WorldWideScience

Sample records for chad

  1. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  2. CHAD USER’S GUIDE: Extracting Human Activity Information from CHAD on the PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) User Guide offers a short tutorial about CHAD Access; background on the CHAD Databases; background on individual studies in CHAD; and information about using CHAD data, caveats, known problems, notes, and database design and develop...

  3. Chad; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    The financial stability of Chad is analyzed in this study. Chad's financial system is one of the least developed in the CEMAC region. Chad’s financial system is highly dependent on oil and agriculture, since it is a low-income country. In structuring the financial sector, the soundness and performance, short-term vulnerabilities, and supervision and crisis management of the Chadian banking system have been discussed with an emphasis on insurance and pension plans. In this study, the importa...

  4. The Conspicuous Opening Date of CHAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ "The Opening Date of Chad"-an event organized by the Chadian Embassy to China will be held In Beijing on the 28th and 29th of June.It will take up such forms as meeting for discussions and site touring ect.,with the purpose of facilitating the mutual undestanding between Chad and China as well as boosting the international exchanges between the two countries in the area of culture,economy and trade.

  5. A climate trend analysis of Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Adoum, Alkhalil; Eilerts, Gary; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies significant decreases in rainfall and increases in air temperature across Chad, especially in the eastern part of the country. These analyses are based on quality-controlled station observations. Conclusions:* Summer rains have decreased in eastern Chad during the past 20 years. * Temperatures have increased by 0.8 °Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * Crop yields are very low and stagnant. * The amount of farmland per person is low, and decliningrapidly.* Population growth combined with stagnating yieldscould lead to a 30 percent reduction in per capita cereal production by 2025.* In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, indicating some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood.

  6. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Austin G Davis-Richardson; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that t...

  7. The precipitation response to the desiccation of Lake Chad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauwaet D.; VanWeverberg K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M., Weverberg, K. V., Ridderb, K. D., and Goyens, C.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the semi-arid African Sahel, Lake Chad has shrunk from a surface area of 25000 km2 in 1960 to about 1350 km2 due to a series of droughts and anthropogenic influences. The disappearance of such a large open-water body can be expected to have a noticeable effect on the meteorology in the surroundings of the lake. The impact could extend even further to the west as westward propagating convective systems pass Lake Chad in the rainfall season. This study examines the sensitivity of the regional hydrology and convective processes to the desiccation of the lake using a regional atmospheric model. Three Lake Chad scenarios are applied reflecting the situation in 1960, the current situation and a potential future scenario in which the lake and the surrounding wetlands have disappeared. The model simulations span the months July-September in 2006, which includes the rainfall season in the Lake Chad area. Total precipitation amounts and the components of the hydrological cycle are found to be hardly affected by the existence of the lake. A filled Lake Chad does, however, increase the precipitation at the east side of the lake. The model results indicate that the boundary layer moisture and temperature are significantly altered downwind of the lake. By investigating a mesoscale convective system (MCS) case, this is found to affect the development and progress of the system. At first, the MCS is intensified by the more unstable boundary layer air but the persistence of the system is altered as the cold pool propagation becomes less effective. The proposed mechanism is able to explain the differences in the rainfall patterns nearby Lake Chad between the scenarios. This highlights the local sensitivity to the desiccation of Lake Chad whereas the large-scale atmospheric processes are not affected.

  8. Application of CHAD hydrodynamics to shock-wave problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trease, H.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Sahota, M.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    CHAD is the latest in a sequence of continually evolving computer codes written to effectively utilize massively parallel computer architectures and the latest grid generators for unstructured meshes. Its applications range from automotive design issues such as in-cylinder and manifold flows of internal combustion engines, vehicle aerodynamics, underhood cooling and passenger compartment heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to shock hydrodynamics and materials modeling. CHAD solves the full unsteady Navier-Stoke equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model in three space dimensions. The code has four major features that distinguish it from the earlier KIVA code, also developed at Los Alamos. First, it is based on a node-centered, finite-volume method in which, like finite element methods, all fluid variables are located at computational nodes. The computational mesh efficiently and accurately handles all element shapes ranging from tetrahedra to hexahedra. Second, it is written in standard Fortran 90 and relies on automatic domain decomposition and a universal communication library written in standard C and MPI for unstructured grids to effectively exploit distributed-memory parallel architectures. Thus the code is fully portable to a variety of computing platforms such as uniprocessor workstations, symmetric multiprocessors, clusters of workstations, and massively parallel platforms. Third, CHAD utilizes a variable explicit/implicit upwind method for convection that improves computational efficiency in flows that have large velocity Courant number variations due to velocity of mesh size variations. Fourth, CHAD is designed to also simulate shock hydrodynamics involving multimaterial anisotropic behavior under high shear. The authors will discuss CHAD capabilities and show several sample calculations showing the strengths and weaknesses of CHAD.

  9. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Chad Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Babacar

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Chad and its partners in development have adopted a 10-year strategy called Education and Training...

  10. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own. PMID:23876051

  11. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  12. Public investment to reverse Dutch disease: the case of Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    "This paper studies the relevance of agricultural policies for avoiding Dutch Disease, which affects many less developed countries experiencing a resource boom. Using a computable general equilibrium model calibrated for Chad, we study the impact of using this country's annual oil revenue for public investment, particularly in the development of road and irrigation infrastructure. Our model takes into account the integration of markets and migration processes. We find that improving water acc...

  13. Is Chad Affected by Dutch or Nigerian Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kablan, Sandrine; Loening, Josef

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of the ‘natural resource curse’ on Chad and find little evidence for Dutch disease. Structural vector auto-regression suggests that changes in domestic output and prices are overwhelmingly determined by aggregate demand and supply shocks, and while oil production and high international prices negatively affect agricultural output, the effects are small. Consistent with empirical evidence for neighbouring Cameroon, we observe minimal impact on Chad’s manufacturing sector...

  14. Use of isotope hydrology in the Lake Chad basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study relates to precipitations, surface waters (Chari and Logone, secondary tributaries and Lake Chad), isolated evaporation basins and underground waters in the area north-east of Lake Chad. The method is based on isotope trace measurements after evaporation. The oxygen-18 content of rain storms is generally within the range +4% to -12% vs SMOW. The weighted annual means from four stations distributed from the north to the south of the country vary from -7.84 to -5.29%- The mean contribution to the lake is estimated at approximately -5.3%. The variation in the isotopic composition of the Chari and the Logone is specified in relation to the hydrograph reading. The mean contribution of these two rivers to Lake Chad is estimated at δ18O = -3.3% vs SMOW and that of all the tributaries and the rainwaters at -3 4%.; The evaporative nature of Lake Chad is brought out by the variations in the oxygen-18 and deuterium contents of the waters. The enrichment which begins from the Chari delta is mainly a function of the relative humidity and may reach 20% oxygen-18 and 100% deuterium at the extreme end of certain river branches.; The isotopic composition of the aquifers (δ18O = -5% vs SMOW) is evidence of meteoric feeding.. Participation of the lake in the feeding of the aquifers cannot be detected beyond a limited littoral zone. Enrichment due to upward capillary movement of the aquifers in the clay beds of the Kanem evaporation basins reaches +20% oxygen-18 and +54% deuterium at the moment of salt precipitation. These salts are carried by the infiltrating rainwater which has not undergone appreciable evaporation. (author)

  15. Adaptation of the C.H.A.D. computer library to nuclear simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Daniel Thomas

    The Computational Hydrodynamics for Automotive Design computer program, CHAD, is a modern, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code that holds promise for fulfilling a need in the nuclear industry and academia. Because CHAD may be freely distributed to non export controlled countries, it offers a cheap and customizable CFD capability. Several modifications were made to CHAD to make it more usable to those in industry and academia. A first order up-winding scheme for momentum and enthalpy and a reformulated continuity equation were migrated from a historical version of CHAD developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing, PETSc, was also added as an optional solver package for the original and reformulated continuity equations. PETSc's highly optimized parallel solvers can be activated from either CHAD's input file or the command line. Solution times for PETSc based calculations depend in large part on convergence criteria provided, however improvements in CPU time of approximately one-third have been observed. CHAD was further extended by adding a capability to monitor solution progress by specifying a coordinate in space, as well as monitoring the residuals in the problem. The ability to model incompressible fluids was also added to the code. Incompressible fluid comparisons were made using several test cases against the commercial CFD code Fluent and found to agree well. A major limitation of CHAD in the academic environment is a limited mesh generation capability. A tool for CHAD was developed that translates Gambit based neutral mesh files into a CHAD usable format. This tool was used to translate a large mesh representing a simplified cooling jacket of a BWR control rod drive. This model serves as a practical, demonstration application of a nuclear application for CHAD and PETSc. Both CHAD with PETSc and Fluent were used to obtain solutions to this problem. The overall agreement between the two

  16. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-04-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes-Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria-Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria-Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes-Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health. PMID:23254516

  17. Human and animal vaccination delivery to remote nomadic families, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Esther; Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2007-03-01

    Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa's remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time approximately 10% of nomadic children (> 1-11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p < 0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level.

  18. The past history and present trends in the fisheries of Lake Chad

    OpenAIRE

    A. RAJI

    1993-01-01

    Lake Chad is a very large, shallow eutrophic lake shared by Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Cameroun. It supplies approximately 13% of Nigeria's inland fish. It however lies in an unstable ecological environment characterised by intermittent period of rainfall and drought. This creates a very large draw down area. Consequently, the fisheries are affected by the oscillation in the size of lake due to the drought. Other factors affecting the volume of water are the numerous dams on the inflow rivers. ...

  19. CHADS2 Scores in the Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chuang, Tzyy-Ling; Huang, Kung-Yung; Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Vascular events are one of the major causes of death in case of Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, due to the relative low frequency of CS, it is hard to perform a risk assessment for these events. As represented congestive heart failure (C), hypertension (H), age (A), diabetes (D), and stroke (S), the CHADS2 score is now accepted to classify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, participants were enrolled from the National Health Research Institute Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, and we reviewed 551 patients with their sequential clinically diagnosed CS data between 2002 and 2009 in relation to MACEs risk using CHADS2 score. Good correlation could be identified between the CS and CHADS2 score (AUC = 0.795). Our results show that patients with CS show significantly higher risk of vascular events and the CHADS2 score could be applied for MACEs evaluation. Adequate lifestyle modifications and aggressive cardiovascular risks treatment are suggested for CS patients with higher CHADS2 score. PMID:25101124

  20. Efforts to Unravel the Cause of Shrinkage of Lake Chad: Development of Hydrologic Real-time Observatory Network in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Bolten, J. D.; Policelli, F. S.; Djimadoumngar, K. N.; Abdullahi, S. I.; Bila, M. D.; Djoret, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Selker, J. S.; Hochreutener, R.; Annor, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Chad, the fourth largest lake in Africa, is well known as a shrinking lake due to adverse impact of climate change and increased population during drought periods in the 1980s and 1990s. While the shrinkage of the Lake has been studied broadly using remote sensing data, the main cause of shrinkage is still uncertain due to limited availability of ground-truth data. Lack of infrastructure, insecure site conditions, vandalism, and limited site accessibility make it difficult to establish a real-time monitoring network in many parts of Africa including the Lake Chad Basin. For a better understanding of how the Lake responds to the change of weather patterns and other hydrologic processes such as runoff, groundwater flow, and evapotranspiration, a real-time monitoring network is essential in the region. In early 2015, a team from NASA, the Lake Chad Basin Commission, and the University of Missouri - Kansas City set up a hydrologic real-time observatory network in the Chari-Logone catchment, the main feeder of water to the Lake, to monitor meteorological conditions, soil moisture, and groundwater. The TAHMO (Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory) weather stations were adopted to monitor rainfall, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and temperature. The present study shows preliminary analysis of the correlations between meteorological and hydrological parameters from real-time monitoring data in the Chari-Logone catchment. We also discuss the importance of partnership with local government and community involvement for data collection and share for sustainable hydrological research in the Lake Chad Basin.

  1. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  2. Usefulness of a Combination of Interatrial Block and a High CHADS2 Score to Predict New Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Tao; Wang, Shan-Ling; Chu, Ying-Jie; Long, De-Yong; Dong, Jian-Zeng; Fan, Xian-Wei; Yang, Hai-Tao; Duan, Hong-Yan; Yan, Li-Jie; Qian, Peng; Yang, Chao-Kuan

    2016-09-28

    Interatrial block (IAB) is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association of a combination of IAB and the CHADS2 score, an AF-related risk score for ischemic stroke, with new onset AF in patients in sinus rhythm. A total of 1,571 patients (803 males, 768 females; mean age: 58 ± 16 years) were included in this study. IAB was defined as a P-wave duration > 120 ms in the 12-lead electrocardiogram, and a high CHADS2 score as ≥ 2 points. During the mean follow-up period of 4.8 ± 0.7 years, new onset AF occurred in 122 patients (16.1 per 1,000 patient-years). The incidence of new onset AF was 4.0 per 1,000 patient-years in patients with no IAB and a low CHADS2 score, and 44.0 per 1,000 patient-years in patients with IAB and a high CHADS2 score. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio for IAB and a high CHADS2 score compared with no IAB and a low CHADS2 score was 12.18 (95% confidence interval: 6.22-23.87, P heart disease, smoking, medications, and echocardiographic parameters. In conclusion, IAB and a high CHADS2 score independently and synergistically predict new onset AF in patients in sinus rhythm, indicating an approximately 12-fold higher risk in patients with both IAB and a high CHADS2 score. Patients meeting these criteria should have more aggressive early intervention to prevent AF. PMID:27593538

  3. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics, except for appropriate feeding choices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Some of the programmes were intended for national coverage, but we could not confirm whether these programmes were actually implemented nationally. Monitoring and evaluation reports were available for some small-scale programmes, but few of these evaluated whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed and none evaluated whether participants adopted the promoted feeding practices. Establishment of the policy and programme framework has

  4. Petrology of peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites from the SE Lake Chad (northernmost Cameroon Line)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbowou, Gbambié Isaac Bertrand; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Lagmet, Claudial Amane; Ngounouno, Ismaïla

    2015-12-01

    Peraluminous (P.I. 1) rhyolites from SE Lake Chad consisted of quartz, alkali feldspar and oxides-hydroxides phenocrysts, display negative Eu anomaly. F-arfvedsonite, augite-hedenbergite, aegirine and aegirine-augite are present in peralkaline rhyolites. The peralkaline and peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of the SE Lake Chad derive likely from the same source, according to their coexistence on the same volcano (Hadjer Bigli); their similar Zr/Nb, Zr/Hf ratios and their linear trends established in Zr vs Nb, Zr vs Ta and Zr vs Y diagrams, which linked to removal of successive batches of magma from a mantle source or to different degrees of partial melting. These magmas generated from the partial melting model of the underplated mantle, which would have induced the intrusion of crustal materials, triggering the hydrothermal reactions. Although, the high Zr amounts are not related to bulk assimilation of partially melted crustal materials.

  5. The natural hydrous sodium silicates from the northern bank of Lake Chad : occurrence, petrology and genesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sebag, D.; Verrecchia, Eric P.; Lee, Seong-Joo; Durand, A

    2005-01-01

    Hydrous sodium silicates sometimes associated with zeolites, form in an alkaline environment, in which there is a high concentration of dissolved silica. Such an environment existed during the Holocene in N'Guigmi interdunal depressions (Lake Chad), which led to the precipitation of various types of hydrous sodium silicates, including magadiite, kenyaite, and zeolites. Scanning electron and optical microscope observations allow several microstructures to be distinguished. These microstructure...

  6. The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, M; Beauvilain, A; Coppens, Y; Heintz, E; Moutaye, A H; Pilbeam, D

    1995-11-16

    The first sites with Pliocene and Pleistocene mammals west of the Rift Valley in Central Africa in northern Chad were reported in 1959 (ref. 1), and documented the presence of mixed savannah and woodland habitats. Further sites and a probable Homo erectus cranio-facial fragment were subsequently discovered. In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal (classical Arabic for River of the Gazelles) near Koro Toro. One site, KT 12 (15 degrees 58'10"N, 18 degrees 52'46"E) yielded an australopithecine mandible associated with a fauna biochronologically estimated to be 3.0-3.5 Myr old. Australopithecine species described since 1925 are known from southern Africa and from sites spread along the eastern Rift Valley from Tanzania to Ethiopia (Fig. 1). This new find from Chad, which is most similar in morphology to Australopithecus afarensis, documents the presence of an early hominid a considerable distance, 2,500 km, west of the Rift Valley. PMID:7477344

  7. CHADS2 Scores in the Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular events are one of the major causes of death in case of Cushing’s syndrome (CS. However, due to the relative low frequency of CS, it is hard to perform a risk assessment for these events. As represented congestive heart failure (C, hypertension (H, age (A, diabetes (D, and stroke (S, the CHADS2 score is now accepted to classify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, participants were enrolled from the National Health Research Institute Database (NHIRD of Taiwan, and we reviewed 551 patients with their sequential clinically diagnosed CS data between 2002 and 2009 in relation to MACEs risk using CHADS2 score. Good correlation could be identified between the CS and CHADS2 score (AUC=0.795. Our results show that patients with CS show significantly higher risk of vascular events and the CHADS2 score could be applied for MACEs evaluation. Adequate lifestyle modifications and aggressive cardiovascular risks treatment are suggested for CS patients with higher CHADS2 score.

  8. Treating cattle to protect people? Impact of footbath insecticide treatment on tsetse density in Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noël Ndeledje

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Chad, several species of tsetse flies (Genus: Glossina transmit African animal trypanosomoses (AAT, which represents a major obstacle to cattle rearing, and sleeping sickness, which impacts public health. After the failure of past interventions to eradicate tsetse, the government of Chad is now looking for other approaches that integrate cost-effective intervention techniques, which can be applied by the stake holders to control tsetse-transmitted trypanosomoses in a sustainable manner. The present study thus attempted to assess the efficacy of restricted application of insecticides to cattle leg extremities using footbaths for controlling Glossina m. submorsitans, G. tachinoides and G. f. fuscipes in southern Chad. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two sites were included, one close to the historical human African trypanosomiasis (HAT focus of Moundou and the other to the active foci of Bodo and Moissala. At both sites, a treated and an untreated herd were compared. In the treatment sites, cattle were treated on a regular basis using a formulation of deltamethrin 0.005% (67 to 98 cattle were treated in one of the sites and 88 to 102 in the other one. For each herd, tsetse densities were monthly monitored using 7 biconical traps set along the river and beside the cattle pen from February to December 2009. The impact of footbath treatment on tsetse populations was strong (p < 10(-3 with a reduction of 80% in total tsetse catches by the end of the 6-month footbath treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The impact of footbath treatment as a vector control tool within an integrated strategy to manage AAT and HAT is discussed in the framework of the "One Health" concept. Like other techniques based on the treatment of cattle, this technology should be used under controlled conditions, in order to avoid the development of insecticide and acaricide resistance in tsetse and tick populations, respectively.

  9. Megalake Chad impact on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Contoux

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing evidence for megalakes in the geological record, assessing their impact on climate and vegetation is important for the validation of palaeoclimate simulations and therefore the accuracy of model–data comparison in lacustrine environments. Megalake Chad (MLC occurrences are documented not only for the mid-Holocene but also for the Mio-Pliocene (Schuster et al., 2009. At this time, the surface covered by water would have reached up to ~350 000 km2 (Ghienne et al., 2002; Schuster et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2006, making it an important evaporation source, possibly modifying climate and vegetation in the Chad Basin. We investigated the impact of such a giant continental water area in two different climatic backgrounds within the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (PMIP3: the late Pliocene (3.3 to 3 Ma, i.e. the mid-Piacenzian warm period and the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP. In all simulations including MLC, precipitation is drastically reduced above the lake surface because deep convection is inhibited by overlying colder air. Meanwhile, convective activity is enhanced around MLC because of the wind increase generated by the flat surface of the megalake, transporting colder and moister air towards the eastern shore of the lake. The effect of MLC on precipitation and temperature is not sufficient to widely impact vegetation patterns. Nevertheless, tropical savanna is present in the Chad Basin in all climatic configurations, even without MLC presence, showing that the climate itself is the driver of favourable environments for sustainable hominid habitats.

  10. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Iran, Angola, Gabon, Nigeria and Chad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Algeria, Chad, Gabon, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia, new crude oil discoveries in Nigeria. In Iran, a joint venture will be constituted with Gaz de France for natural gas export in Europe. In Egypt, National Bank has financed for the first time a Liquefied Petroleum Gas plant. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production, seismic surveys, drilling operations and refining units are also given. 9 tabs

  11. An appraisal of the efficiency of fish marketing system in Lake Chad basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bolorunduro, P.; Sule, O.D.

    2003-01-01

    Fish products from the Chad Basin Lake play important role in meeting fish protein needs of Nigeria: they contribute not less than 25% of the total domestic fish supply and are significant in determining the availability of processed products and reduction of post-harvest losses. Processors, marketers and consumers are the major actors in appraising a marketing system. The results show that most sellers (4-7.5%) are within the age range of 30-39 years. Desires for more earnings led the market...

  12. Association between CHADS2 score and long-term atrial fibrillation recurrence rate after catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between CHADS2score and long-term(≥3 years)outcomes post catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF).Methods AF patients who received single catheter ablation in our hospital from January 2004 to March 2009 in our department were included and patients received regular follow-up.AF recurrence was defined as the occurrence of atrial arrhythmias(AF,atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia)recorded by electrocardiogram monitor(≥30 seconds)after ablation during follow-up period(after

  13. Evolution of Lake Chad Basin hydrology during the mid-Holocene: A preliminary approach from lake to climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Ramstein, Gilles; Krinnezr, Gerhard; Girard, Jean-Francois; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2008-03-01

    During the mid-Holocene (6000 yr Before Present, hereafter yr BP) the Chad Basin was occupied by a large endoreic lake, called Lake Mega-Chad. The existence of this lake at that time seems linked to increased monsoonal moisture supply to the Sahel and the Sahara, which in turn was probably ultimately caused by variations in the orbital forcing and higher temperature gradients between ocean and continent. This study provides a synthesis of several works carried out on the Lake Chad Basin and analyses the results of a simulation of the mid-Holocene climate with an Atmosphere General Circulation Model (LMDZ for Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL Paris), with emphasis on the possible conditions leading to the existence of Lake Mega-Chad. The aim is to define the best diagnostics to understand which mechanisms lead to the existence of the large lake. This paper is the first step of an ongoing work that intends to understand the environmental conditions that this part of Africa experienced during the Upper Miocene (ca. 7 Ma BP), an epoch that was contemporaneous with the first known hominids. Indeed, early hominids of Lake Chad Basin, Australopithecus bahrelghazali [ Brunet, M., et al., 1995. The first australopithecine 2500 kilometers west of the Rift-Valley (Chad). Nature, 378(6554): 273-275] and Sahelanthropus tchadensis [Brunet, M., et al., 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature, 418(6894): 145-151; Brunet, M., et al., 2005. New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad. Nature, 434(7034): 752-755] are systematically associated with wet episodes that are documented for 7 Ma BP [Vignaud, P., et al., 2002. Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature, 418(6894): 152-155] and testified by extended lacustrine deposits (diatomites, pelites, various aquatic fauna). Because the mid-Holocene was the last such mega-lake episode, our aim here is to assess the

  14. [Morbidity patterns in three nomadic communities in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugla, D M; Daoud, S; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities, i.e., Fulani, Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, living in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad. This is the first data about the health of Chadian nomadic pastoralists who account for approximately 6% of the total population. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4.6% of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age.

  15. Characteristics of Lake Chad Level Variability and Links to ENSO, Precipitation, and River Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Okonkwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used trend, correlation, and wavelet analysis to characterize Lake Chad (LC level fluctuations, river discharge, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships. Linear correlation results indicate a negative association between ENSO and LC level, river discharge and precipitation. Trend analysis shows increasing precipitation in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB but decreasing LC level. The mode of interannual variability in LC level, rainfall, and ENSO analyzed using wavelet analysis is dominated by 3-4-year periods. Results show that variability in ENSO could explain only 31% and 13% of variations in LC level at Kindjeria and precipitation in the northern LCB, respectively. The wavelet transform coherency (WTC between LC level of the southern pool at Kalom and ENSO is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level and phase-locked, implying a cause-and-effect association. These strong coherencies coincide with the La Niña years with the exception of 1997-1998 El Niño events. The WTC shows strong covariance between increasing precipitation and LC level in the northern pool at a 2- to 4-year band and 3- to 4-year band localized from 1996 to 2010. Implications for water resource planning and management are discussed.

  16. Characteristics of Lake Chad level variability and links to ENSO, precipitation, and river discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Gebremariam, Sium

    2014-01-01

    This study used trend, correlation, and wavelet analysis to characterize Lake Chad (LC) level fluctuations, river discharge, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships. Linear correlation results indicate a negative association between ENSO and LC level, river discharge and precipitation. Trend analysis shows increasing precipitation in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) but decreasing LC level. The mode of interannual variability in LC level, rainfall, and ENSO analyzed using wavelet analysis is dominated by 3-4-year periods. Results show that variability in ENSO could explain only 31% and 13% of variations in LC level at Kindjeria and precipitation in the northern LCB, respectively. The wavelet transform coherency (WTC) between LC level of the southern pool at Kalom and ENSO is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level and phase-locked, implying a cause-and-effect association. These strong coherencies coincide with the La Niña years with the exception of 1997-1998 El Niño events. The WTC shows strong covariance between increasing precipitation and LC level in the northern pool at a 2- to 4-year band and 3- to 4-year band localized from 1996 to 2010. Implications for water resource planning and management are discussed.

  17. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  18. Possible Role of Fish and Frogs as Paratenic Hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Bishop, Henry; Cleveland, Christopher A.; Maerz, John C.; Bringolf, Robert; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2–3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70–80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles. PMID:27434418

  19. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  20. Possible Role of Fish and Frogs as Paratenic Hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Mark L; Yabsley, Michael J; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Bishop, Henry; Cleveland, Christopher A; Maerz, John C; Bringolf, Robert; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2-3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70-80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles. PMID:27434418

  1. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  2. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John D; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-03-30

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type-potsherds-that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types. PMID:27009217

  3. The value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for refining stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHADS2 score 0-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock;

    2012-01-01

    -level-linkage of nationwide Danish registries 1997-2008, we identified patients discharged with AF having a CHADS2 score of 0-1 and not treated with vitamin K antagonist or heparin. In patients with a CHADS2 score of 0, 1, and 0-1, rates of stroke/ thromboembolism were determined according to CHA2DS2-VASc score, and the risk...

  4. Morbidity and nutrition patterns of three nomadic pastoralist communities of Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, E; Daoud, S; Daugla, D M; Diallo, P; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2005-07-01

    As a part of an interdisciplinary research and action programme, morbidity and nutritional patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities: Fulani and Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, of two prefectures in Chad. The predominant morbidity pattern of Chadian nomadic pastoralists (representing approximately 10% of the total population of the country) had not been documented so far. A total of 1092 women, men and children was examined by a physician and interviewed during two surveys in the dry season and one in the wet season (1999--2000). Participants with no complaint were rare. Pulmonary disorders (e.g. bronchitis) were most often diagnosed for children under 5 years of age. Of the adult participants, 4.6% were suspected of tuberculosis. Febrile diarrhoea occurred more often during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was precarious. Malaria was only rarely clinically diagnosed among Arabs during the dry season, whereas Fulani, who stayed in the vicinity of Lake Chad, were also affected during this period. A 24-h dietary recall showed that less Arab women than men consumed milk during the dry season (66% versus 92%). Malnutrition was only documented for 3 out of 328 children (0--14 years). Arab women in childbearing age had a higher proportion of children not surviving when compared to Fulani women (0.2 versus 0.07). This study identified several implications for reseach and interventions in nomadic settings. Innovative and integrated health services for nomads can possibly be extended to many settings as nomadic pastoralists have in common a similar way of life driven by the needs of their animals.

  5. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  6. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen spectra indicate a lake shore and shallow fresh water vegetation. This seems to be in agreement with the preliminary observations of the fossil diatom contents, which show a diatom flora mainly composed of benthic and tychoplanktonic species, indicating a shallow freshwater lake. Both diatomite sequences thus suggest shallow lakes throughout their deposition-whether this is due to their marginal position within the large calderas and/or shallow waters covered the entire calderas is an outstanding question that will be addressed with planned additional investigations. Kröpelin, S. etal (2015): New data on the unresolved paradox of the Tibesti crater paleolakes (Central Sahara, North Chad). Abstract #64322 AGU-Fall-Meeting-2015.

  7. Can the woodfuel supply in sub-Saharan Africa be sustainable? The case of N'Djamena, Chad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chad, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, depends for most of its energy demand on woodfuels; 90% or more of the country's energy balance comes from biomass energy. Obvious environmental problems appear around cities because of their highly concentrated demand, and this threatens the sustainability of supply. But, this does not need to be a problem, and woodfuel can also be an engine of economic growth, particularly in rural areas. A few policy conditions will need to be satisfied and in Chad this appears to be the case. As a result, the woodfuel supply of the capital N'Djamena could become sustainable, thereby continuing to provide low-cost energy to the urban population for the foreseeable future while giving income generation opportunities in rural areas. A win-win situation?!

  8. Compromize and Controversy Over Global Intercountry Adoption: A Comparative Analysis of Adoption in Haiti, Chad, Southeast Asian Countries, and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Uchehara, Kieran E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Authorities in belligerent countries are now faced with a new problem:  modern warfare and natural disasters. Between 2001 and 2010, four relatively publicized adoption related cases have caused some Third World countries to revitalize their concerns over the rights of children in such cases of adoption, mainly the New Life Children's Refuge (NLCR) in Haiti, the Zoe's Ark in Chad, the Katherine Hart case in Southeast Asian countries, and the twelve United States adoptive parents' c...

  9. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Leone; Giovanni Fiorillo; Franca Criscuoli; Stefano Ravasenghi; Laura Santagostini; Gelsomina Fico; Angela Spadafranca; Alberto Battezzati; Alberto Schiraldi; Federica Pozzi; Sara di Lello; Sandro Filippini; Simona Bertoli

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose prese...

  10. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  11. Terrorism Financing. The Socio-Economic and Political Implications of Boko Haram Insurgency in Lake Chad Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akepe Linus Enobi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various Scholars account for the actual date of the evolution of Boko Haram terrorist group. However, the sect came to prominence in 2009 following the death of its leader, Mohammed Yusuf in police custody. Aside from the police act and Mohammed Yusuf’s death, poverty, unemployment, lack of development, high level of illiterates, unkept electoral promises are identified as other reasons for the rise of Boko Haram insurgency. This study involves determination of socio-political and economic impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Lake Chad basin. To achieve this, mixed research method was employed in the study because both primary and secondary data are used. Many factors can be adduced as driving force that motivates Boko Haram activities in the region such as poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, under-development/education defiance region and neglects by government. Finding in the study shows that lack of government support for armed forces and low moral; lack of government political will to fight the insurgency; political interest all contribute in recent time to the rise of terrorist activities in Lake Chad.Finding revealed that the increase in Boko Haram activities in recent time in the region have negatively impact on the socio political/economic activities and these is due partly to increase in terrorist financing. The study suggests therefore that government ability in Lake Chad basin to cut the sources of terrorist finance will significantly affect Boko Haram activities and attacks.

  12. Advanced Land Use Classification for Nigeriasat-1 Image of Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R.; Park, C.; Lee, J.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Chad is a shrinking freshwater lake that has been significantly reduced to about 1/20 of its original size in the 1960’s. The severe draughts in 1970’s and 1980’s and following overexploitations of water resulted in the shortage of surface water in the lake and the surrounding rivers. Ground water resources are in scarcity too as ground water recharge is mostly made by soil infiltration through soil and land cover, but this surface cover is now experiencing siltation and expansion of wetland with invasive species. Large changes in land use and water management practices have taken place in the last 50 years including: removal of water from river systems for irrigation and consumption, degradation of forage land by overgrazing, deforestation, replacing natural ecosystems with mono-cultures, and construction of dams. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle around the lake and affect the shrinkage of the lake. Before any useful thematic information can be extracted from remote sensing data, a land cover classification system has to be developed to obtain the classes of interest. A combination of classification systems used by Global land cover, Water Resources eAtlass and Lake Chad Basin Commission gave rise to 7 land cover classes comprising of - Cropland, vegetation, grassland, water body, shrub-land, farmland ( mostly irrigated) and bareland (i.e. clear land). Supervised Maximum likelihood classification method was used with 15 reference points per class chosen. At the end of the classification, the overall accuracy is 93.33%. Producer’s accuracy for vegetation is 40% compare to the user’s accuracy that is 66.67 %. The reason is that the vegetation is similar to shrub land, it is very hard to differentiate between the vegetation and other plants, and therefore, most of the vegetation is classified as shrub land. Most of the waterbodies are occupied

  13. Surface water dynamics in Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad Wetlands from remote sensing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Getirana, A.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    The capability of satellites to understand and monitor surface water dynamics in tropical wetlands is presented by analysis various remote sensing technologies over the Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad regions. Although different in size and location, all these basins are tropical, representing riparian tropical, swamp tropical and inland Saharan wetlands, respectively. First, yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain is investigated using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Flooding has a direct impact on agricultural, pastoral and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent, depth, and duration are highly variable, flood inundation mapping facilitates efficient use of water resources and have more knowledge of the coupled human-natural system in the Logone floodplain. Flood maps are generated from 33 multi-temporal ETM+ images acquired during the period 2006 to 2008. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to ~5.8K km2 in late October 2008. A strong correlation is observed between the flooding extents and water height variations in both the floodplain and the river. Second, interferometric processing of JERS-1 SAR data from the central portions of both Amazon and Congo Wetlands provides centimeter-scale measurements of water level change. The Amazon is marked by a myriad of floodplain channels, but the Congo has comparatively few. Amazon floodplain channels, lakes and pans are well interconnected, whereas the Congo wetlands are expanses with few boundaries or flow routes. The hydraulic processes that build the Amazon floodplain are not similarly apparent in the Congo. Third, we evaluate the potential of large altimetry datasets as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions. A rating-curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by the Envisat satellite within the Amazon basin. From a global-scale perspective, the stage

  14. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Grais

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the comprehensive World Health Organization (WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF measles mortality-reduction strategy and the Measles Initiative, a partnership of international organizations supporting measles mortality reduction in Africa, certain high-burden countries continue to face recurrent epidemics. To our knowledge, few recent studies have documented measles mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of our study was to investigate measles mortality in three recent epidemics in Niamey (Niger, N'Djamena (Chad, and Adamawa State (Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted three exhaustive household retrospective mortality surveys in one neighbourhood of each of the three affected areas: Boukoki, Niamey, Niger (April 2004, n = 26,795; Moursal, N'Djamena, Chad (June 2005, n = 21,812; and Dong District, Adamawa State, Nigeria (April 2005, n = 16,249, where n is the total surveyed population in each of the respective areas. Study populations included all persons resident for at least 2 wk prior to the study, a duration encompassing the measles incubation period. Heads of households provided information on measles cases, clinical outcomes up to 30 d after rash onset, and health-seeking behaviour during the epidemic. Measles cases and deaths were ascertained using standard WHO surveillance-case definitions. Our main outcome measures were measles attack rates (ARs and case fatality ratios (CFRs by age group, and descriptions of measles complications and health-seeking behaviour. Measles ARs were the highest in children under 5 y old (under 5 y: 17.1% in Boukoki, 17.2% in Moursal, and 24.3% in Dong District. CFRs in under 5-y-olds were 4.6%, 4.0%, and 10.8% in Boukoki, Moursal, and Dong District, respectively. In all sites, more than half of measles cases in children aged under 5 y experienced acute respiratory infection and/or diarrhoea in the 30 d following rash onset. Of measles cases, it was reported that 85

  15. Who Benefits from Public Social Spending in Chad? A Benefit Incidence Analysis (A qui profitent les dépenses sociales au Tchad? Une analyse d'incidence à partir des données d'enquête

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djindil, N.S.; Tabo Symphorien, N.; Mogota Anatole, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of public expenditures in the sector of education and maternal and child health in household level in Chad. The results show that there exist a very strong social selectivity in the utilisation and transfer of health and education in Chad. The analysis reveals that an

  16. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores as bleeding risk indices for patients with atrial fibrillation: the Bleeding with Antithrombotic Therapy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Yasaka, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Iwade, Kazunori; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Nagata, Ken; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nagao, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Gotoh, Jun; Takahashi, Jun C; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, that is, ischemic stroke risk indices for patients having atrial fibrillation (AF), may also be useful as bleeding risk indices. Japanese patients with AF, who routinely took oral antithrombotic agents were enrolled from a prospective, multicenter study. The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were assessed based on information at entry. Scores of 0, 1 and ⩾2 were defined as the low, intermediate and high ischemic risk categories, respectively, for each index. Of 1221 patients, 873 took warfarin, 114 took antiplatelet agents and 234 took both. The annual incidence of ischemic stroke was 0.76% in the low-risk category, 1.46% in the intermediate-risk category and 2.90% in the high-risk category by CHADS2 scores, and 1.44, 0.42 and 2.50%, respectively, by CHA2DS2-VASc scores. The annual incidence of major bleeding in each category was 1.52, 2.19 and 2.25% by CHADS2, and 1.44, 1.69 and 2.24% by CHA2DS2-VASc. After multivariate adjustment, the CHADS2 was associated with ischemia (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.38 per 1-category increase) and the CHA2DS2-VASc tended to be associated with ischemia (2.18, 0.89-8.43). On the other hand, associations of the indices with bleeding were weak. In conclusion, bleeding risk increased gradually as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores increased in Japanese antithrombotic users, although the statistical impact was rather weak compared with their predictive power for ischemic stroke.

  17. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanic rocks from the Lake Chad region: An extension of the Cameroon volcanic line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Torng, P.-K.; Yang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, near Lake Chad, are considered to be an extension of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL) but their petrogenetic association is uncertain. The silicic rocks are divided into peraluminous and peralkaline groups with both rock types chemically similar to within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma indicating the magmas erupted ˜10 million years before the next oldest CVL rocks (i.e., ˜66 Ma). The Sr isotopes (i.e., ISr = 0.7021-0.7037) show a relatively wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268-0.51271) are uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Thermodynamic modeling shows that the silicic rocks likely formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma but that the peraluminous rocks were affected by low temperature alteration processes. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts identified within the Late Cretaceous basins (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51245-0.51285) of Chad than the uncontaminated CVL rocks (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270-0.51300). The age and isotopic compositions suggest the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad region are related to Late Cretaceous extensional volcanism in the Termit basin. It is unlikely that the silicic volcanic rocks are petrogenetically related to the CVL but it is possible that magmatism was structurally controlled by suture zones that formed during the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and/or the Pan-African Orogeny.

  18. Malnutrition and Mortality Patterns among Internally Displaced and Non-Displaced Population Living in a Camp, a Village or a Town in Eastern Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Guerrier; Malaïka Zounoun; Olimpia Delarosa; Isabelle Defourny; Michelo Lacharite; Vincent Brown; Biagio Pedalino

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. METHODOLOGY: Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster ho...

  19. CHADS2 score has a better predictive value than CHA2DS2-VASc score in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing YL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunli Xing, Qing Ma, Xiaoying Ma, Cuiying Wang, Dai Zhang, Ying Sun Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Aim: The study aims to compare the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [two scores], type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism [TE] [doubled], vascular disease, age 65–74 years, and sex category and CHADS2 (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke [doubled] scores to predict the risk of ischemic stroke (IS or TE among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.Methods: A total of 413 patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, and not on oral anticoagulants for the previous 6 months, were enrolled in the study. The predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores for IS/TE events was evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method.Results: During a follow-up period of 1.99±1.29 years, 104 (25.2% patients died and 59 (14.3% patients developed IS/TE. The CHADS2 score performed better than the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting IS/TE as assessed by c-indexes (0.647 vs 0.615, respectively; P<0.05. Non-CHADS2 risk factors, such as vascular disease and female sex, were not found to be predictive of IS/TE (hazard ratio 1.518, 95% CI: 0.832–2.771; hazard ratio 1.067, 95% CI: 0.599–1.899, respectively. No differences in event rates were found in patients with the CHADS2 scores of 1 and 2 (7.1% vs 7.8%. It was observed that patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were most in need of anticoagulation therapy.Conclusion: In patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, the CHADS2 score was found to be significantly better in predicting IS/TE events when compared to the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were associated with high risk of IS/TE events. Keywords: NVAF

  20. Spatio-temporal variability of droughts and terrestrial water storage over Lake Chad Basin using independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E.; Agutu, Nathan O.; Okwuashi, Onuwa; Ferreira, Vagner G.

    2016-09-01

    Lake Chad has recently been perceived to be completely desiccated and almost extinct due to insufficient published ground observations. Given the high spatial variability of rainfall in the region, and the fact that extreme climatic conditions (for example, droughts) could be intensifying in the Lake Chad basin (LCB) due to human activities, a spatio-temporal approach to drought analysis becomes essential. This study employed independent component analysis (ICA), a fourth-order cumulant statistics, to decompose standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) into spatial and temporal patterns over the LCB. In addition, this study uses satellite altimetry data to estimate variations in the Lake Chad water levels, and further employs relevant climate teleconnection indices (El-Niño Southern Oscillation-ENSO, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation-AMO, and Atlantic Meridional Mode-AMM) to examine their links to the observed drought temporal patterns over the basin. From the spatio-temporal drought analysis, temporal evolutions of SPI at 12 month aggregation show relatively wet conditions in the last two decades (although with marked alterations) with the 2012-2014 period being the wettest. In addition to the improved rainfall conditions during this period, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.04 m/yr in altimetry water levels observed over Lake Chad between 2008 and 2014, which confirms a shift in the hydrological conditions of the basin. Observed trend in TWS changes during the 2002-2014 period shows a statistically insignificant increase of 3.0 mm/yr at the centre of the basin, coinciding with soil moisture deficit indicated by the temporal evolutions of SSI at all monthly accumulations during the 2002-2003 and 2009-2012 periods. Further, SPI at 3 and 6 month scales indicated fluctuating drought conditions at the extreme south

  1. The cow emerges from the water : myths relating to the origin of cattle in the Chad basin

    OpenAIRE

    Braukämper, U.

    1997-01-01

    The region of Lake Chad is one of the earliest and most important focusses of cattle-breeding in the Sudanic savanna zone. Today, the area is inhabited by three pastoral groups, the Buduma (Yedina), the Fulbe (Fulani) and the Shuwa Arabs, who possess different breeds of cattle. The Buduma are the old-established population, and their animals have extremely well been adapted to their aquatic habitat. Fulbe nomads infiltrated the region from the west from the 13th century onwards, and Shuwa Ara...

  2. Hydrological budget of Lake Chad: assessment of lake-groundwater interaction by coupling Bayesian approach and chemical budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of lake-groundwater interactions is a crucial step to constrain water balance of lacustrine and aquifer systems. Located in the Sahel, the Lake Chad is at the center of an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. One of the most remarkable features of this terminal lake is that, despite the semi-arid context and high evaporation rates of the area, its waters are fresh. It is proposed in the literature that the solutes are evacuated in the underlying quaternary aquifer bearing witness to the importance of surface water and groundwater exchanges for the chemical regulation of the lake. The water balance of this system is still not fully understood. The respective roles of evaporation versus infiltration into the quaternary aquifer are particularly under constrained. To assess lake-groundwater flows, we used the previous conceptual hydrological model of the lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2011). This model involves six parameters including infiltration rate. A probabilistic inversion of parameters, based on an exploration of the parameters space through a Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method), allows the construction of an a posteriori Probability Density Function of each parameter yielding to the best fits between observed lake levels and simulated. Then, a chemical budget of a conservative element, such as chloride, is introduced in the water balance model using the optimal parameters resulting from the Bayesian inverse approach. The model simulates lake level and chloride concentration variations of lake Chad from 1956 up to 2008. Simulated lake levels are in overall agreement with the observations, with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient above 0.94 for all sets of parameters retained. The infiltration value, obtained by such probabilistic inversion approach, accounts for 120±20 mm/yr, representing 5% of the total outputs of the lake. However, simulated chloride concentrations are overestimated in

  3. Geochemical evidence for a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bata, Timothy; Parnell, John; Samaila, Nuhu K.; Abubakar, M. B.; Maigari, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Paleogeographic studies have shown that Earth was covered with more water during the Cretaceous than it is today, as the global sea level was significantly higher. The Cretaceous witnessed one of the greatest marine transgressions in Earth's history, represented by widespread deposition of sands directly on underlying basement. These sand bodies hold much of the world's heavy oil. Here, we present for the first time, geochemical evidence of a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Bima oil sand is similar to other Cretaceous oil sands, predominantly occurring at shallow depths on basin flanks and generally lacking a seal cover, making the oil susceptible to biodegradation. The bulk properties and distribution of molecular features in oils from the Bima oil sand suggest that they are biodegraded. Sterane maturity parameters and the trisnorhopane thermal indicator for the oils suggest thermal maturities consistent with oils generated as conventional light oils, which later degraded into heavy oils. These oils also show no evidence of 25-norhopane, strongly suggesting that biodegradation occurred at shallow depths, consistent with the shallow depth of occurrence of the Bima Formation at the study locality. Low diasterane/sterane ratios and C29H/C30H ratios greater than 1 suggest a carbonate source rock for the studied oil. The Sterane distribution further suggests that the oils were sourced from marine carbonate rocks. The C32 homohopane isomerization ratios for the Bima oil sand are 0.59-0.60, implying that the source rock has surpassed the main oil generation phase, consistent with burial depths of the Fika and Gongila Formations, which are both possible petroleum source rocks in the basin.

  4. Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostic delays in Chad: a multicenter, hospital-based survey in Ndjamena and Moundou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngangro Ndeindo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low-resource countries. One contagious patient can infect 10 to 20 contacts in these settings. Delays in diagnosing TB therefore contribute to the spread of the disease and sustain the epidemic. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the factors associated with these delays in the public hospitals in Moundou and Ndjamena, Chad. Methods A structured questionnaire was administered to 286 new tuberculosis patients to evaluate patient delay (time from the onset of symptoms to the first formal or informal care, health-care system delay (time from the first health care to tuberculosis treatment and total delay (sum of the patient and system delays. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with long diagnostic delays (defined as greater than the median. Results and discussion The median [interquartile range] patient delay, system delay and total delay were 15 [7–30], 36 [19–65] and 57.5 [33–95] days, respectively. Low economic status (aOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.38 [1.08-5.25], not being referred to a health service (aOR = 1.75 [1.02- 3.02] and a secondary level education (aOR = 0.33 [0.12-0.92] were associated with a long patient delay. Risk factors for a long system delay were a low level of education (aOR = 4.71 [1.34-16.51] and the belief that traditional medicine and informal care can cure TB (aOR = 5.46 [2.37-12.60]. Conclusion Targeted strengthening of the health-care system, including improving patient access, addressing deficiencies in health-related human resources, and improving laboratory networks and linkages as well as community mobilization will make for better outcomes in tuberculosis diagnosis.

  5. Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

  6. High-coercivity minerals from North African Humid Period soil material deposited in Lake Yoa (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, J.; Kroepelin, S.; Wennrich, V.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wagner, B.; Rethemeyer, J.; Karls, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP) have favored the formation of big lake systems. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics together with proxies for lacustrine productivity and biota of a sediment core (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Magnetic properties of AHP sediments show strong indications for reductive diagenesis. An up to ~ 80 m higher lake level is documented by lacustrine deposits in the Ounianga Basin, dating to the early phase of the AHP. The higher lake level and less strong seasonality restricted deep mixing of the lake. Development of anoxic conditions consequently lead to the dissolution of iron oxides. An exception is an interval with high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, deposited between 7800 - 8120 cal yr BP. This interval post-dates the 8.2 event, which was dry in Northern Africa and probably caused a reduced vegetation cover. We propose that the latter resulted in the destabilization of soils around Lake Yoa. After the re-establishment of humid conditions, these soil materials were eroded and deposited in the lake. Magnetic minerals appear well preserved in the varved Late Holocene sequence, indicating (sub-) oxic conditions in the lake. This is surprising, because the occurrence of varves is often interpreted as an indicator for anoxic conditions of the lake water. However, the salinity of lake water rose strongly after the AHP. We therefore hypothesize that the conservation of varves and absence of benthic organisms rather relates to the high salinity than to anoxic conditions.

  7. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K Blackburn

    Full Text Available Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25 genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs. The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  8. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane;

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic...

  9. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  10. Motion of left atrial appendage as a determinant of thrombus formation in patients with a low CHADS2 score receiving warfarin for persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Koji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to define the independent determinants of left atrial appendage (LAA thrombus among various echocardiographic parameters measured by Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF receiving warfarin, particularly in patients with a low CHADS2 score. Methods LAA emptying fraction (EF and LAA peak longitudinal strain were measured by VVI using transesophageal echocardiography in 260 consecutive patients with nonvalvular persistent AF receiving warfarin. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (n=43 or absence (n=217 of LAA thrombus. Moreover, the patients within each group were further divided into subgroups according to a CHADS2 score ≤1. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LAAEF was an independent determinant of LAA thrombus in the subgroup of 140 with a low CHADS2 score. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that an LAAEF of 21% was the optimal cutoff value for predicting LAA thrombus. Conclusions LAA thrombus formation depended on LAA contractility. AF patients with reduced LAA contractile fraction (LAAEF ≤21% require strong anticoagulant therapy to avoid thromboembolic events regardless of a low CHADS2 score (≤1.

  11. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score to assess risk of stroke and death in patients paced for sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Darkner, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of str...

  12. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  13. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  14. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  15. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  16. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (pMalnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  17. An Economic Analysis of Boko Haram’s Activities in the Chad-Cameroon-Nigeria Border Area

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    TAMBA Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is fast becoming a worldwide phenomenon with about 25% of attacks committed in developing countries. These attacks devastate societies causing huge economic loss with negative growth effects. Recent attacks suspectively conducted by Boko Haram in the north of Nigeria and along its border with Cameroon and Chad are already inflicting damage to local economies with a general drop in savings, investment, trade and a strain on domestic budgets. Poverty and exclusion generate dissidents and reactionary groups activities such as Boko Haram. But, the historical background permits to understand the emergency and the development of some of them. Tackling the Boko Haram threat requires a concerted multinational approach with a key socioeconomic component that incorporates the fact that conflict thrives better in circumstances of poverty and inequality.

  18. Estimating population and livestock density of mobile pastoralists and sedentary settlements in the south-eastern Lake Chad area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard, Vreni; Crump, Lisa; Abicho, Abbani Alhadj; Abakar, Ali Abba; Mahamat, Abdraman; Bechir, Mahamat; Eckert, Sandra; Engesser, Matthias; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mobile pastoralists provide major contributions to the gross domestic product in Chad, but little information is available regarding their demography. The Lake Chad area population is increasing, resulting in competition for scarce land and water resources. For the first time, the density of people and animals from mobile and sedentary populations was assessed using randomly defined sampling areas. Four sampling rounds were conducted over two years in the same areas to show population density dynamics. We identified 42 villages of sedentary communities in the sampling zones; 11 (in 2010) and 16 (in 2011) mobile pastoralist camps at the beginning of the dry season and 34 (in 2011) and 30 (in 2012) camps at the end of the dry season. A mean of 64.0 people per km2 (95% confidence interval, 20.3-107.8) were estimated to live in sedentary villages. In the mobile communities, we found 5.9 people per km2 at the beginning and 17.5 people per km2 at the end of the dry season. We recorded per km2 on average 21.0 cattle and 31.6 small ruminants in the sedentary villages and 66.1 cattle and 102.5 small ruminants in the mobile communities, which amounts to a mean of 86.6 tropical livestock units during the dry season. These numbers exceed, by up to five times, the published carrying capacities for similar Sahelian zones. Our results underline the need for a new institutional framework. Improved land use management must equally consider the needs of mobile communities and sedentary populations. PMID:26054513

  19. Estimating population and livestock density of mobile pastoralists and sedentary settlements in the south-eastern Lake Chad area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreni Jean-Richard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile pastoralists provide major contributions to the gross domestic product in Chad, but little information is available regarding their demography. The Lake Chad area population is increasing, resulting in competition for scarce land and water resources. For the first time, the density of people and animals from mobile and sedentary populations was assessed using randomly defined sampling areas. Four sampling rounds were conducted over two years in the same areas to show population density dynamics. We identified 42 villages of sedentary communities in the sampling zones; 11 (in 2010 and 16 (in 2011 mobile pastoralist camps at the beginning of the dry season and 34 (in 2011 and 30 (in 2012 camps at the end of the dry season. A mean of 64.0 people per km2 (95% confidence interval, 20.3-107.8 were estimated to live in sedentary villages. In the mobile communities, we found 5.9 people per km2 at the beginning and 17.5 people per km2 at the end of the dry season. We recorded per km2 on average 21.0 cattle and 31.6 small ruminants in the sedentary villages and 66.1 cattle and 102.5 small ruminants in the mobile communities, which amounts to a mean of 86.6 tropical livestock units during the dry season. These numbers exceed, by up to five times, the published carrying capacities for similar Sahelian zones. Our results underline the need for a new institutional framework. Improved land use management must equally consider the needs of mobile communities and sedentary populations.

