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Sample records for chad

  1. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  2. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  3. The Conspicuous Opening Date of CHAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ "The Opening Date of Chad"-an event organized by the Chadian Embassy to China will be held In Beijing on the 28th and 29th of June.It will take up such forms as meeting for discussions and site touring ect.,with the purpose of facilitating the mutual undestanding between Chad and China as well as boosting the international exchanges between the two countries in the area of culture,economy and trade.

  4. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Chad, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Government, 1975-78 ......... 24 Civil War and Multilateral Mediation , 1979-82 ..... 27 Chapter 2. The S4ciety and Its Environment _ 33 Dennis D. Cordell...PPT with a new party, the National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution (Mouvement National pour la Revolution Culturelle et Sociale-MNRCS...Multilateral Mediation , 1979-82 From 1979 to 1982, Chad experienced unprecedented change and spiraling violence. Southerners finally lost control of what

  6. Chad Basin: Paleoenvironments of the Sahara since the Late Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Roquin, Claude; Sepulchre, Pierre; Moussa, Abderamane; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-08-01

    Since the mid 1990s, the Mission paléoanthropologique francotchadienne (MPFT) conducts yearly paleontological field investigations of the Miocene-Pliocene of the Chad Basin. This article synthesizes some of the results of the MPFT, with focus on the Chad Basin development during the Neogene. We propose an overview of the depositional paleoenvironments of this part of Africa at different scales of time and space, based on a multidisciplinary approach (sedimentary geology, geomorphology, geophysic, numerical simulations and geochronology). The Miocene-Pliocene paleoenvironments are examined through the sedimentary archives of the early hominids levels and the Holocene Lake Mega-Chad episode illustrates the last major paleoenvironmental change in this area. The sedimentary record of the Chad Basin since the Late Miocene can be schematized as the result of recurrent interactions from lake to desert environments.

  7. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Christopher T. Brown; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that t...

  8. Application of CHAD hydrodynamics to shock-wave problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trease, H.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Sahota, M.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    CHAD is the latest in a sequence of continually evolving computer codes written to effectively utilize massively parallel computer architectures and the latest grid generators for unstructured meshes. Its applications range from automotive design issues such as in-cylinder and manifold flows of internal combustion engines, vehicle aerodynamics, underhood cooling and passenger compartment heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to shock hydrodynamics and materials modeling. CHAD solves the full unsteady Navier-Stoke equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model in three space dimensions. The code has four major features that distinguish it from the earlier KIVA code, also developed at Los Alamos. First, it is based on a node-centered, finite-volume method in which, like finite element methods, all fluid variables are located at computational nodes. The computational mesh efficiently and accurately handles all element shapes ranging from tetrahedra to hexahedra. Second, it is written in standard Fortran 90 and relies on automatic domain decomposition and a universal communication library written in standard C and MPI for unstructured grids to effectively exploit distributed-memory parallel architectures. Thus the code is fully portable to a variety of computing platforms such as uniprocessor workstations, symmetric multiprocessors, clusters of workstations, and massively parallel platforms. Third, CHAD utilizes a variable explicit/implicit upwind method for convection that improves computational efficiency in flows that have large velocity Courant number variations due to velocity of mesh size variations. Fourth, CHAD is designed to also simulate shock hydrodynamics involving multimaterial anisotropic behavior under high shear. The authors will discuss CHAD capabilities and show several sample calculations showing the strengths and weaknesses of CHAD.

  9. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  10. Conflict for Resources: Water in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    saline and unfit for human use.77 Of the remaining three percent of fresh water, eighty seven percent is located in polar ice. The thirteen percent of...correspondently moved the Sahel south. The change of the ecosystem affected the long term rainfalls which the Lake Chad system depends upon. As a result of the...desertification of the Sahel region causing population migration to the region, competition for water will grow. The competition for water increases

  11. Pattern of skin diseases among Central African refugees in Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzi Ismael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented further confirmation of diagnosis. Data was manually analyzed and diagnosis was presented as number and percent using the ICD -10 of the World Health Organization. Results: A total of 366 dermatologic diseases were diagnosed in 361 patients. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases and dermatitis/ eczema were the commonest diagnostic categories (39.9% and 22.45; respectively followed by disorders of skin appendices (15% and infections of skin and subcutaneous tissues (13.1%. Tinea barbae /capitis, ringworm and impetigo are the commonest recorded infections (11.5%, 10.1% and 7.9%; respectively. Miliaria and acne vulgaris were the most frequent disorders of skin appendages. Conclusions: Infectious skin diseases are common among refugees. There are urgent needs for health education and promotion of personal hygiene with adequate sanitation as well as availability of diagnostic tests [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 324-328

  12. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes—Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria—Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria—Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes—Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health. PMID:23254516

  13. Human and animal vaccination delivery to remote nomadic families, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Esther; Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2007-03-01

    Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa's remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time approximately 10% of nomadic children (> 1-11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p < 0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level.

  14. CHADS2 Scores in the Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chuang, Tzyy-Ling; Huang, Kung-Yung; Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Vascular events are one of the major causes of death in case of Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, due to the relative low frequency of CS, it is hard to perform a risk assessment for these events. As represented congestive heart failure (C), hypertension (H), age (A), diabetes (D), and stroke (S), the CHADS2 score is now accepted to classify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, participants were enrolled from the National Health Research Institute Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, and we reviewed 551 patients with their sequential clinically diagnosed CS data between 2002 and 2009 in relation to MACEs risk using CHADS2 score. Good correlation could be identified between the CS and CHADS2 score (AUC = 0.795). Our results show that patients with CS show significantly higher risk of vascular events and the CHADS2 score could be applied for MACEs evaluation. Adequate lifestyle modifications and aggressive cardiovascular risks treatment are suggested for CS patients with higher CHADS2 score. PMID:25101124

  15. Efforts to Unravel the Cause of Shrinkage of Lake Chad: Development of Hydrologic Real-time Observatory Network in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Bolten, J. D.; Policelli, F. S.; Djimadoumngar, K. N.; Abdullahi, S. I.; Bila, M. D.; Djoret, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Selker, J. S.; Hochreutener, R.; Annor, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Chad, the fourth largest lake in Africa, is well known as a shrinking lake due to adverse impact of climate change and increased population during drought periods in the 1980s and 1990s. While the shrinkage of the Lake has been studied broadly using remote sensing data, the main cause of shrinkage is still uncertain due to limited availability of ground-truth data. Lack of infrastructure, insecure site conditions, vandalism, and limited site accessibility make it difficult to establish a real-time monitoring network in many parts of Africa including the Lake Chad Basin. For a better understanding of how the Lake responds to the change of weather patterns and other hydrologic processes such as runoff, groundwater flow, and evapotranspiration, a real-time monitoring network is essential in the region. In early 2015, a team from NASA, the Lake Chad Basin Commission, and the University of Missouri - Kansas City set up a hydrologic real-time observatory network in the Chari-Logone catchment, the main feeder of water to the Lake, to monitor meteorological conditions, soil moisture, and groundwater. The TAHMO (Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory) weather stations were adopted to monitor rainfall, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and temperature. The present study shows preliminary analysis of the correlations between meteorological and hydrological parameters from real-time monitoring data in the Chari-Logone catchment. We also discuss the importance of partnership with local government and community involvement for data collection and share for sustainable hydrological research in the Lake Chad Basin.

  16. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  17. Chad: An Overview of a Country Plagued with Internal Strife and Regional Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    like to thank you for the writing breaks and always providing me with laughter and love. Finally, this MMS paper has truly provided me with a...Nigeria, Nigeria tried to form a stronger bond with Chad to receive economic benefits by growing regional trade relations. Nigeria expelled...nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who carried out programs in health , education, water and sanitation, agriculture and food security, protection

  18. Climate Change in Africa: Impacts and Effects on the Inhabitants of the Lake Chad Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.; Tahir, S. M.; Olisa, O.

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Energy and Climate Change defined climate as the average weather experienced over a long period. This includes temperature, wind and rainfall patterns. The climate of the Earth is not static, and has changed many times in response to a variety of natural causes. Due to human activities in emmiting green house gases has resulted the Earth to get warmed by 0.74°C over the last hundred years. Around 0.4°C of this warming has occurred since the 1970s. Climate is now one of the major phenomenon threatening lives and humanity in general since the beginning of industrial revolution. Climate exerts a profound influence on the lives of poor populations in the Lake Chad region of Africa who depend on fishing and crop cultivation for livelihood and sustenance, who are unprotected against climate-related diseases, who lacked secure access to water and food and who are vulnerable to hydro meteorological hazard. The effects of climate change on the study area are many and include diminishing resources and conflicts over the available limited water resources. The Lake Chad region is a fragile area with high climate variability and extremes of weather. As this inland water is used for domestic and agricultural purposes, salt mining, as well as transportation by Nigerians, Nigeriens, Chadian and Cameroonians, it is an area of trans-boundary water conflicts. This paper examines the part played by climate change in the decline of fishery resources and livelihood activities in the Lake Chad region. Data from field studies, structured interview and secondary sources show that fish catches and livelihood activities have declined tremendously in recent times due to several factors including overexploitation and increasing demands on the aquatic resources. Findings from the study show that droughty periods have resulted in the reduction of open lake water surface from about 25,000 km2 in 1973 to less than 2,000 km2 in the 1990s. This has led to the diminishing aquatic

  19. Novel Dielectric Coagulometer Identifies Hypercoagulability in Patients with a High CHADS2 Score without Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Recent reports showed that the CHADS2 score predicted the risk of strokes in patients without atrial fibrillation (AF. Although the hypercoagulability may contribute to the thrombogenesis, it has not been fully investigated due to a lack of a sensitive evaluation modality. Recently a novel dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM was invented for evaluating the coagulability by measuring the temporal change in whole blood dielectric permittivity.We evaluated the utility of the DBCM for identifying the coagulability.For fundamental experiments, 133 citrated blood samples were drawn from subjects with or without heparin administration. A DBCM analysis was performed to find the adequate coagulation index, and to delineate its measurement range by adding recombinant human tissue factor (TF or heparin. Then the coagulability was assessed by DBCM and conventional coagulation assays in 84 subjects without AF, who were divided into 3 groups by their CHADS2 score. Another 17 patients who received warfarin were also assessed by DBCM to evaluate the effect of anticoagulants.We calculated the derivative of the dielectric permittivity change after recalcification, and extracted the end of acceleration time (EAT as a novel index. The EAT showed a dose-dependent shortening with the addition of serial dilutions of TF (×10-2 to ×10-4, and a dose-dependent prolongation with the addition of heparin (0.05 to 0.15 U/ml. The EAT was significantly shorter in the higher CHADS2 score group (19.8 ± 4.8, 18.6 ± 3.1, and 16.3 ± 2.7 min in the CHADS2 = 0, 1, and ≥2 groups, respectively, p = 0.0065 by ANOVA. Patients receiving warfarin had a significantly more prolonged EAT than those without warfarin (18.6±4.2 vs. 25.8±7.3 min, p <0.001. DBCM detected the whole blood coagulability with a high sensitivity. Subjects with higher CHADS2 scores exhibited hypercoagulability without AF.

  20. CHADS2 Scores in the Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular events are one of the major causes of death in case of Cushing’s syndrome (CS. However, due to the relative low frequency of CS, it is hard to perform a risk assessment for these events. As represented congestive heart failure (C, hypertension (H, age (A, diabetes (D, and stroke (S, the CHADS2 score is now accepted to classify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, participants were enrolled from the National Health Research Institute Database (NHIRD of Taiwan, and we reviewed 551 patients with their sequential clinically diagnosed CS data between 2002 and 2009 in relation to MACEs risk using CHADS2 score. Good correlation could be identified between the CS and CHADS2 score (AUC=0.795. Our results show that patients with CS show significantly higher risk of vascular events and the CHADS2 score could be applied for MACEs evaluation. Adequate lifestyle modifications and aggressive cardiovascular risks treatment are suggested for CS patients with higher CHADS2 score.

  1. Megalake Chad impact on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Contoux

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing evidence for megalakes in the geological record, assessing their impact on climate and vegetation is important for the validation of palaeoclimate simulations and therefore the accuracy of model–data comparison in lacustrine environments. Megalake Chad (MLC occurrences are documented not only for the mid-Holocene but also for the Mio-Pliocene (Schuster et al., 2009. At this time, the surface covered by water would have reached up to ~350 000 km2 (Ghienne et al., 2002; Schuster et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2006, making it an important evaporation source, possibly modifying climate and vegetation in the Chad Basin. We investigated the impact of such a giant continental water area in two different climatic backgrounds within the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (PMIP3: the late Pliocene (3.3 to 3 Ma, i.e. the mid-Piacenzian warm period and the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP. In all simulations including MLC, precipitation is drastically reduced above the lake surface because deep convection is inhibited by overlying colder air. Meanwhile, convective activity is enhanced around MLC because of the wind increase generated by the flat surface of the megalake, transporting colder and moister air towards the eastern shore of the lake. The effect of MLC on precipitation and temperature is not sufficient to widely impact vegetation patterns. Nevertheless, tropical savanna is present in the Chad Basin in all climatic configurations, even without MLC presence, showing that the climate itself is the driver of favourable environments for sustainable hominid habitats.

  2. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics, except for appropriate feeding choices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Some of the programmes were intended for national coverage, but we could not confirm whether these programmes were actually implemented nationally. Monitoring and evaluation reports were available for some small-scale programmes, but few of these evaluated whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed and none evaluated whether participants adopted the promoted feeding practices. Establishment of the policy and programme framework has commenced for improving IYCN practices. Formative research is needed to guide the development of evidence-based training materials and programmes to address the nutritional needs of infants and children. Once more directed programmes are established, there is a further need for rigorous monitoring and evaluation to ensure that training is adequate, programmes are implemented as designed, and effective programmes are identified for expansion nationally. Evaluations are also needed to

  3. Association between CHADS2 score and long-term atrial fibrillation recurrence rate after catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between CHADS2score and long-term(≥3 years)outcomes post catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF).Methods AF patients who received single catheter ablation in our hospital from January 2004 to March 2009 in our department were included and patients received regular follow-up.AF recurrence was defined as the occurrence of atrial arrhythmias(AF,atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia)recorded by electrocardiogram monitor(≥30 seconds)after ablation during follow-up period(after

  4. [Morbidity patterns in three nomadic communities in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugla, D M; Daoud, S; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities, i.e., Fulani, Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, living in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad. This is the first data about the health of Chadian nomadic pastoralists who account for approximately 6% of the total population. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4.6% of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age.

  5. Characteristics of Lake Chad Level Variability and Links to ENSO, Precipitation, and River Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Okonkwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used trend, correlation, and wavelet analysis to characterize Lake Chad (LC level fluctuations, river discharge, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships. Linear correlation results indicate a negative association between ENSO and LC level, river discharge and precipitation. Trend analysis shows increasing precipitation in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB but decreasing LC level. The mode of interannual variability in LC level, rainfall, and ENSO analyzed using wavelet analysis is dominated by 3-4-year periods. Results show that variability in ENSO could explain only 31% and 13% of variations in LC level at Kindjeria and precipitation in the northern LCB, respectively. The wavelet transform coherency (WTC between LC level of the southern pool at Kalom and ENSO is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level and phase-locked, implying a cause-and-effect association. These strong coherencies coincide with the La Niña years with the exception of 1997-1998 El Niño events. The WTC shows strong covariance between increasing precipitation and LC level in the northern pool at a 2- to 4-year band and 3- to 4-year band localized from 1996 to 2010. Implications for water resource planning and management are discussed.

  6. Characteristics of Lake Chad level variability and links to ENSO, precipitation, and river discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Gebremariam, Sium

    2014-01-01

    This study used trend, correlation, and wavelet analysis to characterize Lake Chad (LC) level fluctuations, river discharge, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships. Linear correlation results indicate a negative association between ENSO and LC level, river discharge and precipitation. Trend analysis shows increasing precipitation in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) but decreasing LC level. The mode of interannual variability in LC level, rainfall, and ENSO analyzed using wavelet analysis is dominated by 3-4-year periods. Results show that variability in ENSO could explain only 31% and 13% of variations in LC level at Kindjeria and precipitation in the northern LCB, respectively. The wavelet transform coherency (WTC) between LC level of the southern pool at Kalom and ENSO is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level and phase-locked, implying a cause-and-effect association. These strong coherencies coincide with the La Niña years with the exception of 1997-1998 El Niño events. The WTC shows strong covariance between increasing precipitation and LC level in the northern pool at a 2- to 4-year band and 3- to 4-year band localized from 1996 to 2010. Implications for water resource planning and management are discussed.

  7. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  8. Predictive value of CHADS2 score and modified CHADS score for reoccurrence of atrial fibrillation after radiofrequency catheter ablation%CHADS2评分及改良CHADS评分对心房颤动消融术后复发的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松云; 江洪; 鲁志兵; 余锂镭; 黄兵; 王卓; 何文博; 廖凯; 萨仁高娃; 阳康

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨心力衰竭高血压、年龄、糖尿病和脑卒中(包括一过性脑缺血)(CHADS2)评分及改良CHADS评分对心房颤动(房颤)射频消融术后复发的预测价值。方法对2010年7月至2012年3月在我院行射频消融术的93例房颤患者追踪随访12个月,术后1,3,6,9,12个月行12导联心电图或长程心电图检查,结合临床症状及心电图检查结果将其分为复发组(n=40)和未复发组(n=53),采用单因素和多因素分析消融术后房颤复发的危险因素。结果93例房颤患者中持续性房颤35例(37.63%),随访12个月时复发40例(43.01%)。房颤复发组与未复发组在平均年龄(P<0.01)、年龄>70岁(P<0.05)、病史(P<0.05)、房颤类型(P<0.01)、左房内径(P<0.001)、左室射血分数(P<0.05)、血细胞比容(P<0.05)、是否伴心力衰竭(P<0.05)、是否伴高血压(P<0.01)、是否伴糖尿病(P<0.05)、是否有一过性脑缺血或脑卒中史(P<0.05)、术后是否服用血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂和血管紧张素Ⅱ受体拮抗剂(ACEI/ARB,P<0.01)、术后是否服用Ⅲ类抗心律失常药(P<0.05)、CHADS2评分≥1(P<0.001)等方面差异有统计学意义。logistic回归分析发现,病史、房颤类型、左房内径、CHADS2评分≥1为房颤术后复发的独立危险因素(病史长短:OR=1.16,P=0.020;左房内径:OR=1.17,P=0.025;房颤类型:OR=3.34,P=0.050;CHADS2评分≥1:OR=5.93,P=0.019)。进一步分析发现,CHADS2评分≥2、改良CHADS评分≥1、改良CHADS评分≥2亦为房颤术后复发的独立危险因素(CHADS2≥2:OR=5.42,P=0.028;改良CHADS评分≥1:OR=6.64,P=0.015;改良CHADS评分≥2:OR=7.32,P=0.002)。截断点分析显示,CHADS2与改良CHADS均≥1时对房颤消融预后的预测价值最高,对CHADS2

  9. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John D; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-03-30

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type--potsherds--that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types.

  10. Possible Role of Fish and Frogs as Paratenic Hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Bishop, Henry; Cleveland, Christopher A.; Maerz, John C.; Bringolf, Robert; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2–3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70–80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles. PMID:27434418

  11. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  12. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  13. Morbidity and nutrition patterns of three nomadic pastoralist communities of Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, E; Daoud, S; Daugla, D M; Diallo, P; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2005-07-01

    As a part of an interdisciplinary research and action programme, morbidity and nutritional patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities: Fulani and Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, of two prefectures in Chad. The predominant morbidity pattern of Chadian nomadic pastoralists (representing approximately 10% of the total population of the country) had not been documented so far. A total of 1092 women, men and children was examined by a physician and interviewed during two surveys in the dry season and one in the wet season (1999--2000). Participants with no complaint were rare. Pulmonary disorders (e.g. bronchitis) were most often diagnosed for children under 5 years of age. Of the adult participants, 4.6% were suspected of tuberculosis. Febrile diarrhoea occurred more often during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was precarious. Malaria was only rarely clinically diagnosed among Arabs during the dry season, whereas Fulani, who stayed in the vicinity of Lake Chad, were also affected during this period. A 24-h dietary recall showed that less Arab women than men consumed milk during the dry season (66% versus 92%). Malnutrition was only documented for 3 out of 328 children (0--14 years). Arab women in childbearing age had a higher proportion of children not surviving when compared to Fulani women (0.2 versus 0.07). This study identified several implications for reseach and interventions in nomadic settings. Innovative and integrated health services for nomads can possibly be extended to many settings as nomadic pastoralists have in common a similar way of life driven by the needs of their animals.

  14. O escore de CHADS2 na predição de eventos cerebrovasculares: uma metanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O escore de CHADS2 é um método de estratificação do risco de eventos cardiovasculares, sendo útil na decisão terapêutica em doentes de moderado/alto risco. Esta metanálise tem como objectivo averiguar se o escore de CHADS2 é eficaz na predição de eventos cerebrovasculares em doentes com Fibrilação Auricular (FA. Realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica informatizada nos motores de busca PubMed, EMBASE e SciELO, durante o período de março de 2011 a abril de 2012. Os estudos foram seleccionados de acordo com critérios predeterminados. A metanálise incidiu em seis estudos de coorte, observacionais e prospectivos, que avaliaram a capacidade preditiva do escore de CHADS2 para eventos cerebrovasculares e morte. Os endpoints definidos (mortalidade e/ou Acidente Vascular Cerebral [AVC] não fatal foram comparados entre doentes com CHADS2 2, e também em função da presença/ausência de FA. No que diz respeito à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares combinados, morte e AVC, observou-se um maior risco no grupo com escore de CHADS2 > 2 e com FA crônica, com Odds Ratio (OR respectivamente de 2.92 (IC:2.08-4.10; p 2, independentemente da presença de FA: OR = 2.93 (IC:2.81-3.06; p < 0,00001 nos doentes com FA; OR = 2.94; (IC:2.87-3.01; p < 0,00001 nos doentes sem FA. Os estudos indicam claramente a capacidade discriminativa do escorede CHADS2 para o risco de eventos cerebrovasculares, independentemente da presença ou não de FA, permitindo desta forma identificar doentes de moderado/alto risco e seleccionar estratégias terapêuticas adequadas.

  15. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing ...

  16. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  17. Anticoagulation Stability Depends on CHADS2 Score and Hepatorenal Function in Warfarin-treated Patients, Including Those with Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odashiro, Keita; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Takeshi; Maruyama, Toru; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Although warfarin remains important despite the widespread use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), to date, the reality of warfarin use in the “NOACs era” is unclear. This multicenter observational study aimed to clarify the key factors contributing to warfarin treatment stability. Methods: The practical use of warfarin, stability of warfarin therapy, and factors contributing to this stability were investigated in community-based hospitals through a real-world study. Clinical data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of warfarin-treated Japanese patients (age, 71.3 ± 5.5 years) with atrial fibrillation (AF), prosthetic heart valve, or other concerns requiring anticoagulation. Treatment stability was considered as time in therapeutic range of international normalized ratio of prothrombin time (TTR: %). The factors contributing to TTR were investigated, including CHADS2 score components. Results: Mean CHADS2 score was highest (1.38 ± 0.88, p antiplatelet agents did not correlate with the low TTR. Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrated that the CHADS2 score component accumulation and hepatorenal dysfunction are factors significantly contributing to the low TTR, which is indicative of poor warfarin treatment stability, in patients such as those with AF. PMID:27319745

  18. Terrorism Financing. The Socio-Economic and Political Implications of Boko Haram Insurgency in Lake Chad Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akepe Linus Enobi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various Scholars account for the actual date of the evolution of Boko Haram terrorist group. However, the sect came to prominence in 2009 following the death of its leader, Mohammed Yusuf in police custody. Aside from the police act and Mohammed Yusuf’s death, poverty, unemployment, lack of development, high level of illiterates, unkept electoral promises are identified as other reasons for the rise of Boko Haram insurgency. This study involves determination of socio-political and economic impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Lake Chad basin. To achieve this, mixed research method was employed in the study because both primary and secondary data are used. Many factors can be adduced as driving force that motivates Boko Haram activities in the region such as poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, under-development/education defiance region and neglects by government. Finding in the study shows that lack of government support for armed forces and low moral; lack of government political will to fight the insurgency; political interest all contribute in recent time to the rise of terrorist activities in Lake Chad.Finding revealed that the increase in Boko Haram activities in recent time in the region have negatively impact on the socio political/economic activities and these is due partly to increase in terrorist financing. The study suggests therefore that government ability in Lake Chad basin to cut the sources of terrorist finance will significantly affect Boko Haram activities and attacks.

  19. Continuation of Health Behaviors: Psychosocial Factors Sustaining Drinking Water Chlorination in a Longitudinal Study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lilje

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavior that has changed following promotion campaigns is usually not maintained at its initial level. Psychosocial factors for initiating behavior are often not the same as for the continuation of health behaviors such as water treatment and are much less understood. Better knowledge of factors for behavioral continuation would help to improve programs, both in the design of strategies for sustainable behavior change and by defining stronger criteria for the evaluation of sustainability. This study compared the mindsets of caregivers who continuously performed household drinking water treatment over time with individuals that stopped doing so in a population sample from Chad. Several factors from health psychology based on the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS model were used to compare the two groups and examine their differing development. Normative factors such as others’ behavior, personal obligation, social support and discourse, perceived self-efficacy convictions, action control, and intention best discriminated between the two groups and developed significantly more positively over time for continuers of water treatment. These factors should be considered when designing future interventions intended to lead to sustainable behavior change.

  20. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-12-22

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11(T), was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098(T) (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098(T). Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11(T) (=CGMCC 4.7304(T)=DSM 101531(T)).

  1. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)).

  2. Who Benefits from Public Social Spending in Chad? A Benefit Incidence Analysis (A qui profitent les dépenses sociales au Tchad? Une analyse d'incidence à partir des données d'enquête

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djindil, N.S.; Tabo Symphorien, N.; Mogota Anatole, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of public expenditures in the sector of education and maternal and child health in household level in Chad. The results show that there exist a very strong social selectivity in the utilisation and transfer of health and education in Chad. The analysis reveals that an

  3. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores as bleeding risk indices for patients with atrial fibrillation: the Bleeding with Antithrombotic Therapy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Yasaka, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Iwade, Kazunori; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Nagata, Ken; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nagao, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Gotoh, Jun; Takahashi, Jun C; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, that is, ischemic stroke risk indices for patients having atrial fibrillation (AF), may also be useful as bleeding risk indices. Japanese patients with AF, who routinely took oral antithrombotic agents were enrolled from a prospective, multicenter study. The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were assessed based on information at entry. Scores of 0, 1 and ⩾2 were defined as the low, intermediate and high ischemic risk categories, respectively, for each index. Of 1221 patients, 873 took warfarin, 114 took antiplatelet agents and 234 took both. The annual incidence of ischemic stroke was 0.76% in the low-risk category, 1.46% in the intermediate-risk category and 2.90% in the high-risk category by CHADS2 scores, and 1.44, 0.42 and 2.50%, respectively, by CHA2DS2-VASc scores. The annual incidence of major bleeding in each category was 1.52, 2.19 and 2.25% by CHADS2, and 1.44, 1.69 and 2.24% by CHA2DS2-VASc. After multivariate adjustment, the CHADS2 was associated with ischemia (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.38 per 1-category increase) and the CHA2DS2-VASc tended to be associated with ischemia (2.18, 0.89-8.43). On the other hand, associations of the indices with bleeding were weak. In conclusion, bleeding risk increased gradually as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores increased in Japanese antithrombotic users, although the statistical impact was rather weak compared with their predictive power for ischemic stroke.

  4. Impact of the Megalake Chad on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Contoux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing evidence for megalakes in the geological record, assessing their impact on climate and vegetation is important for the validation of paleoclimate simulations and therefore the accuracy of model/data comparison in lacustrine environments. Megalake Chad (MLC occurrences are documented for the mid-Holocene but also for the Mio-Pliocene (Schuster et al., 2009. The surface covered by water would have reached up to ~350 000 km2 (Ghienne et al., 2002; Schuster et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2006 making it an important evaporation source, possibly modifying the climate and vegetation in the Chad basin. We investigated the impact of such a giant continental water area in two different climatic backgrounds within the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (PMIP3: the late Pliocene (3.3 to 3 Ma, i.e. the mid-Piacenzian warm period and the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP. In all simulations including a MLC, precipitation is drastically reduced above the lake surface because deep convection is inhibited by colder air above the lake surface. Meanwhile, convective activity is enhanced around the MLC, because of the wind increase generated by the flat surface of the megalake, transporting colder and moister air towards the eastern shore of the lake. Effect of the MLC on precipitation and temperature is not sufficient to widely impact vegetation patterns. Nevertheless, tropical savanna is present in the Chad Basin in all climatic configurations, even without the MLC presence, showing that the climate itself is the driver of favourable environments for sustainable hominid habitats.

  5. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanic rocks from the Lake Chad region: An extension of the Cameroon volcanic line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Torng, P.-K.; Yang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, near Lake Chad, are considered to be an extension of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL) but their petrogenetic association is uncertain. The silicic rocks are divided into peraluminous and peralkaline groups with both rock types chemically similar to within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma indicating the magmas erupted ˜10 million years before the next oldest CVL rocks (i.e., ˜66 Ma). The Sr isotopes (i.e., ISr = 0.7021-0.7037) show a relatively wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268-0.51271) are uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Thermodynamic modeling shows that the silicic rocks likely formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma but that the peraluminous rocks were affected by low temperature alteration processes. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts identified within the Late Cretaceous basins (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51245-0.51285) of Chad than the uncontaminated CVL rocks (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270-0.51300). The age and isotopic compositions suggest the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad region are related to Late Cretaceous extensional volcanism in the Termit basin. It is unlikely that the silicic volcanic rocks are petrogenetically related to the CVL but it is possible that magmatism was structurally controlled by suture zones that formed during the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and/or the Pan-African Orogeny.

  6. CHADS2 score has a better predictive value than CHA2DS2-VASc score in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing YL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunli Xing, Qing Ma, Xiaoying Ma, Cuiying Wang, Dai Zhang, Ying Sun Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Aim: The study aims to compare the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [two scores], type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism [TE] [doubled], vascular disease, age 65–74 years, and sex category and CHADS2 (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke [doubled] scores to predict the risk of ischemic stroke (IS or TE among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.Methods: A total of 413 patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, and not on oral anticoagulants for the previous 6 months, were enrolled in the study. The predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores for IS/TE events was evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method.Results: During a follow-up period of 1.99±1.29 years, 104 (25.2% patients died and 59 (14.3% patients developed IS/TE. The CHADS2 score performed better than the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting IS/TE as assessed by c-indexes (0.647 vs 0.615, respectively; P<0.05. Non-CHADS2 risk factors, such as vascular disease and female sex, were not found to be predictive of IS/TE (hazard ratio 1.518, 95% CI: 0.832–2.771; hazard ratio 1.067, 95% CI: 0.599–1.899, respectively. No differences in event rates were found in patients with the CHADS2 scores of 1 and 2 (7.1% vs 7.8%. It was observed that patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were most in need of anticoagulation therapy.Conclusion: In patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, the CHADS2 score was found to be significantly better in predicting IS/TE events when compared to the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were associated with high risk of IS/TE events. Keywords: NVAF

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of droughts and terrestrial water storage over Lake Chad Basin using independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E.; Agutu, Nathan O.; Okwuashi, Onuwa; Ferreira, Vagner G.

    2016-09-01

    Lake Chad has recently been perceived to be completely desiccated and almost extinct due to insufficient published ground observations. Given the high spatial variability of rainfall in the region, and the fact that extreme climatic conditions (for example, droughts) could be intensifying in the Lake Chad basin (LCB) due to human activities, a spatio-temporal approach to drought analysis becomes essential. This study employed independent component analysis (ICA), a fourth-order cumulant statistics, to decompose standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) into spatial and temporal patterns over the LCB. In addition, this study uses satellite altimetry data to estimate variations in the Lake Chad water levels, and further employs relevant climate teleconnection indices (El-Niño Southern Oscillation-ENSO, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation-AMO, and Atlantic Meridional Mode-AMM) to examine their links to the observed drought temporal patterns over the basin. From the spatio-temporal drought analysis, temporal evolutions of SPI at 12 month aggregation show relatively wet conditions in the last two decades (although with marked alterations) with the 2012-2014 period being the wettest. In addition to the improved rainfall conditions during this period, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.04 m/yr in altimetry water levels observed over Lake Chad between 2008 and 2014, which confirms a shift in the hydrological conditions of the basin. Observed trend in TWS changes during the 2002-2014 period shows a statistically insignificant increase of 3.0 mm/yr at the centre of the basin, coinciding with soil moisture deficit indicated by the temporal evolutions of SSI at all monthly accumulations during the 2002-2003 and 2009-2012 periods. Further, SPI at 3 and 6 month scales indicated fluctuating drought conditions at the extreme south

  8. Hydrological budget of Lake Chad: assessment of lake-groundwater interaction by coupling Bayesian approach and chemical budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of lake-groundwater interactions is a crucial step to constrain water balance of lacustrine and aquifer systems. Located in the Sahel, the Lake Chad is at the center of an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. One of the most remarkable features of this terminal lake is that, despite the semi-arid context and high evaporation rates of the area, its waters are fresh. It is proposed in the literature that the solutes are evacuated in the underlying quaternary aquifer bearing witness to the importance of surface water and groundwater exchanges for the chemical regulation of the lake. The water balance of this system is still not fully understood. The respective roles of evaporation versus infiltration into the quaternary aquifer are particularly under constrained. To assess lake-groundwater flows, we used the previous conceptual hydrological model of the lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2011). This model involves six parameters including infiltration rate. A probabilistic inversion of parameters, based on an exploration of the parameters space through a Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method), allows the construction of an a posteriori Probability Density Function of each parameter yielding to the best fits between observed lake levels and simulated. Then, a chemical budget of a conservative element, such as chloride, is introduced in the water balance model using the optimal parameters resulting from the Bayesian inverse approach. The model simulates lake level and chloride concentration variations of lake Chad from 1956 up to 2008. Simulated lake levels are in overall agreement with the observations, with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient above 0.94 for all sets of parameters retained. The infiltration value, obtained by such probabilistic inversion approach, accounts for 120±20 mm/yr, representing 5% of the total outputs of the lake. However, simulated chloride concentrations are overestimated in

  9. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (< 2% TC). Calcite dominated sediments are only present in the topmost 15 cm. Grasses and wormword are dominating throughout the sequence, probably reflecting the main constituents of the regional vegetation. Cattail (Typha/Sparganium) and especially milfoil (Myriophyllum) are recorded abundantly and continuously throughout the sequence. In combination with green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen

  10. Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

  11. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O'Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perreten, Vincent; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  12. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K Blackburn

    Full Text Available Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25 genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs. The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  13. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread.

  14. Motion of left atrial appendage as a determinant of thrombus formation in patients with a low CHADS2 score receiving warfarin for persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Koji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to define the independent determinants of left atrial appendage (LAA thrombus among various echocardiographic parameters measured by Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF receiving warfarin, particularly in patients with a low CHADS2 score. Methods LAA emptying fraction (EF and LAA peak longitudinal strain were measured by VVI using transesophageal echocardiography in 260 consecutive patients with nonvalvular persistent AF receiving warfarin. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (n=43 or absence (n=217 of LAA thrombus. Moreover, the patients within each group were further divided into subgroups according to a CHADS2 score ≤1. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LAAEF was an independent determinant of LAA thrombus in the subgroup of 140 with a low CHADS2 score. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that an LAAEF of 21% was the optimal cutoff value for predicting LAA thrombus. Conclusions LAA thrombus formation depended on LAA contractility. AF patients with reduced LAA contractile fraction (LAAEF ≤21% require strong anticoagulant therapy to avoid thromboembolic events regardless of a low CHADS2 score (≤1.

  15. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score to assess risk of stroke and death in patients paced for sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Darkner, Stine

    2013-01-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of str...

  16. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  17. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  18. Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 78 accessions from Chad, West Africa and 20 photoperiod insensitive accessions from Uganda, East Africa were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in Ocotlan, Mexico in 2004 and 2005. Ninety-four of these accessions were also evaluated at two locations in Wharton County, Texas, USA, ...

  19. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  20. [Seroprevalence of HBs Ag and of anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people in N'Djamena, Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessimbaye, N; Moussa, A M; Mbanga, D; Tidjani, A; Mahamat, S O; Ngawara, M Nahor; Ngarnayal, G; Fissou, H Y; Sangare, L; Ndoutamia, G; Barro, N

    2014-12-01

    This is a prospective study conducted as part of a voluntary testing for HBV, HCV and HIV. The aim of the study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people and a control group of HIV negative people. HIV prevalence among newly diagnosed volunteers is 9.1%. The overall seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies is respectively 13.5% and 2.0%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCVantibodies in the control group (HIV-negative) is respectively 12.2% and 2%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people (old and new) is respectively 16.1% and 1%.This study, the first one conducted in Chad, has allowed us to know the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people.

  1. An Economic Analysis of Boko Haram’s Activities in the Chad-Cameroon-Nigeria Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMBA Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is fast becoming a worldwide phenomenon with about 25% of attacks committed in developing countries. These attacks devastate societies causing huge economic loss with negative growth effects. Recent attacks suspectively conducted by Boko Haram in the north of Nigeria and along its border with Cameroon and Chad are already inflicting damage to local economies with a general drop in savings, investment, trade and a strain on domestic budgets. Poverty and exclusion generate dissidents and reactionary groups activities such as Boko Haram. But, the historical background permits to understand the emergency and the development of some of them. Tackling the Boko Haram threat requires a concerted multinational approach with a key socioeconomic component that incorporates the fact that conflict thrives better in circumstances of poverty and inequality.

  2. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (pMalnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  3. A new cichlid fish in the Sahara: The Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad), a biodiversity hotspot in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer. Astatotilapia tchadensis sp. nov. is characterized by a black bar between eye and corner of mouth, rounded orange spots on anal fin, scales ctenoid, lower limb of first gill arch with 7-8 gill rackers, dorsal fin with 13-14 spines and 9-11 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays, 29 or 30 lateral line scales, and lower pharyngeal dentition with enlarged molariform teeth. The new species is easily distinguished from A. desfontainii and A. flaviijosephii, the northernmost haplochromine species currently isolated from its other group members, and appears close to an unnamed species of Lake Chad basin. Ounianga Serir lakes and especially Lake Boukou present a remarkable diversity of fish, the highest known in the Sahara desert with a total of at least six fish species belonging to six genera and three families. They also constitute an exceptional natural landscape inscribed on the UNESCO world heritage list in 2012 and a biodiversity hotspot for desert vertebrate species.

  4. Occurrence of 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (Paraquat) in irrigated soil of the Lake Chad Basin, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampon, Marc; Copard, Yoann; Favreau, Guillaume; Raux, Julie; Merlet-Machour, Nadine; Le Coz, Mathieu; Ibrahim, Maïmouna; Peulon-Agasse, Valérie; Portet-Koltalo, Florence

    2014-09-01

    Increased use of agrochemical products to improve yields for irrigated crops in sub-Saharan Africa has been accompanied by a significant increase in the risk of environmental contamination. Detailed examples of the fate of pesticides after initial spreading on crop fields are scarce in tropical regions, where safe practices and related health risks are poorly understood by smallholder farmers. In the semi-arid environment of the Lake Chad Basin, SE Niger, both intrinsic properties of pesticides and extrinsic factors such as soil and climate helped to characterize processes leading to an accumulation of pesticides in soils. Analysis by HPLC-UV of a 6 m deep soil profile showed the presence of Paraquat at concentrations from 953 ± 102 μg kg(-1) to 3083 ± 175 μg kg(-1) at depths between 0.80 and 2.75 m below the land surface. Soil analysis revealed that up to approximately 15 % of the total soil matrix consists of smectites, a clay mineral capable of retaining cationic pesticides such as Paraquat, and a very low content of organic matter (Paraquat could be stored and not bioavailable in a clayey barrier at approximately 2-m depth and therefore does not represent an immediate risk for populations or environment in this form. However, if the Paraquat application rate remains constant, the clayey barrier could reach a saturation limit within 150-200 years and 180-220 years if we consider a DT50 in soil of ~1,000 days (FAO). Consequently, it could lead to a deeper infiltration and so a pollution of groundwater. Such a scenario can represent a health risk for drinking water and for the Lake Chad, which is a major resource for this densely populated region of semi-arid Africa. Further analyses should focus on deeper layers and groundwater Paraquat contents to validate or invalidate the hypothesis of storage in this clay-rich layer.

  5. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Rolf S.; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  6. The Impact of the Colonial Legacy on Civil-Military Relations in Africa: Chad and the Sudan as Comparative Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    European firms with cheaply produced raw materials and cheap labor; to find markets for the products of their factories; and to establish routes across...Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood," in Atul Kohli , ed., The State and Development in the Third World. Princeton...excluding the first, were characterized by their religious orientation .61 Similar to Chad, all these kingdoms were in the northern part of the country

  7. The value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for refining stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHADS2 score 0-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2012-01-01

    associated with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score was estimated in Cox regression models adjusted for year of inclusion and antiplatelet therapy. The value of adding the extra CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors to the CHADS2 score was evaluated by c-statistics, Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated....... Of the cohort with a CHADS2 score of 0-1, the stroke/thromboembolism rate per 100 person-years increased with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score (95% confidence interval): 0.84 (0.65-1.08), 1.79 (1.53-2.09), 3.67 (3.34-4.03), 5.75 (5.33-6.21), and 8.18 (6.68-10.02) at one year follow-up with CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0......DS2-VASc score significantly improved the predictive value of the CHADS2 score alone and a CHA2DS2-VASc score=0 could clearly identify 'truly low risk' subjects. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc score would significantly improve classification of AF patients at low and intermediate risk of stroke, compared...

  8. CHADS2评分对心房颤动患者二尖瓣置换术围手术期脑卒中风险的预测作用%Predictive role of CHADS2 score for perioperative stroke risk in atrial fibrillation patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志云; 任崇雷; 姜胜利; 王明岩; 肖苍松; 高长青

    2016-01-01

    目的:缺血性脑卒中是心脏手术后严重并发症,但其危险因素尚待进一步研究。本研究旨在探讨CHADS2评分对二尖瓣置换术围手术期脑卒中风险的预测作用。方法选择2005年1月至2014年12月解放军总医院心血管外科行二尖瓣置换且术前合并房颤的患者共805例,年龄(53.7±10.5)岁,女性422例(52.4%)。观察不同CHADS2评分患者二尖瓣置换术后住院期间缺血性脑卒中发生情况;比较CHADS2评分≥2组和评分<2组脑卒中发生率;采用多因素logistic回归分析方法对围手术期常见脑卒中危险因素进行分析,研究CHADS2评分与术后脑卒中的关系。结果全组患者CHADS2评分为0分者493例(61.2%),1分者185例(23.0%),2分者92例(11.4%),3分者26例(3.2%),4分者9例(1.1%)。术后住院期间发生缺血性脑卒中共14例,发生率为1.7%。住院期间死亡16例,死亡率2.0%。脑卒中发生于CHADS2评分为0分者6例(发生率1.2%),1分者2例(发生率1.1%),2分者3例(发生率3.3%),3分者2例(发生率7.7%),4分者1例(发生率11.1%)。与CHADS2评分<2组比较, CHADS2评分≥2组脑卒中发生率显著升高(4.7% vs 1.2%;P =0.005)。与低CHADS2评分组比较,高CHADS2评分组患者术前合并颈动脉狭窄、术中同期行CABG和植入机械瓣比例较高,术后机械通气时间更长(P<0.05)。两组患者术后ICU停留时间以及住院期间病死率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。多因素logistic回归分析结果显示, CHADS2评分≥2( OR =4.164,95%CI:1.388~12.495; P =0.011)和术后应用重组人凝血因子Ⅶa (OR=11.757,95%CI:2.909~47.520;P=0.001)是术后住院期间脑卒中的独立危险因素。结论 CHADS2评分高的房颤患者二尖瓣置换术后住院期间脑卒中发生率更高,CHADS2评分≥2是术

  9. Relationship of CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 score to left atrial remodeling detected by velocity vector imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scores are used to predict thrombo-embolic/stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF. Nevertheless, limited data are available regarding the association between these risk stratification for stroke and left atrial (LA remodeling status of AF patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between these scores and LA remodeling status assessed quantificationally by echocardiography in AF patients. METHODS: One hundred AF patients were divided into 3 groups based on the CHA2DS2-VASc/CHADS2 score: the score of 0 (low stroke risk, the score of 1 (moderate stroke risk and the score of ≥2 (high stroke risk. All patients were performed through conventional and velocity vector imaging echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters: maximum LA volume index (LAVImax, LA total emptying fraction (LAEFt and LA mean strain were obtained to assess quantificationally LA remodeling status. RESULTS: On categorizing with CHA2DS2-VASc, the score of 1 group showed augment in LAVImax and attenuation in LA mean strain derived from VVI, compared with the score of 0 group (LAVImax: 40.27±21.91 vs. 26.79±7.87, p=0.002; LA mean strain: 15.18±6.36 vs. 22±8.54, p=0.001. On categorizing with the CHADS2 score, similar trends were seen between the score of ≥2 and 1 groups (LAVImax: 43.72±13.77 vs. 31.41±9.50, p<0.001; LA mean strain: 11.01±5.31 vs. 18.63±7.00, p<0.001. With multivariate logistic regression, LAVImax (odds ratio: 0.92 , 95% C=I: 0.85 to 0.98, p= 0.01 and LA mean strain reflecting LA remodeling (odds ratio: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.19, p=0.01 were strongly predictive of the CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0. CONCLUSIONS: The superiority of the CHADS2 score may lay in identifying LA remodeling of AF patients with high stroke risk. Whereas, the CHA2DS2-VASc score was better than the CHADS2 score at identifying LA remodeling of AF patients presenting low stroke risk.

  10. Coherent monsoonal changes in the northern tropics revealed by Chadian lakes (L. Chad and Yoa) sedimentary archives during the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Florence; Kroepelin, Stefan; Pierre, Deschamps; Christine, Cocquyt; Nicolas, Waldmann; Kazuyo, Tachikawa; Amaral Paula, Do; Doriane, Delanghe; Guillaume, Jouve; Edouard, Bard; Camille, Bouchez; Jean-Claude, Doumnang; Jean-Charles, Mazur; Martin, Melles; Guillemette, Menot; Frauke, Rostek; Nicolas, Thouveny; Volkner, Wennrich

    2016-04-01

    In northern African tropics, it is now well established that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was extremely dry followed by a wetter Holocene. Numerous palaeolake records reveal a fairly consistent pattern of a moister early Holocene resulting in a green Sahara followed by the onset of aridification about 4000 years ago. These palaeoenvironmental conditions are deciphered from several continental records distributed over the sub-Saharan zone and including diverse environments. However, pronounced differences in the timing and amplitude of these moisture changes inferred from sedimentary records point to both regional climatic variability change and site-specific influences of local topographic-hydrogeological factors which biased the evolution of water balance reconstructed from individual lacustrine archives. Here we present hydrological reconstructions from Chadian lakes, i.e. Lake Chad (c. 13°N) and Lake Yoa (19°N). Because of their location, both records allow to reconstruct lake level fluctuations and environmental changes according to a gradient from Sahelian to Saharan latitudes. Whereas Lake Chad is considered as a good sensor of climatic changes because of its large drainage basin covering 610,000 km2 in the Sudanian belt, Lake Yoa logs the northern precipitation changes in the Sahara. Combining sedimentological (laser diffraction grain size) and geochemical (XRF analysis) data associated with bio-indicators proxies (diatoms, pollen), we compare lake-level fluctuations and environmental changes during the last 12,000 years. After the hyperarid Last Glacial Maximum period during which dunes covered the Lake Chad basin, both lake records indicate an onset of more humid conditions between 12.5-11 ka cal BP. These resulted in lacustrine transgressions approaching their maximum extension at c. 10.5 ka cal BP. The lacustrine phase was probably interrupted by a relatively short drying event occurring around 8.2 ka cal BP which is well-defined in Lake Yoa by

  11. Hydrological, chemical, and isotopic budgets of Lake Chad: a quantitative assessment of evaporation, transpiration and infiltration fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2016-04-01

    In the Sahelian belt, Lake Chad is a key water body for 13 million people, who live on its resources. It experiences, however, substantial and frequent surface changes. Located at the centre of one of the largest endorheic basins in the world, its waters remain surprisingly fresh. Its low salinity has been attributed to a low infiltration flow whose value remains poorly constrained. Understanding the lake's hydrological behaviour in response to climate variability requires a better constraint of the factors that control its water and chemical balance. Based on the three-pool conceptualization of Lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (2011), this study aims to quantify the total water outflow from the lake, the respective proportions of evaporation (E), transpiration (T), and infiltration (I), and the associated uncertainties. A Bayesian inversion method based on lake-level data was used, leading to total water loss estimates in each pool (E + T + I = ETI). Sodium and stable isotope mass balances were then used to separate total water losses into E, T, and I components. Despite the scarcity of representative data available on the lake, the combination of these two geochemical tracers is relevant to assess the relative contribution of these three outflows involved in the control of the hydrological budget. Mean evapotranspiration rates were estimated at 2070 ± 100 and 2270 ± 100 mm yr-1 for the southern and northern pools, respectively. Infiltration represents between 100 and 300 mm yr-1 but most of the water is evapotranspirated in the first few kilometres from the shorelines and does not efficiently recharge the Quaternary aquifer. Transpiration is shown to be significant, around 300 mm yr-1 and reaches 500 mm yr-1 in the vegetated zone of the archipelagos. Hydrological and chemical simulations reproduce the marked hydrological change between the normal lake state that occurred before 1972 and the small lake state after 1972 when the lake surface shrunk to a one

  12. Application of CHADS2 score in prediction of left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombus in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation%应用CHADS2评分预测非瓣膜性心房颤动患者左心房/左心耳血栓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕文静; 李颖; 任卫东; 杨军; 孙菲菲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between CHADS2 score and prevalence of left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods Clinical data of 187 NVAF patients were analyzed, and CHADS2 score were derived. The patients were divided into thrombus group and non-thrombus group based on the results of TEE. The association between CHADS2 score and prevalence of LA/LAA thrombus, and frequency differences of CHADS2 factors between thrombus group and non-thrombus groups were analyzed. Results The prevalence of LA/LAA thrombus was 14. 44% (27/187) , and the detection rate of thrombus was 2. 13% (1/47), 13. 41% (11/82), 24.24% (8/33), 29.41% (5/17), 16.67% (1/6), 50.00% (1/2) in patients with CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The prevalence of LA/LAA thrombus showed a trend of increase with the raising of CHADS2 score, and both of them had significant correlation (P = 0. 001). In thrombus group, 37. 04% (10/27) patients had history of congestive heart failure, higher than those in non-thrombus group (x2 =5. 92, P=0. 02). Of other factors of CHADS2 score, there was no significant difference between thrombus group and non-thrombus groups (all P>0. 05). Conclusion In NVAF patients, the prevalence of LA/LAA thrombus increases significantly with higher CHADS2 scores. Congestive heart failure is the only independent associated risk factor of LA/LAA thrombus.%目的 探讨非瓣膜性心房颤动(简称房颤)患者CHADS2评分与其左心房/左心耳(LA/LAA)血栓患病率间的关系.方法 回顾性分析187例非瓣膜性房颤患者资料,对其进行CHADS2评分,根据TEE检查结果分为血栓组及非血栓组,分析CHADS2评分与LA/LAA血栓患病率间的关系及各因子在两组中的差异.结果 187例中,27例(27/187,14.44%)确诊为LA/LAA血栓,其中0分者1例(1/47,2.13%),1分者11例(11/82,13.41%),2分者8例(8/33,24.24%),3分者5例(5/17,29.41%),4分者1例(1

  13. Palynological evidence for gradual vegetation and climate changes during the "African Humid Period" termination at 13° N from a Mega-Lake Chad sedimentary sequence

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    P. G. C. Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Located at the transition between the Saharian and Sahelian zones, at the center of one of the largest endoreic basins, the Lake Chad is ideally located to record regional environmental changes that occurred in the past. However, until now, no continuous archive from Lake Chad covering the Holocene has been studied. In this paper, we present pollen data from the first Holocene sedimentary sequence collected in Lake Chad (13° N; 14° E; Sahel region. Dated between ca. 6700 and ca. 5000 cal yr BP, this record encompasses the termination of the African Humid Period (AHP. Vegetational reconstructions are based on standard analyses of the pollen diagrams and are strengthened by quantitative approaches. Potential biomes that occurred at that time around Mega-Lake Chad are reconstructed using the biomization method and mean annual precipitation is estimated using the modern analogues technique.

