1996, we collected the intended data through observation, questionnaire, and test. The result of the research showed that the implementation of model gave a significant difference in term of the students-learning outcome between the students who are taught through Mingle model and by traditional one or without Mingle model. The development of Mingle model included preparation, warming up, set the rule, act Mingle model, presentation, review and discussion. It is concluded that Mingle model is more effective to improve students on all components of speaking skill. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang. Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved
[Introduction]A great number of researchers have investigated how to improve EFL learners’sub-skills through various classroom activities. Within this,some research has been specifically conducted on why teachers should help learners enlarge their vocabulary knowledge and to develop their speaking skills through diverse tasks(Thurston,1997;Marco,1998;Nation,2004;Demo,2001). One common outcome from the above research indicates that the most productive way for learners to develop speaking and vocabulary learning skills is through different activities rather than for example repeating words;memorizing grammatical rules or simply talking to native speakers whenever learners have the chance. It can be concluded from the previous research that it is essential for teachers to investigate what activities/tasks are appropriate to be utilised in order to help learners develop their sub-skills and vocabulary. This article aims to shed light on two activities which are designed to help EFL learners develop their vocabulary knowledge and speaking skills. These activities are specifically organised for EFL learners to gradually develop their discourse skills. The targeted EFL learners are intermediate learners who are year 12 learners in China. The ultimate goal of the article is to share opinions with EFL teachers about what kinds of activities are efficient and should be adopted in the EFL classroom teaching.
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the grammatical errors and to provide description of errors on speaking activities using simple present and present progressive tenses made by the second year students of English Education Department, Palangka Raya University. The subject for this study was 30 students. This research applied qualitative research to describe the types, source and causes of students’ errors taken from oral essay test which consisted of questions using the tenses of simple present and present progressive. The errors were indentified and classified according to Linguistic Category Taxonomy and Richard’s classification, well as the possible sources and causes of errors. The findings showed that the errors made by students were in 6 aspects; errors in production of verb groups, errors in the distribution of verb groups, errors in the use of article, errors in the use of preposition, errors in the use of questions and miscellaneous errors. In regard to resource and causes, it was found that intra-lingual interference was the major source of errors (82.55% where overgeneralization took place as the major cause of the errors with total percentage of 44.71%. Keywords: grammatical errors, speaking skill, speaking activities
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Education students' levels of speaking anxiety are predicted by the variables of gender, department, grade, such sub-dimensions of "Speaking Self-Efficacy Scale for Pre-Service Teachers" as "public speaking," "effective speaking,"…
Mustafa Mubarak Pathan
Full Text Available Of the four major language skills, speaking is regarded as the most crucial and central one as it enables the learner to establish successful communication in that language, which is often the main aim of learning any foreign language. That is why it forms the focus of attention in any foreign language teaching and learning as failure to master this crucial language skill leads to the failure to establish successful communication. However, mastering this language skill does not go so easily with the EFL learners and particularly for the Arab EFL learners as many factors, including the mother tongue interference, hinder and influence the process of learning and mastering this crucial foreign language skill. The consequent result is that the EFL learners, especially Arab learners, encounter various difficulties while communicating in English and speak the language in their own way with the flavour of their mother tongue, Arabic. This problem of the Libyan EFL learners, encountered while speaking in English, is the subject of investigation in this paper. Various other problems, nature of these problems, sources of these problems and some pedagogical suggestion to overcome these problems are also some of the central topics of discussion in the paper.
Stranix, John T; Danziger, Keri M; Dumbrava, Veturia L; Mars, Ginger; Hirsch, David L; Levine, Jamie P
Increased upper airway resistance from postoperative changes after major head and neck surgery may cause elevated transtracheal pressures and result in tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance. This may be particularly true among patients with baseline pulmonary disease. We describe a patient recovering from oral cancer resection and flap reconstruction who demonstrated prolonged ventilator dependence and tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance with abnormal tracheal manometry. We attempted to improve speaking valve tolerance through the adaptation of a valve modification intended to reduce transtracheal pressures. Drilling holes into the 1-way speaking valve allowed for excess air egress and resulted in normalization of transtracheal pressures with improved speaking valve tolerance. This 1-way speaking valve modification may serve as a simple method to allow for earlier restoration of voicing and potentially reduce the number of ventilator- dependent days in this patient population.
Cara S. Jonker
Full Text Available Orientation: Emotions must be investigated within the natural contexts in which they occur. It therefore becomes crucial to study episodes in the workplace.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative emotion episodes and frequencies of working Afrikaans-speaking adults.Motivation for the study: To date, no study has been conducted to determine emotion episodes amongst White Afrikaans-speaking working adults in South Africa. Gooty, Connelly, Griffith and Gupta also argue for research on emotions in the natural settings in which they occur – the workplace.Research design, approach and method: A survey design with an availability sample was used. The participants (N = 179 consisted of White Afrikaans-speaking working adults. The Episode Grid was administered to capture the emotion episodes.Main findings: The main emotion episodes reported on with positive content included goal achievement, receiving recognition and personal incidents. Emotion episodes with negative content included categories such as behaviour of work colleagues, acts of boss/superior/management and task requirements.Practical and/or managerial implications: The findings are useful for managers who want to enhance the emotional quality of the work-life of employees. Changes could be made, for example, to practices of giving recognition within work environments and the clarification of task requirements. The knowledge on emotion episodes could be very useful in planning interventions.Contribution and/or value-adding: The findings and results of this study provided insight into emotion episodes as events in the workplace can cause positive and negative workplace experiences. This information should be taken into consideration with regard to wellness and emotion measurement efforts.
Lewis, Tasha N
Different languages inherently present different thinking for speaking patterns, targeting different meaning components for expression. Previous research has demonstrated that second language learners largely tend transfer their first language thinking for speaking pattern to their second language, however, this paper presents evidence to the contrary. Second language learners studying in the target language country demonstrate an unexpected thinking for speaking pattern. The data indicate t...
Fauzia Hasan Siddiqui
This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners. Comprehensive research done in the field of applied linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT) establishes a positive correlation of speaking skill with the overall language proficiency. Despite this obvious significance of speaking skill in language learning process, it has not gained suffi...
LIU Ai-juan; TONG Xing-hong; DU Wen-jing
In this article, the authors design a speaking unit based on needs analysis following Hutchinson and Waters’(1987) model. First, the rationale in designing this unit is introduced, which involves the teaching approach adopted and relevant theo-ries in organizing the materials. Then, the teaching plan of this speaking unit is provided and some activities are designed to cre-ate an authentic and optimal situation for students to practice their speaking skill.
Irmawati, Dini Kurnia
Speaking problems do not only happen to low achiever students. High-achiever students with high average score (above 90) also still have speaking problems. This makes the researcher find it important to investigate what factors that make them still get difficulties in speaking. This research is a descriptive study. The subjects include 9 high-achiever students majoring in English Department that have been selected from University of Brawijaya, State University of Malang, and Kanjuruhan Univer...
Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary; Leong, Chee Wee; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Lee, Chong Min
Traditional assessments of public speaking skills rely on human scoring. We report an initial study on the development of an automated scoring model for public speaking performances using multimodal technologies. Task design, rubric development, and human rating were conducted according to standards in educational assessment. An initial corpus of 17 speakers with 4 speaking tasks was collected using audio, video, and 3D motion capturing devices. A scoring model based on basic features in the ...
It is particularly important and necessary to try to make intensive course interesting and iffective for the students.Their study will become a lot more effective if the student come to the classroom willingly instead of being forced to.That is to say,how a teacher can succeed in arousing the students' interest in intensive course and making the students more active and aggressive in thinking,listening and speaking.For this purpose,we should change the teacher dominated class for a student-centered one.
This article aims to discuss about cognitive framework underlying learning strategies for acadeic speaking. Cognitive framework underlies learning strategies, since there are four stages of encoding process that cover not only the way store things to be learnt but also the way people organize way store things to be learnt but also the way people organize. Moreover, the learning strategies are helpful for motivating the students to be active and creative in order to develop their co...
Hidayat Al Azmi
Full Text Available Many types of learning strategies can be used by the language learners to make the learning process running well. However, in the doing the practice the students are identified have limited types of learning strategies and it makes them face many problems in learning. The aims of the study is to find the typical language learning strategies used by the English Department Students in speaking and reading in English. The result of the study showed that the level of the strategies used were still medium. Thus, the students of English Department are suggested to apply many strategies. it also hopes that the teachers are able to train sufficient strategy.
Full Text Available This study examined the ability of Indonesian students in producing the third person /s/ in speaking. Seven respondents were presented with two speaking tasks and questions related to their daily activity and picture descriptions. Overall, results showed that the majority of the respondents were able to produce agreement in speaking, although only five respondents could produce agreement correctly above 30%. Therefore, the study suggested that strategies other than speaking should be examined if they could better facilitate students’ production of the third person singular /s/.
