Sample records for chacras batholith central

  1. Source-inherited compositional diversity in granite batholiths: The geochemical message of Late Paleozoic intrusive magmatism in central Calabria (southern Italy) (United States)

    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Bonanno, Fiorenza; Carciotto, Manuele Mario


    The Serre Batholith, in central Calabria, is a Late Paleozoic granitoid complex that makes up the middle portion, ca. 13 km thick, of a continuous and nearly complete section of the continental crust. The batholith displays a large compositional variety, with granitoid rocks ranging with continuity from quartz diorite to syenogranite, a distinct group of leucotonalites also occur. The granitoids are on the whole magnesian and calcic to calc-alkalic, with only some of the more evolved rocks showing a ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic composition. Quartz diorites and tonalites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, while granodiorites and granites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with two-mica porphyritic types being the only population with a genuine strongly peraluminous character. Fe*-number, MALI and ASI features highlight a strong affinity of the Serre Batholith rocks with Cordilleran granitoids, inherited from the compositions of the source rocks rather than reflecting the real tectonic environment of the magmas. Major trace element and existing Sr-Nd data are consistent with an origin of the Serre Batholith from the assembling of several batches of magmas with specific original compositions derived by fluid-absent melting of different crustal sources. Quartz diorites and tonalites originated from a metabasaltic magma source, whereas metagraywackes with various mafic and pelitic contents appear the most likely sources of weakly peraluminous granodiorites and strongly peraluminous granodiorites and granites. Biotite ± amphibole granodiorites could also have been derived from mafic-intermediate metaigneous sources. Two-mica porphyritic leucogranites are the only rock types representing pure crustal melts, resulting from melting of mafic pelitic sources. The other granitoid compositions are too silica-poor and MgO + FeOt rich to represent pure melts, so they need to include other components, such as solid restitic/peritectic material entrained from the

  2. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and thermal modeling of multilayer granitoid intrusions. Implications for the building and thermal evolution of the Central System batholith, Iberian Massif, Spain (United States)

    Díaz Alvarado, Juan; Fernández, Carlos; Castro, Antonio; Moreno-Ventas, Ignacio


    This work shows the results of a U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronological study of the central part of the Gredos massif (Spanish Central System batholith). The studied batholith is composed of several granodiorite and monzogranite tabular bodies, around 1 km thick each, intruded into partially molten pelitic metasediments. Granodiorites and monzogranites, belonging to three distinct intrusive bodies, and samples of anatectic leucogranites have been selected for SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology. Distinct age groups, separated by up to 20 Ma, have been distinguished in each sample. Important age differences have also been determined among the most representative age groups of the three analyzed granitoid bodies: 312.6 ± 2.8 Ma for the Circo de Gredos Bt-granodiorites (floor intrusive layer), 306.9 ± 1.5 Ma for the Barbellido-Plataforma granitoids (top intrusive layer) and 303.5 ± 2.8 Ma for Las Pozas Crd-monzogranites (middle intrusive layer). These age differences are interpreted in terms of sequential emplacement of the three intrusive bodies, contemporary with the Late Paleozoic D3 deformation phase. The anatectic leucogranites are coeval to slightly younger than the adjacent intrusive granodiorites and monzogranites (305.4 ± 1.6 Ma for Refugio del Rey leucogranites and 303 ± 2 Ma for migmatitic hornfelses). It is suggested that these anatectic magmas were generated in response to the thermal effects of granodiorite intrusions. Thermal modeling with COMSOL Multiphysics® reveals that sequential emplacement was able to keep the thermal conditions of the batholith around the temperature of zircon crystallization in granitic melts (around 750 °C) for several million of years, favoring the partial melting of host rocks and the existence of large magma chambers composed of crystal mush prone to be rejuvenated after new intrusions.

  3. Geology of the Petersburg batholith, eastern Piedmont, Virginia (United States)

    Owens, Brent E.; Carter, Mark W.; Bailey, Christopher M.


    The 295-300 Ma Petersburg batholith in east-central Virginia forms one of the largest and northernmost of the Alleghanian plutonic complexes in the southern Appalachian Piedmont. The batholith is primarily composed of granite including massive and foliated (both magmatic and solid-state fabrics) varieties. The plutonic complex intruded medium-grade metamorphosed volcanic/plutonic rocks of the Roanoke Rapids terrane. The western edge of the batholith experienced right lateral transpressional deformation associated with movement on the Hylas fault zone during the Alleghanian orogeny; this was followed by normal faulting and exhumation during the development of the Triassic Richmond basin. Much of the batholith was buried by a thin veneer of primarily Cenozoic siliciclastic sediments at the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Granite rocks of the Petersburg batholith have long been quarried for both dimension and crushed stone. The purpose of this trip is to discuss the age, origin, and tectonic significance of the Petersburg batholith.

  4. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.


    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  5. Tracing magma sources of three different S-type peraluminous granitoid series by in situ U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope zircon composition: The Variscan Montes de Toledo batholith (central Spain) (United States)

    Merino Martínez, E.; Villaseca, C.; Orejana, D.; Pérez-Soba, C.; Belousova, E.; Andersen, T.


    Three distinct S-type peraluminous granitoid types have been identified within the Variscan Montes de Toledo batholith, located in the Central Iberian Zone (SW European Variscides): type-1, extremely high peraluminous restite-rich granitoids; type-2, highly peraluminous restite-bearing granitoids; and type-3, moderately peraluminous granitoids with mafic microgranular enclaves. Type-1 and type-2 granitoids are restricted to the western part of the batholith, whereas type-3 granites are mostly restricted to the eastern segment. There is a sequential youngering of emplacement age from type-1 (late-tectonic) to type-2 and type-3 granitoids (post-tectonic), extending the timing of the batholith formation for about 19 Ma between 316 and 297 Ma. Although the degree of peraluminousity of the different series could be related to different partial melting conditions or to the variable entrainment of restitic components (including the peritectic mineral assemblage of the melting reactions), whole-rock geochemical signatures and isotope zircon composition of the peraluminous granitoid types suggest contribution of different crustal sources. There is no evidence for the direct mantle-derived material contribution in the genesis of these peraluminous melts. Type-1 and type-2 granitoids contain mostly Archean to Neoproterozoic inherited zircons, whereas type-3 granites show preferentially Neoproterozoic (up to late Cryogenian) and Ordovician inheritance. The wide range of initial Hf isotope composition, ranging to highly radiogenic values (ƐHf up to + 10), of Neoproterozoic zircon inheritances in type-1 and type-2 granitoids suggests derivation from heterogeneous Neoproterozoic metasedimentary sources composed of both juveline and recycled crustal materials, similar in composition to the host Schist-Greywacke Complex metasediments. Trace-element modelling clearly suggests the involvement of metasediments similar to those mentioned from the southern part of the Central Iberian

  6. Idaho Batholith Study Area Density Grid (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer terrace-density grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  7. Idaho Batholith Study Area Bouguer Gravity Grid (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer gravity anomaly grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the...

  8. Timescales and mechanisms of batholith construction: Constraints from zircon oxygen isotopes and geochronology of the late Variscan Serre Batholith (Calabria, southern Italy) (United States)

    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Williams, Ian S.; Cirrincione, Rosolino


    The late Variscan Serre Batholith in central Calabria represents the middle portion, c. 13-km-thick, of a tilted crustal section continuously exposed from lower-crustal granulites to upper-crustal phyllites. The batholith is zoned, consisting of several granitoid types that were emplaced at depths ranging from c. 23 to c. 6 km. Deep, strongly foliated quartz diorites and tonalites were emplaced into migmatitic metapelites, the intermediate level granitoids are weakly foliated to unfoliated porphyritic granodiorites and monzogranites, and the shallowest bodies are two-mica granodiorites and granites, grading upward to biotite ± amphibole granodiorites, emplaced into paragneisses and phyllites. Five samples, representative of the main granitoid types in terms of both composition and emplacement depth, have been dated by SHRIMP. Zircon from a lower-crustal quartz diorite gave an emplacement age of 297.3 ± 3.1 Ma; two middle-crustal strongly peraluminous K-feldspar megacrystic granites were emplaced at 296.1 ± 1.9 Ma and 294.9 ± 2.7 Ma; a middle- to upper-crustal two-mica monzogranite was emplaced at 294.2 ± 2.6 Ma and finally, an upper-crustal weakly peraluminous granodiorite from the batholith roof was emplaced at 292.2 ± 2.6 Ma. These results are consistent with the development of the batholith by incremental multipulse overaccretion, each granitoid body being in a dominantly rigid state before intrusion of the next, with little or no possibility of magma mixing. The difference in age between the oldest and youngest granitoids, from the batholith floor and roof, respectively, is 5.1 ± 4.0 Ma, providing an upper limit of about 9 Ma on the time taken for batholith construction. The presence in the c. 296-294 Ma granitoids of c. 305-302 Ma anatectic zircon with varied Th/U and oxygen isotope compositions indicates a time interval of 8-9 Ma between incipient partial melting in the lower crust and magma emplacement in the middle crust. The emplacement of the first

  9. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

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    Rämö, O.T.


    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.