    Results show that between ca. 6700 and ca. 6050 cal yr BP, a vegetation close to humid woodland or humid savanna, including elements currently found much further southward, thrived in the vicinity and/or the extra-local environment of the Mega-Lake Chad in place of the modern steppe, dry woodland and desert vegetation observed today. At the same time, montane forest populations extended further southward on the Adamawa plateau. This vegetation distribution is supported by biome reconstructions as well as by mean annual precipitation estimates of ca. 800 (−400/+700 mm for the period. The high abundance of lowland humid pollen taxa is interpreted as the result of a northward migration of the corresponding plants during the AHP driven by more favorable climatic conditions. Our interpretation in favor of a regional vegetation response to climatic changes is supported by other pollen data from several Northwestern African records. However, we cannot rule out that an increase of Chari-Logone inputs into the Mega-Lake Chad due to variations in hydrological

  14. Are Salmonella-Induced Gastroenteritis Neglected in Developing Countries? Feedback from Microbiological Investigations in N'Djamena Hospitals, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabo, Djim-Adjim; Granier, Sophie A; Diguimbaye, Colette D; Marault, Muriel; Brisabois, Anne; Mama, Baïzina; Millemann, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is considered to be one of the main pathogens causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Looking for Salmonella in Africa in patients suffering from gastroenteritis is rather unusual, and the use of antibiotics is not subject to any regulation. This study intends for stressing the possible prominent importance of Salmonella in digestive diseases in Africa as well as identifying antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from faeces samples of human origin. All samples were collected from five N'Djamena hospitals, from patients suffering from diarrhoea. The collecting was undertaken over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Salmonella isolates were obtained by standard cultivation and serotyping methods. A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were identified, belonging to 21 different serovars. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Stanleyville (n = 7), followed by S. Anatum (n = 4) and S. Kottbus (n = 3). The other serovars were under-represented. The majority of these isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except two S. Enteritidis isolates that exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones. The different serovars and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in N'Djamena, Chad. Roughly, one out of ten patients who consulted for gastroenteritis was shedding Salmonella spp. and none of them would have been diagnosed outside the context of this research program. This study may encourage local clinicians to explore more often salmonellosis suspicion in their daily practice.

  15. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  16. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-08-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  17. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  18. CHADS2 versus CHA2DS2-VASc score in assessing the stroke and throm-boembolism risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yuan Chen; Ai-Dong Zhang; Hong-Yan Lu; Jun Guo; Fei-Fei Wang; Zi-Cheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive abilities of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc in stroke and thromboembolism risk stratification of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE for Eng-lish-language literature on comparisons of the diagnostic performance between CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc in predicting stroke, or sys-temic embolism, in AF. We then assessed the quality of the included studies and pooled the C-statistics and 95%confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Eight studies were included. It was unsuitable to perform a direct meta-analysis because of high heterogeneity. When analyzed as a continuous variable, the C-statistic ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 (median 0.683) for CHADS2 and 0.64-0.79 (median 0.673) for CHA2DS2-VASc. When analyzed as a continuous variable in anticoagulation patients, the subgroup analysis showed that the pooled C-statistic (95%CI) was 0.660 (0.655-0.665) for CHADS2 and 0.667 (0.651-0.683) for CHA2DS2-VASc (no significant difference). For non-anticoagulation patients, the pooled C-statistic (95%CI) was 0.685 (0.666-0.705) for CHADS2 and 0.675 (0.656-0.694) for CHA2DS2-VASc (no significant differ-ence). The average ratio of endpoint events in the low-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was less than CHADS2 (0.41%vs. 0.94%, P<0.05). The average proportion of the moderate-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was lower than CHADS2 (11.12%vs. 30.75%, P<0.05). Conclu-sions The C-statistic suggests a similar clinical utility of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in predicting stroke and thromboem-bolism, but CHA2DS2-VASc has the important advantage of identifying extremely low-risk patients with atrial fibrillation, as well as classi-fying a lower proportion of patients as moderate risk.

  19. Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligan Connie J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP. Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. Results We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic. Conclusion The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around

  20. "Groundwater ages" of the Lake Chad multi-layer aquifers system inferred from 14C and 36Cl data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Deschamps, Pierre; Goncalves, Julio; Hamelin, Bruno; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of recharge, paleo-recharge and groundwater residence time of aquifer systems of the Sahel is pivotal for a sustainable management of this vulnerable resource. Due to its stratified aquifer system, the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) offers the opportunity to assess recharge processes over time and to link climate and hydrology in the Sahel. Located in north-central Africa at the fringe between the Sahel and the Sahara, the lake Chad basin (LCB) is an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. With a monsoon climate, the majority of the rainfall occurs in the southern one third of the basin, the Chari/Logone River system transporting about 90% of the runoff generated within the drainage basin. A complex multi-layer aquifer system is located in the central part of the LCB. The Quaternary unconfined aquifer, covering 500 000 km2, is characterized by the occurrence of poorly understood piezometric depressions. Artesian groundwaters are found in the Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine and deltaic sedimentary aquifers (early Pliocene and Continental Terminal). The present-day lake is in hydraulic contact with the Quaternary Aquifer, but during past megalake phases, most of the Quaternary aquifer was submerged and may experience major recharge events. To identify active recharge area and assess groundwater dynamics, one hundred surface and groundwater samples of all layers have been collected over the southern part of the LCB. Major and trace elements have been analyzed. Measurements of 36Cl have been carried out at CEREGE, on the French 5 MV AMS National Facility ASTER and 14C activities have been analyzed for 17 samples on the French AMS ARTEMIS. Additionally, the stable isotopic composition was measured on the artesian aquifer samples. In the Quaternary aquifer, results show a large scatter with waters having very different isotopic and geochemical signature. In its southern part and in the vicinity of the surface waters, groundwaters are predominantly Ca-Mg-HCO3 type waters with very

  1. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever, Q fever, and brucellosis in ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakar, Mahamat Fayiz; Naré, Ngandolo B; Schelling, Esther; Hattendorf, Jan; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever (RVF), brucellosis, and Q fever among domestic ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad was studied. The study area consisted of two parts, including mainland and islands. On the mainland, the study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages and camps. On the islands, samples were collected from all four available sites. A total of 985 serum samples were collected and 924 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for RVF. A total of 561 samples collected from islands were analyzed using ELISA for Q fever and both ELISA and Rose Bengal tests (RBT) for brucellosis. The apparent RVF seroprevalence by species was 37.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.2-41.3) in cattle, 18.8% (95% CI 12.3-25.2) in goats, and 10.8% (95% CI 3.0-18.5) in sheep. For brucellosis and Q fever, only cattle samples from islands were analyzed. For Q fever, the apparent seroprevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 5.6-10.1). For brucellosis, the RBT showed a prevalence of 5.7% (95% CI 3.8-7.6), and ELISA showed 11.9% (95% CI 9.3-14.6) with a kappa value of 0.53 showing a moderate agreement between the two tests. This study confirms the presence of the three diseases in the study area. More research is required to assess the importance for public health and conservation of the Kouri cattle breed.

  2. African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Borna; Hilty, Markus; Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Dale, James; Boschiroli, M Laura; Cadmus, Simeon; Ngandolo, Bongo Naré Richard; Godreuil, Sylvain; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, Colette; Kazwala, Rudovick; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty M; Sahraoui, Naima; Guetarni, Djamel; Aseffa, Abraham; Mekonnen, Meseret H; Razanamparany, Voahangy Rasolofo; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Djønne, Berit; Oloya, James; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Skjerve, Eystein; Portaels, Francoise; Rigouts, Leen; Michel, Anita; Müller, Annélle; Källenius, Gunilla; van Helden, Paul D; Hewinson, R Glyn; Zinsstag, Jakob; Gordon, Stephen V; Smith, Noel H

    2009-03-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex as being the same as the M. bovis BCG vaccine strain but with the deletion of spacer 30. Strains of the Af1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in population samples of M. bovis from cattle in Mali, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Chad, and using a combination of variable-number tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping, we show that the population of M. bovis in each of these countries is distinct, suggesting that the recent mixing of strains between countries is not common in this area of Africa. Strains with the Af1-specific deletion (RDAf1) were not identified in M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Furthermore, the spoligotype signature of the Af1 clonal complex has not been identified in population samples of bovine tuberculosis from Europe, Iran, and South America. These observations suggest that the Af1 clonal complex is geographically localized, albeit to several African countries, and we suggest that the dominance of the clonal complex in this region is the result of an original introduction into cows naïve to bovine tuberculosis.

  3. Parasitic infections, anemia and malnutrition among rural settled and mobile pastoralist mothers and their children in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Hamit, M A; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition, resulting from various etiologies, is common in rural Chadian women and children. This cross-sectional study assessed the spectrum of parasitic infection and level of anemia and their effect on nutritional status in settled and mobile pastoral mothers and children near Lake Chad. Intestinal parasites were evaluated using direct fecal smears and the Kato-Katz technique. Malaria status was determined using Paracheck-Pf(®) rapid diagnostic test, and anemia was assessed with the Hemocue photometer. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric parameters. At the end of the 2008 wet season, the prevalence of malnutrition was 36% [confidence interval (CI) 30-42] among women and 15% (CI 11-18) among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 75% (CI 68-83) among women and 60% (CI 53-66) among children. The predominant helminth species was Ascaris lumbricoides while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most common protozoan. The hookworm prevalence was 14% (CI 8-20) in women and 18% (CI 13-23) in children. Malaria prevalence was low among women (1%, CI 0.5-2) and children (3% CI 2-5). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of parasitic infection between the mobile pastoralist and rural sedentary populations. Thirty-four percent (CI 27-40) of nonpregnant women, 53% (CI 34-72) of pregnant women, and 27% (CI 23-32) of children were anemic. In subjects infected with Plasmodium, all women and 54% (CI 22-85) of children were anemic. Malnutrition was significantly associated with anemia in mothers and with selected intestinal parasites, anemia and age in their children.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes isolated from laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabo, Djim-adjim; Diguimbaye, Colette D; Granier, Sophie A; Moury, Frédérique; Brisabois, Anne; Elgroud, Rachid; Millemann, Yves

    2013-09-27

    This study aimed at updating knowledge on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella isolated from poultry in the province of N'Djamena, Chad. The results collected during this study provide the first baseline data on the prevalence of contamination by Salmonella in laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena. All samples were collected from sixteen poultry farms over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Diagnostic methods used during this study allowed to isolate eighty four Salmonella strains, belonging to twenty seven different serotypes. The most frequent serotypes were Salmonella Colindale (19%) followed by S. Minnesota (18%) S. Havana and S. Riggil (each 6%), S. Kottbus and S. Amager (4.7%), S. Idikan, Mississipi, and Muenchen (3.6%). Other serotypes were poorly represented. The majority of these serotypes were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except some S. Colindale isolates that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, S. Limete resistant to three antibiotics and S. Minnesota isolates resistant to five different antimicrobial classes. The different serotypes and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in Chad, the contribution of avian isolates to human salmonellosis and Salmonella's capacity to colonize all types of environment worldwide.

  5. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated

  6. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic...... make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using...... a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae...

  7. Assessment of hospital morbidity, mortality, and cost-effectiveness of a nutritional program for children under 5 years of age in Pala, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, F; Coppieters, Y

    2000-08-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of case management at referral level for malnourished sick children in a rural district health system in the south of Chad (Pala district). The methodology followed was based on a cohort study of malnourished children as well as a cost-effective analysis of alternative options for nutritional rehabilitation strategies. Results show that effective case management at hospital level is possible with few resources as long as the nutritional rehabilitation programme is implemented on an integrated basis including early diagnosis of malnutrition for all children admitted to hospital and not to wait for a normal weight-for-height but discharge when the hospital is no longer the best place to avoid further mortality.

  8. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in this lake. With these new records, the relict fish fauna currently known in lakes and gueltas of the Borkou plateaus comprises six species. In the Ennedi Mountains, where the specific status of Barbus populations was unclear, B. macrops was collected in Bachikere guelta. The toad Amietophrynus regularis was collected in Ounianga Kebir.

  9. Hydrocarbon Potentials, Thermal and Burial History in Herwa-1 Well from the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin: An Implication of 1-D Basin Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Mijinyawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study attempt to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials, thermal and burial history and the timing of hydrocarbon generation in Herwa-1 well within the Nigerian Sector of the Chad basin. Organic geochemical study of some ditch cuttings samples from Herwa-1 well and a One-dimensional basin modeling study was carried out. The result of the geochemical analysis revealed a moderate to good TOC greater than 0.5wt% in Fika and Gongila formation, the Hydrogen Index (HI ranges from 150-300 (mgHC/g and the Tmax values falls within the range of greater than or equal to 430°C. The hydrocarbon potentials in Herwa-1 well was further supported with the values of S1+S2 which is greater than or equal to 2 mg/g of rock in almost all the samples, suggesting a good hydrocarbon potentials. The 1-D basin model was constructed for Herwa-1 well in order to assess the burial history and thermal maturity of the potential source rocks in the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin. The modeling results indicate that maximum burial occurred in the late Miocene and suggesting erosion might have been the cause of the thinning of the Tertiary sediments in the present time. The calibration of Vitrinite reflectance against Temperature revealed the present day heat flow to be at 60 mW/m2 and Paleo heat flow falls within the range of 68 mW/m2. However, it is also revealed that Oil Window begins at (0.60-1.30% VRr at the depth of (2000-3000 m in the middle Cretaceous and the Gas Window start during the late Cretaceous to Tertiary with a value of (1.3-2.5% VRr at a depth greater than (3500 m.

  10. Malnutrition and mortality patterns among internally displaced and non-displaced population living in a camp, a village or a town in Eastern Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Guerrier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. METHODOLOGY: Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster household surveys were conducted among 43,900 internally displaced persons (IDPs living in camps in Ouaddai region (n = 898 households, among 19,400 non-displaced persons (NDPs living in 42 villages in Ouaddai region (n = 900 households and among 17,000 NDPs living in a small town in Salamat region (n = 901 households. Data collection included anthropometric measurements, measles vaccination rates and retrospective mortality. Crude mortality rate (CMR, mortality rate among children younger than 5 years (U5MR, causes of death and the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z score <-2 among children aged 6 to 59 months were the main outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: The CMR among the 4902 IDPs in Gozbeida camps, 4477 NDPs living in a village and 4073 NDPs living in a town surveyed was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.8, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.4, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5 per 10,000 per day, respectively. The U5MR in a camp (n = 904, a village (n = 956 and a town (n = 901 was 4.1 (95% CI, 2.1-7.7, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9 and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.4 per 10,000 per day, respectively. Diarrhoea was reported to be the main cause of death. Acute malnutrition rates (according to the WHO definition among 904 IDP children, 956 NDPs children living in a village, 901 NDP children living in a town aged 6 to 59 months were 20.6% (95% CI, 17.9%-23.3%, 16.4% (95% CI, 14.0%-18.8% and 10.1% (95% CI, 8.1%-12.2% respectively. The study found a high mortality rate among IDPs and an elevated prevalence of

  11. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  12. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  13. [Evaluation of the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age in Moundou, Chad: correlations with morbidity and hospital mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study carried out in the pediatric ward of the regional hospital in Moundou, Chad, between June 1992 and May 1993 was to assess the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in children under 5 years of age and its relationship with various diseases and in-hospital mortality. A total of 1050 children ranging in age from 1 to 59 months were hospitalized in the ward during the study period and included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed using weight-for-height (W/H) and height-for-age (H/A) charts. Diarrhea, dehydratation, malaria, anemia, acute respiratory infection, and meningitis accounted for 85.5% of the underlying diseases and for 76% of deaths. At entry into study the prevalence of malnutrition was 63.1% (W/H malnutrition (W/H Malnutrition was more prevalent in children under than over 2 years of age (80% vs. 42.7% respectively). The same trend was observed with regard to severe malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest in children with acute respiratory infections or diarrhea (61.3% and 89.8% respectively). Mortality was significantly higher in severely malnourished children and malnourished children with respiratory infection especially at ages under 1 year. Death was attributed to malnutrition in 30% of cases. Better low cost nutritional care is currently feasible. The most cost efficient methods of fighting against this problem are prevention and education especially concerning breast feeding.

  14. [Seasonal variations in the nutritional status of nomad and sedentary children less than 5 years of age living in the Sahel in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Seydi, M; Wade, S; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among rural and nomad populations in the Sahel. It is linked to socio-economic factors and exhibits significant seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children less than 5 years of age. A repeated cross-sectional study design based on interviews and anthropometric measurements was used. A total of 653 nomad children and 579 sedentary children ranging in age from 0 to 59 months were randomly selected in households/camps on the south-eastern shore of Lake Chad. Data were collected from the same number of children at the end of the dry season (May/June, 2007) and at the end of rainy season (October 2007). Findings showed significant interseasonal variation in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) between the end of the dry season and end of the rainy season. The respective variations were 17.9% to 13.7% (p = 0.03) in nomad children and 16.5% to 10.6% (p = 0.004) in sedentary children. Backward stepwise multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that GAM among children under 5 years of age was significantly correlated with the following risk factors: seasonal variation, child's age, mother's nutritional status, ethnic group, and place of residence (LRT=172 and p < 0.001 for the logistic regression model). These findings demonstrate the critical state of the nutritional situation in the Sahel and rural areas.

  15. Characterizing 13 Years of Surface Water Variability from MODIS-based Near Real-Time Flood Mapping Products in the Indus River, Tonle Sap Lake, and Lake Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Driven by an increase in extreme weather events in a warming world, flooding appears to be increasing in many regions. Since 2012, we have been using the twice-daily near-global observations of the two MODIS instruments to operate a near real-time flood mapping capability. Primarily intended to support disaster response efforts, our system generates daily near-global maps of flood water extent, at 250 m resolution. Although cloud cover is a challenge, the twice-daily coverage from the Terra and Aqua satellites helps to capture most major events. We use the MOD44W product (the "MODIS 250-m land-water mask") to differentiate "normal" water from flood water. Products from the system are freely available, and used by disaster response agencies and academic and industry researchers. An open question, however, is: how "normal" are recently observed floods? Destructive and — as reported by the press — record floods seem to be occurring more and more frequently. With the MODIS archive going back to 1999 (Terra satellite) and 2002 (Aqua satellite), we now have more than a decade of twice-daily near-global observations to begin answering this question. Although the 13 years of available twice-daily data (2002-2015) are not sufficient to fully characterize surface water normals (e.g., 100-year floods), we can start examining recent trends in surface water extent and flood frequency. To do so, we have back-processed our surface water product through mid-2002 (Aqua launch) for a few regions, and have used this to evaluate the variability in surface water extent and flood frequency. These results will eventually feed back into an improved characterization of flood water in our near real-time flood product. Here we will present results on trends in surface water extent and flood frequency for a few regions, including the Indus in Pakistan, the Tonle Sap lake in Cambodia, and lake Chad in Africa.

  16. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  17. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  18. 基于多源遥感数据的非洲乍得湖水面变化监测%Remote sensing analysis on lake area variation of Lake Chad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘甜甜; 刘荣高; 葛全胜

    2013-01-01

    Lake Chad,on the border of the Sahara desert in central Africa,is well known for its high sensitivity to hydroclimatic events.Over the last 40 years,Lake Chad,once the sixth largest lake in the world,has shrunk by more than 90% in area.In this paper,variations of the open water areas,extracted from multi-source remote sensing data during 1973-2012,are analyzed.The results showed that in general Lake Chad was getting smaller and smaller during 1973-2012.Between 1973 and 1975 its area sharply reduced by about 71%.From then on its area ranges from 2000 km2 to 5000 km2.In order to validate the reliability of the trends,this paper first compares it with Birkett's results to analyze area accuracy,and next compares the results of MODIS with Landsat and AVHRR to validate the comparability of multi-source data,and last monitors monthly variation of Lake Chad area to validate the feasibility of multi-temporal data.Meteorological data analysis showed that the area of Lake Chad and the fluctuation of annual precipitation were in good correlation.Secondly,a large number of reservoirs built are another important cause of area reduction.Lastly,the Great Barrier that divided the lake into two smaller lakes has made it more vulnerable to water loss.%乍得湖位于中非撒哈拉沙漠边界,是非洲重要的淡水湖,湖面大小对气候变化高度敏感.近40年,由于干旱等自然灾害和大规模灌溉等人为因素的影响,乍得湖面积急剧减少,受到广泛关注.本文利用多种光学遥感数据提取1973-2012年乍得湖面积,分析其变化趋势和驱动机制.结果表明,1973-2012年间乍得湖面积总体上在变小,1973-1975年间乍得湖面积急剧减少了约71%,1975-2012年面积在2000~5000km2范围内波动.为验证变化趋势的可靠性,本文利用MODIS影像与同期Landsat和AVHRR影像的提取结果进行比较,来检验多源数据的可比性;通过MODIS影像监测乍得湖面积的月变化,来检验所选数

  19. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  20. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  1. Re-evaluation of the petroleum potential of the Kufra Basin (SE Libya, NE Chad): does the source rock barrier fall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Sebastian [Wales Univ., Inst. of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Craig, Jonathan [LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Fitches, Bill [Robertson Research International, Llandudno (United Kingdom); Mayouf, Juma; Busrewil, Ahmed; El Dieb, Mufta; Gammudi, Amar [Petroleum Research Centre, Tripoli (Libya); Loydell, David [Portsmouth Univ., School of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); McIlroy, Duncan [Liverpool Univ., STRAT Group, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    The Kufra Basin is a large, underexplored, Palaeozoic intracratonic sag basin in SE Libya and NE Chad with extensions into NW Sudan and SW Egypt. The basin fill consists of shallow marine to fluvial deposits ranging in age from infracambrian to Cretaceous. Geologically, the basin is very similar to the Murzuq Basin in SW Libya which recently presented Libya with its largest oil discovery for over a decade. Most of the hydrocarbon play elements known from the Murzuq Basin also occur in the Kufra Basin: thick, porous Cambro-Ordovician sandstones are present and would form good reservoirs, lower Silurian shales may act as effective seals, and there are potential structural traps in seismically defined fault blocks. However, the source rock availability in the Kufra Basin is currently unclear. One of the two main source rock candidates in the basin is a lower Silurian shale unit (Tanezzuft Formation). The Tanezzuft shales have been described as being up to 130 m thick in outcrops at the basin margins, but the shales were found to be replaced by siltstones and sandstones in two dry exploration wells drilled in the northern part of the basin by AGIP between 1978 and 1981. Hot shales developed at the base of this widespread Silurian shale unit form important source rocks in many areas of North Africa and Arabia. These hot shales are interpreted to have been deposited in palaeodepressions, such as incised valleys of the preceding lowstand, or intrashelf basins, during the initial transgression after the melting of the late Ordovician ice cap. The areal distribution of the organic-rich unit is, therefore, discontinuous. Fieldwork in the Kufra Basin has shown that the basal Tanezzuft horizon is not exposed on the northern and eastern margins of the basin. Deep infracambrian rift grabens have been interpreted on seismic lines from the Kufra Basin and, in analogy to Oman and Algeria, could contain organic-rich infracambrian deposits. The infracambrian succession in the Kufra

  2. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  3. Study of Standardized Anticoagulant Therapy in Elderly Patient with Atrial Fibrillation%CHADS2评分法规范老年非瓣膜性房颤治疗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣艳; 范正俊; 冯云萍; 浩一竹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand current the state of standardized anticoagulant therapy.In elderly patient with atrial fibrillation and analyze the factors that affect standard anticoagulant therapy,and at the same time,to make progress by the foundation of corresponding countermeasures.Method:Diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation elderly patients were history inspected for a period of 12 months(from January 2013 to December 2013)in 1st Hospital Cardiovascular Department,CHADS2 scheme method was used to stratify atrial fibrillation elderly patient and assess their risk of bleeding,the standardized anticoagulant therapy conditions were evaluated according to atrial fibrillation treatment guidelines.Result:A total of 161 patients were enrolled.According to the CHADS2 scheme,106 patients were divided into the high risk group,in which only 21 were on warfarin anticoagulant treatment.Among which 11(42.3%) had international normalized ratio(INR)in therapeutic range(2.0-3.0).Conclusion:The percentage of standard anticoagulant treatment in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation is very low(38.4%),still more,the percentage of high risk patients using warfarin standard anticoagulant treatment is even low 19.8%.Further investigation and understanding of the causes of this phenomenon will help intervene effectively and improve the standard of anticoagulant therapy in patient with atrial fibrillation.%目的:了解老年非瓣膜性心房颤动患者规范化抗凝治疗现状,分析影响规范化抗凝治疗的因素。方法:调取2013年1-12月份曲靖市第一人民医院住院诊断为非瓣膜性心房颤动的老年患者病历,采用CHADS2评分法评价其规范化抗凝情况。结果:共入选患者161例。按照CHADS2评分法将入组患者分组,其中评分≥1患者151例中,进行规范华法林抗凝治疗的仅26例,抗凝结果11例INR在目标范围内,达到华法林抗凝目标INR值的为42.3%。结论:老年非瓣膜性心房颤

  4. Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A

    2013-10-15

    The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin

  5. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  6. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth's most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002-0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM bioavailability to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M; Reynolds, Richard; Goldstein, Harland; Beroquo, Thelma; Kokaly, Raymond; Bristow, Charlie S

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth’s most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002–0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM < 0.1 μm. For all examined samples, the average iron apportionment is estimated at about 33% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4% in magnetite, and 65

  8. Häda taustauuringutega / Chad Terhune

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Terhune, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Üha enam firmasid Ameerikas on hakanud tegema taustauuringuid peamiselt keskmise ja madalama tasandi töökohadele tulnud avalduste andjate kohta. Selleks kasutatakse mitmeid tööandjatele taustauuringuid pakkuvaid firmasid, millest üks on ChoicePoint. Ettevõte koostab töösoovija kohta digitaalse toimiku, mis sisaldab haridusdiplomeid, krediidiajalugu ning ka intervjuusid sõprade, endiste ülemuste ja kolleegidega. Vt. samas: Taustakontroll

  9. Rural Schools in Developing Countries: A Case of Donon Manga in Eastern Tandjile in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…

  10. Connecting to the Umma through Islamic Relief: transnational Islamic NGOs in Chad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that if the activities of Islamic NGOs from the Arab world in Africa are evaluated merely in terms of their local economic development impact, there is a risk of missing an important point. While it is true that the scope of these interventions and the amount of money involved are

  11. Chad – Dakar: Extraordinary Habré trial is litmus test for Pan-African justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    From 20 July onwards, Chad’s previous despot, Hissène Habré, will be in the dock on charges of crimes against humanity, torture and war crimes before the Extraordinary African Chambers (EAC) in the Senegalese court system. His trial will be Africa’s first to proceed to trial under the guise of unive

  12. Communications Channels in the Sahel Using Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Chad as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Page 60 of 107 Appendix B - Phone Card Distribution Chain Phone Card Provider Internet Cafes ...92 Malaysia 22,25 93 Comoros 22,50 - Zambia 22,50 95 Niger 24,50 - Seychelles 24,50 97 Morocco 24,83 98 Bhutan 25,00 - Côte d’Ivoire 25,00

  13. Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad: integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weibel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.

  14. Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Wastewater from Abattoir, Brewery, Soap and Oil Factories, at Moundou City in Southern Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmatal Tidjanihisseine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of industrial wastewater in the city of Moundou deteriorates the quality of surface and underground water and soils. In this study the physicochemical quality of industrial effluents was investigated in different seasons (summer, winter and rainy. Three sampling sites were used (Central Abattoir discharge, Cotontchad (soap and oil factory discharge, and Brewery discharge, for sampling from July 2013 to December 2014. The following physico-chemical parameters were determined: pH, Temperature, EC, dissolved oxygen, COD, BOD5, NO3,PO4,SO4. Also, the heavy metals: Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, Zn, Cr, Fe, Al, was analyzed on spectrophotometers and results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO permissible limits. This study revealed that most parameters were much higher than the permissible limit for wastewater discharges:some parameters were to higher: pH (12,6, Temperature (37,8 °C, C.E (4270 µS/cm, organic matters: COD (1200 mg/l, SO4 (1280 mg/l, PO4(4460 mg/l, NO3 (63,6 mg/l, (Fe (63,34 mg/l, Zn (13,27 mg/l, Pb (4,0 mg/l, Cu (25,34 mg/l, Cd (31,78 mg/l, Cr (5,9 mg/l, Ni (39,5 mg/l. The study concludes that discharge of effluents by the companies; factory and materials from other anthropogenic sources severely pollute the Logone River with heavy metals and other pollutants. We recommended that each industry recycle its wastewater and put in place specific treatment plants, because pollutants to eliminate vary depending on the industry.

  15. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreni Jean-Richard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  16. The implications for dust emission modeling of spatial and vertical variations in horizontal dust flux and particle size in the Bodélé Depression, Northern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Warren, Andrew; O'Donoghue, Alice; Robinson, Andrea; Thomas, Andrew; Bristow, Charlie

    2008-02-01

    The Bodélé Depression has been confirmed as the single largest source of atmospheric mineral dust on Earth. It is a distinctive source because of its large exposure of diatomite and the presence of mega-barchan dunes. Direct measurements of horizontal dust flux and particle size were made to investigate dust emission processes and for comparison with mechanisms of emission assumed in current dust models. More than 50 masts, with traps mounted on each, were located across and downwind of three barchans in 56 km2 study area of the eastern Bodélé. The size-distribution of surface material is bi-modal; there are many fine dust modes and a mixed mineralogy with a particle density three times smaller than quartz. Horizontal fluxes (up to 70 m above the playa) of particles, up to 1000 μm in diameter, are produced frequently from the accelerated flow over and around the barchans, even in below-threshold shear conditions on the diatomite playa. Our data on dust sizes do not conform to retrievals of dust size distributions from radiance measurements made in the same area. Dust emission models for the region may need to be revised to account for: saltators in the Bodélé, which are a mixture of quartz sand and diatomite flakes; the great spatial and vertical variation in the abundance, mass and density of dust and abraders; and the patterns of surface erodibility. All of these have important local effects on the vertical dust flux and its particle sizes.

  17. Raptor habitat use in the Lake Chad Basin : insights into the effect of flood-plain transformation on Afrotropical and Palearctic raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.

    2013-01-01

    West African flood-plains have undergone major land-use transformations in the second half of the 20th century. To obtain insight in the effect of flood-plain development for irrigated rice cultivation on the abundance, richness, and diversity of Palearctic and Afrotropical raptors, we conducted mon

  18. Conflict, mobility and language : the case of migrant Hadjaraye of Guéra to neighboring regions of Chari-Baguirmi and Salamat (Chad)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alio, K.

    2008-01-01

    The people of Guéra known as Hadjaraye (from Arabic: the mountain dwellers) have experienced all the atrocities of war and the sufferings of drought that caused them to emigrate. In the early 1970, the ecological conditions worsened and changed for ever, giving way to cyclic droughts which resulted

  19. New material of Anancus kenyensis (proboscidea, mammalia) from Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, Chad): Contribution to the systematics of African anancines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Tassy, Pascal; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-03-01

    New fossil remains of the proboscidean genus Anancus are described. Among them, a complete skull allows us to revisit for the first time the entire Chadian Anancus fossil record. This genus occurred in the Old World from the late Miocene up to the early Pleistocene. The analysis of dental and cranial characters was allowed individual variations from specific characters to be distinguished. In this study we show that Anancus kenyensis and Anancus osiris are very likely synonym taxa which leads us to emend the diagnosis of A. kenyensis. In addition, this study shows that dental characters in anancines lineage are of little significance for biostratigraphical inference, by contrast to previous works. This study brings new data about the phylogenetical and palaeobiogeographical history of the African anancines.

  20. 2009年乍得尼日尔和尼日利亚脑膜炎流行情况%Meningitis in Chad, Niger and Nigeria: 2009 epidemic season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WHO; 宁桂军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 背景脑膜炎奈瑟菌(Neisseria meningitidis,Nm)是非洲脑膜炎地带脑膜炎流行的主要病原,所引起的脑膜炎球菌疾病占医疗机构中细菌性脑膜炎住院病例的80%~95%.其他大部分细菌性脑膜炎病例由肺炎链球菌和b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus Influenzae Type b,Hib)引起.非洲脑膜炎地带位于非洲撒哈拉沙漠以南,西起寒内加尔,东至埃塞俄比亚,覆盖21个国家,总人口约4亿.该地带脑膜炎球菌疾病特点是高度地方流行、季节件复发和周期性大爆发,年发病率可岛达1000/10万.2003~2009年,该地带脑膜炎流行导致了近27万病例,死亡2.5万人.

  1. Application of K2SO4/ Silicate Drilling Fluid in Chad Bongor Basin%硫酸钾/硅酸盐钻井液在乍得Bongor盆地的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代礼杨; 李洪俊; 苏秀纯; 于永新; 董殿彬; 贾培娟

    2011-01-01

    乍得Bongor盆地Kubla、Mimosa地层黏土矿物含量高,层理和微裂隙发育,易发生井壁水化膨胀、井眼坍塌现象.因此在对坍塌层位岩性进行综合分析的基础上.针对乍得Bongor盆地环境保护要求高的特点,研制出一种安全环保的强抑制K2SO4/硅酸盐钻井液.在Prosopis E1-1井的现场应用表明,该钻井液携岩能力强,具有良好的抑制泥页岩水化膨胀能力和防止地层垮塌能力;其抗盐膏、水泥污染能力强,性能稳定,易于维护;润滑性好,泥饼薄而韧,摩阻低;所钻井井径规则,对稳定井壁起到了显著的作用.

  2. Strategic Planning for Comprehensive Security in the European Union’s Military Operations: EUFOR RD Congo, EUFOR Tchad/RCA, and EUNAVFOR Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    403–409; Stefan Brune, “Controversial Peacekeeping Operations – Europe, France and Chad,” WeltTrends, no. 64 (2009), 19–23; Felix Arteaga , The...Defence Research Establishment, 2008), 46–48. 138 Arteaga , The Chad Conflict, United Nations (MINURCAT) and the European Union (EUFOR), 1– 3. 48...Skepsis űber den Vorstoss,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, sec. Politik, 18 June 2007. 143 Arteaga , The Chad Conflict, United Nations (MINURCAT

  3. 76 FR 62134 - Bureau of Consular Affairs; Registration for the Diversity Immigrant (DV-2013) Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Djibouti... Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger...

  4. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of the Act, with respect to Chad, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mauritania, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia... addressing of basic human needs, as defined by the Department of the Treasury with respect to other,...

  5. Spina Bifida Clinic Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... edu Special Health Care Services Spinal Cord Clinic Wesley Medical Arts Tower Building (pediatric-will refer adults) ... to age 25) Clinic 6L, One Medical Center Dr. Lebanon, NH 03756 (603) 653-9623 http://chad. ...

  6. Refined Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Essomba

    2011-01-01

    THE Republic of Chad has put an end to importing oil products,with the inauguration of its first refinery by Chadian President Idriss Deby.Located near Ndjamena,the country's capital,the refinery will process and transform the country's crude oil reserves into gasoline,kerosene,gas oil and other fuels.Chad began producing oil in 2003 and has to date discovered 13 oil fields.

  7. Refined Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    Chad no longer dependent on oil product innports as the country opens its primary oil refinery THE Republic of Chad has put an end to importing oil products,with the inauguration of its first refinery by Chadian President Idriss Deby.Located near Ndjamena,the country’s capital,the refinery will process and transform the country’s crude oil reserves into gasoline,kerosene,gas oil and other fuels.

  8. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  9. 非瓣膜性房颤患者支架植入术后的抗栓策略%Antithrombotic Strategies of the Patients with Non-Valvular AF after PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莹

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察房颤患者经皮冠状动脉介入术( post-percutaneous coronary intervention ,PCI)后使用三联疗法( triple therapy ,TT)即华法林+双联抗血小板疗法( dual antiplatelet therapy ,DAPT)的安全性及有效性。方法:这是一项单中心、回顾性研究。主要复合事件包括死亡、缺血性卒中或短暂性脑缺血发作;胃肠道出血、颅内出血。结果:房颤PCI术后患者中,22例接受TT,13例接受DAPT。随访6个月。 TT组CHADS2评分较高,较年长,男性较多。 CHADS2评分值>2分,TT显著减少缺血事件。但TT组复合出血事件增多。 CHADS2评分值>2分的净临床获益(net clinical benefit,NCB)为正值。结论:NCB表明CHADS2评分值>2分的患者使用TT有明显获益。 CHADS2评分可作为房颤PCI术后患者抗栓策略的评估工具。%Objective:To determine the safety and efficacy of triple therapy ( TT): warfarin with dual antiplatelet therapy ( DAPT) for treating patients with atrial fibrillation ( AF) in post -percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods:This was a single -centre,retrospective study.Primary composite destination event were death , ischemic stroke , or transient ischemic attack; gastrointestinal bleeds , intracerebral hemorrhage.Results:In post-PCI patients with AF,22 received TT,13 received DAPT.Mean follow-up was 6 months.The TT group had a higher CHADS2 score,and older,much more male.CHADS2 score >2, TT decreased ischemic events significantly , but with composite bleeding events were increasing .When CHADS 2 score >2 , Net clinical benefit ( NCB ) was in positive value .Conclusion:NCB declares that patient with CHADS2 score >2 is beneficial to receive TT .CHADS2 score may be used to determine optimal antithrombotic therapy for patients with Af after PCI .

  10. Effect of Metabolic Syndrome on Risk Stratification for Left Atrial or Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus Formation in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Li; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a risk factor for stroke and thromboembolism event. Left atrial or LA appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus is a surrogate of potential stroke. The relationship between MS and atrial thrombus remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of MS on risk stratification of LA/LAA thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 294 consecutive NVAF patients without prior anticoagulant and lipid-lowering therapies. LA/LAA thrombus was determined by transesophageal echocardiography. Risk assessment of LA/LAA thrombus was performed using the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, MS, CHADS2-MS, and CHA2DS2-VASc-MS scores. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors were significantly related to LA/LAA thrombus. Odds ratio (OR) including 95% confidence interval was also calculated. The predictive powers of different scores for the risk of LA/LAA thrombus were represented by C-statistics and compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: LA/LAA thrombi were identified in 56 patients (19.0%). Logistic analysis showed that MS was the strongest risk factor for LA/LAA thrombus in NVAF patients (OR = 14.698, P < 0.001). ROC curve analyses revealed that the C-statistics of CHADS2-MS and CHA2DS2-VASc-MS was significantly higher than those of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (CHADS2-MS vs. CHADS2, 0.807 vs. 0.726, P = 0.0019). Furthermore, MS was helpful for identifying individuals with a high risk of LA/LAA thrombus in the population with a low risk of stroke (CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc score = 0). Conclusions: MS is associated with LA/LAA thrombus risk in patients with NVAF. In addition to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, the CHADS2-MS and CHA2DS2-VASc-MS scores provide additional information on stroke risk assessment. PMID:27748329

  11. Way that Student Party Members and Party Branch Play the Role in Good School Spirit and Study Style Construction: Based on Hector—Brent Chad's Situational Leadership Theory%学生党员、党支部在优良校风、学风建设中发挥作用的途径研究——基于赫赛—布兰查德的情境领导理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

    School spirit and style of study is a school's atmosphere; it is a kind of stable, distinct, and recognized behavior trend that all teaching and administrative staff and students forms for a long time in teaching and study. The paper studies the role of student party members and party branch in construction of good school spirit and study style, and discusses that student party members and party branch should take the different styles of leadership when forming good school spirit and study style according to different student group.%校风、学风,就是一所学校的风气,是指一所学校的全体教职工和学生在教学和学习过程中经过长期积累所形成的稳定的、鲜明的、被社会公众所公认的行为倾向.本文通过将组织行为学、管理学引入学生党员、党支部在优良校风、学风建设发挥作用的途径研究中,论证高校学生党员、党支部在形成和维系优良校风、学风等优秀组织文化中,应根据学生群体的不同类型采取不同的领导方式.

  12. Guideline Adherence of Antithrombotic Treatment Initiated by General Practitioners in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Danish Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandes, Axel; Overgaard, Mikkel; Plauborg, Liane

    2013-01-01

    .001) of the patients. Of all patients, 66.3% were treated with oral anticoagulants, 18.7% with antiplatelet drugs only, and 15% received no antithrombotic therapy. Based on the CHADS(2) score, 75.7% of the patients were treated in adherence with the guidelines, 16% were undertreated, and 8.4% overtreated......) score. Applying the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score, this proportion was only 53.4%. Antiplatelet drug treatment was in adherence to the guidelines (CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score of 1) in only 31% and 12% of the patients, respectively. ConclusionsAntithrombotic treatment of AF patients is in general well...

  13. Farvebilleder fra det mørke Afrika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing Tchadian director Mahamet-Saleh Haroun’s 2013 film Grigris the article discusses the political potentials of contemporary Sub-Saharan Film. The article rejects frameworks of African and Francophone cinema and argues that a localized understanding of this film in Chad provides a better...... understanding of the universal and global reach of the engagement with politics that is one of the film’s prime objectives. It is through an understanding of the local and regional society and history that it becomes evident how the film engages with political issues with reach far beyond the borders of Chad...

  14. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age=75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA2DS2-VASc (CHA2DS2-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes to pr...

  15. Lipid-based nutrient supplements: how can they combat child malnutrition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn G Dewey

    Full Text Available Kathryn Dewey and Mary Arimond discuss new research in PLOS Medicine that assesses the effect of blanket provision of ready-to-use supplementary food to children at high risk of malnutrition in Chad, and highlight some of the challenges of investigating the efficacy of supplementary foods for malnourished children.

  16. 'Ins' and 'outs' of triple therapy: Optimal antiplatelet therapy in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation who need coronary stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, W.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Breet, N.; Koolen, J.J.; Berg, J.M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Chronic oral anticoagulant treatment is obligatory in patients (class I) with mechanical heart valves and in patients with atrial fibrillation with CHADS2 score >1. When these patients undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of a stent, there is also an indication for treatment

  17. Template-Directed Crystallization of High Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    LONGER EMPLOYED BY YOUR ORGANIZATION. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of...using joint beam time awarded to Chad Stoltz (Indian Head), Kyle Ramos and Dan Hooks ( LANL ). This was a good learning opportunity, however, the

  18. The continuing story of the International Criminal Court and personal immunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2015-01-01

    The International Criminal Court has issued a warrant of arrest for the arrest and surrender of the incumbent president of Sudan, AlBashir, holding that his current position as Head of State is not an obstacle for the Court’s jurisdiction. After Chad and Malawi had refused to surrender Al Bashir, th

  19. Not a One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯其良; 李德售

    2002-01-01

    Little Chad was a shy, quiet young man. One day he came homeand told his mother that he'd like tomake a valentine(情人节礼物)for ev-eryone in his class. Her heart sank.She thought, ""1 wish he wouldn't dothat! ""because she had watched thechildren when they walked homefrom school.

  20. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Myanmar) Burundi* Cambodia* Cameroon* Cape Verde* Central African Republic* Chad* China, People's Republic...-Bissau* Haiti* India* Iran Iraq* Israel* Kazakhstan Kenya* Korea, People's Democratic Republic of* Kuwait... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi...

  1. Recurrence plots from altimetry data of some lakes in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_776444.1| chondroadherin [Bos taurus] sp|Q27972|CHAD_BOVIN Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) (38 kDa bone protein) [Contains: Chondroadherin m

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_062037.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norvegicus] sp|O70210|CHAD_RAT Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAC40060.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norveg...icus] gb|EDM05713.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norvegicus] NP_062037.1 9e-85 57% ...

  4. Improving Air Force Enterprise Resource Planning-Enabled Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2006. Love, Peter E. D., Zahir Irani, Craig Standing, Chad Lin, and Janice M. Burn, “The Enigma of Evaluation...2006. Sarker, Suprateek, and Allen Lee, “Using a Case Study to Test the Role of Three Key Social Enablers in ERP Implementation,” Information and

  5. Lipid-based nutrient supplements: how can they combat child malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Arimond, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Kathryn Dewey and Mary Arimond discuss new research in PLOS Medicine that assesses the effect of blanket provision of ready-to-use supplementary food to children at high risk of malnutrition in Chad, and highlight some of the challenges of investigating the efficacy of supplementary foods for malnourished children.

  6. The silent victims of humanitarian crises and livelihood (in)security: a case study among migrants in two Chadian towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djindil, N.S.; Bruijn, de M.

    2009-01-01

    Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assis

  7. 78 FR 77774 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Freeman (WI); Aaron Gillette (SD); David Kestner (VA); Michael Kramer (KS); and Chad Smith (MA). If the... physician states that he is supportive of Mr. Fleiner receiving an exemption. Gary Freeman Mr. Freeman is a... frequency remaining the same for over seven years. His physician states that he is supportive of Mr....

  8. The moral challenge of green technology / Aarne P Vesilind, Lauren Heine, Jamie Hendry

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vesilind, Aarne P

    2006-01-01

    Autorid leiavad, et rohelise tehnoloogia kasutuselevõtu ja ettevõtete kasumi teenimise vastuseisu korral võidab kasumlikkus ning reguleerimata vaba turu süsteem ei toeta jätkusuutlikku arengut. Käsitletakse ettevõtte DuPont tegevdirektori Chad Holliday otsust jätkata tulutoova toote Teflon tootmist

  9. Paysage Médiatique Tchadien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Djibrine Absoulaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The media gestation in Chad has been very laborious, mainly during the prior democracy period that only existed public media doing the Government politic propaganda. But since 21st century, the media plurality has been faced like the proliferation of private media forming the voice of voiceless-people. Nowadays, the media industry become a struggle way of democratic opposition party.

  10. Threat Control through Arms Control. Report to Congress 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d’lvoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic...by the Fourth Freedom Forum and the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies and Hosted by the University of Notre Dame (OFFICIAL

  11. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...) 761-7718, chad.stovall@ak.usda.gov . American Samoa (See Hawaii) Arizona Alan Watt, USDA Rural Development, 230 North First Avenue, Suite 206, Phoenix, AZ 85003-1706, (602) 280-8769, Alan.Watt@az.usda.gov...) 437-5554, Debra.Yocum@ne.usda.gov . Nevada Mark Williams, USDA Rural Development, 1390 South...