  20. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Rolf S; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  1. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Rolf S.; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  2. Lake Chad sedimentation and environments during the late Miocene and Pliocene: New evidence from mineralogy and chemistry of the Bol core sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Abderamane; Novello, Alice; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Decarreau, Alain; Fontaine, Claude; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Bourlès, Didier L.; Paillès, Christine; Buchet, Guillaume; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Maley, Jean; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Roquin, Claude; Schuster, Mathieu; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2016-06-01

    This study presents mineralogical and geochemical data from a borehole drilled near the locality of Bol (13°27‧N, 14°44‧E), in the eastern archipelago of the modern Lake Chad (Chad). Samples were taken from a ∼200 m long core section forming a unique sub-continuous record for Central Africa. Among these samples, 25 are dated between 6.4 and 2.4 Ma. Dominant minerals are clays (66% average) mixed with varying amounts of silt and diatomite. The clay fraction consists of Fe-beidellite (87% average), kaolinite, and traces of illite. Clay minerals originate from the erosion of the vertisols that surrounded the paleolake Chad. Sedimentological data indicate that a permanent lake (or recurrent lakes) existed from 6.7 until 2.4 Ma in the vicinity of Bol. By comparison with modern latitudinal distribution of vertisols in Africa the climate was Sudanian-like. Changes in the sedimentation rate suggest a succession of wetter and dryer periods during at least six million years in the region during the critical time period covering the Miocene-Pliocene transition.

  3. Relationship of CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 score to left atrial remodeling detected by velocity vector imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation.

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    Yihui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scores are used to predict thrombo-embolic/stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF. Nevertheless, limited data are available regarding the association between these risk stratification for stroke and left atrial (LA remodeling status of AF patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between these scores and LA remodeling status assessed quantificationally by echocardiography in AF patients. METHODS: One hundred AF patients were divided into 3 groups based on the CHA2DS2-VASc/CHADS2 score: the score of 0 (low stroke risk, the score of 1 (moderate stroke risk and the score of ≥2 (high stroke risk. All patients were performed through conventional and velocity vector imaging echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters: maximum LA volume index (LAVImax, LA total emptying fraction (LAEFt and LA mean strain were obtained to assess quantificationally LA remodeling status. RESULTS: On categorizing with CHA2DS2-VASc, the score of 1 group showed augment in LAVImax and attenuation in LA mean strain derived from VVI, compared with the score of 0 group (LAVImax: 40.27±21.91 vs. 26.79±7.87, p=0.002; LA mean strain: 15.18±6.36 vs. 22±8.54, p=0.001. On categorizing with the CHADS2 score, similar trends were seen between the score of ≥2 and 1 groups (LAVImax: 43.72±13.77 vs. 31.41±9.50, p<0.001; LA mean strain: 11.01±5.31 vs. 18.63±7.00, p<0.001. With multivariate logistic regression, LAVImax (odds ratio: 0.92 , 95% C=I: 0.85 to 0.98, p= 0.01 and LA mean strain reflecting LA remodeling (odds ratio: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.19, p=0.01 were strongly predictive of the CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0. CONCLUSIONS: The superiority of the CHADS2 score may lay in identifying LA remodeling of AF patients with high stroke risk. Whereas, the CHA2DS2-VASc score was better than the CHADS2 score at identifying LA remodeling of AF patients presenting low stroke risk.

  4. Coherent monsoonal changes in the northern tropics revealed by Chadian lakes (L. Chad and Yoa) sedimentary archives during the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Florence; Kroepelin, Stefan; Pierre, Deschamps; Christine, Cocquyt; Nicolas, Waldmann; Kazuyo, Tachikawa; Amaral Paula, Do; Doriane, Delanghe; Guillaume, Jouve; Edouard, Bard; Camille, Bouchez; Jean-Claude, Doumnang; Jean-Charles, Mazur; Martin, Melles; Guillemette, Menot; Frauke, Rostek; Nicolas, Thouveny; Volkner, Wennrich

    2016-04-01

    In northern African tropics, it is now well established that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was extremely dry followed by a wetter Holocene. Numerous palaeolake records reveal a fairly consistent pattern of a moister early Holocene resulting in a green Sahara followed by the onset of aridification about 4000 years ago. These palaeoenvironmental conditions are deciphered from several continental records distributed over the sub-Saharan zone and including diverse environments. However, pronounced differences in the timing and amplitude of these moisture changes inferred from sedimentary records point to both regional climatic variability change and site-specific influences of local topographic-hydrogeological factors which biased the evolution of water balance reconstructed from individual lacustrine archives. Here we present hydrological reconstructions from Chadian lakes, i.e. Lake Chad (c. 13°N) and Lake Yoa (19°N). Because of their location, both records allow to reconstruct lake level fluctuations and environmental changes according to a gradient from Sahelian to Saharan latitudes. Whereas Lake Chad is considered as a good sensor of climatic changes because of its large drainage basin covering 610,000 km2 in the Sudanian belt, Lake Yoa logs the northern precipitation changes in the Sahara. Combining sedimentological (laser diffraction grain size) and geochemical (XRF analysis) data associated with bio-indicators proxies (diatoms, pollen), we compare lake-level fluctuations and environmental changes during the last 12,000 years. After the hyperarid Last Glacial Maximum period during which dunes covered the Lake Chad basin, both lake records indicate an onset of more humid conditions between 12.5-11 ka cal BP. These resulted in lacustrine transgressions approaching their maximum extension at c. 10.5 ka cal BP. The lacustrine phase was probably interrupted by a relatively short drying event occurring around 8.2 ka cal BP which is well-defined in Lake Yoa by

  5. Hydrological, chemical, and isotopic budgets of Lake Chad: a quantitative assessment of evaporation, transpiration and infiltration fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2016-04-01

    In the Sahelian belt, Lake Chad is a key water body for 13 million people, who live on its resources. It experiences, however, substantial and frequent surface changes. Located at the centre of one of the largest endorheic basins in the world, its waters remain surprisingly fresh. Its low salinity has been attributed to a low infiltration flow whose value remains poorly constrained. Understanding the lake's hydrological behaviour in response to climate variability requires a better constraint of the factors that control its water and chemical balance. Based on the three-pool conceptualization of Lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (2011), this study aims to quantify the total water outflow from the lake, the respective proportions of evaporation (E), transpiration (T), and infiltration (I), and the associated uncertainties. A Bayesian inversion method based on lake-level data was used, leading to total water loss estimates in each pool (E + T + I = ETI). Sodium and stable isotope mass balances were then used to separate total water losses into E, T, and I components. Despite the scarcity of representative data available on the lake, the combination of these two geochemical tracers is relevant to assess the relative contribution of these three outflows involved in the control of the hydrological budget. Mean evapotranspiration rates were estimated at 2070 ± 100 and 2270 ± 100 mm yr-1 for the southern and northern pools, respectively. Infiltration represents between 100 and 300 mm yr-1 but most of the water is evapotranspirated in the first few kilometres from the shorelines and does not efficiently recharge the Quaternary aquifer. Transpiration is shown to be significant, around 300 mm yr-1 and reaches 500 mm yr-1 in the vegetated zone of the archipelagos. Hydrological and chemical simulations reproduce the marked hydrological change between the normal lake state that occurred before 1972 and the small lake state after 1972 when the lake surface shrunk to a one

  6. Palynological evidence for gradual vegetation and climate changes during the "African Humid Period" termination at 13° N from a Mega-Lake Chad sedimentary sequence

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    P. G. C. Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Located at the transition between the Saharian and Sahelian zones, at the center of one of the largest endoreic basins, the Lake Chad is ideally located to record regional environmental changes that occurred in the past. However, until now, no continuous archive from Lake Chad covering the Holocene has been studied. In this paper, we present pollen data from the first Holocene sedimentary sequence collected in Lake Chad (13° N; 14° E; Sahel region. Dated between ca. 6700 and ca. 5000 cal yr BP, this record encompasses the termination of the African Humid Period (AHP. Vegetational reconstructions are based on standard analyses of the pollen diagrams and are strengthened by quantitative approaches. Potential biomes that occurred at that time around Mega-Lake Chad are reconstructed using the biomization method and mean annual precipitation is estimated using the modern analogues technique.

    Results show that between ca. 6700 and ca. 6050 cal yr BP, a vegetation close to humid woodland or humid savanna, including elements currently found much further southward, thrived in the vicinity and/or the extra-local environment of the Mega-Lake Chad in place of the modern steppe, dry woodland and desert vegetation observed today. At the same time, montane forest populations extended further southward on the Adamawa plateau. This vegetation distribution is supported by biome reconstructions as well as by mean annual precipitation estimates of ca. 800 (−400/+700 mm for the period. The high abundance of lowland humid pollen taxa is interpreted as the result of a northward migration of the corresponding plants during the AHP driven by more favorable climatic conditions. Our interpretation in favor of a regional vegetation response to climatic changes is supported by other pollen data from several Northwestern African records. However, we cannot rule out that an increase of Chari-Logone inputs into the Mega-Lake Chad due to variations in hydrological

  7. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

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    Alessandro Leone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14–0.33 and 6.61–9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  8. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients. PMID:26274956

  9. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  10. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  11. Structure and dynamics of myxosporean parasites component communities in two freshwater Cichlids in the Chari River (Republic of Chad).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousman, Abakar; Félix, Bilong Bilong Charles; Thomas, Njiné; Abraham, Fomena

    2007-03-01

    Myxosporean parasites of two freshwater Tilapia species from the Chari River, Chad Republic, Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus, were investigated from November 2001 to October 2002. A total of 360 specimens per Cichlid species were examined. Eleven parasite species were found in both cases with different prevalences. Myxobolus agolus, M. brachysporus, M. clarii, M. cichlidarum, M. heterosporus, M. tilapiae and M. camerounensis in O. niloticus) appeared common while M. equatorialis, M. nyongana (and M. camerounensis in S. galilaeus) were secondary; lastly M. israelensis (and M. kainjiae in O. niloticus) were rare. The gills, fins, eyes and teguments were preferential locations of cysts building pathogens while the kidneys then the gall bladder were most commonly infected by myxosporean spores. In the Chari ecosystem, no significant host sex and size effects were found for the parasite cystic load. A clear seasonal occurrence was observed for most of these pathogens. In the view of pathogenic control, this study raised the necessity in a farm fish station to identify the most important myxosporean species and the period of their potential demographic explosion. PMID:19069850

  12. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  13. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14–0.33 and 6.61–9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients. PMID:26274956

  14. 非瓣膜性心房纤颤CHADS2评分低中危患者脑卒中危险因素分析%Risk Factors for Stroke in Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Low-intermediate CHADS2 Risk Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 龚辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors for stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation( NVAF)patients with low-intermediate CHADS2 risk score. Methods We enrolled 98 NVAF patients complicated with stroke who were admitted into the Neurology Department of Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from January 2009 to December 2012. CHADS2 scores and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated. The subjects who had low-intermediate CHADS2 risk scores(0~2)were assigned into case group(n=58),and another 53 NVAF patients without stroke who were admitted into the same department during the same period were enrolled as control group. Comparison was made between the two groups in clinical features,cardiac ultrasound results and laboratory examination results. Multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the influencing factors. Results Of the 98 NVAF patients complicated with stroke,58 patients(59. 2%)had low-intermediate CHADS2 risk score,and 95 patients(96. 9%)had high CHA2DS2-VASc score(≥2). The case group was lower(P 5. 72 mmol/L ) are independent risk factors for stroke in NVAF patients with low-intermediate CHADS2 score. CHA2DS2-VASc score system is advantageous than CHADS2 score system in the risk classification of NVAF patients with low -intermediate risk of stroke. The application of CHA2DS2-VASc score system in China needs further verification and adjustment.%目的:探讨非瓣膜性心房纤颤( NVAF) CHADS2评分低中危患者发生脑卒中的危险因素。方法选取2009年1月—2012年12月在复旦大学附属金山医院神经内科住院的 NVAF 合并脑卒中患者( n =98),计算CHADS2评分及CHA2DS2-VASc评分,筛选CHADS2评分低中危(0~2分)患者为病例组( n=58),选取同期在该院心内科住院的NVAF不合并脑卒中患者为对照组( n=53)。比较两组的临床特征、心脏超声及实验室检查结果等,脑卒中发生的影响因素分析采用多

  15. CHADS2 versus CHA2DS2-VASc score in assessing the stroke and throm-boembolism risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yuan Chen; Ai-Dong Zhang; Hong-Yan Lu; Jun Guo; Fei-Fei Wang; Zi-Cheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive abilities of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc in stroke and thromboembolism risk stratification of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE for Eng-lish-language literature on comparisons of the diagnostic performance between CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc in predicting stroke, or sys-temic embolism, in AF. We then assessed the quality of the included studies and pooled the C-statistics and 95%confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Eight studies were included. It was unsuitable to perform a direct meta-analysis because of high heterogeneity. When analyzed as a continuous variable, the C-statistic ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 (median 0.683) for CHADS2 and 0.64-0.79 (median 0.673) for CHA2DS2-VASc. When analyzed as a continuous variable in anticoagulation patients, the subgroup analysis showed that the pooled C-statistic (95%CI) was 0.660 (0.655-0.665) for CHADS2 and 0.667 (0.651-0.683) for CHA2DS2-VASc (no significant difference). For non-anticoagulation patients, the pooled C-statistic (95%CI) was 0.685 (0.666-0.705) for CHADS2 and 0.675 (0.656-0.694) for CHA2DS2-VASc (no significant differ-ence). The average ratio of endpoint events in the low-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was less than CHADS2 (0.41%vs. 0.94%, P<0.05). The average proportion of the moderate-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was lower than CHADS2 (11.12%vs. 30.75%, P<0.05). Conclu-sions The C-statistic suggests a similar clinical utility of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in predicting stroke and thromboem-bolism, but CHA2DS2-VASc has the important advantage of identifying extremely low-risk patients with atrial fibrillation, as well as classi-fying a lower proportion of patients as moderate risk.

  16. Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligan Connie J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP. Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. Results We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic. Conclusion The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around

  17. Parasitic infections, anemia and malnutrition among rural settled and mobile pastoralist mothers and their children in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Hamit, M A; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition, resulting from various etiologies, is common in rural Chadian women and children. This cross-sectional study assessed the spectrum of parasitic infection and level of anemia and their effect on nutritional status in settled and mobile pastoral mothers and children near Lake Chad. Intestinal parasites were evaluated using direct fecal smears and the Kato-Katz technique. Malaria status was determined using Paracheck-Pf(®) rapid diagnostic test, and anemia was assessed with the Hemocue photometer. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric parameters. At the end of the 2008 wet season, the prevalence of malnutrition was 36% [confidence interval (CI) 30-42] among women and 15% (CI 11-18) among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 75% (CI 68-83) among women and 60% (CI 53-66) among children. The predominant helminth species was Ascaris lumbricoides while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most common protozoan. The hookworm prevalence was 14% (CI 8-20) in women and 18% (CI 13-23) in children. Malaria prevalence was low among women (1%, CI 0.5-2) and children (3% CI 2-5). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of parasitic infection between the mobile pastoralist and rural sedentary populations. Thirty-four percent (CI 27-40) of nonpregnant women, 53% (CI 34-72) of pregnant women, and 27% (CI 23-32) of children were anemic. In subjects infected with Plasmodium, all women and 54% (CI 22-85) of children were anemic. Malnutrition was significantly associated with anemia in mothers and with selected intestinal parasites, anemia and age in their children.

  18. Assessing health impacts of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project: challenges and a way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health impact assessment (HIA) of projects, programmes and policies is increasingly recognized as a powerful methodology for mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing equitable and sustainable development, yet applications in the developing world are sparse. Here, we focus on a large infrastructure development in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project. We adapted a five-step process for HIA, consisting of (1) screening of project documents, (2) profiling of affected communities, (3) identifying priority health areas, predicting potential impacts, and proposing mitigation measures, (4) implementing interventions, and (5) monitoring and evaluation of health impacts. We found that project scoping was broad, including extensive environmental and social assessments. Innovative features of the project include the high degree of public-private partnerships, and the management of oil revenues for purposes of poverty reduction. The project also addressed occupational and public health issues, and developed and implemented measures to prevent or mitigate potential health impacts. However, there was a disproportionate emphasis on workers' health, particularly on the prevention/mitigation of construction-related injuries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs; mainly HIV/AIDS), and malaria. Health impacts among surrounding communities, and cumulative health impacts in the larger region were not considered in a comprehensive way. Concluding, there is a need for a more systemic approach to HIA and its incorporation within 'Equator Principles', which are increasingly adopted by the international financial community. This process would include clarification of corporate social responsibility beyond the project fence line in the mitigation of health problems at regional levels. Finally, we propose the establishment and running of a longitudinal demographic surveillance system, which--coupled with regular household surveys

  19. Combined Effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on Lake Chad Level Variability Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Sakai, Ricardo; Ichoku, Charles; Anarado, Chigozie; Adegoke, Jimmy; Amadou, Angelina; Abdullahi, Sanusu Imran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Lake Chad (LC) level variability is explored. Our results show that the lake level at the Bol monitoring station has a statistically significant correlation with precipitation (R2 = 0.6, at the 99.5% confidence level). The period between the late 1960s and early 1970s marked a turning point in the response of the regional rainfall to climatic drivers, thereby severely affecting the LC level. Our results also suggest that the negative impact of the cold phase of AMO on Sahel precipitation masks and supersedes the positive effect of La Niña in the early the 1970s. The drop in the size of LC level from 282.5 m in the early 1960s to about 278.1 m in 1983/1984 was the largest to occur within the period of study (1900-2010) and coincides with the combined cold phase of AMO and strong El Niño phase of ENSO. Further analyses show that the current warm phase of AMO and increasing La Niña episodes appear to be playing a major role in the increased precipitation in the Sahel region. The LC level is responding to this increase in precipitation by a gradual recovery, though it is still below the levels of the 1960s. This understanding of the AMO-ENSO-rainfall-LC level association will help in forecasting the impacts of similar combined episodes in the future. These findings also have implications for long-term water resources management in the LC region.

  20. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever, Q fever, and brucellosis in ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakar, Mahamat Fayiz; Naré, Ngandolo B; Schelling, Esther; Hattendorf, Jan; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever (RVF), brucellosis, and Q fever among domestic ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad was studied. The study area consisted of two parts, including mainland and islands. On the mainland, the study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages and camps. On the islands, samples were collected from all four available sites. A total of 985 serum samples were collected and 924 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for RVF. A total of 561 samples collected from islands were analyzed using ELISA for Q fever and both ELISA and Rose Bengal tests (RBT) for brucellosis. The apparent RVF seroprevalence by species was 37.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.2-41.3) in cattle, 18.8% (95% CI 12.3-25.2) in goats, and 10.8% (95% CI 3.0-18.5) in sheep. For brucellosis and Q fever, only cattle samples from islands were analyzed. For Q fever, the apparent seroprevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 5.6-10.1). For brucellosis, the RBT showed a prevalence of 5.7% (95% CI 3.8-7.6), and ELISA showed 11.9% (95% CI 9.3-14.6) with a kappa value of 0.53 showing a moderate agreement between the two tests. This study confirms the presence of the three diseases in the study area. More research is required to assess the importance for public health and conservation of the Kouri cattle breed.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes isolated from laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabo, Djim-adjim; Diguimbaye, Colette D; Granier, Sophie A; Moury, Frédérique; Brisabois, Anne; Elgroud, Rachid; Millemann, Yves

    2013-09-27

    This study aimed at updating knowledge on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella isolated from poultry in the province of N'Djamena, Chad. The results collected during this study provide the first baseline data on the prevalence of contamination by Salmonella in laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena. All samples were collected from sixteen poultry farms over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Diagnostic methods used during this study allowed to isolate eighty four Salmonella strains, belonging to twenty seven different serotypes. The most frequent serotypes were Salmonella Colindale (19%) followed by S. Minnesota (18%) S. Havana and S. Riggil (each 6%), S. Kottbus and S. Amager (4.7%), S. Idikan, Mississipi, and Muenchen (3.6%). Other serotypes were poorly represented. The majority of these serotypes were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except some S. Colindale isolates that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, S. Limete resistant to three antibiotics and S. Minnesota isolates resistant to five different antimicrobial classes. The different serotypes and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in Chad, the contribution of avian isolates to human salmonellosis and Salmonella's capacity to colonize all types of environment worldwide.

  2. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated

  3. Assessment of hospital morbidity, mortality, and cost-effectiveness of a nutritional program for children under 5 years of age in Pala, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, F; Coppieters, Y

    2000-08-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of case management at referral level for malnourished sick children in a rural district health system in the south of Chad (Pala district). The methodology followed was based on a cohort study of malnourished children as well as a cost-effective analysis of alternative options for nutritional rehabilitation strategies. Results show that effective case management at hospital level is possible with few resources as long as the nutritional rehabilitation programme is implemented on an integrated basis including early diagnosis of malnutrition for all children admitted to hospital and not to wait for a normal weight-for-height but discharge when the hospital is no longer the best place to avoid further mortality.

  4. Hydrocarbon Potentials, Thermal and Burial History in Herwa-1 Well from the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin: An Implication of 1-D Basin Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Mijinyawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study attempt to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials, thermal and burial history and the timing of hydrocarbon generation in Herwa-1 well within the Nigerian Sector of the Chad basin. Organic geochemical study of some ditch cuttings samples from Herwa-1 well and a One-dimensional basin modeling study was carried out. The result of the geochemical analysis revealed a moderate to good TOC greater than 0.5wt% in Fika and Gongila formation, the Hydrogen Index (HI ranges from 150-300 (mgHC/g and the Tmax values falls within the range of greater than or equal to 430°C. The hydrocarbon potentials in Herwa-1 well was further supported with the values of S1+S2 which is greater than or equal to 2 mg/g of rock in almost all the samples, suggesting a good hydrocarbon potentials. The 1-D basin model was constructed for Herwa-1 well in order to assess the burial history and thermal maturity of the potential source rocks in the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin. The modeling results indicate that maximum burial occurred in the late Miocene and suggesting erosion might have been the cause of the thinning of the Tertiary sediments in the present time. The calibration of Vitrinite reflectance against Temperature revealed the present day heat flow to be at 60 mW/m2 and Paleo heat flow falls within the range of 68 mW/m2. However, it is also revealed that Oil Window begins at (0.60-1.30% VRr at the depth of (2000-3000 m in the middle Cretaceous and the Gas Window start during the late Cretaceous to Tertiary with a value of (1.3-2.5% VRr at a depth greater than (3500 m.

  5. Malnutrition and mortality patterns among internally displaced and non-displaced population living in a camp, a village or a town in Eastern Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Guerrier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. METHODOLOGY: Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster household surveys were conducted among 43,900 internally displaced persons (IDPs living in camps in Ouaddai region (n = 898 households, among 19,400 non-displaced persons (NDPs living in 42 villages in Ouaddai region (n = 900 households and among 17,000 NDPs living in a small town in Salamat region (n = 901 households. Data collection included anthropometric measurements, measles vaccination rates and retrospective mortality. Crude mortality rate (CMR, mortality rate among children younger than 5 years (U5MR, causes of death and the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z score <-2 among children aged 6 to 59 months were the main outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: The CMR among the 4902 IDPs in Gozbeida camps, 4477 NDPs living in a village and 4073 NDPs living in a town surveyed was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.8, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.4, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5 per 10,000 per day, respectively. The U5MR in a camp (n = 904, a village (n = 956 and a town (n = 901 was 4.1 (95% CI, 2.1-7.7, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9 and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.4 per 10,000 per day, respectively. Diarrhoea was reported to be the main cause of death. Acute malnutrition rates (according to the WHO definition among 904 IDP children, 956 NDPs children living in a village, 901 NDP children living in a town aged 6 to 59 months were 20.6% (95% CI, 17.9%-23.3%, 16.4% (95% CI, 14.0%-18.8% and 10.1% (95% CI, 8.1%-12.2% respectively. The study found a high mortality rate among IDPs and an elevated prevalence of

  6. [Evaluation of the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age in Moundou, Chad: correlations with morbidity and hospital mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study carried out in the pediatric ward of the regional hospital in Moundou, Chad, between June 1992 and May 1993 was to assess the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in children under 5 years of age and its relationship with various diseases and in-hospital mortality. A total of 1050 children ranging in age from 1 to 59 months were hospitalized in the ward during the study period and included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed using weight-for-height (W/H) and height-for-age (H/A) charts. Diarrhea, dehydratation, malaria, anemia, acute respiratory infection, and meningitis accounted for 85.5% of the underlying diseases and for 76% of deaths. At entry into study the prevalence of malnutrition was 63.1% (W/H malnutrition (W/H Malnutrition was more prevalent in children under than over 2 years of age (80% vs. 42.7% respectively). The same trend was observed with regard to severe malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest in children with acute respiratory infections or diarrhea (61.3% and 89.8% respectively). Mortality was significantly higher in severely malnourished children and malnourished children with respiratory infection especially at ages under 1 year. Death was attributed to malnutrition in 30% of cases. Better low cost nutritional care is currently feasible. The most cost efficient methods of fighting against this problem are prevention and education especially concerning breast feeding.

  7. [Seasonal variations in the nutritional status of nomad and sedentary children less than 5 years of age living in the Sahel in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Seydi, M; Wade, S; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among rural and nomad populations in the Sahel. It is linked to socio-economic factors and exhibits significant seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children less than 5 years of age. A repeated cross-sectional study design based on interviews and anthropometric measurements was used. A total of 653 nomad children and 579 sedentary children ranging in age from 0 to 59 months were randomly selected in households/camps on the south-eastern shore of Lake Chad. Data were collected from the same number of children at the end of the dry season (May/June, 2007) and at the end of rainy season (October 2007). Findings showed significant interseasonal variation in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) between the end of the dry season and end of the rainy season. The respective variations were 17.9% to 13.7% (p = 0.03) in nomad children and 16.5% to 10.6% (p = 0.004) in sedentary children. Backward stepwise multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that GAM among children under 5 years of age was significantly correlated with the following risk factors: seasonal variation, child's age, mother's nutritional status, ethnic group, and place of residence (LRT=172 and p < 0.001 for the logistic regression model). These findings demonstrate the critical state of the nutritional situation in the Sahel and rural areas.

  8. Socio-Economic Survey as a Support Tool during the Scaling Up of Improved Stoves in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vitali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field assessment plays a key role in the evaluation of the energy access modalities and of the socio-economic features that may influence the beneficiaries’ choices and preferences in the adoption and use of an energy technology. This work presents the findings of a survey conducted during the implementation of a cooperation project in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon. After an initial period of promotion of an improved cookstove (ICS, a survey was conducted that was aimed at identifying different beneficiary groups, matching their preferences and cooking habits to the technology proposed, in order to best tailor the scaling-up strategy. In-depth analysis of the data gathered identified two household-user behaviors and the relative influencing features: in the urban area, the increased adoption rates confirmed the appropriateness of the technology proposed and its sustainability, whereas in the rural area, ICS use was not perceived by the final users as advantageous and lower adoption rates were observed. Thus, due to the outcome of the survey, the project action was re-oriented in order to achieve a higher impact on the territory and on the population.

  9. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  10. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  11. Characterizing 13 Years of Surface Water Variability from MODIS-based Near Real-Time Flood Mapping Products in the Indus River, Tonle Sap Lake, and Lake Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Driven by an increase in extreme weather events in a warming world, flooding appears to be increasing in many regions. Since 2012, we have been using the twice-daily near-global observations of the two MODIS instruments to operate a near real-time flood mapping capability. Primarily intended to support disaster response efforts, our system generates daily near-global maps of flood water extent, at 250 m resolution. Although cloud cover is a challenge, the twice-daily coverage from the Terra and Aqua satellites helps to capture most major events. We use the MOD44W product (the "MODIS 250-m land-water mask") to differentiate "normal" water from flood water. Products from the system are freely available, and used by disaster response agencies and academic and industry researchers. An open question, however, is: how "normal" are recently observed floods? Destructive and — as reported by the press — record floods seem to be occurring more and more frequently. With the MODIS archive going back to 1999 (Terra satellite) and 2002 (Aqua satellite), we now have more than a decade of twice-daily near-global observations to begin answering this question. Although the 13 years of available twice-daily data (2002-2015) are not sufficient to fully characterize surface water normals (e.g., 100-year floods), we can start examining recent trends in surface water extent and flood frequency. To do so, we have back-processed our surface water product through mid-2002 (Aqua launch) for a few regions, and have used this to evaluate the variability in surface water extent and flood frequency. These results will eventually feed back into an improved characterization of flood water in our near real-time flood product. Here we will present results on trends in surface water extent and flood frequency for a few regions, including the Indus in Pakistan, the Tonle Sap lake in Cambodia, and lake Chad in Africa.

  12. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  13. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  14. 基于多源遥感数据的非洲乍得湖水面变化监测%Remote sensing analysis on lake area variation of Lake Chad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘甜甜; 刘荣高; 葛全胜

    2013-01-01

    Lake Chad,on the border of the Sahara desert in central Africa,is well known for its high sensitivity to hydroclimatic events.Over the last 40 years,Lake Chad,once the sixth largest lake in the world,has shrunk by more than 90% in area.In this paper,variations of the open water areas,extracted from multi-source remote sensing data during 1973-2012,are analyzed.The results showed that in general Lake Chad was getting smaller and smaller during 1973-2012.Between 1973 and 1975 its area sharply reduced by about 71%.From then on its area ranges from 2000 km2 to 5000 km2.In order to validate the reliability of the trends,this paper first compares it with Birkett's results to analyze area accuracy,and next compares the results of MODIS with Landsat and AVHRR to validate the comparability of multi-source data,and last monitors monthly variation of Lake Chad area to validate the feasibility of multi-temporal data.Meteorological data analysis showed that the area of Lake Chad and the fluctuation of annual precipitation were in good correlation.Secondly,a large number of reservoirs built are another important cause of area reduction.Lastly,the Great Barrier that divided the lake into two smaller lakes has made it more vulnerable to water loss.%乍得湖位于中非撒哈拉沙漠边界,是非洲重要的淡水湖,湖面大小对气候变化高度敏感.近40年,由于干旱等自然灾害和大规模灌溉等人为因素的影响,乍得湖面积急剧减少,受到广泛关注.本文利用多种光学遥感数据提取1973-2012年乍得湖面积,分析其变化趋势和驱动机制.结果表明,1973-2012年间乍得湖面积总体上在变小,1973-1975年间乍得湖面积急剧减少了约71%,1975-2012年面积在2000~5000km2范围内波动.为验证变化趋势的可靠性,本文利用MODIS影像与同期Landsat和AVHRR影像的提取结果进行比较,来检验多源数据的可比性;通过MODIS影像监测乍得湖面积的月变化,来检验所选数

  15. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  16. Re-evaluation of the petroleum potential of the Kufra Basin (SE Libya, NE Chad): does the source rock barrier fall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Sebastian [Wales Univ., Inst. of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Craig, Jonathan [LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Fitches, Bill [Robertson Research International, Llandudno (United Kingdom); Mayouf, Juma; Busrewil, Ahmed; El Dieb, Mufta; Gammudi, Amar [Petroleum Research Centre, Tripoli (Libya); Loydell, David [Portsmouth Univ., School of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); McIlroy, Duncan [Liverpool Univ., STRAT Group, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    The Kufra Basin is a large, underexplored, Palaeozoic intracratonic sag basin in SE Libya and NE Chad with extensions into NW Sudan and SW Egypt. The basin fill consists of shallow marine to fluvial deposits ranging in age from infracambrian to Cretaceous. Geologically, the basin is very similar to the Murzuq Basin in SW Libya which recently presented Libya with its largest oil discovery for over a decade. Most of the hydrocarbon play elements known from the Murzuq Basin also occur in the Kufra Basin: thick, porous Cambro-Ordovician sandstones are present and would form good reservoirs, lower Silurian shales may act as effective seals, and there are potential structural traps in seismically defined fault blocks. However, the source rock availability in the Kufra Basin is currently unclear. One of the two main source rock candidates in the basin is a lower Silurian shale unit (Tanezzuft Formation). The Tanezzuft shales have been described as being up to 130 m thick in outcrops at the basin margins, but the shales were found to be replaced by siltstones and sandstones in two dry exploration wells drilled in the northern part of the basin by AGIP between 1978 and 1981. Hot shales developed at the base of this widespread Silurian shale unit form important source rocks in many areas of North Africa and Arabia. These hot shales are interpreted to have been deposited in palaeodepressions, such as incised valleys of the preceding lowstand, or intrashelf basins, during the initial transgression after the melting of the late Ordovician ice cap. The areal distribution of the organic-rich unit is, therefore, discontinuous. Fieldwork in the Kufra Basin has shown that the basal Tanezzuft horizon is not exposed on the northern and eastern margins of the basin. Deep infracambrian rift grabens have been interpreted on seismic lines from the Kufra Basin and, in analogy to Oman and Algeria, could contain organic-rich infracambrian deposits. The infracambrian succession in the Kufra

  17. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  18. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  19. Study of Standardized Anticoagulant Therapy in Elderly Patient with Atrial Fibrillation%CHADS2评分法规范老年非瓣膜性房颤治疗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣艳; 范正俊; 冯云萍; 浩一竹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand current the state of standardized anticoagulant therapy.In elderly patient with atrial fibrillation and analyze the factors that affect standard anticoagulant therapy,and at the same time,to make progress by the foundation of corresponding countermeasures.Method:Diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation elderly patients were history inspected for a period of 12 months(from January 2013 to December 2013)in 1st Hospital Cardiovascular Department,CHADS2 scheme method was used to stratify atrial fibrillation elderly patient and assess their risk of bleeding,the standardized anticoagulant therapy conditions were evaluated according to atrial fibrillation treatment guidelines.Result:A total of 161 patients were enrolled.According to the CHADS2 scheme,106 patients were divided into the high risk group,in which only 21 were on warfarin anticoagulant treatment.Among which 11(42.3%) had international normalized ratio(INR)in therapeutic range(2.0-3.0).Conclusion:The percentage of standard anticoagulant treatment in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation is very low(38.4%),still more,the percentage of high risk patients using warfarin standard anticoagulant treatment is even low 19.8%.Further investigation and understanding of the causes of this phenomenon will help intervene effectively and improve the standard of anticoagulant therapy in patient with atrial fibrillation.%目的:了解老年非瓣膜性心房颤动患者规范化抗凝治疗现状,分析影响规范化抗凝治疗的因素。方法:调取2013年1-12月份曲靖市第一人民医院住院诊断为非瓣膜性心房颤动的老年患者病历,采用CHADS2评分法评价其规范化抗凝情况。结果:共入选患者161例。按照CHADS2评分法将入组患者分组,其中评分≥1患者151例中,进行规范华法林抗凝治疗的仅26例,抗凝结果11例INR在目标范围内,达到华法林抗凝目标INR值的为42.3%。结论:老年非瓣膜性心房颤

  20. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  1. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  2. Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A

    2013-10-15

    The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin

  3. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods—intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants—in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher

  4. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author)

  5. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth's most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002-0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM < 0.1 μm. For all examined samples, the average iron apportionment is estimated at about 33% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4% in magnetite, and 65% in

  6. Häda taustauuringutega / Chad Terhune

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Terhune, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Üha enam firmasid Ameerikas on hakanud tegema taustauuringuid peamiselt keskmise ja madalama tasandi töökohadele tulnud avalduste andjate kohta. Selleks kasutatakse mitmeid tööandjatele taustauuringuid pakkuvaid firmasid, millest üks on ChoicePoint. Ettevõte koostab töösoovija kohta digitaalse toimiku, mis sisaldab haridusdiplomeid, krediidiajalugu ning ka intervjuusid sõprade, endiste ülemuste ja kolleegidega. Vt. samas: Taustakontroll

  7. Enamel hypoplasia in a pliocene hominid from Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Michel; Fronty, Pierre; Sapanet, Michel; de Bonis, Louis; Viriot, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    Abel is the first Australopithecine known west of the East African Rift Valley. The fossil finds include a perisymphyseal fragment of an adult mandible with well-preserved crowns of the right I2-P4 and the left C-P4. Abel's dentition displays many enamel defects, which are described in detail for each tooth. Pitting affected every tooth, while larger, shallow depressions were observed on the canines alone. From two to four pit bands occurred on the different teeth, each resulting from a separate hypoplastic episode. In modern humans, a large number of causes, both environmental and genetic, have been suggested for such enamel defects. It seems probable that Abel's pathology was systemic. However, the occurrence of a number of bands and the variable intensity of the attacks make it difficult to say whether there was a single, repetitive cause or different etiologies. Possible causes discussed here include recurrent fevers and seasonal nutritional deficiencies. PMID:12489142

  8. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries and in Benin, Chad Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has begun the works to increase the production capacity of the petroleum refinery of Ras Tanura. In Kuwait, the cost of the retrofitting and development programs for the petroleum field is evaluated to 4 milliards $. Several contracts have been signed in Tunisia and in Nigeria for the attribution of exploration permits. A cooperation agreement has been signed, in Taiwan, between Total and Chinese Petroleum Corporation, which allows the establishment of joint ventures for the development of petroleum exploration in Far East. Petroleum exploration has begun in Namibia where Norsk Hydro has achieved the interpretation of seismic studies and will drill a first exploration well. In Egypt, petroleum production is stabilized at a level of 870000 barrels per day and the transport capacity of Sumed pipeline will increase from 80 to 117 millions tons per year in 1994

  9. Possibilities of a concerted management of the areas of natural vegetation around Zakouma national park (Chad)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanon, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    R É S U M ÉI. Actuellement, en Afrique sub-saharienne, les acteurs de la conservation considèrent que lasurvie à long terme de la faune sauvage ne peut être assurée que par le maintien de son habitaten dehors des aires de conservation intégrale. Dans cette optique, les projets de conservationtentent de préserver des étendues de végétation naturelle au sein de « zones tampons » ou de« corridors de migration » dans la périphérie des aires protégées. Cette thèse s’est intéressée aux possibilités...

  10. Chad – Dakar: Habré trial is litmus test for Pan-African justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    From July 20th 2015, the former Chadian dictator, Hissène Habré, will stand in the dock on charges of crimes against humanity, torture and war crimes before the Extraordinary African Chambers (EAC) in the Senegalese court system. His trial will be Africa’s first to proceed to trial under the guise o

  11. Chad – Dakar: Extraordinary Habré trial is litmus test for Pan-African justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    From 20 July onwards, Chad’s previous despot, Hissène Habré, will be in the dock on charges of crimes against humanity, torture and war crimes before the Extraordinary African Chambers (EAC) in the Senegalese court system. His trial will be Africa’s first to proceed to trial under the guise of unive

  12. Rural Schools in Developing Countries: A Case of Donon Manga in Eastern Tandjile in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…

  13. Prevalence of filariasis in symptomatic patients in Moyen Chari district, south of Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregani, Enrico Rino; Balzarini, Laura; Mbaïdoum, Narassem; Rovellini, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Filarial parasites infect an estimated 140 million people worldwide. Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are responsible for most filarial infections in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of filariasis in symptomatic patients in Goundi Sanitary district:167 patients were enrolled (99 men, 68 women). M. perstans microfilariae were isolated in peripheral blood in 164 cases, while Loa loa and Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis were diagnosed in only six and three cases, respectively. The most frequent filariasis observed in our study were due to M. perstans and L. loa, while the few cases of W. bancrofti filariasis seem to have been acquired abroad. No cases of O. volvulus were observed. Microfilarial burden was not related to symptoms, but a correlation between eosinophilia and pruritus was evident. No relationship was observed between eosinophils and symptoms. The prevalence observed in symptomatic patients could reflect the real prevalence of filariasis. PMID:17716512

  14. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreni Jean-Richard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  15. Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad: integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weibel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.

  16. Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Wastewater from Abattoir, Brewery, Soap and Oil Factories, at Moundou City in Southern Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmatal Tidjanihisseine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of industrial wastewater in the city of Moundou deteriorates the quality of surface and underground water and soils. In this study the physicochemical quality of industrial effluents was investigated in different seasons (summer, winter and rainy. Three sampling sites were used (Central Abattoir discharge, Cotontchad (soap and oil factory discharge, and Brewery discharge, for sampling from July 2013 to December 2014. The following physico-chemical parameters were determined: pH, Temperature, EC, dissolved oxygen, COD, BOD5, NO3,PO4,SO4. Also, the heavy metals: Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, Zn, Cr, Fe, Al, was analyzed on spectrophotometers and results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO permissible limits. This study revealed that most parameters were much higher than the permissible limit for wastewater discharges:some parameters were to higher: pH (12,6, Temperature (37,8 °C, C.E (4270 µS/cm, organic matters: COD (1200 mg/l, SO4 (1280 mg/l, PO4(4460 mg/l, NO3 (63,6 mg/l, (Fe (63,34 mg/l, Zn (13,27 mg/l, Pb (4,0 mg/l, Cu (25,34 mg/l, Cd (31,78 mg/l, Cr (5,9 mg/l, Ni (39,5 mg/l. The study concludes that discharge of effluents by the companies; factory and materials from other anthropogenic sources severely pollute the Logone River with heavy metals and other pollutants. We recommended that each industry recycle its wastewater and put in place specific treatment plants, because pollutants to eliminate vary depending on the industry.

  17. CHADS2 score has a better predictive value than CHA2DS2-VASc score in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Xing YL; Ma Q; Ma XY; Wang CY; Zhang D; Sun Y

    2016-01-01

    Yunli Xing, Qing Ma, Xiaoying Ma, Cuiying Wang, Dai Zhang, Ying Sun Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Aim: The study aims to compare the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [two scores], type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism [TE] [doubled], vascular disease, age 65–74&...

  18. Conflict, mobility and language : the case of migrant Hadjaraye of Guéra to neighboring regions of Chari-Baguirmi and Salamat (Chad)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alio, K.

    2008-01-01

    The people of Guéra known as Hadjaraye (from Arabic: the mountain dwellers) have experienced all the atrocities of war and the sufferings of drought that caused them to emigrate. In the early 1970, the ecological conditions worsened and changed for ever, giving way to cyclic droughts which resulted

  19. Using self-organizing maps to infill missing data in hydro-meteorological time series from the Logone catchment, Lake Chad basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkiaka, E; Nawaz, N R; Lovett, J C

    2016-07-01

    Hydro-meteorological data is an important asset that can enhance management of water resources. But existing data often contains gaps, leading to uncertainties and so compromising their use. Although many methods exist for infilling data gaps in hydro-meteorological time series, many of these methods require inputs from neighbouring stations, which are often not available, while other methods are computationally demanding. Computing techniques such as artificial intelligence can be used to address this challenge. Self-organizing maps (SOMs), which are a type of artificial neural network, were used for infilling gaps in a hydro-meteorological time series in a Sudano-Sahel catchment. The coefficients of determination obtained were all above 0.75 and 0.65 while the average topographic error was 0.008 and 0.02 for rainfall and river discharge time series, respectively. These results further indicate that SOMs are a robust and efficient method for infilling missing gaps in hydro-meteorological time series. PMID:27282595

  20. Raptor habitat use in the Lake Chad Basin : insights into the effect of flood-plain transformation on Afrotropical and Palearctic raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.

    2013-01-01

    West African flood-plains have undergone major land-use transformations in the second half of the 20th century. To obtain insight in the effect of flood-plain development for irrigated rice cultivation on the abundance, richness, and diversity of Palearctic and Afrotropical raptors, we conducted mon

  1. Raptor habitat use in the lake Chad basin: insights into the effect of flood-plain transformation on afrotropical and paleartic raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Croes, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    West African flood-plains have undergone major land-use transformations in the second half of the 20th century. To obtain insight in the effect of flood-plain development for irrigated rice cultivation on the abundance, richness, and diversity of Palearctic and Afrotropical raptors, we conducted mon

  2. New material of Anancus kenyensis (proboscidea, mammalia) from Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, Chad): Contribution to the systematics of African anancines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Tassy, Pascal; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-03-01

    New fossil remains of the proboscidean genus Anancus are described. Among them, a complete skull allows us to revisit for the first time the entire Chadian Anancus fossil record. This genus occurred in the Old World from the late Miocene up to the early Pleistocene. The analysis of dental and cranial characters was allowed individual variations from specific characters to be distinguished. In this study we show that Anancus kenyensis and Anancus osiris are very likely synonym taxa which leads us to emend the diagnosis of A. kenyensis. In addition, this study shows that dental characters in anancines lineage are of little significance for biostratigraphical inference, by contrast to previous works. This study brings new data about the phylogenetical and palaeobiogeographical history of the African anancines.

  3. Economía política de la reforma de las políticas del Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario Internacional en África subsahariana. El caso del Chad.

    OpenAIRE

    Colom Jaén, Artur

    2009-01-01

    A mediados de los 90 emerge un cuestionamiento del enfoque del ajuste estructural promovido por el Banco Mundial y el FMI en los países en desarrollo, especialmente en África, que lleva a estas instituciones a cambiar su discurso. Las preguntas que guían la investigación son (1) si estos cambios suponen un cuestionamiento real del enfoque del ajuste estructural, y (2) si estos cambios pueden modificar la inserción periférica de África en la economía mundial. El marco teórico del que se parte ...

  4. 2009年乍得尼日尔和尼日利亚脑膜炎流行情况%Meningitis in Chad, Niger and Nigeria: 2009 epidemic season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WHO; 宁桂军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 背景脑膜炎奈瑟菌(Neisseria meningitidis,Nm)是非洲脑膜炎地带脑膜炎流行的主要病原,所引起的脑膜炎球菌疾病占医疗机构中细菌性脑膜炎住院病例的80%~95%.其他大部分细菌性脑膜炎病例由肺炎链球菌和b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus Influenzae Type b,Hib)引起.非洲脑膜炎地带位于非洲撒哈拉沙漠以南,西起寒内加尔,东至埃塞俄比亚,覆盖21个国家,总人口约4亿.该地带脑膜炎球菌疾病特点是高度地方流行、季节件复发和周期性大爆发,年发病率可岛达1000/10万.2003~2009年,该地带脑膜炎流行导致了近27万病例,死亡2.5万人.

  5. Application of K2SO4/ Silicate Drilling Fluid in Chad Bongor Basin%硫酸钾/硅酸盐钻井液在乍得Bongor盆地的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代礼杨; 李洪俊; 苏秀纯; 于永新; 董殿彬; 贾培娟

    2011-01-01

    乍得Bongor盆地Kubla、Mimosa地层黏土矿物含量高,层理和微裂隙发育,易发生井壁水化膨胀、井眼坍塌现象.因此在对坍塌层位岩性进行综合分析的基础上.针对乍得Bongor盆地环境保护要求高的特点,研制出一种安全环保的强抑制K2SO4/硅酸盐钻井液.在Prosopis E1-1井的现场应用表明,该钻井液携岩能力强,具有良好的抑制泥页岩水化膨胀能力和防止地层垮塌能力;其抗盐膏、水泥污染能力强,性能稳定,易于维护;润滑性好,泥饼薄而韧,摩阻低;所钻井井径规则,对稳定井壁起到了显著的作用.

  6. Nanomechanical phenotype of chondroadherin-null murine articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Michael A; Nia, Hadi T; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Cox, Karen A; Ortiz, Christine; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Heinegård, Dick; Han, Lin

    2014-09-01

    Chondroadherin (CHAD), a class IV small leucine rich proteoglycan/protein (SLRP), was hypothesized to play important roles in regulating chondrocyte signaling and cartilage homeostasis. However, its roles in cartilage development and function are not well understood, and no major osteoarthritis-like phenotype was found in the murine model with CHAD genetically deleted (CHAD(-/-)). In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation to quantify the effects of CHAD deletion on changes in the biomechanical function of murine cartilage. In comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, CHAD-deletion resulted in a significant ≈70-80% reduction in the indentation modulus, Eind, of the superficial zone knee cartilage of 11 weeks, 4 months and 1 year old animals. This mechanical phenotype correlates well with observed increases in the heterogeneity collagen fibril diameters in the surface zone. The results suggest that CHAD mainly plays a major role in regulating the formation of the collagen fibrillar network during the early skeletal development. In contrast, CHAD-deletion had no appreciable effects on the indentation mechanics of middle/deep zone cartilage, likely due to the dominating role of aggrecan in the middle/deep zone. The presence of significant rate dependence of the indentation stiffness in both WT and CHAD(-/-) knee cartilage suggested the importance of both fluid flow induced poroelasticity and intrinsic viscoelasticity in murine cartilage biomechanical properties. Furthermore, the marked differences in the nanomechanical behavior of WT versus CHAD(-/-) cartilage contrasted sharply with the relative absence of overt differences in histological appearance. These observations highlight the sensitivity of nanomechanical tools in evaluating structural and mechanical phenotypes in transgenic mice. PMID:24892719

  7. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea- Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Lao.... Is the need clearly established with statistics on food deficiencies, malnutrition, micronutrient... clearly demonstrate commitment to reducing the prevalence of malnutrition and under-nutrition in...

  8. Refined Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    Chad no longer dependent on oil product innports as the country opens its primary oil refinery THE Republic of Chad has put an end to importing oil products,with the inauguration of its first refinery by Chadian President Idriss Deby.Located near Ndjamena,the country’s capital,the refinery will process and transform the country’s crude oil reserves into gasoline,kerosene,gas oil and other fuels.

  9. Substantial differences in initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy and clinical outcome among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients treated in inpatient and outpatient settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Anders Pretzmann; Hansen, Morten Lock; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring;

    2016-01-01

    with a CHADS2 ≥ 2 was 42.1, 63.0, and 32.4%, respectively. Initiation of OAC therapy was only modestly influenced by CHADS2 and HAS-BLED scores, regardless of the healthcare setting. The rate of TE was 4.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.21-4.40] per 100 person-years for inpatients, 2.28 (95% CI 2...

  10. Effect of Polysaccharide from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis of Chad Lake on Immunity and Anti-tumor Activity of S180 Ascites Sarcoma Mice%非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖对S180腹水瘤小鼠免疫抗肿瘤作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玲; 扈瑞平; 穆文静; 赵飞艳; 敖长金

    2014-01-01

    采用小鼠S180腹水瘤模型,观察非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖不同剂量组小鼠的生存状况、瘤体外观,测定非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖对小鼠免疫器官指数及血清IL-2和TNF-α水平的影响,以探讨非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖对肿瘤的抑制作用及其对S180腹水瘤小鼠的免疫调节作用.结果表明:高、中、低三个剂量的非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖均能改善腹水瘤小鼠的生存状况,缩小肿瘤在体内扩散的范围;不同浓度的非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖组小鼠胸腺和脾脏指数均高于模型组,肝体/比均低于模型组,以中剂量组作用效果最为显著(P<0.05);不同剂量的非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖均显著提高小鼠血清TNF-α的水平(P<0.05),对IL-2含量的影响表现为三个剂量组的均高于模型组,且高、中剂量组的与模型组相比差异显著(P<0.05);三种剂量组之间相比,中剂量组对IL-2和TNF-α的诱生作用最明显,与高、低剂量组相比差异均显著(P<0.05).研究结果提示,非洲乍得湖钝顶螺旋藻多糖能够促进小鼠免疫器官的生长发育从而增强免疫功能,也可通过促进小鼠免疫细胞分泌TNF-α和IL-2而发挥免疫调节作用.

  11. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  12. 非瓣膜性房颤患者支架植入术后的抗栓策略%Antithrombotic Strategies of the Patients with Non-Valvular AF after PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莹

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察房颤患者经皮冠状动脉介入术( post-percutaneous coronary intervention ,PCI)后使用三联疗法( triple therapy ,TT)即华法林+双联抗血小板疗法( dual antiplatelet therapy ,DAPT)的安全性及有效性。方法:这是一项单中心、回顾性研究。主要复合事件包括死亡、缺血性卒中或短暂性脑缺血发作;胃肠道出血、颅内出血。结果:房颤PCI术后患者中,22例接受TT,13例接受DAPT。随访6个月。 TT组CHADS2评分较高,较年长,男性较多。 CHADS2评分值>2分,TT显著减少缺血事件。但TT组复合出血事件增多。 CHADS2评分值>2分的净临床获益(net clinical benefit,NCB)为正值。结论:NCB表明CHADS2评分值>2分的患者使用TT有明显获益。 CHADS2评分可作为房颤PCI术后患者抗栓策略的评估工具。%Objective:To determine the safety and efficacy of triple therapy ( TT): warfarin with dual antiplatelet therapy ( DAPT) for treating patients with atrial fibrillation ( AF) in post -percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods:This was a single -centre,retrospective study.Primary composite destination event were death , ischemic stroke , or transient ischemic attack; gastrointestinal bleeds , intracerebral hemorrhage.Results:In post-PCI patients with AF,22 received TT,13 received DAPT.Mean follow-up was 6 months.The TT group had a higher CHADS2 score,and older,much more male.CHADS2 score >2, TT decreased ischemic events significantly , but with composite bleeding events were increasing .When CHADS 2 score >2 , Net clinical benefit ( NCB ) was in positive value .Conclusion:NCB declares that patient with CHADS2 score >2 is beneficial to receive TT .CHADS2 score may be used to determine optimal antithrombotic therapy for patients with Af after PCI .