Fauzia Hasan Siddiqui
Full Text Available This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners. Comprehensive research done in the field of applied linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT establishes a positive correlation of speaking skill with the overall language proficiency. Despite this obvious significance of speaking skill in language learning process, it has not gained sufficient attention in the ELT or the assessments in Oman. Relying on the available literature on the importance of the speaking skill and its effective role in enhancing other language macro skills (listening, reading, and writing, this exploratory research analyzes the currents status of speaking skill in ELT and assessments at the General Foundation Programme (GFP in Oman. As many GFP’s have IELTS (International English Language Testing System exam as their programme exit examination, the study begins with measuring the correlation of speaking skill grades with other macro skill in order to accentuate the positive impact of speaking skill on other language skills. Secondly, it presents the statistics of time devoted to teaching and weights that speaking skill hold in the GFP in Oman. Finally, the study suggests the ways to optimize speaking skill opportunities to create successful literacy experience among adult EFL learners. Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT, English as a Foreign Language (EFL, English as a Second Language (ESL, General Foundation Program (GFP
Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, Colette; Marriott, J
Objective The objective of this study was to explore the decision-making processes and associated barriers and enablers that determine access and use of healthcare services in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking Caucasian patients with diabetes in Australia. Study setting and design Face-to-face semistructured individual interviews and group interviews were conducted at various healthcare settings—diabetes outpatient clinics in 2 tertiary referral hospitals, 6 primary care practices and 10 community centres in Melbourne, Australia. Participants A total of 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited into 2 groups: 60 Arabic-speaking and 40 English-speaking Caucasian. Data collection Interviews were audio-taped, translated into English when necessary, transcribed and coded thematically. Sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using a self-completed questionnaire and medical records. Principal findings Only Arabic-speaking migrants intentionally delayed access to healthcare services when obvious signs of diabetes were experienced, missing opportunities to detect diabetes at an early stage. Four major barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use were identified: influence of significant other(s), unique sociocultural and religious beliefs, experiences with healthcare providers and lack of knowledge about healthcare services. Compared with Arabic-speaking migrants, English-speaking participants had no reluctance to access and use medical services when signs of ill-health appeared; their treatment-seeking behaviours were straightforward. Conclusions Arabic-speaking migrants appear to intentionally delay access to medical services even when symptomatic. Four barriers to health services access have been identified. Tailored interventions must be developed for Arabic-speaking migrants to improve access to available health services, facilitate timely diagnosis of diabetes and ultimately to improve glycaemic control. PMID:26576809
There exists great confusion among students about the choice of words in speaking English.They feel it difficult to express themselves very effectively and clearly.In a highly competitive society with strong tendency to merge in multicultures,one my fail to attain his goal in life if he/she turns a blind eye to the importance of effectively speaking international language-English because English is an indispensble communicating means in colorful world.This article offers criteria that can be used by English speaders to measure whether their words contribute to an effective oral style.Language is symbolic,so the words contribute to an effective oral style.Language is symbolic,so the words we use in our speeches represent ideas,objects and feelings,The resders,not only the students,can be informed of the fact that ideas are clarified through vivid,emphatic and appropriate expressions in addition to precise,specific,concrete,simple language.
Pertaub, D P; Slater, M; Barker, C
Can virtual reality exposure therapy be used to treat people with social phobia? To answer this question it is vital to known if people will respond to virtual humans (avatars) in a virtual social setting in the same way they would to real humans. If someone is extremely anxious with real people, will they also be anxious when faced with simulated people, despite knowing that the avatars are computer generated? In  we described a small pilot study that placed 10 people before a virtual audience. The purpose was to assess the extent to which social anxiety, specifically fear of public speaking, was induced by the virtual audience and the extent of influence of degree of immersion (head mounted display or desktop monitor. The current paper describes a follow up study conducted with 40 subjects and the results clearly show that not only is social anxiety induced by the audience, but the degree of anxiety experienced is directly related to the type of virtual audience feedback the speaker receives. In particular, a hostile negative audience scenario was found to generate strong affect in speakers, regardless of whether or not they normally suffered from fear of public speaking.
Full Text Available The problem of tracking multiple intermittently speaking speakers is difficult as some distinct problems must be addressed. The number of active speakers must be estimated, these active speakers must be identified, and the locations of all speakers including inactive speakers must be tracked. In this paper we propose a method for tracking intermittently speaking multiple speakers using a particle filter. In the proposed algorithm the number of active speakers is firstly estimated based on the Exponential Fitting Test (EFT, a source number estimation technique which we have proposed. The locations of the speakers are then tracked using a particle filtering framework within which the decomposed likelihood is used in order to decouple the observed audio signal and associate each element of the decomposed signal with an active speaker. The tracking accuracy is then further improved by the inclusion of a silence region detection step and estimation of the noise-only covariance matrix. The method was evaluated using live recordings of 3 speakers and the results show that the method produces highly accurate tracking results.
CERNese is the language spoken here: based on English and French, it’s a mixture of accents, pronunciations and body languages that go well together. CERNese is also an attitude: we make an effort to understand others and to ensure that other people understand what we say. Do you speak this language? Joe works in an office with four colleagues who all share a national language, their direct supervisor also happens to be of the same nationality, and most of the communication in the team therefore also takes place in this language - one that Joe does not speak. Moreover, they often go for coffee together and although they sometimes remember their CERNese and invite him to go with them, they inevitably end up switching to the national language that he does not share. He feels very uncomfortable because he is not included in the conversations. Sometimes he suspects that they are talking about his work. What is worse is that sometimes he realises that they have shared...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates new or improved roadways included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a land use pattern that...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates potential fixed-transit stations included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of compact and dispersed...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates town center new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Town center new growth areas include local...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. New growth areas include a mix of industrial, single...
Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku
Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972-1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41-1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males.
Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.
Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…
Nomura, Takako; Caidi, Nadia
Introduction: In this study, we examine the case of Japanese-speaking families in Canada and their experiences with teaching a heritage language at home, along with the uses and perceived usefulness of public library resources, collections, and services in the process. Methods: We interviewed fourteen mothers who speak Japanese to their children.…
MacIntyre, Peter D.; Thivierge, Kimly A.; MacDonald, J. Renee
Examines potential sources of public-speaking anxiety among undergraduate students stemming from the audience. Identifies three sources of anxiety: degree of formal evaluation, level of audience interest in the topic, and audience's responsiveness to the speaker. Measures willingness to speak and expected speech quality. Finds interest,…
Arzate, Nancy Ascencio
This study utilized a qualitative approach to explore the supervision experiences of nine participants (seven females and two males) or non-Hispanic bilingual therapists who worked with Spanish-speaking clients and were under the supervision of a monolingual English-speaking supervisor. Their interviews data were audio recorded, transcribed and…
Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang
The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…
Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang
Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…
Dibartolo, Patricia Marten; Molina, Kristine
Fear of public speaking is the most common social fear experienced by the general population and can have far-reaching academic effects, including lower course grades and even an increased likelihood to drop out of college. The typical curricular approach to remediating public speaking fears in college students is to provide training in basic…
Bodie, Graham D.
Considered by many to be the foundation upon which our discipline was built, the study of public speaking has evolved from its humble beginnings into a vast literature of experimental and expositional studies. The focus of research on public speaking has primarily been to discover the antecedents, causes, and consequences of anxiety associated…
Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Acheson, D.J.; Takashima, A.
ulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and mon
This study examines university learners' self-assessment and self-feedback on performance as captured in audio files from a foreign language speaking test. The learners' were guided to listen, transcribe and analyse their own speaking samples, as well as propose future actions for improvement. Content of learners' self-feedback was scrutinised…
Kieffer, Michael J.
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of…
Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.
Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…
Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno
This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…
Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.
An empirical investigation into the construct validity of tests of speaking and reading English as a second language (ESL) was performed using the multitrait-multimethod convergent-divergent design of Campbell and Fiske. Interview, translation, and self-rating tests of the two hypothesized traits, "speaking ability" and "reading ability," were…
Whitlatch, Jennifer M.; Staley, Lynn
Noting that most mainstream primary teachers have received little or no training focusing on working with the growing number of students who speak English as a second language, this booklet equips primary teachers with basic information regarding the instruction of children who speak English as a second language (ESL). The booklet identifies ten…
Children who speak different home languages and dialects in a monolingual classroom often carry the challenge of having to develop literacy in a different language. This article presents a qualitative study of five first graders who speak different home languages in an inner city mainstream English classroom. Through interviews, classroom writing,…
Wigglesworth, Gillian; Billington, Rosey
There are now significant numbers of children who speak a language other than English when they enter the formal school system in Australia. Many of these children come from a language background that is entirely different from the school language. Many Indigenous children, however, come from creole-speaking backgrounds where their home language…
Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.
A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…
In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…
China University of Geosciences has carried out a reform on college English teaching since 2003, March. The English class for non-English majors now falls into three parts: speaking and listening, reading, and writing, which are given respectively. Speaking and listening take the percentage of 3/7 in the 280 classtime for college English. And 2/3 of the
In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…
Tsiplakides, Iakovos; Keramida, Areti
Despite the fact that foreign language speaking anxiety is a common phenomenon in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greece, teachers do not always identify anxious students, and often attribute their unwillingness to participate in speaking tasks to factors such as lack of motivation, or low performance. This article aims to…
Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck
The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…
Galaczi, Evelina D.
Paired speaking tasks are now commonly used in both pedagogic and assessment contexts, as they elicit a wide range of interactional skills. The current study aims to offer an investigation of the interaction co-constructed by learners at different proficiency levels who are engaged in a paired speaking test, and to provide insights into the…
When Soldiers Speak Out : A Survey of Provisions Limiting Freedom of Speech in the Military JOHN LORAN KIEL, JR. © 2007 John Loran Kiel, Jr. “The war...When Soldiers Speak Out : ASurvey of Provisions Limiting Freedom of Speech in the Military 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan
Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…
Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill
In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…
Although the primary use of the speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT Speaking) is to inform admissions decisions at English medium universities, it may also be useful as an initial screening measure for international teaching assistants (ITAs). This study provides criterion-related…
Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.