  12. Without Speaking, Youth Enters Adult Work Scene, Copes with Autism a Day at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the story of Chad Roberts of Canton, Georgia, who is proving himself a promising employee day by day. He works several jobs in increments of up to 90 minutes. Some days, he completes bulk mailings at a law firm. On others, he's at local restaurants stocking the wait staff stations with supplies. The community-based vocational…

  13. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation: nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS(2) (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age≥75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc (CHA(2)DS(2)-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes...

  14. Guide de terrain des ligneux saheliens et soudano-guineens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, C.

    1983-01-01

    This work is a field guide to the woody plants of the savannes and steppes of northern tropical Africa, from Senegal to Chad. 371 species of trees, shrubs and woody lianas, belonging to 62 families are included. The Dutch introduction comprises notes on fire, the use of the plants by Man, and the co

  15. 76 FR 22895 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... an Extension Without Change: State and Local Government Information Report (EEO-4). SUMMARY: In... to Chad A. Lallemand, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget...: State and Local Government Information Report (EEO-4). Frequency of Report: Biennial. Type of...

  16. The Viking-Age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2014-01-01

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...

  17. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...

  18. Calibrating a Field-level, Systems Dynamics Model of Terrorism’s Human Capital Subsystem: GSPC as Case Study[1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    coded. 6. Focus countries for activities were limited to the African continent: Algeria (DZA), Mauritania ( MRT ), Mali (MLI), Niger (NER), and Chad (TCD...terrorist groups, including Italy, Algeria, and Great Britain. Amnesties would be included among in the class of creative government policies for

  19. Detection of previously undiagnosed atrial fibrillation in patients with stroke risk factors and usefulness of continuous monitoring in primary stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paul D; Glotzer, Taya V; Daoud, Emile G; Singer, Daniel E; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Hoyt, Robert H; Koehler, Jodi L; Coles, James; Wyse, D George

    2012-11-01

    The detection of undiagnosed atrial tachycardia/atrial fibrillation (AT/AF) among patients with stroke risk factors could be useful for primary stroke prevention. We analyzed newly detected AT/AF (NDAF) using continuous monitoring in patients with stroke risk factors but without previous stroke or evidence of AT/AF. NDAF (AT/AF >5 minutes on any day) was determined in patients with implantable cardiac rhythm devices and ≥1 stroke risk factors (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, or diabetes). All devices were capable of continuously monitoring the daily cumulative time in AT/AF. Of 1,368 eligible patients, NDAF was identified in 416 (30%) during a follow-up of 1.1 ± 0.7 years and was unrelated to the CHADS(2) score (congestive heart failure, hypertension [blood pressure consistently >140/90 mm Hg or hypertension treated with medication], age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack). The presence of AT/AF >6 hours on ≥1 day increased significantly with increased CHADS(2) scores and was present in 158 (54%) of 294 patients with NDAF and a CHADS(2) score of ≥2. NDAF was sporadic, and 78% of patients with a CHADS(2) score of ≥2 with NDAF experienced AT/AF on risk patients was 72 days (interquartile range 13 to 177). In conclusion, continuous monitoring identified NDAF in 30% of patients with stroke risk factors. In patients with NDAF, AT/AF occurred sporadically, highlighting the difficulty in detecting paroxysmal AT/AF using traditional monitoring methods. However, AT/AF also persisted for >6 hours on ≥1 days in most patients with NDAF and multiple stroke risk factors. Whether patients with CHADS(2) risk factors but without a history of AF might benefit from implantable monitors for the selection and administration of anticoagulation for primary stroke prevention merits additional investigation.

  20. Capillary-driven microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for lab on a chip screening of explosive residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Blanes, Lucas; Taudte, Regina V; Stuart, Barbara H; Cole, Nerida; Willis, Peter; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2016-03-04

    A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was designed to filter, extract, and pre-concentrate explosives from soil for direct analysis by a lab on a chip (LOC) device. The explosives were extracted via immersion of wax-printed μPADs directly into methanol soil suspensions for 10min, whereby dissolved explosives travelled upwards into the μPAD circular sampling reservoir. A chad was punched from the sampling reservoir and inserted into a LOC well containing the separation buffer for direct analysis, avoiding any further extraction step. Eight target explosives were separated and identified by fluorescence quenching. The minimum detectable amounts for all eight explosives were between 1.4 and 5.6ng with recoveries ranging from 53-82% from the paper chad, and 12-40% from soil. This method provides a robust and simple extraction method for rapid identification of explosives in complex soil samples.

  1. Wartime Alliances versus Coalition Warfare: How Institutional Structure Matters in the Multilateral Prosecution of Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    as Susan Sell, George Shambaugh, Martha Finnemore , James Lebovic, Chad Rector, Jay Parker and all of the members of the research seminar group at the...and Iraq—the coalitions are forged as a means toward achieving objectives that serve the interest of one nation above all, even if the Strategic...to the US national interest . First, the large scale of contemporary coalitions may actually reduce fight­ ing effectiveness by creating additional

  2. Effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps Tiered Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    effectiveness. 14. SUBJECT TERl’\\IS Tiered Evaluation System, First Tenn Alignment Program, Quality, Retention 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. SECURITY...Crider Approved by: Jeremy A. Arkes Thesis Advisor Chad W. Seagren Co-Advisor William Gates Dean, Graduate School of Business...Lastly, first- tenn Marine re-enlistees must possess a high school diploma or altemate credential (Headquatiers, United States Marine C01ps, 2010

  3. The Intelligence Archipelago: The Community’s Struggle to Reform in the Globalized Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Charles Wald , deputy commander of European Command, expressed his concern that al Qaeda-affiliated groups are active in Mauritania, Mali, Chad and Niger...relationship.”443 A year after 9/11, Paul Wolfowitz , Deputy Secretary for Defense, testifying before the Joint Inquiry, expressed his thoughts on...Harrington Robert J. Hermann Lt Gen Robert E. Pursley, USAF, (Ret) Senator John Warren Paul D. Wolfowitz 1996 LTG James R. Clapper, Jr.(Ret) Radical

  4. CNA Small Group Discussion: Aiding Cameroon’s Effort to Counter Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    important to understand that the modern (“ colonial ”) borders dividing the Lake Chad Basin region mean little to Boko Haram (and indeed to many...Cameroon is an important partner to the U.S. in Africa , and the two have cooperated on issues including economic development, public health, and...work with its neighbors to counter the threat and prevent its spread within Africa . One participant noted that, like the government of Nigeria, the

  5. Simulation of Daily Snapshot Rhythm Monitoring to Identify Atrial Fibrillation in Continuously Monitored Patients with Stroke Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yano

    Full Text Available New technologies are diffusing into medical practice swiftly. Hand-held devices such as smartphones can record short-duration (e.g., 1-minute ECGs, but their effectiveness in identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF is unknown.We used data from the TRENDS study, which included 370 patients (mean age 71 years, 71% men, CHADS2 score≥1 point: mean 2.3 points who had no documentation of atrial tachycardia (AT/AF or antiarrhythmic or anticoagulant drug use at baseline. All were subsequently newly diagnosed with AT/AF by a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED over one year of follow-up. Using a computer simulation approach (5,000 repetitions, we estimated the detection rate for paroxysmal AT/AF via daily snapshot ECG monitoring over various periods, with the probability of detection equal to the percent AT/AF burden on each day.The estimated AT/AF detection rates with snapshot monitoring periods of 14, 28, 56, 112, and 365 days were 10%, 15%, 21%, 28%, and 50% respectively. The detection rate over 365 days of monitoring was higher in those with CHADS2 scores ≥2 than in those with CHADS2 scores of 1 (53% vs. 38%, and was higher in those with AT/AF burden ≥0.044 hours/day compared to those with AT/AF burden <0.044 hours/day (91% vs. 14%; both P<0.05.Daily snapshot ECG monitoring over 365 days detects half of patients who developed AT/AF as detected by CIED, and shorter intervals of monitoring detected fewer AT/AF patients. The detection rate was associated with individual CHADS2 score and AT/AF burden.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00279981.

  6. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...

  7. Automated feature extraction by combining polarimetric SAR and object-based image analysis for monitoring of natural resource exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Plank, Simon; Mager, Alexander; Schöpfer, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    An automated feature extraction procedure based on the combination of a pixel-based unsupervised classification of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data (PolSAR) and an object-based post-classification is presented. High resolution SpotLight dual-polarimetric (HH/VV) TerraSAR-X imagery acquired over the Doba basin, Chad, is used for method development and validation. In an iterative training procedure the best suited polarimetric speckle filter, processing parameters for the following en...

  8. Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Tibia Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fracture Andrew J. Sheean, MD,* Chad A...soldiers sustaining combat-related Gustilo–Anderson type III open tibia fractures. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary trauma center...Patients: Service Members with combat-related type III open tibia fractures occurring between 2003 and 2007 treated definitively in a US military medical

  9. Input of environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge and the flow dynamic of aquifers; L`apport des isotopes de l`environnement a l`etude de la recharge et de la dynamique des aquiferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranyossy, J.F. [CEA Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Njitchoua, R.; Zuppi, G.M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Laboratoire d`Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique

    1998-12-31

    Several examples of hydrogeological studies have been selected in order to illustrate the input of environmental isotopic techniques in the general knowledge of aquifer systems: evaluation of the present aquifer recharge (Mali, Senegal, Italy, North-Cameroon, North-Sahara, Niger); evidence of the recharge variation with time (Niger, Italy, Vietnam); evaluation of the aquifer characteristics and hydraulic conditions (Chad, Niger). Most of these studies were carried out in collaboration with Professor Jean-Charles Fontes. (author) 22 refs.

  10. Security Assistance Reform: Section 1206 Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice , and the enthusiastic endorsement of geographic Combatant...all but the first year. In the past few years, programs in Africa have increased substantially. Kenya , Mauritania, Niger, Uganda, and Burundi have...Advanced Infantry Development 12.1 Chad Logistic Company (CT Support) 7.3 Kenya Special Operations Regiment CT Capability Enhancement 7.0

  11. Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    margin of the mass anteriorly) was split and the pronator teres was released from the medial epicondyle and reflected off the anterior elbow capsule and...ORIGINAL ARTICLE Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top Jeannie Huh, MD,* Chad A. Krueger, MD,* Michael J...fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the osseous and ligamentous exposure of the medial elbow using the flexor

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_001258.2| chondroadherin precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|O15335|CHAD_HUMAN Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAK51556.1|AF371328_1 chondroadher...in [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH36360.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH73974.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW94613.1| chondroad

  13. Understanding Cultural Landmines in the Balkans: How the Land and Its History Have Kept a People at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Yugoslavia. Other exports include textiles, leather , porcelain, glass, and cement. Imports include industrial and agricultural machinery as well as food and...Moreover, agricultural produce and livestock products must be processed, grain turned into bread, olives into oil, milk into butter, hides into leather ...represented by Hausa, spoken in northern Nigeria and in Niger, parts of Ghana, Cameroon, Togo, Dahomey, Chad, and the Central African Republic (Hamito- Semitic

  14. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  15. Development of Canonical Marine Aviation Logistics Support Program II (MALSP II) Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    logistics supply chain. A supply chain is a complex dynamic network involving the flow of information, material , and funds (Ahn, Lee, & Park, 2003, p...CANONICAL MARINE AVIATION LOGISTICS SUPPORT PROGRAM II (MALSP II) DEPLOYMENT by Brian M. Bagley June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Chad W. Seagren...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEVELOPMENT OF CANONICAL MARINE AVIATION LOGISTICS SUPPORT PROGRAM II

  16. Utilization Pattern of Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medicines Among the Patients Suffering From Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Jadav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antithrombotic therapy is recommended in atrial fibrillation (AF patients due to high risk of stroke. However, antithrombotic therapy is often underutilized due to adverse effects and limited data available in Indian population. Aims: Primary objective was to study usage pattern of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in AF patients. Secondary objective was to assess the risk of stroke and compare usage pattern of antithrombotic drugs in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF patients with application of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score. Materials and Methods: A prospective and observational study was conducted in outpatient department for period of one year in patients > 35 years of either gender diagnosed with AF due to any established cause. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score were used to assess risk of stroke among NVAF patients. Results: 111 patients diagnosed with AF (mean age 54 years; 54.96% female were analyzed and out of these, 78 patients were valvular AF patients and 33 were NVAF patients. Anticoagulants were predominantly prescribed in 60 valvular AF patients. Out of 33 NVAF patients, 19 (57.57% patients had CHADS2 score 1 while as per CHA2DS2-VASc score 28 (84.84% patients had score ≥ 2. Out of 33 NVAF patients, 15 (45.45% patients were prescribed warfarin, aspirin in 12 (36.36% patients and no antithrombotic therapy in 6 (18.18% patients. Conclusion: Oral anticoagulant drugs are most commonly prescribed antithrombotic drugs in valvular AF and NVAF patients for stroke prevention. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score are easy, simple schemes to assess stroke risk in NVAF patients and helps physicians and patients to choose most suitable antithrombotic therapy.

  17. Organizational Policy Levers Can Effect Acquisition Reform Implementation in Air Force Repair Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    an Air Logistics Center and a Product Center, John Ausink, Laura H. Baldwin, Sarah Hunter, and Chad Shirley, RAND, DB-388-AF, 2002, which can be...Performance-Based Contracting in the Air Force: A Report on Experiences in the Field, John Ausink, Frank Camm, and Charles Cannon, RAND, DB-342-AF, 2001...change within private- sector firms argues that a key element to instituting such transfor- mation is leadership support (Strebel, 1996; Katzenbach

  18. Use of X-Ray Diffraction, Molecular Simulations, and Spectroscopy to Determine the Molecular Packing in a Polymer-Fullerene Bimolecular Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    wileyonlinelibrary.com C O M M U N IC A TIO N Nichole Cates Miller , Eunkyung Cho , Matthias J. N. Junk , Roman Gysel , Chad Risko , Dongwook...of BHJ blends using X-ray diffraction ( XRD ), because the blends were either amorphous or too disordered to yield enough XRD refl ections to...that establishes at the molecular level the properties and function of BHJ solar cells. Specifi cally, we use a combination of XRD techniques

  19. Terrorist Networks, Money Laundering Schemes, and Nation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    2000). He states that people continually “generate and test hypotheses about their worlds.” This innate trait is suggested to be a mechanism that...acts/attacks; pop.: 10,180,000)  From Relative Stability to Instability  Cote d’Ivoire (31; pop.: 18,900,000)  Chad (40; pop.: 10,330,000...state, and subsequent human network system as a whole. Previous points being made, and in light of their functional character traits of terrorist

  20. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005), the Central African Republic (2005), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006), Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007), Chad (1996, 2001, 2006) and Rwanda (2003) were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and t...

  1. Covering post-conflict elections: challenges for the media in central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Frère, Marie-Soleil

    2011-01-01

    In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing "post-conflict" situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005), the Central African Republic (2005), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006), Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007), Chad (1996, 2001, 2006) and Rwanda (2003) were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and t...

  2. Africom at 5 years: The Maturation of a New U.S. Combatant Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    is less than 70 miles from Sicily, and only the Strait of Gibraltar sepa- rates Spain from Morocco . . . . [The] Gulf of Guinea [in West Africa is] a...rather than solely on counterterrorism. This program includes 10 African countries: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco , Niger...be destined for the U.S., with tankers loading from offshore platforms and sailing directly across the Atlantic to terminals on the U.S eastern sea

  3. Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics Chad Dacus Research Professor of Defense Economics Air Force Research Institute Dr. Pano...to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...If adversary can hack into mission essential software/hardware, then mission is compromised • Mission assurance requires materiel solutions, educated

  4. The role of THRIVE score in prediction of outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤寿江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study whether the total health risks in vascular events(THRIVE)score could predict the prognosis in the acute ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods A total of 169 patients were enrolled in the study,with NIH Stroke Scale(NIHSS)score,THRIVE score and CHADS2score given to each patients at admission and modified Rankin Scale(mRS)given at3 months follow up.All patients were divided into the

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due « Image designed by Diane Fleischer... Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule Its Due Chad Dacus and Col Stephen Hagel, USAF (Ret.) Conceptual

  6. The Military Logistics Support of Humanitarian Relief Efforts during Low-Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    of military logistics support of relief efforts low-intensity conflict, a study of the land, people, government, economy and history of each country...U.S. policy goals, the actual humanitarian relief operation, and the military logistics support provided used to the question: ’What are the key...elements to provide successful logistics support of humanitarian relief efforts during low-intensity conflict? Military Logistics , Humanitarian Relief, Low-Intensity Conflict, Afghanistan, Chad, Humanitarian Aid, Logistics

  7. Near East/South Asia Report: No. 2741

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-21

    with the blood of the sons of Chad, Libya, and Algeria until 1904 when the French triumphed in this war against the insurgents." During one of my...PLO. This was after the Palestinian National Council had met in Algeria and issued resolutions and recommendations. President Mubarak reiterated his...all kinds, includ- ing sardines, crustaceans , shellfish and other kinds. 2. Study the natural environment and fighting pollution. 3. Improving and

  8. 5th National Congress of the Italian Society of Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Aina; Barbara Cagnie; Elena Castelli; Chad Cook; Andrea Foglia; Paolo Bizzarri; Donatella Giraudo; Chris Littlewood; Andrea Tettamanti; Stefano Vercelli; Lennard Voogt; Aceto Maria; Spina Emanuele; Paone Paolo; Silvestre Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents S1 Criteria for exercises selection in subjects with low back pain Alessandro Aina S2 Recent advances in pathophysiology and treatment of myofascial trigger points Marco Barbero S3 Rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesia Barbara Cagnie S4 Musculoskeletal rehabilitation in subjects affected by neurological disorders Elena Castelli S5 Which examination tests suggest the best candidates for manual therapy Chad Cook S6 Case study: the role of the measurements for the identificatio...

  9. Prolonged Wars: A Post-Nuclear Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Garcia Marquez , Cuba in Angola: Operation Carlota (New York: Cuba Update), 128. Ian Grieg suggests that the USSR’s reasons for becoming involved in...specific groups. This political orientation was exemplified by the failure of the Parti Progressite Tchadien (PPT) (formed by Gabriel Lisette) to emerge as...1989), 18. 10.- Gabriel Lisette, a black colonial administrator of Guadeloupian descent, was elected to represent Chad in the French National Assembly

  10. Etude comparative de trois examens bactériologiques de la méningite cérébrospinale en période épidémique.

    OpenAIRE

    Sperber, G.; Spiegel, A; Baudon, D.; Nahor, N.; Picq, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    During an outbreak of group A meningococcal meningitis in Chad in 1988, a comparative study of three bacteriological techniques (direct microscopic examination, latex agglutination, and culture) was conducted with 120 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnosis. The results correlated well with cloudy or purulent CSF specimens. Direct microscopic examination was as good a diagnostic indicator as the other tests. The authors recommend using direct microscopic examination, which is easy ...

  11. [Journalists to the rescue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanassawa, M F

    1994-12-01

    In October 1993, about 30 journalists from Chad participated in a seminar on population and development. The new division of population in the Ministry of Planning and Cooperation organized the seminar. The seminar aimed to inform the journalists of the objectives, strategies, and actions of the Declaration of Population Policy. It also intended to sensitize the journalists to the population problems facing Chad and to mobilize them in population sensitization operations. The seminar hoped to lead the journalists to regularly dedicate articles, reports, reporting, and investigations to population problems in relation to the process of socioeconomic development. Audiovisual presentations at the seminar included a slide show on the interrelationships of population and development in Chad, a presentation of the Declaration of Population Policy, and a report on journalism and population problems in reference to the Sahelian experience. These presentations allowed the journalists to engage in a strong enriching debate in which the basic principles of relations between population and development were discussed. Population problems are, to a great extent, the consequence of choices, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals, couples, and families. They participate in the culture and in civilization. The repercussions of these choices often constitute a restraint in terms of education, health for all, and adequate employment. After the seminar, the journalists seemed to have understood that their mission will be to convince populations to adopt behaviors and attitudes compatible with sustainable development objectives. Journalists from Chad hope that such seminars, especially workshops, will expand in order to allow them to better understand the demographic elements necessary to their work.

  12. Testing a Novel 3D Printed Radiographic Imaging Device for Use in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Giles, Bridget; Garcia, Hector M; Diawara, Norou

    2017-01-01

    There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored. A significant difference was found at the 0.05 level between the three devices (p = 0.0015), with the MEAD having the least amount of total errors and soft dental wax taking the least amount of time. Total errors were highest when participants used soft dental wax-both the MEAD and the CHAD performed best overall. Further research in forensic dental radiology and use of holding devices is needed.

  13. Combining viral vectored and protein-in-adjuvant vaccines against the blood-stage malaria antigen AMA1: report on a phase 1a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel Gw; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines--chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising "mixed-modality" regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible.

  14. Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the northern Gondwana margin: new evidence for Ordovician-Silurian glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semtner, A.-K.; Klitzsch, E.

    1994-12-01

    During the Early Paleozoic, transgressions and the distribution of sedimentary facies on the northern Gondwana margin were controlled by a regional NNW-SSE to almost north-south striking structural relief. In Early Silurian times, a eustatic highstand enabled the sea to reach its maximum southward extent. The counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana during the Cambrian and Early Ordovician caused the northern Gondwana margin to shift from intertropical to southern polar latitudes in Ordovician times. Glacial and periglacial deposits are reported from many localities in Morocco, Algeria, Niger, Libya, Chad, Sudan, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The Late Ordovician glaciation phase was followed by a period of a major glacioeustatic sea-level rise in the Early Silurian due to the retreat of the ice-cap. As a consequence of the decreasing water circulation in the basin centers (Central Arabia, Murzuk- and Ghadames basins), highly bituminous euxinic shales were deposited. These shales are considered to be the main source rock of Paleozoic oil and gas deposits in parts of Saudi Arabia, Libya and Algeria. The following regression in the southern parts of the Early Silurian sea was probably caused by a second glacial advance, which was mainly restricted to areas in Chad, Sudan and Niger. Evidence for glacial activity and fluvioglacial sedimentation is available from rocks overlying the basal Silurian shale in north-east Chad and north-west Sudan. The Early Silurian ice advance is considered to be responsible for the termination of euxinic shale deposition in the basin centers.

  15. The use status of anticoagulation drugs for inpatients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huan Jie; Ouyang, Shu Kun; Zhao, Yue; Lu, Kai; Luo, Su Xin; Xiao, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are effective for the prophylaxis of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the status of anticoagulation treatment for hospitalized AF patients in Southwest China. Methods A total of 4760 hospitalized patients with AF were enrolled from 21 hospitals in Chongqing city from January 1 to December 31, 2013. Results Among the enrolled patients, 3785 were diagnosed with nonvalvular AF. These patients had a mean age of 74.4±10.1 years. The mean CHADS2 score of all subjects was 2.60±1.34, and 80.7% of the patients had CHADS2 ≥2. The use rate of OACs was only 11.5% for patients with a high risk for stroke (CHADS2 ≥2) and was much lower in patients from the second-level hospitals than in patients from the third-level hospitals (5.8% vs. 16.9%, P<0.001). The leading reason for the underuse of OACs in high-risk patients was physician’s nonfeasance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the underuse of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with nonvalvular AF was particularly serious in Southwest China, especially in the second-level hospitals. Urgent and effective measures are desperately needed to improve this alarming situation in China. PMID:28293117

  16. Slowly but surely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Oxfam UK/I in Chad has been building the capacity of women's income-generating activities through a strategy of long-term small-scale support over a period of many years to the Said Al Awine program. In the new Chad strategic four-year plan, gender is central to the development of a new phase of increasing the capacity of such organizations to network, lobby, and conduct policy research. The key to Oxfam's success in Chad has been long-term commitment and close work with poor, illiterate women. Oxfam UK/I began targeting urban women in 1988 in the informal sector of N'djamena to increase food security and improve living standards by encouraging small groups of women traders of basic foodstuffs to establish savings plans. Each group and each member held their own savings with the women investing 33%, Oxfam giving 33% as a subsidy, and Oxfam providing another 33% as a loan to be repaid. Many groups took out and repaid loans. The 16 groups in N'djamena came together in 1995 to form a union, with a representative from each group co-managing the joint fund for the union. More than 100 applications have been received to join the scheme.

  17. RISK OF THROMBOEMBOLIC COMPLICATIONS AND ANTITHROMBOTIC THERAPY IN IN-PATIENTS WITH PERMANENT AND RECURRENT ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Grajfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Тo evaluate compliance of ongoing antithrombotic therapy (ATT in various forms of atrial fibrillation (AF with the risk level of thromboembolic complications (TEC, calculated with the СHADS2 and CHA2DS2–VASc scales in real clinical practice. Material and methods. A retrospective study of hospital records of 308 in-patients admitted to the cardiology departments of two multidisciplinary hospitals during the year because of nonvalvular AF . Risk of thromboembolic complications was estimated with the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2–VASc scales and appointed ATT was analyzed. Results. Patients with high risk of TEC were predominated in the study population: 77.6% and 91.9% according to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2–VASc scales, respectively. Moderate risk was found in  17.6%  and  6.1%  of  patients  according  to  CHADS2 and  CHA2DS2–VASc  scales,  respectively.  Only  32.2%  and  28.6%  28.6%  of  patients  at  high  risk  according  to  CHADS2 and  CHA2DS2–VASc scales, respectively received warfarin in hospital. All patients with permanent AF in this sample had a high risk of TEC according to the both scales. In the group of paroxysmal/persistent AF the high, moderate and low risk of TEC was identified in 87%, 9.9%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively , according to CHA2DS2–VASc scale and in 64.25%, 28.5% and 7.5% of patients, respectively , according to CHADS2 scale. Difference in high-risk patient rate was not significant among patients with permanent AF . In high risk group contraindications for receiving indirect anticoagulants were more frequent in the group with permanent AF (OR 3.1; 95% CI 0.88–10.7; p>0,05. The probability of warfarin prescription in patients with permanent AF was higher than in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1,18-3,31, and probability of aspirin prescription was lower (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0,51-1,32; p>0,05.  Conclusion. In real clinical practice oral anticoagulants are

  18. Review of West Africa. Elephant hunting is starting again. More numerous and various operators. Angola, an expansion with large fields. Congo, after Nkossa. Girassol: the selected companies. A controversial project, the Chad-Cameroon pipeline. Gabon, no discovery since 8 years. Nigeria, every man for himself. Ivory Coast, a more attractive legislation. The African legislation is evolving. Bouygues Offshore is on tracks for deep sea. The African contracts for ETPM; Dossier Afrique de l'Ouest. La chasse a l'elephant reprend de plus belle. Des acteurs plus nombreux et plus divers. Angola - une expansion par grands champs. Congo - l'apres Nkossa. Girassol: les entreprises retenues. Un projet controverse - le pipeline Tchad-Cameroun. Gabon - pas de decouvertes depuis huit ans. Nigeria - chacun pour soi. Cote d'Ivoire - une legislation plus attractive. La legislation petroliere africaine evolue. Bouygues Offshore en piste pour la mer profonde. Les contrats africains d'ETPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    A review of the petroleum and gas reserves, production and exploration situation in the various West African countries is presented with maps and statistics. It is shown that numerous projects are developed, especially in offshore Guinea Gulf, with small and large petroleum companies rushing to Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, etc. The various projects and companies selected for Angola, Congo, Gabon and Nigeria oil fields are discussed, together with the prospectives for Ivory Coast and the evolution of legislation related to petroleum in Africa. Bouygues Offshore's strategy in the Guinea Gulf is exposed and the african contracts for the platform and pipeline specialist ETPM are detailed.

  19. The APPLE Score – A Novel Score for the Prediction of Rhythm Outcomes after Repeat Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornej, Jelena; Hindricks, Gerhard; Arya, Arash; Sommer, Philipp; Husser, Daniela; Bollmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background Arrhythmia recurrences after catheter ablation occur in up to 50% within one year but their prediction remains challenging. Recently, we developed a novel score for the prediction of rhythm outcomes after single AF ablation demonstrating superiority to other scores. The current study was performed to 1) prove the predictive value of the APPLE score in patients undergoing repeat AF ablation and 2) compare it with the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Methods Rhythm outcome between 3–12 months after AF ablation were documented. The APPLE score (one point for Age >65 years, Persistent AF, imPaired eGFR (Leipzig Heart Center AF Ablation Registry (60±10 years, 65% male, 70% paroxysmal AF) undergoing repeat AF catheter ablation were included. Arrhythmia recurrences were observed in 133 patients (35%). While the CHADS2 (AUC 0.577, p = 0.037) and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (AUC 0.590, p = 0.015) demonstrated low predictive value, the APPLE score showed better prediction of arrhythmia recurrences (AUC 0.617, p = 0.002) than other scores (both p<0.001). Compared to patients with an APPLE score of 0, the risk (OR) for arrhythmia recurrences was 2.9, 3.0 and 6.0 (all p<0.01) for APPLE scores 1, 2, or ≥3, respectively. Conclusions The novel APPLE score is superior to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores for prediction of rhythm outcomes after repeat AF catheter ablation. It may be helpful to identify patients with low, intermediate or high risk for recurrences after repeat procedure. PMID:28085921

  20. Composite risk scores and composite endpoints in the risk prediction of outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. The Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Fauchier, L; Bernard-Brunet, A; Clementy, N; Lip, G Y H

    2014-03-01

    Several validated risk stratification schemes for prediction of ischaemic stroke (IS)/thromboembolism (TE) and major bleeding are available for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). On the basis for multiple common risk factors for IS/TE and bleeding, it has been suggested that composite risk prediction scores may be more practical and user-friendly than separate scores for bleeding and IS/TE. In a long-term prospective hospital registry of anticoagulated patients with newly diagnosed AF, we compared the predictive value of existing risk prediction scores as well as composite risk scores, and also compared these risk scoring systems using composite endpoints. Endpoint 1 was the simple composite of IS and major bleeds. Endpoint 2 was based on a composite of IS plus intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Endpoint 3 was based on weighted coefficients for IS/TE and ICH. Endpoint 4 was a composite of stroke, cardiovascular death, TE and major bleeding. The incremental predictive value of these scores over CHADS2 (as reference) for composite endpoints was assessed using c-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Of 8,962 eligible individuals, 3,607 (40.2%) had NVAF and were on OAC at baseline. There were no statistically significant differences between the c-statistics of the various risk scores, compared with the CHADS2 score, regardless of the endpoint. For the various risk scores and various endpoints, NRI and IDI did not show significant improvement (≥1%), compared with the CHADS2 score. In conclusion, composite risk scores did not significantly improve risk prediction of endpoints in patients with NVAF, regardless of how endpoints were defined. This would support individualised prediction of IS/TE and bleeding separately using different separate risk prediction tools, and not the use of composite scores or endpoints for everyday 'real world' clinical practice, to guide decisions on

  1. Time Profile of Three Semi-Arid Ecosystems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.; Damoah, R.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and satellite derived-vegetation index of three endorheic semi-arid ecosystems in Africa: Lake Chad (in the Sahel region), Okavango and Etosha (Southern Africa) to infer the nature and trends of the variability during the satellite data instrumental record. We utilize African Rainfall Climatology Precipitation Estimates (1983-2014) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR: 1981-2014) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: 2001:2014) to examine the aspects of the annual cycle and interannual variability using both time series plots and time-space diagrams. With respect to Lake Chad region, the first two decades of the series (1981-2000) show predominantly dryer than long-term average conditions with the periods 1989, 1992 and 1996/1997 as the signature drought periods coinciding with the desiccation of the Sahel region during the 1980s to early 1990s decades. The period 2000 to present is dominated by above average rainfall and NDVI with 2003, 2007 and 2012 being the most pronounced wet/greener years. The southern African ecosystems (Okavango and Etosha) show more or less a similar temporal pattern to that of Lake Chad basin, however, the wet periods are more amplified and persistent especially 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2014, with corresponding above average NDVI departures. The amplified nature of wet and dry periods present in the southern African ecosystem time series are consistent with the El Niño Southern Oscillation teleconnection patterns. Overall these three ecosystems serve as detectable fingerprints of changing climate conditions and ecosystems in these arid regions.

  2. 'Ins' and 'outs' of triple therapy: Optimal antiplatelet therapy in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation who need coronary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewilde, W; Verheugt, F W A; Breet, N; Koolen, J J; Ten Berg, J M

    2010-09-01

    Chronic oral anticoagulant treatment is obligatory in patients (class I) with mechanical heart valves and in patients with atrial fibrillation with CHADS2 score >1. When these patients undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of a stent, there is also an indication for treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. Unfortunately, triple therapy is known to increase the bleeding risk. For this group of patients, the bottom line is to find the ideal therapy in patients with indications for both chronic anticoagulation therapy and percutaneous intervention to prevent thromboembolic complications such as stent thrombosis without increasing the risk of bleeding. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:444-50.).

  3. Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. and M. hydrocyni Kostoingue & Toguebaye, 1994, Myxosporea (Myxozoa parasites of centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae (Teleosts of the Sanaga basin in Cameroon (Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomena A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of 102 teleost freshwater fishes of Sanaga basin in Cameroon revealed the presence of three myxosporean species, among which two were new. Host fishes were of three families: Centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae. New species were identified as Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., a gill parasite of Lates niloticus and Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. found in the kidney and spleen of Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia mariae. Myxobolus hydrocyni Kostoïngue & Toguebaye, 1994, previously described in Chad, was also found in Cameroon; complementary informations were given on that parasite which seemed to be specific to its host.

  4. How to cheat in After Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Chad

    2013-01-01

    Get the most from the most widely used application in the postproduction field! Gain the insider tips you need to compose eye-catching, imaginative Adobe After Effects projects quickly and effectively. In How to Cheat in After Effects, Second Edition seasoned AE expert Chad Perkins provides dozens of concise, step-by-step tutorials and lavish 4-color illustrations to get you on the fast track to producing amazing motion graphics and visual effects. Updated for CS6, this new edition has been revised to include:A brand new chapter on the most popular

  5. Transgene optimization, immunogenicity and in vitro efficacy of viral vectored vaccines expressing two alleles of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1.

    OpenAIRE

    Sumi Biswas; Dicks, Matthew D. J.; Carole A Long; Remarque, Edmond J; Loredana Siani; Stefano Colloca; Cottingham, Matthew G; Holder, Anthony A.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Draper, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a leading candidate vaccine antigen against blood-stage malaria, although to date numerous clinical trials using mainly protein-in-adjuvant vaccines have shown limited success. Here we describe the pre-clinical development and optimization of recombinant human and simian adenoviral (AdHu5 and ChAd63) and orthopoxviral (MVA) vectors encoding transgene inserts for Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 (PfAMA1). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AdHu5-MVA prime...

  6. App Empire Make Money, Have a Life, and Let Technology Work for You

    CERN Document Server

    Mureta, Chad

    2012-01-01

    A guide to building wealth by designing, creating, and marketing a successful app across any platform Chad Mureta has made millions starting and running his own successful app business, and now he explains how you can do it, too, in this non-technical, easy-to-follow guide. App Empire provides the confidence and the tools necessary for taking the next step towards financial success and freedom. The book caters to many platforms including iPhone, iPad, Android, and BlackBerry. This book includes real-world examples to inspire those who are looking to cash in on the App gold rush. Learn how to s

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_031715.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] sp|O55226|CHAD_MOUSE Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAC39963.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] gb|AAH12672.1| Chondroad...herin [Mus musculus] emb|CAI25589.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] dbj|BAE34451.1| unn...amed protein product [Mus musculus] gb|EDL15934.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] NP_031715.1 5e-85 57% ...

  8. Optimizing Dispersed Air Operations: A Concept To Use Highways As Improved Airfields In A Contested Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    price tag on agricultural drones range in cost from $2,000 for a platform that an individual farmer can assemble to around $160,000 for a military...Chad Garland, “ Drones may provide big lift to agriculture when FAA allows their use,” Los Angeles Times, 13 September 2014. http://www.latimes.com...business/la-fi- drones - agriculture -20140913-story.html#page=1 66 Christopher Doering, “Growing Use of Drones Poised to Transform Agriculture ,” USA

  9. Contemporary and preliminary interpretation of Laozi’s concepts of dao and wuwei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋永嵋

    2015-01-01

    To some foreign interpretation such as Chad Hansen,Laozi,as a linguistic skeptic,acknowledges the conventionality and reversibility of discourse that cannot provide constant guidance in action,and advocates one cannot follow one codified guide in all situations.It goes without saying that underlying Laozi’s strategy is a question of advantage.In order to resolve the paradox of the ineffable Dao,this thesis aims at discussing the contemporary significance of the pervading paradoxical expression of Dao and wuwei throughout Laozi’s daodejing.

  10. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1975. 13th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-15

    853 Israel 11 13 Canton Island. 11 4 Italy. 4,035 4,183 Chad, Republic Of. 25 5 Chile. 6 6 Columbia 10 10 Japan. 14,964 14,698 Costa Rica 1 1 Johnston... Drone ) Acceptances By Manu- facturer, By Month - FY 1975 (U) •••••• 28 - USAF Aircraft Procurement Programs By Fiscal Year Funding - FY 1973 And Prior...Through FY FY 1975 (U) •••••••••• 29 - USAF Guided Missile (Including Target Drone )Procurement Programs, By Fiscal Year Funding - FY 1975 And Prior

  11. Life in the Shadow: An Examination of the Minor Foreign Relations of the DPRK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services , Directorate for...Guinea 1/30/1969 Mauritania 11/12/1964 Zambia 4/12/1969 Congo Rep. 12/24/1964 Chad 5/8/1969 Cambodia 12/28/1964 Sudan 6/21/1969 Ghana 12/28/1964...1974 Saint Lucia 9/13/1979 During this period, the DPRK established relations with 63 countries. It also joined the World Health Organization later in

  12. Origin of Harmattan dust settled in Northern Ghana – Long transported or local dust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Gry; Awadzi, Theodore W; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    compositions of the bulk dust samples. Traces of minerals in the clay fraction of the Harmattan period dust may have their origin in the Bodélé Depression or other saline environments. The Harmattan dust deposited in Ghana shows only little resemblance to dust from the Chad basin and with Harmattan dust...... deposited in Niger. This study therefore suggests that the dust deposited during the Harmattan period in northern Ghana is not under significant influence of sediments from the Bodélé Depression. Similarity in the mineral and elemental composition of the dust from both the Harmattan and Monsoon periods...

  13. [Recent Advances in Vaccines and Drugs Against the Ebola Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Yao, Chenguang; Wei, Yanhong; Kou, Zheng; Hu, Kanghong

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus belongs to the Filovirus family, which causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever (mortality, 25%-90%). An outbreak of infection by the Ebola virus is sweeping across West Africa, leading to high mortality and worldwide panic. The Ebola virus has caused a serious threat to public health, so intensive scientific studies have been carried out. Several vaccines (e.g., rVSV-ZEBOV, ChAd3-ZEBOV) have been put into clinical trials and antiviral drugs (e.g., TKM-Ebola, ZMAPP) have been administered in the emergency setting to patients infected by the Ebola virus. Here, recent advances in vaccines and drugs against the Ebola virus are reviewed.

  14. Vascular disease and stroke risk in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial fibri...... fibrillation and whether adding vascular disease improves Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke (CHADS(2)) risk stratification.......Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial...

  15. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  16. El papel de los actores internacionales ante la situación de la seguridad humana en un país con conflicto armado. Caso de estudio : Sudán

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Quintero, Julieth Paola

    2009-01-01

    Sudán afronta una grave crisis humanitaria, en la que actores internacionales han intervenido por una mejora en la situación de la seguridad humana. Sin embargo, esta intención altruista esconde los intereses reales de Estados como Chad, Estados Unidos y China, quienes a través de la Unión Africana y las Naciones Unidas buscaron legitimar sus actuaciones en búsqueda de intereses políticos, económicos o geoestratégicos.

  17. First record of the family Pseudochiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from continental South America--a Pseudochiridium from a Brazilian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schimonsky, Diego Monteiro; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Mahnert, Volker

    2014-12-02

    The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America. 

  18. Guide de terrain des ligneux saheliens et soudano-guineens

    OpenAIRE

    Geerling, C.

    1983-01-01

    This work is a field guide to the woody plants of the savannes and steppes of northern tropical Africa, from Senegal to Chad. 371 species of trees, shrubs and woody lianas, belonging to 62 families are included. The Dutch introduction comprises notes on fire, the use of the plants by Man, and the conservation status of the species concerned.The French field guide has a key on vegetative characters, an illustrated glossary, descriptions of the species, with accent on the vegetative part, and i...

  19. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  20. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  1. Fabrication Procedure for Rugged and Breathable Forms of Stretchable Electronics with Adherent and Composite Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Kyung-In Jang, Sang Youn Han, Sheng Xu, Kyle E. Mathewson, Yihui Zhang, Jae-Woong Jeong, Gwang-Tae Kim, R. Chad Webb, Jung Woo Lee, Thomas J. Dawidczyk, Rak Hwan Kim, Young Min Song, Woon-Hong Yeo, Stanley Kim, Huanyu Cheng, Sang Il Rhee, Jeahoon Chung, Byunggik Kim, Ha Uk Chung, Dongjun Lee, Yiyuan Yang, Moongee Cho, John G. Gaspar, Ronald Carbonari, Monica Fabiani et al. ### Abstract We introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that ca...

  2. SQL Server Powershell Extensions使用免费工具自动完成管理任务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Kline; 肖欣(译者)

    2010-01-01

    PowerShell是一种非常强大的脚本语言,利用它几乎可以自动执行所有管理任务。本月的免费工具是一套非常方便的PowerShell脚本,SQL Server PowerShell Extensions(SQLPSX)。SQLPSX是由Chad Miller编写的,他生活在佛罗里达州Tampa市,是一位SOL ServerDBA,SQLPSX可以自动完成SQLServer中许多常见的管理任务。

  3. Spine anatomy reveals the diversity of catfish through time: a case study of Synodontis (Siluriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Fara, Emmanuel; Otero, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) is a freshwater catfish endemic to Africa. The 118 extant species are present in almost all hydrographic basins. Some species are restricted to a single stream, whereas others have a vast distribution. Synodontis is known in the fossil record since the Miocene, and its history depends on the connections among African basins through time. The identification of species in the fossil record is essential to reconstruct this historical pattern. Catfish pectoral and dorsal spines are robust, they preserve well and they form most of the fossil remains for the genus Synodontis. Unfortunately, the criteria for the identification of extant Synodontis species are not applicable to fossil specimens. Here, we define 11 original morphological characters that permit to discriminate four extant species from the Chad-Chari hydrographic system. Six of these characters are defined on pectoral spines and five on dorsal spines. We then show that these characters can be used successfully for identifying fossil specimens. In particular, we present a case study in which we identify Synodontis cf. schall and Brachysynodontis cf. batensoda in the hominid-bearing sector Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, northern Chad). We show that spine anatomy can be a powerful tool to recognise catfish species through time and thus to identify historical diversity pattern.

  4. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  5. Isoenzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, China and in exotic species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared isoenzymes of five enzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira platensis (A3) and A. erdosensis (A4) from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, Nei Monggo (Inner Mongalia),China and exotic species ofA. platensis (A1) from Chad and A. maxima (A2) from Mexico by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the isoenzymes of EST, POD and soluble protein were polymorphic. Monomorphism and polymorphism were found in isoenzymes of AMY, CAT and SOD, and monomorphism was found only in the introduced species. The isoenzymes and soluble protein of the local species are all polymorphic. The number of bands in these species were in the order of A3>A4>A1 >A2. A2 is the most primary, A1 from Chad Lake is relatively primary, A3 and A4 are advanced species in evolution. Cluster analysis showed that the relation between the two introduced species are the closest to each other, and so too are the two local ones.

  6. Enhanced vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses to malaria antigen ME-TRAP by fusion to MHC class ii invariant chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Spencer

    Full Text Available The orthodox role of the invariant chain (CD74; Ii is in antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, but enhanced CD8+ T cells responses have been reported after vaccination with vectored viral vaccines encoding a fusion of Ii to the antigen of interest. In this study we assessed whether fusion of the malarial antigen, ME-TRAP, to Ii could increase the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response. Following single or heterologous prime-boost vaccination of mice with a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAd63, or recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, higher frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed, with the largest increases observed following a ChAd63-MVA heterologous prime-boost regimen. Studies in non-human primates confirmed the ability of Ii-fusion to augment the T cell response, where a 4-fold increase was maintained up to 11 weeks after the MVA boost. Of the numerous different approaches explored to increase vectored vaccine induced immunogenicity over the years, fusion to the invariant chain showed a consistent enhancement in CD8+ T cell responses across different animal species and may therefore find application in the development of vaccines against human malaria and other diseases where high levels of cell-mediated immunity are required.

  7. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  8. Lessons from Africa's Most Complete Holocene Varved Record (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroepelin, S.

    2013-12-01

    A 16 meter long core from the sub-bottom deposits of Lake Yoa in northern Chad (19°N / 20.5°E), one of the few groundwater-supported oasis lakes in the Sahara, covers the past 11,000 years at largely subannual resolution. Due to the distant oceans and prevailing northeasterly trade winds, this sedimentary archive provides representative environmental signals that reflect climate conditions from the onset of the 'Green Sahara' to the planet's major warm desert of today. Multiproxy analyses of the mostly annually laminated deposits give unprecedented information on both gradual and rapid climate change in Northern Africa, including non-climatic events. Based on a robust age model of AMS-controlled varve counts, the continuous record allows to calibrate and correlate incoherent geological and archaeological evidence from the Sahara; to relate to historical chronicles from pharaonic Egypt; or to check for clues of recent anthropogenic warming. Results also permit to test the validity of marine and ice-core data for hypercontinental ecosystems and to evaluate numeric climate models. Examples will illustrate the potential of Africa's most detailed full-Holocene varved record. Hypercontinental location of Lake Yoa at the oasis of Ounianga Kebir in the Sahara of Northern Chad with distances to the oceans Coring platform on Lake Yoa, March 2010 (Photo: S. Kröpelin)

  9. Anthracothere dental anatomy reveals a late Miocene Chado-Libyan bioprovince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Fabrice; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Viriot, Laurent; Coppens, Yves; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Tafforeau, Paul; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-06-01

    Recent discovery of an abundant and diverse late Miocene fauna at Toros-Ménalla (Chad, central Africa) by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne provides a unique opportunity to examine African faunal and hominid evolution relative to the early phases of the Saharan arid belt. This study presents evidence from an African Miocene anthracotheriid Libycosaurus, particularly well documented at Toros-Ménalla. Its remains reveal a large semiaquatic mammal that evolved an autapomorphic upper fifth premolar (extremely rare in Cenozoic mammals). The extra tooth appeared approximately 12 million years ago, probably in a small northern African population isolated by climate-driven fragmentation and alteration of the environments inhabited by these anthracotheriids [Flower, B. P. & Kennett, J. P. (1994) Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 108, 537-555 and Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. (2001) Science 292, 686-693]. The semiaquatic niche of Libycosaurus, combined with the distribution and relationships of its late Miocene species, indicates that by the end of the Miocene, wet environments connected the Lake Chad Basin to the Libyan Sirt Basin, across what is now the Sahara desert.

  10. Could Some Geriatric Characteristics Hinder the Prescription of Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Denoël

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported underprescription of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF. We conducted an observational study on 142 out of a total of 995 consecutive ≥75 years old patients presenting AF (14% when admitted in an emergency unit of a general hospital, in search of geriatric characteristics that might be associated with the underprescription of anticoagulation therapy (mostly antivitamin K at the time of the study. The following data was collected from patients presenting AF: medical history including treatment and comorbidities, CHADS2 score, ISAR scale (frailty, Lawton’s scale (ADL, GDS scale (mood status, MUST (nutrition, and blood analysis (INR, kidney function, and albumin. Among those patients for who anticoagulation treatment was recommended (73%, only 61% were treated with it. In the group with anticoagulation therapy, the following characteristics were observed more often than in the group without such therapy: a recent (≤6 months hospitalization and medical treatment including digoxin or based on >3 different drugs. Neither the value of the CHADS2 score, nor the geriatric characteristics could be correlated with the presence or the absence of an anticoagulation therapy. More research is thus required to identify and clarify the relative importance of patient-, physician-, and health care system-related hurdles for the prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy in older patients with AF.

  11. Isoenzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, China and in exotic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Shuyuan; Hu, Ruiping; Liu, Yan; Qiao, Chen

    2006-06-01

    The authors compared isoenzymes of five enzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira platensis (A3) and A. erdosensis (A4) from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, Nei Monggo (Inner Mongalia), China and exotic species of A. platensis (A1) from Chad and A. maxima (A2) from Mexico by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the isoenzymes of EST, POD and soluble protein were polymorphic. Monomorphism and polymorphism were found in isoenzymes of AMY, CAT and SOD, and monomorphism was found only in the introduced species. The isoenzymes and soluble protein of the local species are all polymorphic. The number of bands in these species were in the order of A3>A4>A1>A2. A2 is the most primary, A1 from Chad Lake is relatively primary, A3 and A4 are advanced species in evolution. Cluster analysis showed that the relation between the two introduced species are the closest to each other, and so too are the two local ones.