  13. Effect of Metabolic Syndrome on Risk Stratification for Left Atrial or Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus Formation in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Li; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a risk factor for stroke and thromboembolism event. Left atrial or LA appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus is a surrogate of potential stroke. The relationship between MS and atrial thrombus remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of MS on risk stratification of LA/LAA thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 294 consecutive NVAF patients without prior anticoagulant and lipid-lowering therapies. LA/LAA thrombus was determined by transesophageal echocardiography. Risk assessment of LA/LAA thrombus was performed using the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, MS, CHADS2-MS, and CHA2DS2-VASc-MS scores. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors were significantly related to LA/LAA thrombus. Odds ratio (OR) including 95% confidence interval was also calculated. The predictive powers of different scores for the risk of LA/LAA thrombus were represented by C-statistics and compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: LA/LAA thrombi were identified in 56 patients (19.0%). Logistic analysis showed that MS was the strongest risk factor for LA/LAA thrombus in NVAF patients (OR = 14.698, P < 0.001). ROC curve analyses revealed that the C-statistics of CHADS2-MS and CHA2DS2-VASc-MS was significantly higher than those of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (CHADS2-MS vs. CHADS2, 0.807 vs. 0.726, P = 0.0019). Furthermore, MS was helpful for identifying individuals with a high risk of LA/LAA thrombus in the population with a low risk of stroke (CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc score = 0). Conclusions: MS is associated with LA/LAA thrombus risk in patients with NVAF. In addition to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, the CHADS2-MS and CHA2DS2-VASc-MS scores provide additional information on stroke risk assessment. PMID:27748329

  14. Nanomechanics of Murine Articular Cartilage Reveals the Effects of Chondroadherin Knockouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Michael; Grodzinsky, Alan; Ortiz, Christine; Heinegård, Dick; Han, Lin

    2012-02-01

    With high resolution nanotechnology tools, quantification of cartilage biomechanical properties provides important insights into the role of low abundance matrix molecules on cartilage function and pathology. In this study, the role of chondroadherin (CHAD) on cartilage mechanical properties was assessed via atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation (0.1-10 μm/s z-piezo displacement rates) of murine knee cartilage from wild type (WT) and CHAD knockout (KO) animals ages 1 year, 4 month, and 11 weeks (n>=4 joints/age-group). A significant increase in indentation modulus, E, with indentation rate in all specimens (ptissue network and, hence, decrease local osmotic swelling while increasing the hydraulic permeability of the aggrecan-filled network. Ongoing studies are investigating the biochemical properties and nanostructure of CHAD KO joints.

  15. Way that Student Party Members and Party Branch Play the Role in Good School Spirit and Study Style Construction: Based on Hector—Brent Chad's Situational Leadership Theory%学生党员、党支部在优良校风、学风建设中发挥作用的途径研究——基于赫赛—布兰查德的情境领导理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

    School spirit and style of study is a school's atmosphere; it is a kind of stable, distinct, and recognized behavior trend that all teaching and administrative staff and students forms for a long time in teaching and study. The paper studies the role of student party members and party branch in construction of good school spirit and study style, and discusses that student party members and party branch should take the different styles of leadership when forming good school spirit and study style according to different student group.%校风、学风,就是一所学校的风气,是指一所学校的全体教职工和学生在教学和学习过程中经过长期积累所形成的稳定的、鲜明的、被社会公众所公认的行为倾向.本文通过将组织行为学、管理学引入学生党员、党支部在优良校风、学风建设发挥作用的途径研究中,论证高校学生党员、党支部在形成和维系优良校风、学风等优秀组织文化中,应根据学生群体的不同类型采取不同的领导方式.

  16. Farvebilleder fra det mørke Afrika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing Tchadian director Mahamet-Saleh Haroun’s 2013 film Grigris the article discusses the political potentials of contemporary Sub-Saharan Film. The article rejects frameworks of African and Francophone cinema and argues that a localized understanding of this film in Chad provides a better...... understanding of the universal and global reach of the engagement with politics that is one of the film’s prime objectives. It is through an understanding of the local and regional society and history that it becomes evident how the film engages with political issues with reach far beyond the borders of Chad...

  17. Guideline Adherence of Antithrombotic Treatment Initiated by General Practitioners in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Danish Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandes, Axel; Overgaard, Mikkel; Plauborg, Liane;

    2013-01-01

    .001) of the patients. Of all patients, 66.3% were treated with oral anticoagulants, 18.7% with antiplatelet drugs only, and 15% received no antithrombotic therapy. Based on the CHADS(2) score, 75.7% of the patients were treated in adherence with the guidelines, 16% were undertreated, and 8.4% overtreated....... The corresponding numbers for the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score were 75.4%, 22.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. The differences in guideline adherence applying the 2 scores were significant (P therapy, 64.1% were treated in adherence to the guidelines according to the CHADS(2...

  18. From Afghanistan to Abeche : The Norwegian contribution to MINURCAT: applying a framework of interests and values

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed light on the various motivational factors that affected the political decision-making processes of Norway’s contribution to the UN-led operation in Chad 2009/10 (MINURCAT). By applying a theoretical framework of interests and values, this thesis discovered a set of variables that contributed to the understanding of the two political decisions of entering and exiting Chad. The study traces the shifting discourse from the outspoken ambitions in Soria Moria to ‘increase ...

  19. Recurrence plots from altimetry data of some lakes in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  20. Recurrence Plots from Altimetry Data of Some Lakes in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  1. 75 FR 61239 - Request for Public Comments on Annual Review of Country Eligibility for Benefits Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ..., Republic of Chad, Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo..., Republic of Kenya, Kingdom of Lesotho, Republic of Liberia, Republic of Malawi, Republic of Mali, Islamic..., Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, ] Republic of Guinea, Republic of Equatorial Guinea, State of Eritrea,...

  2. The moral challenge of green technology / Aarne P Vesilind, Lauren Heine, Jamie Hendry

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vesilind, Aarne P

    2006-01-01

    Autorid leiavad, et rohelise tehnoloogia kasutuselevõtu ja ettevõtete kasumi teenimise vastuseisu korral võidab kasumlikkus ning reguleerimata vaba turu süsteem ei toeta jätkusuutlikku arengut. Käsitletakse ettevõtte DuPont tegevdirektori Chad Holliday otsust jätkata tulutoova toote Teflon tootmist

  3. Lipid-based nutrient supplements: how can they combat child malnutrition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn G Dewey

    Full Text Available Kathryn Dewey and Mary Arimond discuss new research in PLOS Medicine that assesses the effect of blanket provision of ready-to-use supplementary food to children at high risk of malnutrition in Chad, and highlight some of the challenges of investigating the efficacy of supplementary foods for malnourished children.

  4. Lipid-based nutrient supplements: how can they combat child malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Arimond, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Kathryn Dewey and Mary Arimond discuss new research in PLOS Medicine that assesses the effect of blanket provision of ready-to-use supplementary food to children at high risk of malnutrition in Chad, and highlight some of the challenges of investigating the efficacy of supplementary foods for malnourished children.

  5. The silent victims of humanitarian crises and livelihood (in)security: a case study among migrants in two Chadian towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djindil, N.S.; Bruijn, de M.

    2009-01-01

    Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assis

  6. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...

  7. Without Speaking, Youth Enters Adult Work Scene, Copes with Autism a Day at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the story of Chad Roberts of Canton, Georgia, who is proving himself a promising employee day by day. He works several jobs in increments of up to 90 minutes. Some days, he completes bulk mailings at a law firm. On others, he's at local restaurants stocking the wait staff stations with supplies. The community-based vocational…

  8. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation: nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS(2) (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age≥75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc (CHA(2)DS(2)-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes...

  9. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...

  10. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of the Act, with respect to Chad, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mauritania, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia... legislative mandates concerning U.S. participation in the multilateral development banks; or (3) is... determination to the Congress, and to publish it in the Federal Register.BARACK OBAMATHE WHITE HOUSE,...

  11. The Niger River Basin : A Vision for Sustainable Management

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Inger; Dione, Ousmane; Jarosewich-Holder, Martha; Olivry, Jean-Claude; Golitzen, Katherin George

    2008-01-01

    The Niger River Basin Authority (NBA) brings together nine countries to promote integrated water resources management across political borders. The nine - Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria have embraced a shared vision to build institutional capacity, political agreement, and public support for cooperation. The countries agree that sustain...

  12. 'Ins' and 'outs' of triple therapy: Optimal antiplatelet therapy in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation who need coronary stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, W.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Breet, N.; Koolen, J.J.; Berg, J.M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Chronic oral anticoagulant treatment is obligatory in patients (class I) with mechanical heart valves and in patients with atrial fibrillation with CHADS2 score >1. When these patients undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of a stent, there is also an indication for treatment

  13. The Effect of Adding Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food to a General Food Distribution on Anemia, Length, and Morbidity: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Kathryn G.; Mary Arimond

    2012-01-01

    Kathryn Dewey and Mary Arimond discuss new research in PLOS Medicine that assesses the effect of blanket provision of ready-to-use supplementary food to children at high risk of malnutrition in Chad, and highlight some of the challenges of investigating the efficacy of supplementary foods for malnourished children.

  14. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-appointment to 3 year term); Category M. ``1994 Equity in Education Land-Grant Institutions,'' Chad Waukechon... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Burk, Executive Director, National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education... 20250-0002, Telephone: (202) 720-3684, Fax: (202) 720-6199, or email:...

  15. TTIP in the Bigger Picture

    OpenAIRE

    DAMRO, Chad

    2015-01-01

    The proposed EU-US trade agreement (TTIP) is the product of the dynamics of the global trade regime and the evolution of the transatlantic relationship, argues Chad Damro. He suggests that a successful deal would both increase EU-US interdependence and encourage competition between them, with significant implications for the global political economy.

  16. Natural Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad C. Mohan

    1996-01-01

    Participatory community-based Natural Resources Management (NRM) Projects have been implemented over the last 5-6 years in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger with the support of France, Germany, Norway, the United States, and the World Bank's International Development Association facility. Furthermore, pilot operation concentrating on specific NRM issues are underway in Chad (pastoral pe...

  17. 75 FR 44050 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...; FMCSA-2006-24015; FMCSA-2008-0106; FMCSA-2008-0174, using any of the following methods. Federal e... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19476). This information is also available at http://www.... Nuckles, Richard A. Peterson, Willam R. Proffitt, Chad M. Quarles, Carroll G. Quisenberry, Daniel...

  18. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sean David

    2012-01-01

    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  19. Phonology and Morphology of Mambay (Niger-Congo, Adamawa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonby, Erik John

    2008-01-01

    Mambay is an Adamawa (Niger-Congo) language spoken by 15,000 people in Chad and Cameroon. The study opens with historical and linguistic background. A phonological inventory of the language is then presented and distribution patterns are examined. Some striking phenomena include a profoundly phon

  20. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age=75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA2DS2-VASc (CHA2DS2-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes to pr...

  1. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...) 761-7718, chad.stovall@ak.usda.gov . American Samoa (See Hawaii) Arizona Alan Watt, USDA Rural Development, 230 North First Avenue, Suite 206, Phoenix, AZ 85003-1706, (602) 280-8769, Alan.Watt@az.usda.gov..., Jackson, MS 39269, (601) 965-5457, george.jones@ms.usda.gov . Missouri Matt Moore, USDA Rural...

  2. Who's Who and What's What? Special Education Services for Foster Care Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the educational experiences of a foster care student named Chad. His foster parents and teacher notice educational deficits and express concern about gaps in the student's cumulative educational record. The principal and special education director must guide all constituents to adhere to special education mandates and at the…

  3. Volunteer Notes on Reforestation. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Steve, Comp.

    Provided in this document are descriptions of reforestation projects and techniques presented by Peace Corps volunteers from Chad, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, and Niger. The purpose of the document is to aid individuals in trying to find solutions to the problems facing forestry in the Sahel. These projects include: (1) reforestation of Ronier palm…

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_776444.1| chondroadherin [Bos taurus] sp|Q27972|CHAD_BOVIN Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) (38 kDa bone protein) [Contains: Chondroadherin m

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_062037.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norvegicus] sp|O70210|CHAD_RAT Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAC40060.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norveg...icus] gb|EDM05713.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norvegicus] NP_062037.1 9e-85 57% ...

  6. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, A; Lane, D A; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    2012-01-01

    risk of stroke and thromboembolism gain the greatest benefit from OAC with warfarin. There are no data for the new OACs, that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, as yet. We calculated the net clinical benefit balancing IS against ICH using data from the Danish National Patient Registry...... on patients with non-valvular AF between 1997-2008, for dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban on the basis of recent clinical trial outcome data for these new OACs. In patients with CHADS2=0 but at high bleeding risk, apixaban and dabigatran 110 mg bid had a positive net clinical benefit. At CHA2DS2-VASc=1......, apixaban and both doses of dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg bid) had a positive net clinical benefit. In patients with CHADS2 score=1 or CHA2DS2-VASc=2, the three new OACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) appear superior to warfarin for net clinical benefit, regardless of risk of bleeding. When risk...

  7. The role of THRIVE score in prediction of outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤寿江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study whether the total health risks in vascular events(THRIVE)score could predict the prognosis in the acute ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods A total of 169 patients were enrolled in the study,with NIH Stroke Scale(NIHSS)score,THRIVE score and CHADS2score given to each patients at admission and modified Rankin Scale(mRS)given at3 months follow up.All patients were divided into the

  8. An evidence-based review of edoxaban and its role in stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya T; Deedwania P

    2015-01-01

    Tushar Acharya, Prakash Deedwania Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Fresno, CA, USA Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality from cardioembolic complications like stroke. As a result, atrial fibrillation patients are risk-stratified using the CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems. Those at intermediate-to-high risk have traditionally be...

  9. Petroleum; Petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-05-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  10. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  11. Ressources alimentaires non conventionnelles

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse, F.

    2004-01-01

    Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, rese...

  12. Stroke and Death Prediction with the Impact of Vascular Disease in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Maan, MD; Amir Y. Shaikh, MD; Moussa Mansour, MD; Jeremy N. Ruskin, MD; E. Kevin Heist, MD, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in the U.S. and the growing burden of AF has profound health implications due to the association of AF with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and mortality. AF is a significant risk factor for thromboembolic stroke; and also independently increases total mortality in patients with and without cardiovascular disease. Various risk stratification schemes such as CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc have been implemented in clinical ...

  13. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  14. COOPERATION OR CONFLICT? IDENTITY AND SCARCE RESOURCES OF PREHISTORIC SAHARAN PASTORALISTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lenssen-Erz, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Nomadic or transhumant pastoralists in the Ennedi Highlands in north easternChad have always had to cope with scarce resources. When the region was first made use of bypastoralists circa 3000 BC, aridification had already started. Despite progressing aridification, the landscape was used for herding cattle and goats, and later also for keeping horses and camelsin the following millennia. Hundreds of rock art sites are witness to this appropriation.While demographic data are still missing, it ...

  15. Community Influences on Married Men's Uptake of HIV Testing in Eight African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...

  16. RESTAURATION DES TERRES DEGRADEES DE LA LISIERE DU PARC DE MANDA (TCHAD) ET DEVELOPPEMENT LOCAL DES PRATIQUES ET DES REALITES SOCIO-SPATIALES CONTRASTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Ouya, Bondoro

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss the important issues concerning natural resource conservation and the socio-economic development of the periphery of the Manda park, in southwest Chad. In the face of climactic irregularities, the problem of conservation and use and natural resources is confronted with several issues. During the past two decades, several production models have been tested, including: the application of successive levels of chemical fertilizer, compost, and oil cakes following each cult...

  17. A Viral Vectored Prime-Boost Immunization Regime Targeting the Malaria Pfs25 Antigen Induces Transmission-Blocking Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Anna L.; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Sumi Biswas; Yimin Wu; Hill, Adrian V.; Sinden, Robert E.; Draper, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63), human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a ...

  18. Lakes, groundwater and palaeohydrology in the Sahel of NE Nigeria : evidence from hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. Edmunds; Fellman, E.; Goni, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters from rain, soil, the unsaturated zone, shallow aquifers, lakes and the stratified aquifer system of the Chad Basin sediments has been investigated to interpret modern hydrological processes and to reconstruct the palaeohydrology of NE Nigeria, a type region of the southern Sahel. Recharge to the confined Middle and Lower aquifers, recorded in NE Nigeria, occurred between 24 and 18.6 ka BP, prior to the last glacial maximum. The mean annual temperature at thi...

  19. Simulation of Daily Snapshot Rhythm Monitoring to Identify Atrial Fibrillation in Continuously Monitored Patients with Stroke Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yano

    Full Text Available New technologies are diffusing into medical practice swiftly. Hand-held devices such as smartphones can record short-duration (e.g., 1-minute ECGs, but their effectiveness in identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF is unknown.We used data from the TRENDS study, which included 370 patients (mean age 71 years, 71% men, CHADS2 score≥1 point: mean 2.3 points who had no documentation of atrial tachycardia (AT/AF or antiarrhythmic or anticoagulant drug use at baseline. All were subsequently newly diagnosed with AT/AF by a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED over one year of follow-up. Using a computer simulation approach (5,000 repetitions, we estimated the detection rate for paroxysmal AT/AF via daily snapshot ECG monitoring over various periods, with the probability of detection equal to the percent AT/AF burden on each day.The estimated AT/AF detection rates with snapshot monitoring periods of 14, 28, 56, 112, and 365 days were 10%, 15%, 21%, 28%, and 50% respectively. The detection rate over 365 days of monitoring was higher in those with CHADS2 scores ≥2 than in those with CHADS2 scores of 1 (53% vs. 38%, and was higher in those with AT/AF burden ≥0.044 hours/day compared to those with AT/AF burden <0.044 hours/day (91% vs. 14%; both P<0.05.Daily snapshot ECG monitoring over 365 days detects half of patients who developed AT/AF as detected by CIED, and shorter intervals of monitoring detected fewer AT/AF patients. The detection rate was associated with individual CHADS2 score and AT/AF burden.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00279981.

  20. Success?: ESDP military conflict management operations: 2003-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2009-01-01

    From 2003 to 2009, the EU launched five military conflict management operations within the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy. This thesis examines their success. To this end, the thesis develops a definition and a set of criteria for success. It applies this theoretical framework in an empirical case study of success in the five EU operations, which were undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic...

  1. L'expérience tchadienne des personnes déplacées, réinstallées dans les ouadis de la région du Ouaddaï Géographique (Nord-Est du Tchad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondjo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chadian experience of displaced people, resettled in the wadis of the geographical Ouaddai region (North-East Chad. Though climatic and other factors have reduced wildlife's role in the life of Sereer villagers, hunting for food is still practised, especially by younger peuple. Thanks to a field study, this activity is examined and its future envisaged in the context of rural development.

  2. Screening for atrial fibrillation with baseline and intermittent ECG recording in an out-of-hospital population

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Hörnsten, Rolf; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: the objective of this study is to investigate the detection rate of undiagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) with short intermittent ECG recordings during four weeks among out-of-hospital patients, having at least one additional risk factor (CHADS2) for stroke. METHOD: Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight family practice centres and two hospital-based out-patient clinics in Sweden. Subjects: 989 out-of-hospital patients, without known AF, having one or more risk factors assoc...

  3. Utilization Pattern of Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medicines Among the Patients Suffering From Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Jadav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antithrombotic therapy is recommended in atrial fibrillation (AF patients due to high risk of stroke. However, antithrombotic therapy is often underutilized due to adverse effects and limited data available in Indian population. Aims: Primary objective was to study usage pattern of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in AF patients. Secondary objective was to assess the risk of stroke and compare usage pattern of antithrombotic drugs in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF patients with application of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score. Materials and Methods: A prospective and observational study was conducted in outpatient department for period of one year in patients > 35 years of either gender diagnosed with AF due to any established cause. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score were used to assess risk of stroke among NVAF patients. Results: 111 patients diagnosed with AF (mean age 54 years; 54.96% female were analyzed and out of these, 78 patients were valvular AF patients and 33 were NVAF patients. Anticoagulants were predominantly prescribed in 60 valvular AF patients. Out of 33 NVAF patients, 19 (57.57% patients had CHADS2 score 1 while as per CHA2DS2-VASc score 28 (84.84% patients had score ≥ 2. Out of 33 NVAF patients, 15 (45.45% patients were prescribed warfarin, aspirin in 12 (36.36% patients and no antithrombotic therapy in 6 (18.18% patients. Conclusion: Oral anticoagulant drugs are most commonly prescribed antithrombotic drugs in valvular AF and NVAF patients for stroke prevention. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score are easy, simple schemes to assess stroke risk in NVAF patients and helps physicians and patients to choose most suitable antithrombotic therapy.

  4. Predicting Stress Related to Basic Needs and Safety in Darfur Refugee Camps: A Structural and Social Ecological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Annan, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    The research on the determinants of mental health among refugees has been largely limited to traumatic events, but recent work has indicated that the daily hassles of living in refugee camps also play a large role. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for refugees nested within camp blocks, this exploratory study attempted to model stress surrounding safety and acquiring basic needs and functional impairment among refugees from Darfur living in Chad, using individual-level demograph...

  5. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Scotty

    2015-01-01

    Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological deter...

  6. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher SJ; Neyedly TJ; Horvey KJ; Benko CR

    2015-01-01

    Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determina...

  7. [Journalists to the rescue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanassawa, M F

    1994-12-01

    In October 1993, about 30 journalists from Chad participated in a seminar on population and development. The new division of population in the Ministry of Planning and Cooperation organized the seminar. The seminar aimed to inform the journalists of the objectives, strategies, and actions of the Declaration of Population Policy. It also intended to sensitize the journalists to the population problems facing Chad and to mobilize them in population sensitization operations. The seminar hoped to lead the journalists to regularly dedicate articles, reports, reporting, and investigations to population problems in relation to the process of socioeconomic development. Audiovisual presentations at the seminar included a slide show on the interrelationships of population and development in Chad, a presentation of the Declaration of Population Policy, and a report on journalism and population problems in reference to the Sahelian experience. These presentations allowed the journalists to engage in a strong enriching debate in which the basic principles of relations between population and development were discussed. Population problems are, to a great extent, the consequence of choices, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals, couples, and families. They participate in the culture and in civilization. The repercussions of these choices often constitute a restraint in terms of education, health for all, and adequate employment. After the seminar, the journalists seemed to have understood that their mission will be to convince populations to adopt behaviors and attitudes compatible with sustainable development objectives. Journalists from Chad hope that such seminars, especially workshops, will expand in order to allow them to better understand the demographic elements necessary to their work.

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_001258.2| chondroadherin precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|O15335|CHAD_HUMAN Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAK51556.1|AF371328_1 chondroadher...in [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH36360.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH73974.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW94613.1| chondroad

  9. Anticoagulation and Clinical Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the ADHERE Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubin J. Eapen, MD; Xiaojuan Mi, PhD; Gregg C. Fonarow, MD; Soko Setoguchi, MD, DrPH;

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The risks and benefits of anticoagulation for patients with both heart failure and atrial fibrillation are unclear. We hypothesized that anticoagulation was associated with improved clinical outcomes of heart failure patients with atrial fibrillation independent of other risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for new users of oral anticoagulation (warfarin without contraindications, discharged home alive, and stratified by CHADS2 score. Outcomes of interest were propensity score-adjusted estimates of the effects of warfarin at discharge on all-cause mortality, thromboembolic events, major adverse cardiovascular events, and bleeding events. Among 10,494 patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the 2249 patients newly treated with warfarin had lower 1-year mortality (27.7% vs 39.3% for CHADS2 score ≤ 3 [P 3 [P 3: 0.78 [0.66-0.93]. In conclusion, warfarin use in heart failure patients with atrial fibrillation was associated with improved survival at 1 year independent of baseline CHADS2 score. However, there was no significant reduction in clinical events, such as thromboembolic or major adverse cardiovascular events at 1 year that might simply explain the survival benefit associated with warfarin.

  10. Stroke Risk Predictor Scoring Systems in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Fan Chao, M.D; Shih-Ann Chen, M.D.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective risk stratification which could help us identify high-risk patients who should take oral anticoagulants (OACs is the key step for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF. Several scoring systems were available to estimate the risk of stroke in AF, including CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, R2CHADS2 and ATRIA scores, which were constituted of different clinical risk factors. Recently, several new OACs (NOACs were demonstrated to be at least as effective as warfarin in stroke prevention and were much safer regarding the risk of intra-cranial hemorrhage. In the era of NOACs, the roles of scoring schemes have shifted to identify patinets with a truly low-risk of thromboembolic events, in whom OACs were not recommended. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is powerful in selecting “truly low-risk” patients who are not necessary to receive anticoagulation therapies. Whether the new-emerging scoring systems, R2CHADS2 and ATRIA scores, could further improve the stroke prediction in AF deserves a further study.

  11. Combining viral vectored and protein-in-adjuvant vaccines against the blood-stage malaria antigen AMA1: report on a phase 1a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel Gw; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines--chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising "mixed-modality" regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible. PMID:25156127

  12. Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the northern Gondwana margin: new evidence for Ordovician-Silurian glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semtner, A.-K.; Klitzsch, E.

    1994-12-01

    During the Early Paleozoic, transgressions and the distribution of sedimentary facies on the northern Gondwana margin were controlled by a regional NNW-SSE to almost north-south striking structural relief. In Early Silurian times, a eustatic highstand enabled the sea to reach its maximum southward extent. The counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana during the Cambrian and Early Ordovician caused the northern Gondwana margin to shift from intertropical to southern polar latitudes in Ordovician times. Glacial and periglacial deposits are reported from many localities in Morocco, Algeria, Niger, Libya, Chad, Sudan, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The Late Ordovician glaciation phase was followed by a period of a major glacioeustatic sea-level rise in the Early Silurian due to the retreat of the ice-cap. As a consequence of the decreasing water circulation in the basin centers (Central Arabia, Murzuk- and Ghadames basins), highly bituminous euxinic shales were deposited. These shales are considered to be the main source rock of Paleozoic oil and gas deposits in parts of Saudi Arabia, Libya and Algeria. The following regression in the southern parts of the Early Silurian sea was probably caused by a second glacial advance, which was mainly restricted to areas in Chad, Sudan and Niger. Evidence for glacial activity and fluvioglacial sedimentation is available from rocks overlying the basal Silurian shale in north-east Chad and north-west Sudan. The Early Silurian ice advance is considered to be responsible for the termination of euxinic shale deposition in the basin centers.

  13. : Emergency Physician Patterns Related to Anticoagulation of Patients with Recent-Onset Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraish Misra, MD

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines strongly recommend long-term anticoagulation with warfarin for patients with newly recognized AF who have high embolic risk by virtue of a CHADS2 (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age >65, Diabetes, History of Stroke score ≥ 2. The goal of this study was to determine patterns of emergency department-initiated anticoagulation among eligible patients discharged from Canadian centers with an episode of recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter (RAFF and determine if decision-making is driven by the CHADS2 score or other factors. This was accomplished by examining health records using uniform case identification and data abstraction as well as centralized quality control; it was conducted in 8 Canadian university emergency departments over a 12-month period. Eligible patients for this analysis demonstrated RAFF requiring emergency management, were not already taking warfarin and were not admitted to hospital. Univariate analyses were conducted using T-test or Chi-square to select factors associated with anticoagulation initiation at a significance level of p < 0.15 and multiple logistic regression was employed to evaluate independent predictors after adjustment for confounders. Among 633 eligible patients, only 21 out of 120 patients (18% with a CHADS2 score ≥ 2 received anticoagulation and among 70 patients who were given anticoagulation only 21 (30% had a CHADS2 score ≥ 2. Independent predictors of anticoagulation included age by 10-year strata: (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.3 – 2.1, heparin use in the anticoagulation (OR = 9.6; 95% CI 4.9 – 18.9, a new prescription for metoprolol (OR = 9.6; 95% CI 4.9 – 18.9 and being referred to cardiology for follow-up (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 2.6 – 12.0. CHADS2 ≥ 2 doubled the likelihood of being prescribed anticoagulation (OR= 2.0; 95% CI 1.5 – 3.5 but was not an independent predictor. It was thus determined that patients discharged from the emergency department in this study were not

  14. RISK OF THROMBOEMBOLIC COMPLICATIONS AND ANTITHROMBOTIC THERAPY IN IN-PATIENTS WITH PERMANENT AND RECURRENT ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Grajfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Тo evaluate compliance of ongoing antithrombotic therapy (ATT in various forms of atrial fibrillation (AF with the risk level of thromboembolic complications (TEC, calculated with the СHADS2 and CHA2DS2–VASc scales in real clinical practice. Material and methods. A retrospective study of hospital records of 308 in-patients admitted to the cardiology departments of two multidisciplinary hospitals during the year because of nonvalvular AF . Risk of thromboembolic complications was estimated with the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2–VASc scales and appointed ATT was analyzed. Results. Patients with high risk of TEC were predominated in the study population: 77.6% and 91.9% according to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2–VASc scales, respectively. Moderate risk was found in  17.6%  and  6.1%  of  patients  according  to  CHADS2 and  CHA2DS2–VASc  scales,  respectively.  Only  32.2%  and  28.6%  28.6%  of  patients  at  high  risk  according  to  CHADS2 and  CHA2DS2–VASc scales, respectively received warfarin in hospital. All patients with permanent AF in this sample had a high risk of TEC according to the both scales. In the group of paroxysmal/persistent AF the high, moderate and low risk of TEC was identified in 87%, 9.9%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively , according to CHA2DS2–VASc scale and in 64.25%, 28.5% and 7.5% of patients, respectively , according to CHADS2 scale. Difference in high-risk patient rate was not significant among patients with permanent AF . In high risk group contraindications for receiving indirect anticoagulants were more frequent in the group with permanent AF (OR 3.1; 95% CI 0.88–10.7; p>0,05. The probability of warfarin prescription in patients with permanent AF was higher than in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1,18-3,31, and probability of aspirin prescription was lower (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0,51-1,32; p>0,05.  Conclusion. In real clinical practice oral anticoagulants are

  15. Review of West Africa. Elephant hunting is starting again. More numerous and various operators. Angola, an expansion with large fields. Congo, after Nkossa. Girassol: the selected companies. A controversial project, the Chad-Cameroon pipeline. Gabon, no discovery since 8 years. Nigeria, every man for himself. Ivory Coast, a more attractive legislation. The African legislation is evolving. Bouygues Offshore is on tracks for deep sea. The African contracts for ETPM; Dossier Afrique de l'Ouest. La chasse a l'elephant reprend de plus belle. Des acteurs plus nombreux et plus divers. Angola - une expansion par grands champs. Congo - l'apres Nkossa. Girassol: les entreprises retenues. Un projet controverse - le pipeline Tchad-Cameroun. Gabon - pas de decouvertes depuis huit ans. Nigeria - chacun pour soi. Cote d'Ivoire - une legislation plus attractive. La legislation petroliere africaine evolue. Bouygues Offshore en piste pour la mer profonde. Les contrats africains d'ETPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    A review of the petroleum and gas reserves, production and exploration situation in the various West African countries is presented with maps and statistics. It is shown that numerous projects are developed, especially in offshore Guinea Gulf, with small and large petroleum companies rushing to Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, etc. The various projects and companies selected for Angola, Congo, Gabon and Nigeria oil fields are discussed, together with the prospectives for Ivory Coast and the evolution of legislation related to petroleum in Africa. Bouygues Offshore's strategy in the Guinea Gulf is exposed and the african contracts for the platform and pipeline specialist ETPM are detailed.

  16. Composite risk scores and composite endpoints in the risk prediction of outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. The Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Fauchier, L; Bernard-Brunet, A; Clementy, N; Lip, G Y H

    2014-03-01

    Several validated risk stratification schemes for prediction of ischaemic stroke (IS)/thromboembolism (TE) and major bleeding are available for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). On the basis for multiple common risk factors for IS/TE and bleeding, it has been suggested that composite risk prediction scores may be more practical and user-friendly than separate scores for bleeding and IS/TE. In a long-term prospective hospital registry of anticoagulated patients with newly diagnosed AF, we compared the predictive value of existing risk prediction scores as well as composite risk scores, and also compared these risk scoring systems using composite endpoints. Endpoint 1 was the simple composite of IS and major bleeds. Endpoint 2 was based on a composite of IS plus intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Endpoint 3 was based on weighted coefficients for IS/TE and ICH. Endpoint 4 was a composite of stroke, cardiovascular death, TE and major bleeding. The incremental predictive value of these scores over CHADS2 (as reference) for composite endpoints was assessed using c-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Of 8,962 eligible individuals, 3,607 (40.2%) had NVAF and were on OAC at baseline. There were no statistically significant differences between the c-statistics of the various risk scores, compared with the CHADS2 score, regardless of the endpoint. For the various risk scores and various endpoints, NRI and IDI did not show significant improvement (≥1%), compared with the CHADS2 score. In conclusion, composite risk scores did not significantly improve risk prediction of endpoints in patients with NVAF, regardless of how endpoints were defined. This would support individualised prediction of IS/TE and bleeding separately using different separate risk prediction tools, and not the use of composite scores or endpoints for everyday 'real world' clinical practice, to guide decisions on

  17. Time Profile of Three Semi-Arid Ecosystems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.; Damoah, R.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and satellite derived-vegetation index of three endorheic semi-arid ecosystems in Africa: Lake Chad (in the Sahel region), Okavango and Etosha (Southern Africa) to infer the nature and trends of the variability during the satellite data instrumental record. We utilize African Rainfall Climatology Precipitation Estimates (1983-2014) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR: 1981-2014) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: 2001:2014) to examine the aspects of the annual cycle and interannual variability using both time series plots and time-space diagrams. With respect to Lake Chad region, the first two decades of the series (1981-2000) show predominantly dryer than long-term average conditions with the periods 1989, 1992 and 1996/1997 as the signature drought periods coinciding with the desiccation of the Sahel region during the 1980s to early 1990s decades. The period 2000 to present is dominated by above average rainfall and NDVI with 2003, 2007 and 2012 being the most pronounced wet/greener years. The southern African ecosystems (Okavango and Etosha) show more or less a similar temporal pattern to that of Lake Chad basin, however, the wet periods are more amplified and persistent especially 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2014, with corresponding above average NDVI departures. The amplified nature of wet and dry periods present in the southern African ecosystem time series are consistent with the El Niño Southern Oscillation teleconnection patterns. Overall these three ecosystems serve as detectable fingerprints of changing climate conditions and ecosystems in these arid regions.

  18. How to cheat in After Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Chad

    2013-01-01

    Get the most from the most widely used application in the postproduction field! Gain the insider tips you need to compose eye-catching, imaginative Adobe After Effects projects quickly and effectively. In How to Cheat in After Effects, Second Edition seasoned AE expert Chad Perkins provides dozens of concise, step-by-step tutorials and lavish 4-color illustrations to get you on the fast track to producing amazing motion graphics and visual effects. Updated for CS6, this new edition has been revised to include:A brand new chapter on the most popular

  19. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  20. 'Ins' and 'outs' of triple therapy: Optimal antiplatelet therapy in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation who need coronary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewilde, W; Verheugt, F W A; Breet, N; Koolen, J J; Ten Berg, J M

    2010-09-01

    Chronic oral anticoagulant treatment is obligatory in patients (class I) with mechanical heart valves and in patients with atrial fibrillation with CHADS2 score >1. When these patients undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of a stent, there is also an indication for treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. Unfortunately, triple therapy is known to increase the bleeding risk. For this group of patients, the bottom line is to find the ideal therapy in patients with indications for both chronic anticoagulation therapy and percutaneous intervention to prevent thromboembolic complications such as stent thrombosis without increasing the risk of bleeding. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:444-50.).

  1. Mapping and deterring violent extremist networks in North-West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Leuprecht, Christian

    in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is unquestionably the most connected VEO, which in purely network terms can be seen as a liability. Spatial analysis shows that, while violence was almost exclusively concentrated within Algeria between 1997 and 2004, cross-border movements intensified in the mid-2000s following...... the establishment of military bases by AQIM in Mali. As of late, VEOs have primarily concentrated their operations in Northern Mali as well as Southern Algeria, whereas Mauritania, Niger and Chad have been relatively unaffected. It follows that deterrence and containment strategies should be devised for regions...

  2. Do U.S. Cotton Subsidies Affect Competing Exporters? An Analysis of Import Demand in China

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; McPhail, Lihong Lu; Kiawu, James

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the demand for imported cotton in China and assess the competitiveness of cotton-exporting countries. Given the assertion that developing countries are negatively affected by U.S. cotton subsidies, our focus is the price competition between the United States and competing exporters (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, India, and Uzbekistan). We further project how U.S. programs affect China’s imports by country. Results indicate that if U.S. subsidies make other exporting countries...

  3. 'Real-world' management and outcomes of patients with paroxysmal vs. non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cecile; Diemberger, Igor;

    2016-01-01

    -morbidities, as well as lower CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores. Patients with first-detected AF (29.9%) had characteristics similar to persistent AF patients (25.9%), but lower use of oral anticoagulants. Patients with permanent AF represented 17.4% of the cohort. At 1 year, the rate of stroke...... during follow-up. Independent predictors of death were age, chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and physical activity. CONCLUSION: In this 'real-world' contemporary observational registry, patients with non-paroxysmal AF had a worse outcome, in terms of...

  4. [Recent Advances in Vaccines and Drugs Against the Ebola Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Yao, Chenguang; Wei, Yanhong; Kou, Zheng; Hu, Kanghong

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus belongs to the Filovirus family, which causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever (mortality, 25%-90%). An outbreak of infection by the Ebola virus is sweeping across West Africa, leading to high mortality and worldwide panic. The Ebola virus has caused a serious threat to public health, so intensive scientific studies have been carried out. Several vaccines (e.g., rVSV-ZEBOV, ChAd3-ZEBOV) have been put into clinical trials and antiviral drugs (e.g., TKM-Ebola, ZMAPP) have been administered in the emergency setting to patients infected by the Ebola virus. Here, recent advances in vaccines and drugs against the Ebola virus are reviewed.

  5. Easy Travel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    A common visa for six Central African countries boosts tourism FOR a region that is made up of six countries, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa(CEMAC) has less than 2 million annual cross border arrivals according to official statistics. Cameroon,the Republic of the Congo, Gabon,Equatorial Guinea,Central African Republic(CAR) and Chad make up this group,whose regional travel statistics are extremely low by international standards.Cameroon received only 580,000 visitors in 2010.

  6. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  7. App Empire Make Money, Have a Life, and Let Technology Work for You

    CERN Document Server

    Mureta, Chad

    2012-01-01

    A guide to building wealth by designing, creating, and marketing a successful app across any platform Chad Mureta has made millions starting and running his own successful app business, and now he explains how you can do it, too, in this non-technical, easy-to-follow guide. App Empire provides the confidence and the tools necessary for taking the next step towards financial success and freedom. The book caters to many platforms including iPhone, iPad, Android, and BlackBerry. This book includes real-world examples to inspire those who are looking to cash in on the App gold rush. Learn how to s

  8. Relating Optical Properties of Dusts to their Mineralogical and Physical Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.; Pincock, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The 38 μm, health (medical geology), ocean fertilization, and damage to equipment.

  9. Vascular disease and stroke risk in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial fibri...... fibrillation and whether adding vascular disease improves Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke (CHADS(2)) risk stratification.......Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial...

  10. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  11. Uso tradicional y actual de spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ramírez- Moreno; Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) es una cianobacteria filamentosa no diferenciada, habitante de lagos alcalinos, que se cultiva para consumo humano debido a su contenido nutricional. En México, el consumo de esta cianobacteria se remonta a tiempos prehispánicos, cuando era conocida como tecuitlatl, siendo conocida como dihé por las tribus nativas de la región del lago de Chad, en África. En los últimos años se le han atribuido diversos efectos positivos en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de al...

  12. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_031715.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] sp|O55226|CHAD_MOUSE Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAC39963.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] gb|AAH12672.1| Chondroad...herin [Mus musculus] emb|CAI25589.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] dbj|BAE34451.1| unn...amed protein product [Mus musculus] gb|EDL15934.1| chondroadherin [Mus musculus] NP_031715.1 5e-85 57% ...

  14. Marginalia no. 36

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill-Cazier Library, Utah State University

    2015-01-01

    That Voila Moment …wonders of digital access in the library…… Brad Cole, Interim Dean New & Notable Acquisitions: Newton’s Opticks and four plays from Shakespeare’s second folio… Brad Cole You are an alchemist: Sir Isaac Newton’s obsession with the ancient art ….. K.schockmel Chad Nielsen wins 2014 Arrington Lecture Award ….. Patrick Williams Friends Lecture 2015: The Curious Case of the Connection between Sherlock Holmes & the Mormons … Patrick Williams 2014 Arrington Lecture Dre...

  15. Geochemical variations in aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Castillo, Sonia; Alastuey, Andrés; Cuevas, Emilio; Herrmann, Ludger; Mounkaila, Mohammed; Elvira, Josep; Gibbons, Wes

    2006-10-01

    The Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor runs from Chad to Mauritania and expels huge amounts of mineral aerosols into the Atlantic Ocean. Data on samples collected from Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Western Sahara illustrate how corridor dust mineralogy and chemistry relate to geological source and weathering/transport history. Dusts sourced directly from igneous and metamorphic massifs are geochemically immature, retaining soluble cations (e.g., K, Na, Rb, Sr) and accessory minerals containing HFSE (e.g., Zr, Hf, U, Th) and REE. In contrast, silicate dust chemistry in desert basins (e.g., Bodélé Depression) is influenced by a longer history of transport, physical winnowing (e.g., loss of Zr, Hf, Th), chemical leaching (e.g., loss of Na, K, Rb), and mixing with intrabasinal materials such as diatoms and evaporitic salts. Mineral aerosols blown along the corridor by the winter Harmattan winds mix these basinal and basement materials. Dusts blown into the corridor from sub-Saharan Africa during the summer monsoon source from deeply chemically weathered terrains and are therefore likely to be more kaolinitic and stripped of mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca, LILE), but retain immobile and resistant elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE). Finally, dusts blown southwestwards into the corridor from along the Atlantic Coastal Basin will be enriched in carbonate from Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine limestones, depleted in Th, Nb, and Ta, and locally contaminated by uranium-bearing phosphate deposits. PMID:16600327

  16. Lessons from Africa's Most Complete Holocene Varved Record (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroepelin, S.

    2013-12-01

    A 16 meter long core from the sub-bottom deposits of Lake Yoa in northern Chad (19°N / 20.5°E), one of the few groundwater-supported oasis lakes in the Sahara, covers the past 11,000 years at largely subannual resolution. Due to the distant oceans and prevailing northeasterly trade winds, this sedimentary archive provides representative environmental signals that reflect climate conditions from the onset of the 'Green Sahara' to the planet's major warm desert of today. Multiproxy analyses of the mostly annually laminated deposits give unprecedented information on both gradual and rapid climate change in Northern Africa, including non-climatic events. Based on a robust age model of AMS-controlled varve counts, the continuous record allows to calibrate and correlate incoherent geological and archaeological evidence from the Sahara; to relate to historical chronicles from pharaonic Egypt; or to check for clues of recent anthropogenic warming. Results also permit to test the validity of marine and ice-core data for hypercontinental ecosystems and to evaluate numeric climate models. Examples will illustrate the potential of Africa's most detailed full-Holocene varved record. Hypercontinental location of Lake Yoa at the oasis of Ounianga Kebir in the Sahara of Northern Chad with distances to the oceans Coring platform on Lake Yoa, March 2010 (Photo: S. Kröpelin)

  17. Association of Left Atrial Fibrosis Detected by Delayed Enhancement Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Risk of Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana C. Peters

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a recent paper by Daccarett et al1 investigating LA remodeling, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, as a risk factor for stroke. A major motivation for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF is to reduce the risk of stroke, which often arises from emboli formed in the static left atrium (LA. Risk stratification for stroke in AF patients, important because it determines the use of anti-coagulants in patients, is clinically performed using the validated CHADS2 score (based on prior stroke, diabetes, hypertension, advanced age, and congestive heart-failure. However, because of its limited predictive power, patients with low, moderate and high risk CHADS2 scores are often prescribed anti-coagulants in equal frequencies.2 There is growing evidence that the burden of AF (i.e. the amount of time that patient remains in AF rhythm may be a predictor of stroke,3 since during this time emboli can form in the LA appendage.

  18. Isoenzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, China and in exotic species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared isoenzymes of five enzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira platensis (A3) and A. erdosensis (A4) from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, Nei Monggo (Inner Mongalia),China and exotic species ofA. platensis (A1) from Chad and A. maxima (A2) from Mexico by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the isoenzymes of EST, POD and soluble protein were polymorphic. Monomorphism and polymorphism were found in isoenzymes of AMY, CAT and SOD, and monomorphism was found only in the introduced species. The isoenzymes and soluble protein of the local species are all polymorphic. The number of bands in these species were in the order of A3>A4>A1 >A2. A2 is the most primary, A1 from Chad Lake is relatively primary, A3 and A4 are advanced species in evolution. Cluster analysis showed that the relation between the two introduced species are the closest to each other, and so too are the two local ones.

  19. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  20. Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Stroke Prevention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Renal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Fan Chao; Shih-Ann Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and its prevalence is projected to continuously increase over the next few decades.1 AF patients usually have several important comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes and heart failure, and “lone AF” is becoming uncommon.2 The incidence of AF significantly increased when patients have more systemic diseases. In the previous study from Taiwan, the risk of new-onset AF increased from 0.77 per 1000 person-years for patients with a CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack score of 0 to 34.6 per 1000 person-years for those with a score of 6.3 AF is an important risk factor of ischemic stroke with a worse prognosis and higher recurrence rate compared to that of non-AF related stroke.4 The risk of AF-related stroke is not homogenous and mainly depends on the presence or absence of clinical risk factors. Several scoring systems, including CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65–74, female schemes,5-6 which incorporated clinical important factors have been developed to estimate the risk of stroke and guide anti-thrombotic therapies for AF patients.

  1. Enhanced vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses to malaria antigen ME-TRAP by fusion to MHC class ii invariant chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Spencer

    Full Text Available The orthodox role of the invariant chain (CD74; Ii is in antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, but enhanced CD8+ T cells responses have been reported after vaccination with vectored viral vaccines encoding a fusion of Ii to the antigen of interest. In this study we assessed whether fusion of the malarial antigen, ME-TRAP, to Ii could increase the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response. Following single or heterologous prime-boost vaccination of mice with a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAd63, or recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, higher frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed, with the largest increases observed following a ChAd63-MVA heterologous prime-boost regimen. Studies in non-human primates confirmed the ability of Ii-fusion to augment the T cell response, where a 4-fold increase was maintained up to 11 weeks after the MVA boost. Of the numerous different approaches explored to increase vectored vaccine induced immunogenicity over the years, fusion to the invariant chain showed a consistent enhancement in CD8+ T cell responses across different animal species and may therefore find application in the development of vaccines against human malaria and other diseases where high levels of cell-mediated immunity are required.

  2. Anthracothere dental anatomy reveals a late Miocene Chado-Libyan bioprovince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Fabrice; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Viriot, Laurent; Coppens, Yves; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Tafforeau, Paul; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-06-01

    Recent discovery of an abundant and diverse late Miocene fauna at Toros-Ménalla (Chad, central Africa) by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne provides a unique opportunity to examine African faunal and hominid evolution relative to the early phases of the Saharan arid belt. This study presents evidence from an African Miocene anthracotheriid Libycosaurus, particularly well documented at Toros-Ménalla. Its remains reveal a large semiaquatic mammal that evolved an autapomorphic upper fifth premolar (extremely rare in Cenozoic mammals). The extra tooth appeared approximately 12 million years ago, probably in a small northern African population isolated by climate-driven fragmentation and alteration of the environments inhabited by these anthracotheriids [Flower, B. P. & Kennett, J. P. (1994) Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 108, 537-555 and Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. (2001) Science 292, 686-693]. The semiaquatic niche of Libycosaurus, combined with the distribution and relationships of its late Miocene species, indicates that by the end of the Miocene, wet environments connected the Lake Chad Basin to the Libyan Sirt Basin, across what is now the Sahara desert.

  3. Could Some Geriatric Characteristics Hinder the Prescription of Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Denoël

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported underprescription of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF. We conducted an observational study on 142 out of a total of 995 consecutive ≥75 years old patients presenting AF (14% when admitted in an emergency unit of a general hospital, in search of geriatric characteristics that might be associated with the underprescription of anticoagulation therapy (mostly antivitamin K at the time of the study. The following data was collected from patients presenting AF: medical history including treatment and comorbidities, CHADS2 score, ISAR scale (frailty, Lawton’s scale (ADL, GDS scale (mood status, MUST (nutrition, and blood analysis (INR, kidney function, and albumin. Among those patients for who anticoagulation treatment was recommended (73%, only 61% were treated with it. In the group with anticoagulation therapy, the following characteristics were observed more often than in the group without such therapy: a recent (≤6 months hospitalization and medical treatment including digoxin or based on >3 different drugs. Neither the value of the CHADS2 score, nor the geriatric characteristics could be correlated with the presence or the absence of an anticoagulation therapy. More research is thus required to identify and clarify the relative importance of patient-, physician-, and health care system-related hurdles for the prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy in older patients with AF.

  4. Meta analysis of CHA2DS2-VASc contributing to standardization management of the prophylactic anticoagulation therapy of TE and/or stroke in AF patients%CHA2DS2-VASc评分有助于房颤脑卒中和(或)血栓栓塞预防性抗凝治疗的规范化Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文根; 熊琴梅; 洪葵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive abilities of CHA2DS2-VASc in stroke and systemic thromboembolism (TE) risk stratification of atrial fibrilltion (AF) patients with and without anticoagulation therapy.Method:The data were systematically retrieved by searching the Cochrane Library,PubMed and Embase databases to identify relevant cohort studies published in English reporting the diagnostic performance between CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc.Review Manager 5.2 software were used to perform the statistical analyses.The risk ratios (RRs) with the 95% CI were presented and pooled for comparative analysis of the occurrence of TE and/or stroke between CHA2DS2-VASc<2 and CHA2DS2-VASc≥2,also considering the presence or absence of anticoagulation therapy.Result:Twelve cohort studies were identified in the analysis.Of these included studies,7 of the included studies reported TE outcomes,and 5 studies included a record of stroke events.With regard to the occurrence of outcomes individually,patients with CHA2 DS2-VASc scores ≥2 showed a greater risk for stroke (RR 5.31,CI:3.69~7.62;P<0.01) and TE (RR 5.94,CI:5.48~6.43;P<0.01) (Pdiff=0.55),regardless of the presence or absence of anticoagulation therapy (RR 5.43,CI:4.92~6.00;P<0.01 and RR 5.92,CI:5.26~6.67;P<0.01,respectively) (Pdiff =0.57).The average ratio of endpoint events in the low-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was less than CHADS2 (0.54% vs 1.40%,P<0.05).The average proportion of the high-risk group of CHA2DS2-VASc was greater than CHADS2 (81.0% vs 46.0%,P<0.05).Conclusion:Our results showed better diagnostic performance for CHA2DS2-VASc over CHADS2 for the distribution of greater numbers of patients and a greater incidence of endpoints events into the high-risk stratification,as well as the identification of patients with atrial fibrillation who are at substantial risk of endpoint events with or without optimal anticoagulant therapy.It indicates that the

  5. Quantifying Modern Recharge to the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: Inferences from GRACE and Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) is shared by Egypt, Libya, Chad and Sudanand is one of the largest (area: ~ 2 × 106 km2) groundwater systems in the world. Despite its importance to the population of these countries, major hydrological parameters such as modern recharge and extraction rates remain poorly investigated given: (1) the large extent of the NSAS, (2) the absence of comprehensive monitoring networks, (3) the general inaccessibility of many of the NSAS regions, (4) difficulties in collecting background information, largely included in unpublished governmental reports, and (5) limited local funding to support the construction of monitoring networks and/or collection of field and background datasets. Data from monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity solutions were processed (Gaussian smoothed: 100 km; rescaled) and used to quantify the modern recharge to the NSAS during the period from January 2003 to December 2012. To isolate the groundwater component in GRACE data, the soil moisture and river channel storages were removed using the outputs from the most recent Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5). GRACE-derived recharge calculations were performed over the southern NSAS outcrops (area: 835 × 103 km2) in Sudan and Chad that receive average annual precipitation of 65 km3 (77.5 mm). GRACE-derived recharge rates were estimated at 2.79 ± 0.98 km3/yr (3.34 ± 1.17 mm/yr). If we take into account the total annual extraction rates (~ 0.4 km3; CEDARE, 2002) from Chad and Sudan the average annual recharge rate for the NSAS could reach up to ~ 3.20 ± 1.18 km3/yr (3.84 ± 1.42 mm/yr). Our recharge rates estimates are similar to those calculated using (1) groundwater flow modelling in the Central Sudan Rift Basins (4-8 mm/yr; Abdalla, 2008), (2) WaterGAP global scale groundwater recharge model (< 5 mm/yr, Döll and Fiedler, 2008), and (3) chloride tracer in Sudan (3.05 mm/yr; Edmunds et al. 1988). Given the available global

  6. Consistency of safety and efficacy of new oral anticoagulants across subgroups of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Lega

    Full Text Available AIMS: The well-known limitations of vitamin K antagonists (VKA led to development of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the consistency of treatment effects of NOAC irrespective of age, comorbidities, or prior VKA exposure. METHODS AND RESULTS: All randomized, controlled phase III trials comparing NOAC to VKA up to October 2012 were eligible provided their results (stroke/systemic embolism (SSE and major bleeding (MB were reported according to age (≤ or >75 years, renal function, CHADS2 score, presence of diabetes mellitus or heart failure, prior VKA use or previous cerebrovascular events. Interactions were considered significant at p <0.05. Three studies (50,578 patients were included, respectively evaluating apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran versus warfarin. A trend towards interaction with heart failure (p = 0.08 was observed with respect to SSE reduction, this being greater in patients not presenting heart failure (RR = 0.76 [0.67-0.86] than in those with heart failure (RR = 0.90 [0.78-1.04]; Significant interaction (p = 0.01 with CHADS2 score was observed, NOAC achieving a greater reduction in bleeding risk in patients with a score of 0-1 (RR 0.67 CI 0.57-0.79 than in those with a score ≥2 (RR 0.85 CI 0.74-0.98. Comparison of MB in patients with (RR 0.97 CI 0.79-1.18 and without (RR 0.76 CI 0.65-0.88 diabetes mellitus showed a similar trend (p = 0.06. No other interactions were found. All subgroups derived benefit from NOA in terms of SSE or MB reduction. CONCLUSIONS: NOAC appeared to be more effective and safer than VKA in reducing SSE or MB irrespective of patient comorbidities. Thromboembolism risk, evaluated by CHADS2 score and, to a lesser extent, diabetes mellitus modified the treatment effects of NOAC without complete loss of benefit with respect to MB reduction.