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    María Milena Quiroz


    Full Text Available Este estudio socioeducativo fue emprendido en la región de Las Chacras, Malargüe, Mendoza, Argentina. Ha tenido como centro de estudio la mujer de la comunidad con la descripción de sus prácticas, la construcción de sus significados y las formas de participación en su realidad microlocal. La mujer, desde el enfoque de esta investigación es considerada como ser relacional y vinculante con el mundo y los demás actores sociales. Así, se han explorado las características de las tensiones del modelo patriarcal sobre la posición y las relaciones de género. El estigma de ser representada por lo débil, privado, doméstico, pasivo, incompleto y asilado, se le ha excluido de la participación social, cultural y política.Esta complejidad social contemporánea permite dilucidar la demanda y el deseo de la mujer por emprender nuevas identidades como grupo excluido en la sociedad civil y redefinir su reconocimiento de género como aquel que interviene en la cultura y en la educación de su entorno, con modos propios y particulares no impuestos.SummaryThis socioeducational study was undertaken in the region of Las Chacras, Malargüe, Mendoza and Argentina. It is focused on the women of the community and their practices, as well as the construction of its significances and different forms of participation in the micro-local reality. Based on the focus of this research, women are considered as a relational being that binds with the world and other social actors. Thus, we have explored the characteristics of the patriarchal model pressure upon gender relations. The stigma of women being represented as weak, domestic, passive, incomplete and isolated, has contributed to their exclusion from social, cultural and political participation.This contemporary social complexity allows explaining the demand and the desire of women to undertake new identities as excluded group in the civil society and redefine gender’s recognition taking into consideration

  11. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

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    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.


    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  12. Emplacement of the Kodiak batholith and slab-window migration (United States)

    Farris, David W.; Haeussler, P.; Friedman, R.; Paterson, Scott R.; Saltus, R.W.; Ayuso, R.


    The Kodiak batholith is one of the largest, most elongate intrusive bodies in the forearc Sanak-Baranof plutonic belt located in southern Alaska. This belt is interpreted to have formed during the subduction of an oceanic spreading center and the associated migration of a slab window. Individual plutons of the Kodiak batholith track the location and evolution of the underlying slab window. Six U/Pb zircon ages from the axis of the batholith exhibit a northeastward-decreasing age progression of 59.2 ± 0.2 Ma at the southwest end to 58.4 ± 0.2 Ma at the northeast tip. The trench-parallel rate of age progression is within error of the average slab-window migration rate for the entire Sanak-Baranof belt (~19 cm/yr). Structural relationships, U/Pb ages, and a model of new gravity data indicate that magma from the Kodiak batholith ascended 5-10 km as a northeastward-younging series of 1-8-km-diameter viscoelastic diapirs. Individual plutons ascended by multiple emplacement mechanisms including downward flow, collapse of wall rock, stoping, and diking. Stokes flow xenolith calculations suggest ascent rates of 5-100 m/yr and an effective magmatic viscosity of 107-108 Pa s. Pre-existing structural or lithologic heterogeneities did not dominantly control the location of the main batholith. Instead, its location was determined by migration of the slab window at depth. 

  13. The Tastil batholith (Cordillera Oriental, Argentina): a case of lower Cambrian extensional-related magmatism in the border of Gondwana. (United States)

    Hongn, F.; Tubía, J. M.; Aranguren, A.; Mon, R.


    The Tastil batholith composed of gray granodiorite, red granite and dacite porphiry, intrudes into weakly metamorphosed turbidites (usually included in the Puncoviscana Formation) and into Cambrian shelf sandstones belonging to the Lower-Middle Cambrian Mesón Group deposited in an intracontinental extensional basin. Tremadocian fossiliferous conglomerates overlying the sandstones of the Mesón Group incorporate red granite pebbles in the Angosto de la Quesera section, the classical section for interpreting the stratigraphic relationships of the Tastil batholith. U-Pb zircon ages from a dacite porphiry (526 Ma) and red granite (517 Ma) are consistent with such field relationships. This new view of the Tastil batholith implies that the previous interpretations of the basement, based on the supposed unconformity between the Mesón Group and the underlying red granite, and hence including the Tastil batholith in the basement, can not longer be sustained. The batholith emplacement is not related with the shortening happened during the late evolution of the Puncoviscana Formation (Pampean cycle) as always was interpreted, but with the extensional tectonics responsible for the development of the Mesón Group basin (Famatinian cycle). Along central and northern Argentina, the basement records a wide spectrum of sedimentary, deformational, magmatic and metamorphic processes occurred at different crustal levels during the Latest Neoproterozoic and the Cambrian. In this regard, the deposition of the Mesón Group and the intrusion of the Tastil batholith within the Cordillera Oriental can be correlated with the magmatism and the high-T/low-P metamorphism developed, at deeper levels, 530 to 500 Ma ago within the basement of the Puna and Sierras Pampeanas. In the same way, the sedimentation and igneous processes documented at shallower levels in the Sierras Pampeanas took place in this extensional tectonic scenario. The available data point to an overall extensional tectonics

  14. Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland

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    Olavi Selonen


    Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG and the outer (OG granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

  15. Is the Isabella anomaly a fossil slab or the foundered lithospheric root of the Sierra Nevada batholith? (United States)

    Hoots, C. R.; Schmandt, B.; Clayton, R. W.; Hansen, S. M.; Dougherty, S. L.


    The Isabella Anomaly is a volume of relatively high seismic velocity upper mantle beneath the southern Great Valley in California. We deployed ~45 broadband seismometers in central California to test two main hypotheses for the origin of the Isabella Anomaly. One suggests that the Isabella Anomaly is the foundered lithospheric root of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith, which delaminated on account of eclogite-rich composition and translated westward as it began to sink into the asthenosphere. The other hypothesis suggests that the Isabella Anomaly is a fossil slab fragment attached to the Monterey microplate that lies offshore of central California and thus it is mechanically coupled to the Pacific plate. Prior seismic imaging with ~70 km station spacing cannot resolve the landward termination of Monterey microplate lithosphere beneath coastal California or where/if the Isabella Anomaly is attached to North America lithosphere beneath the Great Valley. The new temporary broadband array consists of 40 broadband seismometers with ~7 km spacing extending from the central California coast to the western Sierra Nevada batholith, plus some outliers to fill gaps in the regional network coverage. The temporary array was initially deployed in early 2014 and will continue to record until October 2015 so the complete data are not yet available. Preliminary Ps scattered wave images show an abrupt ~6 km increase in Moho depth eastward across the San Andreas fault, a strong positive impedance contrast that dips westward from ~7-25 km beneath Great Valley, and a sharp Moho with a slight westward dip beneath the western edge of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Apparently low impedance contrast characterizes the Moho beneath the eastern Great Valley and foothills, consistent with near mantle velocities in the lower crust. Processing of the cumulative data that will be available in October 2015 and incorporation of new tomography models into scattered wave imaging are needed before

  16. Granite emplacement at the termination of a major Variscan transcurrent shear zone: The late collisional Viseu batholith (United States)

    Valle Aguado, B.; Azevedo, M. R.; Nolan, J.; Medina, J.; Costa, M. M.; Corfu, F.; Martínez Catalán, J. R.


    A major event of plutonic activity occurred all across the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt at the end of Late Paleozoic Variscan collisional tectonism. The present study focuses on the western sector of the Viseu late-post-tectonic batholith (central Portugal), a large composite intrusion comprising three main plutonic units: (a) small bodies of mafic to intermediate composition preferentially concentrated along the northern border, (b) a wide ring of coarse porphyritic biotite monzogranite (Cota-Viseu granite) and (c) a more evolved medium porphyritic, biotite-muscovite monzogranite occupying the central part of the intrusion (Alcafache granite). The compositional zonation pattern of the whole batholith and the complex mixing/mingling relationships between the voluminous Cota-Viseu porphyritic granite and the mafic/intermediate rocks suggest that these melts were withdrawn from a lower crustal source region undergoing partial melting, invasion by mantle-derived mafic magmas, mixing and fractional crystallization. New CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon ages indicate that pluton assembly via multipulse injection of successive magma batches took place between 299.4 ± 0.4 Ma and 296.0 ± 0.6 Ma. A detailed anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) survey suggests that pluton emplacement occurred at the extensional termination of a regional-scale, ENE-WSW trending, sinistral D3 shear zone - the Juzbado-Penalva Shear Zone (JPSZ). A dilational opening model involving the development of "en-échelon" tensional gashes at the extensional termination of the fault, followed by progressive opening and widening of north-south trending fractures, provided the space into which the successive magma batches arriving from below were emplaced. Vertical inflation was accommodated by depression of the pluton floor. The proposed model is consistent with the asymmetric wedge-shaped geometry of the intrusion (steep root zone on the northern side, discordant subvertical walls and

  17. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.


    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  18. Cenozoic thrust emplacement of a Devonian batholith, northeastern Brooks Range: Involvement of crystalline rocks in a foreland fold-and-thrust belt

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    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))


    Involvement of crystalline rocks in thrusting near the foreland basin of a fold-and-thrust belt is relatively uncommon. In the northeastern Brooks Range, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was thrust northward and structurally elevated above adjacent foreland basin deposits during Cenozoic fold-and-thrust deformation. The batholith may have acted initially as a regional structural buttress, but a drop in the basal detachment surface to greater depth south of the batholith resulted in northward transport of the batholith. Shortening within the batholith was accommodated by (1) the development of discrete thrust slices bounded by ductile shear zones, (2) simple shear and development of penetrative mesoscopic and microscopic fabrics throughout the batholith, or both. The Mississippian Kayak Shale, a regional detachment horizon at the base of the overlying cover sequence, is depositionally thin or absent adjacent to the batholith. Thus, most of the cover sequence remained structurally coupled to the batholith during thrusting and was shortened by the development of penetrative structures.

  19. The South Patagonian batholith: 150 my of granite magmatism on a plate margin (United States)

    Hervé, F.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Fanning, C. M.; Calderón, M.; Yaxley, G. M.