  12. Meta analysis of CHA2DS2-VASc contributing to standardization management of the prophylactic anticoagulation therapy of TE and/or stroke in AF patients%CHA2DS2-VASc评分有助于房颤脑卒中和(或)血栓栓塞预防性抗凝治疗的规范化Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文根; 熊琴梅; 洪葵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive abilities of CHA2DS2-VASc in stroke and systemic thromboembolism (TE) risk stratification of atrial fibrilltion (AF) patients with and without anticoagulation therapy.Method:The data were systematically retrieved by searching the Cochrane Library,PubMed and Embase databases to identify relevant cohort studies published in English reporting the diagnostic performance between CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc.Review Manager 5.2 software were used to perform the statistical analyses.The risk ratios (RRs) with the 95% CI were presented and pooled for comparative analysis of the occurrence of TE and/or stroke between CHA2DS2-VASc<2 and CHA2DS2-VASc≥2,also considering the presence or absence of anticoagulation therapy.Result:Twelve cohort studies were identified in the analysis.Of these included studies,7 of the included studies reported TE outcomes,and 5 studies included a record of stroke events.With regard to the occurrence of outcomes individually,patients with CHA2 DS2-VASc scores ≥2 showed a greater risk for stroke (RR 5.31,CI:3.69~7.62;P<0.01) and TE (RR 5.94,CI:5.48~6.43;P<0.01) (Pdiff=0.55),regardless of the presence or absence of anticoagulation therapy (RR 5.43,CI:4.92~6.00;P<0.01 and RR 5.92,CI:5.26~6.67;P<0.01,respectively) (Pdiff =0.57).The average ratio of endpoint events in the low-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was less than CHADS2 (0.54% vs 1.40%,P<0.05).The average proportion of the high-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was greater than CHADS2 (81.0% vs 46.0%,P<0.05).Conclusion:Our results showed better diagnostic performance for CHA2DS2-VASc over CHADS2 for the distribution of greater numbers of patients and a greater incidence of endpoints events into the high-risk stratification,as well as the identification of patients with atrial fibrillation who are at substantial risk of endpoint events with or without optimal anticoagulant therapy.It indicates that the

  13. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  14. Consistency of safety and efficacy of new oral anticoagulants across subgroups of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Lega

    Full Text Available AIMS: The well-known limitations of vitamin K antagonists (VKA led to development of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the consistency of treatment effects of NOAC irrespective of age, comorbidities, or prior VKA exposure. METHODS AND RESULTS: All randomized, controlled phase III trials comparing NOAC to VKA up to October 2012 were eligible provided their results (stroke/systemic embolism (SSE and major bleeding (MB were reported according to age (≤ or >75 years, renal function, CHADS2 score, presence of diabetes mellitus or heart failure, prior VKA use or previous cerebrovascular events. Interactions were considered significant at p <0.05. Three studies (50,578 patients were included, respectively evaluating apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran versus warfarin. A trend towards interaction with heart failure (p = 0.08 was observed with respect to SSE reduction, this being greater in patients not presenting heart failure (RR = 0.76 [0.67-0.86] than in those with heart failure (RR = 0.90 [0.78-1.04]; Significant interaction (p = 0.01 with CHADS2 score was observed, NOAC achieving a greater reduction in bleeding risk in patients with a score of 0-1 (RR 0.67 CI 0.57-0.79 than in those with a score ≥2 (RR 0.85 CI 0.74-0.98. Comparison of MB in patients with (RR 0.97 CI 0.79-1.18 and without (RR 0.76 CI 0.65-0.88 diabetes mellitus showed a similar trend (p = 0.06. No other interactions were found. All subgroups derived benefit from NOA in terms of SSE or MB reduction. CONCLUSIONS: NOAC appeared to be more effective and safer than VKA in reducing SSE or MB irrespective of patient comorbidities. Thromboembolism risk, evaluated by CHADS2 score and, to a lesser extent, diabetes mellitus modified the treatment effects of NOAC without complete loss of benefit with respect to MB reduction.

  15. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  16. Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, S; D' Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T

    2002-02-26

    The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of

  17. Evaluation of bio-molecular signatures and hydrocarbon potential of upper Cretaceous shale, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboye, Olugbenga A.; Nzegwu, Uche A.

    2014-11-01

    The Bornu Basin is a sector of the Chad Basin located in the northeastern part of Nigeria, occupying about one-tenth of total area in Chad Basin. Twenty-eight representative shale cutting samples retrieved from Tuma-1, Sa-1 and Albarka-1 exploratory wells were analyzed. Seventeen shale samples systematically selected from Gongila, Fika Shale and Chad Formations were subjected to Total Organic Content (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Soluble Organic Matter, Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry analyses. This is to characterize and assess the potential capability of the shale units. The results showed that TOC of the Coniacian-Paleocene shale units exceed the threshold (0.5 wt%) needed for petroleum generation. This classifies it as potential source beds. Evidence from biomarkers indicates a preponderance of marine organic matter with subordinate terrigenous input. The quantity of gammacerane occurrence suggests normal saline environment. The presence of oleanane index indicates angiosperms input into Cretaceous-Tertiary source rock. C35/C34 homohopane ratio showed the anoxia development towards the center of the basin. C29ααα (20R)/C27ααα (20R) sterane ratio indicate the dominance of marine organic matter with subordinate terrigenous input. The 22S/(22S + 22R) ratio of C31 hopane have not reached equilibrium as evident by immaturity to early mature stages from diagnostic ratios of βα moretane/αβ hopane, Ts/(Ts + Tm), 28,30-bisnorhopanes/17α-hopanes, diasteranes/regular steranes, ααα steranes/αββ steranes and 20S/(20S + 20R) C29 regular steranes respectively. This is corroborated with the Rock-Eval indices showing immature to earlier mature kerogen within the Fika Formation. It consists preeminently of Type IV, with subordinate Type III. The prospect for hydrocarbon in this part of the basin is only fair to moderate with potential for gaseous rather than liquid hydrocarbon.

  18. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  19. DELLIS CAY七位建筑师的生活典范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li

    2008-01-01

    <正>在Dellis Cay,于特克斯(Turks)及凯科斯(Caicos)英属印度群岛的岛上,7位风格迥异的建筑大师用他们的设计,展示了7种生活形态的理想。这些建筑师包括:来自伦敦的Zaha Hadid及David Chipperfield、米兰的Piero Lissoni、东京代表Kengo Kuma及Shigeru Ban、新加坡的Carl Ettensperger和美国的Chad Oppenheim,都是建筑界的招牌式人物。召集者则是The O Property Collection(OPC)集团。

  20. Quantum Mechanics and Electrodynamics Studies of the Optical Properties of Metal Clusters/Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, George

    2008-03-01

    This talk will describe the use of electrodynamics and quantum mechanics methods to describe the optical properties of silver and gold nanoparticles and other nanostructures. This work has been done in collaboration with several experimental colleagues, including Chad Mirkin, Rick Van Duyne and Teri Odom. Our recent work has focused on the optical properties of metal nanoparticles that are coated with molecules that are detected either through their influence plasmon resonance excitation, or via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Electrodynamics calculations using either the DDA or FDTD methods provide a quantitative tool for characterizing far field properties, and at a more primitive level estimates of SERS intensities. Quantum mechanics, as developed using time dependent density functional theory, is restricted to small metal clusters, but the same methods of far field spectroscopy and SERS can still be studied.

  1. Ressources alimentaires non conventionnelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, reserve organs, flowers and vegetable species. After recalling the diversity of insects eating at world scale, four orders are briefly presented: coleoptera, isoptera (termites, lepidoptera (mainly caterpillars or campeophagy and orthoptera. Finally the nutritional input of unconventional foods is underlined as well as the urgent need of their further studies.

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Performance of the ViroSeq® HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouafo, Linda Chapdeleine Mekue; Péré, Hélène; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Koyalta, Donato; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Kane, Coumba Toure; Bélec, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Resistance genotypes in pol gene of HIV-1 were obtained by the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA) in 138 of 145 (95%) antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults in virological failure living in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gabon). HIV-1 group M exhibited broad genetic diversity. Performance of the 7 ViroSeq(®) sequencing primers showed high failure rate, from 3% to 76% (D: 76%; F: 17%; A and H: 15%; G and B: 4%; C: 3%). These findings emphasize the need of updating the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 genotyping system for non-B subtypes HIV-1.

  3. Women Sex Importance in Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Handan Mısırlı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was shown the differences in age, risk factors and treatment between women and men in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation METHODS: The stroke patients with atrial fibrillation who were hospitalized in our department at the last 2 years were seperated into 2 groups of aged above 75 and below 75, investigated with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores and looked at the sex differences of women and men. RESULTS: Stroke ratio according to sex was statistically meaningful especially in women above the age of 75. Risc factors also were founded in elderly women and CHA2DS2VASc scores were higher in women than men so more anticoagulan treatment were begun. No differences were shown between sexes at lone atrial fibrillation and no treatment were begun. CONCLUSION: Women with atrial fibrillation had more risk factors, higher stroke rate and higher anticoagulation treatment.

  4. Analysis of stroke in ATHENA: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Crijns, Harry J G M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    of either oral anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agent alone was 60%. Dronedarone reduced the risk of stroke from 1.8% per year to 1.2% per year (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.96, P=0.027). The effect of dronedarone was similar whether or not patients were receiving oral...... anticoagulant therapy, and there was a significantly greater effect of dronedarone in patients with higher CHADS(2) scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, a reduction in stroke was observed in patients with atrial fibrillation who were receiving usual care, which included antithrombotic therapy...... and heart rate control, who were randomized to dronedarone. Further studies to investigate the effect of dronedarone and other antiarrhythmic agents on stroke are indicated....

  5. A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Gary-Tounkara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria has been quietly expelling more and more immigrants from Niger, Mali, Chad and Cameroon. These foreigners – migrant workers or small traders – face the reinforcement of migration control and the blind fight of the government against Boko Haram. Despite its political instability, Nigeria remains a major immigration destination in West Africa. In this article, I analyze the “undocumented” expulsion of aliens in 1983, officially three million people. I argue that the expulsion was due to the economic crisis but also to a nationalist revenge against Ghana and a political calculation of President Shagari. This implies the exclusion of foreigners from the national labour market and the weakening of the supposed electoral base of his opponents.

  6. POSTOPERATIVE ATRIAL FIBRILLATION – AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common perioperative cardiac arrhythmia. Sympathetic overactivity, inflammatory state and oxidative stress are important contributors to the genesis of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Advancing age and mitral valve disease along with left atrial size are important parameters in noted in multivariate prediction model. Genetic predisposition has also been noted. Preventive strategies tried include beta blockers, statins, posterior pericardiotomy, carperitide infusion and thoracic epidural analgesia. Treatment options include rate and rhythm control along with anticoagulation if it persists more than 48 hours with high CHADS2 score. Some of the therapeutic modalities which have been found to be NOT useful in preventing post operative atrial fibrillation are dexamethasone, magnesium infusion and concomitant pulmonary vein isolation.

  7. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors. PMID:17553265

  8. UNOSAT at CERN – 15 years of satellite imagery support to the humanitarian and development community

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: UNOSAT is part of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and has been hosted at CERN since 2001. This partnership allows UNOSAT to benefit from CERN's IT infrastructure whenever the situation requires, allowing the UN to be at the forefront of satellite-analysis technology. Specialists in geographic information systems (GIS) and in the analysis of satellite data, supported by IT engineers and policy experts, ensure a dedicated service to the international humanitarian and development communities 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The presentation will give an overview of the variety of activities carried out by UNOSAT over the last 15 years including support to humanitarian assistance and protection of cultural heritage, sustainable water management in Chad and training & capacity development in East Africa and Asia. The talk will be followed at 12:00 by the inauguration of the UNOSAT exhibition, in front of the Users' office. Speaker: Einar Bjor...

  9. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  10. Bilateral occipital lobe infarction with altitudinal field loss following radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Celia S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral stroke following radiofrequency catheter ablation is an unusual complication and may result in bilateral altitudinal visual field defects. Bilateral altitudinal visual field defects usually result from prechiasmal pathology causing damage to both retinas or optic nerves and rarely from bilateral symmetric damage to the post chiasmal visual pathways. Case presentation A 48-year-old man complained of visual disturbance on wakening following radiofrequency catheter ablation. The patient had a CHADS score of 1 pre-operatively and no complications were noted intra-operatively. Examination revealed a bilateral superior altitudinal defect and MRI of the brain showed multifocal areas of infarction predominantly involving the occipital lobes which correlated to with the visual deficits. Conclusion While the risk of thromboembolism and perioperative stroke during radiofrequency catheter ablation is small, it is not insignificant.

  11. Stratospheric water vapour budget and convection overshooting the tropopause: modelling study from SCOUT-AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of overshooting convection at a local scale on the water distribution in the tropical UTLS. Overshooting convection is assumed to be one of the processes controlling the entry of water vapour mixing ratio in the stratosphere by injecting ice crystals above the tropopause which later sublimate and hydrate the lower stratosphere. For this purpose, we quantify the individual impact of two cases of overshooting convection in Africa observed during SCOUT-AMMA: the case of 4 August 2006 over Southern Chad which is likely to have influenced the water vapour measurements by micro-SDLA and FLASH-B from Niamey on 5 August, and the case of a mesoscale convective system over Aïr on 5 August 2006. We make use of high resolution (down to 1 km horizontally nested grid simulations with the three-dimensional regional atmospheric model BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. In both cases, BRAMS succeeds in simulating the main features of the convective activity, as well as overshooting convection, though the exact position and time of the overshoots indicated by MSG brightness temperature difference is not fully reproduced (typically 1° displacement in latitude compared with the overshoots indicated by brightness temperature difference from satellite observations for both cases, and several hours shift for the Aïr case on 5 August 2006. Total water budgets associated with these two events show a significant injection of ice particles above the tropopause with maximum values of about 3.7 ton s−1 for the Chad case (4 August and 1.4 ton s−1 for the Aïr case (5 August, and a total upward cross tropopause transport of about 3300 ton h−1 for the Chad case and 2400 ton h−1 for the Aïr case in the third domain of simulation. The order of magnitude of these modelled fluxes is lower but comparable with similar studies in other tropical areas based on

  12. YouTube称盈利将近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳

    2009-01-01

    近日,YouTube CEO查德·赫利(Chad Hurley)发表博客文章称,该网站目前每天视频浏览量超10亿次,并将很快实现盈利。今年4月份曾有美国博客分析指出,YouTube每天给谷歌带来亏损150万美元。赫利表示,随着带宽的改善,YouTube的视频质量也随之提高,而用户对更长、甚至是完整内容的需求,意味着YouTube网站需要提供更为丰富的电影和电视剧内容,

  13. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Loupis, Anastasia M; Ihlemann, Nikolaj;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with an increased stroke risk, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention. However, this therapy carries a high risk of major bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is suggested...... as an alternative option for stroke prevention in AF patients with contraindication(s) for OAC treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 42 patients underwent percutaneous LAA closure. In this report, we describe our experience with this procedure. RESULTS: The patients treated were AF patients with a high stroke...... gastrointestinal bleeding immediately after the procedure. The mean duration of follow-up was 12.6 months. Both ischaemic stroke and bleeding occurred in one patient, resulting in an observed annual stroke and bleeding rate of 2.3%. This rate was lower than expected based on the CHADS-VASc (5.6%/year) and HAS...

  14. How to manage warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, Philip A; Tirimacco, Rosy; St John, Andrew; Roberts, Gregory W

    2015-04-01

    Long-term treatment with warfarin is recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke and those with recurrent venous thrombosis or prosthetic heart valves. Patient education before commencing warfarin - regarding signs and symptoms of bleeding, the impact of diet, potential drug interactions and the actions to take if a dose is missed - is pivotal to successful use. Scoring systems such as the CHADS2 score are used to determine if patients with atrial fibrillation are suitable for warfarin treatment. To rapidly achieve stable anticoagulation, use an age-adjusted protocol for starting warfarin. Regular monitoring of the anticoagulant effect is required. Evidence suggests that patients who self-monitor using point-of-care testing have better outcomes than other patients.

  15. EU Aid Conditionality in ACP Countries: Explaining Inconsistency in EU Sanctions Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Del Biondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU is often criticised for using negative conditionality only in poor, strategically less important countries in the ACP region. However, whether and why there is inconsistency within the group of ACP countries has not been properly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the reasons for the EU’s non-application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement in five countries that can be considered typical cases where negative conditionality is generally imposed, namely countries that experienced flawed elections over the last ten years: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya and Chad. On the one hand, the study confirms previous findings that security interests tend to trump the EU’s efforts to promote democratisation. On the other hand, the article adds that democratisation might not only conflict with the EU’s interests, but also with its objective to promote development and poverty reduction.

  16. A 20-ka reconstruction of a Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment using multi-method dating on pedogenic carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; King, Georgina E.; Valla, Pierre G.; Sebag, David; Herman, Frédéric; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-04-01

    Soils can be precious environmental archives as they are open systems resulting from external persistent disturbance, or forcing (Jenny, 1941). Pedogenic carbonate nodules associated with clay-rich soils have been investigated in the Far North region of Cameroon in non-carbonate watersheds (Chad Basin). Nodule bearing soils have mima-like mound morphologies, within stream networks. Such settings raise questions on the processes leading to carbonate precipitation as well as landscape genesis. The mima-like mounds have been identified as degraded Vertisols, resulting from differential erosion induced by a former gilgai micro-relief (Diaz et al., 2016). Non-degraded Vertisols occur in waterlogged areas, located downstream from mima-like mound locations (Braband and Gavaud, 1985). Therefore during a former wetter period Vertisols may have been extended to the mima-like mound areas, followed by a shift toward drier conditions and erosion (Diaz et al., 2016). Consequently, mima-like mounds and associated carbonate nodules are inherited from climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The aim of this study is to validate the scenario above using the carbonate nodules collected in a mima-like mound as time archives. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of K-feldspars trapped within the nodules is used to assess the deposition time of the soil parent material, composing the mima-like mounds. The carbonate and organic nodule parts have been radiocarbon dated with the aim of assessing the carbonate precipitation age and the age range of soil formation, respectively. Results show that the soil parent material was deposited between 18 ka and 12 ka BP and that the nodules precipitated between 7 ka and 5 ka BP. These results suggest that the deposition occurred during the arid climatic period of the Bossoumian (20 ka to 15 ka BP; Hervieu, 1970) and during the first drier part of the African Humid Period (14.8 ka to 11.5 ka BP; deMenocal et al., 2000

  17. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... for elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (2006). Applying the ‘lesser duty rule’ in duty determination indicates more attention to prices, and we therefore group the ten countries into those which use ‘the lesser duty rule’, such as the EU, and those which do not, such as the US. The results...

  18. Creating games mechanics, content, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire , Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Williams College Professor Morgan McGuire takes his games very seriously. So seriously, in fact, that he has written a book about it. ... While teaching his game design class, McGuire couldn't find a book that covered this, so he called up his colleague Professor Chad Jenkins at Brown, and they co-wrote the book to help other people design games. It combines scientific theories about rule systems with more practical advice about the process of designing a game.       -- L452The Berkshire Eagle , November 2008Apply Game Design as a Science for Public Policy to Rescue Economy, Planet: They are a

  19. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  20. CERT TST December 2015 Visit Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Robert Currier [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bailey, Teresa S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, G. Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olinger, Chad Tracy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pautz, Shawn D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Alan B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-25

    The annual PSAAP II TST visit to Texas A&M’s CERT Center was held on December 1-3, 2015. The agenda for the visit is attached. Non-TAMU attendees were: TST Members – Teresa Bailey (LLNL), Todd Gamblin (LLNL), Bob Little (LANL) – Chair, Chad Olinger (LANL), Shawn Pautz (SNL), Alan Williams (SNL);Other Lab staff – Skip Kahler (LANL), Ana Kupresanin (LLNL), and Rob Lowrie (LANL); AST Members – Nelson Hoffman (LANL) and Bob Voigt (Leidos) The TST wishes to express our appreciation to all involved with CERT for the high-quality posters and presentations and for the attention to logistics that enabled a successful visit. We have broken our comments into four sections: (1) Kudos, (2) Recommendations, (3) Feedback on Priorities for April Review, and (4) Follow-Up Activities with Labs.

  1. 杯形蛋糕公司获投资

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ascent Equjty Capital近日宣布投资150万美元来启动Phoebe's Cupcakes公司,这是一家由Chicagoans Phoebe Waiters和Kate McNamara两人共同运营的糕饼店。Ascent Equity Capital一向青睐于投资银行和法律行业的创新公司,此次为什么会对一家糕饼店情有独钟呢?原因之一是公司合伙人Chad Mollman是这家糕饼店薄荷味巧克力蛋糕的“超级粉丝”。

  2. The correlation of pulmonary vein ostium area and left atrial volume index with the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation%肺静脉开口面积及左心房容积指数与房颤患者血栓栓塞风险的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 常栋; 董颖雪; 尹晓盟; 夏云龙; 高连君; 张树龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of pulmonary vein ostium area and left atrial volume index(LAVI)with the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF). Methods A total of 206 non-valvular AF patients were continuously included in our study.Accord-ing to CHADS2 and CHA2 DS2-VASc scores,those scoring zero,1 point and no less than 2 points were divided into low-risk,average-risk and high-risk groups,respectively.All the patients were classified into thrombosis group and non-thrombosis group based on the results by transesophageal echocardiography(TEE)and brain computed tomography(CT).By the technology of multi-slice spiral computed tomography(MSCT),the ostium areas of left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV),left inferior pulmonary vein (LIPV),right superior pulmonary vein(RSPV)and right inferior pulmonary vein(RIPV)were measured.By transthoracic Doppler echocardiography,the upper and lower diam-eter,anteroposterior diameter,and left and right diameters of left atrium were measured while LAVI was calculated.By Spearman rank correlation analysis,the correlation of pulmonary vein ostium are-a and LAVI with the scores of thromboembolism risk was investigated.The clinical value of each in-dex in predicting thromboembolism of non-valvular AF patients was compared via ROC curve.Re-sults (i)According to CHADS2 scores,there were 73 cases(35.4%)in low-risk group,82 (39.8%)in average-risk group and 51 (24.8%)in high-risk group while according to CHA2 DS2-VASc scores,there were 41 cases(1 9.9%),67 cases(32.5%)and 98 cases(47.6%)separately in the three groups.LAVI,area of LSPV ostium,area of LIPV ostium,area of RSPV ostium and the total area of pulmonary vein ostium were significantly correlated with both CHADS2 and CHA2 DS2-VASc scores.(ii)LAVI,area of LSPV ostium,area of LIPV ostium and the total area of pulmonary vein ostium had diagnostic value in predicting the risk of thromboembolic events among non-valvular AF patients.Conclusion LAVI measured

  3. The silent victims of humanitarian crises and livelihood (insecurity: A case study among migrants in two Chadian towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syntyche Nakar Djindil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assistance to help relieve the hardships they face. "is study involves 111 migrant households from central Chad that, as a result of war and drought, have lost everything and now have to live in squatter areas of N’Djamena and Mongo, facing uncertainty and threats while negotiating their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been combined in this study to reveal the intriguing story of their daily lives in the face of complex and endemic crises. Anthropometric and health data were generated to determine the nutritional status of mothers and their children under !ve. Life histories, in-depth interviews and participatory observation allowed the researchers to capture the negotiation strategies they use to access food and shelter, their experiences of food insecurity and sanitary vulnerability, and the consequences these have on daily life. Results indicate that 62% of households were female headed, there were high rates of acute (40-50% and chronic (35-40% malnutrition and 46% of the mothers were underweight and anaemic. Infant mortality rates were also high at 30%-42% and 97% of the children had had incomplete or no vaccinations. No households had access to clean water, sanitation or public-health services. Endemic corruption and abuse by the authorities were identi!ed as major sources of day-to-day insecurity. Theese migrants were not expecting any improvement in their livelihoods in the foreseeable future and saw these miserable conditions as normal.

  4. Tchad 2008

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    Géraud Magrin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Février 2008 a connu un nouvel épisode violent des crises qui affectent le Tchad depuis 1965. Il s’agit ici d’en proposer une lecture géographique. L’entrée par le milieu physique éclaire le théâtre de conflit. Elle conduit à interroger l’évolution du rapport des sociétés tchadiennes à l’Etat, au territoire et aux ressources, jusque dans leurs dimensions géopolitiques - externes et internes. Sortir du cercle vicieux des rébellions et de leur répression suppose de réinventer un rôle à l’Etat, qui puiserait une légitimité nouvelle dans sa capacité de construction nationale.Since 1965 crises have followed one another in Chad, until the very last episode of February 2008. This paper offers a geographic approach of this last crisis and underlines the importance of the physical setting in the causes and mechanisms of the conflict. Such an approach questions the evolving links between state and societies and between their territories and resources. Internal and external geopolitical dimensions are key factors for a better understanding of the conflict. The vicious circle of rebellion and repression that plagues Chad now needs to be broken. In order to achieve the country's necessary national (reconstruction, the state ought, first and foremost, to define a new role for itself if not to reinvent itself altogether. It is only through this (reconstruction that the state will find its much needed new legitimacy.

  5. Wind-driven Water Bodies : a new paradigm for lake geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutz, A.; Schuster, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; Roquin, C.; Bouchette, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we emphasize the importance in some lakes of wind-related hydrodynamic processes (fair weather waves, storm waves, and longshore, cross-shore and bottom currents) as a first order forcing for clastics remobilization and basin infill. This alternative view contrasts with more classical depositional models for lakes where fluvial-driven sedimentation and settling dominates. Here we consider three large lakes/paleo-lakes that are located in different climatic and geodynamic settings: Megalake Chad (north-central Africa), Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada), and Lake Turkana (Kenya, East African Rift System). All of these three lake systems exhibit well developed modern and ancient high-energy littoral morphosedimentary structures which directly derive from wind-related hydrodynamics. The extensive paleo-shorelines of Megalake Chad are composed of beach-foredune ridges, spits, wave-dominated deltas, barriers, and wave-ravinment surface. For Lake Saint-Jean the influence of wind is also identified below the wave-base at lake bottom from erosional surfaces, and sediment drifts. In the Lake Turkana Basin, littoral landforms and deposits are identified for three different time intervals (today, Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene) evidencing that wind-driven hydrodynamics can be preserved in the geological record. Moreover, a preliminary global survey suggests that numerous modern lakes (remote sensing) and paleo-lakes (bibliographic review) behave as such. We thus coin the term "Wind-driven Water Bodies" (WWB) to refer to those lake systems where sedimentation (erosion, transport, deposition) is dominated by wind-induced hydrodynamics at any depth, as it is the case in the marine realm for shallow seas. Integrating wind forcing in lake models has strong implications for basin analysis (paleoenvironments and paleoclimates restitutions, resources exploration), but also for coastal engineering, wildlife and reservoirs management, or leisure activities.

  6. Crocodiles in the Sahara desert: an update of distribution, habitats and population status for conservation planning in Mauritania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20(th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on

  7. Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J

    2009-09-01

    Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N'Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rates between dogs (beta(d)) were 0.0807 km2/(dogs x week) and between dogs and humans (beta(dh)) 0.0002 km2/(dogs x week). The effective reproductive ratio (R(e)) at the onset of our observations was estimated at 1.01, indicating low-level endemic stability of rabies transmission. Human rabies incidence depended critically on dog-related transmission parameters. We simulated the effects of mass dog vaccination and the culling of a percentage of the dog population on human rabies incidence. A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is the current practice in Chad. PEP does not reduce future human exposure. Its cost-effectiveness is estimated at US $46 per disability adjusted life-years averted. Cost-effectiveness for PEP, together with a dog-vaccination campaign, breaks even with cost-effectiveness of PEP alone after almost 5 years. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone.

  8. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Ansari, M Azim; Bonsall, David; Richardson, Rachel; Hartnell, Felicity; Collier, Jane; Ammendola, Virginia; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Von Delft, Annette; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian V S; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Folgori, Antonella; Barnes, Eleanor

    2016-08-02

    An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy), determine T-cell cross-reactivity to endogenous virus, and compare immunogenicity with that observed previously in both healthy volunteers and in HCV infected patients vaccinated with the heterologous Ad regimen. Vaccination of HCV infected patients with ChAd3-NSmut/MVA-NSmut was well tolerated. Vaccine-induced HCV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8/12 patients; however, CD4+ T-cell responses were rarely detected, and the overall magnitude of HCV-specific T-cell responses was markedly reduced when compared to vaccinated healthy volunteers. Furthermore, HCV-specific cells had a distinct partially-functional phenotype (lower expression of activation markers, granzyme B, and TNFα production, weaker in vitro proliferation, and higher Tim3 expression, with comparable Tbet and Eomes expression) compared to healthy volunteers. Robust anti-vector T-cells and antibodies were induced, showing that there is no global defect in immunity. The level of viremia at the time of vaccination did not correlate with the magnitude of the vaccine-induced T-cell response. Full-length, next-generation sequencing of the circulating virus demonstrated that T-cells were

  9. Water vapor budget associated to overshoots in the tropical stratosphere: mesoscale modelling study of 4–5 August 2006 during SCOUT-AMMA

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    X. M. Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of overshooting convection at a local scale on the water distribution in the tropical UTLS. Overshooting convection is likely to be one of the key processes controlling the entry of water vapour amount in the stratosphere by injecting ice crystals above the tropopause which later sublimate and hydrate the lower stratosphere. For this purpose, we quantify the individual impact of two overshooting cases in Africa observed during SCOUT-AMMA: the case of 4 August 2006 over Southern Chad which is likely to have influenced the water vapour measurements by micro-SDLA and FLASH-B from Niamey on 5 August, and the case of a mesoscale convective system over Aϊr on 5 August 2006. We make use of high resolution (down to 1 km horizontally three nested grid simulations with the three-dimensional regional atmospheric model BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. In both cases, BRAMS succeeds in simulating the main features of the convective activity, as well as overshooting convection, thought the exact position and time of the overshoots indicated by MSG brightness temperature difference is not fully reproduced (typically 1° in latitude compared with the overshoots indicated by brightness temperature difference from satellite observations for both cases, and several hours shift the Aϊr case on 5 August 2006. Total water budgets associated with these two events show a significant injection of ice particles above the tropopause with maximum values of about 3.7 ton s−1 for the Chad case (4 August and 1.4 ton s−1 for the Aϊr case (5 August, and a total cross tropopause transport of about 3300 ton h−1 for the Chad case and 2400 ton h−1 for the Aϊr case in the third domain of simulation. The order of magnitude of these modelled fluxes is lower but comparable with similar studies in other tropical areas based on models. These two estimations exhibit

  10. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Ansari, M. Azim; Bonsall, David; Richardson, Rachel; Hartnell, Felicity; Collier, Jane; Ammendola, Virginia; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Von Delft, Annette; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Folgori, Antonella; Barnes, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy), determine T-cell cross-reactivity to endogenous virus, and compare immunogenicity with that observed previously in both healthy volunteers and in HCV infected patients vaccinated with the heterologous Ad regimen. Vaccination of HCV infected patients with ChAd3-NSmut/MVA-NSmut was well tolerated. Vaccine-induced HCV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8/12 patients; however, CD4+ T-cell responses were rarely detected, and the overall magnitude of HCV-specific T-cell responses was markedly reduced when compared to vaccinated healthy volunteers. Furthermore, HCV-specific cells had a distinct partially-functional phenotype (lower expression of activation markers, granzyme B, and TNFα production, weaker in vitro proliferation, and higher Tim3 expression, with comparable Tbet and Eomes expression) compared to healthy volunteers. Robust anti-vector T-cells and antibodies were induced, showing that there is no global defect in immunity. The level of viremia at the time of vaccination did not correlate with the magnitude of the vaccine-induced T-cell response. Full-length, next-generation sequencing of the circulating virus demonstrated that T-cells were

  11. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Swadling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA, or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3 vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA, encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut, used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy, determine T-cell cross-reactivity to endogenous virus, and compare immunogenicity with that observed previously in both healthy volunteers and in HCV infected patients vaccinated with the heterologous Ad regimen. Vaccination of HCV infected patients with ChAd3-NSmut/MVA-NSmut was well tolerated. Vaccine-induced HCV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8/12 patients; however, CD4+ T-cell responses were rarely detected, and the overall magnitude of HCV-specific T-cell responses was markedly reduced when compared to vaccinated healthy volunteers. Furthermore, HCV-specific cells had a distinct partially-functional phenotype (lower expression of activation markers, granzyme B, and TNFα production, weaker in vitro proliferation, and higher Tim3 expression, with comparable Tbet and Eomes expression compared to healthy volunteers. Robust anti-vector T-cells and antibodies were induced, showing that there is no global defect in immunity. The level of viremia at the time of vaccination did not correlate with the magnitude of the vaccine-induced T-cell response. Full-length, next-generation sequencing of the circulating virus demonstrated that T

  12. Transgene optimization, immunogenicity and in vitro efficacy of viral vectored vaccines expressing two alleles of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading candidate vaccine antigen against blood-stage malaria, although to date numerous clinical trials using mainly protein-in-adjuvant vaccines have shown limited success. Here we describe the pre-clinical development and optimization of recombinant human and simian adenoviral (AdHu5 and ChAd63 and orthopoxviral (MVA vectors encoding transgene inserts for Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 (PfAMA1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AdHu5-MVA prime-boost vaccination in mice and rabbits using these vectors encoding the 3D7 allele of PfAMA1 induced cellular immune responses as well as high-titer antibodies that showed growth inhibitory activity (GIA against the homologous but not heterologous parasite strains. In an effort to overcome the issues of PfAMA1 antigenic polymorphism and pre-existing immunity to AdHu5, a simian adenoviral (ChAd63 vector and MVA encoding two alleles of PfAMA1 were developed. This antigen, composed of the 3D7 and FVO alleles of PfAMA1 fused in tandem and with expression driven by a single promoter, was optimized for antigen secretion and transmembrane expression. These bi-allelic PfAMA1 vaccines, when administered to mice and rabbits, demonstrated comparable immunogenicity to the mono-allelic vaccines and purified serum IgG now showed GIA against the two divergent strains of P. falciparum encoded in the vaccine. CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell responses against epitopes that were both common and unique to the two alleles of PfAMA1 were also measured in mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Optimized transgene inserts encoding two divergent alleles of the same antigen can be successfully inserted into adeno- and pox-viral vaccine vectors. Adenovirus-MVA immunization leads to the induction of T cell responses common to both alleles, as well as functional antibody responses that are effective against both of the encoded strains of P. falciparum in vitro. These data support the further clinical

  13. A revision of the Pheroliodidae, fam. n. (Acari: Oribatei

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    Adilson D. Paschoal

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The new family Pheroliodidae, herei nproposed, includes the following genera and species Pheroliodes Grandjean (in whose synonymy Pedrocortesia Hammer is placed, with the species: casa-branquensis, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Casa Branca, pellitus, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, nemoricultricis, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, wehnekei (Willmann (Guatemala, Venezuela, roblensis Covarrubias (Chile, mirabilis (Hammer, n. comb. (Argentina: Pedrocortesia elegans Hammer, P. intermedia Hammer, both from Peru, P. fissurata Balogh & Mahunka and P. inaequalis Balogh & Mahunka, both from Mongolia, P. franzi Balogh (Chad, P. africana Balogh (Kenya, P. vermicularis Balogh (New Guinea and P. sculptrata Aoki (Corea are considered incertae sedis; Lopholiodes, gen. n., includes the species micropunctinatum, sp. n., the type-species (Brazil, São Paulo, Anhumas and macropunctinatum, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba: Octoliodes, gen n., includes the species leuteomarginatus (Hammer, n. comb., the type-species (New ealand and rotoruensis (Hammer, n. comb. (New Zealand: and Licnoliodes Grandjean, with the species: andrei Grandjean, type-species (Spain and Algeria, adminensis Grandjean, type-species (Spain and Algeria, adminensis Grandjean (Maroc, Algeria, Spain and apunctatus Mahunka (Greece.A nova família aqui descrita, Pheroliodidae, inclui os seguintes gêneros e espécies: Pheroliodes Grandjean (em cuja sinonímia vai incluído Pedrocortesia Hammer, com as seguintes espécies: casa-branquensis, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Casa Branca, pellitus, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, nemoricultricis, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, wehnekei (Willmann (Guatemala, Venezuela, roblensis Covarrubias (Chile, mirabilis (Hammer, n. comb. (Argentina: Pedrocortesia elegans Hammer, P. intermedia Hammer, ambas do Peru, P. fissurata Balogh & Mahunka (Mongólia, inaequalis Balogh & Mahunka (Mongólia, franzi Balogh (Chad, P. africana Balogh

  14. Radar scattering of linear dunes and mega-yardangs: Application to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillou, Philippe; Seignovert, Benoît; Radebaugh, Jani; Wall, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    The Ku-band (13.8 GHz - 2.2 cm) RADAR instrument onboard the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has revealed the richness of the surface of Titan, as numerous seas, lakes, rivers, cryo-volcanic flows and vast dune fields have been discovered. Linear dunes are a major geomorphological feature present on Titan, covering up to 17% of its surface, mainly in equatorial regions. However, the resolution of the RADAR instrument is not good enough to allow a detailed study of the morphology of these features. In addition, other linear wind-related landforms, such as mega-yardangs (linear wind-abraded ridges formed in cohesive rocks), are likely to present a comparable radar signature that could be confused with the one of dunes. We conducted a comparative study of the radar radiometry of both linear dunes and mega-yardangs, based on representative terrestrial analogues: the linear dunes located in the Great Sand Sea in western Egypt and in the Namib Desert in Namibia, and the mega-yardangs observed in the Lut Desert in eastern Iran and in the Borkou Desert in northern Chad. We analysed the radar scattering of both terrestrial linear dunes and mega-yardangs, using high-resolution radar images acquired by the X-band (9.6 GHz - 3.1 cm) sensor of the TerraSAR-X satellite. Variations seen in the radar response of dunes are the result of a contrast between the dune and interdune scattering, while for mega-yardangs these variations are the result of a contrast between ridges and erosion valleys. We tested a simple surface scattering model, with parameters derived from the local topography and surface roughness estimates, to accurately reproduce the radar signal variations for both landforms. It appears that we can discriminate between two types of dunes - bare interdunes as in Egypt and sand-covered interdunes as in Namibia, and between two types of mega-yardangs - young yardangs as in Iran and older ones as in Chad. We applied our understanding of the radar scattering to the analysis of

  15. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative’s model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South–South collaboration has been central to the initiative’s accomplishments: Guinea’s clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP

  16. A viral vectored prime-boost immunization regime targeting the malaria Pfs25 antigen induces transmission-blocking activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Goodman

    Full Text Available The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63, human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a heterologous prime-boost regime. Immunization of mice with AdHu5 Pfs25 at week 0 and MVA Pfs25 at week 10 (Ad-MVA Pfs25 resulted in high anti-Pfs25 IgG titers, consisting of predominantly isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a. A single priming immunization with ChAd63 Pfs25 was as effective as AdHu5 Pfs25 with respect to ELISA titers at 8 weeks post-immunization. Sera from Ad-MVA Pfs25 immunized mice inhibited the transmission of P. falciparum to the mosquito both ex vivo and in vivo. In a standard membrane-feeding assay using NF54 strain P. falciparum, oocyst intensity in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes was significantly reduced in an IgG concentration-dependent manner when compared to control feeds (96% reduction of intensity, 78% reduction in prevalence at a 1 in 5 dilution of sera. In addition, an in vivo transmission-blocking effect was also demonstrated by direct feeding of immunized mice infected with Pfs25DR3, a chimeric P. berghei line expressing Pfs25 in place of endogenous Pbs25. In this assay the density of Pfs25DR3 oocysts was significantly reduced when mosquitoes were fed on vaccinated as compared to control mice (67% reduction of intensity, 28% reduction in prevalence and specific IgG titer correlated with efficacy. These data confirm the utility of the adenovirus-MVA vaccine platform for the induction of antibodies with transmission-blocking activity, and support the continued development of this alternative approach to transmission-blocking malaria subunit

  17. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  18. Surface water - groundwater relationship in the downstream part of the Komadougou Yobe River (Eastern Sahelian Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Luxereau, A.; Descloîtres, M.; Moumouni Moussa, A.; Abdou, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Komadougou Yobe (KY) is a temporary river meandering on nearly 100 km along the Niger/Nigeria border in its lower part, before reaching the endoreic Lake Chad. There, seasonal flow from July to January is related to rainfall amount on the upstream Jos Plateau, Nigeria. In the semi-arid downstream area (350 mm annual rainfall in Diffa, Niger) the KY is the main source of recharge for the sandy quaternary aquifer which is used both for irrigation and for drinking water supply. The borders of the KY in Niger are subjected to an agricultural development involving intensive irrigated cropping of sweet pepper mainly produced for sale in Nigeria. Irrigation waters are mainly extracted from the KY, and therefore irrigation must stop when the River runs dry, but irrigation from wells is now developing with an increased risk of soil salinization. The flow rate of the KY has been impacted both by the 80s and 90s droughts, also underwent by the entire Sahel, and by the building up of a series of dams starting from the 70s in Nigeria. Therefore the KY and its relations with the underlying groundwaters should be carefully monitored to provide guidelines for policy makers in charge of the development of this area. However, in this remote area, data are scarce and often discontinuous : there are for example no continuous groundwater level data from before the drought. As part of the Lake Chad French IRD project, series of campaigns involving water level, exploration geophysics, gravity, soil sampling and social studies have been carried out between 2008 and 2011. They allowed to build a numerical model for groundwater-river interactions which in some instances has been compared with previously recorded data. This model is then forced with theoretical climatic senarii based on humid 60s data and data from the drought period. This allows discussing the relationships between the river and groundwaters in a changing climate. Our results militate for the setting up of a limited

  19. Risk profiles and antithrombotic treatment of patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke: perspectives from the international, observational, prospective GARFIELD registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Kakkar

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke, from a worldwide perspective. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics and initial therapeutic management of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation across the spectrum of sites at which these patients are treated.The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD is an observational study of patients newly diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Enrollment into Cohort 1 (of 5 took place between December 2009 and October 2011 at 540 sites in 19 countries in Europe, Asia-Pacific, Central/South America, and Canada. Investigator sites are representative of the distribution of atrial fibrillation care settings in each country. Cohort 1 comprised 10,614 adults (≥18 years diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation within the previous 6 weeks, with ≥1 investigator-defined stroke risk factor (not limited to those in existing risk-stratification schemes, and regardless of therapy. Data collected at baseline included demographics, medical history, care setting, nature of atrial fibrillation, and treatments initiated at diagnosis. The mean (SD age of the population was 70.2 (11.2 years; 43.2% were women. Mean±SD CHADS2 score was 1.9±1.2, and 57.2% had a score ≥2. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.2±1.6, and 8,957 (84.4% had a score ≥2. Overall, 38.0% of patients with a CHADS2 score ≥2 did not receive anticoagulant therapy, whereas 42.5% of those at low risk (score 0 received anticoagulant therapy.These contemporary observational worldwide data on non-valvular atrial fibrillation, collected at the end of the vitamin K antagonist-only era, indicate that these drugs are frequently not being used according to stroke risk scores and guidelines, with overuse in patients at low risk and underuse in those at high risk of stroke.ClinicalTrials.gov TRI08888.

  20. 北站社区100例心房颤动患者抗凝治疗现状%Survey on the treatment of anticoagulation in 100 patients with atrial ifbrillation in Beizhan Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明艺; 王志华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To survey the treatment status of anticoagulation in the patients with atrial ifbrillation in Beizhan Community to provide a reference for the community standardized management of atrial ifbrillation. Methods:One hundred cases with atrial ifbrillation in the outpatient department of Zhabei Community Health Service Center from Jan. to Dec. 2013 were collected and investigated with a questionnaire that included the present illness, past history, treatment history, prothrombin monitoring and INR awareness and so on. The score of CHADS2 was used to evaluate the treatment rationality. Results:Hypertension and ischemic heart disease were the major causes of atrial ifbrillation, the anticoagulation treatment proportion for atrial ifbrillation accounted for only 33%, and the average time of anticoagulation therapy was 6 months. The community did not carry out the monitoring of coagulation function for the patients with anticoagulation therapy. Conclusion:Anticoagulation treatment of atrial ifbrillation has not been carried out in the community. It needs to strengthen and enhance the standardized management level of atrial ifbrillation in the community.%目的:调查北站社区心房颤动(房颤)患者抗凝治疗现状,为规范社区房颤管理提供参考。方法:收集2013年1月-2013年12月北站社区门诊持续房颤患者100例,进行问卷调查,内容包括现病史、既往病史、治疗史、凝血酶原监测及凝血酶国际标准化比率知晓情况等,并采用CHADS2评分评价治疗的合理性。结果:房颤的病因主要为高血压和缺血性心脏病,房颤患者抗凝治疗的比例仅为36%,抗凝治疗的平均时间为6个月;社区尚未开展抗凝治疗患者凝血功能监测。结论:社区房颤的抗凝治疗尚未展开,需加强和提高社区房颤的规范管理水平。

  1. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae: data from the first year of a multi-country study highlight the extent of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagnon N'Falé

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing concern in many countries which requires immediate attention because of the limited chemical arsenal available for vector control. The current extent and distribution of this resistance in many parts of the continent is unknown and yet such information is essential for the planning of effective malaria control interventions. Methods In 2008, a network was established, with financial support from WHO/TDR, to investigate the extent of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in five African countries. Here, the results of bioassays on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from two rounds of monitoring from 12 sentinel sites in three of the partner countries are reported. Results Resistance is very heterogeneous even over relatively small distances. Furthermore, in some sites, large differences in mortality rates were observed during the course of the malaria transmission season. Using WHO diagnostic doses, all populations from Burkina Faso and Chad and two of the four populations from Sudan were classified as resistant to permethrin and/or deltamethrin. Very high frequencies of DDT resistance were found in urban areas in Burkina Faso and Sudan and in a cotton-growing district in Chad. In areas where both An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were present, resistance was found in both species, although generally at a higher frequency in An gambiae s.s. Anopheles gambiae s.l. remains largely susceptible to the organophosphate fenitrothion and the carbamate bendiocarb in the majority of the sentinel sites with the exception of two sites in Burkina Faso. In the cotton-growing region of Soumousso in Burkina Faso, the vector population is resistant to all four classes of insecticide available for malaria control. Conclusions Possible factors influencing the frequency of resistant individuals observed in the sentinel sites are discussed. The results of this study highlight the

  2. 两大巨头的“握手”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽娜(编译)

    2006-01-01

    2006年10月9日,Google的创始人Larry Page和Sergey Brin宣布耗资16.5亿美元购买YouTube的计划。You Tube是由Chad Hurley和Steve Chen创办的,Page和Brin先生凭借其搜索引擎巨头的实力制造了一种网络现象——Google用实际行动证明搜寻服务可以通过附加广告挣钱.从而对传统的网络智慧和盈利方式提出了挑战。在过去的几年内Hurley和Chert也开创了一个新的网络模式:一个简单的娱乐网址,任何人都可以下载视频片断,并分享它。

  3. Atrial Fibrillation and Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cátia, E-mail: catiaspferreira@hotmail.com; Providência, Rui; Ferreira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino Manuel [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Serviço de Cardiologia - Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions. Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF. The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS{sub 2} and CHA{sub 2}DS{sub 2}VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions. The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed.

  4. Risk stratification and stroke prevention therapy care gaps in Canadian atrial fibrillation patients (from the Co-ordinated National Network to Engage Physicians in the Care and Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation chart audit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish D; Tan, Mary K; Angaran, Paul; Bell, Alan D; Berall, Murray; Bucci, Claudia; Demchuk, Andrew M; Essebag, Vidal; Goldin, Lianne; Green, Martin S; Gregoire, Jean C; Gross, Peter L; Heilbron, Brett; Lin, Peter J; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Skanes, Allan; Wheeler, Bruce H; Goodman, Shaun G

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this national chart audit (January to June 2013) of 6,346 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF; ≥18 years without a significant heart valve disorder) from 647 primary care physicians were to (1) describe the frequency of stroke and bleed risk assessments in patients with nonvalvular AF by primary care physicians, including the accuracy of these assessments relative to established predictive indexes; (2) outline contemporary methods of anticoagulation used; and (3) report the time in the therapeutic range among patients prescribed warfarin. An annual stroke risk assessment was not undertaken in 15% and estimated without a formal risk tool in 33%; agreement with CHADS2 score estimation was seen in 87% of patients. Major bleeding risk assessment was not undertaken in 25% and estimated without a formal risk tool in 47%; agreement with HAS-BLED score estimation was observed in 64% with physician overestimation in 26% of patients. Antithrombotic therapy included warfarin (58%), dabigatran (22%), rivaroxaban (14%), and apixaban (risk for stroke. There is apparent overestimation of bleeding risk in many patients. Warfarin was the dominant stroke prevention treatment; however, the suggested TTR target was achieved in only 55% of these patients.