  7. Evaluation of bio-molecular signatures and hydrocarbon potential of upper Cretaceous shale, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboye, Olugbenga A.; Nzegwu, Uche A.

    2014-11-01

    The Bornu Basin is a sector of the Chad Basin located in the northeastern part of Nigeria, occupying about one-tenth of total area in Chad Basin. Twenty-eight representative shale cutting samples retrieved from Tuma-1, Sa-1 and Albarka-1 exploratory wells were analyzed. Seventeen shale samples systematically selected from Gongila, Fika Shale and Chad Formations were subjected to Total Organic Content (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Soluble Organic Matter, Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry analyses. This is to characterize and assess the potential capability of the shale units. The results showed that TOC of the Coniacian-Paleocene shale units exceed the threshold (0.5 wt%) needed for petroleum generation. This classifies it as potential source beds. Evidence from biomarkers indicates a preponderance of marine organic matter with subordinate terrigenous input. The quantity of gammacerane occurrence suggests normal saline environment. The presence of oleanane index indicates angiosperms input into Cretaceous-Tertiary source rock. C35/C34 homohopane ratio showed the anoxia development towards the center of the basin. C29ααα (20R)/C27ααα (20R) sterane ratio indicate the dominance of marine organic matter with subordinate terrigenous input. The 22S/(22S + 22R) ratio of C31 hopane have not reached equilibrium as evident by immaturity to early mature stages from diagnostic ratios of βα moretane/αβ hopane, Ts/(Ts + Tm), 28,30-bisnorhopanes/17α-hopanes, diasteranes/regular steranes, ααα steranes/αββ steranes and 20S/(20S + 20R) C29 regular steranes respectively. This is corroborated with the Rock-Eval indices showing immature to earlier mature kerogen within the Fika Formation. It consists preeminently of Type IV, with subordinate Type III. The prospect for hydrocarbon in this part of the basin is only fair to moderate with potential for gaseous rather than liquid hydrocarbon.

  8. Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, S; D' Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T

    2002-02-26

    The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of

  9. Women Sex Importance in Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Handan Mısırlı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was shown the differences in age, risk factors and treatment between women and men in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation METHODS: The stroke patients with atrial fibrillation who were hospitalized in our department at the last 2 years were seperated into 2 groups of aged above 75 and below 75, investigated with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores and looked at the sex differences of women and men. RESULTS: Stroke ratio according to sex was statistically meaningful especially in women above the age of 75. Risc factors also were founded in elderly women and CHA2DS2VASc scores were higher in women than men so more anticoagulan treatment were begun. No differences were shown between sexes at lone atrial fibrillation and no treatment were begun. CONCLUSION: Women with atrial fibrillation had more risk factors, higher stroke rate and higher anticoagulation treatment.

  10. Implantation of watchman left atrial appendage closure device at the ostium of the left atrial appendage to prevent thrombosis embolism%经导管左心耳封堵术预防房颤血栓栓塞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊友启; 杨倩; 蒋峻; 何伟; 胡颖红; 严敏; 蒲朝霞; 李长岭; 刘先宝

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价中国房颤患者植入watchman左心耳封堵系统预防血栓栓塞的可行性和安全性.方法 入选年龄18至85岁之间的非瓣膜性心房颤动患者,CHADS2-VAS评分≥2分和HAS-BLED评分≥3分,且不愿意长期口服抗凝药物或口服抗凝药物有禁忌证.经股静脉途径,穿刺房间隔,将watchman左心耳封堵器输送系统置入左心房,植入watchman左心耳封堵装置至左心耳颈部.结果 入选4例心房颤动患者,年龄(74.75±8.69)岁,CHADS2-VAS评分(5.5±1.29)分,(4~7分)及HAS-BLED评分(3.75±0.5)分,(3~4分),均成功植入watchman左心耳封堵系统,手术时间(100.00±17.79) min.围手术期及术后2个月随访无出血及栓塞等并发症发生.结论 在中国房颤患者中植入watchman左心耳封堵器预防血栓栓塞是安全可行的.%Objective To evaluate the safety and feasibility of implanting the watchman left atrial appendage closure device at the ostium of the left atrial appendage to prevent thrombosis embolism in atrial fibrillation patients in China.Methods We selected non valvular atrial fibrillation patients with the age between 18 to 85,CHADS2-VAS score ≥2 and HAS-BLED score≥3,who do not want to take long-term oral anticoagulant drugs or have contraindications of use oral anticoagulant drugs.Via the femoral vein approach,after atrial septal puncture,we put the watchman left atrial appendage closure device delivery system into the left atrial appendage and implanted the watchman left atrial appendage closure device at the ostium of the left atial appendage.Results Four atrial fibrillation patients were enrolled,with average age (74.75 ±8.69) years old,average CHADS2-VAS score (5.5 ± 1.29) and HAS-BLED score (3.75 ± 0.5),average procedure time is (100.00 ± 17.79) min.All the patients were successfully implanted with the watchman left atrial appendage closure device.Peri procedures and after 2 months follow-up,no complications such as bleeding and thrombosis

  11. An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: Explanatory note for the 1:4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, J. P.; Toteu, S. F.; Deschamps, Y.; Feybesse, J. L.; Lerouge, C.; Cocherie, A.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; Moloto-A-Kenguemba, G.; Kampunzu, H. A. B.; Nicol, N.; Duguey, E.; Leistel, J. M.; Saint-Martin, M.; Ralay, F.; Heinry, C.; Bouchot, V.; Doumnang Mbaigane, J. C.; Kanda Kula, V.; Chene, F.; Monthel, J.; Boutin, P.; Cailteux, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper is prepared within the frameworks of IGCP Project 470 and the associated BRGM scientific project "Africa 1999-2004" to accompany the 1:4,000,000 scale map "Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa, presented at the 20th Colloquium of African Geology in Orleans in June 2004. It incorporates geological and metallogenic data from eight countries in Central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea and Zambia). The map is a harmonised and geo-referenced preliminary map, based on a GIS at 1:2,000,000 scale, and focusses on the spatial and temporal distribution of selected major deposits.

  12. Evolution of rainfall in the Sahel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note, a number of main meteorological stations has been chosen to analyse the rainfall during the last 30 years in the Sahel (1961 to 1990). Reliable climatological data have been used for this study. The concerned area is limited by the 200 mm isohyet in the north and 600 mm isohyet in the south in the Sahel countries (Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad). The evolution of rainfall has pointed out some similar and significant aspects for all stations studied. Established criteria have been used to characterize the annual rainfall and to determine the years with good rainfall and years of drought in the Sahel. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  13. CERT TST December 2015 Visit Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Robert Currier [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bailey, Teresa S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, G. Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olinger, Chad Tracy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pautz, Shawn D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Alan B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-25

    The annual PSAAP II TST visit to Texas A&M’s CERT Center was held on December 1-3, 2015. The agenda for the visit is attached. Non-TAMU attendees were: TST Members – Teresa Bailey (LLNL), Todd Gamblin (LLNL), Bob Little (LANL) – Chair, Chad Olinger (LANL), Shawn Pautz (SNL), Alan Williams (SNL);Other Lab staff – Skip Kahler (LANL), Ana Kupresanin (LLNL), and Rob Lowrie (LANL); AST Members – Nelson Hoffman (LANL) and Bob Voigt (Leidos) The TST wishes to express our appreciation to all involved with CERT for the high-quality posters and presentations and for the attention to logistics that enabled a successful visit. We have broken our comments into four sections: (1) Kudos, (2) Recommendations, (3) Feedback on Priorities for April Review, and (4) Follow-Up Activities with Labs.

  14. Africa's contribution to putting an end to nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  15. A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Gary-Tounkara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria has been quietly expelling more and more immigrants from Niger, Mali, Chad and Cameroon. These foreigners – migrant workers or small traders – face the reinforcement of migration control and the blind fight of the government against Boko Haram. Despite its political instability, Nigeria remains a major immigration destination in West Africa. In this article, I analyze the “undocumented” expulsion of aliens in 1983, officially three million people. I argue that the expulsion was due to the economic crisis but also to a nationalist revenge against Ghana and a political calculation of President Shagari. This implies the exclusion of foreigners from the national labour market and the weakening of the supposed electoral base of his opponents.

  16. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  17. Characteristics, treatment patterns, and unmet needs of Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koretsune Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Koretsune Y, Rossi B, Iwamoto K, et al. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. 2013;4:97–105.On page 97, Background section "In Japan, AF is estimated to be present in 0.65% of the population.2" should read "In Japan, AF is estimated to be present in 0.56% of the population.2"On page 100, second column, first paragraph, line seven, the text "(all P<0.0001" should read "(all P<0.001".Page 102, Table 3, it should be noted that the percentages of AF episodes reflect only those who had non-missing data (N=549.Page 102, Figure 2, the CHADS2 percentage for those with a risk score of 0 should read "46.19%" instead of "49.19%".Read the original article

  18. 低温对钝顶螺旋藻质膜H+-ATP酶活性的影响%EFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF PM H+-ATPASE IN SPIRULINA(ARTHROSPIRA) PLATENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张三润; 杨茜

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the variation of PM H+-ATPase of the Spirulina platensis ( S1 ) from alkaline lake in Erdos Plateau and its relationship with low temperature resistance under low tem-peratures stress,and comparing them with that of S. platensis( S2 ) from Chad Lake in Africa at the same time. Methods:After the purification of the plasma membranes of both Spirulina platensis ( S1 ) from alkaline lake in Erdos Plateau and S. platensis( S2 ) from Chad Lake in Africa with aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning system, the activities of PM H+-ATPase are determined by Mo-Blue-color method. Results:It is discovered that they being exposed right to low temperature or after exercised under low temperature,as temperature dropping and days lasting,the activities of PM H+-ATPase of both S1 and S2 rise first,and drop afterward. The stability of PM H+-ATPase activity of S1 is better than that of S2 at the same conditions above. The activity of PM H+-ATPase can be improved through low temperature exercise. The altering range of PM H+-ATPase activities is S1Chad 湖钝顶螺旋藻( S2)进行比较。方法:以鄂尔多斯钝顶螺旋藻( S1)和非洲Chad 湖钝顶螺旋藻( S2)为材料,采用两相法提纯质膜( plasms membrae PM),钼蓝法测定PM H+-ATPase活性。结果:结果显示:低温直接处理和锻炼后低温处理,S1和S2 PM H+-ATPase活性都是先升后降。 S1 PM H+-ATPase活性比S2 PM H+-ATPase活性稳定。低温锻炼可提高PM H+-ATPase活性。 PM H+-ATPase活性变化范围S1

  19. Bilateral occipital lobe infarction with altitudinal field loss following radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Celia S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral stroke following radiofrequency catheter ablation is an unusual complication and may result in bilateral altitudinal visual field defects. Bilateral altitudinal visual field defects usually result from prechiasmal pathology causing damage to both retinas or optic nerves and rarely from bilateral symmetric damage to the post chiasmal visual pathways. Case presentation A 48-year-old man complained of visual disturbance on wakening following radiofrequency catheter ablation. The patient had a CHADS score of 1 pre-operatively and no complications were noted intra-operatively. Examination revealed a bilateral superior altitudinal defect and MRI of the brain showed multifocal areas of infarction predominantly involving the occipital lobes which correlated to with the visual deficits. Conclusion While the risk of thromboembolism and perioperative stroke during radiofrequency catheter ablation is small, it is not insignificant.

  20. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Performance of the ViroSeq® HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouafo, Linda Chapdeleine Mekue; Péré, Hélène; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Koyalta, Donato; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Kane, Coumba Toure; Bélec, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Resistance genotypes in pol gene of HIV-1 were obtained by the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA) in 138 of 145 (95%) antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults in virological failure living in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gabon). HIV-1 group M exhibited broad genetic diversity. Performance of the 7 ViroSeq(®) sequencing primers showed high failure rate, from 3% to 76% (D: 76%; F: 17%; A and H: 15%; G and B: 4%; C: 3%). These findings emphasize the need of updating the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 genotyping system for non-B subtypes HIV-1.

  2. Joint Soviet--French investigations of the solar corona. 2. Photometry of solar corona of June 30, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented on a study of eclipse negative obtained on June 30, 1973, in Africa in the program of the Soviet--French experiment ''Dynamics of the White Corona'' by expeditions of Kiev University (Atar, Mauritania) and the Paris Astropysical Institute (Moussoro, Chad). The distributions of the total brightness of the corona out to rapprox. =4.5 R/sub sun/ and of its K and F components for the E and N directions are found with high accuracy on the basis of a new method of photometry and colorimetry using the images of stars down to 8.5/sup m/ as photometric standards. Neither reddening nor flattening of the dusty F component were detected at r-6 E/sub sun/

  3. Creating games mechanics, content, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire , Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Williams College Professor Morgan McGuire takes his games very seriously. So seriously, in fact, that he has written a book about it. ... While teaching his game design class, McGuire couldn't find a book that covered this, so he called up his colleague Professor Chad Jenkins at Brown, and they co-wrote the book to help other people design games. It combines scientific theories about rule systems with more practical advice about the process of designing a game.       -- L452The Berkshire Eagle , November 2008Apply Game Design as a Science for Public Policy to Rescue Economy, Planet: They are a

  4. YouTube称盈利将近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳

    2009-01-01

    近日,YouTube CEO查德·赫利(Chad Hurley)发表博客文章称,该网站目前每天视频浏览量超10亿次,并将很快实现盈利。今年4月份曾有美国博客分析指出,YouTube每天给谷歌带来亏损150万美元。赫利表示,随着带宽的改善,YouTube的视频质量也随之提高,而用户对更长、甚至是完整内容的需求,意味着YouTube网站需要提供更为丰富的电影和电视剧内容,

  5. Stratospheric water vapour budget and convection overshooting the tropopause: modelling study from SCOUT-AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of overshooting convection at a local scale on the water distribution in the tropical UTLS. Overshooting convection is assumed to be one of the processes controlling the entry of water vapour mixing ratio in the stratosphere by injecting ice crystals above the tropopause which later sublimate and hydrate the lower stratosphere. For this purpose, we quantify the individual impact of two cases of overshooting convection in Africa observed during SCOUT-AMMA: the case of 4 August 2006 over Southern Chad which is likely to have influenced the water vapour measurements by micro-SDLA and FLASH-B from Niamey on 5 August, and the case of a mesoscale convective system over Aïr on 5 August 2006. We make use of high resolution (down to 1 km horizontally nested grid simulations with the three-dimensional regional atmospheric model BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. In both cases, BRAMS succeeds in simulating the main features of the convective activity, as well as overshooting convection, though the exact position and time of the overshoots indicated by MSG brightness temperature difference is not fully reproduced (typically 1° displacement in latitude compared with the overshoots indicated by brightness temperature difference from satellite observations for both cases, and several hours shift for the Aïr case on 5 August 2006. Total water budgets associated with these two events show a significant injection of ice particles above the tropopause with maximum values of about 3.7 ton s−1 for the Chad case (4 August and 1.4 ton s−1 for the Aïr case (5 August, and a total upward cross tropopause transport of about 3300 ton h−1 for the Chad case and 2400 ton h−1 for the Aïr case in the third domain of simulation. The order of magnitude of these modelled fluxes is lower but comparable with similar studies in other tropical areas based on

  6. Ressources alimentaires non conventionnelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, reserve organs, flowers and vegetable species. After recalling the diversity of insects eating at world scale, four orders are briefly presented: coleoptera, isoptera (termites, lepidoptera (mainly caterpillars or campeophagy and orthoptera. Finally the nutritional input of unconventional foods is underlined as well as the urgent need of their further studies.

  7. Boko Haram’s International Reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Karmon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although most of Boko Haram’s terrorist activity is focused, for the moment, on Nigerian territory, this Research Note argues that it is already an important international jihadist organisation. The watershed that marks Boko Haram’s passage from a purely Nigerian phenomenon to an international jihadist actor is its attack on the United Nations Headquarters in Abuja, Nigeria’s capital, on August 26, 2011. The bulk of BH’s membership, the indiscriminate and cruel characteristic of its attacks, the complexity of the Nigerian religious and ethnic context, the sheer weight of the Nigerian state in an instable neighborhood - Cameroun, Niger, Chad, Mali - and its proximity to the jihadist battle front in the Sahel convert it into an immediate and infectious regional threat.

  8. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Megafans are a really extensive continental sediment bodies, fluvially derived, and fan-shaped in planform. Only those >80 km long were included in this study. Africa's megafans were mapped for purposes of both comprehensive geomorphic description and as a method of mapping by remote sensing large probable fluvial sediment bodies (we exclude sediment bodies deposited in well defined, modern floodplains and coastal deltas). Our criteria included a length dimension of >80 km and maximum width >40 km, partial cone morphology, and a radial drainage pattern. Visible and especially IR imagery were used to identify the features, combined with topographic SRTM data. We identified 99 megafans most of which are unstudied thus far. Their feeder rivers responsible for depositing megafan sediments rise on, and are consequent drainages oriented down the slopes of the swells that have dominated African landscapes since approximately 34 Ma (the high points in Africa's so-called basin-and-swell topography [1]). Most megafans (66%) have developed along these consequent rivers relatively near the swell cores, oriented radially away from the swells. The vast basins between the swells provide accommodation for megafan sediment wedges. Although clearly visible remotely, most megafans are inactive as a result of incision by the feeder river (which then no longer operates on the fan surface). Two tectonic settings control the location of Africa's megafans, 66% on swell flanks, and 33% related to rifts. (i) Swell flanks Most megafans are apexed relatively near the core of the parent swell, and are often clustered in groups: e.g., six on the west and north flanks of the Hoggar Swell (Algeria), seven on the north and south flanks of the Tibesti Swell (Libya-Chad borderlands), twelve on the west flank of the Ethiopian Swell, four on the east flank of the East African Swell (Kenya), Africa's largest, and eight around Angola's Bié Swell (western Zambia, northern Namibia). A cluster of possible

  9. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Loupis, Anastasia M; Ihlemann, Nikolaj;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with an increased stroke risk, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention. However, this therapy carries a high risk of major bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is suggested...... as an alternative option for stroke prevention in AF patients with contraindication(s) for OAC treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 42 patients underwent percutaneous LAA closure. In this report, we describe our experience with this procedure. RESULTS: The patients treated were AF patients with a high stroke...... gastrointestinal bleeding immediately after the procedure. The mean duration of follow-up was 12.6 months. Both ischaemic stroke and bleeding occurred in one patient, resulting in an observed annual stroke and bleeding rate of 2.3%. This rate was lower than expected based on the CHADS-VASc (5.6%/year) and HAS...

  10. The Anticoagulated Atrial Fibrillation Patient Who Requires “Curative” Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma: a Bleeding Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Reiffel, M.D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aging of the population, the incidence of both prostate carcinoma (PCa and atrial fibrillation (AF has increased. Options for “curative therapy” PCa now include surgery, external beam radiation (EBT, and radioactive seed implantation (RSI. The latter two approaches, especially EBT, can produce radiation proctitis (RP with rectal bleeding (RB. This poses an issue for anticoagulating the elderly AF patient who develops PCa. The attached case report of a 77 year old male who was treated with a combination of RSI and “low dose” EBT followed by recurrent severe rectal bleeding demonstrates the significance of this problem. In the AF patient with a CHADS2 score of 2 or more, and hence an indication for chronic warfarin therapy, the therapy of subsequently detected PCa requires careful consideration of the risks associated with its therapeutic options.

  11. The Anticoagulated Atrial Fibrillation Patient Who Requires Curative Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma: a Bleeding Conundrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Reiffel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aging of the population, the incidence of both prostate carcinoma (PCa and atrial fibrillation (AF has increased.  Options for "curative therapy" PCa now include surgery, external beam radiation (EBT, and radioactive seed implantation (RSI.  The latter two approaches, especially EBT, can produce radiation proctitis (RP with rectal bleeding (RB.  This poses an issue for anticoagulating the elderly AF patient who develops PCa.  The attached case report of a 77 year old male who was treated with a combination of RSI and "low dose" EBT followed by recurrent severe rectal bleeding demonstrates the significance of this problem.  In the AF patient with a CHADS2 score of 2 or more, and hence an indication for chronic warfarin therapy, the therapy of subsequently detected PCa requires careful consideration of the risks associated with its therapeutic options.

  12. EU Aid Conditionality in ACP Countries: Explaining Inconsistency in EU Sanctions Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Del Biondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU is often criticised for using negative conditionality only in poor, strategically less important countries in the ACP region. However, whether and why there is inconsistency within the group of ACP countries has not been properly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the reasons for the EU’s non-application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement in five countries that can be considered typical cases where negative conditionality is generally imposed, namely countries that experienced flawed elections over the last ten years: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya and Chad. On the one hand, the study confirms previous findings that security interests tend to trump the EU’s efforts to promote democratisation. On the other hand, the article adds that democratisation might not only conflict with the EU’s interests, but also with its objective to promote development and poverty reduction.

  13. Relict populations of Diaphanosoma  (Cladocera: Ctenopoda) in the Chadian Sahara, with the description of a new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei-Fei; Dumont, Henri J

    2014-01-01

    We record two species of Diaphanosoma from Ounianga and Tibesti in Northern Chad, the first ctenopods to be found in the Sahara desert. One species, from a freshwater guelta on the south flanks of the Tibesti (D. excisum) is tropical; the second species, found in a freshwater lake in a largely saline environment (the Ounianga plateau) is new to science (D. bopingi sp.nov.) and is here described, with special attention to some previously unnoticed structures on the postabdomen. Its relatives are northern species that may transgress into the tropics but largely live outside of them. They are also more salt-tolerant than the tropical D. excisum. The latter is considered a relict of Megachad times, while the new species is considered a relict of more humid but also cooler times in the desert.  PMID:25284649

  14. Towards a Better Understanding of the Hydrologic Setting of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: Inferences from Groundwater Flow Models, CL-36 Ages, and GRACE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Mohamed, A.; Yan, E.; Ahmed, E.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), one of the largest (area: ~2×106 km2) groundwater systems worldwide, is formed of three major sub-basins: Kufra (Libya, NE Chad and NW Sudan), Dakhla (Egypt), and N. Sudan Platform (Sudan). To determine the mean residence time of water in the aquifer, the connectivity of its sub-basins and the groundwater flow across these sub-basins have to be understood. An integrated approach was adopted to address these issues using: (1) a regional calibrated groundwater flow model that simulates early (>10,000 years) steady-state conditions under wet climatic periods, and later (water storage north but not south, of the uplift, and groundwater ages that are indicative of autochthonous precipitation and recharge over the Dakhla sub-basin. Our findings provide valuable insights into optimum ways for the utilization of the NSAS.Keywords: NSAS, Groundwater flow model, Ages data, isotopic data

  15. A 20-ka reconstruction of a Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment using multi-method dating on pedogenic carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; King, Georgina E.; Valla, Pierre G.; Sebag, David; Herman, Frédéric; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-04-01

    Soils can be precious environmental archives as they are open systems resulting from external persistent disturbance, or forcing (Jenny, 1941). Pedogenic carbonate nodules associated with clay-rich soils have been investigated in the Far North region of Cameroon in non-carbonate watersheds (Chad Basin). Nodule bearing soils have mima-like mound morphologies, within stream networks. Such settings raise questions on the processes leading to carbonate precipitation as well as landscape genesis. The mima-like mounds have been identified as degraded Vertisols, resulting from differential erosion induced by a former gilgai micro-relief (Diaz et al., 2016). Non-degraded Vertisols occur in waterlogged areas, located downstream from mima-like mound locations (Braband and Gavaud, 1985). Therefore during a former wetter period Vertisols may have been extended to the mima-like mound areas, followed by a shift toward drier conditions and erosion (Diaz et al., 2016). Consequently, mima-like mounds and associated carbonate nodules are inherited from climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The aim of this study is to validate the scenario above using the carbonate nodules collected in a mima-like mound as time archives. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of K-feldspars trapped within the nodules is used to assess the deposition time of the soil parent material, composing the mima-like mounds. The carbonate and organic nodule parts have been radiocarbon dated with the aim of assessing the carbonate precipitation age and the age range of soil formation, respectively. Results show that the soil parent material was deposited between 18 ka and 12 ka BP and that the nodules precipitated between 7 ka and 5 ka BP. These results suggest that the deposition occurred during the arid climatic period of the Bossoumian (20 ka to 15 ka BP; Hervieu, 1970) and during the first drier part of the African Humid Period (14.8 ka to 11.5 ka BP; deMenocal et al., 2000

  16. 杯形蛋糕公司获投资

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ascent Equjty Capital近日宣布投资150万美元来启动Phoebe's Cupcakes公司,这是一家由Chicagoans Phoebe Waiters和Kate McNamara两人共同运营的糕饼店。Ascent Equity Capital一向青睐于投资银行和法律行业的创新公司,此次为什么会对一家糕饼店情有独钟呢?原因之一是公司合伙人Chad Mollman是这家糕饼店薄荷味巧克力蛋糕的“超级粉丝”。

  17. Une description philologique de quelques mots du français régional haïtien

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    Roberson Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article décrit quelques exemples de mots relevant du français régional haïtien, autrement dit du français contemporain tel qu'il est représenté en Haïti. Dans une approche philologique, les auteurs sollicitent la méthodologie de la lexicographie différentielle francophone de manière à soulever, plus indirectement, quelques unes des questions d'ordre sociolinguistique qui ont toujours préoccupé Pierre Vernet. Sont traités à titre d'illustration les mots bérégène, bouillon, calalou*, camionette, carnet, chadèque, pistache, rigoise et suret(te.

  18. Atrial fibrillation and stroke: epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffel, James A

    2014-04-01

    The statistics for AFib are impressive. (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). The principal risk with AFib, stroke or thrombotic embolism, is increased 5-fold in some series; AFib accounts for ≥15% of all strokes in the United States, 36% of strokes for individuals aged >80, and up to 20% of cryptogenic strokes, which means >100,000-125,000 embolic strokes per year, of which >20% are fatal. Patients with ischemic stroke and AFib are significantly (PPrevention of these thromboembolic outcomes requires prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. The "gold standard" for anticoagulation has been warfarin, despite its well-known side effects and adherence challenges for patients. The recent approvals of several new, novel oral anticoagulation (NOAC) agents, however, presents physicians with a benefit/risk profile that represents an important advance over warfarin prophylaxis. The principal risk with all oral anticoagulants is bleeding. An important misconception about warfarin is that if anticoagulated patients bleed, the risk can be quickly reversed, but most trial experience has found that warfarin reversal requires 24 hours to halve the INR value. Reversal of anticoagulation with the NOACs is unproven at present; possible approaches are presented in this review, but since the NOACs have both rapid onsets of action and short biologic half-lives, they do not present the same reversal challenges as warfarin. Finally, physicians must be aware of thromboembolic risk assessment. The principal risk assessment scores are CHADS2, updated with the more recent CHA2DS2-VASc to provide more accurate assessment of low-risk patients; this review concludes with a novel flow-chart showing physicians how the CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems can be used. PMID:24655742

  19. The silent victims of humanitarian crises and livelihood (insecurity: A case study among migrants in two Chadian towns

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    Syntyche Nakar Djindil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assistance to help relieve the hardships they face. "is study involves 111 migrant households from central Chad that, as a result of war and drought, have lost everything and now have to live in squatter areas of N’Djamena and Mongo, facing uncertainty and threats while negotiating their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been combined in this study to reveal the intriguing story of their daily lives in the face of complex and endemic crises. Anthropometric and health data were generated to determine the nutritional status of mothers and their children under !ve. Life histories, in-depth interviews and participatory observation allowed the researchers to capture the negotiation strategies they use to access food and shelter, their experiences of food insecurity and sanitary vulnerability, and the consequences these have on daily life. Results indicate that 62% of households were female headed, there were high rates of acute (40-50% and chronic (35-40% malnutrition and 46% of the mothers were underweight and anaemic. Infant mortality rates were also high at 30%-42% and 97% of the children had had incomplete or no vaccinations. No households had access to clean water, sanitation or public-health services. Endemic corruption and abuse by the authorities were identi!ed as major sources of day-to-day insecurity. Theese migrants were not expecting any improvement in their livelihoods in the foreseeable future and saw these miserable conditions as normal.

  20. Wind-driven Water Bodies : a new paradigm for lake geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutz, A.; Schuster, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; Roquin, C.; Bouchette, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we emphasize the importance in some lakes of wind-related hydrodynamic processes (fair weather waves, storm waves, and longshore, cross-shore and bottom currents) as a first order forcing for clastics remobilization and basin infill. This alternative view contrasts with more classical depositional models for lakes where fluvial-driven sedimentation and settling dominates. Here we consider three large lakes/paleo-lakes that are located in different climatic and geodynamic settings: Megalake Chad (north-central Africa), Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada), and Lake Turkana (Kenya, East African Rift System). All of these three lake systems exhibit well developed modern and ancient high-energy littoral morphosedimentary structures which directly derive from wind-related hydrodynamics. The extensive paleo-shorelines of Megalake Chad are composed of beach-foredune ridges, spits, wave-dominated deltas, barriers, and wave-ravinment surface. For Lake Saint-Jean the influence of wind is also identified below the wave-base at lake bottom from erosional surfaces, and sediment drifts. In the Lake Turkana Basin, littoral landforms and deposits are identified for three different time intervals (today, Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene) evidencing that wind-driven hydrodynamics can be preserved in the geological record. Moreover, a preliminary global survey suggests that numerous modern lakes (remote sensing) and paleo-lakes (bibliographic review) behave as such. We thus coin the term "Wind-driven Water Bodies" (WWB) to refer to those lake systems where sedimentation (erosion, transport, deposition) is dominated by wind-induced hydrodynamics at any depth, as it is the case in the marine realm for shallow seas. Integrating wind forcing in lake models has strong implications for basin analysis (paleoenvironments and paleoclimates restitutions, resources exploration), but also for coastal engineering, wildlife and reservoirs management, or leisure activities.

  1. Post-procedural Dabigatran Versus Interrupted Warfarin Therapy Following Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

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    Jeffrey Lin, MD; Sharon Shen, MD; Prashant Bhave, MD; Bradley Knight, MD; Martha Bohn, RN, BSN; Evaldas Giedrimas, MD; Taral K. Patel, MD; Alexandru Chicos, MD; Jeffrey Goldberger, MD; Leonard Ilkhanoff, MD, MS; Susan Kim, MD; Albert Lin, MD; Rod Passman, MD, MSCE.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF are at a higher risk of thromboembolic events post-procedure and therefore require therapeutic anticoagulation after ablation. Anticoagulation strategies include performing the procedure on or off therapeutic warfarin, though the latter approach requires post-procedure bridging therapy with low molecular-weight heparin (LMWH until a therapeutic INR is achieved. The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of post-ablation dabigatran as compared to warfarin with LMWH bridging. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF between January 2010 and December 2012 and received either post-procedure warfarin with a LMWH bridge or dabigatran. Warfarin was started the night of ablation; LMWH was started the next morning and continued until the INR was ≥ 2.0. Dabigatran was started the morning post-ablation. Results: The analysis included 324 patients. Of these, mean age was 60 ± 9 years, 78% were male, 81% had CHADS2 scores of 0 or 1, and 181 (56% received dabigatran post-ablation. Patients who received dabigatran had lower CHADS2 scores and were more likely to be in NYHA Class I. At 30-days post-procedure, there were 0 thromboembolic or bleeding complications in the dabigatran group versus 4 (2.8% in the warfarin group (p=0.037. There were no deaths in either group at 30 days post-ablation. Conclusions: Post-ablation dabigatran appears safe and efficacious compared to an interrupted warfarin strategy with LMWH bridging.

  2. A Human Vaccine Strategy Based On Chimpanzee Adenoviral and MVA Vectors That Primes, Boosts and Sustains Functional HCV Specific T-Cell Memory*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Capone, Stefania; Antrobus, Richard D.; Brown, Anthony; Richardson, Rachel; Newell, Evan W.; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Bowen, Dan; Fergusson, Joannah; Kurioka, Ayako; Ammendola, Virginia; Sorbo, Mariarosaria Del; Grazioli, Fabiana; Esposito, Maria Luisa; Siani, Loredana; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian; Colloca, Stefano; Davis, Mark; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Folgori, Antonella; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    A protective vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet clinical need. HCV infects millions of people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Animal challenge experiments, immunogenetics studies and assessment of host immunity during acute infection highlight the critical role that effective T-cell immunity plays in viral control. In this first-in-man study we have induced antiviral immunity with functional characteristics analogous to those associated with viral control in natural infection, and improved upon a vaccine based on adenoviral vectors alone. We assessed a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy based on a replicative defective simian adenoviral vector (ChAd3) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the NS3, NS4, NS5A and NS5B proteins of HCV genotype-1b. Analysis employed single cell mass cytometry (CyTOF), and HLA class-I peptide tetramer technology in healthy human volunteers. We show that HCV specific T-cells induced by ChAd3 are optimally boosted with MVA, and generate very high levels of both CD8+ and CD4+ HCV specific T-cells targeting multiple HCV antigens. Sustained memory and effector T-cell populations are generated and T-cell memory evolved over time with improvement of quality (proliferation and polyfunctionality) following heterologous MVA boost. We have developed a HCV vaccine strategy, with durable, broad, sustained and balanced T-cell responses, characteristic of those associated with viral control, paving the way for the first efficacy studies of a prophylactic HCV vaccine. PMID:25378645

  3. The CIRAD Contribution to Rinderpest Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest, which was a major incentive for establishment of the first veterinary school at Lyon in 1764 and later of OIE, also motivated the implementation of an international training course in Maisons-Alfort (France) in 1921, which aimed to improve the control of rinderpest. This postgraduate teaching in exotic medicine was soon organized into an institute, Institut de medecine veterinaire exotique, then, the Institut d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire Tropicale (IEMVT), which was created in 1948 and merged with other French agronomic institutes in 1984, to create CIRAD. For simplicity, this chapter uses the name CIRAD. All the scientists mentioned work at CIRAD unless otherwise stated. The history of CIRAD's contribution to rinderpest eradication is also the history of strong collaboration with national, regional and international veterinary services (OIE, FAO, AU-IBAR) and animal health research centres. A large and significant body of field and laboratory work was carried out during the period. A few years ago, it was still possible to meet pastoralists in remote areas of Chad or the Central African Republic who remembered seeing French vets use their goats to vaccinate cattle with the 'caprinized' rinderpest vaccine. Pan-African vaccination campaigns and the pledge for eradication. CIRAD was involved in all aspects of rinderpest research and control activities since the early 1950s. Most of this work was conducted in the national laboratories of Chad (Farcha; Provost, 1966), Senegal (Dakar) and Ethiopia (Debre Zeit; Lefevre and Domenech, 1974), which are now important components of their respective national animal disease control and research systems. Dakar and Debre Zeit laboratories are major international stakeholders in disease control, through the networks and reference centres of the West and Central Africa Veterinary Laboratory Network for Avian Influenza and other Transboundary Disease (RESOLAB, coordinated by FAO, OIE and AU-IBAR) and PANVAC

  4. Crocodiles in the Sahara desert: an update of distribution, habitats and population status for conservation planning in Mauritania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20(th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on

  5. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Ansari, M Azim; Bonsall, David; Richardson, Rachel; Hartnell, Felicity; Collier, Jane; Ammendola, Virginia; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Von Delft, Annette; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian V S; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Folgori, Antonella; Barnes, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy), determine T-cell cross-reactivity to endogenous virus, and compare immunogenicity with that observed previously in both healthy volunteers and in HCV infected patients vaccinated with the heterologous Ad regimen. Vaccination of HCV infected patients with ChAd3-NSmut/MVA-NSmut was well tolerated. Vaccine-induced HCV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8/12 patients; however, CD4+ T-cell responses were rarely detected, and the overall magnitude of HCV-specific T-cell responses was markedly reduced when compared to vaccinated healthy volunteers. Furthermore, HCV-specific cells had a distinct partially-functional phenotype (lower expression of activation markers, granzyme B, and TNFα production, weaker in vitro proliferation, and higher Tim3 expression, with comparable Tbet and Eomes expression) compared to healthy volunteers. Robust anti-vector T-cells and antibodies were induced, showing that there is no global defect in immunity. The level of viremia at the time of vaccination did not correlate with the magnitude of the vaccine-induced T-cell response. Full-length, next-generation sequencing of the circulating virus demonstrated that T-cells were

  6. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Swadling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA, or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3 vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA, encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut, used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy, determine T-cell cross-reactivity to endogenous virus, and compare immunogenicity with that observed previously in both healthy volunteers and in HCV infected patients vaccinated with the heterologous Ad regimen. Vaccination of HCV infected patients with ChAd3-NSmut/MVA-NSmut was well tolerated. Vaccine-induced HCV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8/12 patients; however, CD4+ T-cell responses were rarely detected, and the overall magnitude of HCV-specific T-cell responses was markedly reduced when compared to vaccinated healthy volunteers. Furthermore, HCV-specific cells had a distinct partially-functional phenotype (lower expression of activation markers, granzyme B, and TNFα production, weaker in vitro proliferation, and higher Tim3 expression, with comparable Tbet and Eomes expression compared to healthy volunteers. Robust anti-vector T-cells and antibodies were induced, showing that there is no global defect in immunity. The level of viremia at the time of vaccination did not correlate with the magnitude of the vaccine-induced T-cell response. Full-length, next-generation sequencing of the circulating virus demonstrated that T

  7. Water vapor budget associated to overshoots in the tropical stratosphere: mesoscale modelling study of 4–5 August 2006 during SCOUT-AMMA

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    X. M. Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of overshooting convection at a local scale on the water distribution in the tropical UTLS. Overshooting convection is likely to be one of the key processes controlling the entry of water vapour amount in the stratosphere by injecting ice crystals above the tropopause which later sublimate and hydrate the lower stratosphere. For this purpose, we quantify the individual impact of two overshooting cases in Africa observed during SCOUT-AMMA: the case of 4 August 2006 over Southern Chad which is likely to have influenced the water vapour measurements by micro-SDLA and FLASH-B from Niamey on 5 August, and the case of a mesoscale convective system over Aϊr on 5 August 2006. We make use of high resolution (down to 1 km horizontally three nested grid simulations with the three-dimensional regional atmospheric model BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. In both cases, BRAMS succeeds in simulating the main features of the convective activity, as well as overshooting convection, thought the exact position and time of the overshoots indicated by MSG brightness temperature difference is not fully reproduced (typically 1° in latitude compared with the overshoots indicated by brightness temperature difference from satellite observations for both cases, and several hours shift the Aϊr case on 5 August 2006. Total water budgets associated with these two events show a significant injection of ice particles above the tropopause with maximum values of about 3.7 ton s−1 for the Chad case (4 August and 1.4 ton s−1 for the Aϊr case (5 August, and a total cross tropopause transport of about 3300 ton h−1 for the Chad case and 2400 ton h−1 for the Aϊr case in the third domain of simulation. The order of magnitude of these modelled fluxes is lower but comparable with similar studies in other tropical areas based on models. These two estimations exhibit

  8. Four African Nations Agree to Water Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seeking to improve their management of water resources, four northeast African nations today agreed at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to establish a long-term framework for utlizing a key underground water system. Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan signed a Strategic Action Programme (SAP) that aims to optimize the equitable use of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, a huge water resource that lies beneath the four nations. The SAP also commits the countries to strengthen and build upon a previously existing regional coordination mechanism, in part by establishing a new Joint Authority for the Nubian Aquifer System. The Programme lays the groundwork for improving cooperation among the four arid nations and for strengthening their capacity to monitor and manage the aquifer effectively. With growing populations and decreasing water availability from other sources in the region, the aquifer is under mounting pressure. Removing water without a clear understanding of transboundary and other implications threatens water quality and has the potential to harm biodiversity and accelerate land degradation. The agreement resulted from a joint Technical Cooperation project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the IAEA. ''I congratulate all involved on this significant achievement,'' said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. ''Water is a key resource, and effective management and use of such water resources is essential for the future. The agreement of the Strategic Action Programme is the result of real cooperation between the four States, the Agency and UNDP-GEF. I am confident that this Programme will be a success and will benefit the people of the region. This positive project experience benefits strengthened and expanded cooperation between the IAEA and the UNDP-GEF.'' ''UNDP would like to congratulate the

  9. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Ansari, M. Azim; Bonsall, David; Richardson, Rachel; Hartnell, Felicity; Collier, Jane; Ammendola, Virginia; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Von Delft, Annette; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Folgori, Antonella; Barnes, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy), determine T-cell cross-reactivity to endogenous virus, and compare immunogenicity with that observed previously in both healthy volunteers and in HCV infected patients vaccinated with the heterologous Ad regimen. Vaccination of HCV infected patients with ChAd3-NSmut/MVA-NSmut was well tolerated. Vaccine-induced HCV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8/12 patients; however, CD4+ T-cell responses were rarely detected, and the overall magnitude of HCV-specific T-cell responses was markedly reduced when compared to vaccinated healthy volunteers. Furthermore, HCV-specific cells had a distinct partially-functional phenotype (lower expression of activation markers, granzyme B, and TNFα production, weaker in vitro proliferation, and higher Tim3 expression, with comparable Tbet and Eomes expression) compared to healthy volunteers. Robust anti-vector T-cells and antibodies were induced, showing that there is no global defect in immunity. The level of viremia at the time of vaccination did not correlate with the magnitude of the vaccine-induced T-cell response. Full-length, next-generation sequencing of the circulating virus demonstrated that T-cells were

  10. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  11. A viral vectored prime-boost immunization regime targeting the malaria Pfs25 antigen induces transmission-blocking activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Goodman

    Full Text Available The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63, human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a heterologous prime-boost regime. Immunization of mice with AdHu5 Pfs25 at week 0 and MVA Pfs25 at week 10 (Ad-MVA Pfs25 resulted in high anti-Pfs25 IgG titers, consisting of predominantly isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a. A single priming immunization with ChAd63 Pfs25 was as effective as AdHu5 Pfs25 with respect to ELISA titers at 8 weeks post-immunization. Sera from Ad-MVA Pfs25 immunized mice inhibited the transmission of P. falciparum to the mosquito both ex vivo and in vivo. In a standard membrane-feeding assay using NF54 strain P. falciparum, oocyst intensity in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes was significantly reduced in an IgG concentration-dependent manner when compared to control feeds (96% reduction of intensity, 78% reduction in prevalence at a 1 in 5 dilution of sera. In addition, an in vivo transmission-blocking effect was also demonstrated by direct feeding of immunized mice infected with Pfs25DR3, a chimeric P. berghei line expressing Pfs25 in place of endogenous Pbs25. In this assay the density of Pfs25DR3 oocysts was significantly reduced when mosquitoes were fed on vaccinated as compared to control mice (67% reduction of intensity, 28% reduction in prevalence and specific IgG titer correlated with efficacy. These data confirm the utility of the adenovirus-MVA vaccine platform for the induction of antibodies with transmission-blocking activity, and support the continued development of this alternative approach to transmission-blocking malaria subunit

  12. Cost-effectiveness of edoxaban versus rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Ye, Xin; Lenhart, Gregory M; Farr, Amanda M; Tran, Oth V; Kwong, W Jackie; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Weintraub, William S

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the value of new anticoagulation therapies compared with existing therapies is of paramount importance in today’s cost-conscious and efficiency-driven health care environment. Edoxaban and rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with CHADS2 scores ≥2 have been evaluated in pivotal trials versus warfarin. The relative value of edoxaban versus rivaroxaban would be of interest to health care stakeholders and patients who prefer a once-daily treatment option for long-term stroke prevention in NVAF. Objective To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of two once-daily regimens of novel oral anticoagulation therapy – edoxaban (60 mg/30 mg dose-reduced) versus rivaroxaban (20 mg/15 mg dose-reduced) – for stroke prevention in NVAF patients from a US health-plan perspective. Materials and methods A Markov model simulated lifetime risk and treatment of stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, myocardial infarction, and death in NVAF patients treated with edoxaban or rivaroxaban. Efficacy and safety data were derived from a network meta-analysis that utilized data from patients enrolled in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 and ROCKET-AF. Health care cost and utility data were obtained from published sources. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $150,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were used as thresholds for “highly cost-effective”, “cost-effective”, and “not cost-effective” treatment options, respectively, as per American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines. Results Edoxaban was dominant relative to rivaroxaban, such that it was associated with lower total health care costs and better effectiveness in terms of QALYs in the base-case analysis. Results were supported by probabilistic sensitivity analyses that showed edoxaban as either dominant or a highly cost-effective alternative (incremental cost

  13. 北站社区100例心房颤动患者抗凝治疗现状%Survey on the treatment of anticoagulation in 100 patients with atrial ifbrillation in Beizhan Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明艺; 王志华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To survey the treatment status of anticoagulation in the patients with atrial ifbrillation in Beizhan Community to provide a reference for the community standardized management of atrial ifbrillation. Methods:One hundred cases with atrial ifbrillation in the outpatient department of Zhabei Community Health Service Center from Jan. to Dec. 2013 were collected and investigated with a questionnaire that included the present illness, past history, treatment history, prothrombin monitoring and INR awareness and so on. The score of CHADS2 was used to evaluate the treatment rationality. Results:Hypertension and ischemic heart disease were the major causes of atrial ifbrillation, the anticoagulation treatment proportion for atrial ifbrillation accounted for only 33%, and the average time of anticoagulation therapy was 6 months. The community did not carry out the monitoring of coagulation function for the patients with anticoagulation therapy. Conclusion:Anticoagulation treatment of atrial ifbrillation has not been carried out in the community. It needs to strengthen and enhance the standardized management level of atrial ifbrillation in the community.%目的:调查北站社区心房颤动(房颤)患者抗凝治疗现状,为规范社区房颤管理提供参考。方法:收集2013年1月-2013年12月北站社区门诊持续房颤患者100例,进行问卷调查,内容包括现病史、既往病史、治疗史、凝血酶原监测及凝血酶国际标准化比率知晓情况等,并采用CHADS2评分评价治疗的合理性。结果:房颤的病因主要为高血压和缺血性心脏病,房颤患者抗凝治疗的比例仅为36%,抗凝治疗的平均时间为6个月;社区尚未开展抗凝治疗患者凝血功能监测。结论:社区房颤的抗凝治疗尚未展开,需加强和提高社区房颤的规范管理水平。

  14. Environment of paleowater in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many natural and environmental developments created the conditions for paleowater occurrence in Sudan and possibly other areas. The major developments include: geological, structural and climatic. The geological environment includes the formation of Basement Complex (BC), which are the oldest rocks emplaced during Pre-Cambrian to the early Jurassic followed by the severe erosion, magmatism and deformation during the Jurassic. The uncomfortable deposition of the sedimentary rocks started in the Paleozoic and continued in association with the tectonic activities. Structural features resulted from the frequent tectonic activities controlled the configuration and geographical distribution of the sedimentary basins. The NW Central African Shear Zone CASZ, slip fault Wrench Strike to the West of the CASZ and the Garaf Strike Slip fault led to the establishment of depressions and deposition of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments forming the sedimentary basins in Northwest (Sahara), in Southwest (Bagara) and in the east central (R Atbra)of Sudan respectively. The paleoclimatic investigations in the region covering: Lake Chad, the Nile system, Ethiopian Plata, Libya and Egypt suggested humid conditions between 40,000 and 3,000 Bp. The wet period was interrupted by dry periods. The early wet periods were recorded in Lake Chad. The estimated age of Paleowater cluster between 30,000-20,000 and 10,000 and 3000 BP and few ages between 10,000 and 20,000 PB in agreement with the defined dry period between 20,000 and 13,000 BP. The recharge of the Nubian aquifer remains a debatable topic. The so far conducted studies using environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry on the basis of conventional approaches suggest. The infiltration rate of water from the rainfall is estimated at 0.4 and 1.0 mm/y in the arid zones in the north (R Atbra Basin) and increases up to 10.0mm/y in the relatively wet areas in the south (Bagara Basin). The lateral recharge from the Nile system is evident up to

  15. Risk profiles and antithrombotic treatment of patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke: perspectives from the international, observational, prospective GARFIELD registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Kakkar

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke, from a worldwide perspective. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics and initial therapeutic management of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation across the spectrum of sites at which these patients are treated.The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD is an observational study of patients newly diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Enrollment into Cohort 1 (of 5 took place between December 2009 and October 2011 at 540 sites in 19 countries in Europe, Asia-Pacific, Central/South America, and Canada. Investigator sites are representative of the distribution of atrial fibrillation care settings in each country. Cohort 1 comprised 10,614 adults (≥18 years diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation within the previous 6 weeks, with ≥1 investigator-defined stroke risk factor (not limited to those in existing risk-stratification schemes, and regardless of therapy. Data collected at baseline included demographics, medical history, care setting, nature of atrial fibrillation, and treatments initiated at diagnosis. The mean (SD age of the population was 70.2 (11.2 years; 43.2% were women. Mean±SD CHADS2 score was 1.9±1.2, and 57.2% had a score ≥2. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.2±1.6, and 8,957 (84.4% had a score ≥2. Overall, 38.0% of patients with a CHADS2 score ≥2 did not receive anticoagulant therapy, whereas 42.5% of those at low risk (score 0 received anticoagulant therapy.These contemporary observational worldwide data on non-valvular atrial fibrillation, collected at the end of the vitamin K antagonist-only era, indicate that these drugs are frequently not being used according to stroke risk scores and guidelines, with overuse in patients at low risk and underuse in those at high risk of stroke.ClinicalTrials.gov TRI08888.