    A new database of 70 U-Pb zircon ages (mostly determined by SHRIMP) indicates that the South Patagonian batholith resulted from the amalgamation of subduction-related plutons from the Late Jurassic to the Neogene. Construction of the batholith began with a voluminous, previously undetected, Late Jurassic bimodal body mainly composed of leucogranite with some gabbro, emplaced along its present eastern margin within a restricted time span (157 to 145 Ma). This episode is, at least in part, coeval with voluminous rhyolitic ignimbrites of the Tobífera Formation, deposited in the deep Rocas Verdes Basin east of the batholith; this was the last of several southwestward-migrating silicic volcanic episodes in Patagonia that commenced in an Early Jurassic extensional tectonic regime. The quasi-oceanic mafic floor of the basin was also contemporaneous with this Late Jurassic batholithic event, as indicated by mutually cross-cutting field relationships. Changes in subduction parameters then triggered the generation of earliest Cretaceous plutons (Cretaceous 1: 144-137 Ma) west of the Late Jurassic ones, a westward shift that culminated at 136-127 Ma (Cretaceous 2) along the present western margin of the batholith. Most mid- to Late Cretaceous (Cretaceous 3: 126-75 Ma) and Paleogene (67-40 Ma) granitoids are represented by geographically restricted plutons, mainly emplaced between the previously established margins of the batholith, and mostly in the far south; no associated volcanic rocks of similar age are known at present in this area. During the final Neogene stage of plutonism (25-15 Ma) a recurrence of coeval volcanism is recognized within and east of the batholith. Typical ɛNdt values for the granitoids vary from strongly negative (- 5) in the Late Jurassic, to progressively higher values for Cretaceous 1 (- 4), Cretaceous 2 (- 0.7), Cretaceous 3 (+ 2) and the Paleogene (+ 5), followed by lower and more variable ones in the Neogene (- 1 to + 5). These variations may

  20. Transpression and strain partitioning in the Caribbean Island-arc: Fabric development, kinematics and Ar Ar ages of syntectonic emplacement of the Loma de Cabrera batholith, Dominican Republic (United States)

    Escuder Viruete, J.; Contreras, F.; Stein, G.; Urien, P.; Joubert, M.; Ullrich, T.; Mortensen, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.


    An integrative structural and geochronologic study of the Loma de Cabrera batholith (LCB, Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic) and its country rocks reveals the interplay of deformation, metamorphism and plutonism produced in the Caribbean island-arc during Late Cretaceous oblique convergence. The results emphasize the interference between three contemporaneous strain fields: (1) a northern and southern domains produced by (Meseta shear zone (LMSZ), active during the 88-74 Ma interval; and (3) the adjacent syn-kinematic emplacement of the LCB (90-74 Ma; 40Ar/ 39Ar in hornblende) during sinistral transpressional shearing. Comparison of the structural data with strain models of oblique plate convergence suggest that the LMSZ is a preserved ductile signature of strike-slip partitioning within a sinistral transpressional intra-oceanic subduction zone. In the LCB, microstructural data indicate that the magmatic to high-temperature solid-state deformation initially occurred over a wider band of heterogeneously distributed shear deformation, and was partitioned in narrow bands of mid- to low-temperature deformation connected with the LMSZ during the cooling of the batholith. Field and geochronologic studies also suggest that shortening across the southern domain took place concurrently with sinistral strike-slip movement along the crustal-scale La Guácara and Macutico fault zones, also consistent with a transpressional setting for the Late Cretaceous Caribbean magmatic arc. Shear and fault zones were variably reactivated during Upper Eocene-Oligocene thrusting and Miocene to Recent uplift of the Cordillera Central.

  1. Termination of the Batholiths marine seismic experiment: the scientific method loses to hearsay (United States)

    Hollister, L. S.


    The marine seismic component of the NSF-Continental Dynamics funded project Batholiths was terminated by Canadian authorities due to environmental concerns. Socioeconomic benefits of the project were not taken into account, nor were findings by the National Research Council on effects of ocean noise on marine mammal populations. The marine seismic component of Batholiths was to have been done using sound from airguns towed behind the R/V Langseth in order to seismically image the geologic structures below the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. The project was nearly identical in timing, location, and scope to the ACCRETE project, which was successfully permitted and done in the early fall of 1994, with no detected or known damage to the environment. However, what changed in the last 13 years was a dramatic increase of concern by eNGOs (environmental non- government organizations) that airguns produced sound that might be harmful to marine species, marine mammals in particular. The marine noise concerns were amplified by eNGO agendas and campaigns to prevent oil exploration along continental margins and to shut down naval exercises involving sonar to detect submarines. Compared to these agendas, Batholiths was an easy target because the PIs (Principal Investigators) did not have the manpower or financial or legal resources (in contrast to the Navy and oil companies) to push back against an organized campaign set on stopping Batholiths. The main concern used to mobilize public opinion against Batholiths was that, if we were permitted, then oil exploration in the nearby region would be permitted; and, if oil were found, drilling would proceed: the slippery slope argument. Thus, by stopping Batholiths with the speculation that airgun noise, as used in a marine seismic study, might damage marine life, the eNGOs believe they have stopped oil exploration in British Columbia coastal waters. It is widely recognized that everything was done right to get the permits for

  2. Dextral strike-slip tectonism and arc processes in the Sierra Nevada and Idaho batholiths (United States)

    Tikoff, B.; Byerly, A.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Kelso, P. R.


    Both the Sierra Nevada (CA) and Idaho batholiths display clear evidence for magmatism simultaneous with dextral strike-slip movement during the Cretaceous. There is, however, a significant difference between both the style and the timing of the deformation and magmatism in these two magmatic arcs. The Sierra Nevada displays dextral strike-slip tectonism active from 92-80 Ma, as evidenced by a series of dextral shear zones associated with the axis of active magmatism. The concept of the plutons intruding en echelon pull-apart structures in a dextral system has been supported by the recognition of widespread, syn-tectonic shear zones along the axis of the arc. Further, a modern analog can be found in El Salvador, where dextral translation of the forearc has resulted in en echelon dextral shearing in a magmatic arc dominated by arc-perpendicular normal faulting. In contrast, dextral tectonism in Idaho both starts (~103 Ma) and ceases earlier (~90 Ma) than strike-slip motion in the Sierra Nevada batholith. Further, the deformation is better developed, as recorded by the ~5 km thick, dextral transpressional western Idaho shear zone (WISZ). The WISZ deformation affects I-type magmas that are not typically considered part of the Idaho batholith. The main phase of the 85-70 Ma, peraluminous Idaho batholith (Atlanta lobe) only contains local evidence for dextral shearing, such as the NS-oriented Johnson Creek-Profile Gap shear zone. The reasons for this along-strike variation in deformation for Cretaceous magmatic arcs in North America may relate to the collisional and translation histories of offshore terranes.

  3. A hybrid origin for Lachlan S-type granites: the Murrumbidgee Batholith example (United States)

    Healy, B.; Collins, W. J.; Richards, S. W.


    The Murrumbidgee Batholith is typical of other composite S-type granite batholiths in the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) of southeastern Australia, consisting of discrete peraluminous, cogenetic granite suites. However, it contains a unique suite (Murrumbucka) at its southern extremity that has chemical and petrological features transitional with metaluminous I-type granites. Previous detailed structural and metamorphic studies have shown that the batholith is tilted northward, exposing subvolcanic plutons in the north and root zones in the south, originally located at depths of ˜10 km. A transition from mafic, foliated, sheet-like granites in the south to felsic, generally less foliated, homogeneous granites in the north is consistent with magma ascent via subvertical, structurally controlled sheets to emplacement in an overlying magma chamber. In the inferred root zones, the Murrumbucka Suite hosts migmatitic metasedimentary and gabbroic rocks, both of which have transitional contacts and show evidence for mafic-felsic interaction with the Murrumbucka Suite. The migmatites extend southward to become part of the high- T, low- P Cooma Metamorphic Complex, which contains a core of heterogeneous remobilised diatexitic granite (Cooma Suite), lenses of which also occur throughout the southern (deeper) parts of the Murrumbidgee Batholith. The composition of the most mafic rocks from the batholith lies on a chemical tie-line between Cooma Suite granites and the gabbros, for almost all elements. This chemical coincidence is interpreted to reflect derivation of parental Murrumbidgee S-type granite magmas by bulk mixing between a felsic (crustal) and mafic (mantle-derived) component, consistent with Sr and Nd isotopic results and field observations. Based on the tie-lines and simple numerical modelling, the Murrumbucka suite is estimated to be a 50:50 mix of mantle- and crustal-derived magmas, whereas the more peraluminous and widespread Clear Range Suite, which is very typical

  4. The Donkerhuk batholith (Namibia): Evolution of and processes in a giant magma reservoir (United States)

    Clemens, John; Jung, Stefan; Kisters, Alex; Buick, Ian


    The Donkerhuk batholith represents a gigantic accumulation of felsic magma and thus provides insight into the processes and outcomes in at least some huge felsic magma bodies. The largely S-type batholith, which intrudes amphibolite-facies metaturbidites of the Kuiseb Formation, was emplaced at about 530 Ma, in the Southern Zone of the Damara Belt, following the collision of the Kalahari Craton with the Congo Craton (to the north) in the earliest Phanerozoic. It is a vast, elongate body, > 200 km long and 15 to 40 km wide, trending NE-SW, parallel to the Okahandja Lineament and the general structural grain of the Belt. Our current tectonic model for the Donkerhuk magmatism involves intense and prolonged crustal heating due to the opening of a slab window. Over large areas, the granitic rocks carry variably developed magmatic foliations and, in places, solid-state fabrics, underlining its syn- to late-tectonic emplacement, during northwest shortening and pure-shear-dominated transpression. The magmas were not derived through melting of the Kuiseb schists, but rather from older metasedimentary crust just a few km below emplacement level. They were added to the 'magma chamber' as thousands of separate pulses, preserved as sheets that retain their individuality, at least near the margins and roof zones. In the core of the batholith there was evidently some greater degree of thermal insulation and individual sheets are less easily identified. Thus, the 'magma reservoir' was never a large molten mass, but grew over perhaps 14 Myr, in small increments. This set of processes meant that only very local differentiation look place, that there was little or no mixing between magma batches, even in the core of the batholith where the individuality of the pulses became blurred due to a prolonged crystallisation history. As a result, the Donkerhuk rocks preserve a remarkably high degree of source-inherited elemental and isotopic heterogeneity. We suggest that great caution be

  5. Paleomagnetic contributions to the Klamath Mountains terrane puzzle-a new piece from the Ironside Mountain batholith, northern California (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Irwin, W. Porter


    We obtained paleomagnetic samples from six sites within the Middle Jurassic Ironside Mountain batholith (~170 Ma), which constitutes the structurally lowest part of the Western Hayfork terrane, in the Klamath Mountains province of northern California and southern Oregon. Structural attitudes measured in the coeval Hayfork Bally Meta-andesite were used to correct paleomagnetic data from the batholith. Comparing the corrected paleomagnetic pole with a 170-Ma reference pole for North America indicates 73.5° ± 10.6° of clockwise rotation relative to the craton. Nearly one-half of this rotation may have occurred before the terrane accreted to the composite Klamath province at ~168 Ma. No latitudinal displacement of the batholith was detected.