This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…
Wang, Y.T.; Kent, R.D.; Duffy, J.R.; Thomas, J.E.
Prosodic abnormality is common in the dysarthria associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and adjustments of speaking rate and emphatic stress are often used as steps in treating the speech disorder in patients with TBI-induced dysarthria. However, studies to date do not present a clear and detailed picture of how speaking rate and emphatic…
This article reports the findings of a study investigating factors contributing to the speaking-in-class anxiety of a group of 313 Chinese ESL first-year university students in Hong Kong. Results using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) of Horwitz et al. reveal five factors leading to the group's speaking-in-class anxiety. The…
Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…
Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah
This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…
Educational blogs have drawn the growing interest of researchers and language teachers due to the user-friendly interfaces as well as the powerful archiving features. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of extensive speaking practice on speaking performance in voice blogs, and (2) to examine learners'…
The globalisation of English and a growing demand for good English-speaking skills in the job market in particular have been placing a greater emphasis on the teaching of English speaking skills in Bangladesh. The private universities emphasise developing English skills. It seems that students of public and private universities have the same level…
Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.
Mental state language was examined in Mandarin- speaking and Cantonese-speaking toddlers. Results suggested that theory-of-mind development was similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. Much earlier emergence of desire terms and infrequent use of thinking terms suggests cultural…
Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta
Public speaking is widely used as a model of experimental fear and anxiety. This review aimed to evaluate the effects of pharmacological challenges on public speaking responses and their implications for the understanding of the neurobiology of normal and pathological anxiety, specifically panic disorder. We also describe methodological features of experimental paradigms using public speaking as an inducer of fear and stress. Public speaking is a potent stressor that can provoke significant subjective and physiological responses. However, variations in the manners in which public speaking is modelled can lead to different responses that need to be considered when interpreting the results. Results from pharmacological studies with healthy volunteers submitted to simulated public speaking tests have similarities with the pharmacological responses of panic patients observed in clinical practice and panic patients differ from controls in the response to the public speaking test. These data are compatible with the Deakin and Graeff hypothesis that serotonin inhibits fear, as accessed by public speaking tasks, and that this inhibition is likely related to the actions of serotonin in the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter.
This research aimed to find out how group investigation improves the student's speaking skill of the second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, how group investigation improves the student's participation in speaking of second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, and what the obstacles are in the implementation of Group Investigation. The classroom…
Salehi, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Marziyeh; Sattar, Susan; Shojaee, Mohammad
The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre-intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners' success in their speaking classes. To determine the…
Neu, Renee A.
The purpose of this qualitative, multi-case study was to explore the oral language of Spanish-speaking preschool students and their responses to questions, comments and requests made by an English-speaking teacher. Research questions focused on students' responses to questions; comments and requests by the teacher; and whether the response was…
Cem and Margaret Alptekin
@@ Two conflicting pedagogical views exist in teaching EFL (English as a foreign language) abroad. One, promoted chiefly by native English speaking teachers, is that English teaching should be done with reference to the socio-cultural norms and val-ues of an English-speaking country, with the pur-pose of developing bilingual and bicultural individu-als.
Ahour, Touran; Maleki, Saeideh Entezari
This study attempted to unveil the effect of metadiscourse instruction on the improvement of the speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. After the administration of a language proficiency test, 34 homogeneous participants were assigned into the experimental and control groups. Then, the two groups were compared on their speaking ability. After…
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hsu, Guo-Liang; Lin, Yi-Chun
This study applied storytelling in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in order to promote speaking skills. Students were asked to practice speaking EFL through producing individual and interactive stories with a Web-based multimedia system. We aimed to investigate an effectiveness of applying individual and interactive storytelling…
Osmond, Erica R.
This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…
Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary; Leong, Chee Wee; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Lee, Chong Min
Traditional assessments of public speaking skills rely on human scoring. We report an initial study on the development of an automated scoring model for public speaking performances using multimodal technologies. Task design, rubric development, and human rating were conducted according to standards in educational assessment. An initial corpus of…
Topazian, Rachel J; Hook, C Christopher; Mueller, Paul S
Staff and students working in health care settings are sometimes reluctant to speak up when they perceive patients to be at risk for harm. In this article, we describe four incidents that occurred at our institution (Mayo Clinic). In two of them, health care professionals failed to speak up, which resulted in harm; in the other two, they did speak up, which prevented harm and improved patient care. We analyzed each scenario using the Physician's Charter on Medical Professionalism and prima facie ethics principles to determine whether principles were violated or upheld. We conclude that anyone who works in a health care setting has a duty to speak up when a patient faces harm. We also provide guidance for health care institutions on promoting a culture in which speaking up is encouraged and integrated into routine practice.
Klotzbach, H; Krettek, R; Bratzke, H; Püschel, K; Zehner, R; Amendt, J
Megnin's book "La fauna des cadaveres" published in 1894 in France is generally accepted as a mile-stone in forensic entomology. It is hardly known that at the same time this topic was likewise explored in the German-speaking countries. Even PMI estimation based on developmental data of blowflies was performed. After a more descriptive period in the first half of the 20th century the complexity and variability of insects' biological behavior were detected and formally investigated. Improved technical facilities, enhanced comprehension of scientific studies and multidisciplinary cooperation, enabled rapid progress in forensic entomology during the last decades. With the European Association for Forensic Entomology founded in 2002 the frame work for a high standard of competency at an international level was constituted.
Heba Awadh Alharbi
Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.
To understand the history, accomplishments, failures, and meanings of astronomy requires a knowledge of what has been said about astronomy by philosophers, novelists, playwrights, poets, scientists, and laymen. With this in mind, Astronomically Speaking: A Dictionary of Quotations on Astronomy and Physics serves as a guide to what has been said about astronomy through the ages. Containing approximately 1,550 quotations and numerous illustrations, this resource is the largest compilation of astronomy and astrophysics quotations published to date.Devoted to astronomy and the closely related areas of mathematics and physics, this resource helps form an accurate picture of these interconnected disciplines. It is designed as an aid for general readers with little knowledge of astronomy who are interested in astronomical topics. Students can use the book to increase their understanding of the complexity and richness that exists in scientific disciplines. In addition, experienced scientists will find it as a handy s...
Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher
Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation.
In oral classes, teachers are often faced with all sorts oferrors made by students. Because of insufficient study of them,some correct all of the errors and some neglect them. The authorin this paper, through investigation of real class situation andall the possible collections of errors in his past teaching work,studies the errors and finds out four causes of the errors, andthen puts forward his suggestions for dealing with the differenterrors at different stages. In teaching students to speak English, teachers often find alot of errors in their speech. How should these errors be dealtwith properly? This is something many teachers are working at.Through investigation of real class situation and all the possiblecollections of errors in teaching work, it is believed that ateacher's knowledge of the learning law, careful observation ofthe errors being made by the students and proper attitudestoward the errors are very important. It has been found that when a child starts to learn his native language,he makes errors constantly, such as “This mammy chair”or “Mammy, apple eat” But he con say them correctly without much correction when he grows up. This is because “a human infant is born with an innate predisposition toacquire language”(Richards, 21). When an adult learns aforeign language, it is even more difficult, for physiologicallyhe has to train the muscles of his tongue and lips to get used tothe new ways of pronouncing a word, and psychologically hehas to receive new concepts of the language which are quitedifferent from his native tongue. Therefore, he unavoidablymakes errors in his speech. Even when he has mastered thelanguage to a certain degree, he still makes errors because “heknows very well what he should have done, but owing to thenervousness, tiredness, pressure and the effects of innertranslation (a kind of interference from home language), hejust lapses and forgets for a moment what to do” (McArthur,107-108). This doesn't mean that an
Full Text Available Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critical thinking on any concepts or ideas regarding their profession, and more importantly, to recognize their strengths as NNESTs. Despite the potential, the role of critical pedagogy in improving EFL teacher education program in Indonesia has not been sufficiently discussed. This article attempts to contribute to the discussion by looking at a number of ways critical pedagogy can be incorporated in the programs, the rationale for doing so, and the challenges that might come on the way.
Mustafa Naci Kayaoğlu
Full Text Available A considerable number of foreign as well as second language learners suffer from language anxiety when they step into the language classroom. What makes language learning environments, particularly English language learning situations, anxiety provoking has been well-established in language anxiety literature and the learners’ perception of language anxiety deserve a special mention as they are one of the parties directly involved in learning process. To this end, this study aims at exploring learners’ perceptions of language anxiety in speaking classes at a north-eastern state university in Turkey. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 30 students from different proficiency levels were interviewed. Findings from the semi-structured interviews are discussed with reference to learners’ perceptions of learning English. Possible sources and manifestations of language anxiety from the learners’ perspectives are examined and their suggested ways to lower language anxiety are discussed.