  16. An integrated remote sensing and GIS analysis of the Kufrah Paleoriver, Eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Eman; Benedetti, Michael; El-Baz, Farouk

    2012-02-01

    A combined remote sensing (optical and radar imagery) and GIS (hydrologic network delineation) analysis allows mapping of the Kufrah Paleoriver of Libya and sheds light on its geomorphic evolution during the Neogene. The Kufrah system, which is now largely buried beneath the windblown sands of the Eastern Sahara, drained an area of about 236,000 km 2 in central and southern Libya. The river discharged across a large inland delta to the Al-Jaghbub depression in northern Libya, and ultimately through the Sirt Basin to the Mediterranean Sea. Radar imagery reveals buried features of the landscape including drainage divides, locations of possible stream capture, deeply-incised valleys, and the distal margins of the inland delta. Previous studies have shown that the Kufrah Paleoriver is the successor of the Sahabi River, which drained most of central Libya during the late Tertiary. Satellite imagery supports the concept of large-scale drainage rearrangement in the Quaternary, driven by tectonic subsidence that diverted streamflow and sediment discharge away from the Sahabi basin toward the inland delta of the lower Kufrah basin. Paleochannels crossing the delta suggest that at various times during the Quaternary, the Kufrah Paleoriver either drained externally through the deeply-incised Sahabi Paleochannel to the Mediterranean Sea, or drained internally to paleolakes in the Al-Jaghbub depression. Thick alluvial deposits on the delta and lake margins likely provided a major sediment source to build the Great Sand Sea, which covers the region today. The southwestern branch of the Kufrah drainage is aligned with an elongated trough that connects to the Amatinga River system in Chad. Thus the Kufrah watershed may have served as an outlet from Megalake Chad to the Mediterranean Sea during humid phases of the Neogene. If so, the combined Amatinga/Kufrah system may have served as one of the proposed natural corridors used by human and animal populations to cross the Sahara

  17. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative’s model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South–South collaboration has been central to the initiative’s accomplishments: Guinea’s clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP

  18. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae: data from the first year of a multi-country study highlight the extent of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagnon N'Falé

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing concern in many countries which requires immediate attention because of the limited chemical arsenal available for vector control. The current extent and distribution of this resistance in many parts of the continent is unknown and yet such information is essential for the planning of effective malaria control interventions. Methods In 2008, a network was established, with financial support from WHO/TDR, to investigate the extent of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in five African countries. Here, the results of bioassays on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from two rounds of monitoring from 12 sentinel sites in three of the partner countries are reported. Results Resistance is very heterogeneous even over relatively small distances. Furthermore, in some sites, large differences in mortality rates were observed during the course of the malaria transmission season. Using WHO diagnostic doses, all populations from Burkina Faso and Chad and two of the four populations from Sudan were classified as resistant to permethrin and/or deltamethrin. Very high frequencies of DDT resistance were found in urban areas in Burkina Faso and Sudan and in a cotton-growing district in Chad. In areas where both An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were present, resistance was found in both species, although generally at a higher frequency in An gambiae s.s. Anopheles gambiae s.l. remains largely susceptible to the organophosphate fenitrothion and the carbamate bendiocarb in the majority of the sentinel sites with the exception of two sites in Burkina Faso. In the cotton-growing region of Soumousso in Burkina Faso, the vector population is resistant to all four classes of insecticide available for malaria control. Conclusions Possible factors influencing the frequency of resistant individuals observed in the sentinel sites are discussed. The results of this study highlight the

  19. Radar scattering of linear dunes and mega-yardangs: Application to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillou, Philippe; Seignovert, Benoît; Radebaugh, Jani; Wall, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    The Ku-band (13.8 GHz - 2.2 cm) RADAR instrument onboard the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has revealed the richness of the surface of Titan, as numerous seas, lakes, rivers, cryo-volcanic flows and vast dune fields have been discovered. Linear dunes are a major geomorphological feature present on Titan, covering up to 17% of its surface, mainly in equatorial regions. However, the resolution of the RADAR instrument is not good enough to allow a detailed study of the morphology of these features. In addition, other linear wind-related landforms, such as mega-yardangs (linear wind-abraded ridges formed in cohesive rocks), are likely to present a comparable radar signature that could be confused with the one of dunes. We conducted a comparative study of the radar radiometry of both linear dunes and mega-yardangs, based on representative terrestrial analogues: the linear dunes located in the Great Sand Sea in western Egypt and in the Namib Desert in Namibia, and the mega-yardangs observed in the Lut Desert in eastern Iran and in the Borkou Desert in northern Chad. We analysed the radar scattering of both terrestrial linear dunes and mega-yardangs, using high-resolution radar images acquired by the X-band (9.6 GHz - 3.1 cm) sensor of the TerraSAR-X satellite. Variations seen in the radar response of dunes are the result of a contrast between the dune and interdune scattering, while for mega-yardangs these variations are the result of a contrast between ridges and erosion valleys. We tested a simple surface scattering model, with parameters derived from the local topography and surface roughness estimates, to accurately reproduce the radar signal variations for both landforms. It appears that we can discriminate between two types of dunes - bare interdunes as in Egypt and sand-covered interdunes as in Namibia, and between two types of mega-yardangs - young yardangs as in Iran and older ones as in Chad. We applied our understanding of the radar scattering to the analysis of

  20. Astronomy in Hawai'i is Where the Ocean Meets the Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Kalepa

    2012-01-01

    For generations the starry heavens have been a constant companion to oceanic wayfinders as they navigated from island to island. As mariner explorers sailed in search of new landfalls the stars served as signposts along oceanic seaways, recording the direction to new discoveries and return pathways to the distant islands they had sailed from. Given this historical background, and a Hawaiian worldview that sees astronomy as interconnected with the ocean and the land, educators at `Imiloa Astronomy Center have created a series of educational experiences that allow learners to integrate indigenous and western paradigms. Culture and Science Integration Hawai'i (CSI Hawai'i), is an example of a uniquely Hawaiian approach to learning, that focuses on a specific cultural practice and explores common intersections with science. This paper describes CSI Hawai'i and other culturally relevant examples of education and public outreach that are successfully engaging learners in astronomy, in addition to language, culture, and sustainable environmental practices. Presented by master navigator Kalepa Chad Baybayan, this session will include demonstrations and video footage of how navigators use derive clues about position, direction, and distance come from the stars, sun, and moon; from currents, ocean swells, and localized wave characteristics.

  1. Left Atrial Appendage: Physiology, Pathology, and Role as a Therapeutic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Regazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmia. AF poses patients at increased risk of thromboembolism, in particular ischemic stroke. The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are useful in the assessment of thromboembolic risk in nonvalvular AF and are utilized in decision-making about treatment with oral anticoagulation (OAC. However, OAC is underutilized due to poor patient compliance and contraindications, especially major bleedings. The Virchow triad synthesizes the pathogenesis of thrombogenesis in AF: endocardial dysfunction, abnormal blood stasis, and altered hemostasis. This is especially prominent in the left atrial appendage (LAA, where the low flow reaches its minimum. The LAA is the remnant of the embryonic left atrium, with a complex and variable morphology predisposing to stasis, especially during AF. In patients with nonvalvular AF, 90% of thrombi are located in the LAA. So, left atrial appendage occlusion could be an interesting and effective procedure in thromboembolism prevention in AF. After exclusion of LAA as an embolic source, the remaining risk of thromboembolism does not longer justify the use of oral anticoagulants. Various surgical and catheter-based methods have been developed to exclude the LAA. This paper reviews the physiological and pathophysiological role of the LAA and catheter-based methods of LAA exclusion.

  2. Space shuttle observations of terrestrial impact structures using SIR-C and X-SAR radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHone, John F.; Greeley, Ronald; Williams, Kevin K.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.

    2002-03-01

    Ten terrestrial impact structures were imaged during two flights of the 1994 Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) experiment. These craters include Wolf Creek, Australia; Roter Kamm, Namibia; Zhamanshin, Kazakhstan; B.P. and Oasis, Libya; Aorounga, Chad; Amguid, Algeria; and Spider, Connolly Basin and Henbury, Australia. SRL contained two co-registered instruments; the United States SIR-C polarimetric radar system operating in L-band (?=24 cm) and C-band (?=5.6 cm), and the joint German/Italian X-SAR vertically-polarized radar operating in X-band (?=3 cm). Comparisons show SRL images to be complementary to, or in some cases superior to, corresponding optical images for evaluating size, location, and relative age of impact features. Regardless of wavelength or polarization, craters with significant relief appear prominently on radar as a result of slope and roughness effects. In desert regions, longer wavelengths penetrate dry sand mantles to reveal hidden crater dimensions or associated buried landforms. Radar polarities and wavelengths are particularly sensitive to vegetation, surface roughness, and soil moisture or electrical properties. In the more temperate environments of Kazakhstan and Australia, SRL images show detailed stream patterns that reveal the location and structure of otherwise obscured impact features.

  3. Sociocultural factors influencing decision-making related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.

  4. Exporting expertise : Pajak Engineering sends its oilfield consultants to the farthest corners of the global patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    This article discussed the activities of Pajak Engineering Ltd., a Canadian company that supplies wellsite supervisors, engineers, and engineering technologists to an international client base. The company has expertise in all phases of the oil and gas production cycle, and was recently involved in evacuating Chinese and Canadian oilfield personnel from a site in Chad that was in danger of being attacked by rebel forces. A Pajak consultant persuaded officials in Cameroon to allow the 115 Chinese oilfield workers to enter the country without conventional documents. The firm was founded in 1966, and was responsible for initiating Canada's first well control training course. The firm is now concentrating on deploying more personnel internationally in order to counter the cyclical nature of the Canadian oil industry. International producers acknowledge that Canada's harsh operating environment has resulted in significant advances in drilling management technology. Pajak consultants are instructed to avoid potentially dangerous operational shortcuts, and the firm has developed a reputation for having high professional standards. 3 figs.

  5. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ajai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  6. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology. Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  7. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor Provost

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology.Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  8. Radar observation of Venus' terrestrial analogues using TecSAR X-band SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, D. G.

    2012-04-01

    Venus is shrouded in a dense CO2 atmosphere that prevents us from viewing the surface in visible light or with optronic sensors. Long wavelengths are required to 'see' through the dense atmosphere. In the early 1990s, the S-band synthetic aperture radar of the Magellan spacecraft acquired images of a variety of surface features on Venus, including morphologies attributed to wind processes. These include sand dunes, wind-sculpted hills (yardangs), and almost 6000 wind streaks. These aeolian landscapes were formed and shaped by near surface atmospheric circulation and local winds. These can serve as local markers, each providing an integrated wind direction. Since the Magellan mission, there were no missions to Venus until the Venus Express Mission of 2005 to examine the upper atmosphere. The future will probably include high-resolution SAR images of Venus. This poster will demonstrate high resolution SAR images in X-band from the TecSAR sensor launched by Israel in 2008. Observations of wind streaks, dunes and impact craters in desert areas will show the wealth of information that is extracted from high-res X-band data. Detailed images of Aurounga impact crater in Chad, Kelso dunes, California and Pisgah lava flow show immense detail of the morphologies associated with these features. These are compared with Magellan images of sites on Venus and SRL data in C and L-bands. The X-band provides extremely high resolution and resembles optical data much more than the longer wavelengths.

  9. A linear geospatial streamflow modeling system for data sparse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwabena O.; Arlan, Guleid A.; Pervez, Md Shahriar; Rowland, James

    2008-01-01

    In many river basins around the world, inaccessibility of flow data is a major obstacle to water resource studies and operational monitoring. This paper describes a geospatial streamflow modeling system which is parameterized with global terrain, soils and land cover data and run operationally with satellite‐derived precipitation and evapotranspiration datasets. Simple linear methods transfer water through the subsurface, overland and river flow phases, and the resulting flows are expressed in terms of standard deviations from mean annual flow. In sample applications, the modeling system was used to simulate flow variations in the Congo, Niger, Nile, Zambezi, Orange and Lake Chad basins between 1998 and 2005, and the resulting flows were compared with mean monthly values from the open‐access Global River Discharge Database. While the uncalibrated model cannot predict the absolute magnitude of flow, it can quantify flow anomalies in terms of relative departures from mean flow. Most of the severe flood events identified in the flow anomalies were independently verified by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) and the Emergency Disaster Database (EM‐DAT). Despite its limitations, the modeling system is valuable for rapid characterization of the relative magnitude of flood hazards and seasonal flow changes in data sparse settings.

  10. Safety of atrial fibrillation ablation with novel multi-electrode array catheters on uninterrupted anticoagulation-a single-center experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Christopher Ruslan

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: A recent single-center report indicated that the performance of atrial fibrillation ablation in patients on uninterrupted warfarin using a conventional deflectable tip electrode ablation catheter may be as safe as periprocedural discontinuation of warfarin and bridging with heparin. Novel multi-electrode array catheters for atrial fibrillation ablation are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. While offering the possibility of more rapid atrial fibrillation ablation, they are stiffer and necessitate the deployment of larger deflectable transseptal sheaths, and it remains to be determined if they increase the risk of cardiac perforation and vascular injury. Such potential risks would have implications for a strategy of uninterrupted periprocedural anticoagulation. METHOD AND RESULTS: We audited the safety outcomes of our atrial fibrillation ablation procedures using multi-electrode array ablation catheters in patients on uninterrupted warfarin (CHADS2 score>or=2) and in patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). Two bleeding complications occurred in 49 patients on uninterrupted warfarin, both of which were managed successfully without longterm sequelae, and no bleeding complication occurred in 32 patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). There were no thromboembolic events or other complication with either anticoagulant regimen. CONCLUSION: Despite the larger diameter and increased stiffness of multi-electrode array catheters and their deflectable transseptal sheaths, their use for catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation on uninterrupted warfarin in this single-center experience does not appear to be unsafe, and thus, an adequately powered multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial should be considered.

  11. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita M. Rochlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26% received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes.

  12. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  13. 两大巨头的“握手”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽娜(编译)

    2006-01-01

    2006年10月9日,Google的创始人Larry Page和Sergey Brin宣布耗资16.5亿美元购买YouTube的计划。You Tube是由Chad Hurley和Steve Chen创办的,Page和Brin先生凭借其搜索引擎巨头的实力制造了一种网络现象——Google用实际行动证明搜寻服务可以通过附加广告挣钱.从而对传统的网络智慧和盈利方式提出了挑战。在过去的几年内Hurley和Chert也开创了一个新的网络模式:一个简单的娱乐网址,任何人都可以下载视频片断,并分享它。

  14. The Safety of Dabigatran Versus Warfarin in Patients Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I. Garcia, MD; Kartikya Ahuja, MD; Mark A. Mascarenhas, MD; Anthony Aizer, MD; Neil Bernstein, MD; Scott A. Bernstein, MD; Steve J. Fowler, MD; Douglas S. Holmes, MD; David S. Park, MD; Larry Chinitz, MD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety and optimal strategy of the use of dabigatran versus uninterrupted warfarin in atrial fibrillation ablation is currently unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis between July 2011-October 2012 of all patients undergoing an AF ablation who received uninterrupted warfarin therapy (199 and the routine cessation of Dabigatran therapy (126 4 days pre-ablation. Major safety endpoints included: pericardial effusion (requiring pericardiocentesis, peripheral thromboembolism, CVA, and groin hematoma requiring blood transfusion. Minor endpoints included pericardial effusion and groin hematoma. Dabigatran was restarted the following day after ablation. The warfarin group was older, had a higher CHADS2, CHA2DS2VASc and HASBLED scores and greater prevalence of aortic plaque. The major complication rate was 2.0% in the warfarin group and 2.4% in the dabigatran group (P= 0.83. The minor complication rate was 2.5% in the warfarin group and <1% in the dabigatran group (P= 0.27. In the dabigatran group, there was one renal thromboembolic event 4 days post-ablation. All patients in the warfarin group who suffered a major complication required a blood transfusion. Cessation of dabigatran therapy 4 days pre AF ablation has a comparable safety profile to uninterrupted warfarin therapy.

  15. A case-based approach to implementing guidelines for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: balancing the risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh; Deitelzweig, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) puts patients at risk of complications, including stroke. Warfarin therapy has been the mainstay of antithrombotic treatment for reducing the risk of stroke in AF. However, warfarin has limitations that have motivated development of several novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Clinical trials demonstrate that the NOACs offer efficacy and safety that are equivalent to, or better than, those of warfarin for reducing the risk of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF. This review examines stroke risk reduction in patients with AF from the perspective of the clinician balancing the risks and benefits of treatment options, evaluates the most recent guidelines, and discusses 2 hypothetical patient cases to better illustrate how clinicians may apply available data in the clinical setting. We reviewed guidelines for the reduction of stroke risk in AF and data from clinical trials on the NOACs. Choosing antithrombotic treatment involves assessing the benefits of therapy versus its risks. Risk indexes, including CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED can help determine how to treat patients with AF. Current guidelines suggest using these risk indexes to customize treatment to individual patients. Many current treatment guidelines also incorporate recommendations for the use of NOACs as an alternative to warfarin. As additional data emerge and guidelines are updated, these recommendations will likely evolve. In the interim, clinicians may consider published guidelines and clinical trial results on NOACs. Real-world experience will provide clinicians with additional insight into their treatment decisions. PMID:26300695

  16. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  17. Influence of the inter tropical discontinuity on Harmattan dust deposition in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsie, G.; Olsen, J. L.; Awadzi, T. W.; Fensholt, R.; Breuning-Madsen, H.

    2013-09-01

    The Harmattan is a dry dust-laden continental wind, and in the boreal winter Harmattan dust plumes affects many West African countries, including Ghana. When the Harmattan is strongest the southern part of Ghana is affected by the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD). In this study, we investigate if the ITD functions as a barrier, preventing long transported Harmattan dust to settle south of, and below, it. This is done by analyzing a Harmattan dust outbreak, mapped using Earth observation (EO) data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, coupled with data from West African AERONET stations, and comparing these observations with wind data from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) program and the mineral suite of samples from seasonal dust deposits in north and south Ghana. In northern Ghana traces of minerals indicate a weak influence of particles from an arid environment, which is found consistent with the mapped dust plumes and NE wind directions. In southern Ghana the mineral composition show no sediments of an arid origin, the mapped dust plumes is less intense, and the surface wind directions and wind mass trajectories are more varying with lower wind speeds. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that dust deposited, or measured near ground, in the Harmattan period under the ITD, and south of it, does not contain material from the Chad Basin due to the local winds conditions.

  18. Riparian ecosystem resilience and livelihood strategies under test: lessons from Lake Chilwa in Malawi and other lakes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafumbata, Dalitso; Jamu, Daniel; Chiotha, Sosten

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the importance of African lakes and their management challenges. African inland lakes contribute significantly to food security, livelihoods and national economies through direct exploitation of fisheries, water resources for irrigation and hydropower generation. Because of these key contributions, the ecosystem services provided are under significant stress mainly owing to high demand by increasing populations, negative anthropogenic impacts on lake catchments and high levels of poverty which result in unsustainable use. Climate variability exacerbates the stress on these ecosystems. Current research findings show that the lakes cannot sustain further development activities on the scale seen over the past few decades. Millions of people are at risk of losing livelihoods through impacts on livestock and wildlife. The review further shows that the problems facing these lakes are beyond the purview of current management practices. A much better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between different components of the lake socio-ecological systems is needed to address the complex challenges of managing these ecosystem services. This review suggests that the three small wetlands of Chad, Chilwa and Naivasha provide an opportunity for testing novel ideas that integrate sustainability of natural resource management with livelihoods in order to inform policy on how future land use and climatic variability will affect both food security and the ecosystem services associated with it. PMID:24535395

  19. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  20. An evidence-based review of edoxaban and its role in stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tushar; Deedwania, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality from cardioembolic complications like stroke. As a result, atrial fibrillation patients are risk-stratified using the CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems. Those at intermediate-to-high risk have traditionally been treated with therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin for stroke prevention. Although effective, warfarin use is fraught with multiple concerns, such as a narrow therapeutic window, drug-drug and drug-food interactions, and excessive bleeding. Novel oral anticoagulant agents have recently become available as viable alternatives for warfarin therapy. Direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitors like rivaroxaban and apixaban have already been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Edoxaban is the latest oral direct factor Xa inhibitor studied in the largest novel oral anticoagulant trial so far: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48. Treatment with a 30 mg or 60 mg daily dose of edoxaban was found to be noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in reducing the rate of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, with a lower incidence of bleeding complications and cardiovascular deaths. Edoxaban was recently reviewed by an FDA advisory committee and recommended as a stroke-prophylaxis agent. Once approved, it promises to provide another useful alternative to warfarin therapy. PMID:26019695

  1. Antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Mark J; Eikelboom, John W; Hankey, Graeme J

    2012-12-01

    The world faces an epidemic of atrial fibrillation and atrial fibrillation-related stroke. An individual's risk of atrial fibrillation-related stroke can be estimated with the CHADS(2) or CHA(2)DS(2)VASc scores, and reduced by two-thirds with effective anticoagulation. Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, are underused and often poorly managed. The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate and factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban are new oral anticoagulants that are at least as efficacious and safe as warfarin. Their advantages are predictable anticoagulant effects, low propensity for drug interactions, and lower rates of intracranial haemorrhage than with warfarin. A disadvantage is the continuing need to develop and validate rapidly effective antidotes for major bleeding and standardised tests that accurately measure plasma concentrations and anticoagulant effects, together with the disadvantage of possible higher rates of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and greater expense than with warfarin. The new oral anticoagulants should increase the number of patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke who are optimally anticoagulated, and reduce the burden of atrial fibrillation-related stroke. PMID:23153406

  2. An evidence-based review of apixaban and its potential in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deedwania, Prakash; Huang, Grace W

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia, especially in the elderly population. It is associated with cardioembolic complications, particularly strokes, resulting in severe functional deficit or death. AF patients are first stratified into low, intermediate, and high risk for thromboembolic events using the CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score systems. Depending on their risks, patients are treated with either therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin or acetylsalicylic acid for stroke prevention. Although warfarin is the recommended therapy, it is underutilized clinically due to concern for narrow therapeutic window, drug-to-drug and drug-to-food interactions, and hemorrhagic complications. Newer anticoagulant agents such as dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor) and rivaroxaban (a direct factor Xa inhibitor) have already been approved by US Food and Drug Administration for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Apixaban is the newest oral direct factor Xa inhibitor and it has been extensively studied in the AVERROES and ARISTOTLE trials. Apixaban demonstrated reduced incidence of primary outcome of stroke and bleeding events when compared with warfarin. Apixaban is currently being reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration as a stroke prophylactic agent. In addition, there are several other indirect factor Xa inhibitors and vitamin K antagonists under study presently. Results from these studies will provide us with information about possible alternatives to warfarin. PMID:22826692

  3. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  4. New anticoagulant drugs versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation: economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silingardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health care resources available for medical procedures, including pharmaceuticals, are limited worldwide. Health economic evidence is now accepted as an essential component of health technology appraisal, realizing the importance of value for money considerations for a more efficient (cost-effective prescribing. Regulatory agencies in more and more countries perform economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis in order to decide about reimbursement of a new and almost always more expensive drug. Pharmacoeconomy is now acknowledged as a science. Cost-effective analysis is just one of its approaches, measuring cost in money and benefit in terms of Quality Adjusted Life Year, a new outcome measure which combines quantity/quality of additional life-years gained with the new drug/technology. A growing body of pharmacoeconomic evidence about new anticoagulant drugs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation is now available. Most of this evidence comes from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE in the United Kingdom, the most referenced regulatory agency in the world. Compared to current standard therapies (warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are cost-effective treatments for the whole population of patients with atrial fibrillation, independently of poor/good international normalized ratio control (time in therapeutic range and risk stratification for stroke (CHADS2 score. Significant innovation and the lower rate of intracranial hemorrhage/hemorrhagic stroke coupled with the new drugs are the key drivers of these results.

  5. Dabigatran in Secondary Stroke Prevention: Clinical Experience with 106 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia DeFelipe-Mimbrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–31. Fifty-six females (52.8%, mean age 76.4 (range 50–95, SD 9.8, median CHADS2 4 (range 2–6, CHA2DS2-VASc 5 (range 2–9, and HAS-BLED 2 (range 1–5. Indication for dabigatran etexilate was ischemic stroke in 101 patients and acute cerebral hemorrhage (CH due to warfarin in 5 (4.7%. Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg bid was prescribed in 71 cases (67% and 150 mg bid was prescribed in the remaining. Seventeen patients (16% suffered 20 complications during follow-up. Ischemic complications (10 were 6 transient ischemic attacks (TIA, 3 ischemic strokes, and 1 acute coronary syndrome. Hemorrhagic complications (10 were CH (1, gastrointestinal bleeding (6, mild hematuria (2, and mild metrorrhagia (1, leading to dabigatran etexilate discontinuation in 3 patients. Patients with previous CH remained uneventful. Three patients died (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and acute cholecystitis and 9 were lost during follow-up. Conclusions. Dabigatran etexilate was safe and effective in secondary stroke prevention in clinical practice, including a small number of patients with previous history of CH.

  6. Wounds and weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports

  7. Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Verschuren, Dirk; Fagot, Maureen; Rumes, Bob; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid production peaked during the fresh-to-saline transition period, then stabilized at about half that of the earlier freshwater ecosystem. Quantitative salinity inferences based on fossil chironomid assemblages indicate that the fresh-to-saline transition occurred fairly abruptly between ˜4100 and 3400 cal yr BP, but that the ecosystem was buffered against shorter-term climate fluctuations due to continuous inflow of fossil groundwater. The mixture of tropical-African and southern Palaearctic chironomid faunas in the Lake Yoa fossil record required us to address several methodological issues concerning chironomid-based salinity reconstruction, and the applicability of a calibration dataset based on tropical East and West African lakes to this Sahara desert locality. The most coherent reconstruction was obtained with an inference model that applies a weighted best-modern-analogue (WMAT) transfer function to the African calibration dataset expanded with six Sahara lakes.

  8. Morbidity and treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Holger; Nabauer, Michael; Gerth, Andrea; Limbourg, Tobias; Treszl, Andras; Engelbertz, Christiane; Eckardt, Lars; Kirchhof, Paulus; Wegscheider, Karl; Ravens, Ursula; Meinertz, Thomas; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Breithardt, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but there are few studies available about atrial fibrillation, the most frequent arrhythmia in CKD, and the applied treatment. Based on the prospective German Competence NETwork on Atrial Fibrillation, data of 3138 patients with atrial fibrillation were analyzed and categorized by their estimated glomerular filtration rate (stages 1-3 and 4 plus 5). With advanced CKD, significantly more patients suffered from a more severe form of atrial fibrillation. Despite significantly higher CHADS2 scores in advanced CKD, oral anticoagulation was not prescribed more frequently while antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablations were used significantly less often, in contrast to more pacemaker implantations. However, in multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses of in-hospital treatments and complications, only hemorrhages and pacemaker implantations turned out to be independently and significantly associated with higher CKD stages. This nationwide study shows that patients with CKD and atrial fibrillation suffer from a markedly higher comorbidity. Thus, while CKD patients have received cardioversions, ablations, antiarrhythmic, or anticoagulation drugs significantly less often in their history, current treatments were not different if adjusted for multiple comorbidities. This might indicate an improvement in the often reported therapeutic nihilism in CKD. PMID:24897032

  9. Duloxetine in the treatment of chronic pain due to fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wright

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Wright, Kyle E Luedtke, Chad VanDenBergCenter for Clinical Research, Mercer University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAAbstract: Duloxetine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia and painful diabetic neuropathy at doses of 60 mg daily. Duloxetine has been shown to significantly improve the symptoms of chronic pain associated with these disorders, as measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory scores, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and other various outcome measures in several placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter studies. Symptom improvement generally began within the first few weeks, and continued for the duration of the study. In addition, the efficacy of duloxetine was found to be due to direct effects on pain symptoms rather than secondary to improvements in depression or anxiety. Adverse events including nausea, constipation, dry mouth, and insomnia, were mild and transient and occurred at relatively low rates. In conclusion, duloxetine, a selective inhibitor for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, is efficacious in the treatment of chronic pain associated with fibromyalgia or diabetic neuropathy, and has a predictable tolerability profile, with adverse events generally being mild to moderate.Keywords: duloxetine, chronic pain, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, efficacy, safety

  10. Technical note: Mineralogical, chemical, morphological, and optical interrelationships of mineral dust re-suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Moosmüller, Hans; Pincock, Samuel; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Lersch, Traci; Casuccio, Gary

    2016-08-01

    This paper promotes an understanding of the mineralogical, chemical, and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dusts collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soils were collected from arid regions, including the southwestern USA, Mali, Chad, Morocco, Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Serbia, China, Namibia, Botswana, Australia, and Chile. The particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size analyzer, and a three-wavelength (405, 532, 781 nm) photoacoustic instrument with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sampling media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 75, material. Also shown are differences in SSA of the kaolinite/hematite/goethite samples from Mali and those from colloidal soils elsewhere. Results from this study can be integrated into a database of mineral dust properties, for applications in climate modeling, remote sensing, visibility, health (medical geology), ocean fertilization, and impact on equipment.

  11. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine. PMID:20958699

  12. Duloxetine for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Scholz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Beth A Scholz, Cara L Hammonds, Chad S BoomershineDepartment of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a widespread pain condition associated with a wide range of additional symptoms including fatigue, insomnia, depression, anxiety and stiffness. Duloxetine is one of three medications currently FDA approved for use in FMS management. Duloxetine is a mixed serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI that functions by increasing central nervous system levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. This review is a primer on use of duloxetine in FMS management and includes information on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, a review of the three duloxetine FMS treatment trials currently in publication, a discussion of the safety and tolerability of duloxetine, and patient-focused perspectives on duloxetine use in FMS management. Duloxetine has proven efficacy in managing pain and mood symptoms in adult FMS patients with and without major depressive disorder. However, due to side effects, duloxetine must be used with caution in patients with fatigue, insomnia, gastrointestinal complaints, headache, cardiovascular disease, bleeding-risk, and in those 24 years of age and younger due to risk of suicidality. Duloxetine use should be avoided in patients with liver disease or alcoholics. As with all medications, duloxetine is best used as part of an individualized regimen that includes nonpharmacologic modalities of exercise, education and behavioral therapies.Keywords: fibromyalgia, duloxetine, SNRI, safety

  13. A Case—Contrl Study of Dietary Factors in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGCHENGYU; ZHANGXIUQUAN; 等

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to investigate association of dietary factors with the risk of lung cancer in Sichuan,China.The cases consisted of 135 patients with preinvasive lung cancer which had been confirmed with histopathology,fiber bronchoscope,CT and X-ray film in three provincial hospitals in the recent one year.Controls were healthy subjects who went to one of these hospitals for health check-up;patients with pulmonary diseases was exluded.Controls were matched to cases for sex and age with a ratio of 1:1.Nutrient intakes, the eating habit and other relevant factors were investigated.The data analyzed with the conditional logistic regression model indicated,that dietary beta-carotene intakes had a significantly inverse association with the risk of lung cancer.Vitamin Chad a less significantly inverse association with the risk.Association of protein,fat,energy,retinol intakes of dietbalance index with the risk was not significant.Association of tea,alcohol,garlic or mushroom,respectively,with the risk was also not observed.Consumption of more processed foods and deep-fried foods were found to be risk factors.Smoking and air pollution from coal burning stoves were also observed as independent risk factors of lung cancer in the present study.The mental stress incidence in the case was significantly higher than that in the control.

  14. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of East african lake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, K W; Isaac, G L; Richardson, J L; Washbourn-Kamau, C

    1972-03-10

    The fluctuations of the key East African lakes discussed are summarized in Fig. 4 which also includes the available evidence from Lake Rukwa (42) and Lake Chad (43) Exceot for Lake Victoria, all of these now lack surface outlets and are situated in much drier climates than the major lakes of the Western Rift Valley, which remain filled to their overflow levels. The apparent differendes among the fluctuations of the lakes are partly due to differendes in the nature of the evidence or the intensity of research or both, although there must also have been important local differences in the histories of the lakes Yet the consistencies are far more striking, most notably the coincidence of early Holocene high stands. Between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago, it seems that lakes in many parts of tropical Africa were greatly enlarged. Where evidence for the previous span of time is well resolved, it appears that transgressions leading to this high stand began about 12,000 years ago, and evidende from three basins (Victoria, Nakuru, and Chad) indicates a pause or minor recession just at or before 10,000 years ago. Wherever information is available for the period preceding 12,000 years ago, it can consistentlybe shown that lakes were much small-er . Several basins (Rudolf, Nakuru, and Chad) also show traces of much earlier phases of lake expansion. which are not yet well dated but which all occurred more then 20,000 years ago. The Holocene record subsequent to the maximum of 10,00 to 8,000 years ago is more complex. Three basins (Rudolf, Nakuru, and Chad) show an apparently concordant, positive oscillation at some point between 6000 and 4000 years ago, but it is uncertain how widely this episode is represented. Although many of these lakes that are now closed filled to overflowing at least once during the late Quaternary, it is evident from Fig. 4 that the periods of expansion were short-lived compared with phases of contraction to levels near those of today. This pattern may be

  16. Duloxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wright

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alan Wright, Chad VanDenBergCenter for Clinical Research, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Duloxetine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI which is FDA approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in doses of 30 mg to 120 mg daily. Duloxetine has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of GAD as measured through the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-I, and other various outcome measures in several placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind, multi-center studies. Symptom improvement began within the first few weeks, and continued for the duration of the studies. In addition, duloxetine has also been shown to improve outcomes in elderly patients with GAD, and in GAD patients with clinically significant pain symptoms. Duloxetine was noninferior compared with venlafaxine XR. Duloxetine was found to have a good tolerability profile which was predictable and similar to another SNRI, venlafaxine. Adverse events (AEs such as nausea, constipation, dry mouth, and insomnia were mild and transient, and occurred at relatively low rates. It was found to have a low frequency of drug interactions. In conclusion, duloxetine, a selective inhibitor for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, is efficacious in the treatment of GAD, and has a predictable tolerability profile, with AEs generally being mild to moderate.Keywords: duloxetine, generalized anxiety disorder, anxiety, GAD

  17. An evidence-based review of apixaban and its potential in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deedwania, Prakash; Huang, Grace W

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia, especially in the elderly population. It is associated with cardioembolic complications, particularly strokes, resulting in severe functional deficit or death. AF patients are first stratified into low, intermediate, and high risk for thromboembolic events using the CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score systems. Depending on their risks, patients are treated with either therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin or acetylsalicylic acid for stroke prevention. Although warfarin is the recommended therapy, it is underutilized clinically due to concern for narrow therapeutic window, drug-to-drug and drug-to-food interactions, and hemorrhagic complications. Newer anticoagulant agents such as dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor) and rivaroxaban (a direct factor Xa inhibitor) have already been approved by US Food and Drug Administration for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Apixaban is the newest oral direct factor Xa inhibitor and it has been extensively studied in the AVERROES and ARISTOTLE trials. Apixaban demonstrated reduced incidence of primary outcome of stroke and bleeding events when compared with warfarin. Apixaban is currently being reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration as a stroke prophylactic agent. In addition, there are several other indirect factor Xa inhibitors and vitamin K antagonists under study presently. Results from these studies will provide us with information about possible alternatives to warfarin.

  18. An evidence-based review of apixaban and its potential in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deedwania P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Deedwania,1 Grace W Huang21Chief Cardiology Division, VACCHCS/UCSF, 2Division of Cardiology, UCSF Program, Fresno, CA, USAAbstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia, especially in the elderly population. It is associated with cardioembolic complications, particularly strokes, resulting in severe functional deficit or death. AF patients are first stratified into low, intermediate, and high risk for thromboembolic events using the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score systems. Depending on their risks, patients are treated with either therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin or acetylsalicylic acid for stroke prevention. Although warfarin is the recommended therapy, it is underutilized clinically due to concern for narrow therapeutic window, drug-to-drug and drug-to-food interactions, and hemorrhagic complications. Newer anticoagulant agents such as dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor and rivaroxaban (a direct factor Xa inhibitor have already been approved by US Food and Drug Administration for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Apixaban is the newest oral direct factor Xa inhibitor and it has been extensively studied in the AVERROES and ARISTOTLE trials. Apixaban demonstrated reduced incidence of primary outcome of stroke and bleeding events when compared with warfarin. Apixaban is currently being reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration as a stroke prophylactic agent. In addition, there are several other indirect factor Xa inhibitors and vitamin K antagonists under study presently. Results from these studies will provide us with information about possible alternatives to warfarin.Keywords: atrial fibrillation, stroke prevention, apixaban

  19. Antithrombotic treatment of atrial fibrillation: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heuzey, J Y

    2012-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation are quickly increasing, mainly due to the ageing of the population. Atrial fibrillation is, to date, a problem of public health. Atrial fibrillation is associated to a five-fold risk of stroke, which may be identified by score risks, such as CHADS(2) score. The classical antithrombotic treatment of atrial fibrillation is based on vitamin K antagonists. Trials made in the 90's have clearly shown that vitamin K antagonists were able to decrease stroke risk by about 60%. New oral anticoagulants are now available on the market to treat patients with atrial fibrillation. These drugs are dabigatran which has demonstrated an interest in the RE-LY trial. Two doses may be prescribed, 110 mg bid and 150 mg bid. Anti Xa have also demonstrated an interest : rivaroxaban in the ROCKET AF trial and apixaban in the AVERROES (versus aspirin) and ARISTOTLE trials. In the future these drugs will have a major place in the armamentarium used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation. In all these trials a decrease in intra cranial haemorrhages has been demonstrated. In the everyday practice it will be necessary to be very cautious in patients with impaired renal function, as all these drugs are eliminated by kidneys.

  20. Export of dissolved organic carbon and nitrate from grassland in winter using high temporal resolution, in situ UV sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Richard C; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Worsfold, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    Co-deployment of two reagentless UV sensors for high temporal resolution (15 min) real time determination of wintertime DOC and nitrate-N export from a grassland lysimeter plot (North Wyke, Devon, UK) is reported. They showed rapid, transient but high impact perturbations of DOC (5.3-23 mg CL(-1)) and nitrate-N export after storm/snow melt which discontinuous sampling would not have observed. During a winter freeze/thaw cycle, DOC export (1.25 kg Cha(-1)d(-1)) was significantly higher than typical UK catchment values (maximum 0.25 kg Chad(-1)) and historical North Wyke data (0.7 kg Cha(-1)d(-1)). DOC concentrations were inversely correlated with the key DOC physico-chemical drivers of pH (January r=-0.65), and conductivity (January r=-0.64). Nitrate-N export (0.8-1.5 mg NL(-1)) was strongly correlated with DOC export (r ≥ 0.8). The DOC:NO3-N molar ratios showed that soil microbial N assimilation was not C limited and therefore high N accrual was not promoted in the River Taw, which is classified as a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). The sensor was shown to be an effective sentinel device for identifying critical periods when rapid ecosystem N accumulation could be triggered by a shift in resource stoichiometry. It is therefore a useful tool to help evaluate land management strategies and impacts from climate change and intensive agriculture. PMID:23628487

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Dublin 15

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Christopher Ruslan

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: A recent single-center report indicated that the performance of atrial fibrillation ablation in patients on uninterrupted warfarin using a conventional deflectable tip electrode ablation catheter may be as safe as periprocedural discontinuation of warfarin and bridging with heparin. Novel multi-electrode array catheters for atrial fibrillation ablation are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. While offering the possibility of more rapid atrial fibrillation ablation, they are stiffer and necessitate the deployment of larger deflectable transseptal sheaths, and it remains to be determined if they increase the risk of cardiac perforation and vascular injury. Such potential risks would have implications for a strategy of uninterrupted periprocedural anticoagulation. METHOD AND RESULTS: We audited the safety outcomes of our atrial fibrillation ablation procedures using multi-electrode array ablation catheters in patients on uninterrupted warfarin (CHADS2 score>or=2) and in patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). Two bleeding complications occurred in 49 patients on uninterrupted warfarin, both of which were managed successfully without longterm sequelae, and no bleeding complication occurred in 32 patients not on warfarin (uninterrupted aspirin). There were no thromboembolic events or other complication with either anticoagulant regimen. CONCLUSION: Despite the larger diameter and increased stiffness of multi-electrode array catheters and their deflectable transseptal sheaths, their use for catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation on uninterrupted warfarin in this single-center experience does not appear to be unsafe, and thus, an adequately powered multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial should be considered.

  2. Climate change and climate systems influence and control the atmospheric dispersion of desert dust: implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2010-01-01

    The global dispersion of desert dust through Earth’s atmosphere is greatly influenced by temperature. Temporal analyses of ice core data have demonstrated that enhanced dust dispersion occurs during glacial events. This is due to an increase in ice cover, which results in an increase in drier terrestrial cover. A shorter temporal analysis of dust dispersion data over the last 40 years has demonstrated an increase in dust transport. Climate systems or events such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Indian Ocean subtropical High, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and El Nino-Sothern Oscillation are known to influence global short-term dust dispersion occurrence and transport routes. Anthropogenic influences on dust transport include deforestation, harmful use of topsoil for agriculture as observed during the American Dust Bowl period, and the creation of dry seas (Aral Sea) and lakes (Lake Owens in California and Lake Chad in North Africa) through the diversion of source waters (for irrigation and drinking water supplies). Constituents of desert dust both from source regions (pathogenic microorganisms, organic and inorganic toxins) and those scavenged through atmospheric transport (i.e., industrial and agricultural emissions) are known to directly impact human and ecosystem health. This presentation will present a review of global scale dust storms and how these events can be both a detriment and benefit to various organisms in downwind environments.

  3. Geostatistical Analysis of Population Density and the Change of Land Cover and Land Use in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, I.; Lee, J.; Black, F. W.; Babamaaji, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in northeastern Nigeria is an important tributary of Lake Chad and has experienced significant changes in population density and land cover in recent decades. The present study focuses on the application of geostatistical methods to examine the land cover and population density dynamics in the river basin. The geostatistical methods include spatial autocorrelation, overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient, Moran's I index analysis, and indicator variogram analysis with rose diagram. The land cover and land use maps were constructed from USGS Landsat images and Globcover images from the European Space Agency. The target years of the analysis are 1970, 1986, 2000, 2005, and 2009. The calculation of net changes in land cover indicates significant variation in the changes of rainfed cropland, mosaic cropland, and grassland. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and Moran I index analysis showed that the distribution of land cover is highly clustered. A new GIS geostatistical tool was designed to calculate the overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient between the land use/land cover and population density datasets. The 10x10 neighborhood cell unit showed a clear correlation between the variables in certain zones of the study area. The ranges calculated from the indicator variograms of land use and land cover and population density showed that the cropland and sparse vegetation are most closely related to the spatial change of population density.

  4. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  5. Application of rivaroxaban in clinical practice: results of a prospective observational study XANTUS in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Kanorskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In XANTUS study the safety and efficacy of factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban were evaluated in routine clinical practice in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. In consecutive patients who started treatment with rivaroxaban, all adverse events were recorded every 3 months for 1 year. Conclusions of major bleeding, symptomatic thromboembolic complications (stroke, systemic embolism, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction and death from all causes were centrally adjudicated. In total 6784 patients were treated with rivaroxaban at 311 centers in Europe, Israel, and Canada, on average, 329 days. The mean CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 2.0 and 3.4, respectively. Treatmentemergent major bleeding occurred in 128 patients (2.1 events per 100 patient-years, 118 (1.9 events per 100 patient-years died, and 43 (0.7 events per 100 patient-years suffered a stroke. XANTUS is the first international, prospective, observational study to describe the use of rivaroxaban in a broad non-valvular atrial fibrillation patient population. Rates of stroke and major bleeding were low in patients receiving rivaroxaban in routine clinical practice.

  6. First early hominin from central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma, and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25 from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma.

  7. Left atrial strain: a new predictor of thrombotic risk and successful electrical cardioversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left atrial deformation (LAD parameters are new markers of atrial structural remodelling that seem to be affected in atrial fibrillation (AF and atrial flutter (AFL. This study aimed to determine whether LAD can identify patients with a higher risk of thrombosis and unsuccessful electrical cardioversion (ECV. Methods: Retrospective study including 56 patients with AF or AFL undergoing ECV, with previous transthoracic (TTE and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE studies. Echocardiographic parameters analysed were as follows: left ventricle function, left atrium (LA dimensions, LAD parameters (positive and negative strain peaks, left atrial appendage (LAA filling and emptying velocities and the presence of thrombi. Strain values were analysed according to thrombotic risk and success of ECV. Results: Lower mean values of peak-positive strain (PPS in patients with prothrombotic velocities (<25 cm/s and a higher incidence of thrombi in LAA were observed compared with those with normal velocities. Multivariate analysis revealed PPS normalised by LA maximum volume indexed by body surface area (BSA to be associated with prothrombotic risk (odds ratio 0.000 (95% CI: 0.000–0.243, P 0.017, regardless of CHADs2VASC score. Peak-negative strain normalised by LA volumes indexed by BSA were associated with unsuccessful ECV. Conclusions: Atrial deformation parameters identify AF and AFL patients with a high risk of thrombosis and unsuccessful ECV. Therefore, these new parameters should be included in anticoagulation management and rhythm vs rate control strategies.

  8. Validation of the regional climate model MAR over the CORDEX Africa domain and comparison with other regional models using unpublished data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignon, Maxime; Agosta, Cécile; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier; Michel, Erpicum

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the CORDEX project, we have applied the regional model MAR over the Africa domain at a resolution of 50 km. ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis have been used as 6 hourly forcing at the MAR boundaries over 1950-2015. While MAR was already been validated over the West Africa, it is the first time that MAR simulations are carried out at the scale of the whole continent. Unpublished daily measurements, covering the Sahel and more areas up South, with a large set of variables, are used as validation of MAR, other CORDEX-Africa RCMs and both reanalyses. Comparisons with the CRU and the ECA&D databases are also performed. The unpublished daily data set covers the period 1884-2006 and comes from 1460 stations. The measured variables are wind, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, insolation, rain, surface pressure, temperature, vapour pressure and visibility. It covers 23 countries: Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Canary Islands, Cap Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.

  9. Atrial Fibrillation and Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes.The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions.Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF.The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions.The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed.

  10. How tall is an elephant? Two methods for estimating elephant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Della Rocca

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder height is a reliable indicator of age for African elephants (Loxodonta africana, and is therefore an important parameter to be recorded in field studies of population ecology of these pachyderms. However, it can be somewhat difficult to estimate with precision the shoulder height of free-ranging elephants because of several reasons, including the presence of drops and vegetation cover and the potential dangerousness of approaching them in the wild. Here I test two alternative models for estimating shoulder height of elephants. In both models, the equipment needed to generate the height estimates is minimal, and include a telemeter and a digital photo-camera furnished with an ×16 zoom. The models are based respectively on a linear regression approach and on a geometric formula approach, and put into a relationship the linear distance between the observer and the animal, the number of pixels of an elephant silhouette as taken from digital photos, and the absolute height of the animal. Both methods proved to have a very small measurement error, and were thus reliable for field estimates of elephant shoulder heights. The model based on a geometric formula was used to estimate the shoulder height distribution of an elephant population in a savannah region of West Africa (Zakouma National Park, Chad. I demonstrated that Zakouma elephants were among the tallest populations in Africa, with growth rates being highest throughout the first five years of life.

  11. The state, refugees and migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokpari, J K

    1998-01-01

    Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees. PMID:12293796

  12. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  13. Risks of thromboembolism and bleeding with thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation: A net clinical benefit analysis using a 'real world' nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to determine the efficacy and safety of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), with separate analyses according to predicted thromboembolic and bleeding risk. By individual level-linkage of n......It was the aim of this study to determine the efficacy and safety of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), with separate analyses according to predicted thromboembolic and bleeding risk. By individual level...... lowered the risk of thromboembolism compared to ASA and no treatment; the combination of VKA+ASA did not yield any additional benefit. In patients at high thromboembolic risk, hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for thromboembolism were: 1.81 (1.73-1.90), 1.14 (1.06-1.23), and 1.86 (1.78-1.95) for ASA....... There was a neutral or positive net clinical benefit (ischaemic stroke vs. intracranial haemorrhage) with VKA alone in patients with a CHADS2 score of = 0, and CHA2DS2-VASc score of = 1. This large cohort study confirms the efficacy of VKA and no effect of ASA treatment on the risk of stroke/thromboembolism. Also...

  14. 冥王星的抗争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Kelly Beatty; 吴之月(译)

    2008-01-01

    还记得当年天文学家认为他们已经摆平了行星资格问题吗?其实,他们错得不能再错了。都是阋神星惹的祸这颗游荡在太阳系偏远地带的天体一经发现,立即把“什么才是行星”这个争议不断的话题炒到了火烧眉毛的地步,闹得不可开交。刚被发现时,阅神星获得的临时编号为2003 UB313,很快科学家就证实这个家伙比冥王星还要大一点。是它的发现者Michael Brown、Chad Trujillo和David Rabinowitz发现了太阳系的第十颗行星?

  15. The effect of natural weathering on the chemical and isotopic compositions of biotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, Norbert; O'Neil, J.R.; Bonnot-Courtois, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of progressive natural weathering on the isotopic (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ??D, ??18O) and chemical (REE, H2O+) compositions of biotite has been studied on a suite of migmatitic biotites from the Chad Republic. During the early stages of weathering the Rb-Sr system is strongly affected, the hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions change markedly, the minerals are depleted in light REE, the water content increases by a factor of two, and the K-Ar system is relatively little disturbed. During intensive weathering the K-Ar system is more strongly disturbed than the Rb-Sr system. Most of the isotopic and chemical modifications take place under nonequilibrium conditions and occur before newly formed kaolinite and/or smectite can be detected. These observations suggest that 1. (a) "protominerals" may form within the biotite structure during the initial period of weathering, and 2. (b) only when chemical equilibrium is approached in the weathering profile are new minerals able to form. ?? 1982.