  6. The Achala batholith (Cordoba, Argentina): a composite intrusion made of five independent magmatic suites. Magmatic evolution and deuteric alteration (United States)

    Demange, Michel; Alverez, Juan O.; Lopez, Luiz; Zarco, Juan J.


    The Achala batholith in the Sierra Grande de Cordoba (Argentina), is a major intrusion of Devonian to Early Carboniferous age. In this complex batholith, five different magmatic suites are distinguished by their geochemical characteristics and a specific metallogenic specialization; each one includes various petrographic facies ranging from tonalite to evolved leucogranites. Differences between these magmatic suites, magmatic evolution and deuteric alteration are discussed using content in major and trace elements geochemistry and mineral composition. There is a clear correlation between petrographic facies, whole rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry of biotites and of the core of the plagioclases, reflecting the magmatic differentiation. Muscovite, partial reequilibration of the plagioclase and part of the peralumineous character of the batholith, are due to an extensive deuteric alteration.

  7. The discovery of late Triassic mylonitic granite and geologic significance in the middle Gangdese batholiths, southern Tibet (United States)

    Ma, Shiwei; Meng, Yuanku; Xu, Zhiqin; Liu, Xiaojia


    The Gangdese magmatic belt, located in the southern margin of the Lhasa terrain and carrying significant copper poly-metallic mineralization, preserves important information related to the tectonics associated with the Neo-Tethys Ocean subduction, Indian-Asian collision and the crustal growth of southern Tibet. Here, we investigated the Namling batholiths in the central domain of the Gangdese magmatic belt and report for the first time the occurrence of late Triassic mylonitic granite, and present its petrologic, zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes and the whole-rock chemistry dataset. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating from three mylonitic granitic samples yields crystallization ages of 209.4 ± 1.1 Ma, 206.7 ± 1.1 Ma and 212 ± 1.1Ma, indicating a late Triassic magmatic event in the Gangdese magmatic belt. Geochemically, the mylonitic granite exhibits magnesian genesis and calcic and calc-alkalic features. The depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti and enrichments of LREEs together suggest that the magmas from which these rocks crystallized were generated in an active continental margin. Besides, all the analyzed samples also demonstrate highly positive εHf(t) values of 8.95-12.91 (mean value 10.84), corresponding to single stage model ages (tDM1) in the range of 326 Ma-486 Ma (mean 414 Ma), attesting to crustal growth in southern Lhasa terrain. The mylonitic pluton are likely sourced from partial melting of the lower crustal components (amphibolite or basaltic stuff) that was heated and metasomatized by underplating basaltic magmas, and subsequently might undergo fractional crystallization and upper sediments contamination during parental magmas ascent. In light of the distribution of the early Mesozoic magmatic events and robust sedimentary evidence together suggest that the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys oceanic crust beneath the Lhasa terrain should commence prior to late Triassic (∼210 Ma).

  8. Uranium-lead isotopic ages from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California (United States)

    Chen, James H.; Moore, James G.


    This study provides new information on the timing and distribution of Mesozoic magmatic events in the Sierra Nevada batholithic complex chiefly between 36° and 37°N. latitude. U-Pb ages have been determined for 133 zircon and 7 sphene separates from 82 samples of granitoid rocks. Granitoid rocks in this area range in age from 217 to 80 m.y. Triassic intrusions are restricted to the east side of the batholith; Jurassic plutons occur south of the Triassic plutons east of the Sierra Nevada, as isolated masses within the Cretaceous batholith, and in the western foothills of the range; Cretaceous plutons form a continuous belt along the axis of the batholith and occur as isolated masses east of the Sierra Nevada. No granitic intrusions were emplaced for 37 m.y. east of the Sierra Nevada following the end of Jurassic plutonism. However, following emplacement of the eastern Jurassic granitoids, regional extension produced a fracture system at least 350 km long into which the dominantly mafic, calc-alkalic Independence dike swarm was intruded 148 m.y. ago. The dike fractures probably represents a period of regional crustal extension caused by a redistribution of the regional stress pattern accompanying the Nevadan orogeny. Intrusion of Cretaceous granitic plutons began in large volume about 120 m.y. ago in the western Sierra Nevada and migrated steadily eastward for 40 m.y. at a rate of 2.7 mm/y. This slow and constant migration indicates remarkably uniform conditions of subduction with perhaps downward migration of parent magma generation or a slight flattening of the subduction zone. Such steady conditions could be necessary for the production of large batholithic complexes such as the Sierra Nevada. The abrupt termination of plutonism 80 m.y. ago may have resulted from an increased rate of convergence of the American and eastern Pacific plates and dramatic flattening of the subduction zone. U-Pb ages of the Giant Forest-alaskite sequence in Sequoia National Park are

  9. Petrogenesis of the granitic Donkerhuk batholith in the Damara Belt of Namibia: protracted, syntectonic, short-range, crustal magma transfer (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Buick, I. S.; Kisters, A. F. M.; Frei, D.


    The areally extensive (>5000 km2), syn-tectonic, ca. 520 Ma, mainly S-type Donkerhuk batholith was constructed through injection of thousands of mainly sheet-like magma pulses over 20-25 Myr. It intruded schists of the Southern Zone accretionary prism in the Damara Belt of Namibia. Each magma pulse had at least partly crystallised prior to the arrival of the following batch. However, much of the batholith may have remained partially molten for long periods, close to the H2O-saturated granite solidus. The batholith shows extreme variation in chemistry, while having limited mineralogical variation, and seems to be the world's most heterogeneous granitic mass. The Nd model ages of 2 Ga suggest that Eburnean rocks of the former magmatic arc, structurally overlain by the accretionary wedge, are the most probable magma sources. Crustal melting was initiated by mantle heat flux, probably introduced by thermal diffusion rather than magma advection. The granitic magmas were transferred from source to sink, with minimal intermediate storage; the whole process having occurred in the middle crust, resulting in feeble crustal differentiation despite the huge volume of silicic magma generated. Source heterogeneity controlled variation in the magmas and neither mixing nor fractionation was prominent. However, due to the transpressional emplacement régime, local filter pressing formed highly silicic liquids, as well as felsic cumulate rocks. The case of the Donkerhuk batholith demonstrates that emplacement-level tectonics can significantly influence compositional evolution of very large syn-tectonic magma bodies.

  10. Magma Emplacement Rates and Porphyry Copper Deposits: Thermal Modelling of the Yerington Batholith, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Schöpa, Anne; Annen, Catherine; Dilles, John H.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Blundy, Jon D.


    Many porphyry copper deposits are associated with granitoid plutons. Their genesis is attributed to the degassing of pluton-forming intermediate to silicic magma chambers. These plutons are commonly envisioned as resulting from the slow cooling and crystallization of large magma chambers. Most of the models combine the formation of ore deposits and the cooling of a magma chamber. However, they do not consider neither how typically hundreds of cubic kilometres of magma were emplaced into the upper crust, nor the prolonged growth of plutons involving simultaneous cooling and crystallization together with the release of exsolved volatiles, which may contribute to ore formation. We use numerical simulations of thermal evolution due to pluton growth to investigate the links between pluton construction, magma accumulation, solidification, volatile exsolution, volatile release and porphyry copper formation. The Jurassic Yerington batholith in western Nevada, USA, is used as a case study because it is associated with economic porphyry copper deposits, it shows an exceptional exposure revealing the geometry of the intrusion, and petrological and geochronological analysis have shed light on its emplacement style and duration. Our conductive heat flow model simulates the growth of the ˜1000 km3 batholith emplaced at 2-8 km crustal depth by step-wise intrusions of vertically stacked sills. Different emplacement rates and repose times of no melt injection between the three main Yerington intrusions were tested. Our numerical simulations show that to comply with the conceptual model linking porphyry copper deposits with the presence of large, highly molten magma chambers, magmas must be emplaced at a high rate of several cm/yr. In plutonic records, such high rates are uncommon. It follows that either the current conceptual model is incorrect or that porphyry copper deposits are only produced by the rare, rapidly emplaced plutons. The fact that many granitoid plutons are barren

  11. Garnet effect on Nd-Hf isotope decoupling: Evidence from the Jinfosi batholith, Northern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Niu, Yaoling; Mo, Xuanxue


    The initial Nd and Hf isotope ratios of a 420 Ma post-collisional dioritic-granitic batholith from the Northern Tibetan plateau define a negative trend above and orthogonal to the ԐHf(t)-ԐNd(t) terrestrial array. This uncommon trend offers an insight into the origin of the puzzling Nd-Hf isotope decoupling in the crustal rocks. On this trend, samples depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs, i.e., [Dy/Yb]N ≫ 1) deviate most from the terrestrial array whereas samples with flat HREEs (i.e., [Dy/Yb]N ≥ 1) deviate less or plot within the terrestrial array, pointing to the controlling effect of garnet in the magma source. Ancient garnet-bearing residues after melt extraction will have elevated Lu/Hf ratios and can evolve with time to produce high ԐHf(t) at a low ԐNd(t) value. Mixing of melts derived from such source lithologies (high Lu/Hf) with melts possessing a within-terrestrial array Nd-Hf isotopic composition (low Lu/Hf) best explains the observed trend orthogonal to the terrestrial array. The samples from the Jinfosi batholith with the most decoupled Nd-Hf isotope compositions require a larger degree (> 40%) and ancient (i.e., ≥ 1.8 Gyr) previous melt extraction from their source. It follows that the ancient melts with depleted HREEs complementary to those garnet-bearing residues should have low ԐHf values and plot below the terrestrial array, which is indeed shown by some Archean/Paleoproterozic TTGs.