Mustafa Naci Kayaoğlu
Full Text Available Abstract A considerable number of foreign as well as second language learners suffer from language anxiety when they step into the language classroom. What makes language learning environments, particularly English language learning situations, anxiety provoking has been well-established in language anxiety literature and the learners’ perception of language anxiety deserve a special mention as they are one of the parties directly involved in learning process. To this end, this study aims at exploring learners’ perceptions of language anxiety in speaking classes at a north-eastern state university in Turkey. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 30 students from different proficiency levels were interviewed. Findings from the semi-structured interviews are discussed with reference to learners’ perceptions of learning English. Possible sources and manifestations of language anxiety from the learners’ perspectives are examined and their suggested ways to lower language anxiety are discussed.
Ni Nyoman Padmadewi
Full Text Available This study investigated the anxiety levels of ability groups streaming by yheir perceived ability. It also dealt with the investigation of possible factors which provoked the students' anxiety and finding out ways of minimizing the anxiety level. The study spproached the first problrm by conducting a survey study and the second and the third ones by a case study of two sample students. The results of the data collection showed that both groups, average and above average students felt anxious when they had speaking class. The results of the case study stated that factors like examination, individual presentation, spontaneous activity and limited availability of time were found to be the sources of students' anxiety. Conclusions and comment at the end of students' presentation, a tolerant teacher, and close relationship between the teacher and students in class were believed to help minimize students' anxiety level
Full Text Available The Beothuk of Newfoundland were among the first inhabitants of North America to encounter European explorers and settlers. By the first part of the nineteenth century the Beothuk were extinct, exterminated by the fishers and soldiers and settlers of western Europe. The last Beothuk was a woman named Shanadithit. She was captured and lived with white settlers for a few years before she died in 1829. Today all that remains of the Beothuk nation, which once numbered seven hundred to one thousand people, are some bones, arrowheads, tools, written records of explorers and settlers, and copies of drawings by Shanadithit in the Newfoundland Museum. In recent years several writers (all are white and male have written fiction and poetry and drama about the Beothuk, including Peter Such (Riverrun, 1973, Paul O'Neill (Legends of a Lost Tribe, 1976, Sid Stephen (Beothuk Poems, 1976, Al Pittman ("Shanadithit," 1978, Geoffrey Ursell (The Running of the Deer; A Play, 1981, Donald Gale (Sooshewan: A Child of the Beothuk, 1988, and Kevin Major (Blood Red Ochre, 1990. A recurring theme in all these narratives is the theme of regret and guilt. These narrative accounts of the Beothuk raise significant questions about voice and narrative, including: Who can speak for Native peoples? Who can speak for extinct peoples? Are there peoples without voices? How is voice historically determined? What is the relationship between voice and power? How are the effects of voice generated? What is an authentic voice? How is voice related to the illusion of presence? What is the relation between voice and silence? In examining contemporary narrative accounts of the Beothuk my goal is to reveal the rhetorical ways in which the Beothuk are given voice(s and to interrogate the ethical and pedagogical implications of contemporary authors revisiting and revisioning and re-voicing a nation of people long extinct.
Swennen, Gwen R J; Grimaldi, Hannes; Upheber, Juliane; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Dempf, Rupert
The purpose of this study was to evaluate nasalance measures in German-speaking patients with different types of repaired cleft lip and palate and to find out if significant nasalance gender differences exist in the different cleft groups. A total of 125 German-speaking cleft patients (74 male and 51 female) were included in this study: 18 patients with isolated unilateral cleft lip (UCL; mean age: 13.00 +/- 2.03 years), 66 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP; mean age: 14.80 +/- 3.45 years), 25 patients with isolated cleft palate (CP; mean age: 14.60 +/- 3.48 years), and 16 patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP; mean age: 14.30 +/- 3.61 years). Nasalance data were collected and computed using the NasalView hardware/software system (Fa. Tiger Electronics, Seattle, WA). Speech stimuli according to a modified Heidelberg Rhinophonia Assessment Form (sustained vowels "a," "e," "i," "o," and "u"; oral and nasal sentences; and three oral-nasal reading passages) were used to obtain nasalance scores. Nasalance distance and ratio were also calculated for the oral and nasal sentences and for one of the oral-nasal reading passages. Unpaired t tests showed no significant gender nasalance differences in each cleft group. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in mean nasalance distance and ratio. For the nasal sentence, a significant difference (P = 0.032) in mean nasalance scores was found between the UCL and UCLP groups.
Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle
This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Teaching, speaking and writing by special... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5501.107 Teaching, speaking and writing by special Government..., speaking or writing that is related to their official duties, within the meaning of 5 CFR...
Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory
Ooe, Katsutoshi; Sakurai, Kohei; Mimaki, Shinya
We aimed to develop welfare devices for patients with phonation disorder. One of these devices is the electrical controltype speaking valve system. The conventional speaking valves have one-way valve architecture, they open when the user breathes in, and they close when user breathes out and produce voices. This type is very simple and tough, but some users feel closeness in case of exhalation without phonation. This problem is caused by its mechanism what can not be controlled by user's will. Therefore, we proposed an electrical control-type speaking valve system to resolve this problem. This valve is controlled by neck myoelectric signal of sternohyoid muscle. From our previous report, it was clarified that this valve had better performance about easy-to-breath. Furthermore, we proposed the compact myoelectric control-type speaking valve system. The new-type speaking valve was enough small to attach the human body, and its opening area is larger than that of conventional one. Additionally, we described the improvement of flow channel shape by using of FEM analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was clarified that the shape-improved speaking valve gets the low flow resistance channel in case of inspiration. In this report, we tried to make the flow resistance lower by the shape of current plates, in case of both inspiration and exhalation. From the result of FEM analysis, our speaking valve could get better flow channel than older one.
Full Text Available Speaking is the first to be acquired in the process of language production. In parallel, the absence of communication apprehension and the presence of willingness to communicate are the essential prerequisites for stringing words together. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the underlying patterns of the relationship between communication apprehension (CA, willingness to communicate (WTC, and speaking ability with regard to different contexts and receivers. In so doing, to assign the homogeneity of the sample, Nelson English Language Test was administered and 120 individuals were selected out of 253. Subsequently, Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24 and Willingness to Communicate Questionnaire were employed in order to determine language learners' levels of WTC and CA. Moreover, the researchers utilised the sample interview questions from Task 1 of the intermediate Speaking Test and the speaking scale provided by Farhady, Birjandi, and Ja'farpur (1994 to interview with individuals and determine their speaking ability. Then, the non-parametric data were analyzed using a Spearman's rank order rho correlation. The results illustrated that individuals' speaking ability was neither related to their level of CA nor to their WTC. Moreover, the findings showed that CA and WTC had a negative correlation. Consequently, CA can be considered as one of the predicators of WTC in academic contexts. Keywords: Communication apprehension, speaking ability, willingness to communicate
Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob
OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.
Hofmann, S G; Ehlers, A; Roth, W T
To study the etiology of public speaking anxiety (speech phobia), 30 Ss with the fear of public speaking, and 24 controls without this fear were asked about past public speaking experiences, their beliefs about the main reason for their phobia, and their concerns in the feared situation. All speech phobics met the DSM-III-R criteria for social phobia. Results showed that traumatic external events, vicarious and informational learning--the causes for phobia that fit in best with Rachman's conditioning theory--were notably uncommon among these phobics, who attributed their fear most often to panic attacks. Yet it was not clear whether panic attacks were causes or consequences of phobia.
Full Text Available Abstract: This article describes the advantages of using analytic proceÂdure in speaking assessment. An analytic scoring guide, as compared to the impressionistic one, has a double function: as an instrument to meaÂsure the learner's speaking proficiency and as a diagnostic procedure for remedial teaching. Thus, it provides reliable sources of information in the form of scores of the speaking components and can be used as feed-back for the teacher and learner to identify which component needs imÂprovement.
Hofmann, S G; Dibartolo, P M
Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the "Positive Self-Statements" (SSPS-P) and the "Negative Self-Statements" subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.
@@ English-Listening-Comprehension & SpeakingTeaching (ELCST) plays a vital role in Senior High School Education. In recent years a greater emphasis is being placed on English-listening and speaking-Teaching in senior high schools because of the steady progress that has been made in Chinese Elementary Education, and as a listening comprehension test is now required for College Entrance Examinations. Therefore, it is now essential that English teaching reform done properly. This article is a summary of my experiences of English-Listening-Comprehension & Speaking-Teaching over the past several years.
Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the
初中英语Speak up的教学中，普遍存在读读背背对话、记记单词和短语就完成了任务的做法，这种做法违背了教材编写Speak up的初衷，教学中应该力避对Speak up的轻视与缺失，让该部分有效、高效、落到实处。
Full Text Available Teaching foreign language is a challenging task; in language learning, speaking skill is considered a core productive part of learning. With this in mind, this article investigates how speaking can be made articulate and smooth. Furthermore, this article also determines the relationship between reading and speaking proficiency and extent to which teachers-led reading can affect students’ speaking performance. It is a known fact that lack of vocabulary makes learners stumbling and hesitant in speaking, because words precede communication ahead. In language learning hesitations/weakness in speaking can be overcome by encouraging learners to read a specific text. If teachers engage their students in worthwhile activities, such as providing appropriate and interesting reading texts in order to enable them to communicate what they have read. This article aims to reveal how reading gears speaking and reduces time in learning foreign language.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the spoken language technologies that could enable the so-called smart (intelligent surveillance systems to listen, understand and speak Slovenian in the near future. Advanced computational methods of artificial perception and pattern recognition enable such systems to be at least to some extent aware of the environment, the presence of people and other phenomena that could be subject to surveillance. Speech is one such phenomenon that has the potential to be a key source of information in certain security situations. Technologies that enable automatic speech and speaker recognition as well as their psychophysical state by computer analysis of acoustic speech signals provide an entirely new dimension to the development of smart surveillance systems. Automatic recognition of spoken threats, screaming and crying for help, as well as a suspicious psycho-physical state of a speaker provide such systems to some extent with intelligent behaviour. The paper investigates the current state of development of these technologies and the requirements and possibilities of these systems to be used for the Slovenian spoken language, as well as different possible security application scenarios. It also addresses the broader legal and ethical issues raised by the development and use of such technologies, especially as audio surveillance is one of the most sensitive issues of privacy protection.