  5. Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Dalton, Desiré L.; Kotzé, Antoinette; Muya, Shadrack; Haubensak, Patricia; Bálint, Boglárka; Munimanda, Gopi K.; Deimel, Caroline; Setzer, Andrea; Dicks, Kara; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Kalthoff, Daniela C.; Siegismund, Hans R.; Robovský, Jan; O’Donoghue, Paul; Bruford, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species’ once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled. Using both mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, we described a staggering loss of 69% of the species’ mitochondrial genetic variation, including the most ancestral lineages that are now absent from modern populations. Genetically unique populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive in the Masai Mara. We also identify conservation units that will help maintain evolutionary potential. Our results suggest a complete re-evaluation of current conservation management paradigms for the black rhinoceros. PMID:28176810

  6. Duloxetine in the treatment of chronic pain due to fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wright

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Wright, Kyle E Luedtke, Chad VanDenBergCenter for Clinical Research, Mercer University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAAbstract: Duloxetine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia and painful diabetic neuropathy at doses of 60 mg daily. Duloxetine has been shown to significantly improve the symptoms of chronic pain associated with these disorders, as measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory scores, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and other various outcome measures in several placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter studies. Symptom improvement generally began within the first few weeks, and continued for the duration of the study. In addition, the efficacy of duloxetine was found to be due to direct effects on pain symptoms rather than secondary to improvements in depression or anxiety. Adverse events including nausea, constipation, dry mouth, and insomnia, were mild and transient and occurred at relatively low rates. In conclusion, duloxetine, a selective inhibitor for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, is efficacious in the treatment of chronic pain associated with fibromyalgia or diabetic neuropathy, and has a predictable tolerability profile, with adverse events generally being mild to moderate.Keywords: duloxetine, chronic pain, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, efficacy, safety

  7. Safety of atrial fibrillation ablation with novel multi-electrode array catheters on uninterrupted anticoagulation-a single-center experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Christopher Ruslan

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: A recent single-center report indicated that the performance of atrial fibrillation ablation in patients on uninterrupted warfarin using a conventional deflectable tip electrode ablation catheter may be as safe as periprocedural discontinuation of warfarin and bridging with heparin. Novel multi-electrode array catheters for atrial fibrillation ablation are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. While offering the possibility of more rapid atrial fibrillation ablation, they are stiffer and necessitate the deployment of larger deflectable transseptal sheaths, and it remains to be determined if they increase the risk of cardiac perforation and vascular injury. Such potential risks would have implications for a strategy of uninterrupted periprocedural anticoagulation. METHOD AND RESULTS: We audited the safety outcomes of our atrial fibrillation ablation procedures using multi-electrode array ablation catheters in patients on uninterrupted warfarin (CHADS2 score>or=2) and in patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). Two bleeding complications occurred in 49 patients on uninterrupted warfarin, both of which were managed successfully without longterm sequelae, and no bleeding complication occurred in 32 patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). There were no thromboembolic events or other complication with either anticoagulant regimen. CONCLUSION: Despite the larger diameter and increased stiffness of multi-electrode array catheters and their deflectable transseptal sheaths, their use for catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation on uninterrupted warfarin in this single-center experience does not appear to be unsafe, and thus, an adequately powered multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial should be considered.

  8. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine.

  9. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  10. Duloxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wright

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alan Wright, Chad VanDenBergCenter for Clinical Research, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Duloxetine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI which is FDA approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in doses of 30 mg to 120 mg daily. Duloxetine has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of GAD as measured through the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-I, and other various outcome measures in several placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind, multi-center studies. Symptom improvement began within the first few weeks, and continued for the duration of the studies. In addition, duloxetine has also been shown to improve outcomes in elderly patients with GAD, and in GAD patients with clinically significant pain symptoms. Duloxetine was noninferior compared with venlafaxine XR. Duloxetine was found to have a good tolerability profile which was predictable and similar to another SNRI, venlafaxine. Adverse events (AEs such as nausea, constipation, dry mouth, and insomnia were mild and transient, and occurred at relatively low rates. It was found to have a low frequency of drug interactions. In conclusion, duloxetine, a selective inhibitor for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, is efficacious in the treatment of GAD, and has a predictable tolerability profile, with AEs generally being mild to moderate.Keywords: duloxetine, generalized anxiety disorder, anxiety, GAD

  11. Validation of the regional climate model MAR over the CORDEX Africa domain and comparison with other regional models using unpublished data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignon, Maxime; Agosta, Cécile; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier; Michel, Erpicum

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the CORDEX project, we have applied the regional model MAR over the Africa domain at a resolution of 50 km. ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis have been used as 6 hourly forcing at the MAR boundaries over 1950-2015. While MAR was already been validated over the West Africa, it is the first time that MAR simulations are carried out at the scale of the whole continent. Unpublished daily measurements, covering the Sahel and more areas up South, with a large set of variables, are used as validation of MAR, other CORDEX-Africa RCMs and both reanalyses. Comparisons with the CRU and the ECA&D databases are also performed. The unpublished daily data set covers the period 1884-2006 and comes from 1460 stations. The measured variables are wind, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, insolation, rain, surface pressure, temperature, vapour pressure and visibility. It covers 23 countries: Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Canary Islands, Cap Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.

  12. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V; Smith, Noel H

    2011-02-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies.

  13. Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Verschuren, Dirk; Fagot, Maureen; Rumes, Bob; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid production peaked during the fresh-to-saline transition period, then stabilized at about half that of the earlier freshwater ecosystem. Quantitative salinity inferences based on fossil chironomid assemblages indicate that the fresh-to-saline transition occurred fairly abruptly between ˜4100 and 3400 cal yr BP, but that the ecosystem was buffered against shorter-term climate fluctuations due to continuous inflow of fossil groundwater. The mixture of tropical-African and southern Palaearctic chironomid faunas in the Lake Yoa fossil record required us to address several methodological issues concerning chironomid-based salinity reconstruction, and the applicability of a calibration dataset based on tropical East and West African lakes to this Sahara desert locality. The most coherent reconstruction was obtained with an inference model that applies a weighted best-modern-analogue (WMAT) transfer function to the African calibration dataset expanded with six Sahara lakes.

  14. Retinol assessment among women and children in sahelian mobile pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Kraemer, K; Schweigert, F; Bonfoh, B; Crump, L; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, particularly in remote communities such as mobile pastoralists. The nutritional and vitamin A status of this population is not well-documented in Chad. This study assessed serum retinol levels among women and children under five-year-old in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralist and rural-settled communities, who are similarly exposed to risk factors such as gastrointestinal parasitic infection, anaemia and emaciation. The novel method of portable fluorometry was used for the first time to measure β-carotene and retinol levels in a pastoral nomadic area. Moderate level blood retinol deficiency (level blood retinol deficiency. In nomadic communities, women and children had blood retinol levels close to normal. Deficiency of retinol was strongly linked with lifestyle (nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled) among women and lifestyle and age among children. The results support an ecological linkage between human retinol levels and livestock milk retinol. This study shows the feasibility of portable retinol and β-carotene measurement in human blood as well as human and animal milk under remote field conditions, but the approach requires further validation.

  15. New anticoagulant drugs versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation: economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silingardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health care resources available for medical procedures, including pharmaceuticals, are limited worldwide. Health economic evidence is now accepted as an essential component of health technology appraisal, realizing the importance of value for money considerations for a more efficient (cost-effective prescribing. Regulatory agencies in more and more countries perform economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis in order to decide about reimbursement of a new and almost always more expensive drug. Pharmacoeconomy is now acknowledged as a science. Cost-effective analysis is just one of its approaches, measuring cost in money and benefit in terms of Quality Adjusted Life Year, a new outcome measure which combines quantity/quality of additional life-years gained with the new drug/technology. A growing body of pharmacoeconomic evidence about new anticoagulant drugs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation is now available. Most of this evidence comes from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE in the United Kingdom, the most referenced regulatory agency in the world. Compared to current standard therapies (warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are cost-effective treatments for the whole population of patients with atrial fibrillation, independently of poor/good international normalized ratio control (time in therapeutic range and risk stratification for stroke (CHADS2 score. Significant innovation and the lower rate of intracranial hemorrhage/hemorrhagic stroke coupled with the new drugs are the key drivers of these results.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Dublin 15

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Christopher Ruslan

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: A recent single-center report indicated that the performance of atrial fibrillation ablation in patients on uninterrupted warfarin using a conventional deflectable tip electrode ablation catheter may be as safe as periprocedural discontinuation of warfarin and bridging with heparin. Novel multi-electrode array catheters for atrial fibrillation ablation are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. While offering the possibility of more rapid atrial fibrillation ablation, they are stiffer and necessitate the deployment of larger deflectable transseptal sheaths, and it remains to be determined if they increase the risk of cardiac perforation and vascular injury. Such potential risks would have implications for a strategy of uninterrupted periprocedural anticoagulation. METHOD AND RESULTS: We audited the safety outcomes of our atrial fibrillation ablation procedures using multi-electrode array ablation catheters in patients on uninterrupted warfarin (CHADS2 score>or=2) and in patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). Two bleeding complications occurred in 49 patients on uninterrupted warfarin, both of which were managed successfully without longterm sequelae, and no bleeding complication occurred in 32 patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). There were no thromboembolic events or other complication with either anticoagulant regimen. CONCLUSION: Despite the larger diameter and increased stiffness of multi-electrode array catheters and their deflectable transseptal sheaths, their use for catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation on uninterrupted warfarin in this single-center experience does not appear to be unsafe, and thus, an adequately powered multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial should be considered.

  17. Geostatistical Analysis of Population Density and the Change of Land Cover and Land Use in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, I.; Lee, J.; Black, F. W.; Babamaaji, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in northeastern Nigeria is an important tributary of Lake Chad and has experienced significant changes in population density and land cover in recent decades. The present study focuses on the application of geostatistical methods to examine the land cover and population density dynamics in the river basin. The geostatistical methods include spatial autocorrelation, overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient, Moran's I index analysis, and indicator variogram analysis with rose diagram. The land cover and land use maps were constructed from USGS Landsat images and Globcover images from the European Space Agency. The target years of the analysis are 1970, 1986, 2000, 2005, and 2009. The calculation of net changes in land cover indicates significant variation in the changes of rainfed cropland, mosaic cropland, and grassland. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and Moran I index analysis showed that the distribution of land cover is highly clustered. A new GIS geostatistical tool was designed to calculate the overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient between the land use/land cover and population density datasets. The 10x10 neighborhood cell unit showed a clear correlation between the variables in certain zones of the study area. The ranges calculated from the indicator variograms of land use and land cover and population density showed that the cropland and sparse vegetation are most closely related to the spatial change of population density.

  18. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  19. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  20. Safety of short-term use of dabigatran or rivaroxaban for direct-current cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Ajay; Groh, Christopher; Passman, Rod

    2014-04-15

    Direct-current cardioversion (DCCV) for persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF) carries a risk of thromboembolic events (TEs). Therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended for 3 to 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after DCCV to reduce TE; however, the safety of short-term anticoagulation with the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran and rivaroxaban) before DCCV has not been assessed. A retrospective cohort study was performed on all patients undergoing elective DCCV for AF at Northwestern Memorial Hospital from June 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients taking any of the novel oral anticoagulants for 21 to 60 days before DCCV and successful DCCV to sinus rhythm. Patients were monitored for a minimum of 60 days after DCCV to evaluate for TEs including stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic emboli, and death. In total, 53 patients (47 men, 89%; age 65±10 years, median 66) were evaluated. Agents used were dabigatran (30 patients, 57%) and rivaroxaban (23 patients, 43%) for an average of 38±9 days. The mean CHADS2 score was 1.2±1.1 (score=0, 26%; 1, 43%; 2, 17%; and >3, 13%). Eleven patients (21%) underwent a transesophageal echocardiography before their DCCV; all showed no thrombus. No patients were found to have episodes of TE within 60 days of DCCV. No patients were found to have major bleeding events. In conclusion, the use of short-term dabigatran or rivaroxaban therapy for DCCV of AF appears safe.

  1. Climate change and climate systems influence and control the atmospheric dispersion of desert dust: implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Ragaini, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    The global dispersion of desert dust through Earth’s atmosphere is greatly influenced by temperature. Temporal analyses of ice core data have demonstrated that enhanced dust dispersion occurs during glacial events. This is due to an increase in ice cover, which results in an increase in drier terrestrial cover. A shorter temporal analysis of dust dispersion data over the last 40 years has demonstrated an increase in dust transport. Climate systems or events such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Indian Ocean subtropical High, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and El Nino-Sothern Oscillation are known to influence global short-term dust dispersion occurrence and transport routes. Anthropogenic influences on dust transport include deforestation, harmful use of topsoil for agriculture as observed during the American Dust Bowl period, and the creation of dry seas (Aral Sea) and lakes (Lake Owens in California and Lake Chad in North Africa) through the diversion of source waters (for irrigation and drinking water supplies). Constituents of desert dust both from source regions (pathogenic microorganisms, organic and inorganic toxins) and those scavenged through atmospheric transport (i.e., industrial and agricultural emissions) are known to directly impact human and ecosystem health. This presentation will present a review of global scale dust storms and how these events can be both a detriment and benefit to various organisms in downwind environments.

  2. Exporting expertise : Pajak Engineering sends its oilfield consultants to the farthest corners of the global patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    This article discussed the activities of Pajak Engineering Ltd., a Canadian company that supplies wellsite supervisors, engineers, and engineering technologists to an international client base. The company has expertise in all phases of the oil and gas production cycle, and was recently involved in evacuating Chinese and Canadian oilfield personnel from a site in Chad that was in danger of being attacked by rebel forces. A Pajak consultant persuaded officials in Cameroon to allow the 115 Chinese oilfield workers to enter the country without conventional documents. The firm was founded in 1966, and was responsible for initiating Canada's first well control training course. The firm is now concentrating on deploying more personnel internationally in order to counter the cyclical nature of the Canadian oil industry. International producers acknowledge that Canada's harsh operating environment has resulted in significant advances in drilling management technology. Pajak consultants are instructed to avoid potentially dangerous operational shortcuts, and the firm has developed a reputation for having high professional standards. 3 figs.

  3. Left Atrial Appendage: Physiology, Pathology, and Role as a Therapeutic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Regazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmia. AF poses patients at increased risk of thromboembolism, in particular ischemic stroke. The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are useful in the assessment of thromboembolic risk in nonvalvular AF and are utilized in decision-making about treatment with oral anticoagulation (OAC. However, OAC is underutilized due to poor patient compliance and contraindications, especially major bleedings. The Virchow triad synthesizes the pathogenesis of thrombogenesis in AF: endocardial dysfunction, abnormal blood stasis, and altered hemostasis. This is especially prominent in the left atrial appendage (LAA, where the low flow reaches its minimum. The LAA is the remnant of the embryonic left atrium, with a complex and variable morphology predisposing to stasis, especially during AF. In patients with nonvalvular AF, 90% of thrombi are located in the LAA. So, left atrial appendage occlusion could be an interesting and effective procedure in thromboembolism prevention in AF. After exclusion of LAA as an embolic source, the remaining risk of thromboembolism does not longer justify the use of oral anticoagulants. Various surgical and catheter-based methods have been developed to exclude the LAA. This paper reviews the physiological and pathophysiological role of the LAA and catheter-based methods of LAA exclusion.

  4. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor Provost

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology.Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  5. Duloxetine for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Scholz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Beth A Scholz, Cara L Hammonds, Chad S BoomershineDepartment of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a widespread pain condition associated with a wide range of additional symptoms including fatigue, insomnia, depression, anxiety and stiffness. Duloxetine is one of three medications currently FDA approved for use in FMS management. Duloxetine is a mixed serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI that functions by increasing central nervous system levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. This review is a primer on use of duloxetine in FMS management and includes information on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, a review of the three duloxetine FMS treatment trials currently in publication, a discussion of the safety and tolerability of duloxetine, and patient-focused perspectives on duloxetine use in FMS management. Duloxetine has proven efficacy in managing pain and mood symptoms in adult FMS patients with and without major depressive disorder. However, due to side effects, duloxetine must be used with caution in patients with fatigue, insomnia, gastrointestinal complaints, headache, cardiovascular disease, bleeding-risk, and in those 24 years of age and younger due to risk of suicidality. Duloxetine use should be avoided in patients with liver disease or alcoholics. As with all medications, duloxetine is best used as part of an individualized regimen that includes nonpharmacologic modalities of exercise, education and behavioral therapies.Keywords: fibromyalgia, duloxetine, SNRI, safety

  6. Coupling paper-based microfluidics and lab on a chip technologies for confirmatory analysis of trinitro aromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, Alessandra; Taudte, Regina Verena; McCord, Bruce; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude; Blanes, Lucas

    2014-05-20

    A new microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) in conjunction with confirmation by a lab on chip analysis was developed for detection of three trinitro aromatic explosives. Potassium hydroxide was deposited on the μPADs (0.5 μL, 1.5 M), creating a color change reaction when explosives are present, with detection limits of approximately 7.5 ± 1.0 ng for TNB, 12.5 ± 2.0 ng for TNT and 15.0 ± 2.0 ng for tetryl. For confirmatory analysis, positive μPADs were sampled using a 5 mm hole-punch, followed by extraction of explosives from the punched chad in 30 s using 20 μL borate/SDS buffer. The extractions had efficiencies of 96.5 ± 1.7%. The extracted explosives were then analyzed with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer lab on a chip device with minimum detectable amounts of 3.8 ± 0.1 ng for TNB, 7.0 ± 0.9 ng for TNT, and 4.7 ± 0.2 ng for tetryl. A simulated in-field scenario demonstrated the feasibility of coupling the μPAD technique with the lab on a chip device to detect and identify 1 μg of explosives distributed on a surface of 100 cm(2).

  7. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  8. Real life anticoagulation treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Groth, Antje; Pfannkuche, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    -risk dependent OAC utilization profile of German AF patients and possible causes of OAC under-use. Our claims-based data set was derived from two German statutory health insurance funds for the years 2007-2010. All prevalent AF-patients in the period 2007-2009 were included. The OAC-need in 2010 was assumed...... whenever a CHADS2- or CHA2DS2-VASC-score was >1 and no factor that disfavored OAC use existed. Causes of OAC under-use were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. 108,632 AF-prevalent patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age was 75.43 years, average CHA2DS2-VASc-score was 4.38. OAC should...... have been recommended for 56.1/62.9 % of the patients (regarding factors disfavouring VKA/NOAC use). For 38.88/39.20 % of the patient-days in 2010 we could not observe any coverage by anticoagulants. Dementia of patients (OR 2.656) and general prescription patterns of the treating physician (OR 1...

  9. In Brief: New atlas of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-07-01

    A newly revised atlas of Africa features more than 300 satellite images that show striking before and after photographs of environmental changes spanning about 35 years. Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment, compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), provides visual evidence of how development choices, population growth, climate change, and, in some cases, conflicts affect Africa, often negatively. The book includes photographs of shrinking glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro as well as on Uganda's Rwenzori Mountains; deforestation along an expanding road system in the Congo; the drying up of Lake Chad; and the expansion of urban areas such as Cape Town, South Africa, and Dakar, Senegal. Satellite images also indicate some positive signs of environmental management, including action to stop overgrazing in a Tunisian national park, the effects of a management plan for a dam in Zambia that has helped restore seasonal flooding, and positive impacts of wetlands expansion around a national park in Mauritania. For more information, visit http://www.unep.org/dewa/africa/AfricaAtlas.

  10. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  11. Enhancing immunogenicity and transmission-blocking activity of malaria vaccines by fusing Pfs25 to IMX313 multimerization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Leneghan, Darren B.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Nikolaeva, Daria; Brian, Iona J.; Dicks, Matthew D. J.; Fyfe, Alex J.; Zakutansky, Sarah E.; de Cassan, Simone; Long, Carole A.; Draper, Simon J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Hill, Fergal; Biswas, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) target the sexual-stages of the malaria parasite in the mosquito midgut and are widely considered to be an essential tool for malaria elimination. High-titer functional antibodies are required against target antigens to achieve effective transmission-blocking activity. We have fused Pfs25, the leading malaria TBV candidate antigen to IMX313, a molecular adjuvant and expressed it both in ChAd63 and MVA viral vectors and as a secreted protein-nanoparticle. Pfs25-IMX313 expressed from viral vectors or as a protein-nanoparticle is significantly more immunogenic and gives significantly better transmission-reducing activity than monomeric Pfs25. In addition, we demonstrate that the Pfs25-IMX313 protein-nanoparticle leads to a qualitatively improved antibody response in comparison to soluble Pfs25, as well as to significantly higher germinal centre (GC) responses. These results demonstrate that antigen multimerization using IMX313 is a very promising strategy to enhance antibody responses against Pfs25, and that Pfs25-IMX313 is a highly promising TBV candidate vaccine. PMID:26743316

  12. Mobile pastoralists in Central and West Africa: between conflict, mobile telephony and (im)mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruijn, M; Amadou, A; Lewa Doksala, E; Sangaré, B

    2016-11-01

    The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system. This paper analyses the triangle of mobility, communication, and insecurity in order to understand the present-day situation of the nomadic and semi-nomadic Fulani pastoralists and their identity dynamics. The Fulani find themselves caught in between these conflicts, which end their mobility and often lead to the loss of their herds. Will they be able to keep their mobile lifestyle and identity? This article is based on qualitative case studies and the biographical narratives of nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists who have lived through conflict and violence in Cameroon, Chad and Mali. These case studies show that, despite the fact that mobile pastoralism has become difficult as a consequence of the conflicts and loss of cattle, the 'mobile' identity is very present and reinforced with the help of mobile telephony, through which social networks and 'wealth in people' are sustained.

  13. The status of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Hungary: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmos Gergő

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hoopoe is a widespread species in Hungary with the strongest populations on the Great plains. The fact that in 2015 it became ‛The Bird of the Year’ in Hungary offers the possibility to summarise the information about the distribution, population size, dispersion, migration as well as the nature conservation status of the Hoopoe population breeding in Hungary. In the period of 1999–2014 the number of breeding pairs and trend of population level was estimated based on the Common Bird Census database. The population size was estimated as 13,500–17,500 pairs with a stable trend (slope=−1.3%, SE=2.5% over 1999–2014. There is very limited information on migration from bird ringing, only 8 recoveries between 1928–1963 indicate, that the Hungarian population is migrating on a south-southeast direction in autumn, wintering in the eastern parts of the Sahel, possibly in Chad and Sudan and migrates back in spring following a loop migration pattern further to the east. The main conservation issues are agricultural intensification impacting feeding possibilities, lack of nesting cavities and hunting during migration.

  14. Dabigatran in Secondary Stroke Prevention: Clinical Experience with 106 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia DeFelipe-Mimbrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–31. Fifty-six females (52.8%, mean age 76.4 (range 50–95, SD 9.8, median CHADS2 4 (range 2–6, CHA2DS2-VASc 5 (range 2–9, and HAS-BLED 2 (range 1–5. Indication for dabigatran etexilate was ischemic stroke in 101 patients and acute cerebral hemorrhage (CH due to warfarin in 5 (4.7%. Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg bid was prescribed in 71 cases (67% and 150 mg bid was prescribed in the remaining. Seventeen patients (16% suffered 20 complications during follow-up. Ischemic complications (10 were 6 transient ischemic attacks (TIA, 3 ischemic strokes, and 1 acute coronary syndrome. Hemorrhagic complications (10 were CH (1, gastrointestinal bleeding (6, mild hematuria (2, and mild metrorrhagia (1, leading to dabigatran etexilate discontinuation in 3 patients. Patients with previous CH remained uneventful. Three patients died (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and acute cholecystitis and 9 were lost during follow-up. Conclusions. Dabigatran etexilate was safe and effective in secondary stroke prevention in clinical practice, including a small number of patients with previous history of CH.

  15. Application of rivaroxaban in clinical practice: results of a prospective observational study XANTUS in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Kanorskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In XANTUS study the safety and efficacy of factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban were evaluated in routine clinical practice in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. In consecutive patients who started treatment with rivaroxaban, all adverse events were recorded every 3 months for 1 year. Conclusions of major bleeding, symptomatic thromboembolic complications (stroke, systemic embolism, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction and death from all causes were centrally adjudicated. In total 6784 patients were treated with rivaroxaban at 311 centers in Europe, Israel, and Canada, on average, 329 days. The mean CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 2.0 and 3.4, respectively. Treatmentemergent major bleeding occurred in 128 patients (2.1 events per 100 patient-years, 118 (1.9 events per 100 patient-years died, and 43 (0.7 events per 100 patient-years suffered a stroke. XANTUS is the first international, prospective, observational study to describe the use of rivaroxaban in a broad non-valvular atrial fibrillation patient population. Rates of stroke and major bleeding were low in patients receiving rivaroxaban in routine clinical practice.

  16. First early hominin from central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma, and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25 from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma.

  17. Food as a linking device among the Guidar of North Cameroon La nourriture comme lien entre Guidar du nord-Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forka Leypey Mathew Fomine

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article elucidates and illuminates food as a powerful device that established and strengthened cultural and commercial relationships among the Guidar of North Cameroon and between the Guidar and their neighbouring ethnic groups. During cultural ceremonies such as traditional wedding, death celebration, funeral entertainment, naming ceremony and group circumcision, the Guidar collectively consumed diverse food items that established and cemented cultural relationships among them. Food also aided in establishing commercial relationships between the Guidar and Moundang, Massa, Tupuri, Bamileke from Cameroon and the Sara from the Republic of Chad.Cet article montre le pouvoir instrumental alimentaire qui établit et renforce les relations culturelles et commerciales parmi les peuples Guidar du nord-Cameroun et différentes entités ethniques voisines. Durant les cérémonies traditionnelles telles que les mariages, les funérailles, les circoncisions en groupes, les peuples Guidar collectivement consomment un large éventail de produits alimentaires qui établissent et renforcent les relations culturelles. La nourriture également favorise l’établissement de relations commerciales entre les peuples Guidar, Moundang, Massa, Toupouri, Bamileke et les peuples Sara de la République du Tchad.

  18. Validation of a Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Cassette Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis in the Sahel, and Potential Cross-Reaction in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, Helena; Krauth, Stefanie J; Ngandolo, Bongo N R; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Zinsstag, Jakob; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    On the shores of Lake Chad, schistosomiasis among mobile pastoralists was investigated in a field laboratory. Point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test, reagent strip, and filtration were conducted on urine samples. Fresh stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique, and fixed samples were examined with an ether-concentration method at a reference laboratory. POC-CCA urine cassette tests revealed a Schistosoma mansoni prevalence of 6.9%, compared with only 0.5% by stool microscopy. Three pregnant women with otherwise negative urine and stool testing had positive POC-CCA. This observation raises concern of cross-reactivity in pregnancy. Hence, two pregnant women in Switzerland with no history of schistosomiasis were subjected to POC-CCA and one tested positive. Our data suggest that POC-CCA can be performed under extreme Sahelian conditions (e.g., temperatures > 40°C), and it is more sensitive than stool microscopy for S. mansoni diagnosis. However, potential cross-reactivity in pregnancy needs further investigation.

  19. How tall is an elephant? Two methods for estimating elephant height

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    F. Della Rocca

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder height is a reliable indicator of age for African elephants (Loxodonta africana, and is therefore an important parameter to be recorded in field studies of population ecology of these pachyderms. However, it can be somewhat difficult to estimate with precision the shoulder height of free-ranging elephants because of several reasons, including the presence of drops and vegetation cover and the potential dangerousness of approaching them in the wild. Here I test two alternative models for estimating shoulder height of elephants. In both models, the equipment needed to generate the height estimates is minimal, and include a telemeter and a digital photo-camera furnished with an ×16 zoom. The models are based respectively on a linear regression approach and on a geometric formula approach, and put into a relationship the linear distance between the observer and the animal, the number of pixels of an elephant silhouette as taken from digital photos, and the absolute height of the animal. Both methods proved to have a very small measurement error, and were thus reliable for field estimates of elephant shoulder heights. The model based on a geometric formula was used to estimate the shoulder height distribution of an elephant population in a savannah region of West Africa (Zakouma National Park, Chad. I demonstrated that Zakouma elephants were among the tallest populations in Africa, with growth rates being highest throughout the first five years of life.

  20. The state, refugees and migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokpari, J K

    1998-01-01

    Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees.

  1. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology. Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  2. African 2, a Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiologically Important in East Africa▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M. Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L.; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies. PMID:21097608

  3. Technical note: Mineralogical, chemical, morphological, and optical interrelationships of mineral dust re-suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Moosmüller, Hans; Pincock, Samuel; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Lersch, Traci; Casuccio, Gary

    2016-08-01

    This paper promotes an understanding of the mineralogical, chemical, and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dusts collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soils were collected from arid regions, including the southwestern USA, Mali, Chad, Morocco, Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Serbia, China, Namibia, Botswana, Australia, and Chile. The particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size analyzer, and a three-wavelength (405, 532, 781 nm) photoacoustic instrument with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sampling media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 75, material. Also shown are differences in SSA of the kaolinite/hematite/goethite samples from Mali and those from colloidal soils elsewhere. Results from this study can be integrated into a database of mineral dust properties, for applications in climate modeling, remote sensing, visibility, health (medical geology), ocean fertilization, and impact on equipment.

  4. Allelopathy-mediated Competition in Microbial Mats from Antarctic Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2017-02-18

    Microbial mats are vertically stratified communities that host a complex consortium of microorganisms, dominated by cyanobacteria, that compete for available nutrients and environmental niches, within these extreme habitats. The Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Sound include a series of lakes within the drainage basin that are bisected by glacial traverses. These lakes are traditionally independent, but recent increases in glacial melting have allowed two lakes (Chad and Hoare) to become connected by a meltwater stream. Microbial mats were collected from these lakes, and cultured under identical conditions at the McMurdo Station laboratory. Replicate pairings of the microbial mats exhibited consistent patterns of growth inhibition indicative of competitive dominance. Natural products were extracted from the microbial mats, and a disc diffusion assay was utilized to show that allelochemical compounds mediate competitive interactions. Both microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing show that these mats contain significant populations of cyanobacteria known to produce allelochemicals. Two compounds were isolated from these microbial mats that might be important in the chemical ecology of these psychrophiles. In other disc:mat pairings, including extract versus mat of origin, the allelochemicals exhibited no effect. Taken together, these results indicate that Antarctic lake microbial mats can compete via allelopathy.

  5. Left atrial strain: a new predictor of thrombotic risk and successful electrical cardioversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left atrial deformation (LAD parameters are new markers of atrial structural remodelling that seem to be affected in atrial fibrillation (AF and atrial flutter (AFL. This study aimed to determine whether LAD can identify patients with a higher risk of thrombosis and unsuccessful electrical cardioversion (ECV. Methods: Retrospective study including 56 patients with AF or AFL undergoing ECV, with previous transthoracic (TTE and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE studies. Echocardiographic parameters analysed were as follows: left ventricle function, left atrium (LA dimensions, LAD parameters (positive and negative strain peaks, left atrial appendage (LAA filling and emptying velocities and the presence of thrombi. Strain values were analysed according to thrombotic risk and success of ECV. Results: Lower mean values of peak-positive strain (PPS in patients with prothrombotic velocities (<25 cm/s and a higher incidence of thrombi in LAA were observed compared with those with normal velocities. Multivariate analysis revealed PPS normalised by LA maximum volume indexed by body surface area (BSA to be associated with prothrombotic risk (odds ratio 0.000 (95% CI: 0.000–0.243, P 0.017, regardless of CHADs2VASC score. Peak-negative strain normalised by LA volumes indexed by BSA were associated with unsuccessful ECV. Conclusions: Atrial deformation parameters identify AF and AFL patients with a high risk of thrombosis and unsuccessful ECV. Therefore, these new parameters should be included in anticoagulation management and rhythm vs rate control strategies.

  6. Sociocultural factors influencing decision-making related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe of north-eastern Nigeria

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    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.

  7. Radio as the Voice of God: Peace and Tolerance Radio Programming’s Impact on Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aldrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observers have argued that radio programming can alter norms, especially through hate radio designed to increase animosity between groups. This article tests whether or not radio programming under the Countering Violent Extremism (CVE policy framework can reduce potential conflict and increase civic engagement and positive views of foreign nations. Data from surveys of more than 1,000 respondents in Mali, Chad, and Niger illuminate the ways in which peace and tolerance programming changed perspectives and altered behavior in statistically significant ways. Results show that individuals exposed to multi-level U.S. government programming were more likely to listen to peace and tolerance radio. Further, bivariate, multivariate regression, and propensity score matching techniques show that individuals who listened more regularly to such programs participated more frequently in civic activities and supported working with the West to combat terrorism (holding constant a number of potential confounding economic, demographic, and attitudinal factors. However, higher levels of radio listening had no measurable impact on opposition to the use of violence in the name of Islam or opposition to the imposition of Islamic law. Further, data indicate that women and men have responded to programming in measurably different ways. These mixed results have important implications for current and future “soft-side” programs for countering violent extremism.

  8. Flood Inundation Mapping in the Logone Floodplain from Multi Temporal Landsat ETM+Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hahn Chul; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Moritz, Mark; Lee, Hyongki; Vassolo, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain makes an impact on agricultural, pastoral, and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent and depth are highly variable, flood inundation mapping helps us make better use of water resources and prevent flood hazards in the Logone floodplain. The flood maps are generated from 33 multi temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) during three years 2006 to 2008. Flooded area is classified using a short-wave infrared band whereas open water is classified by Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) clustering. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to approximately 5.8K km2 in late October 2008. The study also provides strong correlation of the flooding extents with water height variations in both the floodplain and the river based on a second polynomial regression model. The water heights are from ENIVSAT altimetry in the floodplain and gauge measurements in the river. Coefficients of determination between flooding extents and water height variations are greater than 0.91 with 4 to 36 days in phase lag. Floodwater drains back to the river and to the northeast during the recession period in December and January. The study supports understanding of the Logone floodplain dynamics in detail of spatial pattern and size of the flooding extent and assists the flood monitoring and prediction systems in the catchment.

  9. A Case—Contrl Study of Dietary Factors in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGCHENGYU; ZHANGXIUQUAN; 等

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to investigate association of dietary factors with the risk of lung cancer in Sichuan,China.The cases consisted of 135 patients with preinvasive lung cancer which had been confirmed with histopathology,fiber bronchoscope,CT and X-ray film in three provincial hospitals in the recent one year.Controls were healthy subjects who went to one of these hospitals for health check-up;patients with pulmonary diseases was exluded.Controls were matched to cases for sex and age with a ratio of 1:1.Nutrient intakes, the eating habit and other relevant factors were investigated.The data analyzed with the conditional logistic regression model indicated,that dietary beta-carotene intakes had a significantly inverse association with the risk of lung cancer.Vitamin Chad a less significantly inverse association with the risk.Association of protein,fat,energy,retinol intakes of dietbalance index with the risk was not significant.Association of tea,alcohol,garlic or mushroom,respectively,with the risk was also not observed.Consumption of more processed foods and deep-fried foods were found to be risk factors.Smoking and air pollution from coal burning stoves were also observed as independent risk factors of lung cancer in the present study.The mental stress incidence in the case was significantly higher than that in the control.

  10. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita M. Rochlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26% received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes.

  11. [West Nile virus infection: serological investigation among horses in France and in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabre, O; Durand, J P; Prangé, A; Gomez, J; Maurizi, L; Tolou, H; Davoust, B

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out in 2003 to detected serological evidence of West Nile virus infection in 190 Army horses kept nearby French troops stationed in Southeast France and in Africa (Chad, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal). Both IgG and IgM antibodies were searched for using an ELISA assay. Specifiity of IgG antibodies was determined by western blot and plaque reduction seroneutraization. Finding showed that 79% of the Army horses (n=96) tested in Africa presented specific IgG antibodies. All horses that were seropositive for IgG were seronegative for IgM. None of the Army horses (n=94) tested in the Southeast France were seropositive for West Nile virus. This study indicates that West Nile virus has circulated in all three African countries but not recently. It also underscores the value of western blotting as a rapid, specific confirmation technique that could eliminate the need to use plaque reduction seroneutralization.

  12. Les réfugiés dans le monde entre protection et illégalité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Clochard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Les distributions spatiales des personnes en quête d’une protection dans le Monde soulignent que les pays développés reçoivent un faible nombre de demandeurs d’asile et de réfugiés. Il existe un fort déséquilibre démographique entre des États tels aujourd’hui la Syrie, le Tchad ou le Soudan et des pays développés où les requérants sont relativement peu nombreux. Par ailleurs, les réfugiés théoriquement protégés par la convention de Genève de 1951, sont de plus en plus considérés par les États européens, comme des migrants illégaux et traités comme tels.Spatial distributions of interns’ displacement people (IDP and refugees in the World underline that the developed countries receive a low number of this people. There is a strong demographic imbalance between States such today Syria, Chad or Sudan and countries developed where the applicants are relatively very few. In addition, the refugees theoretically protected by the convention of Geneva from 1951, are considered more and more by the European States, like migrants illegal and treated like such.

  13. Comparison of the Microbial Diversity and Abundance Between the Freshwater Land-Locked Lakes of Schirmacher Oasis and the Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Untersee in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan; Hoover, Richard B.; Swain, Ashit; Murdock, Chris; Bej, Asim K.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme conditions such as low temperature, dryness, and constant UV-radiation in terrestrial Antarctica are limiting factors of the survival of microbial populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity and enumeration between the open water lakes of Schirmacher Oasis and the permanently ice-covered Lake Untersee. The lakes in Schirmacher Oasis possessed abundant and diverse group of microorganisms compared to the Lake Untersee. Furthermore, the microbial diversity between two lakes in Schirmacher Oasis (Lake L27C and L47) was compared by culture-based molecular approach. It was determined that L27Chad a richer microbial diversity representing 5 different phyla and 7 different genera. In contrast L47 consisted of 4 different phyla and 6 different genera. The difference in microbial community could be due to the wide range of pH between L27C (pH 9.1) and L47 (pH 5.7). Most of the microbes isolated from these lakes consisted of adaptive biological pigmentation. Characterization of the microbial community found in the freshwater lakes of East Antarctica is important because it gives a further glimpse into the adaptation and survival strategies found in extreme conditions.

  14. National observatory on the therapeutic management in ambulatory care patients aged 65 and over, with type 2 diabetes, chronic pain or atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Laurent; Benattar-Zibi, Linda; Bertin, Philippe; Berrut, Gilles; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Danchin, Nicolas; Delespierre, Tiba; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Falissard, Bruno; Forette, Francoise; Hanon, Olivier; Pasquier, Florence; Pinget, Michel; Ourabah, Rissane; Piedvache, Céline

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the S.AGES cohort is to describe the real-life therapeutic care of elderly patients. Patients and methods. This is a prospective observational cohort study of 3 700 non-institutionalized patients over the age of 65 years with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), chronic pain or atrial fibrillation (AF) recruited by French general practitioners (GPs). Follow-up is planned for 3 years. Baseline characteristics. In the chronic pain sub-cohort, 33% of patients are treated with only grade 1 analgesics, 29% with grade 2 analgesics and 3% with grade 3 analgesics, and 22% have no pain treatment. In the T2DM sub-cohort, 61% of patients have well-controlled diabetes (Hb1c<7%) and 18% are treated with insulin. In the AF sub-cohort, 65% of patients have a CHADS2 score greater than 2, 77% are treated with oral anticoagulants, 17% with platelet inhibitors, 40% with antiarrhythmic drugs and 56% with rate slowing medications. Conclusion. The S.AGES cohort presents a unique opportunity to clarify the real-life therapeutic management of ambulatory elderly subjects and will help to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of major clinical events.

  15. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ajai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  16. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  17. [Infant and child morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal disease in central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuzeta, J J; Merlin, M; Josse, R; Mouanda, V; Kouka Bemba, D

    1988-06-01

    Diarrheal diseases in Central African countries have often been identified as the 2nd leading cause of death after measles and the 2nd leading cause of morbidity after malaria. These diseases are responsible for death rates in children under 5 that range from 58/1000 in urban centers to 150 in rural areas, and they impose heavy costs on the health services for both pediatric beds and intravenous rehydration. Diarrhea contributes to malnutrition and to high fertility rates among parents who believe they must have many children to insure survival of a few. To study patterns of diarrheal disease in the region, 10 sites with different characteristics were selected for survey. 9 surveys of locations with widely varying climatic, ecologic, demographic, and socioeconomic conditions have been completed, 3 in Cameroon, 1 in the Central African Republic, 2 in Congo, 1 in Gabon, and 2 in Chad. All but 1 of the surveys were conducted between October 1983 and March 1985. The methodology was based on the cluster sampling recommended by the World Health Organization, which has the advantages of relative speed, moderate cost, and low personnel requirements. The clusters were either a village in rural areas or a section of an urban area. Interviewers obtained information about the number of children under 5 in the household, the number who had diarrhea in the previous 15 days and the treatment given, the number dying in the 12 months preceding the survey and the cause of death, whether diarrhea was a factor, and the age of the child at the time of death. A total of 63,107 children under 5 belonging to 33,051 households were surveyed. 12,732 episodes of diarrhea in the preceding 15 days were reported. It was estimated that each child in the region had an average of 4.8 episodes of diarrhea per year. The rate of diarrheal morbidity varied significantly by climatic zone. A follow-up survey of diarrheal morbidity figures from sentinel health centers is underway to determine the

  18. 节旋藻(Arthrospira)3个样品镍铁氢化酶 hoxY基因的克隆与测序%CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF THE HOXY GENES IN THREE SAMPLES OF ARTHROSPIRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 邰丽华; 谢岳飞; 恩和巴雅尔

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the hoxY gene of hydrogenase in Arthrospira were cloned and sequenced, which Arthrospira platensis from Alkaline Lakes in the Ordos Plateau, A. platensis from Lake Chad in Africa and A. maxima from Lake Texcoco in Mexico. And their homology and genetic relationship were also analysed, in the hope of providing elementary data and theoretical bases for the research of diversity of Arthrospira from Alkaline Lakes in the Ordos Plateau. The results showed that the partial sequence of hoxY gene in Arthrospira contained 479 bp. There was a high degree of sequence homology between A. platensis from Ordos and A. platensis from Lake Chad, A. maxima which were 99. 5% and 99. 9 % respectively. The genetic relationship between A. platensis and A. maxima were closer than that from A. platensis from Ordos. Conclusion:The gene hox Y had a high conservation, in which sequence of the different samples among the same genera had low variation. However, gene sequence of the same species of Arthrospira which grew in different environments has variation.%目的:为鄂尔多斯高原碱湖节旋藻的多样性研究提供基础资料和理论依据。方法:本文对鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶节旋藻( Arthrospira platensis)、乍得湖钝顶节旋藻( A. platensis)及极大节旋藻( A. maxima)的镍铁氢化酶小亚基hoxY基因进行了克隆与测序,并进行同源性及亲缘关系的分析。结果:3个节旋藻样品hoxY基因部分序列长均为479 bp。鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶节旋藻 hoxY基因与不同来源的钝顶节旋藻的同源性高达99.5%,与极大节旋藻的同源性达99.9%。 A. maxima与非洲乍得湖A. platensis间的亲缘关系更近,而鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶节旋藻与乍得湖钝顶节旋藻的亲缘关系相对远。结论:hoxY基因保守性高,属内不同样品间序列变化很小。同种不同来源的钝顶节旋藻由于不同环境条件等因素的影响导致基因序列上碱基发生一定的差异。

  19. Study of Standardized Anticoagulant Therapy in Patient with Atrial Fibrillation%房颤患者规范化抗凝治疗现状调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lydie-Edwige Biye; 葛卫红; 于锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand current the state of standardized anticoagulant therapy in patient with atrial fibrillation and analyze the factors that affect standard anticoagulant therapy, and at the same time, to make progress by the foundation of corresponding countermeasures. Methods:Diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients were history inspected for a period of 12 months (January-December 2010) in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Cardiovascular Department, CHADS2 scheme method was used to stratify atrial fibrillation patient and assess their risk of bleeding, the standardized anticoagulant therapy conditions were evaluated according to ACC/AHA/ESC (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/ European Society of Cardiology) atrial fibrillation treatment guidelines. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled, 39 (19.5%) patient were on warfarin anticoagulant therapy, among which 18 (46%)had international normalized ratio (INR) in therapeutic range (2.0~3.0). According to the CHADS2 scheme,143 patients were divided into the high risk group, in which only 31 were on warfarin anticoagulant treatment. Conclusion: The percentage of standard anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation is very low (40%), still more, the percentage of high risk patients using warfarin standard anticoagulant treatment was even low 22%. Further investigation and understanding of the causes of this phenomenon will help intervene effectively and improve the standard of anticoagulant therapy in patient with atrial fibrillation.%目的:了解心房颤动患者规范化抗凝治疗现状,分析影响规范化抗凝治疗的因素,同时为进一步提出相应的对策打下基础.方法:查阅2010年1~12月份南京鼓楼医院心内科明确诊断患有非瓣膜性心房颤动的患者病历,采用CHADS风险评分法对这些患者进行出血风险评估,根据ACC/AHA/ESC心房颤动治疗指南评价其规范化抗凝

  20. Deciphering The Fall And Rise Of The Dead Sea In Relation To Solar Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shahinaz M.

    2005-03-01

    Solar Forcing on closed seas and Lakes is space time dependent. The Cipher of the Dead Sea level variation since 1200 BC is solved in the context of millenium and Wolf-Gleissberg solar cycles time scales. It is found that the pattern of Dead Sea level variation follows the pattern of major millenium solar cycles. The 70 m rise of Dead Sea around 1AD is due to the forcing of the maximum millenium major solar cycle. Although the pattern of the Dead Sea level variation is almost identical to major solar cycles pattern between 1100 and 1980 AD, there is a dating problem of the Dead Sea time series around 1100-1300 AD that time. A discrepancy that should be corrected for the solar and Dead Sea series to fit. Detailed level variations of the Dead Sea level for the past 200 years are solved in terms of the 80-120 years solar Wolf-Gliessberg magnetic cycles. Solar induced climate changes do happen at the turning points of those cycles. Those end-start and maximum turning points are coincident with the change in the solar rotation rate due to the presence of weak solar cycles. Such weak cycles occur in series of few cycles between the end and start of those Wolf-Gleissberg cycles. Another one or two weak r solar cycle occur following the maximum of those Wolf-Gleissberg cycles. Weak cycles induce drop in the energy budget emitted from the sun and reaching the Earth thus causing solar induced climate change. An 8 meter sudden rise of Dead Sea occur prior 1900 AD due to positive solar forcing of the second cycle of the weak cycles series on the Dead Sea. The same second weak cycle induced negative solar forcing on Lake Chad. The first weak solar cycle forced Lake Victoria to rise abruptly in 1878. The maximum turning point of the solar Wolf-Gleissberg cycle induced negative forcing on both the Aral Sea and the Dead Sea causing their shrinkage to an alarming reduced area ever since. On the other hand, few years delayed positive forcing caused Lake Chad and the Equatorial

  1. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  2. The case for an elderly targeted stroke management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The elderly, in whom atrial fibrillation (AF) is most prevalent, carry the greatest risk, undergoing more recurrent, deadlier strokes, with bigger deficits, slower recoveries, and more comorbidities. Evidence-based data on advanced age stroke management are scarce. Age-related cerebral changes might undermine the benefit of established stroke treatments. Nevertheless, the elderly should probably also undergo thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: they do not bleed more, and die not because of hemorrhage but of concomitant illnesses. Beyond natural bleeding risks, AF in advanced age has a high embolic potential if not anticoagulated. Standard or lower intensity warfarin anticoagulation prevents embolic stroke in the elderly with a hemorrhage risk even lower than aspirin. In fact, adverse effects seem to occur more often with aspirin. Excess anticoagulation hazards are prevented with lower starting doses, stricter corrections, more frequent International Normalized Ratio monitoring, and longer adjustment intervals. Validated prognostic scores such as CHADS(2) help minimize bleeds. Direct inhibitors have recently shown a benefit similar to warfarin with fewer hemorrhages. Carefully tailoring antithrombotics to this age group is therefore useful. Antihypertensives probably help 80-plus stroke patients as well, but the risk/benefit of lowering blood pressure in secondary stroke prevention at that age is uncertain. Evidence-based data on diabetes management and use of lipid-lowering drugs are still lacking in this age group. In summary, emerging data suggest that stroke management should be specifically targeted to the elderly to better prevent its devastating consequences in the population at the highest risk.

  3. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

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    Checchi Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method’s development.