  12. Thermal evolution and exhumation of deep-level batholithic exposures, southernmost Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Saleeby, J.; Farley, K.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Fleck, R.J.


    The Tehachapi complex lies at the southern end of the Sierra Nevada batholith adjacent to the Neogene-Quaternary Garlock fault. The complex is composed principally of high-pressure (8-10 kbar) Cretaceous batholithic rocks, and it represents the deepest exposed levels of a continuous oblique crustal section through the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. Over the southern ???100 km of this section, structural/petrologic continuity and geochronological data indicate that ???35 km of felsic to intermediate-composition crust was generated by copious arc magmatism primarily between 105 and 99 Ma. In the Tehachapi complex, these batholithic rocks intrude and are bounded to the west by similar-composition gneissic-textured high-pressure batholithic rocks emplaced at ca. 115-110 Ma. This lower crustal complex is bounded below by a regional thrust system, which in Late Cretaceous time tectonically eroded the underlying mantle lithosphere, and in series displaced and underplated the Rand Schist subduction assemblage by low-angle slip from the outboard Franciscan trench. Geophysical and mantle xenolith studies indicate that the remnants of this shallow subduction thrust descend northward through the crust and into the mantle, leaving the mantle lithosphere intact beneath the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. This north-dipping regional structure records an inflection in the Farallon plate, which was segmented into a shallow subduc-tion trajectory to the south and a normal steeper trajectory to the north. We combine new and published data from a broad spectrum of thermochronom-eters that together form a coherent data array constraining the thermal evolution of the complex. Integration of these data with published thermobarometric and petro-genetic data also constrains the tectonically driven decompression and exhumation history of the complex. The timing of arc magmatic construction of the complex, as denoted above, is resolved by a large body of U/Pb zircon ages. High

  13. Peraluminous leucogranites of the Cordilheira Suite: A record of Neoproterozoic collision and the generation of the Pelotas Batholith, Dom Feliciano Belt, Southern Brazil (United States)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; de Campos, Roberto Sacks


    The Cordilheira Suite is comprised of peraluminous granites that constitute, together with the Quitéria granite, the beginning of the formation of the Pelotas Batholith in the central portion of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The batholith is composed of seven granitic suites with minor occurrences of gabbro, diorite and subvolcanic rocks. Its evolution between 650 and 550 million years ago is characterised by a ranging from metaluminous to peraluminous rocks and from calc-alkaline to alkaline and peralkaline series. The Cordilheira Suite is composed of the Cordilheira, Arroio Francisquinho, Butiá and Três Figueiras granites, which contain muscovite and/or biotite, with the following accessory minerals: tourmaline, garnet, sillimanite, apatite, zircon, monazite and ilmenite. The granitic bodies are elongate; their ascent and emplacement were controlled by high-angle shear zones oriented at N45-70°E. They have mylonitic structures with magmatic foliation accompanied by a low-angle stretching lineation, indicating that these bodies were emplaced under syn-kinematic conditions during a transcurrent event. The granites have high-K calc-alkaline affinity and are peraluminous. The LILE and REE contents are low. The K2O/Na2O and CaO/Na2O ratios are approximately 1 and less than 0.3, respectively. Pseudosections calculated using the Perple X program suggests that the granites were formed at partial melting temperatures between 740 and 820 °C and pressure between 8.5 and 9 kbar. Petrographic and chemical data suggest that the magmas were generated by the partial melting of the migmatitic pelitic gneisses of the Várzea do Capivarita Complex and, to a lesser degree, orthogneisses of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex, which left a granulitic residue. UHT conditions of granulite facies metamorphism were recorded in the Várzea do Capivarita paragneisses by mineral paragenesis and indicate that temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C and pressures between 4 and 8 kbar were required for

  14. Model for the intrusion of batholiths associated with the eruption of large-volume ash-flow tuffs. (United States)

    Whitney, J A; Stormer, J C


    Pyroclastic eruption and the intrusion of batholiths associated with large-volume ash-flow tuffs may be driven by a decrease in reservoir pressure caused by the low density of the magma column due to vesiculation. Batholithic intrusion would then be accomplished by the subsidence and settling of kilometer-sized crustal blocks through the magma chamber, resulting in eventual collapse to form large caldera structures at the surface. Such a model does not require the formation of a large, laterally extensive, shallow magma chamber before the onset of large-volume ash-flow eruptions. Eruption could commence directly from a deeper reservoir, with only a small channelway being opened to the surface before the onset of catastrophic ash-flow eruptions of the scale of Yellowstone or Long Valley. Such a model has wide-ranging implications, and explains many of the problems inherent in the simple collapse model involving shallow magna chambers as well as the process and timing of batholith intrusion in such cases.

  15. Model for the Intrusion of Batholiths Associated with the Eruption of Large-Volume Ash-Flow Tuffs (United States)

    Whitney, James A.; Stormer, John C.


    Pyroclastic eruption and the intrusion of batholiths associated with large-volume ashflow tuffs may be driven by a decrease in reservoir pressure caused by the low density of the magma column due to vesiculation. Batholithic intrusion would then be accomplished by the subsidence and settling of kilometer-sized crustal blocks through the magma chamber, resulting in eventual collapse to form large caldera structures at the surface. Such a model does not require the formation of a large, laterally extensive, shallow magma chamber before the onset of large-volume ash-flow eruptions. Eruption could commence directly from a deeper reservoir, with only a small channelway being opened to the surface before the onset of catastrophic ash-flow eruptions of the scale of Yellowstone or Long Valley. Such a model has wide-ranging implications, and explains many of the problems inherent in the simple collapse model involving shallow magma chambers as well as the process and timing of batholith intrusion in such cases.

  16. Igneous origin of K-feldspar Megacrysts in Granitic Rocks of the Sierra Nevada Batholith (United States)

    Moore, J. G.; Sisson, T. W.


    Study of the four principal K-feldspar megacrystic granitic plutons and related porphyrys in the Sierra Nevada composite batholith indicates that the included megacrysts are phenocrysts that grew in contact with granitic melt in long-lasting magma chambers. These 89-83 Ma plutons or intrusions are the youngest in the range, and represent the culminating magmatic phase of the batholith. They are the: Granodiorite of Topaz Lake; Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, Mono Creek Granite, Whitney Granodiorite, Johnson Granite Porphyry, and Golden Bear Dike. The zoned megacrysts in each of these igneous bodies attain 4-10 cm in length and all display oscillatory zoning with each zone beginning with a sharp increase followed by a gradual decrease in the concentration of BaO - commonly from 3 to 1 weight percent. Some of the more pronounced zones overlie resorption and channeling features on the underlying zone. Trains of small mineral inclusions (plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, quartz, sphene, and accessory minerals) are parallel to the BaO-delineated zones. The long axes of the inclusions are preferentially aligned parallel to the zone boundaries and inclusions are sorted by size from zone to zone. The growth temperature of sphene included in K-feldspar megacrysts is estimated by use of a Zr-in-sphene geothermometer. The sphene grains all yield igneous temperatures, mainly 735 - 760 °C. Sphene grains in the granodiorite host marginal to the megacrysts range to lower growth temperatures, in some instances into the subsolidus range. The zoning of the megacrysts, their presence in quenched porphry dikes, and the limited range and igneous values of growth temperatures of sphene inclusions within them, support the interpretation that the megacrysts formed as igneous sanidine phenocrysts, and that intrusion temperatures varied by only small amounts while the megacrysts grew. Each Ba- enriched zone was apparently formed by a repeated surge of new, hot melt injected into the large

  17. Igneous phenocrystic origin of K-feldspar megacrysts in granitic rocks from the Sierra Nevada batholith (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Sisson, T.W.


    Study of four K-feldspar megacrystic granitic plutons and related dikes in the Sierra Nevada composite batholith indicates that the megacrysts are phenocrysts that grew in contact with granitic melt. Growth to megacrystic sizes was due to repeated replenishment of the magma bodies by fresh granitic melt that maintained temperatures above the solidus for extended time periods and that provided components necessary for K-feldspar growth. These intrusions cooled 89-83 Ma, are the youngest in the range, and represent the culminating magmatic phase of the Sierra Nevada batholith. They are the granodiorite of Topaz Lake, the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, the Mono Creek Granite, the Whitney Granodiorite, the Johnson Granite Porphyry, and the Golden Bear Dike. Megacrysts in these igneous bodies attain 4-10 cm in length. All have sawtooth oscillatory zoning marked by varying concentration of BaO ranging generally from 3.5 to 0.5 wt%. Some of the more pronounced zones begin with resorption and channeling of the underlying zone. Layers of mineral inclusions, principally plagioclase, but also biotite, quartz, hornblende, titanite, and accessory minerals, are parallel to the BaO-delineated zones, are sorted by size along the boundaries, and have their long axes preferentially aligned parallel to the boundaries. These features indicate that the K-feldspar megacrysts grew while surrounded by melt, allowing the inclusion minerals to periodically attach themselves to the faces of the growing crystals. The temperature of growth of titanite included within the K-feldspar megacrysts is estimated by use of a Zr-in-titanite geothermometer. Megacryst-hosted titanite grains all yield temperatures typical of felsic magmas, mainly 735-760 ??C. Titanite grains in the granodiorite hosts marginal to the megacrysts range to lower growth temperatures, in some instances into the subsolidus. The limited range and igneous values of growth temperatures for megacryst-hosted titanite grains support the

  18. Petrography and Geochemistry of the Zamora Batholith in the south of the sub-Andean zone (Ecuador) (United States)

    Villares, F. M.