Tu, Yanping; Fishbach, Ayelet
Whereas people generally conform to others' choices, this research documents that conformity decreases once others have acted on their chosen options. It suggests words speak louder than actions-people are more likely to conform to others' preferences than their actions. Specifically, people are less likely to follow another person's food choice if that person has already eaten his or her selected food (Study 1), and are less likely to follow others' choices of household items if these choices are framed in terms of action (others "want to have it") rather than preference (others "like it"; Study 2). People's tendency to mentally share others' actions causes the decrease in conformity. Indeed, people recall greater past consumption of items that others have had (Study 3), choose differently only when they can complement (vs. contradict) what others have (Study 4), and are more strongly affected by the choices of those close to them (vs. strangers; Study 5). Finally, even when information about others' actions and preferences are simultaneously available (e.g., in online shopping and the consumption of social media), people are more likely to follow what others prefer, rather than what others have (Study 6).
Kishon-Rabin, L; Rosenhouse, J
The high incidence of hearing impairment in the Arabic-speaking population in Israel, as well as the use of advanced aural rehabilitation devices, motivated the development of Arabic speech assessment tests for this population. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is to describe features that are unique to the Arabic language and that need to be considered when developing such speech tests. These include Arabic diglossia (i.e., the sharp dichotomy between Literary and Colloquial Arabic), emphatization, and a simple vowel system. The second goal is to describe a new analytic speech test that assesses the perception of significant phonological contrasts in the Colloquial Arabic variety used in Israel. The perception of voicing, place, and manner of articulation, in both initial and final word positions, was tested at four sensation levels in 10 normally-hearing subjects using a binary forced-choice paradigm. Results show a relationship between percent correct and presentation level that is in keeping with articulation curves obtained with Saudi Arabic and English monosyllabic words. Furthermore, different contrasts yielded different articulation curves: emphatization was the easiest to perceive whereas place of articulation was the most difficult. The results can be explained by the specific acoustical features of Arabic.
Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate.
Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.
Bernstein, Jared; Balogh, Jennifer
Spoken language proficiency is intuitively related to effective and efficient communication in spoken interactions. However, it is difficult to derive a reliable estimate of spoken language proficiency by situated elicitation and evaluation of a person's communicative behavior. This paper describes the task structure and scoring logic of a group of fully automatic spoken language proficiency tests (for English, Spanish and Dutch) that are delivered via telephone or Internet. Test items are presented in spoken form and require a spoken response. Each test is automatically-scored and primarily based on short, decontextualized tasks that elicit integrated listening and speaking performances. The tests present several types of tasks to candidates, including sentence repetition, question answering, sentence construction, and story retelling. The spoken responses are scored according to the lexical content of the response and a set of acoustic base measures on segments, words and phrases, which are scaled with IRT methods or parametrically combined to optimize fit to human listener judgments. Most responses are isolated spoken phrases and sentences that are scored according to their linguistic content, their latency, and their fluency and pronunciation. The item development procedures and item norming are described.
Magyari, Lilla; De Ruiter, Jan P.; Levinson, Stephen C.
In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end. In the experiment, it was possible to guess the answer at the beginning of the questions in half of the experimental trials. We also manipulated whether it was possible to predict the length of the last word of the questions. The results suggest when listeners know the answer early they start speech production already during the questions. Speakers can also time when to speak by predicting the duration of turns. These temporal predictions can be based on the length of anticipated words and on the overall probability of turn durations. PMID:28270782
Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesús M; Fernández, Paz; Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Jiménez, Amelia
This study's purpose was to analyse basic reading processes in different age groups of Spanish-speaking children using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and regression analysis. Two hundred forty-five children (aged 4 years and 9 months, to 9 years and 7 months; 120 boys, 125 girls), native Spanish-speakers, were selected from schools in Madrid. All participants were in either their last year of preschool or the first three years of elementary school, depending on their age. Nine classic reading tasks were created and administered to measure three reading skills: word recognition, phonological awareness, and reading comprehension. The results of the CFA show that data fit to proposed model with a general reading factor based on these three reading skills χ2(27) = 29.03, p = .36, RMSEA = .02, 90% CIs [.0, .05], CFI = 1.0. The word recognition skills were the best at describing reading performance in preschool children (R 2 = .51 for word identification task); phonological awareness, especially rhyme identification task, discriminated well until second grade (R 2 = .60); and finally, reading comprehension, basically phrase completion task, were the best measure of reading performance in third grade (R 2 = .45).
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is a complex disease that influences occupational, social, academic and emotional achievements. The aim of this study was to correlate the stuttering severity index with speaking rates of mothers and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the child rehabilitation clinics of Tehran city. METHODS: 35 pairs of mothers and their children who stuttered were studied. There were 29 boys and six girls, of mean age 8.5 years (range: 5.1-12.0. Speech samples from the mother-child pairs were audiotaped for approximately 15 minutes, until a reciprocal verbal interaction had been obtained. This sample was then analyzed in accordance with a stuttering severity index test and speaking rate parameters. RESULTS: The research results outlined a significant relationship between the mothers’ speaking rate and their children’s stuttering severity. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the mothers’ speaking rate should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering.
Speech production involves four main processes including conceptualization, formulation, articulation and self-moni-toring. During these processes, learners need to use sociocultural, pragmatic and discourse knowledge in conceptualization, vo-cabulary and grammar in formulation, and phonological knowledge in articulation. By utilizing the knowledge mentioned above, learners are expected to possess such speaking skills as routine skills and improvisation skills. Current speaking teaching meth-ods are broadly divided into“skill-getting”direct approach and“skill-using”indirect approach. As they are mutually comple-mentary, a balance of activities types should be provided. On the basis of these theories, a modification of a listening and speak-ing lesson in New Cutting Edge Pre-intermediate is designed to get students notice, retrieve and use some useful expressions for giving direction.
Kent, Lauren; Anderson, Gabrielle; Ciocca, Rebecca; Shanks, Linda; Enlow, Michele
As patient advocates, nurses are responsible for speaking up against unsafe practices. Nursing students must develop the confidence to speak up for patient safety so that they can hold themselves, as well as their peers and coworkers, accountable for patients' well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a senior practicum course on confidence for speaking up for patient safety in nursing students. Confidence in speaking up for patient safety was measured with the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey. The study showed a significant increase in nursing students' confidence after the senior practicum course, but there was no significant change in students' confidence in questioning someone of authority.
Discusses the results of a study designed to investigate the effects of five different program models on both acquisition and maintenance of Spanish by native Spanish-speaking kindergarten children. (Author/CFM)
The aim of English teaching is not only to make the students learn new words and grammar, answer multiple- choice questions to get good scores, but also to enhance the students’abilities of the integrated application of English, speaking and listen⁃ing in particular. The ultimate goal of learning English is to use English to communicate with others in the future jobs and real life. However, the non-English majors have great trouble speaking English in class and in real life. Such ways as Socratic dialogues, cause analysis and questionnaire are used to investigate the reasons. In order to improve speaking ability, group discussion is used in class. In consequence, the students have more interest, motivation, courage and confidence in speaking English. Meanwhile, they have also established the concept of using what they learned in class, in practical work and real life.
In china, with the guidance of the exam-oriented education, both teachers and students pay more attention to the improvement of English writing skills. However, under the growing trend of economic globalization, mastering English listening and speaking skills is a necessity for students, especially for English majors in foreign trade. In recent years, many researchers have discussed listening and speaking teaching separately. In fact, the two skills are supplementary to each other, which should be taught and practiced simultaneously. Based on the current situation of English listening and speaking skills of English majors in foreign trade, therefore, this thesis aims to summarize a comprehensive teaching method to improve students’ listening and speaking skills in foreign trade. It is also hoped that the findings will provide valuable resources for the relevant studies in the near future.
Tyler, John S.
Their producer describes a series of instructional programs shown on commercial television in Amarillo, Texas that are designed to help Spanish speaking preschoolers learn enough English to prepare them for public school. (LS)
Tardif, T; Wellman, H M
Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.
Krugman, Scott D; Parra-Roide, Lilia; Hobson, Wendy L; Garfunkel, Lynn C; Serwint, Janet R
Prior research has demonstrated that limited English proficiency in Hispanic patients is associated with adverse health outcomes. The authors sought to compare the perception of primary care in resident practices between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking parents using a previously validated tool, the Parents' Perception of Primary Care. Using survey results from 19 CORNET sites nationwide, they compared mean scores for each primary care domain and the full scale between the groups using Student's t test. Multiple linear regression models compared outcomes controlling for demographic variables. Of the 2122 analyzable surveys, 490 (23%) were completed in Spanish and 1632 (77%) in English. The mean scores for each domain and the total scale were not statistically different between the 2 groups. After adjustment, Spanish-speaking parents rated communication significantly higher. Resident clinics may use systems to provide high quality care to Spanish-speaking patients, which may help other sites improve care.