  4. Current perspectives on antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation

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    Witt CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chad A Witt, Ramsey R Hachem Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abstract: The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA to human leukocyte antigens and the burden of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR in lung transplantation remain enigmatic. Over the past several years, evidence has been emerging that humoral immunity plays an important role in the development of both acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD. Multiple case reports and case series have identified lung allograft recipients with clinical findings consistent with acute AMR. However, there is currently no widely accepted definition for AMR in lung transplantation, and this has been a significant barrier to furthering our understanding of this form of rejection. Nonetheless, the development of DSA after transplantation has consistently been identified as an independent risk factor for persistent and high-grade acute cellular rejection and CLAD. This has raised the possibility that chronic AMR may be a distinct phenotype of CLAD although evidence supporting this paradigm is still lacking. Additionally, antibodies to lung-restricted self-antigens (collagen V and K-α 1 tubulin have been associated with primary graft dysfunction early and the development of CLAD late after transplantation, and emerging evidence underscores significant interactions between autoimmunity and alloimmunity after transplantation. There is currently an active International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working group that is developing an operational definition for AMR in lung transplantation. This will be critical to improve our understanding of this form of rejection and conduct clinical trials to identify optimal treatment strategies. This review will summarize the literature on DSA and AMR in lung transplantation and discuss the impact of antibodies to self-antigens on lung

  5. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, H

    1993-06-01

    Human rights groups have traditionally monitored and publicized human rights abuses suffered mainly by men (e.g., torture, killings, and imprisonment) and have ignored abuses of women. Gender-sensitive research and women's groups have uncovered this oversight. Rape in the former Yugoslavia is now considered a war crime, requiring full investigation and punishment. Conflict and violence affect women in several ways related specifically to the gender division of rights, responsibilities, and roles. Class and ethnic differences conceal this gender related experience, however. Even in countries sympathetic to women's equality, women still are second class citizens. Women are always conscious of the ever-present threat or experience of physical and sexual violence, almost always inflicted by men. Perpetrators use violence to keep women down; to restrict opportunities for them to live, learn, work, and care a full human beings; to impede their potential to organize and demand their rights. Domestic violence against women occurs across all social groups, races, age groups, and religious and political persuasions. Violence against females begins before birth. Forced prostitution violates women's human rights. Patriarchy supports discriminatory treatment and backs violence as a legitimate means to preserve the status quo. Was has had a gender-related effect on women in Afghanistan, Chad, and Cambodia. The psychological and social impact of conflict (e.g., state-sponsored terrorism) on women is also examined. Physical ailments are often manifestations of psychological disorders. Common themes are women's increased vulnerability to rape and sexual abuse during conflict, rapid rise in the numbers of households dependent on women's labor, placing on them an excessive burden, and complete disruption of economic and social life. Further, this disruption provides opportunities for women to overcome some aspects of their traditional roles. More than 80% of the world's refugees are

  6. Modeling annual flooding in the Logone floodplain in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Najafi, M. R.; Durand, M. T.; Mark, B. G.; Moritz, M.; Shastry, A.; Laborde, S.; Phang, S. C.; Hamilton, I.; Ningchuan, X.; Neal, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Logone floodplain (LFP), part of the Lake Chad Basin, is flooded annually by water from the Logone River and its branches during September and October. The inundated LFP is highly productive, providing support for fishing, pastoralism, and agriculture. In the last few decades, droughts, dam construction, manmade fishing canals (MFCs), and irrigation development have caused significant shifts in the LFP's flooding regime. Recently, MFCs have proliferated as consequence of ecological and manmade changes in the LFP. Future impacts of these modifications may parallel projected, although still uncertain, regional hydroclimatic changes derived from global warming. In order to understand feedbacks between human actions and hydroclimate, we are developing an integrated model that links hydroclimate, hydraulics, and human dynamics such as fishermen and pastoralist behavior. Here we present one component of this research focused on simulating the annual flooding dynamics of the LFP using LISFLOOD-FP, a raster-based numerical model that includes sub-grid parameterization of MFCs. Our goal is to evaluate the model's skill to simulate spatiotemporal features of the inundated LFP using a minimum amount of input data, such as discontinuous time series of river discharge and satellite-derived rainfall. Our simulations using three different spatial resolutions (1, 0.5, and 0.25-km grid-cell) suggest that the model is insensitive to pixel size, showing no significant differences between simulated volume, discharge, flooded area, and flood seasonality. Despite the model is able to simulate flow, with a Nash Sutcliff efficiency of 0.81, we find some significant spatial mismatch between observed and simulated inundation areas. In addition, results indicate that overbank flow provides more annual flood volume than rainfall. We discuss the impact of topographic and climatic input data on these results, as well as the potential to simulate the effects of MFCs on the local hydrology.

  7. African 1, an Epidemiologically Important Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Borna; Hilty, Markus; Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Dale, James; Boschiroli, M. Laura; Cadmus, Simeon; Ngandolo, Bongo Naré Richard; Godreuil, Sylvain; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, Colette; Kazwala, Rudovick; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty M.; Sahraoui, Naima; Guetarni, Djamel; Aseffa, Abraham; Mekonnen, Meseret H.; Razanamparany, Voahangy Rasolofo; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Djønne, Berit; Oloya, James; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Skjerve, Eystein; Portaels, Francoise; Rigouts, Leen; Michel, Anita; Müller, Annélle; Källenius, Gunilla; van Helden, Paul D.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Zinsstag, Jakob; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2009-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex as being the same as the M. bovis BCG vaccine strain but with the deletion of spacer 30. Strains of the Af1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in population samples of M. bovis from cattle in Mali, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Chad, and using a combination of variable-number tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping, we show that the population of M. bovis in each of these countries is distinct, suggesting that the recent mixing of strains between countries is not common in this area of Africa. Strains with the Af1-specific deletion (RDAf1) were not identified in M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Furthermore, the spoligotype signature of the Af1 clonal complex has not been identified in population samples of bovine tuberculosis from Europe, Iran, and South America. These observations suggest that the Af1 clonal complex is geographically localized, albeit to several African countries, and we suggest that the dominance of the clonal complex in this region is the result of an original introduction into cows naïve to bovine tuberculosis. PMID:19136597

  8. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Dabigatran (150 mg Twice Daily) and Warfarin in Patients ≥ 65 Years With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Brian M; Hutton, David W; Levine, Deborah A; Froehlich, James B; Barnes, Geoffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran has been shown to be superior to warfarin for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) but with higher out-of-pocket costs for patients. Although dabigatran has been shown to be cost effective from a societal perspective, cost implications for individual patients and insurers are not well described. We aimed to assess cost perspectives of each payer (Medicare and patient) in relation to administration, monitoring, and adverse outcomes for dabigatran and warfarin in patients with and without prescription drug coverage. Using a Markov model, we performed a decision analysis comparing 2 treatment strategies (dose-adjusted warfarin and dabigatran 150 mg twice daily) in patients 65 years old with NVAF, CHADS2 scores ≥ 1, and Medicare insurance. Patients have a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 8.998 quality-adjusted life years with warfarin and 9.39 quality-adjusted life years with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily. From Medicare's perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparing dabigatran with warfarin was $35,311 for patients with Part D coverage and cost saving for patients without coverage. From the patient's perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparing dabigatran with warfarin was cost saving for patients with Part D coverage and $63,884 for those without coverage. In patients ≥ 65 years with NVAF and prescription insurance coverage, dabigatran 150 mg twice daily is both cost effective (Medicare's perspective) and cost saving (patient perspective) compared with warfarin, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000. However, patients without prescription drug coverage have a high out-of-pocket cost burden with dabigatran therapy, leading to a reduction in its cost-effectiveness compared with warfarin therapy. In conclusion, this Markov model suggests that Medicare Part D coverage influences the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran 150 mg daily compared with dose-adjusted warfarin from multiple payer

  10. [Atrial fibrillation registered for the first time: characteristics of clinical course, treatment, prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarintsev, V V; Alekseeva, L A; Stazhadze, L L; Bulanova, N A; Bazarova, M B; Mikhaĭlovskaia, I V

    2013-01-01

    To study the clinical presentation of the first episode of atrial fibrillation (AF), treatment tactics and its compliance with current recommendations, features of the further clinical course and prognosis in patients with AF we performed a retrospective study on data of Polyclinic No 1 of the General Management Department of the President of RF . We analyzed data from 58 patients (36 men, 22 women) from January 2009 to September 2011 inclusive. The first episode of AF was recorded in the age from 48 to 90 years (in 39.7% of patients - aged 80 to 90 years old), mostly had paroxysmal character (84.5%), in 82.1% of cases was accompanied by marked clinical symptoms: sense of disruption of the heart (50%), feeling short of breath (28.6%), weakness (17.9%). In 87% of cases clinical symptomatology required calls for medical emergencies. In 42.9% of cases uncontrolled hypertension was possible predisposing factor for developing AF. Paroxysmal AF moved to constant in 38.8% of patients during the period from 1 year to 18 years. Due to the high risk of thromboembolic complications (2 to 5 on a scale of CHADS2), after the detection AF warfarin was shown to 96.6% of patients, because of the high risk of bleeding in practice was appointed only 37.9%. Complications of therapy in the form of bleeding were 9.1%. Tactics of rhythm control by antiarrhythmic drugs I and III classes has remained in 36.7% of patients with paroxysmal AF. -adrenoblockers were constantly taken by 63.3% of the patients using antiarrhythmic drugs I and III classes for relief of arrhythmia during her recurrence (the strategy of "pill in pocket").

  11. Histoire de la végétation et du climat de l’Afrique nord-tropicale au Quaternaire recent*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Maley

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available LATE QUATERNARY HISTORY OF VEGETATION AND CLIMATE OF TROPICAL NORTH AFRICAThe critical examination o f available pollen data from the vegetation of the Sahara allows one to conclude that this vegetation has gone through but few qualitative changes during the last twenty thousand years. In particular, one notices an extension in the Sahara of tropical Sahel taxa about the middle of Holocene. Quantitatively, some pollen and geological data converge to Show that the Saharian plains were extremely arid between about 20 000 and 15 000 years BP and that on the mountains the vegetation became very sparse. A new colonization began on the mountains about 15 000 years ago.The pollen study of Holocene sediments from the central part o f the Chad basin was done in the Tjéri station. The results of this study exhibit a major change near 7 000 years BP, characterized in the Sahel zone by a dramatic extension o f arboreal taxa until about 5 000 years BP, probably corresponding to northward extension of the sahel savanna. One important change took place also at the same time in the wet north tropical zone where, between about 7 000 and 4 000 years BP, there occurred an extension of taxa growing presently on the well-leached soils of interfluves.Such a change near 7 000 years BP also appears in the available stratigraphical, sedimentological and pedological data from tropical north Africa. One observes particularly that, between 15 000 and 7 000 years BP, the

  12. Duloxetine in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomershine CS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Michelle J Ormseth, Beth A Sholz, Chad S BoomershineDivision of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Diabetic neuropathy affects up to 70% of diabetics, and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP is the most common and debilitating of the diabetic neuropathies. DPNP significantly reduces quality of life and increases management costs in affected patients. Despite the impact of DPNP, management is poor with one-quarter of patients receiving no treatment and many treated with medications having little or no efficacy in managing DPNP. Duloxetine is one of two drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for DPNP management. Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI proven safe, effective, and cost-saving in reducing DPNP symptoms at a dose of 60 mg/day. Duloxetine doses greater than 60 mg/day for DPNP management are not recommended since they are no more efficacious and associated with more side effects; addition of pregabalin or gabapentin for these patients may be beneficial. Side effects of duloxetine are generally mild and typical for the SNRI class including nausea, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, sweating, dry mouth, constipation, and diarrhea. Given its other indications, duloxetine is a particularly good choice for DPNP treatment in patients with coexisting depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, or chronic musculoskeletal pain. Duloxetine treatment had no clinically significant effect on glycemic control and did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetes patients. However, duloxetine use should be avoided in patients with hepatic disease or severe renal impairment. Given its safety, efficacy, and tolerability, duloxetine is an excellent choice for DPNP treatment in many patients.Keywords: duloxetine, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, review, treatment

  13. Exploring barriers to optimal anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation: interviews with clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Carole Decker,1 Linda Garavalia,2 Brian Garavalia,1 Teresa Simon,3 Matthew Loeb,4 John Spertus6, William Daniel51Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital in Kansas City Missouri, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Nursing, 2University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Pharmacy, Kansas City, MO, 3Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, 4Plaza Primary Care and Geriatrics, 5Saint Luke's Cardiovascular Consultants, Kansas City, MO, 6Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital in Kansas City Missouri, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USABackground: Warfarin, the most commonly used antithrombotic agent for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF, requires regular monitoring, frequent dosage adjustments, and dietary restrictions. Clinicians' perceptions of barriers to optimal AF management are an important factor in treatment. Anticoagulation management for AF is overseen by both cardiology and internal medicine (IM practices. Thus, gaining the perspective of specialists and generalists is essential in understanding barriers to treatment. We used qualitative research methods to define key issues in the prescription of warfarin therapy for AF by cardiology specialists and IM physicians.Methods and results: Clinicians were interviewed to identify barriers to warfarin treatment in a large Midwestern city. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation occurred. Content analysis yielded several themes. The most salient theme that emerged from clinician interviews was use of characteristics other than the patient's CHADS2 score to enact a treatment plan, such as the patient's social situation and past medication-taking behavior. Other themes included patient knowledge, real-world problems, breakdown in communication, and clinician reluctance.Conclusion: Warfarin treatment is associated with many challenges. The barriers identified by clinicians highlight the unmet need associated

  14. Achieving Bidirectional Long Delays In Pulmonary Vein Antral Lines Prior To Bidirectional Block In Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (The Bi-Bi Technique For Atrial Fibrillation Ablation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina Md Facc Fhrs, Adel F; L Warnecke Pa-C, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary Vein Antral isolation (PVAI) is currently the standard of care for both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation ablation. Reconnection to the pulmonary vein is the most common cause of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Achieving the endpoint of bidirectional block (BDB) for cavotricuspid isthmus dependant flutter has improved our outcomes for atrial flutter ablation. With this we tried to achieve long delays in the pulmonary veins antral lines prior to complete isolation comparable to those delays found in patient with bidirectional block of atrial flutter lines. Study Objective:The objective of this paper was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of achieving Bidirectional long delays in pulmonary vein antral lines prior to Bidirectional Block in patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Method: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation procedures at Unity Point Methodist from January 2015 to January 2016. 20 consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who had AF ablation using the Bi-Bi technique were evaluated. Result: Mean age was 63, number of antiarrhythmic used prior to ablation was 1.4, mean left atrial size was 38 mm. Mean chads score was 1.3. Mean EF was 53%. Long delays in the left antral circumferential lines were achieved with mean delay of 142 milliseconds +/-100. Also long delays in the right antral circumferential lines were achieved with mean delay of 150 milliseconds +/-80. 95 % (19/20) of patients were free of any atrial arrhythmias and were off antiarrhythmic medications for AF post procedure. There was only one transient complication in one patient who developed a moderate pericardial effusion that was successfully drained with no hemodynamic changes. The only patient who had recurrence was found to have asymptomatic AF with burden on his device paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is feasible and highly effective technique in this small cohort of patients

  15. Clinical Differences between Subtypes of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter: Cross-Sectional Registry of 407 Patients

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    Eduardo Dytz Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. Objective: To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. Results: We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter. Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01 and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01. The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01. The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. Conclusions: The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates.

  16. Clinical and molecular description of a 17q21.33 microduplication in a girl with severe kyphoscoliosis and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Stéphan; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Eymard-Pierre, Eléonore; Gay-Bellile, Mathilde; Gouas, Laetitia; Goumy, Carole; Tchirkov, Andreï; Francannet, Christine; Vago, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    High proportion of disease-associated copy number variant maps to chromosome 17. Genomic studies have provided an insight into its complex genomic structure such as relative abundance of segmental duplication and intercepted repetitive elements. 17q21.31, 17q11.2 and 17q12 loci are well known on this chromosome and are associated with microdeletion and microduplication syndrome. No syndrome associated with 17q21.33 locus have been described. We report clinical, cytogenetic and molecular investigations of a 13 years-old girl admitted for evaluation of microcephaly, scoliosis, skeletal defects and learning difficulties. We carried out detailed analysis of the clinical phenotype of this patient and investigated the genetic basis using Agilent 180K Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. We identified a ∼0.9 Mb de novo microduplication on chromosome 17q21.33. Four genes, COL1A1, SGCA, PPP1R9B and CHAD located within the duplicated region are possible candidates for clinical features present in our patients. Gene expression studies by real-time RT-PCR assay only showed an overexpression of SGCA (P < 0.01), a component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. Defect of SGCA was previously shown to lead to severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2D) which result in progressive muscle weakness and can also be associated with hyperlordosis or scoliosis. Further cases with similar duplications are expected to be diagnosed. This will contribute to the delineation of this potential new microduplication syndrome and to improve genetic counseling.

  17. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  18. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noudjalbaye, K

    1988-09-01

    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  19. [Interview of Doctor Monekosso: structural adjustment --a medication that is making us ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bop, C

    1990-01-01

    After 1977 the world's economic situation deteriorated, and by the 1980's Africa's standard of living was the lowest in the world: 2.3% lower than the region's population growth rate. The economic crisis and structural adjustment policies (SAP) have had a negative influence on the development of health care in Africa. The health sector in all African countries have the lowest budgets and these meager budgets were further cut with the SAP. The WHO stated that of 21 Ministries of Health surveyed in 1987, only 3 had a health budget over 9% with the remaining 18 between 2-8%; by 1986-87 and as a result of SAP it became 2.4%. Such a decline affected the availability and accessibility of health care, medicines, transportation, and health personnel. The lack of resources and manpower promoted the onset of epidemics such as cholera and diarrhea. Rural migration to the cities has aggravated promiscuity and exacerbated contagious diseases like tuberculosis and malaria. The victims of SAP are generally women and children. The economic crisis facing Africa is so devastating that families can no longer afford to pay for gas, hospitalization and medication when they are ill. African women are the ones responsible for the health status of the family, including their nutrition. The negative effects of the SAP on women are being felt in their levels of malnutrition, lack of prenatal care, and deliveries without health personnel. Zambia's infant and child mortality rate (1-14) has grown from 27-47%, while Burkina Faso and Chad have IMR's of over 200/1000 live births. The health status of children are equally aggravated by war and famine. In spite of all these obstacles, Senegal is trying to overcome the problems through community action. In 1985 the health committees contributed more than 386 million CFA to build health facilities and provide medications to the community. Between 24-70% of all health care is covered by donor assistance in Africa.

  20. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; El Hafed Ould Dehah, Cheikh Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November of 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mauritania were interviewed, and 46 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. Mauritania is on track to reaching the MDG of halving undernutrition among children malnutrition remains high, mortality rates did not decrease as malnutrition rates decreased, the overall prevalence of desirable nutrition-related practices is low, and human resources are reportedly insufficient to carry out all nutrition-related programme activities. Very little nutrition research has been conducted in Mauritania, and key informants identified gaps in adapting international programmes to local needs. Monitoring and evaluation reports have not been rigorous enough to identify which programme activities were implemented as designed or whether programmes were effective at improving nutritional and health status of young children. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes might have been responsible for the reported improvements, or if other population-wide changes contributed to these changes. The policy framework is supportive of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to (i) support activities to adapt training materials and programme protocols to fit local needs, (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally, (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes, and (iv

  1. Dust emission and transport over Iraq associated with the summer Shamal winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Karam Francis, D.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Banks, J.; Cuesta, J.; Brindley, H.; Oolman, L.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the diurnal evolution of the summer Shamal wind (a quasi-permanent low-level northwesterly wind feature) and its role in dust emission and transport over Iraq, using ground-based and space-borne observations together with a numerical simulation performed with the mesoscale model meso-NH. A 6-year dataset from the synoptic stations over Iraq allows establishing the prominence of the link between strong near surface winds and reduced visibility in the summer. The detailed processes at play during Shamal events are explored on the basis of a meso-NH simulation for a given, representative case study (25 June-3 July 2010). The Shamal exhibits an out-of-phase relationship between the surface wind and winds in the lower troposphere (typically 500 m above ground level), the maximum surface wind speeds being observed during the day while in altitude the maximum wind speeds are observed at night. The daytime near surface winds, at the origin of dust emission, are associated with the downward transfer of momentum from the nocturnal low-level jet to the surface due to turbulent mixing after solar heating commences each day. For the first time, an estimate of the dust load associated with summer Shamal events over Iraq has been made using aerosol optical depths derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the simulation. The dust load exhibits a large diurnal variability, with a daily minimum value of 1 Tg around 0600 UTC and a daily peak of 2.5 Tg or more around 1500 UTC, and is driven by the diurnal cycle of the near surface wind speed. The daily dust load peak associated with the summer Shamal over Iraq is in the same order of magnitude as those derived from simulations downstream of the Bodélé depression in Chad, known to be the world's largest dust source.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of apixaban compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apixaban was shown to be superior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and at least one additional risk factor for stroke, and associated with reduced rates of hemorrhage. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of using apixaban for stroke prevention. METHODS: Based on the results from the Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE trial and other published studies, we constructed a Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus warfarin from the Medicare perspective. The base-case analysis assumed a cohort of 65-year-old patients with a CHADS(2 score of 2.1 and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. We utilized a 2-week cycle length and a lifetime time horizon. Outcome measures included costs in 2012 US$, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs, life years saved and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: Under base case conditions, quality adjusted life expectancy was 10.69 and 11.16 years for warfarin and apixaban, respectively. Total costs were $94,941 for warfarin and $86,007 for apixaban, demonstrating apixaban to be a dominant economic strategy. Upon one-way sensitivity analysis, these results were sensitive to variability in the drug cost of apixaban and various intracranial hemorrhage related variables. In Monte Carlo simulation, apixaban was a dominant strategy in 57% of 10,000 simulations and cost-effective in 98% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF and at least one additional risk factor for stroke and a baseline risk of ICH risk of about 0.8%, treatment with apixaban may be a cost-effective alternative to warfarin.

  3. Lacustrine sediments and Holocene climates in the southern Sahara: the example of paleolakes in the Grand Erg of Bilma (Zoo Baba and Dibella, eastern Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, J.; Baumhauer, R.; Völkel, J.

    Two endoreic depressions of the central Erg of Bilma/eastern Republic of Niger are described here. Special interest is given to widespread lacustrine sediments (diatomites) in the depressions, indicating paleolakes with an extension of some 10 km 2. The minimum depth of the lakes has been found to be 25 m (Zoo Baba) and 36 m (Dibella). At Dibella there is evidence of two lacustrine phases of Early Holocene (9785-7890 years B.P.) and of Mid-Holocene age (about 6500 years B.P.). At Zoo Baba only one lacustrine phase of Mid-Holocene age (about 6000-5370 years B.P.) can be proven for Zoo Baba. The difference between the Early- and Mid-Holocene diatomites Di I and Di II is based not only on radiocarbon data but also on geomorphological characteristics. Despite the small distance of only 70 km between the two depressions, the reconstruction of pluvial water chemistry particularly by analyzing the diatoms shows great differences. The Mid-Holocene Zoo Baba lake was a freshwater lake; the Early- and Mid-Holocene Dibella lakes obviously contained brackish water with great fluctuations of salinity. An explanation may be given by the varying groundwater influence during the pluvial periods. It is supposed that Zoo Baba has been touched by the large Kaouar/Bilma aquifer while Dibella has been influenced by a smaller local aquifer. Any groundwater supply from Paleo-Chad can be excluded. Both the rising of groundwater table and of lake levels must have been induced by a largely increased annual precipitation rate (today 20-40 mm only), combined with a very effective reduction in evaporation rate. Based on lacrustine sediments, paleosoils and geomorphological features (fossil landslides of Zoo Baba), the Early Holocene annual precipitation rate is estimated at least at 300-400 mm, the Mid-Holocene rate at 200-300 mm. The special character of precipitations cannot be reconstructed.

  4. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calain Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  5. Towards reconstructing herbaceous biome dynamics and associated precipitation in Africa: insights from the classification of grass morphological traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasturel, Marine; Alexandre, Anne; Novello, Alice; Moctar Dieye, Amadou; Wele, Abdoulaye; Paradis, Laure; Hely, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Inter-tropical herbaceous ecosystems occupy a 1/5th of terrestrial surface, a half of the African continent, and are expected to extend in the next decades. Dynamic of these ecosystems is simulated with poor accuracy by Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). One of the bias results from the fact that the diversity of the grass layer dominating these herbaceous ecosystems is poorly taken into account. Mean annual precipitation and the length of the dry season are the main constrains of the dynamics of these ecosystems. Conversely, changes in vegetation affect the water cycle. Inaccuracy in herbaceous ecosystem simulation thus impacts simulations of the water cycle (including precipitation) and vice versa. In order to increase our knowledge of the relationships between grass morphological traits, taxonomy, biomes and climatic niches in Western and South Africa, a 3-step methodology was followed: i) values of culm height, leaf length and width of dominant grass species from Senegal were gathered from flora and clustered using the Partition Around Medoids (PAM) method; ii) trait group ability to sign climatic domains and biomes was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests; iii) genericity and robustness of the trait groups were evaluated through their application to Chadian and South African botanical datasets. Results show that 8 grass trait groups are present either in Senegal, Chad or South Africa. These 8 trait groups are distributed along mean annual precipitation and dry season length gradients. The combination of three of them allow to discriminate mean annual precipitation domains (1000 mm) and herbaceous biomes (steppes, savannas, South African grasslands and Nama-Karoo). With these results in hand, grass Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the DGMV LPJ-GUESS will be re-parameterized and particular attention will be given to the herbaceous biomass assigned to each grass trait group. Simultaneously, relationships between grass trait groups and phytolith vegetation

  6. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  7. Milnacipran for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Ormseth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michelle J Ormseth, Anne E Eyler, Cara L Hammonds, Chad S BoomershineDivision of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a widespread pain condition associated with fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. Milnacipran is one of three medications currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the management of adult FMS patients. This review is the second in a three-part series reviewing each of the approved FMS drugs and serves as a primer on the use of milnacipran in FMS treatment including information on pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability. Milnacipran is a mixed serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor thought to improve FMS symptoms by increasing neurotransmitter levels in descending central nervous system inhibitory pathways. Milnacipran has proven efficacy in managing global FMS symptoms and pain as well as improving symptoms of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction without affecting sleep. Due to its antidepressant activity, milnacipran can also be beneficial to FMS patients with coexisting depression. However, side effects can limit milnacipran tolerability in FMS patients due to its association with headache, nausea, tachycardia, hyper- and hypotension, and increased risk for bleeding and suicidality in at-risk patients. Tolerability can be maximized by starting at low dose and slowly up-titrating if needed. As with all medications used in FMS management, milnacipran works best when used as part of an individualized treatment regimen that includes resistance and aerobic exercise, patient education and behavioral therapies.Keywords: fibromyalgia, milnacipran, treatment

  8. Anti-Ebola vaccines and nucleoside drugs:research advances%抗埃博拉病毒疫苗和核酸类药物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康; 周喆

    2015-01-01

    埃博拉病毒(EBOV)致病性和传染性强,死亡率高,常在西非热带地区暴发流行。目前相应的抗病毒药物和疫苗正加紧研发。 EBOV疫苗依据抗原递送方式主要可分为3类,包括基于非复制性病毒载体的疫苗、基于复制性病毒载体的疫苗和基于病毒蛋白抗原的疫苗。ChAd3-ZEBOV和VSV-EBOV是最具潜力的抗埃博拉疫苗。随着埃博拉病毒感染分子基础研究的深入,抗埃博拉病毒的核酸和核苷类似物药物也成为研究热点。%Anti-Ebola vaccines and nucleoside drugs:research advances Ebola virus was extremely virulent and highly transmissible and caused outbreak of severe hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in the Africa tropical regions. Currently, Ebola epidemic raging in West Africa, antiviral vaccines and drugs have also accelerated the development process. Basing on antigen delivery methods, EBOV vaccines can be divided into three categories of technology platform, including nonreplicative viral vector-based vaccines, replicative viral vector-based vaccines and viral protein antigen-based vaccines. ChAd3-ZEBOV and VSV-EBOV are the most promising vaccines against Ebola. With the basic molecular research of Ebola virus infection deepening, polynucleotides drugs and nucleoside analogue drugs against Ebola virus are hot research topics.

  9. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  10. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools.

  11. Synergistic Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling for Tracing Dust Storms in the Mediterranean

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    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the detection of the dust source region and monitoring of the transport of the dust plume from its primary outflow to final deposition. The application area is the Sahara desert and the eastern Mediterranean, where two dust events occurred during the period 4–6 February 2009, an unusual event for a winter period. The Aqua-MODIS and OMI observations clearly define the spatial distribution of the dust plumes, while the CALIPSO observations of total attenuated backscatter (TAB at 532 nm, depolarization ratio (DR, and attenuated color ratio (1064/532 nm on 5 February 2009 provide a clear view and vertical structure of the dust-laden layer. The dust source region is defined to be near the Chad-Niger-Libyan borders, using satellite observations and model (DREAM output. This dust plume is vertically extended up to 2.5 km and is observed as a mass plume of dust from surface level to that altitude, where the vertical variation of TAB (0.002 to 0.2 and DR (0.2–0.5 implies dust-laden layer with non-spherical particles. CALIPSO profiles show that after the dust plume reached at its highest level, the dust particles start to be deposited over the Mediterranean and the initial dust plume was strongly attenuated, while features of dust were limited below about 1–1.5 km for latitudes northern of ~36° (Greek territory.

  12. Safe use of antithrombotics for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: consideration of risk assessment tools to support decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishen; Bajorek, Beata

    2014-02-01

    Clinical guidelines advocate stroke prevention therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, specifically anticoagulation. However, the decision to initiate treatment is based on the risk (bleeding) versus benefit (prevention of stroke) of therapy, which is often difficult to assess. This review identifies available risk assessment tools to facilitate the safe and optimal use of antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in AF. Using key databases and online clinical resources to search the literature (1992-2012), 19 tools have been identified and published to date: 11 addressing stroke risk, 7 addressing bleeding risk and 1 integrating both risk assessments. The stroke risk assessment tools (e.g. CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc) share common risk factors: age, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular attack. The bleeding risk assessment tools (e.g. HEMORR2HAGES, HAS-BLED) share common risk factors: age, previous bleeding, renal and liver impairment. In terms of their development, six of the stroke risk assessment tools have been derived from clinical studies, whilst five are based on refinement of existing tools or expert consensus. Many have been evaluated by prospective application to data from real patient cohorts. Bleeding risk assessment tools have been derived from trials, or generated from patient data and then validated via further studies. One identified tool (i.e. Computerised Antithrombotic Risk Assessment Tool [CARAT]) integrates both stroke and bleeding, and specifically considers other key factors in decision-making regarding antithrombotic therapy, particularly those increasing the risk of medication misadventure with treatment (e.g. function, drug interactions, medication adherence). This highlights that whilst separate tools are available to assess stroke and bleeding risk, they do not estimate the relative risk versus benefit of treatment in an individual patient nor consider key medication safety aspects. More effort is needed to synthesize these separate

  13. Incidence of thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves with a subtherapeutic international normalized ratio: a prospective multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentali, Francesco; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Malato, Alessandra; Poli, Daniela; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Rancan, Elena; Pastori, Daniele; Grifoni, Elisa; Grifoni, Elena; Squizzato, Alessandro; Siragusa, Sergio; Di Minno, Giovanni; Ageno, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Subtherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and patients with high-risk atrial fibrillation (AF) and with mechanical heart valve (MHV) with inadequate anticoagulation may be exposed to an increased risk of thromboembolic events (TE). However, there are no prospective data evaluating this risk. Consecutive patients with a history of stable anticoagulation, but with a subtherapeutic INR, were prospectively included. Data on use and dose of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) bridging therapy were collected. The incidence of objectively confirmed TE and of major bleeding events within 90 days after the index INR was assessed. Five hundred and one patients with INR value 0.5-1 INR units below the lower limit of the patient-specific target INR were included in the study (280 with MHV and 221 with AF and CHADS2 score ≥3). LMWH was prescribed for 64 patients (12.8%). During follow-up, seven patients had a TE (1.40%; 95% confidence interval 0.68, 2.86%; 5.58 events for 100 patients year). All the events occurred within 14 days after the index INR. When we consider only patients who did not receive bridging therapy, the incidence of TE was 1.14% (5 of 437 patients; 95% confidence interval 0.49, 2.64%; 4.58 events for 100 patients year). There were no major bleeding events. The risk of TE in this population was not negligible. Given the frequent observation of subtherapeutic INR levels when monitoring vitamin K antagonists, this finding warrants additional investigation to improve the management of these patients.

  14. Alcohol abstinence and drinking among African women: data from the World Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røislien Jo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use is increasing among women in Africa, and comparable information about women's current alcohol use is needed to inform national and international health policies relevant to the entire population. This study aimed to provide a comparative description of alcohol use among women across 20 African countries. Methods Data were collected as part of the WHO World Health Survey using standardized questionnaires. In total, 40,739 adult women were included in the present study. Alcohol measures included lifetime abstinence, current use (≥1 drink in previous week, heavy drinking (15+ drinks in the previous week and risky single-occasion drinking (5+ drinks on at least one day in the previous week. Country-specific descriptives of alcohol use were calculated, and K-means clustering was performed to identify countries with similar characteristics. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted for each country to identify factors associated with drinking status. Results A total of 33,841 (81% African women reported lifetime abstinence. Current use ranged from 1% in Malawi to 30% in Burkina Faso. Among current drinkers, heavy drinking varied between 4% in Ghana to 41% in Chad, and risky single-occasion drinking ranged from Conclusions A variety of drinking patterns are present among African women with lifetime abstention the most common. Countries with hazardous consumption patterns require serious attention to mitigate alcohol-related harm. Some similarities in factors related to alcohol use can be identified between different African countries, although these are limited and highlight the contextual diversity of female drinking in Africa.

  15. Africa: the Continent is booming. [Extensive survey of drilling activities in each African country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    Civil wars, political unrest, and skyrocketing exploration and production costs were unable to hamper Africa's developing oil business. Of the major producing nations, Libya, Algeria, and Nigeria recorded production declines. In the case of the North African countries, the drop was caused by high prices. Nigeria ordered sharp production curtailments last year, but Egypt's production decline may be on the verge of reversing. Algeria and Libya pruned their prices well back in an attempt to increase their share of an increasingly buyer's market. Angola delivered more oil last year than the year before despite open warfare among the factions attempting to take control of the country once Portugal relinquishes authority November 1975. The Nigerian oil industry was as yet unaffected by the July coup which unseated General Gowon after a nine-year rule. Gabon increased its output and was elected to OPEC as a result. Zaire will begin to land oil from its offshore field later this year and Cameroon is also preparing to bring oil ashore in 1977. Continental Oil Co. made two oil discoveries in Chad, one of which seems to be commercial. South Africa is continuing its search for its first production and an uncommercial gas discovery was made in the Orange River Delta of South West Africa. Drilling was off in the Congo, Cameroon, and Nigeria, but well above 1973 levels in Gabon, Angola, Tunisia, and Algeria. Egyptian operations remained steady, but in view of the concession activity in the past year or so, drilling should increase dramatically within the next year.

  16. Prediction of very late arrhythmia recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: The MB-LATER clinical score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujović, Nebojša; Marinković, Milan; Marković, Nebojša; Shantsila, Alena; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable prediction of very late recurrence of atrial fibrillation (VLRAF) occuring >12 months after catheter ablation (CA) in apparently “cured” patients could optimize long-term follow-up and modify decision-making regarding the discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy. In a single-centre cohort of consecutive patients post radiofrequency AFCA, we retrospectively derived a novel score for VLRAF prediction. Of 133 consecutive post AFCA patients (mean age 56.9 ± 11.8 years, 63.9% male, 69.2% with paroxysmal AF) who were arrhythmia-free at 12 months (excluding 3-month “blanking period”), 20 patients expirienced a VLRAF during a 29.1 ± 10.1-month follow-up, with a 3-year cumulative VLRAF rate of 31.1%. The MB-LATER score (Male, Bundle brunch block, Left atrium ≥47 mm, Type of AF [paroxysmal, persistent or long-standing persistent], and ER-AF = early recurrent AF), had better predictive ability for VLRAF (AUC 0.782) than the APPLE, ALARMc, BASE-AF2, CHADS2, CHA2DS2VASc or HATCH score (AUC 0.716, 0.671, 0.648, 0.552, 0.519 and 0.583, respectively), resulted in an improved net reclassification index (NRI) of 48.6–95.1% and better identified patients with subsequent VLRAF using decision-curve analysis (DCA). The MB-LATER score provides a readily available VLRAF risk assessment, and performs better than other scores. Validation of the MB-LATER score in other cohorts is underway. PMID:28106147

  17. Aeolian system dynamics derived from thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephen Paul

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing and field-based observations were used to study aeolian systems, specifically sand transport pathways, dust emission sources and Saharan atmospheric dust. A method was developed for generating seamless and radiometrically accurate mosaics of thermal infrared data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. Using a combination of high resolution thermal emission spectroscopy results of sand samples and mosaic satellite data, surface emissivity was derived to map surface composition, which led to improvement in the understanding of sand accumulation in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico. These methods were also used to map sand transport pathways in the Sahara Desert, where the interaction between sand saltation and dust emission sources was explored. The characteristics and dynamics of dust sources were studied at White Sands, NM and in the Sahara Desert. At White Sands, an application was developed for studying the response of dust sources to surface soil moisture based on the relationship between soil moisture, apparent thermal inertia and the erosion potential of dust sources. The dynamics of dust sources and the interaction with sand transport pathways were also studied, focusing on the Bodele Depression of Chad and large dust sources in Mali and Mauritania. A dust detection algorithm was developed using ASTER data, and the spectral emissivity of observed atmospheric dust was related to the dust source area in the Sahara. At the Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) in Tenerife, Spain where direct measurement of the Saharan Air Layer could be made, the cycle of dust events occurring in July 2009 were examined. From the observation tower at the IZO, measurements of emitted longwave atmospheric radiance in the TIR wavelength region were made using a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) handheld camera. The use of the FLIR to study atmospheric dust from the Saharan is a

  18. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  19. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established, the incidence of polio has decreased from an estimated 350,000 cases annually to 1,655 reported in 2008. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 were last reported in October 1999, and indigenous WPV types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) have been eliminated from all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). This report updates previous reports and describes overall progress toward global eradication in 2008. Despite accelerated efforts, polio cases increased 26%, from 1,315 cases in 2007 to 1,655 in 2008. This increase primarily resulted from an increase in Nigeria from 285 cases in 2007 to 801 cases in 2008. Resurgent WPV1 transmission in northern states of Nigeria spread to polio-free southern states and eight neighboring countries in 2008. In India, repeated use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 1 (mOPV1) during 2005--2008 interrupted WPV1 transmission in the western districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh for >12 months during 2007--2008; however, in mid-2008, WPV1 imported from the neighboring state of Bihar caused renewed transmission. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, problems in accessing children in conflict-affected areas increased, and an upsurge in WPV1 and WPV3 cases occurred, including an outbreak of WPV1 in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In Africa, during 2008, sustained WPV transmission for >12 months after importation continued in Angola, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and southern Sudan. Increased political oversight and accountability and improved vaccination outreach to insecure areas are needed to achieve the eradication goal.

  20. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  1. [Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in the French army: development from 1986 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, D; Michel, R; Meynard, J B; Keundjian, A; Boutin, J P

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, almost 25,000 French soldiers were deployed in malaria transmission areas. With an incidence of 4.5 p. 100 men.year, malaria infection remains a serious problem requiring priority status for control in military personnel. Epidemiological surveillance provides data necessary to assess morbidity due to malaria, monitor changing patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug-sensitivity, and evaluate the efficacy of malaria control measures. In 1990, the French army replaced chemoprophylaxis using chloroquine alone with combination treatment using a single capsule containing 100 mg of chloroquine base and 200 mg of proguanil chlorhydrate. This measure in association with the use deltamethrine impregnated bed-nets led to a significant decrease in incidence. However a comeback was observed from 1993 to 1997. Since 1995, the effectiveness of the chloroquine-proguanil combination has diminished mainly in the stable malaria areas. In response to increasing Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine-proguanil chemoprophylaxis, it was necessary to find an alternative. Two studies carried out among French soldiers in Sub-Saharian Africa between 1996 and 1998 demonstrated that a daily dose 100 mg doxycycline was more effective than the chloroquine-proguanil combination. In addition the 1998 study showed that doxycycline monohydrate in the form of a multiparticle tablet was better tolerated. In 2001 four drugs are used for malaria chemoprophylaxis in the army personnel, i.e., chloroquine and proguanil in combination, mefloquine, and doxycycline, depending on location and duration of mission. The chloroquine-proguanil combination is used in countries with chloroquine-resistant strains, e.g., Chad and Senegal. Mefloquine and doxycycline are used in countries with chloroquine-resistant strains. Due to increasing resistance, it will be necessary to evaluate other drugs or antipaludian combinations.

  2. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: findings from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite vitamin K antagonists (VKAs are considered the first choice treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF, literature shows their underuse in this context. Since data about VKAs use prior and after acute stroke lack, the aim of this study was to focus on management of anticoagulation with VKAs in this context. Data were retrieved from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry, an online data bank aimed to report on characteristics of stroke patients consecutively admitted in Internal Medicine wards in 2010 and 2011. In this period 819 patients with mean age 76.5±12.3 years were enrolled. Data on etiology were available for 715 of them (88.1%, 87% being ischemic and 13% hemorrhagic strokes. AF was present in 238 patients (33%, 165 (69.3% having a known AF before hospitalization, whereas 73 patients (31.7% received a new diagnosis of AF. A percentage of 89% of strokes in patients with known AF were ischemic and 11% hemorrhagic. A percentage of 86.7% of patients with known AF had a CHADS2 ≥2, but only 28.3% were on VKAs before hospitalization. A percentage of 78.8% of patients treated with VKAs before stroke had an international normalized ratio (INR ≤2.0; 68.7% of patients with VKAs-related hemorrhagic strokes had INR ≤3.0. Combined endpoint mortality or severe disability in patients with ischemic stroke associated with AF was present in 47%, while it was present in 19.30% and 19.20% of atherothrombotic and lacunar strokes, respectively. At hospital discharge, VKAs were prescribed in 25.9% of AF related ischemic stroke patients. AF related strokes are burdened by severe outcome but VKAs are dramatically underused in patients with AF, even in higher risk patients. Efforts to improve anticoagulation in this stroke subtype are warranted.

  3. Dry-coated live viral vector vaccines delivered by nanopatch microprojections retain long-term thermostability and induce transgene-specific T cell responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E Pearson

    Full Text Available The disadvantages of needle-based immunisation motivate the development of simple, low cost, needle-free alternatives. Vaccine delivery to cutaneous environments rich in specialised antigen-presenting cells using microprojection patches has practical and immunological advantages over conventional needle delivery. Additionally, stable coating of vaccine onto microprojections removes logistical obstacles presented by the strict requirement for cold-chain storage and distribution of liquid vaccine, or lyophilised vaccine plus diluent. These attributes make these technologies particularly suitable for delivery of vaccines against diseases such as malaria, which exerts its worst effects in countries with poorly-resourced healthcare systems. Live viral vectors including adenoviruses and poxviruses encoding exogenous antigens have shown significant clinical promise as vaccines, due to their ability to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells. Here, the simian adenovirus serotype 63 and the poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara--two vectors under evaluation for the delivery of malaria antigens to humans--were formulated for coating onto Nanopatch microprojections and applied to murine skin. Co-formulation with the stabilising disaccharides trehalose and sucrose protected virions during the dry-coating process. Transgene-specific CD8(+ T cell responses following Nanopatch delivery of both vectors were similar to intradermal injection controls after a single immunisation (despite a much lower delivered dose, though MVA boosting of pre-primed responses with Nanopatch was found to be less effective than the ID route. Importantly, disaccharide-stabilised ChAd63 could be stored for 10 weeks at 37°C with less than 1 log10 loss of viability, and retained single-dose immunogenicity after storage. These data support the further development of microprojection patches for the deployment of live vaccines in hot climates.

  4. Dry-coated live viral vector vaccines delivered by nanopatch microprojections retain long-term thermostability and induce transgene-specific T cell responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Frances E; McNeilly, Celia L; Crichton, Michael L; Primiero, Clare A; Yukiko, Sally R; Fernando, Germain J P; Chen, Xianfeng; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S; Kendall, Mark A F

    2013-01-01

    The disadvantages of needle-based immunisation motivate the development of simple, low cost, needle-free alternatives. Vaccine delivery to cutaneous environments rich in specialised antigen-presenting cells using microprojection patches has practical and immunological advantages over conventional needle delivery. Additionally, stable coating of vaccine onto microprojections removes logistical obstacles presented by the strict requirement for cold-chain storage and distribution of liquid vaccine, or lyophilised vaccine plus diluent. These attributes make these technologies particularly suitable for delivery of vaccines against diseases such as malaria, which exerts its worst effects in countries with poorly-resourced healthcare systems. Live viral vectors including adenoviruses and poxviruses encoding exogenous antigens have shown significant clinical promise as vaccines, due to their ability to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells. Here, the simian adenovirus serotype 63 and the poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara--two vectors under evaluation for the delivery of malaria antigens to humans--were formulated for coating onto Nanopatch microprojections and applied to murine skin. Co-formulation with the stabilising disaccharides trehalose and sucrose protected virions during the dry-coating process. Transgene-specific CD8(+) T cell responses following Nanopatch delivery of both vectors were similar to intradermal injection controls after a single immunisation (despite a much lower delivered dose), though MVA boosting of pre-primed responses with Nanopatch was found to be less effective than the ID route. Importantly, disaccharide-stabilised ChAd63 could be stored for 10 weeks at 37°C with less than 1 log10 loss of viability, and retained single-dose immunogenicity after storage. These data support the further development of microprojection patches for the deployment of live vaccines in hot climates.

  5. Relationship Between Time in Therapeutic Range and Comparative Treatment Effect of Rivaroxaban and Warfarin: Results From the ROCKET AF Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Singer, Daniel E.; Becker, Richard C.; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is a standard quality measure of the use of warfarin. We assessed the relative effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin at the level of trial center TTR (cTTR) since such analysis preserves randomized comparisons. Methods and Results TTR was calculated using the Rosendaal method, without exclusion of international normalized ratio (INR) values performed during warfarin initiation. Measurements during warfarin interruptions >7 days were excluded. INRs were performed via standardized finger‐stick point‐of‐care devices at least every 4 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint (stroke or non‐central nervous system embolism) was examined by quartiles of cTTR and by cTTR as a continuous function. Centers with the highest cTTRs by quartile had lower‐risk patients as reflected by lower CHADS2 scores (P<0.0001) and a lower prevalence of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (P<0.0001). Sites with higher cTTR were predominantly from North America and Western Europe. The treatment effect of rivaroxaban versus warfarin on the primary endpoint was consistent across a wide range of cTTRs (P value for interaction=0.71). The hazard of major and non‐major clinically relevant bleeding increased with cTTR (P for interaction=0.001), however, the estimated reduction by rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the hazard of intracranial hemorrhage was preserved across a wide range of threshold cTTR values. Conclusions The treatment effect of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism is consistent regardless of cTTR. PMID:24755148

  6. Ischaemic cardiac outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonism or factor Xa inhibition: results from the ROCKET AF trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Stevens, Susanna R.; White, Harvey D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Califf, Robert M.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Breithardt, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated the prevalence of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) events among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results In ROCKET AF, 14 264 patients with nonvalvular AF were randomized to rivaroxaban or warfarin. The key efficacy outcome for these analyses was CV death, MI, and unstable angina (UA). This pre-specified analysis was performed on patients while on treatment. Rates are per 100 patient-years. Overall, 2468 (17%) patients had prior MI at enrollment. Compared with patients without prior MI, these patients were more likely to be male (75 vs. 57%), on aspirin at baseline (47 vs. 34%), have prior congestive heart failure (78 vs. 59%), diabetes (47 vs. 39%), hypertension (94 vs. 90%), higher mean CHADS2 score (3.64 vs. 3.43), and fewer prior strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (46 vs. 54%). CV death, MI, or UA rates tended to be lower in patients assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin [2.70 vs. 3.15; hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.00; P = 0.0509]. CV death, MI, or UA rates were higher in those with prior MI compared with no prior MI (6.68 vs. 2.19; HR 3.04, 95% CI 2.59–3.56) with consistent results for CV death, MI, or UA for rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in prior MI compared with no prior MI (P interaction = 0.10). Conclusion Prior MI was common and associated with substantial risk for subsequent cardiac events. Patients with prior MI assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin had a non-significant 14% reduction of ischaemic cardiac events. PMID:24132190

  7. Disentangling migratory routes and wintering grounds of Iberian near-threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1 a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2 that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3 that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller.

  8. Late Permian Melt Percolation through the Crust of North-Central Africa and Its Possible Relationship to the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T. Y.; Yang, C. C.; Wu, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Lo, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Doba gabbro was collected from an exploration well through the Cretaceous Doba Basin of Southern Chad. The gabbro is comprised mostly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide minerals and displays cumulus mineral textures. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating geochronology yielded a Late Permian plateau age of 257 ± 1 Ma. The major and trace elemental geochemistry shows that the gabbro is mildly alkalic to tholeiitic in composition and has trace element ratios (i.e. La/YbN > 7; Sm/YbPM > 3.4; Nb/Y > 1; Zr/Y > 5) indicative of a basaltic melt derived from a garnet-bearing sublithospheric mantle source. The moderately enriched Sr-Nd isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.70495 to 0.70839; eNd(T) = -1.0 to -1.3) fall within the mantle array (i.e. OIB-like) and are similar to other Late Permian plutonic rocks of North-Central Africa (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7070). The Late Permian plutonic igneous complexes of North-Central Africa are geologically associated with tectonic lineaments suggesting they acted as conduits for sublithospheric melts to migrate to middle/upper crustal levels. The source of the magmas may be related to the spatial-temporal association of North-Central Africa with the African large low shear velocity province (LLSVP). The African LLSVP has remained stable since the Late Carboniferous and was beneath the Doba basin during the Permian. We suggest that melts derived from deep seated sources related to the African LLSVP percolated through the North-Central African crust via older tectonic lineaments and form a discontiguous magmatic province.