    The Zamora Batholith is an intrusive complex that is located in the extreme south-east of Ecuador. It has dimensions of 200 x 50 km approximately. It is mainly located in the Zamora Chinchipe province from which it takes its name. This study consisted in the petrographic and geochemical characterization of the Zamora Batholith in the area covered by 1: 50,000 geological maps of Centro Shaime, Guayzimi, Paquisha, Los Encuentros and El Pangui. Fieldwork was done by the "Proyecto Mapeo Geológico escala 1:50.000 (zonas prospectivas mineras)" of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación Geológico, Minero, Metalúrgico of Ecuador. This research was performed with 59 thin sections and 10 whole - rock chemical analysis done in the C.I.C of the Granada University. The Zamora Batholith intrudes Triassic to Jurassic volcanic rocks. It is overlaid by sandstones of the Hollin Formation of the Upper Aptian age and shale and limestone from the Napo Formation. Post-cretaceous deposits of ash and lava flows of andesitic to rhyolitic compositions cover the batholith. The petrography of the Zamora Batholith ranges from tonalite to monzogranite with the same qualitative mineralogy. The rocks are composed by different proportions of plagioclase, amphibole, feldspar K, quartz, biotite, opaque, pyroxene and epidote, as accessory minerals has zircon, sphene and apatite. To the south of the Conguime and Guayzimi towns, the dominant petrography is medium to coarse grained amphibole granodiorite with tonalitic and monzogranitic subordinates. To the north monzogranites are dominant rocks and subordinate granodiorites. To the East of Santa Elena the sienogranites are associated with El Hito porphyritic granite that intrudes to Zamora Batholith. Frequently the batholith has propylitic alteration; which produces a primary association of chlorite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The granitoids have dioritic to granitic compositions (60.09 to 73.6 wt.% SiO2) and are I - type, medium to high-K calc

  19. Size and Longevity of Magma Chambers in the Tuolumne Batholith: A Comparison of Thermal Modeling and Cooling Thermochronology (United States)

    Paterson, S. R.; Okaya, D.; Matzel, J.; Memeti, V.; Mundil, R.; Nomade, S.


    Our field studies on the 1200 km2 Tuolumne batholith and the controversy about how this 95-85 Ma composite batholith was constructed, motivated us to evaluate the thermal evolution of volumetrically large magma bodies formed by an amalgamation of a few to many pulses. We use finite difference 1D and 2D models with full spatial heterogeneity of rock properties, fine-scale internal grid spacing that allows for the definition of intricate rock geometries, and small internal time steps for calculations over any time duration. Careful code construction for numerical stability, computational efficiency, and resource management (dynamic memory allocations and CPU parallelization) allows us to model at scales between sub-m to km's for time durations of days to many millions of years. Several types of initial and boundary conditions including thermal gradients and heat flux and the effects of latent heat of fusion are installed. We have modeled a number of chamber construction scenarios. (1) single intrusions of rectangular or elliptical geometry (i.e., sills, dikes, or blobs) emplaced at variable time; (2) A sequence of intrusions emplaced at specified but arbitrary times or according to a time rate. Shapes in the sequence are fixed or set to randomly vary within a range of dimensions and aspect ratios. (3) A sheeted dike complex can be created wherein the thermal model actually expands according to a growth (extension) rate to accommodate the emplacement of new but thin dikes. Dike width and the time between dikes are coupled based on growth rate; (4) Finally, irregularly shaped bodies from a series of maps or cross-sections can be emplaced into our thermal model and digitally rendered into rock types, which are assigned thermal properties. These mapped shapes are emplaced into the thermal model at specified times so that they represent new thermal pulses. The use of maps or cross-sections allows us to examine the thermal behavior of observed field geometries. This wide

  20. Characterization and testing of rock aggregates of the Santa Marta Batholith, (Colombia

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    Nancy Paola Figueroa Madero


    Full Text Available Aggregates of intrusive rocks are the major source of crushed fine and coarse aggregates for use in concrete in several countries and they have to meet a number of specifications relating to strength and durability. This research reports the evaluation of aggregates of granitoids and associated rocks of Santa Marta Batholith, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif, Colombia, based on petrographic analysis and mechanical and chemical acceptance tests. The strength and durability of a particular rock type depends on its intrinsic characteristic, thus petrographic analysis is very important to understand its mechanical and chemical properties. Numerous standard tests used to ensure aggregates meet the appropriate specifications; however, petrographic analysis represents the most valuable test for predicting the overall performance of concrete aggregates in any control test. Aggregates were analyzed to determine their petrographic, physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Samples were categorized as hornblendite, gabbro, quartzmonzodiorite, monzodiorite and monzonite groups. Among these, of the quartzmonzodiorite was the dominant group. Specific gravity indicates values in the range 2673-2956kg/m3. Water absorption values are in the range 0.908-1.194%. Aggregate impact values of samples (37.82 to 61.36% showed good soundness only for one of the aggregates, which are considered acceptable for use in the preparation of a good quality concrete. Values of Methylene Blue Adsorption reveal the organic matter content is below the threshold. Magnesium sulphate values ranged between 0.11 and 4.75% suggesting good resistance against chemical atmospheric agents. The compressive strength test shows values in the range 35.22-59.45MPa indicating that the geomechanical behavior of rock cylinders is satisfactory. The geomechanical behavior of rock tablets under flexion is also satisfactory for SMA-2 sample (16.53MPa, although not for SMA-6 and SMA-8 samples

  1. Petrological Characteristics on NW of Ladakh Batholith and its enclaves around the Trans-Himalayan Belt (India) (United States)

    Mirza, A., IV; Ilbeyli, N.


    The Ladakh Batholith is part of the Trans-Himalayan Plutonic Belt (a Cretaceous-Palaeogene Andean-type arc) extending over 2500 km along the southern margin of the Eurasian continent. Although extensive studies have performed in Ladakh (geotectonic implications and geochronology of the granitic rocks) mineralogy and petrogenesis of source area have remained poorly studied. Here we present the petrography and petrology of Taru and Umla granites, which is located about 50 to 60 km Westside of Leh district of Ladakh region (NW India). The intrusive rocks are medium- to coarse-grained and porphyritic with feldspar. They are composed of biotite granodiorite, hornblende granodiorite, quartz granodiorite, leucogranite, biotite-hornblende granite and amphibole biotite monzodiorite. The predominant minerals are alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and hornblende. The accessory minerals consist of apatite, zircon, microcline, rutile, monazite, allanite, titanite and opaques. Secondary minerals are mainly chlorite, sericite, epidote, and muscovite. Growth zones of plagioclase are accentuated by secondary sericite, muscovite, clay minerals and epidote. The process of alteration is sericitization, saussuritization and epidotization. Biotite or amphibole is completely altered by chlorite and subordinate epidote. Fine prismatic zircons are surrounded by apatite and having inclusions in biotite and plagioclase. Intergrowth textures (i.e. antiperthitic, perthitic, graphic, granophyric, myrmekites). Mafic enclave having sharp, crenulate and rounded to elongate structures ranges from 5 to 10 cm in length. Plagioclase xenocrysts, quartz and acicular apatite indicate the formation of hybridization. Field observation indicates that the Ladakh Batholith and their enclaves could be the products of multistage mixing and mingling processes consequent fractional differentiation of various batches of mafic and felsic magmas are formed in open magma chamber of subduction setting.

  2. Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granitic batholith, northern New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.


    Structural and topographic relief along the eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift, northern New Mexico, provides a remarkable cross-section through the 26-Ma Questa caldera and cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Latir field. Exposed levels increase in depth from mid-Tertiary depositional surfaces in northern parts of the igneous complex to plutonic rocks originally at 3-5 km depths in the S. Erosional remnants of an ash-flow sheet of weakly peralkaline rhyolite (Amalia Tuff) and andesitic to dactitic precursor lavas, disrupted by rift-related faults, are preserved as far as 45 km beyond their sources at the Questa caldera. Broadly comagmatic 26 Ma batholithic granitic rocks, exposed over an area of 20 by 35 km, range from mesozonal granodiorite to epizonal porphyritic granite and aplite; shallower and more silicic phases are mostly within the caldera. Compositionally and texturally distinct granites defined resurgent intrusions within the caldera and discontinuous ring dikes along its margins: a batholithic mass of granodiorite extends 20 km S of the caldera and locally grades vertically to granite below its flat-lying roof. A negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (15-20 mgal), which encloses exposed granitic rocks and coincides with boundaries of the Questa caldera, defined boundaries of the shallow batholith, emplaced low in the volcanic sequence and in underlying Precambrian rocks. Paleomagnetic pole positions indicate that successively crystallised granitic plutons cooled through Curie temperatures during the time of caldera formation, initial regional extension, and rotational tilting of the volcanic rocks. Isotopic ages for most intrusions are indistinguishable from the volcanic rocks. These relations indicate that the batholithic complex broadly represents the source magma for the volcanic rocks, into which the Questa caldera collapsed, and that the magma was largely liquid during regional tectonic disruption. -from Author

  3. A doubly vergent fan structure in the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Transpression or local complex flow around a continental margin buttress? (United States)

    Schmidt, Keegan L.; Paterson, Scott R.