  16. Sur Sudán: dinámicas, incertidumbres y amenazas en la actual posguerra | Southern Sudan: dynamics, uncertainties and threats in the ongoing post-war era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar MATEOS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Los conflictos al sur de Sudán, desde 1956, han sido tan cruentos como malinterpretados desde el exterior. El actual proceso posbélico, después de los acuerdos de 2005 (Comprehensive Peace Agreement, está estancado entre la política inmovilista de Jartum y las divisiones entre los diversos grupos étnicos y religiosos que están detrás de los movimientos opositores. Paradigma de los conflictos africanos postcoloniales (y de las contradicciones del Estado-nación heredado de la colonización occidental, las “guerras sudanesas” parecen hallarse en un momento de impasse cuyas consecuencias son imprevisibles. Las dudas sobre el DDR en el sur (Desarme, Desmovilización y Reinserción pasan por la propia inestabilidad interna en el este (Darfur y regional (Chad, R.D. Congo, R. Centroafricana. El artículo profundiza en las dinámicas políticas, económicas, sociológicas e históricas (dinámicas políticas “norte-sur” y “sur-sur” del Sudán precolonial y colonial que configuran un escenario tan complejo.   Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:12.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; text-align:justify; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Conflicts in southern Sudan, since 1956, have been as bloody as misinterpreted by international actors. The current post-war process, after the agreements reached in 2005 (Comprehensive Peace

  17. Fire and Emission Characterization in the Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA) Region and their Potential Effects on the Regional Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA) is known for its consistent vast amounts of seasonal biomass burning each year. These mostly anthropogenic slash-and-burn fires typically used for farming and grazing purposes contributes to a significant proportion of the total global emissions of particulate matter (PM). The consequences of such severe burning could potentially have a noticeable influence on local climate patterns, such as the frequent severe droughts over the past century or the drying of Lake Chad, through both direct and indirect causes. This research therefore focuses on: 1) characterizing the burning patterns and extent within NSSA, 2) accurately quantifying PM emissions that have a direct impact on climate, and 3) exploring potential indirect impacts of burning on climate through evaluation of correlations with various environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study, the NSSA region was first split into nine distinct sub-regions to better analyze the burning patters and climatological changes. The diurnal cycle of fire radiative power (FRP, a quantifiable way of measuring fire radiant heat output) within these different regions differ in amplitude and shape, though the basic shape is the same with months of maximum FRP being between November and January and with practically no fires during the rainy season. Corresponding changes in other climatological variables were studied against changes seen in FRP on a monthly scale, including precipitation, soil moisture, surface evaporation, evapotranspiration (ET), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and aerosol optical depth (AOD). This study includes an analysis of the distinct change in FRP signal that occurred in 2006 for the middle of the NSSA region, which is the area with the highest concentration of fires. A decrease in maximum monthly FRP has been observed since 2006 in this region. Regional changes in PM emissions have also been observed since then, including a large region of

  18. [Infant and child morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal disease in central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuzeta, J J; Merlin, M; Josse, R; Mouanda, V; Kouka Bemba, D

    1988-06-01

    Diarrheal diseases in Central African countries have often been identified as the 2nd leading cause of death after measles and the 2nd leading cause of morbidity after malaria. These diseases are responsible for death rates in children under 5 that range from 58/1000 in urban centers to 150 in rural areas, and they impose heavy costs on the health services for both pediatric beds and intravenous rehydration. Diarrhea contributes to malnutrition and to high fertility rates among parents who believe they must have many children to insure survival of a few. To study patterns of diarrheal disease in the region, 10 sites with different characteristics were selected for survey. 9 surveys of locations with widely varying climatic, ecologic, demographic, and socioeconomic conditions have been completed, 3 in Cameroon, 1 in the Central African Republic, 2 in Congo, 1 in Gabon, and 2 in Chad. All but 1 of the surveys were conducted between October 1983 and March 1985. The methodology was based on the cluster sampling recommended by the World Health Organization, which has the advantages of relative speed, moderate cost, and low personnel requirements. The clusters were either a village in rural areas or a section of an urban area. Interviewers obtained information about the number of children under 5 in the household, the number who had diarrhea in the previous 15 days and the treatment given, the number dying in the 12 months preceding the survey and the cause of death, whether diarrhea was a factor, and the age of the child at the time of death. A total of 63,107 children under 5 belonging to 33,051 households were surveyed. 12,732 episodes of diarrhea in the preceding 15 days were reported. It was estimated that each child in the region had an average of 4.8 episodes of diarrhea per year. The rate of diarrheal morbidity varied significantly by climatic zone. A follow-up survey of diarrheal morbidity figures from sentinel health centers is underway to determine the

  19. 节旋藻(Arthrospira)3个样品镍铁氢化酶 hoxY基因的克隆与测序%CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF THE HOXY GENES IN THREE SAMPLES OF ARTHROSPIRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 邰丽华; 谢岳飞; 恩和巴雅尔

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the hoxY gene of hydrogenase in Arthrospira were cloned and sequenced, which Arthrospira platensis from Alkaline Lakes in the Ordos Plateau, A. platensis from Lake Chad in Africa and A. maxima from Lake Texcoco in Mexico. And their homology and genetic relationship were also analysed, in the hope of providing elementary data and theoretical bases for the research of diversity of Arthrospira from Alkaline Lakes in the Ordos Plateau. The results showed that the partial sequence of hoxY gene in Arthrospira contained 479 bp. There was a high degree of sequence homology between A. platensis from Ordos and A. platensis from Lake Chad, A. maxima which were 99. 5% and 99. 9 % respectively. The genetic relationship between A. platensis and A. maxima were closer than that from A. platensis from Ordos. Conclusion:The gene hox Y had a high conservation, in which sequence of the different samples among the same genera had low variation. However, gene sequence of the same species of Arthrospira which grew in different environments has variation.%目的:为鄂尔多斯高原碱湖节旋藻的多样性研究提供基础资料和理论依据。方法:本文对鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶节旋藻( Arthrospira platensis)、乍得湖钝顶节旋藻( A. platensis)及极大节旋藻( A. maxima)的镍铁氢化酶小亚基hoxY基因进行了克隆与测序,并进行同源性及亲缘关系的分析。结果:3个节旋藻样品hoxY基因部分序列长均为479 bp。鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶节旋藻 hoxY基因与不同来源的钝顶节旋藻的同源性高达99.5%,与极大节旋藻的同源性达99.9%。 A. maxima与非洲乍得湖A. platensis间的亲缘关系更近,而鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶节旋藻与乍得湖钝顶节旋藻的亲缘关系相对远。结论:hoxY基因保守性高,属内不同样品间序列变化很小。同种不同来源的钝顶节旋藻由于不同环境条件等因素的影响导致基因序列上碱基发生一定的差异。

  20. Cost-effectiveness of edoxaban versus rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller JD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Miller,1 Xin Ye,2 Gregory M Lenhart,1 Amanda M Farr,1 Oth V Tran,1 W Jackie Kwong,2 Elizabeth A Magnuson,3 William S Weintraub41Truven Health Analytics Inc, Cambridge, MA, 2Daiichi Sankyo Inc, Parsippany, NJ, 3St Luke Mid-America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, 4Center for Heart and Vascular Health, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE, USABackground: Understanding the value of new anticoagulation therapies compared with existing therapies is of paramount importance in today’s cost-conscious and efficiency-driven health care environment. Edoxaban and rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF patients with CHADS2 scores ≥2 have been evaluated in pivotal trials versus warfarin. The relative value of edoxaban versus rivaroxaban would be of interest to health care stakeholders and patients who prefer a once-daily treatment option for long-term stroke prevention in NVAF.Objective: To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of two once-daily regimens of novel oral anticoagulation therapy – edoxaban (60 mg/30 mg dose-reduced versus rivaroxaban (20 mg/15 mg dose-reduced – for stroke prevention in NVAF patients from a US health-plan perspective.Materials and methods: A Markov model simulated lifetime risk and treatment of stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, myocardial infarction, and death in NVAF patients treated with edoxaban or rivaroxaban. Efficacy and safety data were derived from a network meta-analysis that utilized data from patients enrolled in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 and ROCKET-AF. Health care cost and utility data were obtained from published sources. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $150,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained were used as thresholds for “highly cost-effective”, “cost-effective”, and “not cost-effective” treatment options, respectively, as per American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology

  1. Study of Standardized Anticoagulant Therapy in Patient with Atrial Fibrillation%房颤患者规范化抗凝治疗现状调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lydie-Edwige Biye; 葛卫红; 于锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand current the state of standardized anticoagulant therapy in patient with atrial fibrillation and analyze the factors that affect standard anticoagulant therapy, and at the same time, to make progress by the foundation of corresponding countermeasures. Methods:Diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients were history inspected for a period of 12 months (January-December 2010) in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Cardiovascular Department, CHADS2 scheme method was used to stratify atrial fibrillation patient and assess their risk of bleeding, the standardized anticoagulant therapy conditions were evaluated according to ACC/AHA/ESC (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/ European Society of Cardiology) atrial fibrillation treatment guidelines. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled, 39 (19.5%) patient were on warfarin anticoagulant therapy, among which 18 (46%)had international normalized ratio (INR) in therapeutic range (2.0~3.0). According to the CHADS2 scheme,143 patients were divided into the high risk group, in which only 31 were on warfarin anticoagulant treatment. Conclusion: The percentage of standard anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation is very low (40%), still more, the percentage of high risk patients using warfarin standard anticoagulant treatment was even low 22%. Further investigation and understanding of the causes of this phenomenon will help intervene effectively and improve the standard of anticoagulant therapy in patient with atrial fibrillation.%目的:了解心房颤动患者规范化抗凝治疗现状,分析影响规范化抗凝治疗的因素,同时为进一步提出相应的对策打下基础.方法:查阅2010年1~12月份南京鼓楼医院心内科明确诊断患有非瓣膜性心房颤动的患者病历,采用CHADS风险评分法对这些患者进行出血风险评估,根据ACC/AHA/ESC心房颤动治疗指南评价其规范化抗凝

  2. Fish as a proxy for African paleogeography: results from both extant and fossil taxa and prospects to constrain faunal exchange pathway through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Joordens, Josephine; Dettai, Agnès; Christ, Leemans; Pinton, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    reveal ancient distributions. The further we are going back in time the more they will constitute most of or the whole relevant sample. Our results also suggest that information on the (paleo)ecology of the fish provides useful data notably to qualify the aquatic systems that have prevailed at the time of connection between basins. So, changes in basin geomorphology constrain fish evolution, and thus we are able to reconstruct and date these changes thanks to fish evolution studies. Since it is widely agreed that the identification of corridors and barriers is critical to understand faunal exchange, we are convinced that for each case study, we can identify the fish (either fossil or extant) that will provide a relevant "geomorphological model". To validate this approach, our current project aims to identify the exchange corridor that may have intermittently existed between the Chad and Turkana basins during the last 3 million years [6]. These corridors may have constituted possible pathways for interbasinal exchange of large mammals at a key time period of Australopithecine evolution. We will end our presentation with preliminary results concerning phylogeography of the extant catfish Synodontis schall, one of our three model species. [1] Pinton A., Otero O. in progress - How much do fish distribution depend on drainage system history? the case study of continental Africa. [2] Pinton A., Agnèse J.F., Paugy D., Otero O. 2013 - A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (2013): 1027-1040. [3] Otero O. 2011 - Current knowledge and new assumptions on the evolutionary history of the African lungfish, Protopterus, based on a review of its fossil record. Fish & Fisheries, 2011(12): 235-255. [4] Otero O., Pinton A., Mackaye H.T., Likius A., Vignaud P., Brunet M. 2009 - Fishes and palaeogeography of the African drainage basins

  3. Fish as a proxy for African paleogeography: results from both extant and fossil taxa and prospects to constrain faunal exchange pathway through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Joordens, Josephine; Dettai, Agnès; Christ, Leemans; Pinton, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    reveal ancient distributions. The further we are going back in time the more they will constitute most of or the whole relevant sample. Our results also suggest that information on the (paleo)ecology of the fish provides useful data notably to qualify the aquatic systems that have prevailed at the time of connection between basins. So, changes in basin geomorphology constrain fish evolution, and thus we are able to reconstruct and date these changes thanks to fish evolution studies. Since it is widely agreed that the identification of corridors and barriers is critical to understand faunal exchange, we are convinced that for each case study, we can identify the fish (either fossil or extant) that will provide a relevant "geomorphological model". To validate this approach, our current project aims to identify the exchange corridor that may have intermittently existed between the Chad and Turkana basins during the last 3 million years [6]. These corridors may have constituted possible pathways for interbasinal exchange of large mammals at a key time period of Australopithecine evolution. We will end our presentation with preliminary results concerning phylogeography of the extant catfish Synodontis schall, one of our three model species. [1] Pinton A., Otero O. in progress - How much do fish distribution depend on drainage system history? the case study of continental Africa. [2] Pinton A., Agnèse J.F., Paugy D., Otero O. 2013 - A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (2013): 1027-1040. [3] Otero O. 2011 - Current knowledge and new assumptions on the evolutionary history of the African lungfish, Protopterus, based on a review of its fossil record. Fish & Fisheries, 2011(12): 235-255. [4] Otero O., Pinton A., Mackaye H.T., Likius A., Vignaud P., Brunet M. 2009 - Fishes and palaeogeography of the African drainage basins

  4. The Cost of Thromboembolic Events and their Prevention among Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Davidson, PhD

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. People with AF have a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic events, including stroke, and the main treatment is therefore aimed at preventing thromboembolic events via anticoagulation with warfarin or acetylsalicylic acid. However, the development of new anticoagulation treatments has prompted a need to know the current cost of AF-related thromboembolic events, for future cost-effectiveness comparisons with the existing treatments. In this study, we estimated the cost of thromboembolic events and their prevention among Swedish AF patients in 2010. Methods: The relevant costs were identified, quantified, and valued. The complications included were ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other types of major bleeding caused by AF. Treatments intended to lower the risk of ischaemic stroke were also included. A societal perspective was used, including productivity loss due to morbidity. Patients with a CHADS2 score of 1 or higher were included. Results: Among the 9 340 682 inhabitants of Sweden, there are 118 000 patients with AF and at least one more risk factor for stroke, comprising 1.26% of the population. Of these patients, 43.3% are treated with warfarin, 28.3% use acetylsalicylic acid, and 28.3% are assumed to have no anticoagulation treatment. The cost of AF-related complications and its prevention in Sweden was estimated at €437 million for 2010, corresponding to €3 712 per AF patient per year. The highest cost was caused by stroke, and the second highest by the cost of monitoring the warfarin treatment. As the prevalence of AF is expected to increase in the future, AF-related costs are also expected to rise. Conclusion: Thromboembolic events cause high costs. New, easily-administered treatments that could reduce the risk of stroke have the potential to be cost-effective.

  5. Disentangling migratory routes and wintering grounds of Iberian near-threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1 a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2 that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3 that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller.

  6. Dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention: the first year experience from a multicenter short-term registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogias, Christos; Sands, Kara A.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Shiue, Harn; Mitsoglou, Athina; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Athanasiadis, Dimitrios; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are growing concerns for the side effects of dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran), including higher incidence of dyspepsia and gastrointestinal bleeding. We conducted a multicenter early implementation study to prospectively evaluate the safety, efficacy and adherence to dabigatran for secondary stroke prevention. Methods: Consecutive atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) received dabigatran for secondary stroke prevention during their hospital stay according to American Heart Association recommendations at five tertiary care stroke centers. The study population was prospectively followed and outcomes were documented. The primary and secondary safety outcomes were major hemorrhage and all other bleeding events respectively defined according to RE-LY trial methodology. Results: A total of 78 AF patients (mean age 71 ± 9years; 54% men; 81% IS, 19% TIA; median CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, age >75 years, prior stroke or TIA); range 2–5) score 4 were treated with dabigatran [(110mg bid (74%); 150mg bid (26%)]. During a mean follow-up period of 7 ± 5 months (range 1–18) we documented no cases of IS, TIA, intracranial hemorrhage, systemic embolism or myocardial infarction in AF patients treated with dabigatran. There were two (2.6%) major bleeding events (lower gastrointestinal bleeding) and two (2.6%) minor bleedings [hematuria (n = 1) and rectal bleeding (n = 1)]. Dabigatran was discontinued in 26% of the study population with high cost being the most common reason for discontinuation (50%). Discussion: Our pilot data indicate that dabigatran appears to be safe for secondary stroke prevention during the first year of implementation of this therapy. However, high cost may limit the long-term treatment of AF patients with dabigatran, leading to early discontinuation. PMID:24790645

  7. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  8. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noudjalbaye, K

    1988-09-01

    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  9. [Interview of Doctor Monekosso: structural adjustment --a medication that is making us ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bop, C

    1990-01-01

    After 1977 the world's economic situation deteriorated, and by the 1980's Africa's standard of living was the lowest in the world: 2.3% lower than the region's population growth rate. The economic crisis and structural adjustment policies (SAP) have had a negative influence on the development of health care in Africa. The health sector in all African countries have the lowest budgets and these meager budgets were further cut with the SAP. The WHO stated that of 21 Ministries of Health surveyed in 1987, only 3 had a health budget over 9% with the remaining 18 between 2-8%; by 1986-87 and as a result of SAP it became 2.4%. Such a decline affected the availability and accessibility of health care, medicines, transportation, and health personnel. The lack of resources and manpower promoted the onset of epidemics such as cholera and diarrhea. Rural migration to the cities has aggravated promiscuity and exacerbated contagious diseases like tuberculosis and malaria. The victims of SAP are generally women and children. The economic crisis facing Africa is so devastating that families can no longer afford to pay for gas, hospitalization and medication when they are ill. African women are the ones responsible for the health status of the family, including their nutrition. The negative effects of the SAP on women are being felt in their levels of malnutrition, lack of prenatal care, and deliveries without health personnel. Zambia's infant and child mortality rate (1-14) has grown from 27-47%, while Burkina Faso and Chad have IMR's of over 200/1000 live births. The health status of children are equally aggravated by war and famine. In spite of all these obstacles, Senegal is trying to overcome the problems through community action. In 1985 the health committees contributed more than 386 million CFA to build health facilities and provide medications to the community. Between 24-70% of all health care is covered by donor assistance in Africa.

  10. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; El Hafed Ould Dehah, Cheikh Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November of 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mauritania were interviewed, and 46 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. Mauritania is on track to reaching the MDG of halving undernutrition among children malnutrition remains high, mortality rates did not decrease as malnutrition rates decreased, the overall prevalence of desirable nutrition-related practices is low, and human resources are reportedly insufficient to carry out all nutrition-related programme activities. Very little nutrition research has been conducted in Mauritania, and key informants identified gaps in adapting international programmes to local needs. Monitoring and evaluation reports have not been rigorous enough to identify which programme activities were implemented as designed or whether programmes were effective at improving nutritional and health status of young children. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes might have been responsible for the reported improvements, or if other population-wide changes contributed to these changes. The policy framework is supportive of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to (i) support activities to adapt training materials and programme protocols to fit local needs, (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally, (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes, and (iv

  11. Synergistic Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling for Tracing Dust Storms in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the detection of the dust source region and monitoring of the transport of the dust plume from its primary outflow to final deposition. The application area is the Sahara desert and the eastern Mediterranean, where two dust events occurred during the period 4–6 February 2009, an unusual event for a winter period. The Aqua-MODIS and OMI observations clearly define the spatial distribution of the dust plumes, while the CALIPSO observations of total attenuated backscatter (TAB at 532 nm, depolarization ratio (DR, and attenuated color ratio (1064/532 nm on 5 February 2009 provide a clear view and vertical structure of the dust-laden layer. The dust source region is defined to be near the Chad-Niger-Libyan borders, using satellite observations and model (DREAM output. This dust plume is vertically extended up to 2.5 km and is observed as a mass plume of dust from surface level to that altitude, where the vertical variation of TAB (0.002 to 0.2 and DR (0.2–0.5 implies dust-laden layer with non-spherical particles. CALIPSO profiles show that after the dust plume reached at its highest level, the dust particles start to be deposited over the Mediterranean and the initial dust plume was strongly attenuated, while features of dust were limited below about 1–1.5 km for latitudes northern of ~36° (Greek territory.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of apixaban compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apixaban was shown to be superior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and at least one additional risk factor for stroke, and associated with reduced rates of hemorrhage. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of using apixaban for stroke prevention. METHODS: Based on the results from the Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE trial and other published studies, we constructed a Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus warfarin from the Medicare perspective. The base-case analysis assumed a cohort of 65-year-old patients with a CHADS(2 score of 2.1 and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. We utilized a 2-week cycle length and a lifetime time horizon. Outcome measures included costs in 2012 US$, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs, life years saved and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: Under base case conditions, quality adjusted life expectancy was 10.69 and 11.16 years for warfarin and apixaban, respectively. Total costs were $94,941 for warfarin and $86,007 for apixaban, demonstrating apixaban to be a dominant economic strategy. Upon one-way sensitivity analysis, these results were sensitive to variability in the drug cost of apixaban and various intracranial hemorrhage related variables. In Monte Carlo simulation, apixaban was a dominant strategy in 57% of 10,000 simulations and cost-effective in 98% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF and at least one additional risk factor for stroke and a baseline risk of ICH risk of about 0.8%, treatment with apixaban may be a cost-effective alternative to warfarin.

  13. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  14. Towards reconstructing herbaceous biome dynamics and associated precipitation in Africa: insights from the classification of grass morphological traits

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    Pasturel, Marine; Alexandre, Anne; Novello, Alice; Moctar Dieye, Amadou; Wele, Abdoulaye; Paradis, Laure; Hely, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Inter-tropical herbaceous ecosystems occupy a 1/5th of terrestrial surface, a half of the African continent, and are expected to extend in the next decades. Dynamic of these ecosystems is simulated with poor accuracy by Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). One of the bias results from the fact that the diversity of the grass layer dominating these herbaceous ecosystems is poorly taken into account. Mean annual precipitation and the length of the dry season are the main constrains of the dynamics of these ecosystems. Conversely, changes in vegetation affect the water cycle. Inaccuracy in herbaceous ecosystem simulation thus impacts simulations of the water cycle (including precipitation) and vice versa. In order to increase our knowledge of the relationships between grass morphological traits, taxonomy, biomes and climatic niches in Western and South Africa, a 3-step methodology was followed: i) values of culm height, leaf length and width of dominant grass species from Senegal were gathered from flora and clustered using the Partition Around Medoids (PAM) method; ii) trait group ability to sign climatic domains and biomes was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests; iii) genericity and robustness of the trait groups were evaluated through their application to Chadian and South African botanical datasets. Results show that 8 grass trait groups are present either in Senegal, Chad or South Africa. These 8 trait groups are distributed along mean annual precipitation and dry season length gradients. The combination of three of them allow to discriminate mean annual precipitation domains (1000 mm) and herbaceous biomes (steppes, savannas, South African grasslands and Nama-Karoo). With these results in hand, grass Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the DGMV LPJ-GUESS will be re-parameterized and particular attention will be given to the herbaceous biomass assigned to each grass trait group. Simultaneously, relationships between grass trait groups and phytolith vegetation

  15. Reverse phase protein arrays in signaling pathways: a data integration perspective

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    Creighton CJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chad J Creighton,1,3 Shixia Huang2,3 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 3Dan L Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The reverse phase protein array (RPPA data platform provides expression data for a prespecified set of proteins, across a set of tissue or cell line samples. Being able to measure either total proteins or posttranslationally modified proteins, even ones present at lower abundances, RPPA represents an excellent way to capture the state of key signaling transduction pathways in normal or diseased cells. RPPA data can be combined with those of other molecular profiling platforms, in order to obtain a more complete molecular picture of the cell. This review offers perspective on the use of RPPA as a component of integrative molecular analysis, using recent case examples from The Cancer Genome Altas consortium, showing how RPPA may provide additional insight into cancer besides what other data platforms may provide. There also exists a clear need for effective visualization approaches to RPPA-based proteomic results; this was highlighted by the recent challenge, put forth by the HPN-DREAM consortium, to develop visualization methods for a highly complex RPPA dataset involving many cancer cell lines, stimuli, and inhibitors applied over time course. In this review, we put forth a number of general guidelines for effective visualization of complex molecular datasets, namely, showing the data, ordering data elements deliberately, enabling generalization, focusing on relevant specifics, and putting things into context. We give examples of how these principles can be utilized in visualizing the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer and in meaningfully displaying the entire HPN-DREAM RPPA dataset within a single page. Keywords: RPPA, proteomics, molecular profiling, integrative analysis, breast cancer, TCGA 

  16. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

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    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  17. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

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    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  18. Clinical Differences between Subtypes of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter: Cross-Sectional Registry of 407 Patients

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    Eduardo Dytz Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. Objective: To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. Results: We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter. Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01 and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01. The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01. The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. Conclusions: The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates.

  19. Intracerebral Hematoma Occurring During Warfarin Versus Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy.

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    Takahashi, Haruhiko; Jimbo, Yasushi; Takano, Hiroki; Abe, Hiroshi; Sato, Masahito; Fujii, Yukihiko; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2016-07-15

    The neuroradiological findings and its outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were compared between the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy and warfarin therapy. In the latest 3 years, 13 cases of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation on NOAC therapy were admitted for ICH. For comparison, 65 age- and gender-comparable patients with ICH on warfarin therapy were recruited. Three NOACs had been prescribed: dabigatran (n = 4), rivaroxaban (n = 2), and apixaban (n = 7). The average ages were 76 ± 9 and 78 ± 8 years in the warfarin (n = 65) and NOAC groups (n = 13), respectively. There was no difference in the clinical features, including the CHADS2 score or HAS-BLED score: 2.62 ± 1.31 versus 2.62 ± 1.33, or 1.09 ± 0.43 versus 1.00 ± 0.41, for the warfarin and NOAC groups, respectively. The volume of ICH warfarin (p = 0.0106). The expansion of hematoma was limited to 7 patients (10.8%) of the warfarin group. A lower hospital mortality and better modified Rankin Scale were observed in the NOAC group than in the warfarin group: 1 (7.7%) versus 27 (41.5%; p = 0.0105) and 3.2 ± 1.4 versus 4.5 ± 1.6 (p = 0.0057), respectively. In conclusion, ICH on NOAC therapy had smaller volume of hematoma with reduced rate of expansion and decreased mortality compared with its occurrence on warfarin. PMID:27289294

  20. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

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    Checchi Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method’s development.

  1. The role of North African rivers in driving Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange

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    Flecker, Rachel; Marzocchi, Alice; van der Schee, Marlies; Meijer, Paul; Lofi, Johanna; Lunt, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The main driver for exchange through the Gibraltar Strait today is the density contrast between Mediterranean and Atlantic water. Mediterranean water is more saline than Atlantic water because the amount of water the Mediterranean loses through evaporation exceeds both precipitation and freshwater input from rivers. This means it has a negative hydrologic budget. In the Late Miocene however, a very large river known as the Esohabi River drained across North Africa and had its mouth in the Gulf of Sirt. This river was sourced in palaeo-Lake Chad and was strongly influenced by precession-driven monsoonal rainfall. Multiple General Circulation Model simulations through a single precessional cycle indicate that river water may only have reached the Mediterranean in significant quantities in summer during particular orbital configurations e.g. precession minima combined with eccentricity maxima. However, during high amplitude eccentricity maxima, the volume of water supplied through the Esohabi and Nile rivers may have been sufficient to switch the hydrologic budget from negative to positive. In doing so, the fresh water supply should have reduced the salinity of the Mediterranean and consequently the density contrast with adjacent Atlantic water leading to a reduction in exchange. In this presentation we explore the evidence for the timing and nature of freshwater input to the Mediterranean from North Africa. We also consider how relevant this freshwater flux may be in determining some of the major environmental and sedimentological changes in the Late Miocene to early Pliocene including some of the salinity changes that occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

  2. Modeling annual flooding in the Logone floodplain in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Najafi, M. R.; Durand, M. T.; Mark, B. G.; Moritz, M.; Shastry, A.; Laborde, S.; Phang, S. C.; Hamilton, I.; Ningchuan, X.; Neal, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Logone floodplain (LFP), part of the Lake Chad Basin, is flooded annually by water from the Logone River and its branches during September and October. The inundated LFP is highly productive, providing support for fishing, pastoralism, and agriculture. In the last few decades, droughts, dam construction, manmade fishing canals (MFCs), and irrigation development have caused significant shifts in the LFP's flooding regime. Recently, MFCs have proliferated as consequence of ecological and manmade changes in the LFP. Future impacts of these modifications may parallel projected, although still uncertain, regional hydroclimatic changes derived from global warming. In order to understand feedbacks between human actions and hydroclimate, we are developing an integrated model that links hydroclimate, hydraulics, and human dynamics such as fishermen and pastoralist behavior. Here we present one component of this research focused on simulating the annual flooding dynamics of the LFP using LISFLOOD-FP, a raster-based numerical model that includes sub-grid parameterization of MFCs. Our goal is to evaluate the model's skill to simulate spatiotemporal features of the inundated LFP using a minimum amount of input data, such as discontinuous time series of river discharge and satellite-derived rainfall. Our simulations using three different spatial resolutions (1, 0.5, and 0.25-km grid-cell) suggest that the model is insensitive to pixel size, showing no significant differences between simulated volume, discharge, flooded area, and flood seasonality. Despite the model is able to simulate flow, with a Nash Sutcliff efficiency of 0.81, we find some significant spatial mismatch between observed and simulated inundation areas. In addition, results indicate that overbank flow provides more annual flood volume than rainfall. We discuss the impact of topographic and climatic input data on these results, as well as the potential to simulate the effects of MFCs on the local hydrology.

  3. Image Fusion-Based Change Detection for Flood Extent Extraction Using Bi-Temporal Very High-Resolution Satellite Images

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    Younggi Byun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Change detection based on satellite images acquired from an area at different dates is of widespread interest, according to the increasing number of flood-related disasters. The images help to generate products that support emergency response and flood management at a global scale. In this paper, a novel unsupervised change detection approach based on image fusion is introduced. The approach aims to extract the reliable flood extent from very high-resolution (VHR bi-temporal images. The method takes an advantage of the spectral distortion that occurs during image fusion process to detect the change areas by flood. To this end, a change candidate image is extracted from the fused image generated with bi-temporal images by considering a local spectral distortion. This can be done by employing a universal image quality index (UIQI, which is a measure for local evaluation of spectral distortion. The decision threshold for the determination of changed pixels is set by applying a probability mixture model to the change candidate image based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm. We used bi-temporal KOMPSAT-2 satellite images to detect the flooded area in the city of N′djamena in Chad. The performance of the proposed method was visually and quantitatively compared with existing change detection methods. The results showed that the proposed method achieved an overall accuracy (OA = 75.04 close to that of the support vector machine (SVM-based supervised change detection method. Moreover, the proposed method showed a better performance in differentiating the flooded area and the permanent water body compared to the existing change detection methods.

  4. An evidence-based review of edoxaban and its role in stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

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    Acharya T

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tushar Acharya, Prakash Deedwania Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Fresno, CA, USA Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality from cardioembolic complications like stroke. As a result, atrial fibrillation patients are risk-stratified using the CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems. Those at intermediate-to-high risk have traditionally been treated with therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin for stroke prevention. Although effective, warfarin use is fraught with multiple concerns, such as a narrow therapeutic window, drug–drug and drug–food interactions, and excessive bleeding. Novel oral anticoagulant agents have recently become available as viable alternatives for warfarin therapy. Direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitors like rivaroxaban and apixaban have already been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Edoxaban is the latest oral direct factor Xa inhibitor studied in the largest novel oral anticoagulant trial so far: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48. Treatment with a 30 mg or 60 mg daily dose of edoxaban was found to be noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in reducing the rate of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, with a lower incidence of bleeding complications and cardiovascular deaths. Edoxaban was recently reviewed by an FDA advisory committee and recommended as a stroke-prophylaxis agent. Once approved, it promises to provide another useful alternative to warfarin therapy. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, stroke prevention, novel oral anticoagulants, factor Xa inhibitors, edoxaban

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Dabigatran (150 mg Twice Daily) and Warfarin in Patients ≥ 65 Years With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

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    Salata, Brian M; Hutton, David W; Levine, Deborah A; Froehlich, James B; Barnes, Geoffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran has been shown to be superior to warfarin for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) but with higher out-of-pocket costs for patients. Although dabigatran has been shown to be cost effective from a societal perspective, cost implications for individual patients and insurers are not well described. We aimed to assess cost perspectives of each payer (Medicare and patient) in relation to administration, monitoring, and adverse outcomes for dabigatran and warfarin in patients with and without prescription drug coverage. Using a Markov model, we performed a decision analysis comparing 2 treatment strategies (dose-adjusted warfarin and dabigatran 150 mg twice daily) in patients 65 years old with NVAF, CHADS2 scores ≥ 1, and Medicare insurance. Patients have a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 8.998 quality-adjusted life years with warfarin and 9.39 quality-adjusted life years with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily. From Medicare's perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparing dabigatran with warfarin was $35,311 for patients with Part D coverage and cost saving for patients without coverage. From the patient's perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparing dabigatran with warfarin was cost saving for patients with Part D coverage and $63,884 for those without coverage. In patients ≥ 65 years with NVAF and prescription insurance coverage, dabigatran 150 mg twice daily is both cost effective (Medicare's perspective) and cost saving (patient perspective) compared with warfarin, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000. However, patients without prescription drug coverage have a high out-of-pocket cost burden with dabigatran therapy, leading to a reduction in its cost-effectiveness compared with warfarin therapy. In conclusion, this Markov model suggests that Medicare Part D coverage influences the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran 150 mg daily compared with dose-adjusted warfarin from multiple payer

  6. Combination of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with vastus medialis advancement for chronic patellar dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; KANG Hui-jun; CHEN Bai-cheng; CHEN Wei; SU Yan-ling; ZHANG Ying-ze

    2010-01-01

    Background The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is popular in clinical practice for chronic patellar dislocation; however, the combination with vastus medialis advancement is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the combination of MPFL reconstruction with vastus medialis advancement.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 69 patients with chronic patellar dislocation between July 2004 and October 2008: twenty eight cases with isolated MPFL reconstruction (group Ⅰ), forty one cases with the combination of MPFL reconstruction with vastus medialis advancement (group C). All patients had CT scans available for review with knee flexion at 30 degree, on which the congruence angle, patellar tilt angle and patellar lateral shift were measured. Physical apprehension tests were examined and the redislocation was recorded. In addition, knee function was evaluated using the Kujala score and subjective questionnaires.Results Patients were followed up for a mean of 42 months (12-65 months) without a recurrent dislocation reported.Postoperatively, all indexes on CT scan were within the normal range without a statistical difference between the two groups. Results from the apprehension test showed eight patients in group Ⅰ and three in group Chad patellar lateral shift exceeding 1.5 cm with a hard end point (P <0.05). The Kujala score improved significantly from 51.3±4.5 to 79.9±6.2 in group Ⅰ and from 53.7±5.2 to 83.9±6.5 in group C (P >0.05). However, the subjective questionnaire revealed a significant difference (P <0.05), including 12 excellent, seven good and nine fair in group Ⅰ and 30 excellent, six good and five fair in group C.Conclusion The combination of MPFL reconstruction with vastus medialis advancement is better than isolated reconstruction to improve the subjective effects and decrease the patellar instability rate for chronic patellar dislocation.

  7. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

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    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic effect of aqueous extract leaves of Ficus glumosa (Moraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidele; Djedouboum, Abakar; Talla, Emmanuel; Sokeng Dongmo, Sélestin; Nana, Paulin; Adjia, Hamadjida; Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Bonabe, Christian; Gaimatakon, Samuel; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-02-01

    Leaves of Ficus glumosa are used in northern Cameroon and southern Chad for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, as food and as a stimulant for milk production in both women and animals. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which frequency increases with age. The first lesions appear at the young subject during adolescence. Atherosclerosis lesions appear very precociously and worsen with age. They interest the levels chronologically aortic, coronary then carotid. Age is a risk factor in that it reflects the exposure time of individual to the other risk factors. The frequency of the atherosclerosis increases with age because of the aging of the cells. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic properties of aqueous extract of the leaves of F. glumosa in rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC). 60 male rats were fed for 4 weeks with a high-cholesterol diet (1%) and 3 doses (225, 300 and 375 mg/kg) of extract of F. glumosa were used in these experiments. The experiments were conducted under the same conditions with atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), as pharmacological reference substance. The effects of F. glumosa on weight gain, water and food consumption, levels of serum lipids and lipoprotein lipid oxidation and stress markers in the blood and liver were examined. The administration of F. glumosa extract prevented significant (P<0.05) elevation in TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c, hepatic and aortic TG and TC. The atherogenic, triglyceride, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) indexes were also decreased in the rats treated with the extract. F. glumosa favored the performance of fecal cholesterol. It also significantly inhibited the changes and the formation of aortic atherosclerotic plaques. These results revealed the hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of F. glumosa extract and support the traditional use of the extract of this plant in the treatment of hypertension and diabetes.

  9. Exploring barriers to optimal anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation: interviews with clinicians

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    Decker C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Carole Decker,1 Linda Garavalia,2 Brian Garavalia,1 Teresa Simon,3 Matthew Loeb,4 John Spertus6, William Daniel51Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital in Kansas City Missouri, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Nursing, 2University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Pharmacy, Kansas City, MO, 3Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, 4Plaza Primary Care and Geriatrics, 5Saint Luke's Cardiovascular Consultants, Kansas City, MO, 6Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital in Kansas City Missouri, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USABackground: Warfarin, the most commonly used antithrombotic agent for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF, requires regular monitoring, frequent dosage adjustments, and dietary restrictions. Clinicians' perceptions of barriers to optimal AF management are an important factor in treatment. Anticoagulation management for AF is overseen by both cardiology and internal medicine (IM practices. Thus, gaining the perspective of specialists and generalists is essential in understanding barriers to treatment. We used qualitative research methods to define key issues in the prescription of warfarin therapy for AF by cardiology specialists and IM physicians.Methods and results: Clinicians were interviewed to identify barriers to warfarin treatment in a large Midwestern city. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation occurred. Content analysis yielded several themes. The most salient theme that emerged from clinician interviews was use of characteristics other than the patient's CHADS2 score to enact a treatment plan, such as the patient's social situation and past medication-taking behavior. Other themes included patient knowledge, real-world problems, breakdown in communication, and clinician reluctance.Conclusion: Warfarin treatment is associated with many challenges. The barriers identified by clinicians highlight the unmet need associated

  10. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools.

  11. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  12. Disinsectization of African dried and smoked fish by means of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of conserving dried and smoked fish. Fresh water fisheries are one of the major sources of protein in Africa. More than 100,000 t of fish are believed to be caught commercially in the Niger basin and 150,000 t in that of the Chad. These dried or smoked fish are then exported throughout Black Africa. Through attack by parasitic insects more than 30 wt.% of the fish are destroyed. None of the conventional methods of combating these insects has so far produced any practical results. There have been several radiation experiments carried out to date. A series of irradiation experiments has been carried out in France with doses of 20,000, 100,000, 500,000 rad. The order of magnitude of lethal and sterilizing doses has been determined without any organoleptic change being observed at 500,000 rad. There are studies which are still necessary. These comprise eontomological studies, determination of practical dose, studies on nutritional value, research into packaging techniques, and economic analysis. These studies are not extensive if one leaves aside the problems of wholesomeness and edibility (for which, incidentally, very favourable results have already been obtained with fish subjected to doses well above the 15,000 to 40,000 rad which would probably be necessary in this case). The proposals for organizing research include preliminary studies which might be carried out either in Africa or Europe and technical development which would certainly necessitate the construction of a pilot plant in Africa. An economic study shows that for an increase of the order of 1% in the price of the product one can expect to eliminate losses amounting to several tens of per cent. (author). 1 tab

  13. Disentangling Migratory Routes and Wintering Grounds of Iberian Near-Threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Juan; de la Puente, Javier; Parejo, Deseada; Valera, Francisco; Calero-Torralbo, Miguel A.; Reyes-González, José M.; Zajková, Zuzana; Bermejo, Ana; Avilés, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1) a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2) that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3) that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller. PMID:25551212

  14. Potential impacts of afforestation on climate change and extreme events in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Salami, Ayobami T.; Matthew, Olaniran J.; Odedokun, Sola

    2013-07-01

    Afforestation is usually thought as a good approach to mitigate impacts of warming over a region. This study presents an argument that afforestation may have bigger impacts than originally thought by previous studies. The study investigates the impacts of afforestation on future climate and extreme events in Nigeria, using a regional climate model (RegCM3), forced with global climate model simulations. The impacts of seven afforestation options on the near future (2031-2050, under A1B scenario) climate and the extreme events are investigated. RegCM3 replicates essential features in the present-day (1981-2000) climate and the associated extreme events, and adequately simulates the seasonal variations over the ecological zones in the country. However, the model simulates the seasonal climate better over the northern ecological zones than over the southern ecological zones. The simulated spatial distribution of the extreme events agrees well with the observation, though the magnitude of the simulated events is smaller than the observed. The study shows that afforestation in Nigeria could have both positive and negative future impacts on the climate change and extreme events in the country. While afforestation reduces the projected global warming and enhances rainfall over the afforested area (and over coastal zones), it enhances the warming and reduces the rainfall over the north-eastern part of the country. In addition, the afforestation induces more frequent occurrence of extreme rainfall events (flooding) over the coastal region and more frequent occurrence of heat waves and droughts over the semi-arid region. The positive and negative impacts of the afforestation are not limited to Nigeria; they extend to the neighboring countries. While afforestation lowers the warming and enhances rainfall over Benin Republic, it increases the warming and lowers the rainfall over Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The result of the study has important implication for the ongoing climate

  15. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  16. Milnacipran for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Ormseth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michelle J Ormseth, Anne E Eyler, Cara L Hammonds, Chad S BoomershineDivision of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a widespread pain condition associated with fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. Milnacipran is one of three medications currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the management of adult FMS patients. This review is the second in a three-part series reviewing each of the approved FMS drugs and serves as a primer on the use of milnacipran in FMS treatment including information on pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability. Milnacipran is a mixed serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor thought to improve FMS symptoms by increasing neurotransmitter levels in descending central nervous system inhibitory pathways. Milnacipran has proven efficacy in managing global FMS symptoms and pain as well as improving symptoms of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction without affecting sleep. Due to its antidepressant activity, milnacipran can also be beneficial to FMS patients with coexisting depression. However, side effects can limit milnacipran tolerability in FMS patients due to its association with headache, nausea, tachycardia, hyper- and hypotension, and increased risk for bleeding and suicidality in at-risk patients. Tolerability can be maximized by starting at low dose and slowly up-titrating if needed. As with all medications used in FMS management, milnacipran works best when used as part of an individualized treatment regimen that includes resistance and aerobic exercise, patient education and behavioral therapies.Keywords: fibromyalgia, milnacipran, treatment

  17. Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Washington

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We present regional model simulations of the dust emission events during the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx that was carried out in February and March 2005 in Chad. A box model version of the dust emission model is used to test different input parameters for the emission model, and to compare the dust emissions computed with observed wind speeds to those calculated with wind speeds from the regional model simulation. While field observations indicate that dust production occurs via self-abrasion of saltating diatomite flakes in the Bodélé, the emission model based on the assumption of dust production by saltation and using observed surface wind speeds as input parameters reproduces observed dust optical thicknesses well. Although the peak wind speeds in the regional model underestimate the highest wind speeds occurring on 10–12 March 2005, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust cloud can be reasonably well reproduced by this model. Dust aerosol interacts with solar and thermal radiation in the regional model; it is responsible for a decrease in maximum daytime temperatures by about 5 K at the beginning the dust storm on 10 March 2005. This direct radiative effect of dust aerosol accounts for about half of the measured temperature decrease compared to conditions on 8 March. Results from a global dust model suggest that the dust from the Bodélé is an important contributor to dust crossing the African Savannah region towards the Gulf of Guinea and the equatorial Atlantic, where it can contribute up to 40% to the dust optical thickness.

  18. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calain Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  19. Current perspectives on antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chad A Witt, Ramsey R Hachem Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abstract: The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA to human leukocyte antigens and the burden of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR in lung transplantation remain enigmatic. Over the past several years, evidence has been emerging that humoral immunity plays an important role in the development of both acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD. Multiple case reports and case series have identified lung allograft recipients with clinical findings consistent with acute AMR. However, there is currently no widely accepted definition for AMR in lung transplantation, and this has been a significant barrier to furthering our understanding of this form of rejection. Nonetheless, the development of DSA after transplantation has consistently been identified as an independent risk factor for persistent and high-grade acute cellular rejection and CLAD. This has raised the possibility that chronic AMR may be a distinct phenotype of CLAD although evidence supporting this paradigm is still lacking. Additionally, antibodies to lung-restricted self-antigens (collagen V and K-α 1 tubulin have been associated with primary graft dysfunction early and the development of CLAD late after transplantation, and emerging evidence underscores significant interactions between autoimmunity and alloimmunity after transplantation. There is currently an active International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working group that is developing an operational definition for AMR in lung transplantation. This will be critical to improve our understanding of this form of rejection and conduct clinical trials to identify optimal treatment strategies. This review will summarize the literature on DSA and AMR in lung transplantation and discuss the impact of antibodies to self-antigens on lung

  20. Quality of Life, Activity Impairment, and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Atrial Fibrillation in the US National Health and Wellness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Liu, Xianchen; Gupta, Shaloo; Simon, Teresa A.; Phatak, Hemant

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study builds upon current studies of atrial fibrillation (AF) and health outcomes by examining more comprehensively the humanistic burden of illness (quality of life, activity impairment, and healthcare resource utilization) among adult patients with AF, using a large, nationally representative sample and matched controls. Methods Data were analyzed from the Internet-based 2009 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Outcomes were Mental and Physical Component Summary (MCS and PCS) and health utility scores from the SF-12, activity impairment, hospitalizations, and healthcare provider and emergency room (ER) visits. Patients with self-reported diagnosis of AF were matched randomly on age and gender with an equal number of respondents without AF. Generalized linear models examined outcomes as a function of AF vs. non-AF status, controlling for CHADS2 score, comorbidity counts, demographics, and clinical variables. Exploratory structural equation modeling assessed the above in an integrated model of humanistic burden. Results Mean age of AF patients (1,296 from a total sample of 75,000) was 64.9 years and 65.1% were male. Adjusting for covariates, compared with non-AF patients, AF patients had lower MCS, PCS, and utility scores, greater activity impairment (rate ratio = 1.26), more traditional provider visits (rate ratio = 1.43), and increased odds of ER visits (OR = 2.53) and hospitalizations (OR = 2.71). Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses revealed that persons with AF experienced a significantly higher overall humanistic burden. Conclusions This study highlights and clarifies the substantial burden of AF and its implications for preparing efficacious AF management plans to address the imminent rise in prevalence. PMID:23951122

  1. Access to non-pecuniary benefits: does gender matter? Evidence from six low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano Marco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender issues remain a neglected area in most approaches to health workforce policy, planning and research. There is an accumulating body of evidence on gender differences in health workers' employment patterns and pay, but inequalities in access to non-pecuniary benefits between men and women have received little attention. This study investigates empirically whether gender differences can be observed in health workers' access to non-pecuniary benefits across six low- and middle-income countries. Methods The analysis draws on cross-nationally comparable data from health facility surveys conducted in Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. Probit regression models are used to investigate whether female and male physicians, nurses and midwives enjoy the same access to housing allowance, paid vacations, in-service training and other benefits, controlling for other individual and facility-level characteristics. Results While the analysis did not uncover any consistent pattern of gender imbalance in access to non-monetary benefits, some important differences were revealed. Notably, female nursing and midwifery personnel (the majority of the sample are found significantly less likely than their male counterparts to have accessed in-service training, identified not only as an incentive to attract and retain workers but also essential for strengthening workforce quality. Conclusion This study sought to mainstream gender considerations by exploring and documenting sex differences in selected employment indicators across health labour markets. Strengthening the global evidence base about the extent to which gender is independently associated with health workforce performance requires improved generation and dissemination of sex-disaggregated data and research with particular attention to gender dimensions.

  2. Quality of life, activity impairment, and healthcare resource utilization associated with atrial fibrillation in the US National Health and Wellness Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study builds upon current studies of atrial fibrillation (AF and health outcomes by examining more comprehensively the humanistic burden of illness (quality of life, activity impairment, and healthcare resource utilization among adult patients with AF, using a large, nationally representative sample and matched controls. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Internet-based 2009 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Outcomes were Mental and Physical Component Summary (MCS and PCS and health utility scores from the SF-12, activity impairment, hospitalizations, and healthcare provider and emergency room (ER visits. Patients with self-reported diagnosis of AF were matched randomly on age and gender with an equal number of respondents without AF. Generalized linear models examined outcomes as a function of AF vs. non-AF status, controlling for CHADS2 score, comorbidity counts, demographics, and clinical variables. Exploratory structural equation modeling assessed the above in an integrated model of humanistic burden. RESULTS: Mean age of AF patients (1,296 from a total sample of 75,000 was 64.9 years and 65.1% were male. Adjusting for covariates, compared with non-AF patients, AF patients had lower MCS, PCS, and utility scores, greater activity impairment (rate ratio = 1.26, more traditional provider visits (rate ratio = 1.43, and increased odds of ER visits (OR = 2.53 and hospitalizations (OR = 2.71. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses revealed that persons with AF experienced a significantly higher overall humanistic burden. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights and clarifies the substantial burden of AF and its implications for preparing efficacious AF management plans to address the imminent rise in prevalence.

  3. Relationship Between Time in Therapeutic Range and Comparative Treatment Effect of Rivaroxaban and Warfarin: Results From the ROCKET AF Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Singer, Daniel E.; Becker, Richard C.; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is a standard quality measure of the use of warfarin. We assessed the relative effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin at the level of trial center TTR (cTTR) since such analysis preserves randomized comparisons. Methods and Results TTR was calculated using the Rosendaal method, without exclusion of international normalized ratio (INR) values performed during warfarin initiation. Measurements during warfarin interruptions >7 days were excluded. INRs were performed via standardized finger‐stick point‐of‐care devices at least every 4 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint (stroke or non‐central nervous system embolism) was examined by quartiles of cTTR and by cTTR as a continuous function. Centers with the highest cTTRs by quartile had lower‐risk patients as reflected by lower CHADS2 scores (P<0.0001) and a lower prevalence of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (P<0.0001). Sites with higher cTTR were predominantly from North America and Western Europe. The treatment effect of rivaroxaban versus warfarin on the primary endpoint was consistent across a wide range of cTTRs (P value for interaction=0.71). The hazard of major and non‐major clinically relevant bleeding increased with cTTR (P for interaction=0.001), however, the estimated reduction by rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the hazard of intracranial hemorrhage was preserved across a wide range of threshold cTTR values. Conclusions The treatment effect of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism is consistent regardless of cTTR. PMID:24755148

  4. Ischaemic cardiac outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonism or factor Xa inhibition: results from the ROCKET AF trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Stevens, Susanna R.; White, Harvey D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Califf, Robert M.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Breithardt, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated the prevalence of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) events among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results In ROCKET AF, 14 264 patients with nonvalvular AF were randomized to rivaroxaban or warfarin. The key efficacy outcome for these analyses was CV death, MI, and unstable angina (UA). This pre-specified analysis was performed on patients while on treatment. Rates are per 100 patient-years. Overall, 2468 (17%) patients had prior MI at enrollment. Compared with patients without prior MI, these patients were more likely to be male (75 vs. 57%), on aspirin at baseline (47 vs. 34%), have prior congestive heart failure (78 vs. 59%), diabetes (47 vs. 39%), hypertension (94 vs. 90%), higher mean CHADS2 score (3.64 vs. 3.43), and fewer prior strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (46 vs. 54%). CV death, MI, or UA rates tended to be lower in patients assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin [2.70 vs. 3.15; hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.00; P = 0.0509]. CV death, MI, or UA rates were higher in those with prior MI compared with no prior MI (6.68 vs. 2.19; HR 3.04, 95% CI 2.59–3.56) with consistent results for CV death, MI, or UA for rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in prior MI compared with no prior MI (P interaction = 0.10). Conclusion Prior MI was common and associated with substantial risk for subsequent cardiac events. Patients with prior MI assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin had a non-significant 14% reduction of ischaemic cardiac events. PMID:24132190

  5. The use of unsaturated zone solutes and deuterium profiles in the study of groundwater recharge in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two unsaturated zone profiles (MF and MG) in NE Nigeria have been sampled for inert tracers (Cl, Br, NO3 and δ2H to investigate recharge rates and processes. The upper MF and MG profiles have sandy lithology, lower moisture content (2H around -30 per mille. All these indicate that present day recharge is taking place. The lower section of the MF profile shows a distinct contrast with high moisture content (up to 27%), very high chloride (average 2892 mg/L) and relatively enriched deuterium (-12 per mille), indicating the effect of evaporative enrichment. This lower section corresponds to low permeability lacustrine deposits probably representing the former bed of Lake Chad where little or no infiltration has been occurring since the mid-Holocene when the lake extended over this area. The sand-covered areas of the Sahel of the NE Nigeria provide an important phreatic aquifer. An estimation of the amount of recharge using the unsaturated zone chloride mass balance gives significant rates of 14 mm/a and 22 mm/a for the upper MF and MG profiles respectively. These rates mainly span the period of the recent Sahel drought and even higher recharge rates may occur during wetter periods. These rates fall within the 14 mm/a to 53 mm/a range estimated for the Manga Grasslands area in the NE Nigeria obtained in an earlier study. From the water resource point of view, the region has potential for perennially-recharged groundwater resources that can sustain the present abstraction level which is mainly via dug wells. (author)

  6. Isotope methods for management of shared aquifers in northern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Bill; Gaye, Cheikh; Gourcy, Laurence; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2005-01-01

    Access to fresh water is one of the major issues of northern and sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the fresh water used for drinking and irrigation is obtained from large ground water basins where there is minor contemporary recharge and the aquifers cross national borders. These aquifers include the Nubian Aquifer System shared by Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan; the Iullemeden Aquifer System, extending over Niger, Nigeria, Mali, Benin, and Algeria; and the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System shared by Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia. These resources are subject to increased exploitation and may be severely stressed if not managed properly as witnessed already by declining water levels. In order to make appropriate decisions for the sustainable management of these shared water resources, planners and managers in different countries need an improved knowledge base of hydrological information. Three technical cooperation projects related to aquifer systems will be implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency, in collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and United Nations Development Programme/Global Environmental Facility. These projects focus on isotope hydrology studies to better quantify ground water recharge and dynamics. The multiple isotope approach combining commonly used isotopes 18O and 2H together with more recently developed techniques (chlorofluorocarbons, 36Cl, noble gases) will be applied to improve the conceptual model to study stratification and ground water flows. Moreover, the isotopes will be an important indicator of changes in the aquifer due to water abstraction, and therefore they will assist in the effort to establish a sustainable ground water management.

  7. Duloxetine in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomershine CS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Michelle J Ormseth, Beth A Sholz, Chad S BoomershineDivision of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Diabetic neuropathy affects up to 70% of diabetics, and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP is the most common and debilitating of the diabetic neuropathies. DPNP significantly reduces quality of life and increases management costs in affected patients. Despite the impact of DPNP, management is poor with one-quarter of patients receiving no treatment and many treated with medications having little or no efficacy in managing DPNP. Duloxetine is one of two drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for DPNP management. Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI proven safe, effective, and cost-saving in reducing DPNP symptoms at a dose of 60 mg/day. Duloxetine doses greater than 60 mg/day for DPNP management are not recommended since they are no more efficacious and associated with more side effects; addition of pregabalin or gabapentin for these patients may be beneficial. Side effects of duloxetine are generally mild and typical for the SNRI class including nausea, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, sweating, dry mouth, constipation, and diarrhea. Given its other indications, duloxetine is a particularly good choice for DPNP treatment in patients with coexisting depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, or chronic musculoskeletal pain. Duloxetine treatment had no clinically significant effect on glycemic control and did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetes patients. However, duloxetine use should be avoided in patients with hepatic disease or severe renal impairment. Given its safety, efficacy, and tolerability, duloxetine is an excellent choice for DPNP treatment in many patients.Keywords: duloxetine, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, review, treatment

  8. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established, the incidence of polio has decreased from an estimated 350,000 cases annually to 1,655 reported in 2008. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 were last reported in October 1999, and indigenous WPV types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) have been eliminated from all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). This report updates previous reports and describes overall progress toward global eradication in 2008. Despite accelerated efforts, polio cases increased 26%, from 1,315 cases in 2007 to 1,655 in 2008. This increase primarily resulted from an increase in Nigeria from 285 cases in 2007 to 801 cases in 2008. Resurgent WPV1 transmission in northern states of Nigeria spread to polio-free southern states and eight neighboring countries in 2008. In India, repeated use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 1 (mOPV1) during 2005--2008 interrupted WPV1 transmission in the western districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh for >12 months during 2007--2008; however, in mid-2008, WPV1 imported from the neighboring state of Bihar caused renewed transmission. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, problems in accessing children in conflict-affected areas increased, and an upsurge in WPV1 and WPV3 cases occurred, including an outbreak of WPV1 in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In Africa, during 2008, sustained WPV transmission for >12 months after importation continued in Angola, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and southern Sudan. Increased political oversight and accountability and improved vaccination outreach to insecure areas are needed to achieve the eradication goal.

  9. Mineralogy of dust emissions from the Bodele Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millham, Rosemary Assunta

    Scope and method of study. This study focused on identifying the minerals in the dust emitted from the Bodele Depression in northern Chad in the Saharan Desert. Understanding the mineralogy provides the information needed to assess the effects that mineral dust has on climate and climate change relative to the energy budget and radiative forcings, and cloud characteristics and properties, and assists in providing critical information for assessing amounts of nutrients delivered to oceans and lands. There is a question of health issues related to dust emissions not addressed in this study. Using a traditional X-Ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with chemical analysis capabilities, French geological survey maps, and a new instrument for detecting d-spacings and K-fluorescence in unprepared samples called the XRD XRF (CCDXRD) that couples a CCD with traditional X-Ray diffractometer, mineral identification is possible. Findings and conclusions. The samples from the Bodele in situ aerosol and bulk ground materials produce the dust emissions occurring from the region ˜40% of the days in a year. The results from literature review, X-Ray diffractometer data, SEM data, geological survey maps, and the CCD XRD data provided concrete identification of the Bodele minerals as typical crustal silicate minerals with small amounts of calcium carbonate, dolomite, silica, desiccated diatoms, and possible iron oxides. The silicate minerals are primarily ferromagnesian and framework silicates typical of low-lying depositional basins and the weathering processes occurring in alternating wet and dry periods. Clays minerals halloysite, kaolinite, and smectites (montmorillite) are the most common. Exotic materials were detected in two of the bulk samples. A reading of 25.75% titanium in one sample, and elevated isolated silicon data (considered cosmic silicon) provided the only anomalies in the study.