  9. Estudo transversal das estratégias de tratamento clínico na fibrilação atrial Estudio transversal de las estrategias de tratamiento clínico en la fibrilación atrial Cross-sectional study of treatment strategies on atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Hollanda Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A despeito de elevada prevalência e importância clínica da Fibrilação Atrial (FA, não existem até o momento publicações brasileiras informando o perfil clínico e a estratégia de tratamento (controle de ritmo vs. controle de frequência cardíaca mais utilizada nesse universo de pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estratégia de tratamento mais empregada na FA em ambulatório especializado no manejo dessa doença. Secundariamente, procurou-se descrever o perfil clínico dessa população. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que avaliou sequencialmente, em 167 portadores de FA, a estratégia de tratamento mais empregada, bem como o perfil clínico desses pacientes. Utilizou-se questionário padronizado para coleta de dados. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do software SPSS® versão 13.0. RESULTADOS: Nessa população de alto risco para eventos tromboembólicos (61% com score CHADS2 > 2, em que 54% dos indivíduos apresentavam fibrilação atrial paroxística ou persistente, 96,6% utilizavam antagonistas da vitamina K ou AAS, e 76,6% faziam uso de betabloqueador (81,2% frequência x 58,8% ritmo, p 2 (60,5% x 39,5%; p = 0,07 e valvopatias (25,8% x 11,8%; p = 0,08 no segmento de controle da frequência. CONCLUSÃO: Nessa população de alto risco para eventos tromboembólicos, a estratégia de controle de frequência cardíaca foi a mais empregada.FUNDAMENTO: A despecho de la elevada prevalencia y importancia clínica de la Fibrilación Atrial (FA, no existen hasta el momento publicaciones brasileñas informando el perfil clínico y la estrategia de tratamiento (control de ritmo vs. control de frecuencia cardíaca más utilizada en ese universo de pacientes. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la estrategia de tratamiento más empleada en la FA en ambulatorio especializado en el manejo de esa enfermedad. Secundariamente, se buscó describir el perfil clínico de esa población. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal que evaluó secuencialmente, en 167

  10. Towards the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli Raffaele C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Updated, accurate and comprehensive information on the distribution of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, is critically important to plan and monitor control activities. We describe input data, methodology, preliminary results and future prospects of the HAT Atlas initiative, which will allow major improvements in the understanding of the spatial distribution of the disease. Methods Up-to-date as well as historical data collected by national sleeping sickness control programmes, non-governmental organizations and research institutes have been collated over many years by the HAT Control and Surveillance Programme of the World Health Organization. This body of information, unpublished for the most part, is now being screened, harmonized, and analysed by means of database management systems and geographical information systems (GIS. The number of new HAT cases and the number of people screened within a defined geographical entity were chosen as the key variables to map disease distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Results At the time of writing, over 600 epidemiological reports and files from seventeen countries were collated and included in the data repository. The reports contain information on approximately 20,000 HAT cases, associated to over 7,000 different geographical entities. The oldest epidemiological records considered so far date back to 1985, the most recent having been gathered in 2008. Data from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon from the year 2000 onwards were fully processed and the preliminary regional map of HAT distribution is presented. Conclusion The use of GIS tools and geo-referenced, village-level epidemiological data allow the production of maps that substantially improve on the spatial quality of previous cartographic products of similar scope. The significant differences between our preliminary outputs and earlier maps of HAT

  11. Peuples et évolution climatique en Afrique nord-tropicale, de la fin du Néolithique à l’aube de l’époque moderne Peoples and climate change in northern tropical Africa from the end of the Neolithic till the dawn of the modern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Maley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La fin du Néolithique, au cours du IIIe millénaire BP, a correspondu à l’affaiblissement des périodes humides et à la mise en place de la géographie actuelle dans la zone sud-saharienne et sahélienne, qui s’étend de l’Atlantique au lac Tchad. Depuis cette époque le climat a cependant continué à beaucoup varier. La succession des différents épisodes climatiques, phases humides ou phases arides – et leurs interactions complexes –, est précisée. Ces faits climatiques sont mis en parallèle avec l’évolution archéologique et historique des différentes phases culturelles. Dans cette immense région, souvent à la limite de conditions naturelles extrêmes, les évènements climatiques ont toujours eu des conséquences très importantes sur l’évolution des peuplements humains. Le relativement bon synchronisme des principaux changements culturels, d’ouest en est à travers la bande sahélienne, paraît avoir été fréquemment contrôlé par le rôle directeur des changements climatiques majeurs et des variations environnementales qui en ont résulté.At the end of the Neolithic Era, during the third millennium BCE, there were fewer humid periods of weather, and the sub-Saharan Sahelian zone, from the Atlantic to Lake Chad, assumed its current geographical form. Since then, the climate has continued undergoing major variations. The succession of climatic episodes, humid or dry, is pointed out along with their complex interactions. These variations are placed in parallel to cultural phases of evolution in archeology and history. Climate-related events have always had heavy consequences on the peopling of this vast region, often subject to extreme natural conditions. The relative synchronism between the principal cultural trends from west to east across the Sahel seems to have often been subject to swings in the climate and the resulting environmental changes.

  12. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to be used in early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a composite drought vulnerability indicator (DVI) that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level for four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation, is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore, we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided into the following geographical regions: the Mediterranean coast of Africa; the Sahel region and the Horn of Africa; the Serengeti and the Eastern Miombo woodlands in eastern Africa; the western part of the Zambezi Basin, the southeastern border of the Congo Basin, and the belt of Fynbos in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The results of the DVI at the country level were

  13. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2013-10-01

    Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI) that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided in three main different

  14. Soil climate and decomposer activity in Sub-Saharan Africa estimated from standard weather station data: a simple climate index for soil carbon balance calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Olof; Kihara, Job; Bationo, André; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Kätterer, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Soil biological activity was calculated on a daily basis, using standard meteorological data from African weather stations, a simple soil water model, and commonly used assumptions regarding the relations between temperature, soil water content, and biological activity. The activity factor r(e_clim) is calculated from daily soil moisture and temperature, thereby taking the daily interaction between temperature and moisture into account. Annual mean r(e_clim) was normalized to 1 in Central Sweden (clay loam soil, no crop), where the original calibration took place. Since soils vary in water storage capacity and plant cover will affect transpiration, we used this soil under no crop for all sites, thereby only including climate differences. The Swedish r(e_clim) value, 1, corresponds to ca. 50% annual mass loss of, e.g., cereal straw incorporated into the topsoil. African mean annual r(e_clim) values varied between 1.1 at a hot and dry site (Faya, Chad) and 4.7 at a warm and moist site (Brazzaville, Congo). Sites in Kenya ranged between r(e_clim) = 2.1 at high altitude (Matanya) and 4.1 in western Kenya (Ahero). This means that 4.1 times the Swedish C input to soil is necessary to maintain Swedish soil carbon levels in Ahero, if soil type and management are equal. Diagrams showing daily r(e_clim) dynamics are presented for all sites, and differences in within-year dynamics are discussed. A model experiment indicated that a Swedish soil in balance with respect to soil carbon would lose 41% of its soil carbon during 30 y, if moved to Ahero, Kenya. If the soil was in balance in Ahero with respect to soil carbon, and then moved to Sweden, soil carbon mass would increase by 64% in 30 y. The validity of the methodology and results is discussed, and r(e_clim) is compared with other climate indices. A simple method to produce a rough estimate of r(e_clim) is suggested.

  15. Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a

  16. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Naumann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided in three

  17. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  18. Effects of Ce3+ on Physiological Characteristics of Spirulina under Salt Stress%稀土Ce3+对盐胁迫下螺旋藻生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩东辉; 王志忠; 李国龙; 张少英; 谢庆超

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Ce + on the growth of Spirulina from Chad lake of Africa under 0. 3 mol·L-1 NaCl stress were studied by the physiological method. The results showed that Ce3+ could promote the growth and the accumulation of chlorophyll a in the range of 8. 104 ~ 16. 208 μmol·L-1; and promote the synthesis of soluble protein of Spirulina in the range of 16.208 ~ 48. 62 μmol·L-1; the content of MDA was the highest when the concentration of Ce 3+ was 8.104 μmol·L , and dropped with the increasing of content of Ce+. Ce3+could relieve the salt stress to Spirulina in a certain range, could promote the accumulation of chlorophyll a and soluble protein of Spirulina, and reduced the content of MDA. And the high Ce3 + concentration could aggravate the damage to the algae cells by cooperating with NaCl and inhibited the growth of Spirulina.%以非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻为实验材料,在0.3 mol·L-1 NaCl胁迫下,通过生理学方法研究了不同浓度Ce3+对螺旋藻生长的影响.结果表明:Ce3+浓度在8.104 ~16.208 μmol·L-1之间时,促进了螺旋藻的生长以及叶绿素a的合成;Ce3+浓度在16.208 ~48.62 μmol·L-1之间时,促进可溶性蛋白的合成;Ce3+浓度为8.104μmol·L-1时藻体MDA含量最高,之后MDA含量随着Ce3+处理浓度的增加逐步降低.这说明Ce3+在一定的浓度范围内可减轻NaCl对螺旋藻的胁迫作用,促进螺旋藻可溶性蛋白和叶绿素a的积累,降低藻细胞MDA的浓度,高浓度Ce3+则会与NaCl协同、抑制螺旋藻的生长.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran versus genotype-guided management of warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce H S You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dabigatran is associated with lower rate of stroke comparing to warfarin when anticoagulation control is sub-optimal. Genotype-guided warfarin dosing and management may improve patient-time in target range (TTR and therefore affect the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran compared with warfain. We examined the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran versus warfarin therapy with genotype-guided management in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Markov model was designed to compare life-long economic and treatment outcomes of dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg twice daily, warfarin usual anticoagulation care (usual AC with mean TTR 64%, and genotype-guided anticoagulation care (genotype-guided AC in a hypothetical cohort of AF patients aged 65 years old with CHADS(2 score 2. Model inputs were derived from literature. The genotype-guided AC was assumed to achieve TTR = 78.9%, adopting the reported TTR achieved by warfarin service with good anticoagulation control in literature. Outcome measure was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained (ICER from perspective of healthcare payers. In base-case analysis, dabigatran 150 mg gained higher QALYs than genotype-guided AC (10.065QALYs versus 9.554QALYs at higher cost (USD92,684 versus USD85,627 with ICER = USD13,810. Dabigatran 110 mg and usual AC gained less QALYs but cost more than dabigatran 150 mg and genotype-guided AC, respectively. ICER of dabigatran 150 mg versus genotype-guided AC would be >USD50,000 (and genotype-guided AC would be most cost-effective when TTR in genotype-guided AC was >77% and utility value of warfarin was the same or higher than that of dabigatran. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The likelihood of genotype-guided anticoagulation service to be accepted as cost-effective would increase if the quality of life on warfarin and dabigatran therapy are compatible and genotype-guided service achieves high TTR (>77%.

  20. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

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    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer

  1. Monitoring of Oil Exploitation Infrastructure by Combining Unsupervised Pixel-Based Classification of Polarimetric SAR and Object-Based Image Analysis

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    Simon Plank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is a high correlation between the dependence of oil exports and violent conflicts. Furthermore, even in countries which experienced a peaceful development of their oil industry, land use and environmental issues occur. Therefore, independent monitoring of oil field infrastructure may support problem solving. Earth observation data enables fast monitoring of large areas which allows comparing the real amount of land used by the oil exploitation and the companies’ contractual obligations. The target feature of this monitoring is the infrastructure of the oil exploitation, oil well pads—rectangular features of bare land covering an area of approximately 50–60 m × 100 m. This article presents an automated feature extraction procedure based on the combination of a pixel-based unsupervised classification of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data (PolSAR and an object-based post-classification. The method is developed and tested using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X imagery acquired over the Doba basin in south Chad. The advantages of PolSAR are independence of the cloud coverage (vs. optical imagery and the possibility of detailed land use classification (vs. single-pol SAR. The PolSAR classification uses the polarimetric Wishart probability density function based on the anisotropy/entropy/alpha decomposition. The object-based post-classification refinement, based on properties of the feature targets such as shape and area, increases the user’s accuracy of the methodology by an order of a magnitude. The final achieved user’s and producer’s accuracy is 59%–71% in each case (area based accuracy assessment. Considering only the numbers of correctly/falsely detected oil well pads, the user’s and producer’s accuracies increase to even 74%–89%. In an iterative training procedure the best suited polarimetric speckle filter and processing parameters of the developed feature extraction procedure are

  2. 头痛门诊偏头痛患者睡眠质量及影响因素分析%Analysis of sleep quality and influence factors in migraine patients in headache clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洲; 周冀英; 范小平; 李雪莲; 冉丽

    2012-01-01

    To investigate sleep quality of migraineurs in headache clinic and the influence factors of sleep quality. Methods We used Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) , Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale CHADS) to assess headache intensity,sleep quality,anxiety and depression symptoms. Descriptive statistics,Chi-square test, Binary logistic regression were used to analyze the sleep quality and its impact factors. Results A total of 211 subjects, 130 (61. 61%) migraineurs had a poor sleep quality. Sleep quality mainly influenced by course of migraine and whether comorbid with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion Over half of migraineurs comorbid with poor sleep quality,and most patients' poor sleep did not get effective improvement. So control influence factors of sleep quality may improve the poor sleep quality of migraineurs.%目的 分析神经内科头痛门诊偏头痛患者睡眠质量情况,并探讨睡眠质量的影响因素.方法 采用疼痛视觉模拟评分、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数和医院焦虑抑郁量表,评估偏头痛患者的头痛程度、睡眠质量及焦虑抑郁症状.利用描述性统计、χ2检验、回归分析等方法分析偏头痛患者睡眠质量及影响因素.结果 在211例偏头痛患者中有130例(61.61%)患者存在睡眠质量障碍.睡眠质量主要受偏头痛病程和是否伴有焦虑抑郁症状影响.结论 偏头痛患者大多伴有睡眠障碍,而且睡眠障碍有效控制率低.控制睡眠质量的影响因素,有望改善偏头痛患者的睡眠质量.

  3. Production zones and systems, markets, benefits and constraints of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn butter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bup Divine Nde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The shea tree is a multipurpose tree crop indigenous to Sub Saharan African. The tree is highly cherished for the oil that is extracted from its kernels and used nationally and internationally in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in chocolate formulations. The processing and sales represent significant income earning opportunities for rural women who are the main stakeholders in the production chain. Shea nuts and its products are listed among the top ten Non-Traditional Exports of Ghana. In Burkina Faso it is the fourth most important export crop after gold, cotton and livestock and makes a contribution of about 6 million USD to the national economy. Today the shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree. About 500 million shea trees grow in Africa which has the potential of producing shea nuts worth about 150 million USD yearly. This represents substantial earnings for the Sub-Saharan African economies when fully exploited. Shea trees grow in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries that can be grouped into 3 zones following their potentials for shea nut production per year: high production zone comprising of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda that have potentials of producing 70 000–300 000 tons per year; average production zone comprising of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea Conakry, Senegal and Togo with potentials of 10 000–70 000 tons per year and low production zones made up of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Niger and Sierra Leone with yearly production potentials less than 10 000 metric tons. Though semi mechanized and some few fully mechanized productions methods are employed in the major shea producing countries of West Africa, most of the rural women still used traditional processing procedures. Major importers of shea are European Union, Japan and the USA. The sector is still constrained by lack of

  4. Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Therapy for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Danik, Stephan B; Altman, Robert K; Barrett, Conor D; Lip, Gregory Y H; Chatterjee, Saurav; Roubin, Gary S; Natale, Andrea; Danik, Jacqueline S

    2016-01-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are frequently used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. These patients are often also on aspirin or other antiplatelet agents. It is possible that treatment with both NOACs and aspirin or other antiplatelet drug may be effective in decreasing stroke, but data are sparse regarding the efficacy and safety of using both agents for stroke prevention. To address these issues, data were pooled from the 4 recent randomized, controlled trials of NOACs: apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban, which included 42,411 patients; 14,148 (33.4%) were also on aspirin or other antiplatelet drug. The number of thromboembolic events among participants on NOAC and aspirin/antiplatelet was compared with the number of events in patients on NOAC alone. Bleeding rates were also compared between those on NOAC + aspirin/antiplatelet and on NOAC alone. These results were compared with thromboembolic and bleeding events in the warfarin + aspirin/antiplatelet versus warfarin alone. No greater risk for thromboembolism was seen in patients on NOACs compared with patients on both NOACs and aspirin/antiplatelet drug. In this nonrandomized comparison, there was initially a signal toward higher thromboembolic rates among NOAC users also on aspirin/antiplatelet drugs (relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence intervals, 1.05, 1.29) when compared with NOAC alone. This likely reflected the higher CHADS2 scores of those on aspirin/antiplatelet drugs. When the analysis was limited to studies that included aspirin rather than other antiplatelet drugs, no difference was seen for thromboembolic rates comparing dual therapy to NOAC alone (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence intervals, 0.90, 1.15). Higher rates of bleeding were seen with aspirin/antiplatelet drug in conjunction with NOAC. In this meta-analysis and nonrandomized comparison of aspirin/antiplatelet users and nonusers also on anticoagulation, there was no additional

  5. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batel Marques F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Batel Marques,1,2 Ana Penedones,1,2 Diogo Mendes,1,2 Carlos Alves,1,2 1CHAD – Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Drug Research, AIBILI – Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Introduction: The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs, besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs.Objective: To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs.Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated.Results: Twenty-nine (94% longitudinal observational studies and two (7% cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74% studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%. Twenty (65% studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65% studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7% also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7

  6. Characterization of Landfalling Atmospheric Rivers and their Impacts over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Chad William

    Characterization of Landfalling Atmospheric Rivers and their Impacts Over California By Chad William Hecht Plymouth State University, May 2016 Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are responsible for a majority of global poleward moisture transport and can result in extreme precipitation events and flooding along the U.S. West Coast. ARs are long (>2000 km) and narrow (500-1000 km) corridors of enhanced vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and integrated water vapor transport (IVT) that may be found within a variety of synoptic-scale flow patterns. Observational evidence suggests that ARs within different flow patterns may contain different water vapor source regions, different orientations, different IVT magnitudes, and may result in different precipitation distributions. This study uses a K-means clustering technique to objectively identify different flow patterns that contain landfalling ARs along the U.S. West Coast. The K-means clustering algorithm used NCEP-CFSR and NCEP-GFSderived IVT to cluster the different types of ARs that may make landfall over north- central California. For example, the clustering technique identified five different types of ARs: northwesterly, westerly, south/southwesterly, or southwesterly with moderate IVT magnitudes >200 kg m-1 s-1 or strong southwesterly with IVT values >400 kg m -1 s-1. Composite analyses of the synoptic-scale features present in conjunction with each AR type highlight the variety of conditions that influence the orientation and magnitude of xiv each landfalling AR. The differences in synoptic-scale flow regimes between the AR types results in differences in quasi-geostrophic forcing for ascent/descent co-located over the terminus of the ARs at landfall. This thesis will discuss and present the roles that both upslope IVT magnitude and quasi-geostrophic forcing for ascent play on precipitation accumulations and distributions associated with each AR type. The second portion of this thesis objectively quantifies the impacts

  7. Lunar Rings In South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, G. F.

    Recently [1], when I have revealed the basic property of planet Earth's outer shell ­ its axial structural symmetry. Thus, it became clear that mobilistic models are void now. One can see W.Indic and E.Pacific ridges on thje same meridiane (60 E, 120 W). They stretch northward to Urals (variscan) and Cordilleras (laramian) with the edge of Bear zone (precambrian) in America. Other structures are obvious. The giant fault-ridge line Apsheron - N.Anatolia - Atlas - Mavritanians has as its twin on the other globe side the fracture zone Mendocino with the Mapmaker island chain. African Ugartha has Hawaiians as its twin, rifts Chad-Njassa have as their twin island chain Line in Pacific etc. We can compare the Earth with its permamnent structural symmetry with other planets. Lunar and earthen tectonic megaforms: Imbrium, Oriental Mare and other have identical positions on their planets. It is evident if planet's 0-meridians are matched [1]. Lunar big rings have their places on the African old blocks. Tanganjica massive coincides with risen lunar region. Rodezian block with parts of Kibara, Lomagundy, Limpopo zones coincides with lunar Maria Nectaris and with their nearest rings. SW edge of these rings coincides with lunar Rupes Altai. Young structure of basin Congo coincides with risen block, its center- crater Delambr. Young ocean earthen structures have lunar images also. NW edge of Fecundidatis Maria and its floor coincides with Somali abissal plane, Davie ridge - with lunar Montes Pyrenaeus etc. Resume. The matrix of earthen tectonic forms is drawn on the Moon . The arc forms are cyclic renovating all the time on their own planet places with extending, shortening along one or another of their sides. Mountain arcs give birth to rear basalts. Question. Why 0-meridians of the Moon (center of its disk) and of the Earth (the decision of astronomers, 1884) have the same position relative to tectonic structures of their planets? Why earthen 0-meridian is chosen so

  8. Novel nonpharmacologic approaches for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: results from clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2015-01-01

    available technologies for percutaneous LAA closure, as well as a summary of the published trials concerning their safety and efficacy in reducing stroke risk in AF. Keywords: left atrial appendage closure, atrial fibrillation, CHADS

  9. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  10. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  11. Antikoagulation mit oralen Vitamin-K-Antagonisten bei Risikopatienten: klinischer und wirtschaftlicher Nutzen einer adäquaten Prävention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeser K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Die Langzeit-Antikoagulation von Patienten mit Risikofaktoren für thromboembolische Ereignisse (Vorhofflimmern, mechanischer Herzklappenersatz mittels oraler Vitamin-K-Antagonisten (OVKA ist einerseits eine effektive Möglichkeit zur Primär- und Sekundärprävention, setzt aber andererseits eine konsequente Überwachung des Gerinnungsstatus voraus, da dieser Substanzgruppe das Risiko hämorrhagischer Blutungen immanent ist. Die vorliegende pharmako-ökonomische Analyse hatte zum Ziel, die Frage der Effizienz von OVKA im Vergleich zur klassischen Prophylaxe mit Acetylsalicylsäure (ASS sowie die Effizienz in Abhängigkeit von der Monitoringmethode zu prüfen. Methodik: Zur pharmako-ökonomischen Beurteilung wurden zwei Markov-Modelle entwickelt. Hierzu wurden einerseits Ereignisse wie Blutungen, Schlaganfall und Mortalität, die Therapie- und Monitoringkosten sowie die Ereigniskosten aus der Literatur ermittelt. Mittels Modellsimulationen wurden darauf für verschiedene Risikogruppen die Mortalität, die Gesamtkosten und die Anzahl gewonnener Lebensjahre in den einzelnen Behandlungskollektiven berechnet. Ergebnisse: Die 10-Jahres-Mortalität bei Patienten mit Vorhofflimmern variierte je nach Risikogruppe zwischen 25,4 % und 75,7 %, die Gesamtbehandlungskosten lagen für diesen Zeitraum zwischen EUR 2867,-- und EUR 22.071,--. Die Prävention mittels OVKA war gegenüber derjenigen mit ASS bei allen Risikogruppen mit einer verminderten Mortalität verbunden. In den Gruppen mit CHADS2-Scores von 0 bis 2 war die Behandlung mit ASS bezüglich Kosten der OVKA-Prävention überlegen. Bei Score-Werten ≥ 3 ging die OKVA-Therapie – neben einer verminderten Mortalität – zudem mit geringeren Gesamtkosten einher. Bezüglich der Monitoringmethode ergab die Patientenselbstmessung gegenüber dem ambulanten Monitoring bei allen Alterskategorien eine höhere Lebenserwartung bei gleichzeitig verminderten Gesamtkosten

  12. Remote sensing of the hydrologic history of the eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Blom, R. G.; Paillou, P.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert has never been thoroughly mapped in terms of the landforms and subsurface signs of past climates conducive to human occupation. As part of ongoing work and through a new proposal to NASA, we are generating new maps of the paleohydrology, topography, geomorphology, and surficial deposits of the area and developing GIS-based models which use the data to pinpoint past resources and travel pathways. The maps we are generating will constitute a unique resource for exploration for water and archeological sites in the Gilf Kebir and other regions of NE Africa. That the Sahara was favorable for human habitation at times has long been known. With the remarkable paleo-landscape revealed by the L-band (25 cm) Shuttle Imaging Radar-A in 1981, it became clear that ancient humans concentrated along integrated drainage systems dubbed “radar rivers” by McCauley and colleagues. However SIR-A and subsequent long-wavelength radar coverage was limited and regional understanding of the drainage network has remained elusive. We are mapping the area with three sensors optimized for mapping and characterizing arid regions: The Japanese PALSAR L-band imaging radar, NASA’s SRTM, and ASTER. Together these sensors provide full coverage of the area allowing characterization and mapping of surface and subsurface landforms formed and modified by former wetter climates. In particular and following the work of Ghoneim, Robinson, El Baz and others, we are mapping the regional drainage network revealed by the radar images and applying modern analysis tools to the drainage basins and channels. These include drainage density, channel gradient vs. distance, and longitudinal and cross-channel topographic profiles. We use these quantities to estimate a stream’s past approach to equilibrium and this to infer balances between climate, tectonic uplift, and other changes in base level. Discovery over the last few years of large paleolakes (e.g. Mega Lake Chad, North Darfur

  13. Discernible rhythm in the spatio/temporal distributions of transatlantic dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2011-08-01

    −1, and 1300 km in total. These rates of northward advance and southern retreat of the dust transport route are in accordance with the simultaneous shift of the Inter Tropical Front.

    Based on cross-correlation analyses, we attribute the observed rhythm to the contrast between the northwestern and southern Saharan dust source spatial distributions. Despite the vast difference in areas, the Bodélé Depression, located in Chad, appears to modulate transatlantic dust patterns about half the time. The proposed partition captures the essence of transatlantic dust climatology and may, therefore, supply a natural temporal framework for dust analysis via models and observations.

  14. 2009-2013年脊髓灰质炎疫情分析%Analysis of the world polio cases from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩辉; 谭克为; 宋亚京; 徐宝梁; 左锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨目前脊髓灰质炎在世界范围内的影响及我国口岸防控脊髓灰质炎疫情的措施。方法收集整理世界卫生组织(WHO)网站内的脊髓灰质炎的相关信息,并对2009-2013年之间脊髓灰质炎疫情进行流行病学统计与分析。结果根据 WHO 所统计的脊髓灰质炎的发病数据,该病的发病情况在近几年得到了有效的控制,但是目前还在尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、阿富汗、索马里和乍得等国持续流行。结论由于我国与持续流行脊灰的国家接壤,并且海外劳务输出和进口贸易的规模逐年增大,导致脊髓灰质炎病毒传入我国的风险较高,加强相关的检疫和监测工作至关重要。%Objective This article observes the world epidemic situation from 2009 to 2013 of poliomyelitis,and explores the present influence of it and the relevant prevention and control measures at frontier ports.Methods This article collects the data and the related situation of the outbreak of poliomyelitis from WHO website,and then carries out the epidemiological statistics and analysis.Results According to the data from WHO,although the on-set of poliomyelitis has been effectively controlled in recent years,there has been sustained prevalence in Nigeria, Pakistan,Afghanistan,Somalia and Chad.Conclusion Because of the contiguity between China and some coun-tries which have sustained prevalence of poliomyelitis and the increasing scale of overseas labor service export and import trade,the risk of the import of polio virus is comparatively high.In order to maintain the “polio -free sta-tus”,the prevention and monitoring of the polio virus still needs to be strengthen at frontier ports.

  15. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  16. Diatom-inferred salinity and carbonate oxygen isotopes in Holocene waterbodies of the western Sahara and Sahel (Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Françoise

    2002-03-01

    Thirteen Holocene palaeolakes in the western Sahara and Sahel have provided diatom records, with carbonate oxygen isotope profiles available from eight of them. Most of these palaeolakes were groundwater-fed. Lake water chemistry is reconstructed using diatom transfer functions. Lake water salinity and 18O records are assembled with some isotopic and chemical groundwater data to better understand the response of the hydrological systems to climate changes over the past 15,000 yr. Data are in general agreement with climate simulations using coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models which show a mid-Holocene wetting over the whole of northwest Africa, and a rapid drying by 6-4 ka. The lake record also shows that at many sites the major lake infilling lags the end of the Younger Dryas by 1-2 ka. Regional differences also appear in the timing of the lake hydrological optimum: ca. 10.5-8.5 and 7.5-4.5 ka in the northern Sahara, 10-8.5 ka in the Aı̈r-Ténéré, 10-5.7 or 4.5 in the Sahel, and 7.5 ka in Lake Chad. The whole of the Holocene is punctuated by short-term drying events. Changes in water isotopic composition through time are partly explained by changes in rainfall amount and air humidity. During the wet Holocene period however, the very low δ values in the southern Sahara also imply changes in the moisture transport pattern or rainfall mechanisms. Data suggest an apparent decrease in 18O content of precipitation along the monsoon flow, in contrast with modern patterns. Changes in water availability and quality have driven population migrations in and out of the Sahara-Sahel, but relationships between climate and cultures are complex. Short-term dry events might have driven inventive adaptations. In the Sahara, drying at 5-4.5 ka coincides with both the collapse of the classical Neolithic civilization and the settlement of new cultures.

  17. Oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug em pacientes com fibrilação atrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio Eduardo Guérios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A oclusão percutânea do apêndice atrial esquerdo (OAAE surgiu como alternativa à anticoagulação oral (AO para prevenção do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não-valvular (FANV. OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados imediatos e o seguimento clínico de pacientes submetidos a OAAE com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP em um único centro de referência. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes consecutivos com FANV, contra-indicação à AO e escore CHADS2= 2,6±1,2 foram submetidos a OAAE com implante de ACP. Realizou-se seguimento clínico e ecocardiográfico no mínimo 4 meses após o implante. RESULTADOS: Todos os implantes foram guiados apenas por angiografia. O sucesso do procedimento foi de 99% (1 insucesso por tamponamento cardíaco e consequente suspensão da OAAE. Houve 4 complicações maiores (o tamponamento já referido, 2 AVCs transitórios e uma embolização com retirada percutânea da prótese e duas menores (um derrame pericárdico sem tamponamento e uma pequena comunicação interatrial evidenciada no seguimento. Houve 1 óbito hospitalar após 6 dias, não relacionado à intervenção. Todos os outros pacientes receberam alta sem AO. Após seguimento de 25,9 pacientes-ano (69 pacientes não houve AVCs nem embolizações tardias de próteses. O AAE estava completamente ocluído em 97% dos casos. Seis pacientes apresentaram evidência de trombo sobre a prótese, que desapareceram após reinstituição de AO por 3 meses. CONCLUSÃO: OAAE se associa a um alto índice de sucesso, um índice aceitável de complicações e resultados promissores a médio prazo, podendo ser considerada uma alternativa válida à OA na prevenção do AVC em pacientes com FANV.

  18. Trends in oral anticoagulant choice for acute stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Japan: The SAMURAI‐NVAF Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihiro, Shoji; Todo, Kenichi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumi; Furui, Eisuke; Terasaki, Tadashi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takizawa, Shunya; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakashima, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Nagatsuka, K; Minematsu, K; Nakagawara, J; Akiyama, H; Shibazaki, K; Maeda, K; Shibuya, S; Yoshimura, S; Endo, K; Miyagi, T; Osaki, M; Kobayashi, J; Okata, T; Tanaka, E; Sakamoto, Y; Takizawa, H; Takasugi, J; Tokunaga, K; Homma, K; Kinoshita, N; Matsuki, T; Higashida, K; Shiozawa, M; Kanai, H; Uehara, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Large clinical trials are lack of data on non‐vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for acute stroke patients. Aim To evaluate the choice of oral anticoagulants at acute hospital discharge in stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and clarify the underlying characteristics potentially affecting that choice using the multicenter Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk‐factor Assessment and Improvement‐NVAF registry (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01581502). Method The study included 1192 acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (527 women, 77·7 ± 9·9 years old) between September 2011 and March 2014, during which three nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant oral anticoagulants were approved for clinical use. Oral anticoagulant choice at hospital discharge (median 23‐day stay) was assessed. Results Warfarin was chosen for 650 patients, dabigatran for 203, rivaroxaban for 238, and apixaban for 25. Over the three 10‐month observation periods, patients taking warfarin gradually decreased to 46·5% and those taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants increased to 48·0%. As compared with warfarin users, patients taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants included more men, were younger, more frequently had small infarcts, and had lower scores for poststroke CHADS 2, CHA 2 DS 2‐VASc, and HAS‐BLED, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale, and discharge modified Rankin Scale. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were started at a median of four‐days after stroke onset without early intracranial hemorrhage. Patients starting nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants earlier had smaller infarcts and lower scores for the admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale and the discharge modified Rankin Scale than those starting later. Choice of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants was independently associated with 20‐day or

  19. Klinische Ergebnisse mit Dronedaron (Multaq® bei nicht-permanentem Vorhofflimmern - Resultate des DEMETER-Registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürerfellner H

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available iEinleitung:/i Dronedaron (Multaq®, Sanofi wird als Mehrkanalblocker bei nicht-permanentem Vorhofflimmern (VHF eingesetzt und ist in Österreich seit 02/2010 verfügbar. Wir berichten über die klinischen Resultate aus dem prospektiven DEMETER Register (02/2010– 12/2011.iMethoden:/i Sechs österreichische Kliniken schlossen 94 ambulante oder stationäre Patienten in die Studie ein. Einschlusskriterien waren Erstmanifestation von VHF (2,2 %, paroxysmales VHF (72,3 %, persistierendes VHF (24,4 % und lang anhaltend persistierendes VHF (1,1 %. Zur Baseline (BL wurden EKG-Parameter (Rhythmus, Herzfrequenz, PQ, QTC, Nieren- und Leberwerte, NYHA-Stadien, CHADS2- Scores und echokardiographische Parameter (LVEF, linksatrialer Diameter erfasst und nach 3 sowie 6 Monaten zusammen mit einer Einschätzung der Lebensqualität (QoL hinsichtlich VHF re-evaluiert. iResultate:/i 55 % der Patienten konnten die Studie protokollkonform abschließen, 20 % waren nicht auswertbar („Lost-to- Follow-up“ und bei 15 % wurde ein Abbruch dokumentiert. Der Hauptgrund für einen Studienabbruch war rezidivierendes VHF (75 %; proarrhythmogene Effekte oder Todesfälle traten nicht auf. Die Rate an Rehospitalisierungen war gering (8,3 % und auf VHF-Rezidive beschränkt; über einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten konnte keine relevante Progression von Sinusrhythmus (SR in persistierendes VHF beobachtet werden. Die Leberwerte und Nierenwerte blieben im Verlauf stabil, Serumkreatinin stieg pharmakodynamisch erwartungsgemäß signifikant an. Relevante EKG-Veränderungen kamen nicht vor, die NYHA-Stadien nahmen von Visite zu Visite signifikant ab, und bereits ab dem ersten Follow-up (FU1 wurde eine signifikant gebesserte QoL angegeben. iSchlussfolgerungen:/i Unter Beobachtung von Klinik, EKG, Serumkreatinin und Leberwerten zeigte sich Dronedaron bei Patienten mit nicht-permanentem VHF ohne rezente kardiale Dekompensation sicher und nebenwirkungsarm in der Anwendung. Zudem kam es zu einer

  20. Partitioned Waveform Inversion Applied to Eurasia and Northern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bedle, H; Matzel, E; Flanagan, M

    2006-07-27

    model. The model now extends as far east in Africa to cover Chad and Niger, and reaches south to cover Zambia. The model is also stretched eastward to cover the eastern half of India, and northward to cover the southern portion of Scandinavia.

  1. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

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    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the

  2. The burden of malaria in post-emergency refugee sites: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost two-thirds of refugees, internally displaced persons, returnees and other persons affected by humanitarian emergencies live in malaria endemic regions. Malaria remains a significant threat to the health of these populations. Methods Data on malaria incidence and mortality were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2009 from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Health Information System database collected at sites in Burundi, Chad, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Uganda. Data from three countries during 2006 and 2007, and all nine countries from 2008 to 2009, were used to describe trends in malaria incidence and mortality. Monthly counts of malaria morbidity and mortality were aggregated into an annual country rate averaged over the study period. Results An average of 1.18 million refugees resided in 60 refugee sites within nine countries with at least 50 cases of malaria per 1000 refugees during the study period 2008-2009. The highest incidence of malaria was in refugee sites in Tanzania, where the annual incidence of malaria was 399 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugees and 728 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugee children younger than five years. Malaria incidence in children younger than five years of age, based on the sum of confirmed and suspected cases, declined substantially at sites in two countries between 2006 and 2009, but a slight increase was reported at sites within four of seven countries between 2008 and 2009. Annual malaria mortality rates were highest in sites in Sudan (0.9 deaths per 1,000 refugees, Uganda and Tanzania (0.7 deaths per 1000 refugees each. Malaria was the cause of 16% of deaths in refugee children younger than five years of age in all study sites. Conclusions These findings represent one of the most extensive reports on malaria among refugees in post-emergency sites. Despite declines in malaria incidence among refugees in several countries, malaria

  3. Cost-effectiveness of dronedarone and standard of care compared with standard of care alone: US results of an ATHENA lifetime model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds MR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matthew R Reynolds,1 Jonas Nilsson,2 Örjan Åkerborg,2 Mehul Jhaveri,3 Peter Lindgren2,41Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2OptumInsight, Stockholm, Sweden; 3sanofi-aventis Inc, Bridgewater, NJ, USA; 4Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: The first antiarrhythmic drug to demonstrate a reduced rate of cardiovascular hospitalization in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL patients was dronedarone in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in patiENts with Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (ATHENA trial. The potential cost-effectiveness of dronedarone in this patient population has not been reported in a US context. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of dronedarone from a US health care payers’ perspective.Methods and results: ATHENA patient data were applied to a patient-level health state transition model. Probabilities of health state transitions were derived from ATHENA and published data. Associated costs used in the model (2010 values were obtained from published sources when trial data were not available. The base-case model assumed that patients were treated with dronedarone for the duration of ATHENA (mean 21 months and were followed over a lifetime. Cost-effectiveness, from the payers' perspective, was determined using a Monte Carlo microsimulation (1 million fictitious patients. Dronedarone plus standard care provided 0.13 life years gained (LYG, and 0.11 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, over standard care alone; cost/QALY was $19,520 and cost/LYG was $16,930. Compared to lower risk patients, patients at higher risk of stroke (Congestive heart failure, history of Hypertension, Age ≥ 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, and past history of Stroke or transient ischemic attack (CHADS2 scores 3

  4. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  5. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit "Workouts of the Day" (WODs.Materials and methods: Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs "Grace" (30 clean and jerks for time, "Fran" (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions, and "Cindy" (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats, as well as the "CrossFit Total" (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing.Results: Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total (r=-0.88 and -0.65, respectively and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.61 and -0.53, respectively; however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively. There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy.Conclusion: CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training

  6. The project RUSSADE: geoethic education to face environmental problems in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Elena; Semita, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    management and bio and geo-preservation represented by the functions of the protected areas. The theoretical approach of these issues is enhanced by practical experiences and visits to emblematic situations and structures in Niger territory, taking care to contextualize them with the local needs and integrating the experience and skills of partner teachers of Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and Italy). The students work through individual internships (for example internships on bio-digesters) that give rise to a report to be presented at the end of the Master. It is expected to publish the various reports on the appropriate magazines as well as on the websites of CISAO and of the involved universities, to give the best diffusion to the achieved results and to develop the potential applications in the Sahelian countries.

  7. Effects of vitamin D and quercetin, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function in physically active male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten SD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shane D Scholten,1 Igor N Sergeev,2 Qingming Song,3 Chad B Birger41Exercise and Sport Sciences, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Gold Green Farm Corporation, Hammonton, NJ, 4Center for Health Outcomes and Prevention Research, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, USAIntroduction: Vitamin D and the antioxidant quercetin, are promising agents for improving physical performance because of their possible beneficial effects on muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased intakes of vitamin D, quercetin, and their combination on antioxidant status, the steroid hormone regulators of muscle function, and measures of physical performance in apparently healthy male adults engaged in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise training.Methods: A total of 40 adult male participants were randomized to either 4,000 IU vitamin D/d, 1,000 mg/d quercetin, vitamin D plus quercetin, or placebo for 8 weeks. Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, blood markers for antioxidant and vitamin D status, and hormones 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 and testosterone were measured pre- and postsupplementation.Results: At enrollment, 88.6% of participants were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D >50 nmol/L and had normal serum testosterone levels. Supplementation with vitamin D significantly increased serum 25(OHD concentration (by 87.3% in the vitamin D group, P<0.001 and was associated with an increasing trend of testosterone concentration. There were no changes in concentration of 1,25(OH2D3 and markers of antioxidant status associated with vitamin D or quercetin supplementation. No improvements in physical performance measures associated with vitamin D and quercetin supplementation were found.Conclusion: The findings obtained demonstrate that long-term vitamin D and

  8. A net clinical benefit analysis of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nested case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azoulay Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the management of patients treated with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs entails balancing coagulation levels, we evaluated the net clinical benefit of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in a large cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. Methods A population-based cohort study of all patients at least 18 years of age with a first-ever diagnosis of chronic AF during the period 1993–2008 was conducted within the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. A nested case–control analysis was conducted to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage associated with the use of warfarin and aspirin. Cases were matched up to 10 controls on age, sex, and date of cohort entry. The adjusted net clinical benefit of warfarin and aspirin (expressed as the number of strokes prevented per 100 persons per year was calculated by subtracting the ischemic stroke rate (prevented by therapy from the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH rate (increased by therapy. Results The cohort included 70,766 patients newly-diagnosed with chronic AF, of whom 5519 experienced an ischemic stroke and 689 an ICH during follow-up. The adjusted net clinical benefit of warfarin was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.73. However, the benefit was not seen for patients below (0.08, 95%: -0.38, 0.54 and above (−0.49, 95% CI: -1.13, 0.15 therapeutic range. The net clinical benefit of warfarin, apparent after 3 months of continuous use, increased as a function of CHADS2 score. The net clinical benefit was not significant with aspirin (−0.07, 95% CI: -0.22, 0.08, though it was seen in certain subgroups. Conclusions Warfarin provides a net clinical benefit in patients with atrial fibrillation, which is maintained with longer duration of use, particularly when used within therapeutic range. A similar net effect is not as clear with aspirin.

  9. A REVISION OF THE PACHNEPHORUS FROM THE AFROTROPICAL REGION (COLEOPTERA, CHRYSOMELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zoia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Pachnephorus Chevrolat, 1837 from the Afrotropical Region is given and a key to the species is provided. Types of all the previously known taxa have been studied and redescribed; 40 new taxa are described and illustrated: P. achardi n. sp. (Mali, P. aequatorianus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. aethiopicus n. sp. (Etiopia, P. baehri n. sp. (Namibia, P. balyi n. sp. (Angola, P. beharui n. sp. (Etiopia, P. bertiae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. bezdeki n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bracarumvestitus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bryanti n. sp. (Mali, P. burgeoni n. sp. (Natal, P. camerun­ensis n. sp. (Camerun, P. cristiani n. sp. (Namibia, P. crocodilinus n. sp. (Zambia, P. daccordii n. sp. (Yemen, P. danielssoni n. sp. (Sierra Leone, P. danielssoni congoanus n. ssp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. demeyeri n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. episternalis n. sp. (Madagascar, P. fabianae n. sp. (Congo, P. fasciatus occidentalis n. ssp. (Nigeria, P. gardinii n. sp. (Etiopia, P. gerstaeckeri n. sp. (Namibia, P. grobbelaarae n. sp. (South Africa, P. hajeki n. sp. (Madagascar, P. lopatini n. sp. (Senegal, P. malicus n. sp. (Mali, P. maroantsetranus n. sp. (Madagascar, P. medvedevi n. sp. (Zambia, P. mo­seykoi n. sp. (Chad, P. pacificus n. sp. (Central Afr. Rep., P. parentorum n. sp. (Ghana, P. poggii n. sp. (Somalia, P. regalini n. sp. (Zambia, P. rigatoi n. sp. (Kenya, P. sas­sii n. sp. (Guinea Bissau, P. shuteae n. sp. (Rep. South Africa, P. sprecherae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. uhligi n. sp. (Namibia, P. willersi n. sp. (Namibia. The lectoypes of P. conspersus Gerstaecker, 1871, P. senegalensis Achard, 1914, P. latior Pic, 1921 and P. testaceipes Fairmaire, 1880 are designated. A new synonymy (P. costatus Achard, 1914 n. syn. of P. torridus Baly, 1878 and a nomenclatural change (Mecistes lineatus (Pic, 1921 n. comb. for Pachnephorus lineatus Pic, 1921 are proposed; the Lectotypes of M. lineatus and of M. flavipes (Gerstaecker, 1855 are designated.