    The Jura-Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) of southern and Baja California contains a remarkable example of a crustal transition between juxtaposed oceanic and continental floored arcs. Jura-Cretaceous deformation in the PRB is focused along this lithospheric discontinuity and defines a zone of contractional deformation that stretches at least 800 km along the batholith. The western edge of this zone is associated with a dramatic eastward increase in maximum recorded metamorphic pressures (from 2 to 6 kbar) and temperatures (from 650°C). Elsewhere in the North American Cordillera, similar lithospheric boundaries are thought to accommodate various amounts of orogen-parallel displacements of outboard tectonic fragments. To test this proposal in the PRB, we examined an unusually well-preserved part of the transition zone in the southern Sierra San Pedro Martir (SSPM). Here a spectacular ˜20 km wide, doubly vergent fan structure, which developed over a period >40 m.y. during both Jurassic and Cretaceous magmatism, occurs along the transition zone. This structure consists of moderately inward dipping, outward vergent, fold and thrust belts with widespread mylonitic fabrics that steepen toward the center where both mylonitic and magmatic fabrics occur in syntectonic, vertically sheeted plutons. Mineral lineations change from steeply pitching on the sides of the fan to moderately pitching in the center. A number of constraints on possible displacements, rotation of units, and duration of fabric formation limit the amount of orogen-parallel displacement to a few kilometers across the fan structure in the SSPM. Instead, we propose that the fan structure is a local feature that results from a combination of tectonic wedging caused by a cusp of rigid, pre-Mesozoic continental margin crust at this location and vise tectonics that arose from strong lateral rheological gradients resulting from extensive heating by the sheeted tonalite complex, focused deformation

  4. Petrology, geochemistry and thermobarometry of the northern area of the Flamenco pluton, Coastal Range batholith, northern Chile. A thermal approach to the emplacement processes in the Jurassic andean batholiths (United States)

    Rodríguez, Natalia; Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Riveros, Karl; Fuentes, Paulina


    The Flamenco pluton is part of a N-S alignment of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic intrusive belt comprising the westernmost part of the Coastal Range batholith in northern Chile. The Jurassic-Cretaceous voluminous magmatism related to subduction in the western active continental margin of Gondwana is emplaced in the predominantly metasedimentary Paleozoic host-rocks of the Las Tórtolas formation, which in the northern area of the Flamenco pluton present an intense deformation, including the Chañaral mélange. Geochemically, the Flamenco pluton shows a wide compositional variability (SiO2 between 48wt % and 67wt %). Gabbros, Qtz-diorites and tonalites, mesocratic and leucocratic granodiorites are classified as calc-alkaline, calcic, magnesian and metaluminous magmatism. Flamenco granitoids define cotectic linear evolution trends, typical of magmatic fractionation processes. Geochemical trends are consistent with magmas evolved from undersaturated and low-pressure melts, even though the absence of transitional contacts between intrusive units precludes in-situ fractionation. Although some granodioritic samples show crossed geochemical trends that point to the compositional field of metasediments, and large euhedral prismatic pinnite-biotite crystals, typical Crd pseudomorph, are observed in contact magmatic facies, geochemical assimilation processes are short range, and the occurrence of host-rocks xenoliths is limited to a few meters from the pluton contact. A thermal approach to the emplacement process has been constrained through the thermobarometric results and a 2D thermo-numerical model of the contact aureole. Some Qtz-diorites and granodiorites located in the north area of the pluton exhibit granulitic textures as Hbl-Pl-Qtz triple junctions, poikiloblastic Kfs and Qtz recrystallization. The Hbl-Pl pairs have been used for the thermobarometric study of this metamorphic process, resulting granoblastic equilibrium temperatures between 770 and 790 °C, whereas

  5. Geochemistry, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting of the Almogholagh batholith in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, western Iran (United States)

    Amiri, Manuchehr; Khalaji, Ahmad Ahmadi; Tahmasbi, Zahra; Santos, Jose Francisco; Sahamieh, Reza Zarei; Zamanian, Hassan


    The Almogholagh batholith in the northern Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatic-metamorphic zone comprises three intrusive bodies (gabbroic diorite, quartz syenite, and quartz monzonite) that were generated during the northeastward subduction of Neo-Tethys beneath the Iranian sector of the Eurasian plate. These bodies intruded at different time phases and are related to post-collision magmatism. The quartz syenite and quartz monzonite rocks with specifications of metaluminous, generally ferroan, alkalic to alkali-calcic types, high content of Na2O + K2O, Zr, Ce, Ga, Y, Nb, Ta, and rare earth elements, and depleted in Eu, Sr, and Ti show borderline characteristics between A1 and A2 types granitoids but with more affinity to A2 type. The gabbroic dioritic rocks show borderline specifications between A1 and I types rocks but with more affinity to I type. Distinctive spiked peak patterns in spider diagrams accompanied by (La/Yb)CN values equal to 2.44 to 6.11 and a Ba/La ratio >3 indicate the magmatism activity in the volcanic arc environment. The characteristics (Ba/Rb)PN 0.512638 in some samples, εtNd > 0, εtSr > 0, and high content of Nb, Ta, and Zr (589 ppm) demonstrate the involvement of the mantle source, subducted slab fluids, high flux of mantle-derived halogen-rich volatiles, and contamination within the crust during the petrogenesis of intrusions. After the initial collision, the operation of minor subduction (with slab break-off) or foundering of the lithospheric mantle (delamination) occurred because of asthenospheric upwelling and heat flows in the mantle in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Stretch and local disruptions were created by these heat flows; simultaneously, magma was formed and ascended upward.

  6. Physicochemical conditions of skarn formation in contact of the Alvand batholith with the meta-calcareous rocks, Hamedan, western Iran

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    Adel Saki


    Full Text Available The Cheshin meta-calcareous rocks (Permo Triassic in southeast Hamedan outcrop in association with a variety of pelitic schists and hornfels rocks. The intrusion of the Alvand Batholith (Jurassic age into pelitic and calcareous host rocks has produced metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area (Cheshin village. On the basis of the dominance of calcite/dolomite, silicate and ore minerals, the calcareous rocks can be divided into two groups: a marbles and calc-silicates; b skarn rocks. The ore bodies occur in a contact zone between sillimanite-hornfels and calc-silicate rocks and formed the skarn rocks. Based on mineralogy, skarn rocks in the studied area consist mainly of diopside, garnet, tremolite, vesuvianite, epidote and ore minerals (magnetite and hematite. The skarnification processes occurred at two stages: (1 prograde metamorphism; and (2 retrograde metamorphism. The first stage involved prograde metasomatism and anhydrous minerals such as garnet and pyroxene formed. Second stage of retrograde skarn development is also recognized. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Fe, along with volatile components were added to the skarn system. Consequently, considerable amounts of hydrous minerals, oxides and carbonates replaced the anhydrous minerals in the host rocks and hydrous minerals such as epidote+chlorite+amphibole formed. Using multiple equilibria by THERMOCALC® program, temperature (~630 ºC, pressure (~4 kbar, and fluid composition (XCO2 as low as 0.17 have been calculated for the formation of the calc-silicate rocks. Skarn mineralogy shows good agreement with these calculations.

  7. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, G. Lang; Bowring, Samuel A.; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the final eruption. Calculated magmatic

  8. Postorogenic emplacement of the Santa Marta Batholith, northwestern flank of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). (United States)

    Sanchez Sierra, Johan Miguel Sebastian; Kammer, Andreas


    The Santa Marta Batholith (BSM) belongs to a Paleogene intrusive suite of the Santa Marta massif, an exhumed triangular block at the southern Caribbean margin. Its Paleogene age precludes its association to an active margin, although its emplacement was controlled by the flexure of the down-bent Southamerican plate. Its internal structure is outlined by a mafic border facies and a felsic core, both having a petrologic affinity to a TTG-suite. According to existing age data, the BSM consolidated sequentially from SW to NE, with a first pulse having crystallized at 56 Ma in the southern domain and a final pulse in the northern domain at 52-50 Ma. Pressures varied between 5-7 kb, corresponding to depths of 14-19 km. This study combines structural, thermochronological and geochemical data with an analysis of Anisotropy and Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetism. The SNSM had a clockwise rotation of 30 ° and the ASM results help distinguish between two fault-bounded structural domains. The southern domain is characterized by a magnetic foliation concordant to the contact of the host rock that dips toward the hinterland. The northern domain, in contrast, displays a N-S trending magnetic foliation that is oblique to the regional structural northeastern trend. This divergence is supported by the orientation of mineral lineations, enclaves and dikes. In spite of its arc signature, anomalies like enrichment in Ti, depletion of Nb-Ta and Zr-Hf, as well as flat REE patterns can be associated to the accumulation of crystallized mafic minerals from less-fractionated magmas. These data evidence mingling. Asymmetric internal organization, as indicated by a hinterland-dipping roof pendent, the structural setting at the margin of a thickened continental margin and its geochemical signature favor a scenario of a magma generation at a mid-crustal level and its consequent extrusion along a channel, that connected to the crustal bend of the continental plate that was

  9. USC Undergraduate Team Research, Geological Field Experience and Outdoor Education in the Tuolumne Batholith and Kings Canyon, High Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Culbert, K. N.; Anderson, J. L.; Cao, W.; Chang, J.; Ehret, P.; Enriquez, M.; Gross, M. B.; Gelbach, L. B.; Hardy, J.; Paterson, S. R.; Ianno, A.; Iannone, M.; Memeti, V.; Morris, M.; Lodewyk, J.; Davis, J.; Stanley, R.; van Guilder, E.; Whitesides, A. S.; Zhang, T.