  10. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  11. Anti-Ebola vaccines and nucleoside drugs:research advances%抗埃博拉病毒疫苗和核酸类药物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康; 周喆

    2015-01-01

    埃博拉病毒(EBOV)致病性和传染性强,死亡率高,常在西非热带地区暴发流行。目前相应的抗病毒药物和疫苗正加紧研发。 EBOV疫苗依据抗原递送方式主要可分为3类,包括基于非复制性病毒载体的疫苗、基于复制性病毒载体的疫苗和基于病毒蛋白抗原的疫苗。ChAd3-ZEBOV和VSV-EBOV是最具潜力的抗埃博拉疫苗。随着埃博拉病毒感染分子基础研究的深入,抗埃博拉病毒的核酸和核苷类似物药物也成为研究热点。%Anti-Ebola vaccines and nucleoside drugs:research advances Ebola virus was extremely virulent and highly transmissible and caused outbreak of severe hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in the Africa tropical regions. Currently, Ebola epidemic raging in West Africa, antiviral vaccines and drugs have also accelerated the development process. Basing on antigen delivery methods, EBOV vaccines can be divided into three categories of technology platform, including nonreplicative viral vector-based vaccines, replicative viral vector-based vaccines and viral protein antigen-based vaccines. ChAd3-ZEBOV and VSV-EBOV are the most promising vaccines against Ebola. With the basic molecular research of Ebola virus infection deepening, polynucleotides drugs and nucleoside analogue drugs against Ebola virus are hot research topics.

  12. Estudo transversal das estratégias de tratamento clínico na fibrilação atrial Estudio transversal de las estrategias de tratamiento clínico en la fibrilación atrial Cross-sectional study of treatment strategies on atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Hollanda Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A despeito de elevada prevalência e importância clínica da Fibrilação Atrial (FA, não existem até o momento publicações brasileiras informando o perfil clínico e a estratégia de tratamento (controle de ritmo vs. controle de frequência cardíaca mais utilizada nesse universo de pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estratégia de tratamento mais empregada na FA em ambulatório especializado no manejo dessa doença. Secundariamente, procurou-se descrever o perfil clínico dessa população. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que avaliou sequencialmente, em 167 portadores de FA, a estratégia de tratamento mais empregada, bem como o perfil clínico desses pacientes. Utilizou-se questionário padronizado para coleta de dados. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do software SPSS® versão 13.0. RESULTADOS: Nessa população de alto risco para eventos tromboembólicos (61% com score CHADS2 > 2, em que 54% dos indivíduos apresentavam fibrilação atrial paroxística ou persistente, 96,6% utilizavam antagonistas da vitamina K ou AAS, e 76,6% faziam uso de betabloqueador (81,2% frequência x 58,8% ritmo, p 2 (60,5% x 39,5%; p = 0,07 e valvopatias (25,8% x 11,8%; p = 0,08 no segmento de controle da frequência. CONCLUSÃO: Nessa população de alto risco para eventos tromboembólicos, a estratégia de controle de frequência cardíaca foi a mais empregada.FUNDAMENTO: A despecho de la elevada prevalencia y importancia clínica de la Fibrilación Atrial (FA, no existen hasta el momento publicaciones brasileñas informando el perfil clínico y la estrategia de tratamiento (control de ritmo vs. control de frecuencia cardíaca más utilizada en ese universo de pacientes. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la estrategia de tratamiento más empleada en la FA en ambulatorio especializado en el manejo de esa enfermedad. Secundariamente, se buscó describir el perfil clínico de esa población. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal que evaluó secuencialmente, en 167

  13. AFib treatment: general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    bleeding. This is discussed in the context of the new NOACs (discussed in the next review), including addressing what physicians should do if patients move from warfarin to one of the NOACs or vice versa. A final challenge for physicians treating patients with AFib has been the often mistaken belief that patients are at a low-risk status, and this review concludes with an overview of the use of the CHADS2 versus the CHA2DS2-VASc risk scoring systems, including why CHA2DS2-VASc provides a better assessment of which patients are or are not at low risk. PMID:24655743

  14. Oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug em pacientes com fibrilação atrial

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    Ênio Eduardo Guérios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A oclusão percutânea do apêndice atrial esquerdo (OAAE surgiu como alternativa à anticoagulação oral (AO para prevenção do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não-valvular (FANV. OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados imediatos e o seguimento clínico de pacientes submetidos a OAAE com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP em um único centro de referência. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes consecutivos com FANV, contra-indicação à AO e escore CHADS2= 2,6±1,2 foram submetidos a OAAE com implante de ACP. Realizou-se seguimento clínico e ecocardiográfico no mínimo 4 meses após o implante. RESULTADOS: Todos os implantes foram guiados apenas por angiografia. O sucesso do procedimento foi de 99% (1 insucesso por tamponamento cardíaco e consequente suspensão da OAAE. Houve 4 complicações maiores (o tamponamento já referido, 2 AVCs transitórios e uma embolização com retirada percutânea da prótese e duas menores (um derrame pericárdico sem tamponamento e uma pequena comunicação interatrial evidenciada no seguimento. Houve 1 óbito hospitalar após 6 dias, não relacionado à intervenção. Todos os outros pacientes receberam alta sem AO. Após seguimento de 25,9 pacientes-ano (69 pacientes não houve AVCs nem embolizações tardias de próteses. O AAE estava completamente ocluído em 97% dos casos. Seis pacientes apresentaram evidência de trombo sobre a prótese, que desapareceram após reinstituição de AO por 3 meses. CONCLUSÃO: OAAE se associa a um alto índice de sucesso, um índice aceitável de complicações e resultados promissores a médio prazo, podendo ser considerada uma alternativa válida à OA na prevenção do AVC em pacientes com FANV.

  15. Effects of vitamin D and quercetin, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function in physically active male adults

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    Scholten SD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shane D Scholten,1 Igor N Sergeev,2 Qingming Song,3 Chad B Birger41Exercise and Sport Sciences, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Gold Green Farm Corporation, Hammonton, NJ, 4Center for Health Outcomes and Prevention Research, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, USAIntroduction: Vitamin D and the antioxidant quercetin, are promising agents for improving physical performance because of their possible beneficial effects on muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased intakes of vitamin D, quercetin, and their combination on antioxidant status, the steroid hormone regulators of muscle function, and measures of physical performance in apparently healthy male adults engaged in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise training.Methods: A total of 40 adult male participants were randomized to either 4,000 IU vitamin D/d, 1,000 mg/d quercetin, vitamin D plus quercetin, or placebo for 8 weeks. Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, blood markers for antioxidant and vitamin D status, and hormones 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 and testosterone were measured pre- and postsupplementation.Results: At enrollment, 88.6% of participants were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D >50 nmol/L and had normal serum testosterone levels. Supplementation with vitamin D significantly increased serum 25(OHD concentration (by 87.3% in the vitamin D group, P<0.001 and was associated with an increasing trend of testosterone concentration. There were no changes in concentration of 1,25(OH2D3 and markers of antioxidant status associated with vitamin D or quercetin supplementation. No improvements in physical performance measures associated with vitamin D and quercetin supplementation were found.Conclusion: The findings obtained demonstrate that long-term vitamin D and

  16. Determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures among non-immune travellers during missions to tropical Africa

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    Briolant Sébastien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of anti-vectorial malaria protective measures in travellers and expatriates is hampered by incorrect compliance. The objective of the present study was to identify the determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures (AVPMs in this population that is particularly at risk because of their lack of immunity. Methods Compliance with wearing long clothing, sleeping under insecticide-impregnated bed nets (IIBNs and using insect repellent was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 2,205 French military travellers from 20 groups before and after short-term missions (approximately four months in six tropical African countries (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon and Djibouti. For each AVPM, the association of "correct compliance" with individual and collective variables was investigated using random-effect mixed logistic regression models to take into account the clustered design of the study. Results The correct compliance rates were 48.6%, 50.6% and 18.5% for wearing long clothing, sleeping under bed nets and using repellents, respectively. Depending on the AVPM, correct compliance was significantly associated with the following factors: country, older than 24 years of age, management responsibilities, the perception of a personal malaria risk greater than that of other travellers, the occurrence of life events, early bedtime (i.e., before midnight, the type of stay (field operation compared to training, the absence of medical history of malaria, the absence of previous travel in malaria-endemic areas and the absence of tobacco consumption. There was no competition between compliance with the different AVPMs or between compliance with any AVPM and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving compliance with AVPMs should target young people without management responsibilities who are scheduled for non-operational activities in

  17. Remote sensing of the hydrologic history of the eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Blom, R. G.; Paillou, P.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert has never been thoroughly mapped in terms of the landforms and subsurface signs of past climates conducive to human occupation. As part of ongoing work and through a new proposal to NASA, we are generating new maps of the paleohydrology, topography, geomorphology, and surficial deposits of the area and developing GIS-based models which use the data to pinpoint past resources and travel pathways. The maps we are generating will constitute a unique resource for exploration for water and archeological sites in the Gilf Kebir and other regions of NE Africa. That the Sahara was favorable for human habitation at times has long been known. With the remarkable paleo-landscape revealed by the L-band (25 cm) Shuttle Imaging Radar-A in 1981, it became clear that ancient humans concentrated along integrated drainage systems dubbed “radar rivers” by McCauley and colleagues. However SIR-A and subsequent long-wavelength radar coverage was limited and regional understanding of the drainage network has remained elusive. We are mapping the area with three sensors optimized for mapping and characterizing arid regions: The Japanese PALSAR L-band imaging radar, NASA’s SRTM, and ASTER. Together these sensors provide full coverage of the area allowing characterization and mapping of surface and subsurface landforms formed and modified by former wetter climates. In particular and following the work of Ghoneim, Robinson, El Baz and others, we are mapping the regional drainage network revealed by the radar images and applying modern analysis tools to the drainage basins and channels. These include drainage density, channel gradient vs. distance, and longitudinal and cross-channel topographic profiles. We use these quantities to estimate a stream’s past approach to equilibrium and this to infer balances between climate, tectonic uplift, and other changes in base level. Discovery over the last few years of large paleolakes (e.g. Mega Lake Chad, North Darfur

  18. Dust emission and transport over Iraq associated with the summer Shamal winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam Francis, Diana Bou; Flamant, Cyrille; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Banks, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the diurnal evolution of the summer Shamal wind (a quasi-permanent low-level northwesterly wind feature) and its role in dust emission and transport over Iraq, using ground-based and space-borne observations together with a numerical simulation performed with the mesoscale model Meso-NH. A 6-year dataset from the synoptic stations over Iraq allows establishing the prominence of the link between strong near surface winds and reduced visibility in the summer. The detailed processes at play during Shamal events are explored on the basis of a Meso-NH simulation for a given, representative case study (25 June-3 July 2010). The Shamal exhibits an out-of-phase relationship between the surface wind and winds in the lower troposphere (typically 500 m above ground level), the maximum surface wind speeds being observed during the day while in altitude the maximum wind speeds are observed at night. The daytime near surface winds, at the origin of dust emission, are associated with the downward transfer of momentum from the nocturnal low-level jet to the surface due to turbulent mixing after solar heating commences each day. For the first time, an estimate of the dust load associated with summer Shamal events over Iraq has been made using aerosol optical depths derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the simulation. The dust load exhibits a large diurnal variability, with a daily minimum value of 1 Tg around 0600 UTC and a daily peak of 2.5 Tg or more around 1500 UTC, and is driven by the diurnal cycle of the near surface wind speed. The daily dust load peak associated with the summer Shamal over Iraq is in the same order of magnitude as those derived from simulations downstream of the Bodélé depression in Chad, known to be the world's largest dust source. Keywords: Dust, Low Level Jet, Shamal winds, Middle East, dust sources.

  19. Outcome of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with prior ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-nan; KANG Jun-ping; DU Xin; HE Xiao-nan; LONG De-yong; YU Rong-hui; FANG Ri-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been demonstrated to be effective in a subsets of patients with AF.However,very few data are available in regard to patients with prior history of stroke undergoing catheter ablation.This study aimed to investigate the outcome of catheter ablation in AF patients with prior ischemic stroke.Methods Between January 2008 and December 2011,of 1897 consecutive patients who presented at Beijing An Zhen Hospital for treatment of drug-refractory AF,172 (9.1%) patients in the study population had a history of ischemic stroke.All patients underwent catheter ablation and were followed up to assess maintenance of sinus rhythm and recurrence of symptomatic stroke.Results Among these 1897 patients,1768 (93.2%) who had complete follow-up information for a minimum of six months were included in the final analysis.Patients in the stroke group (group Ⅰ) and the no-stroke group (group Ⅱ) were similar in regards to gender,body mass index (BMI),history of diabetes,type of AF,and left atrial size.The patients in group Ⅰ were older than those in group Ⅱ,and had a higher incidence of hypertension,chronic heart failure,lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),and higher CHADS2 scores.Six months after ablation,107 (68.6%) patients in group Ⅰ and 1403 (87.1%) in group Ⅱ had discontinued warfarin treatment (P <0.001).During a median follow-up of (633±415)days,65 patients in the group Ⅰ and 638 in group Ⅱ experienced AF recurrence,and five patients in group Ⅰ and 28 in group Ⅱ developed symptomatic stroke.The rates of AF recurrence and recurrent stroke were similar between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (41.7% vs.39.6%,P=-0.611; 3.2% vs.1.7%,P=0.219; respectively).Conclusion Catheter ablation of AF in patients with prior stroke is feasible and efficient.

  20. The food crisis and environmental conservation in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D; Brennan, R

    1986-11-01

    In spite of good rains in Africa in 1985, 30-35 million people suffered the effects of famine. Much of Africa is still dependent on food aid. The main causes of insufficient food production are land degradation--desertification--and high population growth. Distribution of the US $2.9 billion in food and non-food aid has been hampered by transport and logistical problems. The major challenge for 1986 is non-food support. Only US $460 million (15.3%) of non-food aid had been received as of March. Country profiles of Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Somalia, Sudan, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia show a pattern of high food assistance needs and displaced refugee populations. The 1st 6 of the group suffer from civil strife. There is some good news; e.g. Niger, which is embarking on agressive agricultural development, and Tanzania, which has enjoyed bumper crops, but the crisis is clearly far from over. Few African Governments have been willing to face the population problem; population in the area will probably continue to increase at 3% yearly. It is shown that desertification: reducing the biological potential of the land through over-exploitation, animal husbandry, and deforestation, is a wordwide problem particularly acute in Africa. Lost production totals $26 billion annually. Straightforward cost-benefit analysis of projects to halt or reverse the problem does not adequately take factors such as human attachment to the land into account. Unfortunately halting desertification does not receive the attention it should receive from donor agencies. Investment goes towards high-return projects, e.g. power dams; sugar factories, when a more careful study reveals that returns from afforestations are much more long-term. There has been increased consciousness of the long-term benefits of dryland rehabilitation, which will hopefully impact policy in the future. But since desertification is a self-accelerating process, there is a need for

  1. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

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    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer

  2. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

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    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the

  3. Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Dabigatran Versus Warfarin in Hypertensive Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (from the RE-LY Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarakanti, Rangadham; Wallentin, Lars; Noack, Herbert; Brueckmann, Martina; Reilly, Paul; Clemens, Andreas; Connolly, Stuart J; Yusuf, Salim; Ezekowitz, Michael D

    2015-10-15

    Hypertension is frequent in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and is an independent risk factor for stroke. The Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant TherapY (RE-LY) trial found dabigatran 110 mg (D110) and 150 mg twice daily (D150) noninferior or superior to warfarin for stroke reduction in patients with AF, with either a reduction (D110) or similar rates (D150) of major bleeding. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared in patients with and without hypertension. The quality of blood pressure control was also assessed. In RE-LY, 14,283 patients (78.9%) had hypertension. The mean blood pressure at baseline was 132.6 ± 17.6/77.7 ± 10.6 and 124.8 ± 16.7/74.6 ± 10.0 mm Hg for patients with and without hypertension, respectively. More patients with hypertension were diabetic (25.6% vs 14.8%, p warfarin were similar (p = nonsignificant) in hypertensive (stroke/systemic embolism rate of 1.47%, 1.20%, and 1.81% and major bleed rate of 2.89%, 3.70%, and 3.69% in the D110, D150, and W, respectively) and normotensive patients (stroke/systemic embolism rate of 1.79%, 0.78%, and 1.36% and major bleed rate of 2.84%, 2.37%, and 3.03% per year in the D110, D150, and W, respectively). Hypertensive patients had more major bleeds (3.39% vs 2.76%; p = 0.007). Intracranial bleeds were similar (0.47% vs 0.31%; p = 0.12). In conclusion, patients with hypertension in RE-LY were more likely female, diabetic, with a greater CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Blood pressure control in RE-LY was excellent. The benefits of dabigatran over warfarin, including a substantial reduction of intracranial hemorrhage, were similar in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients. PMID:26282726

  4. Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Therapy for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Danik, Stephan B; Altman, Robert K; Barrett, Conor D; Lip, Gregory Y H; Chatterjee, Saurav; Roubin, Gary S; Natale, Andrea; Danik, Jacqueline S

    2016-01-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are frequently used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. These patients are often also on aspirin or other antiplatelet agents. It is possible that treatment with both NOACs and aspirin or other antiplatelet drug may be effective in decreasing stroke, but data are sparse regarding the efficacy and safety of using both agents for stroke prevention. To address these issues, data were pooled from the 4 recent randomized, controlled trials of NOACs: apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban, which included 42,411 patients; 14,148 (33.4%) were also on aspirin or other antiplatelet drug. The number of thromboembolic events among participants on NOAC and aspirin/antiplatelet was compared with the number of events in patients on NOAC alone. Bleeding rates were also compared between those on NOAC + aspirin/antiplatelet and on NOAC alone. These results were compared with thromboembolic and bleeding events in the warfarin + aspirin/antiplatelet versus warfarin alone. No greater risk for thromboembolism was seen in patients on NOACs compared with patients on both NOACs and aspirin/antiplatelet drug. In this nonrandomized comparison, there was initially a signal toward higher thromboembolic rates among NOAC users also on aspirin/antiplatelet drugs (relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence intervals, 1.05, 1.29) when compared with NOAC alone. This likely reflected the higher CHADS2 scores of those on aspirin/antiplatelet drugs. When the analysis was limited to studies that included aspirin rather than other antiplatelet drugs, no difference was seen for thromboembolic rates comparing dual therapy to NOAC alone (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence intervals, 0.90, 1.15). Higher rates of bleeding were seen with aspirin/antiplatelet drug in conjunction with NOAC. In this meta-analysis and nonrandomized comparison of aspirin/antiplatelet users and nonusers also on anticoagulation, there was no additional

  5. Novel nonpharmacologic approaches for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: results from clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2015-01-01

    available technologies for percutaneous LAA closure, as well as a summary of the published trials concerning their safety and efficacy in reducing stroke risk in AF. Keywords: left atrial appendage closure, atrial fibrillation, CHADS

  6. Discernible rhythm in the spatio/temporal distributions of transatlantic dust

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    Y. Ben-Ami

    2011-08-01

    −1, and 1300 km in total. These rates of northward advance and southern retreat of the dust transport route are in accordance with the simultaneous shift of the Inter Tropical Front.

    Based on cross-correlation analyses, we attribute the observed rhythm to the contrast between the northwestern and southern Saharan dust source spatial distributions. Despite the vast difference in areas, the Bodélé Depression, located in Chad, appears to modulate transatlantic dust patterns about half the time. The proposed partition captures the essence of transatlantic dust climatology and may, therefore, supply a natural temporal framework for dust analysis via models and observations.

  7. Peuples et évolution climatique en Afrique nord-tropicale, de la fin du Néolithique à l’aube de l’époque moderne Peoples and climate change in northern tropical Africa from the end of the Neolithic till the dawn of the modern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Maley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La fin du Néolithique, au cours du IIIe millénaire BP, a correspondu à l’affaiblissement des périodes humides et à la mise en place de la géographie actuelle dans la zone sud-saharienne et sahélienne, qui s’étend de l’Atlantique au lac Tchad. Depuis cette époque le climat a cependant continué à beaucoup varier. La succession des différents épisodes climatiques, phases humides ou phases arides – et leurs interactions complexes –, est précisée. Ces faits climatiques sont mis en parallèle avec l’évolution archéologique et historique des différentes phases culturelles. Dans cette immense région, souvent à la limite de conditions naturelles extrêmes, les évènements climatiques ont toujours eu des conséquences très importantes sur l’évolution des peuplements humains. Le relativement bon synchronisme des principaux changements culturels, d’ouest en est à travers la bande sahélienne, paraît avoir été fréquemment contrôlé par le rôle directeur des changements climatiques majeurs et des variations environnementales qui en ont résulté.At the end of the Neolithic Era, during the third millennium BCE, there were fewer humid periods of weather, and the sub-Saharan Sahelian zone, from the Atlantic to Lake Chad, assumed its current geographical form. Since then, the climate has continued undergoing major variations. The succession of climatic episodes, humid or dry, is pointed out along with their complex interactions. These variations are placed in parallel to cultural phases of evolution in archeology and history. Climate-related events have always had heavy consequences on the peopling of this vast region, often subject to extreme natural conditions. The relative synchronism between the principal cultural trends from west to east across the Sahel seems to have often been subject to swings in the climate and the resulting environmental changes.

  8. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Naumann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided in three

  9. Imaging and treating tumor vasculature with targeted radiolabeled carbon nanotubes

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    Alessandro Ruggiero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Ruggiero1*, Carlos H Villa1*, Jason P Holland1, Shanna R Sprinkle1, Chad May2, Jason S Lewis1, David A Scheinberg1, Michael R McDevitt11Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 2ImClone Systems, New York, USA; *Ruggiero and Villa contributed equally to this workAbstract: Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT constructs were covalently appended with radiometal-ion chelates (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA] or desferrioxamine B [DFO] and the tumor neovascular-targeting antibody E4G10. The E4G10 antibody specifically targeted the monomeric vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad epitope expressed in the tumor angiogenic vessels. The construct specific activity and blood compartment clearance kinetics were significantly improved relative to corresponding antibody-alone constructs. We performed targeted radioimmunotherapy with a SWCNT-([225Ac]DOTA(E4G10 construct directed at the tumor vasculature in a murine xenograft model of human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T. The specific construct reduced tumor volume and improved median survival relative to controls. We also performed positron emission tomographic (PET radioimmunoimaging of the tumor vessels with a SWCNT-([89Zr]DFO(E4G10 construct in the same murine LS174T xenograft model and compared the results to appropriate controls. Dynamic and longitudinal PET imaging of LS174T tumor-bearing mice demonstrated rapid blood clearance (<1 hour and specific tumor accumulation of the specific construct. Incorporation of the SWCNT scaffold into the construct design permitted us to amplify the specific activity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio without detrimentally impacting the immunoreactivity of the targeting antibody moiety. Furthermore, we were able to exploit the SWCNT pharmacokinetic (PK profile to favorably alter the blood clearance and provide an advantage for rapid

  10. Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larva of Diparopsis watersi Roth is harmful to the cotton-plant, destroying the flower and the boll. This noctuid, which is practically monophagous, passes the quiescent season either in the ground in the chrysalid-at-diapause form (from 10 November onwards) or in continuing generation (polyvoltine) on plants left standing. Laboratory studies have served to elucidate the main mechanisms initiating and terminating diapause. In the field, the rapid multiplication of the pest during the crop period is due both to univoltine individuals hatching out towards April-May and to non-diapause generations. The respective roles played by these two different sources need to be determined fairly accurately in order to decide which methods of control are appropriate: uprooting of the cotton-plant, destruction of the pupae at diapause in the ground, bringing the crop forward, etc. Radioisotope labelling of larvae coming to maturity at critical periods should make it possible to tackle this problem at the practical level. Preliminary experiments for determining simple labelling techniques have been carried out at Tikem (Republic of Chad). In a first trial, P32 in atomized solution was applied direct to the foliage of young cottonplants. Despite the effects of rain, absorption by the plant reached about 10% in a few hours. Radioactivity is not retained by various phyllophagous larvae (Sylepta derogata, Prodenia litura), but those feeding on the fruit-bearing parts of the plant (Heliothis armigera, Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, etc.) are easily detectable three months after the application. In a second trial, P32 and S35 were applied to old cotton-plants immediately before the natural time for Diparopsis to enter diapause. The overall findings give hope of being able to distinguish without too much difficulty, among chrysalid populations taken from the ground, those which fed on the cotton-plant before labelling, and hence which underwent a diapause. A control experiment

  11. Implant success and safety of left atrial appendage closure with the WATCHMAN device: peri-procedural outcomes from the EWOLUTION registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Lucas V.A.; Schmidt, Boris; Betts, Timothy R.; Sievert, Horst; Tamburino, Corrado; Teiger, Emmanuel; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Kische, Stephan; Schmitz, Thomas; Stein, Kenneth M.; Bergmann, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Left atrial appendage closure is a non-pharmacological alternative for stroke prevention in high-risk patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The objective of the multicentre EWOLUTION registry was to obtain clinical data on procedural success and complications, and long-term patient outcomes, including bleeding and incidence of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Here, we report on the peri-procedural outcomes of up to 30 days. Methods and results Baseline/implant data are available for 1021 subjects. Subjects in the study were at high risk of stroke (average CHADS2 score: 2.8 ± 1.3, CHA2DS2-VASc: 4.5 ± 1.6) and moderate-to-high risk of bleeding (average HAS-BLED score: 2.3 ± 1.2). Almost half of the subjects (45.4%) had a history of TIA, ischaemic stroke, or haemorrhagic stroke; 62% of patients were deemed unsuitable for novel oral anticoagulant by their physician. The device was successfully deployed in 98.5% of patients with no flow or minimal residual flow achieved in 99.3% of implanted patients. Twenty-eight subjects experienced 31 serious adverse events (SAEs) within 1 day of the procedure. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 0.7%. The most common SAE occurring within 30 days of the procedure was major bleeding requiring transfusion. Incidence of SAEs within 30 days was significantly lower for subjects deemed to be ineligible for oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) compared with those eligible for OAT (6.5 vs. 10.2%, P = 0.042). Conclusion Left atrial appendage closure with the WATCHMAN device has a high success rate in complete LAAC with low peri-procedural risk, even in a population with a higher risk of stroke and bleeding, and multiple co-morbidities. Improvement in implantation techniques has led to a reduction of peri-procedural complications previously limiting the net clinical benefit of the procedure. PMID:26822918

  12. 2009-2013年脊髓灰质炎疫情分析%Analysis of the world polio cases from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩辉; 谭克为; 宋亚京; 徐宝梁; 左锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨目前脊髓灰质炎在世界范围内的影响及我国口岸防控脊髓灰质炎疫情的措施。方法收集整理世界卫生组织(WHO)网站内的脊髓灰质炎的相关信息,并对2009-2013年之间脊髓灰质炎疫情进行流行病学统计与分析。结果根据 WHO 所统计的脊髓灰质炎的发病数据,该病的发病情况在近几年得到了有效的控制,但是目前还在尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、阿富汗、索马里和乍得等国持续流行。结论由于我国与持续流行脊灰的国家接壤,并且海外劳务输出和进口贸易的规模逐年增大,导致脊髓灰质炎病毒传入我国的风险较高,加强相关的检疫和监测工作至关重要。%Objective This article observes the world epidemic situation from 2009 to 2013 of poliomyelitis,and explores the present influence of it and the relevant prevention and control measures at frontier ports.Methods This article collects the data and the related situation of the outbreak of poliomyelitis from WHO website,and then carries out the epidemiological statistics and analysis.Results According to the data from WHO,although the on-set of poliomyelitis has been effectively controlled in recent years,there has been sustained prevalence in Nigeria, Pakistan,Afghanistan,Somalia and Chad.Conclusion Because of the contiguity between China and some coun-tries which have sustained prevalence of poliomyelitis and the increasing scale of overseas labor service export and import trade,the risk of the import of polio virus is comparatively high.In order to maintain the “polio -free sta-tus”,the prevention and monitoring of the polio virus still needs to be strengthen at frontier ports.

  13. An indirect comparison of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Simon; Ansell, Jack

    2012-09-01

    New oral anticoagulant drugs are emerging as alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Two agents are direct factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban), and the third is a direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran). They have been separately compared to warfarin in large randomised trials. Our objective was to indirectly compare the three agents to each other for major efficacy and safety outcomes. Studies were assessed for comparability and the odds ratios of selected outcomes for each anticoagulant versus one another were estimated indirectly. The three cohorts differed significantly in terms of CHADS(2) score and the number of individuals with a past history of stroke, transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism. The estimated odds ratio of stroke or systemic embolism was 1.35 for rivaroxaban vs dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.04), 0.97 for rivaroxaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.81), 1.22 for apixaban versus dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.18), 0.88 for apixaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.34) and 0.90 for apixaban versus rivaroxaban (p=0.43). The estimated odds ratio of major bleeding was 1.10 for rivaroxaban versus dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.36), 1.28 for rivaroxaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.02), 0.74 for apixaban versus dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.004), 0.87 for apixaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.17) and 0.68 for apixaban versus rivaroxaban (pprevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It appears however that apixaban is associated with less major bleeding than dabigatran 150 mg or rivaroxaban and that rivaroxaban is less effective than dabigatran 150 mg in preventing stroke or systemic embolism. Such an indirect comparison should be used only to generate hypotheses which need to be tested in a dedicated randomised trial comparing the three drugs directly. PMID:22740145

  14. Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran versus genotype-guided management of warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce H S You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dabigatran is associated with lower rate of stroke comparing to warfarin when anticoagulation control is sub-optimal. Genotype-guided warfarin dosing and management may improve patient-time in target range (TTR and therefore affect the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran compared with warfain. We examined the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran versus warfarin therapy with genotype-guided management in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Markov model was designed to compare life-long economic and treatment outcomes of dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg twice daily, warfarin usual anticoagulation care (usual AC with mean TTR 64%, and genotype-guided anticoagulation care (genotype-guided AC in a hypothetical cohort of AF patients aged 65 years old with CHADS(2 score 2. Model inputs were derived from literature. The genotype-guided AC was assumed to achieve TTR = 78.9%, adopting the reported TTR achieved by warfarin service with good anticoagulation control in literature. Outcome measure was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained (ICER from perspective of healthcare payers. In base-case analysis, dabigatran 150 mg gained higher QALYs than genotype-guided AC (10.065QALYs versus 9.554QALYs at higher cost (USD92,684 versus USD85,627 with ICER = USD13,810. Dabigatran 110 mg and usual AC gained less QALYs but cost more than dabigatran 150 mg and genotype-guided AC, respectively. ICER of dabigatran 150 mg versus genotype-guided AC would be >USD50,000 (and genotype-guided AC would be most cost-effective when TTR in genotype-guided AC was >77% and utility value of warfarin was the same or higher than that of dabigatran. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The likelihood of genotype-guided anticoagulation service to be accepted as cost-effective would increase if the quality of life on warfarin and dabigatran therapy are compatible and genotype-guided service achieves high TTR (>77%.

  15. 头痛门诊偏头痛患者睡眠质量及影响因素分析%Analysis of sleep quality and influence factors in migraine patients in headache clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洲; 周冀英; 范小平; 李雪莲; 冉丽

    2012-01-01

    To investigate sleep quality of migraineurs in headache clinic and the influence factors of sleep quality. Methods We used Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) , Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale CHADS) to assess headache intensity,sleep quality,anxiety and depression symptoms. Descriptive statistics,Chi-square test, Binary logistic regression were used to analyze the sleep quality and its impact factors. Results A total of 211 subjects, 130 (61. 61%) migraineurs had a poor sleep quality. Sleep quality mainly influenced by course of migraine and whether comorbid with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion Over half of migraineurs comorbid with poor sleep quality,and most patients' poor sleep did not get effective improvement. So control influence factors of sleep quality may improve the poor sleep quality of migraineurs.%目的 分析神经内科头痛门诊偏头痛患者睡眠质量情况,并探讨睡眠质量的影响因素.方法 采用疼痛视觉模拟评分、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数和医院焦虑抑郁量表,评估偏头痛患者的头痛程度、睡眠质量及焦虑抑郁症状.利用描述性统计、χ2检验、回归分析等方法分析偏头痛患者睡眠质量及影响因素.结果 在211例偏头痛患者中有130例(61.61%)患者存在睡眠质量障碍.睡眠质量主要受偏头痛病程和是否伴有焦虑抑郁症状影响.结论 偏头痛患者大多伴有睡眠障碍,而且睡眠障碍有效控制率低.控制睡眠质量的影响因素,有望改善偏头痛患者的睡眠质量.

  16. COPD exacerbation frequency and its association with health care resource utilization and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamane AD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amol D Dhamane,1 Chad Moretz,2 Yunping Zhou,2 Kate Burslem,1 Kim Saverno,2 Gagan Jain,1 Andrew Renda,3 Shuchita Kaila1 1Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USA; 2Comprehensive Health Insights Inc., Louisville, KY, USA; 3Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, USA Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations account for a substantial proportion of COPD-related costs.Objective: To describe COPD exacerbation patterns and assess the association between exacerbation frequency and health care resource utilization (HCRU and costs in patients with COPD in a Medicare population.Methods: A retrospective cohort study utilizing data from a large US national health plan was conducted including patients with a COPD diagnosis during January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012, aged 40–89 years and continuously enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug plan. Exacerbation frequency, HCRU, and costs were assessed during a 24-month period following the first COPD diagnosis (follow-up period. Four cohorts were created based on exacerbation frequency (zero, one, two, and ≥three. HCRU and costs were compared among the four cohorts using chi-square tests and analysis of variance, respectively. A trend analysis was performed to assess the association between exacerbation frequency and costs using generalized linear models.Results: Of the included 52,459 patients, 44.3% had at least one exacerbation; 26.3%, 9.5%, and 8.5% had one, two, and ≥three exacerbations in the 24-month follow-up period, respectively. HCRU was significantly different among cohorts (all P<0.001. In patients with zero, one, two, and ≥three exacerbations, the percentages of patients experiencing all-cause hospitalizations were 49.7%, 66.4%, 69.7%, and 77.8%, respectively, and those experiencing COPD-related hospitalizations were 0%, 40.4%, 48.1%, and 60.5%, respectively. Mean all-cause total costs (medical and pharmacy were more than twofold greater in

  17. The burden of malaria in post-emergency refugee sites: A retrospective study

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    Spiegel Paul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost two-thirds of refugees, internally displaced persons, returnees and other persons affected by humanitarian emergencies live in malaria endemic regions. Malaria remains a significant threat to the health of these populations. Methods Data on malaria incidence and mortality were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2009 from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Health Information System database collected at sites in Burundi, Chad, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Uganda. Data from three countries during 2006 and 2007, and all nine countries from 2008 to 2009, were used to describe trends in malaria incidence and mortality. Monthly counts of malaria morbidity and mortality were aggregated into an annual country rate averaged over the study period. Results An average of 1.18 million refugees resided in 60 refugee sites within nine countries with at least 50 cases of malaria per 1000 refugees during the study period 2008-2009. The highest incidence of malaria was in refugee sites in Tanzania, where the annual incidence of malaria was 399 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugees and 728 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugee children younger than five years. Malaria incidence in children younger than five years of age, based on the sum of confirmed and suspected cases, declined substantially at sites in two countries between 2006 and 2009, but a slight increase was reported at sites within four of seven countries between 2008 and 2009. Annual malaria mortality rates were highest in sites in Sudan (0.9 deaths per 1,000 refugees, Uganda and Tanzania (0.7 deaths per 1000 refugees each. Malaria was the cause of 16% of deaths in refugee children younger than five years of age in all study sites. Conclusions These findings represent one of the most extensive reports on malaria among refugees in post-emergency sites. Despite declines in malaria incidence among refugees in several countries, malaria

  18. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  19. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batel Marques F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Batel Marques,1,2 Ana Penedones,1,2 Diogo Mendes,1,2 Carlos Alves,1,2 1CHAD – Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Drug Research, AIBILI – Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Introduction: The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs, besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs.Objective: To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs.Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated.Results: Twenty-nine (94% longitudinal observational studies and two (7% cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74% studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%. Twenty (65% studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65% studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7% also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7

  20. A REVISION OF THE PACHNEPHORUS FROM THE AFROTROPICAL REGION (COLEOPTERA, CHRYSOMELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zoia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Pachnephorus Chevrolat, 1837 from the Afrotropical Region is given and a key to the species is provided. Types of all the previously known taxa have been studied and redescribed; 40 new taxa are described and illustrated: P. achardi n. sp. (Mali, P. aequatorianus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. aethiopicus n. sp. (Etiopia, P. baehri n. sp. (Namibia, P. balyi n. sp. (Angola, P. beharui n. sp. (Etiopia, P. bertiae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. bezdeki n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bracarumvestitus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bryanti n. sp. (Mali, P. burgeoni n. sp. (Natal, P. camerun­ensis n. sp. (Camerun, P. cristiani n. sp. (Namibia, P. crocodilinus n. sp. (Zambia, P. daccordii n. sp. (Yemen, P. danielssoni n. sp. (Sierra Leone, P. danielssoni congoanus n. ssp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. demeyeri n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. episternalis n. sp. (Madagascar, P. fabianae n. sp. (Congo, P. fasciatus occidentalis n. ssp. (Nigeria, P. gardinii n. sp. (Etiopia, P. gerstaeckeri n. sp. (Namibia, P. grobbelaarae n. sp. (South Africa, P. hajeki n. sp. (Madagascar, P. lopatini n. sp. (Senegal, P. malicus n. sp. (Mali, P. maroantsetranus n. sp. (Madagascar, P. medvedevi n. sp. (Zambia, P. mo­seykoi n. sp. (Chad, P. pacificus n. sp. (Central Afr. Rep., P. parentorum n. sp. (Ghana, P. poggii n. sp. (Somalia, P. regalini n. sp. (Zambia, P. rigatoi n. sp. (Kenya, P. sas­sii n. sp. (Guinea Bissau, P. shuteae n. sp. (Rep. South Africa, P. sprecherae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. uhligi n. sp. (Namibia, P. willersi n. sp. (Namibia. The lectoypes of P. conspersus Gerstaecker, 1871, P. senegalensis Achard, 1914, P. latior Pic, 1921 and P. testaceipes Fairmaire, 1880 are designated. A new synonymy (P. costatus Achard, 1914 n. syn. of P. torridus Baly, 1878 and a nomenclatural change (Mecistes lineatus (Pic, 1921 n. comb. for Pachnephorus lineatus Pic, 1921 are proposed; the Lectotypes of M. lineatus and of M. flavipes (Gerstaecker, 1855 are designated.

  1. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  2. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit "Workouts of the Day" (WODs.Materials and methods: Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs "Grace" (30 clean and jerks for time, "Fran" (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions, and "Cindy" (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats, as well as the "CrossFit Total" (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing.Results: Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total (r=-0.88 and -0.65, respectively and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.61 and -0.53, respectively; however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively. There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy.Conclusion: CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training

  3. Role of emerging antithrombotic therapy in the prevention of cardioembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deedwania, Prakash C; Huang, Grace W

    2011-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is an independent risk factor of potentially catastrophic cardioembolic strokes. AF patients are categorized into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk for thromboembolic complications using the CHADS(2) or CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scoring system. Oral anticoagulation using warfarin has been the standard therapy for stroke prevention in intermediate- to high-risk AF patients. However, warfarin use has been limited by several factors such as narrow therapeutic windows, drug-drug and drug-food interactions, and hemorrhagic complications. Rigorous research evaluated dual antiplatelet therapy of clopidogrel and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as a potential alternative to warfarin in the ACTIVE W trial. Dual antiplatelet therapy of clopidogrel and aspirin was found to be inferior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic embolism with increased bleeding risk. Other extensive research has led to the development of new antithrombotic agents. Recently, dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily, a direct thrombin inhibitor, was approved by the US FDA for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF after it was found to be superior to warfarin in preventing thromboembolic events and associated with less bleeding in the RE-LY trial. It was also cost effective when compared with warfarin. Dabigatran can be considered in high-risk AF patients who are unable or unwilling to comply with the frequent laboratory and clinic visits that are required when receiving treatment with warfarin. Factor Xa inhibitors are another class of new anticoagulants that have been developed. Oral rivaroxaban was non-inferior to warfarin in thromboprophylaxis and with similar bleeding in the ROCKET-AF trial (HR 0.88; p = 0.117). Apixaban, another factor Xa inhibitor, was superior to aspirin in reducing stroke and systemic embolism in patients with AF in the AVERROES trial (HR 0.45; p < 0.001). The results of the

  4. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  5. Production zones and systems, markets, benefits and constraints of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn butter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bup Divine Nde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The shea tree is a multipurpose tree crop indigenous to Sub Saharan African. The tree is highly cherished for the oil that is extracted from its kernels and used nationally and internationally in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in chocolate formulations. The processing and sales represent significant income earning opportunities for rural women who are the main stakeholders in the production chain. Shea nuts and its products are listed among the top ten Non-Traditional Exports of Ghana. In Burkina Faso it is the fourth most important export crop after gold, cotton and livestock and makes a contribution of about 6 million USD to the national economy. Today the shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree. About 500 million shea trees grow in Africa which has the potential of producing shea nuts worth about 150 million USD yearly. This represents substantial earnings for the Sub-Saharan African economies when fully exploited. Shea trees grow in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries that can be grouped into 3 zones following their potentials for shea nut production per year: high production zone comprising of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda that have potentials of producing 70 000–300 000 tons per year; average production zone comprising of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea Conakry, Senegal and Togo with potentials of 10 000–70 000 tons per year and low production zones made up of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Niger and Sierra Leone with yearly production potentials less than 10 000 metric tons. Though semi mechanized and some few fully mechanized productions methods are employed in the major shea producing countries of West Africa, most of the rural women still used traditional processing procedures. Major importers of shea are European Union, Japan and the USA. The sector is still constrained by lack of

  6. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  7. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  8. Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a

  9. The role of epithelial–mesenchymal transition programming in invasion and metastasis: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creighton CJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chad J Creighton,1–3 Don L Gibbons,4,5 Jonathan M Kurie4 1The Dan L Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 4Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 5Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT is involved in normal developmental cellular processes, but it may also be co-opted by a subset of cancer cells, to enable them to invade and form metastases at distant sites. Several gene transcription factors regulate EMT, including Snail1, Snail2, Zeb1, Zeb2, and Twist; ongoing studies continue to identify and elucidate other drivers. Specific micro ribonucleic acids (RNAs have also been found to regulate EMT, including the microRNA-200 (miR-200 family, which targets Zeb1/Zeb2. Cancer “stem cells” – with the ability to self-renew and to regenerate all the cell types within the tumor – have been found to express EMT markers, further implicating both cancer stem cells and EMT with metastasis. Microenvironmental cues, including transforming growth factor-β, can direct EMT tumor metastasis, such as by regulating miR-200 expression. In human tumors, EMT markers and regulators may be expressed in a subset of tumor cells, such as in cells at the invasive front or tumor–microenvironment interface, though certain subtypes of cancer can show widespread mesenchymal-like features. In terms of therapeutic targeting of EMT in patients, potential areas of exploration could include targeting the cancer stem cell subpopulation, as well as microRNA-based therapeutics that reintroduce miR-200. This review will examine evidence for a

  10. Predicting the impacts of fishing canals on Floodplain Dynamics in Northern Cameroon using a small-scale sub-grid hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, A. R.; Durand, M. T.; Fernandez, A.; Hamilton, I.; Kari, S.; Labara, B.; Laborde, S.; Mark, B. G.; Moritz, M.; Neal, J. C.; Phang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling Regime Shifts in the Logone floodplain (MORSL) is an ongoing interdisciplinary project at The Ohio State University studying the ecological, social and hydrological system of the region. This floodplain, located in Northern Cameroon, is part of the Lake Chad basin. Between September and October the floodplain is inundated by the overbank flow from the Logone River, which is important for agriculture and fishing. Fishermen build canals to catch fish during the flood's recession to the river by installing fishnets at the intersection of the canals and the river. Fishing canals thus connect the river to natural depressions of the terrain, which act as seasonal ponds during this part of the year. Annual increase in the number of canals affect hydraulics and hence fishing in the region. In this study, the Bara region (1 km2) of the Logone floodplain, through which Lorome Mazra flows, is modeled using LISFLOOD-FP, a raster-based model with sub-grid parameterizations of canals. The aim of the study is to find out how the small-scale, local features like canals and fishnets govern the flow, so that it can be incorporated in a large-scale model of the floodplain at a coarser spatial resolution. We will also study the effect of increasing number of canals on the flooding pattern. We use a simplified version of the hydraulic system at a grid-cell size of 30-m, using synthetic topography, parameterized fishing canals, and representing fishnets as trash screens. The inflow at Bara is obtained from a separate, lower resolution (1-km grid-cell) model run, which is forced by daily discharge records obtained from Katoa, located about 25-km to the south of Bara. The model appropriately captures the rise and recession of the annual flood, supporting use of the LISFLOOD-FP approach. Predicted water levels at specific points in the river, the canals, the depression and the floodplain will be compared to field measured heights of flood recession in Bara, November 2014.

  11. Klinische Ergebnisse mit Dronedaron (Multaq® bei nicht-permanentem Vorhofflimmern - Resultate des DEMETER-Registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürerfellner H

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available iEinleitung:/i Dronedaron (Multaq®, Sanofi wird als Mehrkanalblocker bei nicht-permanentem Vorhofflimmern (VHF eingesetzt und ist in Österreich seit 02/2010 verfügbar. Wir berichten über die klinischen Resultate aus dem prospektiven DEMETER Register (02/2010– 12/2011.iMethoden:/i Sechs österreichische Kliniken schlossen 94 ambulante oder stationäre Patienten in die Studie ein. Einschlusskriterien waren Erstmanifestation von VHF (2,2 %, paroxysmales VHF (72,3 %, persistierendes VHF (24,4 % und lang anhaltend persistierendes VHF (1,1 %. Zur Baseline (BL wurden EKG-Parameter (Rhythmus, Herzfrequenz, PQ, QTC, Nieren- und Leberwerte, NYHA-Stadien, CHADS2- Scores und echokardiographische Parameter (LVEF, linksatrialer Diameter erfasst und nach 3 sowie 6 Monaten zusammen mit einer Einschätzung der Lebensqualität (QoL hinsichtlich VHF re-evaluiert. iResultate:/i 55 % der Patienten konnten die Studie protokollkonform abschließen, 20 % waren nicht auswertbar („Lost-to- Follow-up“ und bei 15 % wurde ein Abbruch dokumentiert. Der Hauptgrund für einen Studienabbruch war rezidivierendes VHF (75 %; proarrhythmogene Effekte oder Todesfälle traten nicht auf. Die Rate an Rehospitalisierungen war gering (8,3 % und auf VHF-Rezidive beschränkt; über einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten konnte keine relevante Progression von Sinusrhythmus (SR in persistierendes VHF beobachtet werden. Die Leberwerte und Nierenwerte blieben im Verlauf stabil, Serumkreatinin stieg pharmakodynamisch erwartungsgemäß signifikant an. Relevante EKG-Veränderungen kamen nicht vor, die NYHA-Stadien nahmen von Visite zu Visite signifikant ab, und bereits ab dem ersten Follow-up (FU1 wurde eine signifikant gebesserte QoL angegeben. iSchlussfolgerungen:/i Unter Beobachtung von Klinik, EKG, Serumkreatinin und Leberwerten zeigte sich Dronedaron bei Patienten mit nicht-permanentem VHF ohne rezente kardiale Dekompensation sicher und nebenwirkungsarm in der Anwendung. Zudem kam es zu einer

  12. Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia in Hispanic male: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarmad Said,1 Haider Alkhateeb,1 Chad J Cooper,1 Emmanuel Rodriguez,1 Remi Trien,1 German T Hernandez,1,2 Hasan S Salameh1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA Introduction: Idiopathic cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia (ICL is a rare non human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related syndrome with unclear natural history and prognosis that was first reported and defined in 1992. ICL has been observed in patients after the onset of an opportunistic infection without known immunosuppression. Case presentation: A 20-year-old Hispanic male patient without significant past medical history presented with progressive shortness of breath and cough for 3 weeks. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral cavitary lesions in the upper lung lobes. The HIV rapid screening test as well as the sputum acid-fast bacilli test were both positive. The patient was started on antituberculosis therapy. The CD4 count was noticed to be low. However, the HIV Western blot test was negative, and the HIV viral load was within normal limit. Further radiologic studies, hemato-oncologic, and autoimmune workups were normal. The patient was discharged on the treatment for tuberculosis. Follow-up after 8 weeks revealed a persistent low CD4+ count, and the repeated HIV tests were negative. Conclusion: The clinical features of ICL range from an asymptomatic condition to life-threatening complications that imitate the clinical course of HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis in adults comprises primarily HIV infection and other diseases or drug side effects. ICL is very rare and should be considered in the absence of any defined immunodeficiency or therapy associated with depressed levels of CD4+ T-cells. Early detection and recognition of the disease allow purposeful and

  13. Cost-effectiveness of dronedarone and standard of care compared with standard of care alone: US results of an ATHENA lifetime model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds MR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matthew R Reynolds,1 Jonas Nilsson,2 Örjan Åkerborg,2 Mehul Jhaveri,3 Peter Lindgren2,41Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2OptumInsight, Stockholm, Sweden; 3sanofi-aventis Inc, Bridgewater, NJ, USA; 4Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: The first antiarrhythmic drug to demonstrate a reduced rate of cardiovascular hospitalization in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL patients was dronedarone in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in patiENts with Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (ATHENA trial. The potential cost-effectiveness of dronedarone in this patient population has not been reported in a US context. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of dronedarone from a US health care payers’ perspective.Methods and results: ATHENA patient data were applied to a patient-level health state transition model. Probabilities of health state transitions were derived from ATHENA and published data. Associated costs used in the model (2010 values were obtained from published sources when trial data were not available. The base-case model assumed that patients were treated with dronedarone for the duration of ATHENA (mean 21 months and were followed over a lifetime. Cost-effectiveness, from the payers' perspective, was determined using a Monte Carlo microsimulation (1 million fictitious patients. Dronedarone plus standard care provided 0.13 life years gained (LYG, and 0.11 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, over standard care alone; cost/QALY was $19,520 and cost/LYG was $16,930. Compared to lower risk patients, patients at higher risk of stroke (Congestive heart failure, history of Hypertension, Age ≥ 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, and past history of Stroke or transient ischemic attack (CHADS2 scores 3

  14. The project RUSSADE: geoethic education to face environmental problems in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Elena; Semita, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    management and bio and geo-preservation represented by the functions of the protected areas. The theoretical approach of these issues is enhanced by practical experiences and visits to emblematic situations and structures in Niger territory, taking care to contextualize them with the local needs and integrating the experience and skills of partner teachers of Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and Italy). The students work through individual internships (for example internships on bio-digesters) that give rise to a report to be presented at the end of the Master. It is expected to publish the various reports on the appropriate magazines as well as on the websites of CISAO and of the involved universities, to give the best diffusion to the achieved results and to develop the potential applications in the Sahelian countries.