  10. Influencing factors of compliance to anticoagulation therapy guideline recommendations in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation following discharge from hospital%非瓣膜病心房颤动患者出院处方依从抗凝治疗指南影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娟; 蒋捷; 盛琴慧; 周菁; 丁燕生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of compliance to anticoagulation therapy guideline recommendations in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation following discharge from hospitals. Methods The profiles of patients with atrial fibrillation admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Peking University between 2003 and 2008, including the procedures for assessment of the risk and risk factors of thromboembolism, were reviewed. The 2001 and 2006 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) clinical guidelines were employed to assess the compliance to anticoagulation therapy in patients discharged from the hospital, who were subsequently assigned to compliant and non-compliant group based on their compliance to the treatment. Results A total of 257 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were recruited. Of the 25 (33. 3%) and 114 (67. 1%) cases with documented the procedure for assessment of the risk of thromboembolism in 2003 and 2008, 18 (20. 7%) and 96 (56. 5%) were compliant to the prescription following discharge from the hospital, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed lower odds for prescribing anticoagulation medication based on the guideline recommendations to the elderly patients or those who had high CHADS2 score or missing documentation of risk assessment of thromboembolism. Conclusion Missing documentation of risk assessment procedures of thromboembolism, consistent with aging and history of thromboembolism, has become the major factors contributing to physicians' varying compliance for prescibing anticoagulation therapy based on guideline in patients with atrial fibrillation.%目的 分析非瓣膜病心房颤动住院患者出院是否依从指南根据血栓栓塞危险分层处方使用抗凝药物的影响因素.方法 收集北京大学第一医院2003年和2008年住院心房颤动患者的临床资料,包括心房颤动血栓栓塞相

  11. Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility : Monthly Progress Report : December 1, 2008 - December 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility

    2009-01-12

    Yakima. The tractor needed a new clutch installed and was picked up on the 31st. SHOP BUILDING MAINTENANCE: On the 12th the facility domestic water hydro pneumatic tank and its system malfunctioned. The problem persisted and had to be dealt with multiple times; first it caused the tank to over flow and floods the shop. Wallace Electric was called and after extensive monitoring of the tank, compressor and electrical operations an electrical relay switch was replaced. Weekly cleaning and tool inventory continues to be a priority. The shop is home to our liberation truck along with fish transfer equipment, fish pump and seine nets. ELECTRICAL BUILDING MAINTENANCE: The large generator is located in the electrical building and is checked daily for routine inspections. HATCHERY BUILDING MAINTENANCE: The incubation building is being used to clean and repair isolation buckets, egg incubation baskets and troughs. An experiment involving remote site incubators (RSI's) continued through the month. Chad Stockton, WDFW, records flows and monitors emergence of fry on a daily basis. Chad is working with Steve S. and Curt K. on the RSI's research along with spawning channel fry emergence. RIVERWATER COOLING FACILITY: The one pump in operation in this building is checked daily during our routine inspections, the variable pump is supplying water to the artificial spawning channel. RIVER PUMP STATION MAINTENANCE: All four river pumps are in operation and pumping {approx}13,571 gallons/min to the facility. The building is cleaned monthly and the air burst system is cycled daily during the morning checks. The crew continued weekly changing of the graph paper on the river temperature thermograph throughout the month, continuing this activity as part of the daily checks routine. WELL FIELD MAINTENANCE: Wells No.1 and No.4 were in operation and supplying 1,185 gallons/minute to the facility and incubation building. Weekly test well readings are recorded and sent via fax to CH2MHILL

  12. Perception of anticoagulant treatment for atrial fibrillation in physicians from county-level hospitals%县级医院医生对心房颤动患者抗凝治疗的认知情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长鹰; 胡大一; 王历; 孙艺红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the perception of anticoagulant treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) in physicians from county-level hospitals.Methods Two hundred and ninety two physicians from 9 hospitals of Jiangsu,Henan,Zhejiang,Jiangxi provinces were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey from June to November 2013.A standard questionnaire was used in the survey,which consisted of questions on knowledge,awareness and concerns of physicians regarding the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and administration of warfarin.Results Total 292 questionnaires were returned and 208 of them were finally analyzed.According to the reports of the physicians,the percentage of anticoagulant treatment was 30.0% (10.0%-60.0%) in patients with rheumatic valvular AF,20.0% (10.0%-50.0%) in patients with non-valvular AF and 80.0% (40.0%-100.0%) in those with mechanical heart valve replacement.The most common concerns of prescribing warfarin were worries about the bleeding related to warfarin (74.0%,154),the necessary of monitoring INR (65.4%,136) and advanced age (44.7%,93).A half of physicians (51.0%,106) thought that ECG was the main means for diagnosis of AF and only 28.3% (59) used both ECG and Holter as diagnosis procedure.Among the physicians who reported to use INR for monitoring warfarin administration,62.5% (130) reported a target ranging 2-3 and one third reported a target INR < 2.The proportion of the physicians who were aware of CHADS2 score and CHA2DS2-VASc score was 51.0% (106) and 41.3% (86),but only 15.4% (32) and 6.3% (13) of them knew the correct answer of the risk factors,respectively.Although 34.6% (72) physicians were aware of HAS-BLED score,only 5.3% (11) selected the 9 parameters correctly.68.3% (142) physicians reported that vitamin K is the antidote for warfarin.Conclusion This study reveals the concerns and deficits in perception of anticoagulant treatment for AF patients in physicians of county-level hospitals

  13. Impacts of radiofrequency ablation on quality of life of atrial fibrillation patients with low CHA2 DS2-VASc score%心房颤动射频消融术对低CHA2DS2-VASc评分心房颤动患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白英; 刘念; 白融; 吴嘉慧; 史旭波; 刘心遥; 刘小慧; 杜昕; 董建增

    2016-01-01

    Objective CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are two widely used systems for evaluating the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).The Quality of life (QoL) after a single radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in AF patients with low CHADS2 score has been established.This study was designed to further explore the association between the QoL and AF patients with low CHA2 DS2-VASc score after RFA.Methods We selected 367 AF patients with low CHA2 DS2-VASc score (CHA2 DS2-VASc < 2) from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry (CAFR) between 2011 and 2013.They all completed both baseline and 6-month Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life (AFEQT) questionnaires.Propensity score matching was used to construct a final cohort of 105 patients.They were divided into two groups:RFA group (n =44) and non-RFA group (n =61).Results Baseline clinic characteristics,and each domain and global score of AFEQT were comparable between the two groups.Except for domain of treatment satisfaction in non-RFA group (mean score change from baseline to 6-month:3.55,P =0.13),the other domains in this group (mean score change from baseline to 6-month:symptom,14.66;daily activities,12.56;treatment concern,17.69;global score,14.71,all P < 0.05) and all the domains in RFA group improved greatly within-group comparison (mean score change from baseline to 6-month:symptom,20.42;daily activities,17.1;treatment concern,20.36;global score,18.75;treatment satisfaction,9.66,all P < 0.05).No significant differences were observed in all domains of baseline to 6-month changes between two groups (all P > 0.05).Conclusions No significant changes could be viewed in QoL between RFA and non-RFA AF patients with low CHA2DS2-VASc score,whose baseline AFEQT were balanced,and QoL from baseline to 6-month improves significantly.%目的 探讨单次心房颤动(房颤)射频消融术(RFA)对低CHA2DS2-VASc评分房颤患者的生活质量的影响.方法 从中国房颤注册研究(The Chinese

  14. Application of Mimics three-dimensional imaging in percutaneous left atrial appendage closure with Watchman system%Mimics三维成像在经皮左心耳封堵术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨栋; 徐曌; 张逸群; 罗艳红; 张菊红; 王益钢; Brendan Gunalingam; 张邢炜

    2015-01-01

    目的 使用Mimics三维成像技术重建心房颤动患者左心耳三维结构,初步评估经皮左心耳封堵术(Watchman系统)手术风险,指导封堵器选择及放置.方法 入选2014年5-12月在杭州师范大学附属医院心内科行左心耳封堵术患者10例,年龄40 ~ 85岁的心房颤动患者10例,均不愿长期口服抗凝药物或口服抗凝药物有禁忌证,具有左心耳封堵适应证,且自愿参加本试验.术前行Mimics左心耳三维重建,结合术中经食道超声心动图(TEE)及造影结果,选择Watchman左心耳封堵器尺寸及放置位置,置入封堵器至左心耳颈部.结果 入选心房颤动患者年龄为(66.3±11.9)岁,其中9例为非瓣膜病心房颤动患者,CHADS2-VAS评分(3.2±1.7)分,HAS-BLED评分(2.7±1.6)分;1例为瓣膜病心房颤动患者(曾行二尖瓣成形术,缺乏外科换瓣手术的适应证).10例患者均成功置入Watchman左心耳封堵系统,术后行左心耳造影及TEE均未发现封堵伞处血流渗漏.围手术期及术后1个月随访无出血及栓塞等并发症发生.结论 术前使用Mimics三维成像技术重建心房颤动患者左心耳三维结构,为左心耳封堵术封堵器置入提供重要的参考依据.%Objective The three-dimensional (3D) structure of left atrial appendage (LAA) in atrial fibrillation patients were reconstructed by Mimics 3D imaging system,aiming at guiding for selection of both the size and location of the closure devices and making preliminary risk assessment of LAA closure with Watchman system.Methods Inclusion criteria were:ten voluntary patients with both atrial fibrillation and indication for LAA closure aging from 40 to 85 years old with contraindication for oral anticoagulants or unwillingness to take long-term oral anticoagulation therapy from May to December 2014.3D reconstruction of LAA was preoperatively made by Mimics 3D imaging system.With the Mimics 3D reconstruction model and the results of both transesophageal

  15. 住院心房颤动患者抗凝治疗现状分析%Analysis of present situation of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 邵建屏; 颜楠; 朱华; 罗璨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the problem of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation and obtain evidences for safer anticoagulant therapy in clinical practice.Methods The medical records of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who were hospitalized in Department of Cardiology,Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital from January 1 to August 31,2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.The patients were evaluated after risk stratification of thromboembolism and the risk of hemorrhage by CHADS2-VASc score and HAS-BLED score according to the 2010 ESC Guidelines for Management of Atrial Fibrillation.The main indicators of analysis included the patients' risk stratification of thromboembolism,the score of risk of hemorrhage,the situation of applying anticoagulant,international normalized ratio (INR),hemorrhagic complication,thromboembolic events,and the compliance with medication in patients who received different therapeutic regimen of atrial fibrillation (ventricular rate control and rhythm control).Results A total of 134 patients were enrolled into the study,including 69 male and 67 female with an average age of(67 ± 14)years (20 to 91years).The number of patients whose CHA2DS2-VASc score 0,1,and ≥2 were 11,23,and 100,respectively.The number of patients whose HAS-BELD score ≥3 was 13.The patients who received the ventricular rate control and the rhythm control therapy were 85 and 49,respectively.Among the 85 patients who received the rate control treatment,there were 1,12,72cases whose CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 0,1,and ≥2,respectively.One patient with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 received aspirin.Two,8,and 2 patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score 1 received warfarin,antiplatelet drug (only aspirin,only clopidogrel or both),and did not receive any anticoagulants (one patient had contraindication),respectively.There were 2 patients who received only clopidogrel developed multiple focal cerebral ischemia as shown by head CT examination in the

  16. Fish as a proxy for African paleogeography: results from both extant and fossil taxa and prospects to constrain faunal exchange pathway through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Joordens, Josephine; Dettai, Agnès; Christ, Leemans; Pinton, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    reveal ancient distributions. The further we are going back in time the more they will constitute most of or the whole relevant sample. Our results also suggest that information on the (paleo)ecology of the fish provides useful data notably to qualify the aquatic systems that have prevailed at the time of connection between basins. So, changes in basin geomorphology constrain fish evolution, and thus we are able to reconstruct and date these changes thanks to fish evolution studies. Since it is widely agreed that the identification of corridors and barriers is critical to understand faunal exchange, we are convinced that for each case study, we can identify the fish (either fossil or extant) that will provide a relevant "geomorphological model". To validate this approach, our current project aims to identify the exchange corridor that may have intermittently existed between the Chad and Turkana basins during the last 3 million years [6]. These corridors may have constituted possible pathways for interbasinal exchange of large mammals at a key time period of Australopithecine evolution. We will end our presentation with preliminary results concerning phylogeography of the extant catfish Synodontis schall, one of our three model species. [1] Pinton A., Otero O. in progress - How much do fish distribution depend on drainage system history? the case study of continental Africa. [2] Pinton A., Agnèse J.F., Paugy D., Otero O. 2013 - A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (2013): 1027-1040. [3] Otero O. 2011 - Current knowledge and new assumptions on the evolutionary history of the African lungfish, Protopterus, based on a review of its fossil record. Fish & Fisheries, 2011(12): 235-255. [4] Otero O., Pinton A., Mackaye H.T., Likius A., Vignaud P., Brunet M. 2009 - Fishes and palaeogeography of the African drainage basins

  17. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  18. THE EFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE CONTENT OF SIX FATTY ACIDS OF LIPIDS IN CELL MEMBRANE OF SPIRULINA%低温对钝顶螺旋藻质膜上6种脂肪酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张三润; 杨茜

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the variety of PM fatty acids of the Spirulina platensis (S1)from alkaline lake in Erdos Plateau and its relationship with low temperature resistance under low temperatures stress,and comparing them with that of S.platensis (S2) from Chad Lake in Africa at the same time.Methods:Using two-phase method to purify plasma membrane (PM),gas chromatography method for the determination of fatty acids relative contents of plasma membrane lipid.Results:As temperature is lowered,the total saturated fatty acids in PM of both S1 and S2 show a decreasing trend;while the total unsaturated fatty acids show an increasing tendency.Pamitoleic acid (16∶1)and linolenic acid (18∶3) in S1 increase obviously,while in S2 both reduce significantly ; oleic acid (18∶1) and linoleic acid (18∶2) contents are on the contrary,decreasing in S1 and increasing in S2.Conclusion:Unsaturated fatty acids have the function of regulation under low temperature stress.It is speculated that key fatty acids in S1 PM,which are involved in low temperature resistance,may be pamitoleic acid and linolenic acid,especially the linolenic acid;while those in S2 may be of oleic acid and linoleic acid.S1 is stronger than S2 on anti-low temperature stress.%目的:探讨低温下鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶螺旋藻(S1)质膜脂肪酸的变化及其与抗低温的关系,并与非洲Chad湖钝顶螺旋藻(S2)进行比较.方法:采用两相法提纯质膜,气相色谱法测定质膜类脂脂肪酸相对百分含量.结果:随着温度的降低,S1和S2质膜的总饱和脂肪酸均呈降低的趋势,总不饱和脂肪酸均呈增加的趋势;软脂油酸(16∶1)和亚麻酸(18∶3)的含量在S1中明显增加,在S2中明显减少;而油酸(18∶1)和亚油酸(18∶2)的含量正好相反,在S1中明显减少,S2中明显增加.结论:不饱和脂肪酸在低温逆境中存在调节作用.推测S1质膜中与抗低温有关的关键脂肪酸可能是软脂油酸和亚麻酸;S2

  19. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  20. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  1. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    image processing. Flood-FINDER aims to pre-empt this process and to provide preliminary analyses where no field data is available. In the early 2015, the Flood-FINDER's forecast along the Shire River has been used to guide the rapid mapping activities in Southern Malawi and Northern Mozambique. It proved efficient support providing timely information about the evolution of the flood event over an area lacking of field data. Regarding in-country capacity building, Flood-FINDER allowed UNOSAT to set up in middle 2015 a flood early warning system in Chad along the Chari River basin with the collaboration of Chadian Ministry of hydraulics and livestock. Weekly flood bulletins have been shared with local authorities and UN agencies over the entire rainy season. Finally, an experimental version of the global web alerting platform has been recently developed for supporting the El Nino flood preparedness in the Horn of Africa. Flood-FINDEŔs mission is to support decision makers throughout all the disaster management cycle with flood alerts, modelled scenarios, EO-based impact assessments and with direct support at country level to implement disaster mitigation strategies. The aim for the future is to seek funding for having the global system fully operational using CERN's supercomputing facilities and to establish new in-country projects with local authorities.

  2. 节旋藻藻胆蛋白对果蝇总抗氧化能力和丙二醛的影响%Effects of phycobiliprotein on total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde content in Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王塔娜; 邰丽华; 敖恩宝力格; 张二东; 县红霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore effect of Phycobiliprotein on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde ( MDA) in vivo of Drosophila melanogaster. Methods The two test groups were respectively fed with culture media contained different dose (0. 25% , 0. 50% and 1. 00% ) of PI which was phycobiliprotein of Arthrospira platensis from alkaline lakes in the Ordos Plateau, and P2 which was phycobiliprotein of Arthrospira platensis from Chad lake. Culture media of control group was general culture media. T-AOC and MDA were detected in Drosophila melanogaster. Results T-AOC activity in male Drosophila melanogaster of PI, P2 groups was higher than that of control group ( P < 0. 05 ) and T-AOC in female Drosophila melanogaster was improved in PI, P2 groups, but there was no significant difference between PI, P2 groups and control group. MDA in male and female Drosophila melanogaster in PI, P2 groups were all decreased compared with the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Phycobiliprotein has the effects of enhancing activity of T-AOC in male Drosophila melanogaster and lowering content of MDA in vivo Drosophila melanogaster. There is no difference of effect of phycobiliprotein from different production region on T-AOC and MDA in vivo of Drosophila melanogaster.%目的 研究节旋藻藻胆蛋白对果蝇体内总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.方法 采用鄂尔多斯钝顶节旋藻藻胆蛋白(P1)和Chad湖钝顶节旋藻藻胆蛋白(P2)分别配制0.25%、0.50%和1.00%浓度的含蛋白培养基,以普通培养基为对照组、喂饲果蝇并测定各剂量组果蝇体内T-AOC和MDA含量.结果 P1、P2不同剂量组的雄果蝇T-AOC较对照组均显著提高(P<0.05),雌果蝇T-AOC虽提高,但为达到显著性水平.与对照组相比,P1组雌雄果蝇MDA含量明显降低(P<0.05),P2组雄果蝇MDA含量明显降低(P<0.05).结论 节旋藻藻胆蛋白具有增强雄果蝇T-AOC和降低果蝇体内MDA含量的作用.不

  3. A geoethical approach in higher education: the project RUSSADE in cooperation with Sahelian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semita, Carlo; Ferrero, Elena; Calvo, Angela; Trucchi, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Sahel has been plagued by a continuous process of environment degradation since the droughts of the 70s and 80s. The desertification process has a significant impact also on the natural and artificial water bodies, on the rivers flow and the river ecosystems, damaging human activities. Environmental damage exacerbates inequality by exerting a negative impact on the population, in the meantime, the inequalities of human development amplify also environmental damage. The project "RUSSADE" (Réseau des Universités Sahéliennes pour la Sécurité Alimentaire et la Durabilité Environnement), included in the EuropeAid-ACP-EU Cooperation Programme in higher education (EDULINK II), has the specific objective to enhance higher education systems through the implementation of an interdisciplinary Master. The courses are designed with a geoethical approach in order to integrate Earth and Life Sciences to give the Sahelian students technical, scientific and methodological bases and to develop the skills of managing natural resources and to improve agriculture and food security. The systemic and multidisciplinary approach will involve several fields of knowledge. The programs of the different areas are linked to each other and Italian and Sahelian teachers cooperate together both in the courses planning and in the teaching activities. The partners, three African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of Niger (CRESA - Abdou Moumouni University), Burkina Faso (LERNSE - Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso) and Chad (University Institute of Sciences and Techniques of Abeché), will develop an education project with the main objective to use scientific knowledge to fight hunger and poverty and to promote environmental protection in a sustainable development perspective. The quality of higher education in the management of natural resources in agriculture will improve living conditions of Sahelian people. The Master, planned with innovative connections, includes a field training

  4. EKONOMİK ÖZGÜRLÜKLERDEKİ YAKINSAMANIN HALDANE-HALL YAKLAŞIMI İLE ÖLÇÜMÜ (THE MEASUREMENT OF CONVERGENCE OF ECONOMIC FREEDOMS WITH HALDANE-HALL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merter AKINCI

    2014-04-01

    developing and underdeveloped countries came closer to developed countries in terms of economic freedom is analysed with a new method that is Haldane-Hall Convergence Analysis. The outcomes of Haldane-Hall Convergence Analysis revealed that the economic liberation processes of Argentina, Belarus, Bolivia, Bulgaria, China, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Senegal, Thailand and Turkey converged to developed countries, on the other hand, in Republic of Congo, Ghana, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Moldova, Morocco, Sudan, Swaziland, Vietnam, Yemen, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Uganda, the concept of divergence in terms of economic freedom became a current issue. Keywords: Economic Freedom, Convergence, Haldane-Hall Approach.

  5. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    at the northern margin of CAFB of northern Cameroon: (1) inherited magmatic sources ranging from one group to another at ca 692, 713, 722, 746 and 772 Ma; (2) successive emplacement ages at ca 670-686 Ma (orthogneisses group), ca 661-666 Ma (synchronous emplacement of the Djourdé and Sinassi groups) and ca 644 Ma (emplacement age of eyespots quartz diorite in the Sinassi group); and (3) post-magmatic alteration or metamorphism at ca 600 Ma. Correlations with the neighboring Mayo Kebbi Batholith in southwestern Chad show geochemical and geochronological similarities, demonstrating that the Sinassi and Mayo Kebbi granitoids beyond political boundaries are parts of a unique Sinassi-Mayo Kebbi Batholith witnessing a Neoproterozoic subduction-related continental magmatic arc setting of Andean-type.

  6. Comparison of the clinical features and outcomes in two age-groups of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao XH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xing-Hui Shao,1 Yan-Min Yang,1 Jun Zhu,1 Han Zhang,1 Yao Liu,1 Xin Gao,1 Li-Tian Yu,1 Li-Sheng Liu,1 Li Zhao,2 Peng-Fei Yu,3 Hua Zhang,4 Qing He,5 Xiao-Dan Gu6 1Emergency and Intensive Care Center, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Department of Emergency, Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Cardiology, Pingdu People’s Hospital, Pingdu, 4Department of Emergency, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 5Department of Emergency, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 6Department of Emergency, Sixth People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF disproportionately affects older adults. However, direct comparison of clinical features, medical therapy, and outcomes in AF patients aged 65–74 and ≥75 years is rare. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in these two age-groups of geriatric patients with AF.Materials and methods: A total of 1,336 individuals aged ≥65 years from a Chinese AF registry were assessed in the present study: 570 were in the 65- to 74-year group, and 766 were in the ≥75-year group. Multivariable Cox hazards regression was performed to analyze the major adverse cardiac events (MACEs between groups.Results: In our population, the older group were more likely to have coronary artery disease, hypertension, previous stroke, cognitive disorder, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the 65- to 74-year group were more likely to have valvular heart disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or sleep apnea. The older patients had 1.2-fold higher mean CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, stroke scores, but less ­probability of being prescribed drugs. Compared with those aged 65–74 years, the older group had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio 2

  7. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    fraction that arrives at another continent [2]. At the deposition end of the chain, it is still unclear how the limited minerals in the dust such as iron are released for uptake by organisms either on land or in the ocean. Not all dust deposited into oceans results in a phytoplankton bloom. The process requires a chemical pathway that mobilizes a fraction of the iron into soluble form. Meskhidze et al [3] show that phytoplankton blooms following dust transport from the Gobi desert in Asia into the Pacific ocean result in a phytoplankton bloom only if the dust is accompanied by high initial SO2-to-dust ratios, suggesting that sulfuric acid coatings on the dust particle mobilize the embedded iron in the dust for phytoplankton uptake. Quantifying transport, deposition and nutrient availability are the latter ends of a puzzle that must begin by identifying and quantifying dust emission at the sources. The emission process is complex at the microscale requiring the right conditions for saltation and bombardment, which makes identification and inclusion of sources in global transport models very difficult. The result is that estimates of annual global dust emissions range from 1000 to 3000 Tg per year [4]. Even as global estimates of dust emissions are uncertain, localizing the sources brings even greater uncertainty. It has been recognized for several years that dust sources are not uniformly distributed over the arid regions of the Earth, but are regulated to topographic lows associated with dried lake deposits [5]. Using aerosol information from satellites, a comprehensive map of the world's source regions shows sources localized to specific areas of the Earth's arid regions [6]. Still these maps suggest broad emission sources covering several degrees of latitude and longitude. In the paper by Koren and co-authors [7] appearing in this issue, one particular dust source, the Bodélé depression in Chad, is analyzed in detail. They find that the specific topography of the

  8. Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sally C.; Gallagher, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    List of contributors; Foreword J. T. Francis Thackeray; 1. African genesis: an evolving paradigm Sally C. Reynolds; 2. Academic genealogy Peter Ungar and Phillip V. Tobias; Part I. In Search of Origins: Evolutionary Theory, New Species, and Paths into the Past: 3. Speciation in hominin evolution Colin Groves; 4. Searching for a new paradigm for hominid origins in Chad (Central Africa) Michel Brunet; 5. From hominoid arboreality to hominid bipedalism Brigitte Senut; 6. Orrorin and the African ape/hominid dichotomy Martin Pickford; 7. A brief history and results of 40 years of Sterkfontein excavations Ronald J. Clarke; Part II. Hominin Morphology Through Time: Brains, Bodies and Teeth: 8. Hominin brain evolution, 1925-2011: an emerging overview Dean Falk; 9. The issue of brain reorganisation in Australopithecus and early hominids: Dart had it right Ralph L. Holloway; 10. The mass of the human brain: is it a spandrel? Paul R. Manger, Jason Hemingway, Muhammad Spocter and Andrew Gallagher; 11. Origin and diversity of early hominin bipedalism Henry M. McHenry; 12. Forelimb adaptations in Australopithecus afarensis Michelle S. M. Drapeau; 13. Hominin proximal femur morphology from the Tugen Hills to Flores Brian G. Richmond and William L. Jungers; 14. Daily rates of dentine formation and root extension rates in Paranthropus boisei, KNM-ER 1817, from Koobi Fora, Kenya M. Christopher Dean; 15. On the evolutionary development of early hominid molar teeth and the Gondolin Paranthropus molar Kevin L. Kuykendall; 16. Digital South African fossils: morphological studies using reference-based reconstruction and electronic preparation Gerhard W. Weber, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Philipp Mitteroecker and Fred L. Bookstein; Part III. Modern Human Origins: Patterns, and Processes: 17. Body size in African Middle Pleistocene Homo Steven E. Churchill, Lee R. Berger, Adam Hartstone-Rose and Headman Zondo; 18. The African origin of recent humanity Milford H. Wolpoff and Sang-Hee Lee

  9. Light adaptability of tow strains of Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis%两族群钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis光强适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌岩; 高锦; 王林和

    2011-01-01

    螺旋藻光强适应性与其族群、培养时间等条件相关。为了探明分布在鄂尔多斯高原沙区碱湖的钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina(Arthrospra)platensis的光强适应性,采用比色法、生物量法实地、长期观测了其光强适应性,并与乍得湖引进的钝顶螺旋藻进行了比较。结果表明:24℃、连续7天荧光灯的照射下,国内族群的光补偿点约为0.58μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光饱和点约为82.1μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光抑制点约为129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光分解点为230μmol·m^-2·s^-1。129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1的连续光能够使两族群的很多藻丝体完全压紧。超过230μmol·m^-2·s^-1使国内族群以多个藻丝体纠结成团的方式避免高光强;而引进族群的藻丝体则不能。无论是液相或是固相螺旋藻都能够被光分解。两族群的藻丝体都需要暗的修复期。藻丝体有趋光性。%Light adaptability of Spirulina has relationship with its strains,cultural time and etc..The Spirulina that came from Erdos Plateau sand area's alkaline lakes was tested by the methods of color comparison,production,observation at the lake and lab for long time to study it's light adaptability,and the Spirulina came from Chad lake was use to compare with the strain.The results indicated that the native strain of Spirulina 's compensation point of light is 0.58μmol·m^-2s^-1,sturation of light is 82.1 μmol·m^-2s^-1,stress point of light is 129.6μmol·m-2s-1,decomposing point of light is 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 for the single alga.The native strain can make a ball in several algae to escape from strong light.But the intruduced strain can't do in this way and it can be decomposed on 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 continuous light when OD560 is 0.06.The continuous 129.6μmol·m^-2s^-1 light make many algae no helix space for both strains.Spirulina can be decomposed by light wathever in liquid or on soild.The both strains are much more healthy under the rhythm with light and dark than the

  10. A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Liousse, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Rather surprisingly, urban atmospheric particulate levels in West Africa compare with measured concentrations in Europe and Asia megacities (Liousse, C., Galy-Lacaux, C., Assamoi, E.-M., Ndiaye, A., Diop, B., Cachier, H., Doumbia, T., Gueye, P., Yoboue, V., Lacaux, J.-P., Guinot, B., Guillaume, B., Rosset, R., Castera, P., Gardrat, E., Zouiten, C., Jambert, C., Diouf, A., Koita, O., Baeza, A., Annesi-Maesano, I., Didier, A., Audry, S., Konare, A., 2009. Integrated Focus on West African Cities (Cotonou, Bamako, Dakar, Ouagadougou, Abidjan, Niamey): Emissions, Air Quality and Health Impacts of Gases and Aerosols. Third International AMMA Conference on Predictability of the West African Moosoon Weather, Climate and Impacts. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. July 20-24). This pollution mainly derives from road traffic emissions with, in some capitals (e.g. Cotonou), the strong contribution of two-wheel vehicles. Two key questions arise: are presently available emission inventories (e.g. Junker, C., Liousse, C., 2008. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997. Atmospheric Chemistry Physics, 8, 1-13; Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J.H., Klimont, Z., 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1009, D14203, DOI:10.1029/2003JD003697) able to account for these emissions? And, if not, how can we remedy this? The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate emissions produced by two-wheel vehicles in West Africa for 2002 in a context where reliable information is hardly available. Fuel consumption ratios between two-wheel engines (in this work) and all vehicles issued from UN database ( http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=EDATA&f=cmID%3aMO%3btrID%3a1221) are as high as 169%, 264% and 628%, for Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad respectively, indicating that this global

  11. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    of a palaeotopography previously invoked as the primary driver for this anoxia is allied to a complex configuration of palaeo-ice stream pathways, "underfilled" tunnel valley incisions, glaciotectonic deformation structures and re-activation of older crustal structures during rebound. A putative link with the development of Silurian glaciation in northern Chad is suggested. Silurian glaciation appears to have been restricted to the southern Al Kufrah Basin in the eastern part of North Africa, and was associated with the deposition of boulder beds. Equivalent deposits are lacking in shallow marine deposits in neighbouring outcrop belts. Evidence for Carboniferous-Permian glaciation is tentative in the eastern Sahara (SW Egypt) but well established on the Arabian Peninsula in Oman and more recently in Saudi Arabia. Pennsylvanian-Sakmarian times saw repeated glaciation-deglaciation cycles affecting the region, over a timeframe of about 20 Myr. Repeated phases of deglaciation produced a complex stratigraphy consisting, in part, of structureless sandstone intervals up to 50 m thick. Some of these sandstone intervals are major hydrocarbon intervals in the Omani salt basins. Whilst studies of the Hirnantian glaciation can provide lessons on the causes of large-scale variability within Carboniferous-Permian glaciogenic reservoirs, additional factors also influenced their geometry. These include the effects of topography produced during Hercynian orogenesis and the mobilisation and dissolution of the Precambrian Ara Salt. Deglacial or interglacial lacustrine shale, with abundant palynomorphs, is also important. Whilst both Cryogenian intervals and the Hirnantian-Rhuddanian deglaciation resulted in the deposition of glaciomarine deposits, Carboniferous-Permian deglaciation likely occurred within a lacustrine setting. Hence, compared to shales of other glacial epochs, the source rock potential of Carboniferous-Permian deglacial deposits is minimal.

  12. Damage of Plasma Membranes of Arthrospira under Low Temperature Stress%低温胁迫对节旋藻质膜的伤害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀华; 袁淑珍; 栗淑媛; 乔辰

    2011-01-01

    低温胁迫下,对鄂尔多斯高原碱湖的钝顶节旋藻(A1)、非洲Chad湖的钝顶节旋藻(A2)和墨西哥Texcoco湖的极大节旋藻(A3)的质膜伤害进行比较研究,以了解来自中纬度与低纬度不同节旋藻对低温的反应,探讨其对低温的适应性及与原产地的关系.结果表明,无论直接低温处理还是经低温锻炼后再低温处理,随温度的降低3个样品细胞外渗液中可溶性蛋白和游离氨基酸的含量均增加,且胁迫的温度越低、时间越长,细胞外渗液中两种物质的含量也越高.经低温锻炼可减弱低温胁迫对节旋藻质膜的伤害,相比之下,对A1作用更明显.在相同的处理条件下,外渗液中蛋白质和游离氨基酸的含量均是A1<A2<A3,质膜伤害率A1比A2和A3低,特别是在处理温度低、时间长时表现得更为明显.说明A1对低温有较强的适应性.%To explore the responses to low temperature of Arthrospira from middle and low latitude areas,and to analyse the relationship between their adaptability to low temperature and their origin area,the damage of plasma membranes under low temperature was studied in A.platensis (A1) from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau,A.platensis (A2) from Chad Lake and A.maxima (A3) from Texcoco Lake.The results showed that contents of soluble proteins and free amino acid in the liquid of exosmosis increased with decreasing temperature in three Arthrospira,which treated with direct low temperatue or low temperature hardening.The contents of that were higher in a lower temperature and longer time.Low temperature hardening can weaken the damage of low tempera ture to plasma membranes in Arthrospira,especially in A1.In the same conditions,the contents of the soluble proteins and free amino acid in exosmosis liquid were A1 <A2 <A3, these results were obvious especially at lower temperature and under longer time treatment.Therefore,A1 has better adaptability to lower temperature.

  13. Health and sanitary status in 1970 of Tubu nomads dwelling in Northeastern Niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Franois Magnaval; Christian Oosterbosch; Michel Mandl; MABN group

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Tubu are nomadic people who live in remote parts of the central Sahara, primarily in the Tibesti massif (Chad), and in both Northeastern Niger and Southern Libya. All of these areas are close to become conflict zones. However, no data about the Tubu’s health and sanitary status are currently available, which would be of major concern if humanitarian interventions would become required. Methods: In 1970, the “Mission Anthropologique Belge au Niger” (MABN) investigated a Tubu tribe named Broaya that lived at Seguedine and Djado on the northeastern rim of the Tenere desert. One hundred fifty-one adult volunteers answered an oral questionnaire and underwent a medical examination, followed by the collection of blood thin films and samples of urine and stool. The environmental fauna of medical importance was also studied. Results: Albeit 43 year-old, these results have not been previously published. The estimated age of death for fathers was approximately 56 years, and that for mothers was 60 years. On average, each married woman had had 4.7 children. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 232 ‰, the overall infant mortality rate was 153 ‰, and the overall child mortality rate was 99 ‰. The mean height was 164.1 cm and 157.4 cm, the mean weight was 50.1 kg and 47.9kg, and the mean blood pressure was 131/78 mmHg and 127/75 mmHg for males and females, respectively. The physical examination found 6 cases of blindness (4.0%). Five subjects presented with an elevated blood pressure (3.3%), and 5 (3.3%) displayed an abnormal thoracic auscultation evocative of tuberculosis or of an acute lung infection. The abdominal examination and renal palpation found 5 large masses (3.3%), and 2 subjects had a palpable enlarged spleen (1.3%). The blood thin films were fixed in methanol and subsequently examined in Toulouse. The search for blood parasites was negative. The urine samples were centrifuged and then microscopically examined in the field. No blood

  14. The nature and formation of aeolian mineral dust material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Ian; O'hara-Dhand, Ken; McLaren, Sue

    2013-04-01

    Aeolian dust affects climate and records past climates. It has become a much studied material but there has been a certain lack of emphasis on the actual nature of the dust, and an even greater neglect of actual production mechanisms for dust particles. Huge amounts of dust may be raised from the Bodele depression and other parts of North Africa, and much of it may be carried across the North Atlantic to aid in soil formation in Brazil. But what does it consist of? We know that much of the Bodele dust is diatoms from old Lake Chad, but what of the lithological inorganic mineral content? A very crude division of aeolian dust into large dust(say around 20-50um) and small dust (2-5um)has been proposed. Much of the study of loess has been confused by the failure to make this distinction, and similar problems may arise in the study of the finer fractions of aeolian dust. Much aeolian material is clay-mineral based- formed from clay mineral aggregates(CMA), from lake bottom sediments. This can form large dust particles, as in parna in Australia, but also contributes largely to small long travel aerosolic dust. Another major contributor is the quartz fragment. The large dust for classic loess deposits is mostly quartz silt- and there is considerable discussion about the controls that affect quartz silt. There are some interesting modalities in the world of quartz particle sedimentology which need to be examined. Quartz sand (say 200-500um) is the key initiating material and the formation processes for quartz sand have a down-the-line effect on the formation of smaller particles. The central observation is the action of two processes- a eutectic-like reaction in the proto-rock granite which defines the essential nature of sand particles, and the high-low displacive crystallographic transformation which introduces tensile stresses into the quartz particle systems. The limited range of eutectic particle size means a limited range of tensile stresses. A neat combination of

  15. Ablacao de Fibrilacao Atrial por Mapeamento Eletroanatomico: Eficacia e Fatores de Recorrencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A ablação por cateter de radiofrequência guiada por mapeamento eletroanatômico é, atualmente, uma importante opção terapêutica para o tratamento da fibrilação atrial. A complexidade do procedimento, as diferentes técnicas e a diversidade de pacientes dificultam a reprodução dos resultados bem como a indicação do procedimento. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e os fatores relacionados à recorrência de fibrilação atrial. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo com pacientes consecutivos submetidos ao tratamento de fibrilação atrial por ablação e mapeamento eletroanatômico. Foram incluídos os seguintes pacientes: idade acima de 18 anos; portadores de fibrilação atrial paroxística, persistente ou persistente de longa duração; com registro de fibrilação atrial em eletrocardiograma, Holter ou ergometria (duração > 15 minutos; com sintomas associados aos episódios de fibrilação atrial; e apresentando refratariedade a, pelo menos, duas drogas antiarrítmicas (entre elas amiodarona ou impossibilidade do uso de drogas antiarrítmicas. Resultados: Foram incluídos 95 pacientes (idade 55 ± 12 anos, 84% homens, CHADS2 médio = 0,8 que realizaram 102 procedimentos com seguimento mediano de 13,4 meses. A taxa livre de recorrência após o procedimento foi de 75,5% após 12 meses. Os pacientes portadores de fibrilação atrial paroxística e fibrilação atrial persistente apresentaram recorrência de 26,9% versus 45,8% dos pacientes portadores de fibrilação atrial persistente de longa duração (p = 0,04. Das variáveis analisadas, o tamanho do átrio esquerdo demonstrou ser preditor independente de recorrência de fibrilação atrial após o procedimento (HR = 2,58, IC95% = 1,36-4,89. Houve complicações em 4,9% dos procedimentos. Conclusão: A ablação de fibrilação atrial guiada por mapeamento eletroanatômico demonstrou ser um procedimento com boa eficácia. O aumento do tamanho do átrio esquerdo foi

  16. “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concepto, métodos y características de una cohorte de donantes de sangre en Bucaramanga, Colombia / “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concept, Methods and Characteristics of a Cohort of Blood Donors in Bucaramanga, Colombia / "Pesquisa de Saúde Cardiovascular e Colaboração para avaliar os marcadores e os resultados da doença de Chagas" (CHICAMOCHA: conceito, métodos e características de um grupo de doadores de sangue em Bucaramanga, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villar-Centeno, MD., Esp., MSc., PhD.

    2015-07-01

    , métodos y características de una cohorte de donantes de sangre en Bucaramanga, Colombia. MedUNAB 2015; 18 (1: 14-26] Introduction: Geographical and socio-demographic conditions expose Colombian population to the threat of vector-borne diseases (such as Chagas’ [CHAD] and cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origin (CVD. Objective: To assemble a cohort study of young adults, to promote understanding of CHAD and CVD in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methodology: A study of blood donors with serological screening for T.cruzi was designed. A database of consecutive donors with positive results (T[+] was built. This group was compared with a random sample of T[-] individuals (1:4 ratio, within strata of bank and month of donation. Participants classified by serology and electrocardiography status underwent clinical interviews (additional cardiovascular tests to T[+] and a random sample to T[-] were performed. In the following years, T[+] individuals participated in randomized trials whereas those whereas those T[-] participated in repeated measurements to test CVD risk factors. Results: From 6,228 donors in the database (18 to 50 years old registered in the database (1997-2203, 2,130 blood donors (mean age 36.4 (SD 8.4 years, 64% males, 73.4% living in low socioeconomic strata, 486 T[+] agreed to participate. Our contact protocol, and follow-up procedure with participants allowed us to obtain repeatedly measurements of at least 80% of the participants. Conclusions: CHICAMOCHA represents a social asset that builds local research capacity. Continued efforts are required to enhance its potential for research training, scholarly work and health care guidance. [Villar JC, Herrera VM, Cháves-Neira AM, Martínez-Contreras LX, Villar-Centeno LA, Ardila E, Marcell-Vásquez S, Vásquez SM. “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concept, methods and characteristics of a cohort of blood donors

  17. 药物洗脱支架植入术后心房颤动患者抗栓治疗方案疗效对比%Comparison of different antithrombotic regime in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing Drug-Eluting Stent imolantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯仕勇; 许勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the prognosis of different antithrombotic regimen in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF) undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation.Methods We enrolled 549 consecutive patients who had a history of AF or newly diaguosed AF undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation.Among them, 115 patients ( TF group) continued triple antithrombotic therapy including aspirin, clopidogrel and warfarin after discharge ;347 patients( DT group) prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy ;87 patients( WS group) discharged with warfarin and single antiplatelet agent.In patients with warfarin target INR value was set as 1.8 to 2.5 before discharge and ordered regular INR monitoring after discharge.Results Patients with triple antithrombotic therapy had a significant reduction in stroke and major adverse cardiac and cerebral events(MACCE) (7.1% vs 21.5% vs 17.3% ,P <0.01 ) as compared with either DT or WS group.In Cox regression analysis,non-administration with warfarin( hazard ratio[HR]=2.27;95% confidence interval[CI]1.39 to 3.70; P < 0.01 ) and baseline CHADS2 score ≥2 ( HR = 2.49;95% CI: 1.51 to 4.11; P < 0.01 ) were independent predictors of MACCE.Importantly, the incidence of major bleeding was comparable among three groups( 3.6% vs 1.8% vs 2.5% , P > 0.05 ), although there was an increased risk of overall bleeding in TT group.Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated the TT group was associated with the best net clinical outcome.Conclusion Our study confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of triple antithrombotic therapy by reducing MACCE rate,and suggested the major bleeding rate was comparable with other treatment options despite an increased minor bleeding risk.%目的 对比不同抗栓治疗方案在接受药物洗脱支架(DES)植入的冠心病伴心房颤动患者中的作用.方法 连续入选接受介入治疗置入DES,合并房颤病史或新诊断的房颤患者549名,根据患者出院后不同抗栓治疗方案分为三组:三联抗栓

  18. 老年心房纤颤患者不同抗栓治疗方案的临床观察%Clinical observation on different antithrombotic therapy schemes in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任振芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察老年心房纤颤(房颤)患者使用口服抗凝药进行抗栓治疗的临床效果.方法 选择2010-2011年年龄大于75岁持续性房颤患者232例.依据CHA2DS2系统评分大于2分栓塞风险较高,建议口服抗凝药抗栓治疗,HAS-BLED评分系统大于3分相对出血风险较高,需综合评估风险与收益选择治疗方案.根据不同的抗栓治疗方案将所有病例(232例)随机分为华法林组(95例)、阿司匹林组(103例)与氯吡格雷组(39例).记录所有患者基本临床资料(性别、年龄、高血压病史、糖尿病史、卒中史、冠心病史等),观察各组间基本资料分布情况和口服药物6个月内定期随访患者不良事件的发生情况.结果 在华法林组有高血压59例(62.1%),阿司匹林组75例(72.8%),高于氯吡格雷组7例(20.6%),经比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);其他基本临床资料3组间差异无统计学意义.华法林组CHAD2S2-VASc评分明显高于阿司匹林组和氯吡格雷组,差异有统计学意义(4.2±1.1 vs3.9±0.9,3.6±0.7,P<0.05);栓塞发生率氯吡格雷组4例(11.8)、阿司匹林组9例(8.7),与华法林组1例(1.1%)比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).3组间HAS-BLE评分、轻微出血、大出血比较,差异无统计学意义.3组均无死亡病例.结论 对于栓塞及出血风险均相对较高的老年房颤患者,使用口服抗凝药将国际标准化比值(INR)控制在2.0 ~3.0之间可明显降低栓塞发生率,并未明显增加出血风险.%[Objective] To observe the clinical effect of oral anticoagulant in elderly patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. [Methods]232 persistent atrial fibrillation patients over 75 years old were collected from 2010-2011. Patients were evaluated according to CHA 2DS 2 score and HAS-BLED score. CHA 2DS 2 score of more than 2 indicated that there was high risk of emboliza-tion, and should be treated with oral anticoagulant. HAS-BLED score of more than 3

  19. Blocks of Archean material in the structure of the Uralian Platinum Belt: insights from in situ U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) data on zircon from the Nizhny Tagil clinopyroxenite-dunite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitch, K. N.; Efimov, A. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.

    2009-04-01

    of hot tectonic dunite-pyroxenite-tylaite mixture (so called "hot mélange"). The depleted mantle component of studied dunite is confirmed by Nd-isotope signature (143Nd/144Nd=0.514128±0.000037, ID-TIMS). It is noteworthy, that similar U-Pb data (2744±9 Ma) are typical of zircon from dunite of the world's largest Guli clinopyroxenite-dunite massif in the northern periphery of the Siberian Craton (Malitch et al. 2002). Frequently the UPB has been considered as a chain of in-situ gabbroic intrusions, where dunite is assumed to represent a cumulate of gabbroic magma. Contrary opinion considers the UPB as a complex tectonically integrated structural unit, which comprise distinct in origin formations (e.g., mantle residual material, products of its abyssal transformation, crystalline metabasites of problematic nature, material of abyssal crystallization of tholeitic magma, products of prograde metamorphism of volcanic crust and later granitoids). In this view, the dunite is accepted as mantle residue with no genetic link to gabbro. Previous detailed structural, petrographic and geochemical studies confirmed that Uralian-type ultramafic complexes have indistinguishable features with circular Aldan-type clinopyroxenite-dunite massifs (e.g. Kondyor, Chad, etc.), which intruded in ductile-plastic state as mantle diapirs into the Archean crystalline basement of the Siberian Craton and its Riphean cover (Malitch 1999). Compositional identity of dunites in Uralian- and Aldan-type complexes allowed (Efimov, Tavrin 1978) to propose their genetic unity. This implies that Uralian-type dunite bodies can be also considered as mantle rocks. It is less clear, however, how this ancient subcontinental mantle material has been integrated into structure of elongated tectonic belts, developed at convergent plate margins (Urals, Koryakia, Alaska, etc.). References: Auge, T. et al. (2005) Economic Geology 100, 707-732. Bea, F. et al. (2001) Terra Nova 13, 407-412. Efimov, A.A. (1998) In: 8th

  20. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    scientific division of NCAR (Roberts made it a requirement if he was to be NCAR Director). He chose John to be the new HAO Director. John was 33 then; his leadership potential was recognized very early. While Director of HAO, John presided over a very active scientific program that focused on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, radiative transfer, plasma physics, coronal spectroscopy, geomagnetism, physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere, and solar activity. Prominent scientists such as Jack Evans, Sydney Chapman, Gene Parker, Leo Goldberg and Donald Menzel visited to share their insights and enthusiasm with the HAO staff. John was also an active participant in HAO's well-known solar eclipse expeditions, traveling to New Guinea and to Lake Chad in Africa. Late in his tenure as HAO Director, he took the lead in helping to improve the involvement of the AAS in solar physics, and solar physicists in the AAS. Having led the AAS committee that planned its birth, he was the founding chair of the new Solar Physics Division. Much less importantly, he gave me a summer position in 1966 when I was joining the faculty at CU--that is when I first met John. In 1968, John became the Director of NCAR when Walter Roberts decided to split the directorship from the Presidency of UCAR. As NCAR Director, John had responsibility for a vastly broadened program compared to his HAO days. NCAR, the largest NSF supported research center, conducted research covering all of atmospheric sciences, as well as oceanography and solar-terrestrial physics. It also provided major observational and computational facilities to the atmospheric sciences community. John showed very quickly he understood and could guide all of it. I came to know John best during this period, because in 1971 he chose me to head the Advanced Study Program, which supported (and still supports) postdoctoral and graduate education. In that time, budgets were good, and NCAR was a relatively collegial, informal place. But in December 1973, that

  1. Limits to the availability of groundwater in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, W. Mike

    2012-06-01

    over much of Africa, therefore, is favourable to rural rather than urban development. One of the real opportunities presented in the paper is that groundwater should be more widely used for a revolution in rural development. To this end, the use of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), coupled with other forms of rainwater harvesting, can also locally conserve and augment groundwater resources and offer obvious advantages over building surface water storage. The large sedimentary aquifers of Africa contain some 0.66 million km3 in storage (MacDonald et al 2012); but most of this water (0.44 M km3) is contained beneath eight Saharan countries (see table 1, MacDonald et al 2012). This includes the Nubian Sandstone aquifer system, underlying Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad. In Libya this immense high yielding aquifer may be over 2.5 km thick (Pallas 1980) but considerable depths to the water table make for costly development. Water in Libya is currently being extracted (mined) from remote inland areas for transmission to the coast, from wells typically 300-500 m deep with estimated well-field lifetimes unlikely to exceed 50 years (Pallas and Salem 2001). This and the other Saharan aquifers are accessible only to a very small fraction of the African population. Groundwater extraction and transmission is possible only with the energy provided from the proximity of fossil fuels; large water transfer schemes are energy intensive and for most areas of Africa not an economic option, having also social and ecological consequences (Matete and Hassan 2005). Moreover a steady decline in water tables (typically from 0.5 to 2 m yr) has been taking place widely in semi-arid areas globally, mostly due to abstraction exceeding recharge, with consequences for both human requirements and ecosystems. Thus a major limiting factor is the need to identify whether the stored groundwater is a renewable or a non-renewable resource. In the case of deep basins such as the Saharan aquifers this water can be

  2. 5th National Congress of the Italian Society of Physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Aina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents S1 Criteria for exercises selection in subjects with low back pain Alessandro Aina S2 Recent advances in pathophysiology and treatment of myofascial trigger points Marco Barbero S3 Rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesia Barbara Cagnie S4 Musculoskeletal rehabilitation in subjects affected by neurological disorders Elena Castelli S5 Which examination tests suggest the best candidates for manual therapy Chad Cook S6 Case study: the role of the measurements for the identification of targets and guidance of the treatment Silvano Ferrari S7 Assessment of joint mobility: state of the art Andrea Foglia, Paolo Bizzarri S8 Core stabilization exercises in the treatment of urinary incontinence Donatella Giraudo S9 Preventing surgical subacromial decompression through rotator cuff rehabilitation Chris Littlewood S10 Methodological aspects of Clinical Prediction Rules in the rehabilitation of Low Back Pain Paolo Pillastrini S11 Interpretability of outcome measures in musculoskeletal rehabilitation Daniele Piscitelli S12 Conservative treatment of the misalignment of the spine: state of the art and perspectives Michele Romano S13 Balance training in subjects with musculoskeletal disorders Andrea Tettamanti S14 Dosage of manual therapy: principles for clinical practice Carla Vanti S15 Are there speed limits in post-surgery lower limb rehabilitation? Stefano Vercelli S16 Classification of predominant neuropathic, nociceptive or central sensation pain Lennard Voogt P1 A wearable proprioceptive stabilizer (Equistasi® for rehabilitation of balance disorders in multiple sclerosis patients: preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, versus placebo controlled study Aceto Maria, Spina Emanuele, Paone Paolo, Silvestre Francesco, Carotenuto Antonio, Cerillo Ilaria, Orefice Giuseppe P2 Effect of repeated neck retraction movements on strength and EMG activity of the upper limbs, range of motion and cervical posture Bassi Raffaele, Fiorito Serena

  3. Descriptive Metaphysics, Natural Language Metaphysics, Sapir-Whorf, and All That Stuff: Evidence from the Mass-Count Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jeffry Pelletier

    2010-12-01

    Institute of Generative Linguistics. Chapter 2: “Mass and Count Properties of Nouns and Verbs”.Dölling, Johannes. 1993. ‘Commonsense Ontology and Semantics of Natural Language’. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 46: 133–141.Durst, Uwe. 2003. ‘The Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach to Linguistic Meaning’. Theoretical Linguistics 29: 157–200.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/thli.29.3.157Goddard, Cliff. 1994. ‘Semantic Theory and Semantic Universals’. In ‘Semantic and Lexical Universals’, 7–29. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.Goddard, Cliff. 1998. Semantic Analysis: A Practical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford UP.Goddard, Cliff. 2002. ‘The Search for the Shared Semantic Core of All Languages’. In Goddard & Wierzbicka (2002, volume 1, pp. 5–40.Goddard, Cliff. 2009. ‘A Piece of Cheese, A Grain of Sand: The Semantics of Mass Nouns and Unitizers’. In Francis Jeffry Pelletier (ed. ‘Kinds, Things and Stuff’, 132–165. New York: Oxford UP.Goddard, Cliff & Wierzbicka, Anna. 2002. Meaning and Universal Grammar: Theory and Empirical Findings, Vols 1 & 2. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Hansen, Chad. 1976. ‘Mass Nouns and ‘A White Horse Is Not a Horse”. Philosophy East and West 26: 189–209.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1398188Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.Iwasaki, Noriko, Vinson, David & Vigliocco, Gabriella. 2010. ‘Does the Grammatical Count/Mass Distiinction Affect Semantic Representations? Evidence from Experiments in English and Japanese’. Language and Cognitive Processes 25: 189–223.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01690960902978517Katz, Jerrold. 1981. Language and other Abstract Objects. Oxford: Blackwell.Krifka, Manfred. 1995. ‘Common Nouns: A Contrastive Analysis of English and Chinese’. In Gregory Carlson & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (eds. ‘The Generic Book’, 398–411. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Latour. 1987. Science in Action: How to