This paper deals with listening and speaking teaching to English Learners in Chinese context.After China's entering into the WTO,more talents with high English proficiency are needed to cope with in ternational cooperation and competition.Thus,English teaching,listening and speaking particularly,has to meet the challenge to produce more college graduates with foreign language compe-tence.For this reason,this paper will focus on some main factors that effect the teaching of English listening and speaking,including non-native speakers as English teachers,and teaching with multimedia presentation.Some suggestions will also be provided to im-prove the teaching of listening and speaking.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SPEAKS- faculty/staff dataset contains individual level information from a sample of faculty and staff on GLS funded campuses. These data include faculty...
Bickmore, Ronda L.
Latinos are now the largest public school minority population in the U.S. Because of a shift in the states, cities, and counties where Latinos are choosing to live, many schools that did not previously serve substantial numbers of Latinos are doing so now. Additionally, many of the Latinos in these new settlement areas are recent immigrants who speak little or no English. This qualitative study examined how immigrant Latino parents who speak little or no English supported their children in th...
Personal) NAME: (Nombre) SOCIAL SECURITY #: (# del Seguro Social ) PLACE OF BIRTH (or origin): (Lugar de nacimiento (o origen)) Puerto Rico: 51...education in the U.S., years of education conducted in English (as opposed to Spanish), and use of English and Spanish in the home and social ...home. About a third (36 of 102) greatly prefer speaking Spanish in social situations while an additional 19 of the 102 are comfortable speaking
Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.; Vasey, Michael W.
We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance a...
Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W
We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance anxiety.
Reem eMaassarani; Pierre eGosselin; Patricia eMontembeault; Mathieu eGagnon
In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were co...
Amirul Mukminin; Masbirorotni Masbirorotni; Noprival Noprival; Sutarno Sutarno; Nelly Arif; Maimunah Maimunah
This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview wit...
This paper firstly defines the key concepts of accuracy and fluency in relation to the development of speaking skills. Then, consider the challenges presented to lan-guage teachers of ensuring that learners develop accuracy and complexity in their speaking, as well as fluency. Finally according to the teaching materials supplied, identify and evaluate the opportunities provided for the development of spoken ac-curacy and fluency, and explain how to exploit the materials to the fullest extent.
Menenti, Laura; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter
In speaking, semantic encoding is the conversion of a non-verbal mental representation (the reference) into a semantic structure suitable for expression (the sense). In this fMRI study on sentence production we investigate how the speaking brain accomplishes this transition from non-verbal to verbal representations. In an overt picture description task, we manipulated repetition of sense (the semantic structure of the sentence) and reference (the described situation) separately. By investigat...
XIAO Xu-hua; Cao Rui; ZHANG Guang-ling
The English Listening-Speaking abilities of college freshmen should be trained in a multi-faceted approach.This paper suggests some effective training methods which can enhance the abilities in English Listening-Speaking for freshmen such as: story telling,special topics,picture talks,free talks,proverbs,debating,oral reports,group discussions and so on from a practical point of view.
Clarke, Michael; Wilkinson, Ray
Inequality in communicative resources available to non-speaking children with cerebral palsy in comparison with their "naturally" speaking co-participants has material consequences for the ways in which face-to-face interaction is organized. Analyses of interaction involving non-speaking children with physical disability and speaking adults has…
Full Text Available This research was conducted to solve the students’ problems in speaking. It is to improve the students’ ability in speaking through story-telling technique by using picture series in terms of content and delivery of the story. The design of this study was classroom action research which was conducted in two cycles consisting of six meetings. The subjects of this study were students of grade X-9 of MAN 2 Madiun in 2014/2015 academic year. The instruments to collect the data were observation checklists, field notes, speaking task measured using scoring rubrics, and questionnaire. The finding of the study indicated that the implementation of the technique was successful in improving the students’ speaking ability, since the criteria of success were achieved. Implementing the story-telling technique using picture series in teaching speaking encompasses several procedures: 1 understanding the narrative text carefully, 2 understanding grammar and difficult words, 3 employing dictions based on its context, 4 discussing the text in groups, 5 using own sentences to deliver story, 6 avoiding mistakes by having picture series, 7 understanding the message or social value of the text, and 8 giving reward to enhance motivation. Keywords: story-telling, picture series, speaking ability
Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.
Full Text Available This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF among Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill the purpose of this study, the teachers and parents of 593 male students were given the Farsi version of the CSI-4 ADHD diagnostic questionnaire, out of which 61 students scored above the cut-off score of nine in both the teacher and parent questionnaires. These students then sat for a sample speaking section of the Key English Test (KET; the interviews were scored by two raters according to the measures of CAF. The data were thus analyzed and the results revealed a significant positive correlation between ADHD and speaking fluency; in contrast, a significant negative correlation was observed between ADHD and speaking complexity and ADHD and speaking accuracy. The regressions disclosed that ADHD is a significant predictor of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in speaking. The findings of this study have pedagogical implications for both parents and teachers in contact with students with ADHD with respect to the importance of identifying such students and thus planning and monitoring their progress.
Nip, Ignatius S B
Many individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have a slower speaking rate compared with their typically developing peers. Previous studies examining age-related changes in speaking rate in typical development suggest that (1) cognitive and linguistic processing increases account for most of these changes, and (2) changes to linguistic task demands affect the articulatory strategies used to produce the target stimuli (e.g., truncating movements for tasks with fewer linguistic demands). The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between linguistic and physiologic factors in individuals with CP to better understand how the pathophysiology of CP affects speech production in these individuals. Four participants with CP and 38 age-matched peers were asked to complete a diadochokinetic (DDK) task, a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable repetition task, and a sentence repetition task. Speaking rate for the tasks and lower lip maximum movement speed, range of movement, and duration of the closing and opening gestures common to each task were measured. In general, participants with CP have reduced speaking rates compared with their typically developing peers despite increased movement speeds. In both groups, linguistic task effects were observed; higher linguistic demands resulted in slower speaking rates and higher movement speeds. Range of movement was greater for participants with CP than their typically developing peers and may have contributed to the observed decreased speaking rates in individuals with CP.
Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N=95 language learners studying at a language institute in the city of Esfahan, Iran were given an IELTS listening and speaking test as the proficiency test and 75 learners were selected. In the next phase of the study, a second IELTS speaking test was administered as the homogeneity test and the pre-test to seventy five (N=75 learners chosen from the population and forty-eight (N=48 homogeneous intermediate learners were selected for the study (i.e., 24 learners in control group and 24 in experimental one. The results of an independent-sample t-test gained from the study proved that not only does implementation of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks significantly increased intermediate participants’ speaking proficiency, but also it had more positive effect in comparison to objective-based tasks on participants’ speaking proficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that problem-based learning ought to be taken into account by educational scholars, those in charge of syllabus, material producers, language teachers and language learners. Keywords: Cognition-Based Tasks, Objective-Based Tasks, EFL Learners, Speaking Proficiency, Problem-Based Learning
Jo, H J; Ku, J H; Jang, D P; Shin, M B; Ahn, H B; Lee, J M; Cho, B H; Kim, S I
The fear of public speaking is a kind of social phobias. The patients having the fear of public speaking show some symptoms like shame and timidity in the daily personal relationship. They are afraid that the other person would be puzzled, feel insulted, and they also fear that they should be underestimated for their mistakes. For the treatment of the fear of public speaking, the cognitive-behavioral therapy has been generally used. The cognitive-behavioral therapy is the method that makes the patients gradually experience some situations inducing the fears and overcome those at last. Recently, the virtual reality technology has been introduced as an alternative method for providing phobic situations. In this study, we developed the public speaking simulator and the virtual environments for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. The head-mounted display, the head-tracker and the 3 dimensional sound system were used for the immersive virtual environment. The imagery of the virtual environment consists of a seminar room and 8 virtual audiences. The patient will speak in front of these virtual audiences and the therapist can control motions, facial expressions, sounds, and voices of each virtual audience.
Lidya Ndaru Kristyana
Full Text Available Song is one form of typical communication. Therefore, singing is implemented in this study as a strategy to enhance the ability to speak. This study is aimed to find out the role of songs in enhancing the ability to speak for children in early childhood. This classroom action research is conducted in two cycles, there are: planning, acting out and observing, as well as reflecting. Data were collected by conducting observation technique, documentation, and test. It is shown from the results of the study that the ability of children to speak is increasing for every cycle. In the beginning, the cycle reached by only 56% or in the average 51, cycle I reached 60% with mean score 68,08 and cycle 2 reached 97% with the average score 83. From the percentage, it is shown that results of cycle II has passed the minimum score for students in Kindergarten level. In other words, it is proven that singing has been successfully implemented as a strategy in teaching speaking. It has enhanced the ability of children to speak. It is suggested for teachers in Kindergarten level to implement singing as a teaching strategy to bridge the need to teach Kindergarten students to speak during the learning process.
Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O
This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed.
Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael
For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products.