  15. Sensitivity of desert dust emission modelling to horizontal resolution: the example of the Bodélé Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Christel; Cautenet, Guy; Marticorena, Béatrice; Bergametti, Gilles; Minvielle, Fanny; Schmechtig, Catherine; Laurent, Benoit

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to play an important role in the Earth's climate system. However, the quantification of aerosol radiative impact on the Earth's radiative budget is very complex because of the high variability in space and time of aerosol mass and particle number concentrations, and optical properties as well. In many regions, like in desert regions, dust is the largest contribution to aerosol optical thickness [Tegen et al., 1997]. Consequently, it appears fundamental to well represent mineral dust emissions to reduce uncertainties concerning aerosol radiative impact on the Earth's radiative budget. Recently, several studies (e.g. Prospero et al. [2002]) underlined that the Bodélé depression, in northern Chad, is probably the most important source of mineral dust in the world. However many models fail in simulating these large dust emissions. Indeed, dust emission is a threshold phenomenon mainly driven by the intensity of surface wind velocity. Realistic estimates of dust emissions then rely on the quality and accuracy of the surface wind fields. Koren and Kaufman [2004] showed that the reanalysis data (NCEP), which can be used as input data in numerical models, underestimates surface wind velocity in the Bodélé Depression by up to 50%. Such an uncertainty on surface wind velocity cannot allow an accurate simulation of the dust emission. In mesoscale meteorological models, global reanalysis datasets are used to initialize and laterally nudge the models that compute meteorological parameters (like wind velocity) with a finer spatial and temporal resolutions. The question arises concerning the precision of the wind speeds calculated by these models. Using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, Cotton et al. [2003]) coupled online with the dust production model developed by Marticorena and Bergametti [1995] and recently improved by Laurent et al. [2008] for Africa, the influence of the horizontal resolution of the mesoscale meteorological

  16. Monitoring of Oil Exploitation Infrastructure by Combining Unsupervised Pixel-Based Classification of Polarimetric SAR and Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is a high correlation between the dependence of oil exports and violent conflicts. Furthermore, even in countries which experienced a peaceful development of their oil industry, land use and environmental issues occur. Therefore, independent monitoring of oil field infrastructure may support problem solving. Earth observation data enables fast monitoring of large areas which allows comparing the real amount of land used by the oil exploitation and the companies’ contractual obligations. The target feature of this monitoring is the infrastructure of the oil exploitation, oil well pads—rectangular features of bare land covering an area of approximately 50–60 m × 100 m. This article presents an automated feature extraction procedure based on the combination of a pixel-based unsupervised classification of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data (PolSAR and an object-based post-classification. The method is developed and tested using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X imagery acquired over the Doba basin in south Chad. The advantages of PolSAR are independence of the cloud coverage (vs. optical imagery and the possibility of detailed land use classification (vs. single-pol SAR. The PolSAR classification uses the polarimetric Wishart probability density function based on the anisotropy/entropy/alpha decomposition. The object-based post-classification refinement, based on properties of the feature targets such as shape and area, increases the user’s accuracy of the methodology by an order of a magnitude. The final achieved user’s and producer’s accuracy is 59%–71% in each case (area based accuracy assessment. Considering only the numbers of correctly/falsely detected oil well pads, the user’s and producer’s accuracies increase to even 74%–89%. In an iterative training procedure the best suited polarimetric speckle filter and processing parameters of the developed feature extraction procedure are

  17. Sedimentary cover in the South Western Desert of Egypt as deduced from Bouguer gravity and drill-hole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senosy, M. M.; Youssef, M. M.; Abdel Zaher, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Western Desert, Egypt includes the major groundwater aquifer in the country. It is apart from the Major Sahara Nubian Aquifer which is present in Sudan, Chad, Egypt and Libya. Thickness of this aquifer is changed laterally from south to north and also from west to east. The changes may structurally or litheologicalley control. The present study is focused on using of Bouguer gravity anomaly mapped at a scale of 1:500,000 and the lithological logs of about 120 deep wells used to determine the thickness of the sedimentary sequence containing the main Nubian sandstone water aquifer in important area of Egypt. The area is located in the southern part of the Western Desert bounded by the latitudes 22°00'-26°30'N, and longitudes 28°30'-33°00'E. The predominant structures affecting the basement rocks and the sedimentary cover were traced and analyzed. The gravity stripping approach was applied to eliminate the gravity effects caused by sedimentary sequence and to separate density anomalies within the sedimentary fill from the influence of rocks at deeper levels in the crystalline crust. The study indicated that the surface of the basement rocks is highly rugged and mostly controlled by structures which have a direct effect on thickness variation of the sedimentary cover all over the area. Regionally the area is characterized by two major intracratonic basins (the Dahkla Basin and the Nile valley Basin) separated by a NE-SW trending swell of the Kharga uplift and bounded at the south by the Oweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan uplift. These major tectonic units are controlled by fault structures trending in N-S, E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE, which cut the basement rocks and extend upward in the sedimentary cover. The maximum thickness of sandstone formations is recorded at west Oweinat, west Kurkur, southwest of Aswan, Gramashin, Dakhla oasis and some localities west of Sohag and Qena towns. At these localities the thickness ranges between 600 and 900 m. As this formation is the main

  18. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  19. The role of electrophilic species in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitlis, Peter M; Zanotti, Valerio

    2009-04-01

    The heterogeneously catalysed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis converts syngas (CO+H2) into long chain hydrocarbons and is a key step in the economically important transformation of natural gas, coal, or biomass into liquid fuels, such as diesel. Catalyst surface studies indicate that the FT reaction starts when CO is activated at imperfections on the surfaces of late transition metals (Fe, Ru, Co, or Rh) and at interfaces with "islands" of promoters (Lewis acid oxides such as alumina or titania). Activation involves CO cleavage to generate a surface carbide, C(ad), which is sequentially hydrogenated to CHx(ad) species (x=1-4). An overview of practical aspects of the FT synthesis is followed by a discussion of the chief mechanisms that have been proposed for the formation of 1-alkenes by polymerisation of surface C1 species. These mechanisms have traditionally postulated rather non-polar intermediates, such as CH2(ad) and CH3(ad). However, electrophiles and nucleophiles are well-known to play key roles in the reactions of organic and organometallic compounds, and also in many reactions homogeneously catalysed by soluble metal complexes, including olefin polymerisation. We have now extended these concepts to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and show that the polymerisation reactions at polarising surfaces, such as oxide-metal interfaces, can be understood if the reactive chain carrier is an electrophilic species, such as the cationic methylidyne, CH(delta+)(ad). It is proposed that the key coupling step in C-C bond formation involves the interaction of the electrophilic methylidyne with an alkylidene (RCH(ad), R=H, alkyl), followed by an H-transfer to generate the homologous alkylidene: CHdelta+(ad)+RCH(ad)-->RCHCH(ad) and RCHCH(ad)+H(ad)-->RCH2CH(ad). If the reactions occur on non-polarising surfaces, an alternative C-C bond forming reaction such as the alkenyl+methylene, RCH=CH(ad)+CH2(ad)-->RCH=CHCH2(ad), can take place. This approach explains important aspects of the

  20. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes

  1. Oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug em pacientes com fibrilação atrial Left atrial appendage closure with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio Eduardo Guérios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A oclusão percutânea do apêndice atrial esquerdo (OAAE surgiu como alternativa à anticoagulação oral (AO para prevenção do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não-valvular (FANV. OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados imediatos e o seguimento clínico de pacientes submetidos a OAAE com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP em um único centro de referência. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes consecutivos com FANV, contra-indicação à AO e escore CHADS2= 2,6±1,2 foram submetidos a OAAE com implante de ACP. Realizou-se seguimento clínico e ecocardiográfico no mínimo 4 meses após o implante. RESULTADOS: Todos os implantes foram guiados apenas por angiografia. O sucesso do procedimento foi de 99% (1 insucesso por tamponamento cardíaco e consequente suspensão da OAAE. Houve 4 complicações maiores (o tamponamento já referido, 2 AVCs transitórios e uma embolização com retirada percutânea da prótese e duas menores (um derrame pericárdico sem tamponamento e uma pequena comunicação interatrial evidenciada no seguimento. Houve 1 óbito hospitalar após 6 dias, não relacionado à intervenção. Todos os outros pacientes receberam alta sem AO. Após seguimento de 25,9 pacientes-ano (69 pacientes não houve AVCs nem embolizações tardias de próteses. O AAE estava completamente ocluído em 97% dos casos. Seis pacientes apresentaram evidência de trombo sobre a prótese, que desapareceram após reinstituição de AO por 3 meses. CONCLUSÃO: OAAE se associa a um alto índice de sucesso, um índice aceitável de complicações e resultados promissores a médio prazo, podendo ser considerada uma alternativa válida à OA na prevenção do AVC em pacientes com FANV.BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC has emerged as an alternative to oral anticoagulation (OA for prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF. OBJECTIVE: To describe the

  2. 住院心房颤动患者抗凝治疗现状分析%Analysis of present situation of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 邵建屏; 颜楠; 朱华; 罗璨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the problem of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation and obtain evidences for safer anticoagulant therapy in clinical practice.Methods The medical records of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who were hospitalized in Department of Cardiology,Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital from January 1 to August 31,2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.The patients were evaluated after risk stratification of thromboembolism and the risk of hemorrhage by CHADS2-VASc score and HAS-BLED score according to the 2010 ESC Guidelines for Management of Atrial Fibrillation.The main indicators of analysis included the patients' risk stratification of thromboembolism,the score of risk of hemorrhage,the situation of applying anticoagulant,international normalized ratio (INR),hemorrhagic complication,thromboembolic events,and the compliance with medication in patients who received different therapeutic regimen of atrial fibrillation (ventricular rate control and rhythm control).Results A total of 134 patients were enrolled into the study,including 69 male and 67 female with an average age of(67 ± 14)years (20 to 91years).The number of patients whose CHA2DS2-VASc score 0,1,and ≥2 were 11,23,and 100,respectively.The number of patients whose HAS-BELD score ≥3 was 13.The patients who received the ventricular rate control and the rhythm control therapy were 85 and 49,respectively.Among the 85 patients who received the rate control treatment,there were 1,12,72cases whose CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 0,1,and ≥2,respectively.One patient with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 received aspirin.Two,8,and 2 patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score 1 received warfarin,antiplatelet drug (only aspirin,only clopidogrel or both),and did not receive any anticoagulants (one patient had contraindication),respectively.There were 2 patients who received only clopidogrel developed multiple focal cerebral ischemia as shown by head CT examination in the

  3. Application of Mimics three-dimensional imaging in percutaneous left atrial appendage closure with Watchman system%Mimics三维成像在经皮左心耳封堵术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨栋; 徐曌; 张逸群; 罗艳红; 张菊红; 王益钢; Brendan Gunalingam; 张邢炜

    2015-01-01

    目的 使用Mimics三维成像技术重建心房颤动患者左心耳三维结构,初步评估经皮左心耳封堵术(Watchman系统)手术风险,指导封堵器选择及放置.方法 入选2014年5-12月在杭州师范大学附属医院心内科行左心耳封堵术患者10例,年龄40 ~ 85岁的心房颤动患者10例,均不愿长期口服抗凝药物或口服抗凝药物有禁忌证,具有左心耳封堵适应证,且自愿参加本试验.术前行Mimics左心耳三维重建,结合术中经食道超声心动图(TEE)及造影结果,选择Watchman左心耳封堵器尺寸及放置位置,置入封堵器至左心耳颈部.结果 入选心房颤动患者年龄为(66.3±11.9)岁,其中9例为非瓣膜病心房颤动患者,CHADS2-VAS评分(3.2±1.7)分,HAS-BLED评分(2.7±1.6)分;1例为瓣膜病心房颤动患者(曾行二尖瓣成形术,缺乏外科换瓣手术的适应证).10例患者均成功置入Watchman左心耳封堵系统,术后行左心耳造影及TEE均未发现封堵伞处血流渗漏.围手术期及术后1个月随访无出血及栓塞等并发症发生.结论 术前使用Mimics三维成像技术重建心房颤动患者左心耳三维结构,为左心耳封堵术封堵器置入提供重要的参考依据.%Objective The three-dimensional (3D) structure of left atrial appendage (LAA) in atrial fibrillation patients were reconstructed by Mimics 3D imaging system,aiming at guiding for selection of both the size and location of the closure devices and making preliminary risk assessment of LAA closure with Watchman system.Methods Inclusion criteria were:ten voluntary patients with both atrial fibrillation and indication for LAA closure aging from 40 to 85 years old with contraindication for oral anticoagulants or unwillingness to take long-term oral anticoagulation therapy from May to December 2014.3D reconstruction of LAA was preoperatively made by Mimics 3D imaging system.With the Mimics 3D reconstruction model and the results of both transesophageal

  4. Influencing factors of compliance to anticoagulation therapy guideline recommendations in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation following discharge from hospital%非瓣膜病心房颤动患者出院处方依从抗凝治疗指南影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娟; 蒋捷; 盛琴慧; 周菁; 丁燕生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of compliance to anticoagulation therapy guideline recommendations in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation following discharge from hospitals. Methods The profiles of patients with atrial fibrillation admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Peking University between 2003 and 2008, including the procedures for assessment of the risk and risk factors of thromboembolism, were reviewed. The 2001 and 2006 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) clinical guidelines were employed to assess the compliance to anticoagulation therapy in patients discharged from the hospital, who were subsequently assigned to compliant and non-compliant group based on their compliance to the treatment. Results A total of 257 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were recruited. Of the 25 (33. 3%) and 114 (67. 1%) cases with documented the procedure for assessment of the risk of thromboembolism in 2003 and 2008, 18 (20. 7%) and 96 (56. 5%) were compliant to the prescription following discharge from the hospital, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed lower odds for prescribing anticoagulation medication based on the guideline recommendations to the elderly patients or those who had high CHADS2 score or missing documentation of risk assessment of thromboembolism. Conclusion Missing documentation of risk assessment procedures of thromboembolism, consistent with aging and history of thromboembolism, has become the major factors contributing to physicians' varying compliance for prescibing anticoagulation therapy based on guideline in patients with atrial fibrillation.%目的 分析非瓣膜病心房颤动住院患者出院是否依从指南根据血栓栓塞危险分层处方使用抗凝药物的影响因素.方法 收集北京大学第一医院2003年和2008年住院心房颤动患者的临床资料,包括心房颤动血栓栓塞相

  5. Intercomparison of MODIS-Aqua C051 and C006 Level 3 Deep Blue AOD and Ångström exponent retrievals over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during the period 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Basart, Sara; Korras-Carraca, Marios; Papadimas, Christos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Sayer, Andrew; Hsu, Christina; Baldasano, Jose Maria

    2015-04-01

    Dust loads emitted from the arid regions of Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula account for the major portion of the global dust aerosol burden. Depending on prevailing atmospheric circulation they can be transported far away from their source areas. Considering the key role of dust aerosols to weather and climate a better description of their spatial and temporal variability it is an issue of great importance. The main target of the present study is to describe aerosols' regime over Northern Africa and Arabian Peninsula using Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD550nm) and Ångström exponent (α412-470nm) measurements. Given the applied changes to the retrieval algorithm, emphasis is also given to the inter-comparison between the data from Collections 051 and 006. The analysis is performed using MODIS-Aqua daily Level 3 data at 1°x1° spatial resolution over the period 2002-2014. The study region extends from 20°W to 60°E and from 0° to 40°N. The obtained long-term geographical distributions reveal many similarities between C051 and C006 AOD retrievals. They both indicate a zone of high AODs along the parallel of 15°N, extending from the western coasts of Africa to Chad where the maximum values (~1.3) are recorded. In the Arabian Peninsula, the maximum AODs (up to 0.6) are found in Iraq. On the contrary, more apparent differences between the two collections are found for α412-470nm. It is evident a reduction of C006 retrievals, which is more pronounced across the Sahara desert. In C006, the α412-470nm values over the deserts of Northern Africa and Middle East mostly vary from 0 to 0.6 while higher values (up to 1.5) are observed in sub-sahel regions, west coasts of Saudi Arabia and Iran. During the study period, in both collections, AOD has decreased by up to 93% in N. Africa (northern parts of Algeria) while it has increased by up to 70% in the Middle East (northern parts of Iraq). Reversed tendencies are found for the α412-470nm retrievals. For

  6. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    image processing. Flood-FINDER aims to pre-empt this process and to provide preliminary analyses where no field data is available. In the early 2015, the Flood-FINDER's forecast along the Shire River has been used to guide the rapid mapping activities in Southern Malawi and Northern Mozambique. It proved efficient support providing timely information about the evolution of the flood event over an area lacking of field data. Regarding in-country capacity building, Flood-FINDER allowed UNOSAT to set up in middle 2015 a flood early warning system in Chad along the Chari River basin with the collaboration of Chadian Ministry of hydraulics and livestock. Weekly flood bulletins have been shared with local authorities and UN agencies over the entire rainy season. Finally, an experimental version of the global web alerting platform has been recently developed for supporting the El Nino flood preparedness in the Horn of Africa. Flood-FINDEŔs mission is to support decision makers throughout all the disaster management cycle with flood alerts, modelled scenarios, EO-based impact assessments and with direct support at country level to implement disaster mitigation strategies. The aim for the future is to seek funding for having the global system fully operational using CERN's supercomputing facilities and to establish new in-country projects with local authorities.

  7. Damage of Plasma Membranes of Arthrospira under Low Temperature Stress%低温胁迫对节旋藻质膜的伤害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀华; 袁淑珍; 栗淑媛; 乔辰

    2011-01-01

    低温胁迫下,对鄂尔多斯高原碱湖的钝顶节旋藻(A1)、非洲Chad湖的钝顶节旋藻(A2)和墨西哥Texcoco湖的极大节旋藻(A3)的质膜伤害进行比较研究,以了解来自中纬度与低纬度不同节旋藻对低温的反应,探讨其对低温的适应性及与原产地的关系.结果表明,无论直接低温处理还是经低温锻炼后再低温处理,随温度的降低3个样品细胞外渗液中可溶性蛋白和游离氨基酸的含量均增加,且胁迫的温度越低、时间越长,细胞外渗液中两种物质的含量也越高.经低温锻炼可减弱低温胁迫对节旋藻质膜的伤害,相比之下,对A1作用更明显.在相同的处理条件下,外渗液中蛋白质和游离氨基酸的含量均是A1<A2<A3,质膜伤害率A1比A2和A3低,特别是在处理温度低、时间长时表现得更为明显.说明A1对低温有较强的适应性.%To explore the responses to low temperature of Arthrospira from middle and low latitude areas,and to analyse the relationship between their adaptability to low temperature and their origin area,the damage of plasma membranes under low temperature was studied in A.platensis (A1) from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau,A.platensis (A2) from Chad Lake and A.maxima (A3) from Texcoco Lake.The results showed that contents of soluble proteins and free amino acid in the liquid of exosmosis increased with decreasing temperature in three Arthrospira,which treated with direct low temperatue or low temperature hardening.The contents of that were higher in a lower temperature and longer time.Low temperature hardening can weaken the damage of low tempera ture to plasma membranes in Arthrospira,especially in A1.In the same conditions,the contents of the soluble proteins and free amino acid in exosmosis liquid were A1 <A2 <A3, these results were obvious especially at lower temperature and under longer time treatment.Therefore,A1 has better adaptability to lower temperature.

  8. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    fraction that arrives at another continent [2]. At the deposition end of the chain, it is still unclear how the limited minerals in the dust such as iron are released for uptake by organisms either on land or in the ocean. Not all dust deposited into oceans results in a phytoplankton bloom. The process requires a chemical pathway that mobilizes a fraction of the iron into soluble form. Meskhidze et al [3] show that phytoplankton blooms following dust transport from the Gobi desert in Asia into the Pacific ocean result in a phytoplankton bloom only if the dust is accompanied by high initial SO2-to-dust ratios, suggesting that sulfuric acid coatings on the dust particle mobilize the embedded iron in the dust for phytoplankton uptake. Quantifying transport, deposition and nutrient availability are the latter ends of a puzzle that must begin by identifying and quantifying dust emission at the sources. The emission process is complex at the microscale requiring the right conditions for saltation and bombardment, which makes identification and inclusion of sources in global transport models very difficult. The result is that estimates of annual global dust emissions range from 1000 to 3000 Tg per year [4]. Even as global estimates of dust emissions are uncertain, localizing the sources brings even greater uncertainty. It has been recognized for several years that dust sources are not uniformly distributed over the arid regions of the Earth, but are regulated to topographic lows associated with dried lake deposits [5]. Using aerosol information from satellites, a comprehensive map of the world's source regions shows sources localized to specific areas of the Earth's arid regions [6]. Still these maps suggest broad emission sources covering several degrees of latitude and longitude. In the paper by Koren and co-authors [7] appearing in this issue, one particular dust source, the Bodélé depression in Chad, is analyzed in detail. They find that the specific topography of the

  9. Health and sanitary status in 1970 of Tubu nomads dwelling in Northeastern Niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Franois Magnaval; Christian Oosterbosch; Michel Mandl; MABN group

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Tubu are nomadic people who live in remote parts of the central Sahara, primarily in the Tibesti massif (Chad), and in both Northeastern Niger and Southern Libya. All of these areas are close to become conflict zones. However, no data about the Tubu’s health and sanitary status are currently available, which would be of major concern if humanitarian interventions would become required. Methods: In 1970, the “Mission Anthropologique Belge au Niger” (MABN) investigated a Tubu tribe named Broaya that lived at Seguedine and Djado on the northeastern rim of the Tenere desert. One hundred fifty-one adult volunteers answered an oral questionnaire and underwent a medical examination, followed by the collection of blood thin films and samples of urine and stool. The environmental fauna of medical importance was also studied. Results: Albeit 43 year-old, these results have not been previously published. The estimated age of death for fathers was approximately 56 years, and that for mothers was 60 years. On average, each married woman had had 4.7 children. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 232 ‰, the overall infant mortality rate was 153 ‰, and the overall child mortality rate was 99 ‰. The mean height was 164.1 cm and 157.4 cm, the mean weight was 50.1 kg and 47.9kg, and the mean blood pressure was 131/78 mmHg and 127/75 mmHg for males and females, respectively. The physical examination found 6 cases of blindness (4.0%). Five subjects presented with an elevated blood pressure (3.3%), and 5 (3.3%) displayed an abnormal thoracic auscultation evocative of tuberculosis or of an acute lung infection. The abdominal examination and renal palpation found 5 large masses (3.3%), and 2 subjects had a palpable enlarged spleen (1.3%). The blood thin films were fixed in methanol and subsequently examined in Toulouse. The search for blood parasites was negative. The urine samples were centrifuged and then microscopically examined in the field. No blood

  10. Multi-satellite sensor study on precipitation-induced emission pulses of NOx from soils in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörner, Jan; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Beirle, Steffen; Veres, Patrick; Williams, Jonathan; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    to develop several days before the actual first rainfall. After the initial large pulse, soil emissions diminish rapidly the subsequent day, but stay still enhanced over the following two weeks with 1.6 ng N m‑2s‑1 averaged over the Sahel region. We also present a case study in the surroundings of Lake Chad which is based on daily orbits of OMI and does not rely on averaging over multiple time series. A characteristic enhancement in NO2 VCDs, in response to the first rain of the wet season, is found which agrees well with our general findings for the Sahel region.

  11. A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Liousse, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Rather surprisingly, urban atmospheric particulate levels in West Africa compare with measured concentrations in Europe and Asia megacities (Liousse, C., Galy-Lacaux, C., Assamoi, E.-M., Ndiaye, A., Diop, B., Cachier, H., Doumbia, T., Gueye, P., Yoboue, V., Lacaux, J.-P., Guinot, B., Guillaume, B., Rosset, R., Castera, P., Gardrat, E., Zouiten, C., Jambert, C., Diouf, A., Koita, O., Baeza, A., Annesi-Maesano, I., Didier, A., Audry, S., Konare, A., 2009. Integrated Focus on West African Cities (Cotonou, Bamako, Dakar, Ouagadougou, Abidjan, Niamey): Emissions, Air Quality and Health Impacts of Gases and Aerosols. Third International AMMA Conference on Predictability of the West African Moosoon Weather, Climate and Impacts. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. July 20-24). This pollution mainly derives from road traffic emissions with, in some capitals (e.g. Cotonou), the strong contribution of two-wheel vehicles. Two key questions arise: are presently available emission inventories (e.g. Junker, C., Liousse, C., 2008. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997. Atmospheric Chemistry Physics, 8, 1-13; Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J.H., Klimont, Z., 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1009, D14203, DOI:10.1029/2003JD003697) able to account for these emissions? And, if not, how can we remedy this? The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate emissions produced by two-wheel vehicles in West Africa for 2002 in a context where reliable information is hardly available. Fuel consumption ratios between two-wheel engines (in this work) and all vehicles issued from UN database ( http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=EDATA&f=cmID%3aMO%3btrID%3a1221) are as high as 169%, 264% and 628%, for Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad respectively, indicating that this global

  12. THE EFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE CONTENT OF SIX FATTY ACIDS OF LIPIDS IN CELL MEMBRANE OF SPIRULINA%低温对钝顶螺旋藻质膜上6种脂肪酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张三润; 杨茜

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the variety of PM fatty acids of the Spirulina platensis (S1)from alkaline lake in Erdos Plateau and its relationship with low temperature resistance under low temperatures stress,and comparing them with that of S.platensis (S2) from Chad Lake in Africa at the same time.Methods:Using two-phase method to purify plasma membrane (PM),gas chromatography method for the determination of fatty acids relative contents of plasma membrane lipid.Results:As temperature is lowered,the total saturated fatty acids in PM of both S1 and S2 show a decreasing trend;while the total unsaturated fatty acids show an increasing tendency.Pamitoleic acid (16∶1)and linolenic acid (18∶3) in S1 increase obviously,while in S2 both reduce significantly ; oleic acid (18∶1) and linoleic acid (18∶2) contents are on the contrary,decreasing in S1 and increasing in S2.Conclusion:Unsaturated fatty acids have the function of regulation under low temperature stress.It is speculated that key fatty acids in S1 PM,which are involved in low temperature resistance,may be pamitoleic acid and linolenic acid,especially the linolenic acid;while those in S2 may be of oleic acid and linoleic acid.S1 is stronger than S2 on anti-low temperature stress.%目的:探讨低温下鄂尔多斯高原碱湖钝顶螺旋藻(S1)质膜脂肪酸的变化及其与抗低温的关系,并与非洲Chad湖钝顶螺旋藻(S2)进行比较.方法:采用两相法提纯质膜,气相色谱法测定质膜类脂脂肪酸相对百分含量.结果:随着温度的降低,S1和S2质膜的总饱和脂肪酸均呈降低的趋势,总不饱和脂肪酸均呈增加的趋势;软脂油酸(16∶1)和亚麻酸(18∶3)的含量在S1中明显增加,在S2中明显减少;而油酸(18∶1)和亚油酸(18∶2)的含量正好相反,在S1中明显减少,S2中明显增加.结论:不饱和脂肪酸在低温逆境中存在调节作用.推测S1质膜中与抗低温有关的关键脂肪酸可能是软脂油酸和亚麻酸;S2

  13. EKONOMİK ÖZGÜRLÜKLERDEKİ YAKINSAMANIN HALDANE-HALL YAKLAŞIMI İLE ÖLÇÜMÜ (THE MEASUREMENT OF CONVERGENCE OF ECONOMIC FREEDOMS WITH HALDANE-HALL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merter AKINCI

    2014-04-01

    developing and underdeveloped countries came closer to developed countries in terms of economic freedom is analysed with a new method that is Haldane-Hall Convergence Analysis. The outcomes of Haldane-Hall Convergence Analysis revealed that the economic liberation processes of Argentina, Belarus, Bolivia, Bulgaria, China, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Senegal, Thailand and Turkey converged to developed countries, on the other hand, in Republic of Congo, Ghana, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Moldova, Morocco, Sudan, Swaziland, Vietnam, Yemen, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Uganda, the concept of divergence in terms of economic freedom became a current issue. Keywords: Economic Freedom, Convergence, Haldane-Hall Approach.

  14. A geoethical approach in higher education: the project RUSSADE in cooperation with Sahelian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semita, Carlo; Ferrero, Elena; Calvo, Angela; Trucchi, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Sahel has been plagued by a continuous process of environment degradation since the droughts of the 70s and 80s. The desertification process has a significant impact also on the natural and artificial water bodies, on the rivers flow and the river ecosystems, damaging human activities. Environmental damage exacerbates inequality by exerting a negative impact on the population, in the meantime, the inequalities of human development amplify also environmental damage. The project "RUSSADE" (Réseau des Universités Sahéliennes pour la Sécurité Alimentaire et la Durabilité Environnement), included in the EuropeAid-ACP-EU Cooperation Programme in higher education (EDULINK II), has the specific objective to enhance higher education systems through the implementation of an interdisciplinary Master. The courses are designed with a geoethical approach in order to integrate Earth and Life Sciences to give the Sahelian students technical, scientific and methodological bases and to develop the skills of managing natural resources and to improve agriculture and food security. The systemic and multidisciplinary approach will involve several fields of knowledge. The programs of the different areas are linked to each other and Italian and Sahelian teachers cooperate together both in the courses planning and in the teaching activities. The partners, three African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of Niger (CRESA - Abdou Moumouni University), Burkina Faso (LERNSE - Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso) and Chad (University Institute of Sciences and Techniques of Abeché), will develop an education project with the main objective to use scientific knowledge to fight hunger and poverty and to promote environmental protection in a sustainable development perspective. The quality of higher education in the management of natural resources in agriculture will improve living conditions of Sahelian people. The Master, planned with innovative connections, includes a field training

  15. Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sally C.; Gallagher, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    List of contributors; Foreword J. T. Francis Thackeray; 1. African genesis: an evolving paradigm Sally C. Reynolds; 2. Academic genealogy Peter Ungar and Phillip V. Tobias; Part I. In Search of Origins: Evolutionary Theory, New Species, and Paths into the Past: 3. Speciation in hominin evolution Colin Groves; 4. Searching for a new paradigm for hominid origins in Chad (Central Africa) Michel Brunet; 5. From hominoid arboreality to hominid bipedalism Brigitte Senut; 6. Orrorin and the African ape/hominid dichotomy Martin Pickford; 7. A brief history and results of 40 years of Sterkfontein excavations Ronald J. Clarke; Part II. Hominin Morphology Through Time: Brains, Bodies and Teeth: 8. Hominin brain evolution, 1925-2011: an emerging overview Dean Falk; 9. The issue of brain reorganisation in Australopithecus and early hominids: Dart had it right Ralph L. Holloway; 10. The mass of the human brain: is it a spandrel? Paul R. Manger, Jason Hemingway, Muhammad Spocter and Andrew Gallagher; 11. Origin and diversity of early hominin bipedalism Henry M. McHenry; 12. Forelimb adaptations in Australopithecus afarensis Michelle S. M. Drapeau; 13. Hominin proximal femur morphology from the Tugen Hills to Flores Brian G. Richmond and William L. Jungers; 14. Daily rates of dentine formation and root extension rates in Paranthropus boisei, KNM-ER 1817, from Koobi Fora, Kenya M. Christopher Dean; 15. On the evolutionary development of early hominid molar teeth and the Gondolin Paranthropus molar Kevin L. Kuykendall; 16. Digital South African fossils: morphological studies using reference-based reconstruction and electronic preparation Gerhard W. Weber, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Philipp Mitteroecker and Fred L. Bookstein; Part III. Modern Human Origins: Patterns, and Processes: 17. Body size in African Middle Pleistocene Homo Steven E. Churchill, Lee R. Berger, Adam Hartstone-Rose and Headman Zondo; 18. The African origin of recent humanity Milford H. Wolpoff and Sang-Hee Lee

  16. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    at the northern margin of CAFB of northern Cameroon: (1) inherited magmatic sources ranging from one group to another at ca 692, 713, 722, 746 and 772 Ma; (2) successive emplacement ages at ca 670-686 Ma (orthogneisses group), ca 661-666 Ma (synchronous emplacement of the Djourdé and Sinassi groups) and ca 644 Ma (emplacement age of eyespots quartz diorite in the Sinassi group); and (3) post-magmatic alteration or metamorphism at ca 600 Ma. Correlations with the neighboring Mayo Kebbi Batholith in southwestern Chad show geochemical and geochronological similarities, demonstrating that the Sinassi and Mayo Kebbi granitoids beyond political boundaries are parts of a unique Sinassi-Mayo Kebbi Batholith witnessing a Neoproterozoic subduction-related continental magmatic arc setting of Andean-type.

  17. INIS Progress and Activity Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Highlights 2011: The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established by the IAEA, in collaboration with interested Member States and international organizations, in 1969. The main objective of INIS was to provide access to information on scientific literature on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy published worldwide. INIS operates under special membership arrangements that set specific duties and privileges. Chad, Mauritania, and Gabon joined INIS in 2011, bringing the total number of INIS members to 151 (127 countries and 24 international organizations). In 2011, 109 914 bibliographic records were added to the INIS Collection, making a total of 3 367 451 records available to the public. An additional 13 586 full-text documents were prepared and uploaded, bringing the total of full-text documents available in the Collection to 439 314, of which 309 627 are available to the public. This collection of documents on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology is now fully indexed and searchable online using Google-based technology. Over 50 000 searches and 4000 downloads were performed monthly. The 13th INIS/ETDE Joint Technical Committee Meeting (JTCM) was held from 20 to 21 October 2011 in Vienna, Austria and 12 countries participated. 27 Actions and Recommendations were adopted as guidelines for cooperation and direction for the next two years. The joint INIS/ETDE Thesaurus, Revision 2.4, was issued in April and contains 21 881 valid descriptors and 8675 forbidden terms. INIS production and release processes were redesigned to be based on XML format, removing one barrier for Unicode compliance. IT infrastructure used to support INIS business was consolidated and upgraded. Training, assistance and feedback was provided to a number of INIS centres, improving all aspects of their INIS operation capabilities. In 2011, INIS also organized a well-attended regional (AFRA) training course in Morocco, and a training seminar in Vienna. Overall

  18. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  19. Ablacao de Fibrilacao Atrial por Mapeamento Eletroanatomico: Eficacia e Fatores de Recorrencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A ablação por cateter de radiofrequência guiada por mapeamento eletroanatômico é, atualmente, uma importante opção terapêutica para o tratamento da fibrilação atrial. A complexidade do procedimento, as diferentes técnicas e a diversidade de pacientes dificultam a reprodução dos resultados bem como a indicação do procedimento. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e os fatores relacionados à recorrência de fibrilação atrial. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo com pacientes consecutivos submetidos ao tratamento de fibrilação atrial por ablação e mapeamento eletroanatômico. Foram incluídos os seguintes pacientes: idade acima de 18 anos; portadores de fibrilação atrial paroxística, persistente ou persistente de longa duração; com registro de fibrilação atrial em eletrocardiograma, Holter ou ergometria (duração > 15 minutos; com sintomas associados aos episódios de fibrilação atrial; e apresentando refratariedade a, pelo menos, duas drogas antiarrítmicas (entre elas amiodarona ou impossibilidade do uso de drogas antiarrítmicas. Resultados: Foram incluídos 95 pacientes (idade 55 ± 12 anos, 84% homens, CHADS2 médio = 0,8 que realizaram 102 procedimentos com seguimento mediano de 13,4 meses. A taxa livre de recorrência após o procedimento foi de 75,5% após 12 meses. Os pacientes portadores de fibrilação atrial paroxística e fibrilação atrial persistente apresentaram recorrência de 26,9% versus 45,8% dos pacientes portadores de fibrilação atrial persistente de longa duração (p = 0,04. Das variáveis analisadas, o tamanho do átrio esquerdo demonstrou ser preditor independente de recorrência de fibrilação atrial após o procedimento (HR = 2,58, IC95% = 1,36-4,89. Houve complicações em 4,9% dos procedimentos. Conclusão: A ablação de fibrilação atrial guiada por mapeamento eletroanatômico demonstrou ser um procedimento com boa eficácia. O aumento do tamanho do átrio esquerdo foi

  20. Isotope hydrology of the shallow groundwaters of the western desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nubian aquifer of Egypt and the northern Sudan is part of one of the largest sandstone aquifer systems in the world. The origin and direction of flow of its waters has been disputed for more than half a century. Early models suggested that vast amounts of water in this system fell as rain and infiltrated thousands of years ago under a much more pluvial climatic regime, and that they have remained essentially stagnant and unrecharged ever since. Another early model maintains that the system is actually being recharged in the tropical and sub-Sahelian regions of Chad and the Sudan, and that water slowly flows northeastward toward the Egyptian oases and the lower Nile. In the 1920s, Ball proposed that the piezometric surface of the aquifer followed the regional slope of the land surface, and that the minor oases or 'birs' in the desert, as well as the major oases such as Kharga and Dahkla, occur in topographic depressions where the surfaces intersect. Radiocarbon analyses of deep waters in the major oases have shown that they have been in the subsurface for times of the order of 10 000 to 20 000 years. Although most of this area lies between the zero-isohyets, some more recent models propose that there is currently enough recharge during occasional rains in the desert to maintain the hydraulic gradient observed. During the field seasons of 1979 and 1982, our study involved sampling 17 sources of shallow groundwater for isotopic analyses, in an attempt to determine their origin. Deuterium and oxygen-18 results for these sites showed that most of the waters have not been subject to an appreciable heavy-isotope enrichment by evaporation from compositions expected in local meteoric waters. After modelling corrections for isotopic dilution by the dissolution of mineral carbonates, the majority of samples were shown to have radiocarbon contents which can be reconciled only with the presence of 14C from nuclear weapons tests. One of the sites where anthropogenic

  1. The nature and formation of aeolian mineral dust material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Ian; O'hara-Dhand, Ken; McLaren, Sue

    2013-04-01

    Aeolian dust affects climate and records past climates. It has become a much studied material but there has been a certain lack of emphasis on the actual nature of the dust, and an even greater neglect of actual production mechanisms for dust particles. Huge amounts of dust may be raised from the Bodele depression and other parts of North Africa, and much of it may be carried across the North Atlantic to aid in soil formation in Brazil. But what does it consist of? We know that much of the Bodele dust is diatoms from old Lake Chad, but what of the lithological inorganic mineral content? A very crude division of aeolian dust into large dust(say around 20-50um) and small dust (2-5um)has been proposed. Much of the study of loess has been confused by the failure to make this distinction, and similar problems may arise in the study of the finer fractions of aeolian dust. Much aeolian material is clay-mineral based- formed from clay mineral aggregates(CMA), from lake bottom sediments. This can form large dust particles, as in parna in Australia, but also contributes largely to small long travel aerosolic dust. Another major contributor is the quartz fragment. The large dust for classic loess deposits is mostly quartz silt- and there is considerable discussion about the controls that affect quartz silt. There are some interesting modalities in the world of quartz particle sedimentology which need to be examined. Quartz sand (say 200-500um) is the key initiating material and the formation processes for quartz sand have a down-the-line effect on the formation of smaller particles. The central observation is the action of two processes- a eutectic-like reaction in the proto-rock granite which defines the essential nature of sand particles, and the high-low displacive crystallographic transformation which introduces tensile stresses into the quartz particle systems. The limited range of eutectic particle size means a limited range of tensile stresses. A neat combination of

  2. Light adaptability of tow strains of Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis%两族群钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis光强适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌岩; 高锦; 王林和

    2011-01-01

    螺旋藻光强适应性与其族群、培养时间等条件相关。为了探明分布在鄂尔多斯高原沙区碱湖的钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina(Arthrospra)platensis的光强适应性,采用比色法、生物量法实地、长期观测了其光强适应性,并与乍得湖引进的钝顶螺旋藻进行了比较。结果表明:24℃、连续7天荧光灯的照射下,国内族群的光补偿点约为0.58μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光饱和点约为82.1μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光抑制点约为129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光分解点为230μmol·m^-2·s^-1。129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1的连续光能够使两族群的很多藻丝体完全压紧。超过230μmol·m^-2·s^-1使国内族群以多个藻丝体纠结成团的方式避免高光强;而引进族群的藻丝体则不能。无论是液相或是固相螺旋藻都能够被光分解。两族群的藻丝体都需要暗的修复期。藻丝体有趋光性。%Light adaptability of Spirulina has relationship with its strains,cultural time and etc..The Spirulina that came from Erdos Plateau sand area's alkaline lakes was tested by the methods of color comparison,production,observation at the lake and lab for long time to study it's light adaptability,and the Spirulina came from Chad lake was use to compare with the strain.The results indicated that the native strain of Spirulina 's compensation point of light is 0.58μmol·m^-2s^-1,sturation of light is 82.1 μmol·m^-2s^-1,stress point of light is 129.6μmol·m-2s-1,decomposing point of light is 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 for the single alga.The native strain can make a ball in several algae to escape from strong light.But the intruduced strain can't do in this way and it can be decomposed on 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 continuous light when OD560 is 0.06.The continuous 129.6μmol·m^-2s^-1 light make many algae no helix space for both strains.Spirulina can be decomposed by light wathever in liquid or on soild.The both strains are much more healthy under the rhythm with light and dark than the

  3. La constitution algérienne de 1989: une passerelle entre le socialisme et l'islamisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Beke

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The riots of October 1988, the most violent uprising since independence against FLN-rule, forced president Chadli Bendjedid to accelerate and to extend the constitutional reforms announced earlier. An adaption of the constitutional law to the ongoing economic liberalization-process had become a necessity, but the popular pressure now not only asked economic changes, but also profound political reform.The new constitutional text was rapidly elaborated by a small circle of persons around the President and then submitted directly to a popular referendum. In contradiction with the procedure fixed by the previous constitution, the National Assembly was not involved nor even consulted. The constitution of 1989 generates an entirely new political regime. The word "socialism", basis of the official doctrine since independence and largely confirmed by the provisions of the constitution of 1976, is banned completely. The new constitution also provides for the political responsibility of the Head of the Government and the members of the Government to the National People's Assembly, and not any more to the Presidentonly. In the chapter on fundamental freedoms and the rights of man, it is explicitly provided that the State guarantees the right to form political associations. This new timorous formulation entails the end of the one-party system and the FLN's exclusive hold on power.Some basic principles remain: Algeria is still considered a popular democratic state. Islam is the state religion and the official language is Arabic. No reference is made to the Berber language or culture. New is that the exercise of the guaranteed fundamental freedoms and rights can not be submitted any more to the imperatives of a socialist revolution. It is also stated that judges only obey to the law, they are not submitted any more to the revolutionary legality. A Constitutional Council is created to ensure that the constitution is respected but citizens have no right to

  4. Comparison of the clinical features and outcomes in two age-groups of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao XH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xing-Hui Shao,1 Yan-Min Yang,1 Jun Zhu,1 Han Zhang,1 Yao Liu,1 Xin Gao,1 Li-Tian Yu,1 Li-Sheng Liu,1 Li Zhao,2 Peng-Fei Yu,3 Hua Zhang,4 Qing He,5 Xiao-Dan Gu6 1Emergency and Intensive Care Center, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Department of Emergency, Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Cardiology, Pingdu People’s Hospital, Pingdu, 4Department of Emergency, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 5Department of Emergency, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 6Department of Emergency, Sixth People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF disproportionately affects older adults. However, direct comparison of clinical features, medical therapy, and outcomes in AF patients aged 65–74 and ≥75 years is rare. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in these two age-groups of geriatric patients with AF.Materials and methods: A total of 1,336 individuals aged ≥65 years from a Chinese AF registry were assessed in the present study: 570 were in the 65- to 74-year group, and 766 were in the ≥75-year group. Multivariable Cox hazards regression was performed to analyze the major adverse cardiac events (MACEs between groups.Results: In our population, the older group were more likely to have coronary artery disease, hypertension, previous stroke, cognitive disorder, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the 65- to 74-year group were more likely to have valvular heart disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or sleep apnea. The older patients had 1.2-fold higher mean CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, stroke scores, but less ­probability of being prescribed drugs. Compared with those aged 65–74 years, the older group had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio 2

  5. Characterization of the seasonal transatlantic mineral dust route to improve the understanding of the possible impact on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Yuval

    Mineral dust aerosol is the second aerosol constituent (by mass), after marine sea-salt aerosol, in the Earth's atmosphere. Suspended dust participates in a range of processes, related to the energy, hydrological and nutrients cycles. Although it is important, there are still many basic open questions in this field related to the processes of emission, transport, and deposition. Focusing on the largest source of mineral dust, North Africa, and on the main transport route over the tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean, this study aims to investigate the properties of dust plumes and how they change in space and time. In this work we reveal a new annual partition for characterization of the oceanic dust, composed of two heavy loading periods, called hereafter, the northern-route and southern-route period, and one clean, light-loading period, characterized by unusually low average optical depth of dust. The newly proposed dusty seasons differ in their statistical characteristics: the southern route period lasts from the end of November until the end of March. It is characterized by a steady southern position, low frequency of dust events, low background values and high variance in dust loading. The northern-route period lasts from the end of March to mid October, and is associated with a steady drift of the route northward, reaching a location which is ˜1,500 km north of the southern route. During the northern-route period, there is a higher frequency of dust events, higher background and smaller variance in dust loading. The annual periodicity in Atlantic dust transport is tightly linked to the spatial distribution and patterns of activity of North African dust sources. Our results emphasize the dominance of one key dust source, the Bodele depression in Chad, which has the potential to modulate the Atlantic dust loading. In addition we show that the dust plumes average height, over the ocean, is characterized by a bi-modal distribution, which is more

  6. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  7. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    . These tunnel valleys were filled in two main phases. The initial phase was characterised by debris flow release, whereas during later phases of ice retreat a range of glaciofluvial, shallow glaciomarine to shelf deposits were laid down, depending on the water depth at the ice front. Production of linear accumulations of sediment, parallel to the ice front, also occurred between tunnel valleys at the grounding line. In Arabia, the geometry of these features may have been influenced by local tectonic uplift. As glaciogenic reservoirs, Hirnantian deposits are already of great economic significance across central North Africa. Therefore, an appreciation of the processes of ice sheet growth and decay provides significant insights into the controls on large-scale heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important Palaeozoic source rock across the region. Existing models do not adequately explain the temporal and spatial development of anoxia, and hence of black shale/deglacial source rocks. The origins of a palaeotopography previously invoked as the primary driver for this anoxia is allied to a complex configuration of palaeo-ice stream pathways, "underfilled" tunnel valley incisions, glaciotectonic deformation structures and re-activation of older crustal structures during rebound. A putative link with the development of Silurian glaciation in northern Chad is suggested. Silurian glaciation appears to have been restricted to the southern Al Kufrah Basin in the eastern part of North Africa, and was associated with the deposition of boulder beds. Equivalent deposits are lacking in shallow marine deposits in neighbouring outcrop belts. Evidence for Carboniferous-Permian glaciation is tentative in the eastern Sahara (SW Egypt) but well established on the Arabian Peninsula in Oman and more recently in Saudi Arabia. Pennsylvanian-Sakmarian times saw repeated

  8. Groundwater processes and landscape evolution in Saharan Africa: Remote sensing, isotopic and geophysical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A. Z.; Sultan, M.; El Kadiri, R.; Mohamed, L.

    2013-12-01

    Paleoclimatic regimes of the North African Sahara Desert alternated between dry and wet periods throughout the Pleistocene Epoch and it is during these wet periods that the fossil aquifers in North Africa were recharged. The largest of these aquifer systems is the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS; area: 2.2 million km2) in Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad and the North Western Sahara Aquifer (NWSA; area: 1 million km2) in Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. These aquifers have similar stratigraphic and hydrogeologic settings: (1) the main aquifer is composed largely of older clastic sediments (NAS: Nubian Sandstone; CI: Continental Intercalaire Aquifer) that is overlain by non-clastic carbonates with intercalations of clays and marls ( PNAS: Post Nubian Aquifer System, CT: Complexe Terminal) (2) unconfined conditions in the south that give way to confined conditions in the north, and (3) during wet periods, the NAS and the CI were recharged, groundwater levels rose, and groundwater flowed from the south to the north. In this study we present evidences (remote sensing, field, geophysical, isotopic) to support the hypothesis that in wet periods: (1) groundwater under high hydrostatic pressures access deep seated deep structures and discharge at the near surface causing sapping features and in the overlying carbonate sequences causing karstic features, and (2) many of the present topographic features including natural depressions across the NSAS and the NWSA were largely controlled by the groundwater system processes in previous wet climatic features. Evidences include: (1) Stubby-looking channels with U- shaped valley floors and theater-like valley heads indicative of sapping processes were mapped (using high spatial resolution IKONOS images, ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM), slope, hill shade and Landsat mosaics) along scarps in Egypt and Libya (scarp length: 2190 km) and in Algeria (scarp length: 400 km), (2) many of the mapped channel networks (length up to 50 km

  9. International assistance to intervention policies and implementation of area-wide tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    agricultural development. The Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) and the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) of the African Union jointly developed a set of criteria and guiding principles to assist tsetse-affected countries in the selection of priority areas for intervention against the AAT problem. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) has been designed to address geographically and ecologically well demarcated tsetse fly populations impacting seriously on SARD and to ensure efficiency of the intervention and sustainability of results. AW-IPM exploits favourable trends (entomological, agro-ecological, climatic, anthropogenic and epidemiological), which may assist in redressing the impact of the disease. Thus, substantial benefits from interventions are believed to result, particularly for the development of mixed-crop-livestock systems in the 'cotton-belt', a transfrontier area of Burkina Faso and Mali, and in the southern part of the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. With regards to HAT, priority countries for intervention, as far as WHO is concerned, include Angola, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea and Sudan. For HAT the next challenge is the development of tools, supporting the strategies for the elimination of the disease. Sets of measures against the HAT and the AAT problem, as part of overall efforts directed at improved public health and SARD, respectively, will necessitate an integration of technical, institutional, socio-economic, public health and agricultural development considerations. This integrated approach will, in turn, provide the supportive environment for emergency interventions in HAT foci, balanced investments in AAT programmes, amalgamated with the AW-IPM concept, as preliminary essential steps for technical success, anticipated SARD impact and sustainability. In the context of the described overall agricultural development and public health framework the

  10. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  11. “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concepto, métodos y características de una cohorte de donantes de sangre en Bucaramanga, Colombia / “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concept, Methods and Characteristics of a Cohort of Blood Donors in Bucaramanga, Colombia / "Pesquisa de Saúde Cardiovascular e Colaboração para avaliar os marcadores e os resultados da doença de Chagas" (CHICAMOCHA: conceito, métodos e características de um grupo de doadores de sangue em Bucaramanga, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villar-Centeno, MD., Esp., MSc., PhD.

    2015-07-01

    , métodos y características de una cohorte de donantes de sangre en Bucaramanga, Colombia. MedUNAB 2015; 18 (1: 14-26] Introduction: Geographical and socio-demographic conditions expose Colombian population to the threat of vector-borne diseases (such as Chagas’ [CHAD] and cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origin (CVD. Objective: To assemble a cohort study of young adults, to promote understanding of CHAD and CVD in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methodology: A study of blood donors with serological screening for T.cruzi was designed. A database of consecutive donors with positive results (T[+] was built. This group was compared with a random sample of T[-] individuals (1:4 ratio, within strata of bank and month of donation. Participants classified by serology and electrocardiography status underwent clinical interviews (additional cardiovascular tests to T[+] and a random sample to T[-] were performed. In the following years, T[+] individuals participated in randomized trials whereas those whereas those T[-] participated in repeated measurements to test CVD risk factors. Results: From 6,228 donors in the database (18 to 50 years old registered in the database (1997-2203, 2,130 blood donors (mean age 36.4 (SD 8.4 years, 64% males, 73.4% living in low socioeconomic strata, 486 T[+] agreed to participate. Our contact protocol, and follow-up procedure with participants allowed us to obtain repeatedly measurements of at least 80% of the participants. Conclusions: CHICAMOCHA represents a social asset that builds local research capacity. Continued efforts are required to enhance its potential for research training, scholarly work and health care guidance. [Villar JC, Herrera VM, Cháves-Neira AM, Martínez-Contreras LX, Villar-Centeno LA, Ardila E, Marcell-Vásquez S, Vásquez SM. “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concept, methods and characteristics of a cohort of blood donors

  12. Space Shuttle Radar Images of Terrestrial Impact Structures: SIR-C/X-SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHone, J. F.; Blumberg, D. G.; Greeley, R.; Underwood, J. R., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The Spaceborne Radar Laboratory (SRL) orbited Earth in April and October of 1994 operating two imaging radars: X-SAR, an X-band (3 cm lambda) instrument, and the polarimetric SIR-C, a combination L-band/C-band (24 cm and 5.6 cm lambda). More than 150 terrestrial meteorite craters and astroblemes are presently known. Three of these, Wolfe Creek in Australia; Roter Kamm in Namibia; and Zhamanshin in Kazakhstan, were planned targets and were imaged successfully with multiple passes and look directions. Several other impact sites were fortuitously imaged while radar data were being collected for other purposes. These sites include B.P. and Oasis structures in Libya, Aourounga multi-ring feature in Chad, Amguid crater in Algeria, and the Spider astrobleme and Henbury crater field in Australia. Wolfe Creek (19 degrees 10'S; 127 degrees 47'E; 875 m dia) Both the elevated rim and the inner floor of this crater appear as radar bright features. Strong radar returns are due to blocky rubble textures in the rim and desert vegetation within the central bowl. Associated linear sand dunes show differential penetration properties in the various radar wavelengths and polarization. Roter Kamm (27 degrees 46'S; 016 degrees 18'E; 2.5 km dia) This bowl-shaped crater is mostly buried by wind-blown sands. Comparison of differential radar penetration patterns due to changes in wavelength and look direction reveal concealed target rocks and a buried possible ejecta unit. Zhamanshin (48 degrees 24'N; 060 degrees 48'E; 14 km dia) This unusual impact structure, first detected by the presence of glassy impact melt products [1], has very little topographic relief and is nearly invisible on survey-quality radar imagery. Fully processed images, however, enhance subtle vegetation patterns which highlight regional streams. These drainage patterns are now being analyzed in detail to better delineate boundaries and internal structure of this feature. B.P. Structure (25 degrees 19'N; 024 degrees 20'E

  13. 药物洗脱支架植入术后心房颤动患者抗栓治疗方案疗效对比%Comparison of different antithrombotic regime in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing Drug-Eluting Stent imolantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯仕勇; 许勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the prognosis of different antithrombotic regimen in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF) undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation.Methods We enrolled 549 consecutive patients who had a history of AF or newly diaguosed AF undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation.Among them, 115 patients ( TF group) continued triple antithrombotic therapy including aspirin, clopidogrel and warfarin after discharge ;347 patients( DT group) prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy ;87 patients( WS group) discharged with warfarin and single antiplatelet agent.In patients with warfarin target INR value was set as 1.8 to 2.5 before discharge and ordered regular INR monitoring after discharge.Results Patients with triple antithrombotic therapy had a significant reduction in stroke and major adverse cardiac and cerebral events(MACCE) (7.1% vs 21.5% vs 17.3% ,P <0.01 ) as compared with either DT or WS group.In Cox regression analysis,non-administration with warfarin( hazard ratio[HR]=2.27;95% confidence interval[CI]1.39 to 3.70; P < 0.01 ) and baseline CHADS2 score ≥2 ( HR = 2.49;95% CI: 1.51 to 4.11; P < 0.01 ) were independent predictors of MACCE.Importantly, the incidence of major bleeding was comparable among three groups( 3.6% vs 1.8% vs 2.5% , P > 0.05 ), although