Macpherson, Cheryl Cox; Chiochankitmun, Nina; Akpinar-Elci, Muge
This article presents empirical data on the limited availability of hospice and palliative care to the 6 million people of the English-speaking Caribbean. Ten of the 13 nations therein responded to a survey and reported employing a total of 6 hospice or palliative specialists, and having a total of 15 related facilities. The evolving socioeconomic and cultural context in these nations bears on the availability of such care, and on the willingness to report, assess, and prioritize pain, and to prescribe opiates for pain. Socioeconomics and culture also impinge on what medications and modalities of care are routinely available for pain or other conditions and can challenge professionalism, empathy, and responsiveness to patients' unrelieved pain. Although all respondents report having a protocol for pain management, hospice, or end-of-life care, their annual medical use of opiates is well below the global mean. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which monitors such use, encourages Caribbean and other low- and middle-income countries to increase their use of opiates to treat pain, and to overcome both unfounded fears of addiction and overly restrictive interpretation of related laws and regulations. Contextual considerations like those described here are important to the success of policies and capacity-building programs aiming to increase access to hospice and palliation, and perhaps to improving other aspects of health and healthcare. Exploring and responding to the realities of socioeconomic and cultural conditions will enhance public and policy dialogue and improve the design of interventions to increase access to palliative and hospice care. Improving access to palliative and hospice care in the Caribbean demonstrates beneficence and helps to fulfill human rights conventions.
Full Text Available Contemporary Nigerian poets have had to contend with the social and political problems besetting Nigeria’s landscape by using satire as a suitable medium, to distil the presentation and portrayal of these social malaises in their linguistic disposition. Arguably, contemporary Nigerian poets, in an attempt to criticize social ills, have unobtrusively evinced a mastery of language patterns that have made their poetry not only inviting but easy to read. This epochal approach in the crafting of poetry has significantly evoked an inimitable sense of humour which endears these poems to the readers. In this regard, the selected poems in this paper are crowded with anecdotes, the effusive use of humour, suspense and curiosity. The over-arching argument of the paper is that satire is grounded in the poetics of contemporary Nigerian poetry in order to criticize certain aspects of the social ills plaguing Nigerian society. The paper will further examine how satire articulates social issues in the works of contemporary Nigerian poets, including Niyi Osundare, Tanure Ojaide, Chinweizu, Femi Fatoba, Odia Ofeimun, Ezenwa Ohaeto, Obiora Udechukwu and Ogaga Ifowodo. Viewed in the light of artistic commitment, the paper will demonstrate how satire accentuates the role of these poets as the synthesizers/conduits of social and cultural concerns of Nigerian society for which they claim to speak. As representatively exemplified in the selected poems, the paper will essentially focus on the mediation of satire for the impassioned criticism of social and moral vices, militating against Nigeria’s socio-political development.
Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne
Purpose: To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Method: Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Results: Task 1 (baseline) involved…
Greene, Deric M.; Walker, Felicia R.
Six recommendations that instructors can employ to encourage effective classroom code-switching practices among Black English-speaking students in the basic communication course are discussed. These include reconsidering attitudes, communicating expectations, demonstrating model language behavior, affirming students' language, creating culturally…
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to implement the improvisations technique to improve the student’s speaking ability. In conducting the research, there were two components expected to be improved, they were improving the students’ speaking score and increasing the quality of classroom atmosphere of teaching speaking. This study employed the collaborative classroom action research and it was done in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of four stages: (1 planning, (2 action, (3 observation, and (4 reflection. There were five meetings in each cycle; four meetings for the implementation of improvisations in the teaching of speaking and one meeting for conducting speaking test. The instruments used to collect the data were: (1 observation checklist, (2 field-note, (3 a score sheet, and (4 a questionnaire. The result of the research showed that the criteria of success had been reached. There were two aspects determined as the success criteria of the implementation of improvisations in the teaching of speaking; score improvement and classroom atmosphere. The result of speaking test presented that the students had made some progress, the average scores raised from 2.72 in the pre-test, 3.09 in cycle 1 and 3.76 in cycle 2. These scores indicated an increasing ability from being ‘fair’ to being ‘good’. The classroom atmosphere were also increasing positively; the students were actively involved in the teaching and learning process, indicated by 64% participated in cycle 1 and 73.79% participated in cycle 2. The students were also highly motivated in joining the teaching learning process. They cooperated, asked, responded, and expressed spontaneously.
在初中英语教学中，培养学生听、说、读、写的能力是教学工作的主要任务，而听说须先，读写跟上是学习英语的基本步骤。从这一方面来讲，听说能力是学好英语的基础，学习英语必须会讲，能听懂，充分利用学生学习英语的好奇心转化为开口说话的能力；创造良好的英语环境进行听说训练；精心组织课堂教学，把听说能力作为外语教学的突破口，在实践中进行应用并加以巩固。%In junior high school English teaching, cultivating students＇ listening, speaking, reading and writing ability is the main task of teaching, while listening and speaking first and reading and writing second is the basic step of learning English. Hence, listening and speaking ability is the basis of learning English and learning English must be able to speak and understand and fully apply students＇ curiosity to cultivate speaking ability; create good English atmosphere to implement listening and speaking training; wittily organize classroom teaching and take listening and speaking ability as the breaking points of foreign language teaching and apply and consolidate in the practice.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to describe how Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD Strategy can improve the students’ speaking skill. The researcher used Classroom Action Research (CAR and applied it in the teaching of speaking of XII TKR 2 of SMK Negeri 1 Madiun. The finding of this research indicated that the STAD Strategy was successful in improving the students’ speaking skill. The STAD Strategy employed in this study consisted five steps, namely: (1 forming teams; (2 class presentation; (3 quiz; (4 individual improvement score; and (5 team recognition. The activities in those five steps which were don chronologically improved both in the students’ speaking achievements and the students’ participation during the teaching and learning of speaking. Key Words: speaking skill, student teams-achievement divisions (STAD strategy
Language learners often pinpoint listening and speaking as their biggest problems in language acquisition. The continuous listening and speaking practice (CLaSP) method and website, developed by the author to enable students to practice English listening and speaking in and outside of class, were tested over one semester with first and second-year Ryukoku University law and business major students. This paper (1) describes the CLaSP method and website and (2) discusses the motivations of thes...
Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia
The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (Pspeaking Chinese children (Pspeaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically
Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese-speaking
The topic of this study regards speaking assessment and the research is focused on the possibility of obtaining a set of specifications that helps my schools teachers design valid and reliable speaking assessment tools. I describe my schools context and analyse the reasons why there is the need to reinforce speaking assessment and, afterwards, I analyse and compare different speaking exams. From this analysis and comparison, a set of specifications is derived and applied in the design of a ...
Full Text Available In Plato’s Republic, Socrates and his interlocutors assign to poetry an important educational task in the envisioned just state, but then find the existing poetry mostly unsuitable for it. Examining how poets speak about the gods, Socrates directs at Hesiod the criticism that he »did not speak falsely well« (377e7 when narrating the actions of Uranus and Cronus. We may find this criticism surprising: the poet is not reproached for speaking falsely about the actions of these two gods, but for not speaking falsely well about them. It seems, therefore, that Socrates would not disapprove of Hesiod’s false speaking, provided that the poet spoke falsely well. In order to clarify Socrates’ criticism, it is first examined what it means, in the case of Hesiod, »to speak falsely« (as opposed to »speaking truly«, and then what it means »not to speak falsely well« (as opposed to »speaking falsely well«. Relying on some further arguments by Socrates, a distinction is made between two kinds of claims that can be made about the gods: claims about what the gods are like and claims about what they did. As this paper tries to show, it is acceptable to Socrates if poets speak falsely about what the gods did (for, because there is no knowing about the divine actions, it is not possible to speak truly about this, as is suggested at 382c10–d3, but not about what they are like (for what we do know about the divine nature is that it is good and therefore cannot cause evil, and so it must be spoken of, as is argued at 379b1–16. It turns out, therefore, that poets speak falsely well about what the gods did when they attribute good actions to them, i.e. such actions as they could in fact have done: doing so, the poets speak falsely about what the gods did, but implicitly speak truly about what they are like. As Hesiod attributed bad actions to Uranus and Cronus, he implicitly spoke of the gods as capable of evil. Therefore he did not speak falsely only
Frigdiano Álvaro Durántez Prados
Full Text Available The constitution of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP in Lisbon, July 1996, represented the culmination of the manifest willingness for association among the Portuguese-speaking nations on different continents. As an exponent of the currents of international solidarity founded on cultural and historical bases, the countries of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and Santo Tome and Principe formalized a new forum for dialogue, reflection and cooperation that merits the attention in and of itself, as a new formalized scheme for political-diplomatic coordination and privileged cooperation among its members.At the same time, the manifest identification of the historical processes, conceptualizations, principles, objectives and the identifiable reference points of this Community with the Latin American Community of Nations (comprised of Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries on the American and European continents, besides the many reciprocal interconnections and parallelisms, point to the need –perhaps the historical opportunity– of considering a substantial and formalized coming together of all members and parts toarticulate a forum or general space for “Iberian”-speaking countries, in which the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries could be one of the primary elements for coherence.
Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L.; Dimmock, James A.
Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile. PMID:28125618
Full Text Available It is natural for adult learners preparing for upper-intermediate and advanced speaking examinations like the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English (CAE, the Business English Certificate (BEC or International English Language Teaching System (IELTS to feel daunted by the Speaking examination. Having their spoken English assessed ‘live’ in a high stakes situation can be quite stressful. To perform at their best in the exam learners need to be able to contribute fully to the various task formats within their spoken exam.Students preparing for these exams need to have regular practice in responding fully to questions, working cooperatively with a partner, and generally taking the opportunity to showcase their use of English. In our experience there was little in the way of freely-available structured materials for advanced speaking skills online. We decided we would like to help learners preparing for their respective exams as well as general upper intermediate to advanced students wishing to develop their speaking skills. We launched splendid-speaking.com in 2006.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study is to investigate the effect of storytelling technique on writing ability of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, 40 female intermediate EFL learners with the age range of 14-16 attending Chabahar Maritime University High School were initially selected. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the Paper-Based Test proficiency test. Then they were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. A speaking test was administered to female subjects of both groups at the beginning of the study. The experimental group used storytelling technique two times a week while the control group was not trained on this technique. At the end of the study, a speaking test was administered to all subjects for examining their ability in speaking skill. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were performed for data analysis. The results showed that storytelling technique had a significant effect on improving the speaking ability of intermediate EFL learners. Keywords: storytelling technique, speaking ability, EFL learners
Hansen, Benjamin B.
An experiment was designed to determine whether the geminate/singleton category distinction is maintained at fast speaking rates in Persian. Three speakers of Tehrani Persian read test words containing [t,t:,d,d:] in carrier sentences at three speaking rates. The categories do not overlap within a given speaking rate, but the fastest geminates do overlap the normal-rate singletons, implying that the listener must take speaking rate into account in order to perceive the category distinction. The ratio of the consonant closure to the preceding vowel (C/V) is not a useful rate-independent parameter for describing the geminate/singleton boundary in Persian since in Persian the vowel preceding a geminate is slightly longer. However, it was found that the marginal consonant closure (above a minimum closure of about 20 ms) maintains a fixed proportion of the average syllable duration, regardless of rate. This fixed proportion is distinct for geminates and singletons, and so may be used as a single rate-independent parameter for defining the category distinction. Perception tests on natural sentences showed that the distinction is perceptible at each of the three speaking rates. The perceptual response to manipulation of the closure durations indicated that, besides duration, additional cues to the distinction are present.
Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Dimmock, James A
Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile.
Brosseau-Lapré, Françoise; Rvachew, Susan
This study examined the psycholinguistic profiles of Quebec French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD). The purpose was to determine whether the endophenotypes that have been identified in English-speaking children with DPD are similarly associated with speech impairment in French-speaking children. Seventy-two children with DPD and ten children with normally developing speech, aged four to six years, received a comprehensive assessment battery that included measures at the phenotype level (i.e. measures of overt speech production skills) and endophenotype level (i.e. measures of potential underlying core deficits such as phonological processing or oral motor impairments). The majority of the children with DPD presented with a psycholinguistic profile indicative of difficulties with phonological processing. Phonological processing skills also explained unique variance in speech production accuracy, indicating that French-speaking children with DPD, who produce different surface speech errors than English-speaking children with DPD, are nonetheless very similar with regards to their underlying psycholinguistic profile.
Hendrik J.C. Pieterse
Full Text Available This article is based on the results of a large-scale empirical-theolo-gical research project on “Religion and Human Rights among South African Youth.” Using the extensive database of this project, the article focuses on the results on the images of Jesus and the belief in salvation of Grade 11 learners. The results present a profile of the pluralistic and diverse scale of nuances in the belief structures of Christian teenagers. The results of the English-speaking private school learners are placed alongside the results of the Afrikaans speaking public school learners in order to obtain a more prolific picture of the belief of the Afrikaans speaking youth. The effect their belief in salvation has on their views regarding human rights is also examined. The results challenge the preacher to think dialectically and hermeneutically in a new age and context.
Clausen, Marit Carolin; Fox-Boyer, Anette
Danish-speaking children aged 2;6-6;7 years with suspected SSD participated in the study. The children were assessed with a picture-naming test (Clausen, 2014). An inconsistency test was administered in case a child did not exhibit a consistent pattern profile. On the basis of the children’s transcripts...... processes, which aids in deciding whether children are typical, delayed or deviant in their speech development (Dodd, 2005). To date very little is known about SSD in Danish-speaking children, both regarding accuracy of productions, as well as phonological processes and differential diagnosis. Therefor......, the aim of the study was to investigate the speech of children with SSD by means of accuracy of phoneme production as well as types of the phonological processes in a Danish-speaking population. Further, the applicability of the two different classification approaches was investigated. A total of 211...
van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Houtgast, Tammo
The Speech Transmission Index (STI) is routinely applied for predicting the intelligibility of messages (sentences) in noise and reverberation. Despite clear evidence that the STI is capable of doing so accurately, recent results indicate that the STI sometimes underestimates the effect of reverberation on sentence intelligibility. To investigate the influence of talker and speaking style, the Speech Reception Threshold in noise and reverberation was measured for three talkers, differing in clarity of articulation and speaking style. For very clear speech, the standard STI yields accurate results. For more conversational speech by an untrained talker, the effect of reverberation is underestimated. Measurements of the envelope spectrum reveal that conversational speech has relatively stronger contributions by higher (> 12.5 Hz) modulation frequencies. By modifying the STI calculation procedure to include modulations in the range 12.5-31.5 Hz, better results are obtained for conversational speech. A speaking-style-dependent choice for the STI modulation frequency range is proposed.
Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of speaking skills in intermediate and lower level university classes through the simplified format of debates. The aim of this paper is to describe teaching observations with special attention given to the preparatory stages, strengths and challenges of simplified debate faced by both the teacher and the students. Observations were made while teaching speaking through simple debate to 19 - 20 year-old-students of general English at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague in intermediate and lower level classes. By describing the methods and procedures used to engage in debates, this paper aims to enrich pedagogical methods for effectively teaching speaking skills and thus serve ESL teachers at large. By contextualizing debate within a milieu larger than the ESL classroom, this study also accesses possibilities for further application of simplified debate to heighten training for other subjects, while drawing upon the democratic context supported by debate.
Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang
Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.
Speaking is often considered the most effective and practical part of communicative language teaching methodology. This article describes speaking theories and also discusses some teaching activities. Through them,teachers learn some methods to teach learners second language speaking, at the same time, learners learn skills to use the new language in their daily life.%口语通常被认为是交际语言教学法中最有效而又最实际的部分.本文就口语方面讨论了一些理论知识,同时也讨论了一些教学活动,以便在教师获得一些教外语口语方法的同时,学生也学到一些在他们日常生活中使用新语言的技巧.
Full Text Available Abstract. This is a pilot study investigating the interlanguage pragmatics of the refusal strategies (RSs of Indonesian Speakers Speaking English (ISSE. The aims of the study are to investigate strategies ISSE use in their refusals of, specifically, offering and requesting initiation acts (IAs. Data were taken from 30 Discourse Completion Tasks undertaken by five males and females in the following groups: Indonesian speakers Speaking Indonesian (ISSI, ISSE and Australian Speakers Speaking English (ASSE. The study revealed that ISSE strategies in refusing offers were `intercultural', that is apparently uninfluenced by L1 patterns and yet not characteristic of L2 patterns. Pragmatic transfer was not in evidence. The data in this study could be the basis for further research in Indonesian interlanguage pragmatics.
Full Text Available Speech recorded from a throat microphone is robust to the surrounding noise, but sounds unnatural unlike the speech recorded from a close-speaking microphone. This paper addresses the issue of improving the perceptual quality of the throat microphone speech by mapping the speech spectra from the throat microphone to the close-speaking microphone. A neural network model is used to capture the speaker-dependent functional relationship between the feature vectors (cepstral coefficients of the two speech signals. A method is proposed to ensure the stability of the all-pole synthesis filter. Objective evaluations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed mapping scheme. The advantage of this method is that the model gives a smooth estimate of the spectra of the close-speaking microphone speech. No distortions are perceived in the reconstructed speech. This mapping technique is also used for bandwidth extension of telephone speech.
随着英语教学的不断改进,各类英语演讲活动愈来愈频繁,人们对英语演讲能力愈来愈重视.分析英语演讲的重要性和英语演讲师资培养的必要性,并从加强理论学习、实践学习和研究性学习三个方面,就英语演讲师资培养进行探讨.%As the teaching of English develops, more and more public speaking events of all kinds are conducted, attracting growing attention to the proficiency of public speaking in English. This paper studies the importance of English public speaking training and its necessity to teacher training, and then discusses this topic from the perspectives of theory, practice and research.
Clausen, Marit Carolin; Fox-Boyer, Annette
Detailed knowledge of children’s speech development is of great importance for speech and language therapists since it provides a baseline for the evaluation of whether a child shows typical, delayed or deviant speech development. As previous studies have shown that differences are seen...... in the speech development across languages, language-specific data are of great importance in order to understand how the phonological system of the ambient language affects the children’s speech acquisition. To date, little is known about the typical speech development in Danish-speaking children....... It was suggested, however, that the acquisition process might be slower for Danish-speaking children than for children acquiring other languages due to the “blurry” sound structure of Danish. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to investigate typical speech development in Danish-speaking children...