    Within four years, USC’s College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Earth Science department have successfully launched the revolutionary undergraduate team research (UTR) program “Geologic Wonders of Yosemite at Two Miles High”. A diverse group of professors, graduate students and undergraduates spent two weeks mapping the Boyden Cave in Kings Canyon National Park, the Iron Mountain pendants south of Yosemite, the Western Metamorphic belt along the Merced River, and the Tuolumne Batholith (TB) in June and August 2009. During their experience in the field, the undergraduates learned geologic field techniques from their peers, professors, and experienced graduate students and developed ideas that will form the basis of the independent and group research projects. Apart from teaching undergraduates about the geology of the TB and Kings Canyon, the two weeks in the field were also rigorous exercise in critical thinking and communication. Every day spent in the field required complete cooperation between mentors and undergraduates in order to successfully gather and interpret the day’s data. Undergraduates were to execute the next day’s schedule and divide mapping duties among themselves. The two-week field experience was also the ideal setting in which to learn about the environmental impacts of their work and the actions of others. The UTR groups quickly adapted to the demanding conditions of the High Sierra—snow, grizzly bears, tourists, and all. For many of the undergraduates, the two weeks spent in the field was their first experience with field geology. The vast differences in geological experience among the undergraduates proved to be advantageous to the ‘team-teaching’ focus of the program: more experienced undergraduates were able to assist less experienced undergraduates while cementing their own previously gained knowledge about geology. Over the rest of the academic year, undergraduates will learn about the research process and scientific

  10. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, Lang; Bowring, Samuel; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the

  11. Assessing the isotopic evolution of S-type granites of the Carlos Chagas Batholith, SE Brazil: Clues from U-Pb, Hf isotopes, Ti geothermometry and trace element composition of zircon (United States)

    Melo, Marilane G.; Lana, Cristiano; Stevens, Gary; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio C.; Gerdes, Axel; Alkmin, Leonardo A.; Nalini, Hermínio A.; Alkmim, Fernando F.


    The Carlos Chagas batholith (CCB) is a very large ( 14,000 km2) S-type granitic body formed during the syn-collisional stage of the Araçuaí orogen (southeastern Brazil). Zircons extracted from the CCB record a wide range of U-Pb ages (from 825 to 490 Ma), indicating a complex history of inheritance, magmatic crystallization and partial melting during the evolution of the orogeny. Magmatic zircons (ca. 578-588 Ma) are marked by similar Hf isotope compositions and REE patterns to those of inherited cores (ca. 825-600 Ma), indicating that these aspects of the chemical signature of the magmatic zircons have likely been inherited from the source. The U-Pb ages and initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios from anatectic and metamorphic zircon domains are consistent with a two-stage metamorphic evolution marked by contrasting mechanisms of zircon growth and recrystallization during the orogeny. Ti-in-zircon thermometry is consistent with the findings of previous metamorphic work and indicates that the two metamorphic events in the batholith reached granulite facies conditions (> 800 °C) producing two generations of garnet via fluid-absent partial melting reactions. The oldest metamorphic episode (ca. 570-550 Ma) is recorded by development of thin anatectic overgrowths on older cores and by growth of new anatectic zircon crystals. Both domains have higher initial 176Hf/177Hf values compared to relict cores and display REE patterns typical of zircon that grew contemporaneously with peritectic garnet through biotite-absent fluid partial melting reactions. Hf isotopic and chemical evidences indicate that a second anatectic episode (ca. 535-500 Ma) is only recorded in parts from the CCB. In these rocks, the growth of new anatectic zircon and/or overgrowths is marked by high initial 176Hf/177Hf values and also by formation of second generation of garnet, as indicated by petrographic observations and REE patterns. In addition, some rocks contain zircon crystals formed by solid

  12. A study of small-scale foliation in lengths of core enclosing fault zones in borehole WD-3, Permit Area D, Lac du Bonnet Batholith

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    Ejeckam, R.B.


    Small-scale foliation measurements in lengths of core from borehole WD-3 of Permit Area D of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith have defined five major mean orientation sets. They strike NW, N and NE. The orientations (strike to the left of the dip direction/dip) of these sets are as follows: Set I - 028/74 deg; II - 001/66 deg; III - 100/58 deg; IV - 076/83 deg; and V - 210/40 deg. The small-scale foliations were defined by different mineral types such as biotite crystals, plagioclase, mineral banding and quartz lenses. Well-developed biotite foliation is commonly present whenever well-developed plagioclase foliation exists, but as the strength of development weakens, the preferred orientations of plagioclase foliation do not correspond to those of biotite. It is also noted that the foliations appear to strike in directions orthogonal to the fractures in the fracture zones in the same depth interval. No significant change in foliation orientation was observed in Zones I to IV. Set V, however, whose mean orientation is 210/40 deg, is absent from the Zone IV interval, ranging from 872 to 905 m. (auth)

  13. Comprehensive seismic surveys suggest that subsurface water-holding capacity is secondary to bedrock nutrient content as a regulator of vegetation productivity in the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California (United States)

    Taylor, N. J.; Riebe, C. S.; Dueker, K. G.; Goulden, M.; Flinchum, B. A.; Pasquet, S.; Callahan, R. P.; Hahm, W. J.; Keifer, I. S.; Holbrook, W. S.


    Both climate and lithology regulate the distribution of vegetation across Earth's surface. However, lithologic effects on vegetation are inherently difficult to understand, because they integrate both the properties of bedrock and the processes that alter it in the critical zone. For example, bedrock composition can influence overlying vegetation by providing nutrients that promote growth. Likewise weathering, which may depend in part on bedrock composition, can promote growth by increasing subsurface porosity, which provides storage space for life-sustaining water. To disentangle the effects of bedrock on vegetation, we used seismology to quantify subsurface porosity in 3D, integrated from the surface to vegetation rooting depths, at three climatically similar but geologically diverse granitic sites in the Sierra Nevada, California. Evapotranspiration (ET) varies tenfold, allowing us to test the hypothesis that differences in ecosystem productivity are driven by lithologic differences in subsurface water storage capacity. We found that subsurface porosity varies by only 10 percent. Thus our results show little difference in weathering across the sites, despite sharp differences in the abundance of weatherable minerals such as biotite and hornblende. Moreover, porosity does not explain the large inferred variations in ET across our sites. However, ET does correlate strongly with bedrock concentrations of plant-essential nutrients including phosphorus, a correlation that is widespread across the Sierra Nevada Batholith based on our previous work. Together, our results suggest that, for a given climate, ecosystem productivity can depend predominantly on bedrock nutrient concentrations rather than weathering. Bedrock in the Sierra Nevada is similar to granites of other mountain ranges around the world, implying that our results have widespread implications for understanding lithologic effects on the distribution of life across Earth's surface.

  14. Structure and Evolution of the Central Andes of Peru (United States)

    Gonzalez, L.; Pfiffner, O. A.


    Three major units make up the Andes in Peru: (1) The Western Cordillera consists of the Cretaceous Coastal Batholith intruding Jurassic to Cretaceous volcaniclastics (Casma group) in the west, and a fold-and-thrust belt of Mesozoic sediments in the east. Eocene and Miocene volcanics (Calipuy group and equivalents) overly all of these rock types. (2) The Central Highland contains a folded Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary sequence overlain by thick Quaternary deposits. A major fault puts Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera next to these units. (3) In the Eastern Cordillera, Late Paleozoic clastic successions unconformably overly folded Early Paleozoic sediments and a Neoproterozoic basement in the east. Permian (locally Triassic) granitoids intruded these units and were affected by folding and thrusting. In the core of the Eastern Cordillera, Early Cretaceous overly Early or Late Paleozoic strata. To the west, a thrust belt of Paleozoic to Cenozoic strata forms the transition to the foreland of the Brasilian shield. The most external part of this thrust belt involves Pliocene sediments and is referred to as Subandine zone. The Coastal Batholith is internally undeformed. The adjacent fold-and-thrust belt to the east is characterized by tight, nearly isoclinal upright folds with amplitudes of up to 1000 m. At the surface only Cretaceous rocks are observed. Using balancing techniques, a detachment horizon at the base of the Lowermost Cretaceous (Goyallarisquizga group - Oyon Formation) can be proposed. Further east, folds are more open, asymmetric and east verging, Jurassic sediments appear in the cores of the anticlines. The abrupt change in style from upright tight folding in the west to more open folding in the east is explained by a primary difference in the depositional sequence, most probably associated with synsedimentary faulting. The overlying volcanics of the Calipuy group and equivalents are, in turn, only slightly folded. In the Northern

  15. Coarse muscovite veins and alteration deep in the Yerington batholith, Nevada: insights into fluid exsolution in the roots of porphyry copper systems (United States)

    Runyon, Simone E.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Seedorff, Eric; Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Mazdab, Frank K.


    . We propose that this style of veins and alteration at Luhr Hill represents degassing of moderate volumes of overpressured hydrothermal fluid during late crystallization of deep levels of the Yerington batholith.

  16. Granodiorites of the South Mountain Batholith (Nova Scotia, Canada) derived by partial melting of Avalonia granulite rocks beneath the Meguma terrane: Implications for the heat source of the Late Devonian granites of the Northern Appalachians (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Dostal, Jaroslav


    The Late Devonian South Mountain Batholith (SMB) of Nova Scotia is the largest batholith of the northern Appalachians. The peraluminous granitic rocks range from biotite granodiorite to leucogranite. Samples collected from a drill core of the Scrag Lake granodioritic pluton of the western SMB are chemically homogeneous from the surface to a depth of ~ 1425 m. The homogeneous composition implies that the granodiorite was derived from a relatively homogeneous source and that country rock assimilation was not an important source for the parental magma. Equilibrium partial melt modeling of underlying sub-Meguma granulite rocks indicates that they are the primary source rocks of the granodiorites. We suggest that mantle-derived magmas intruded the lower crust and induce large-scale melting of the granulite basement rocks to produce the granodiorites. Fractional crystallization of the granodiorites plus assimilation of Meguma Supergroup metasediments likely produces the silica-rich rocks of the SMB. The cause of mantle melting is uncertain however it may be related to the transitioning of the northern Appalachians from a position above the deep mantle Pacific large low shear velocity province (LLSVP) to a higher shear velocity region of the mantle.

  17. Central San Juan caldera cluster: Regional volcanic framework (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.


    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the

  18. Interpretation of the Isabella High Wave-Speed Anomaly as the Partially Delaminated High-Density Root of the Southern Sierra Nevada Batholith, California (United States)

    Saleeby, J.; Le Pourhiet, L.


    High resolution tomography of the Sierra Nevada Earthscope Project (Reeg, 2008 & Jones et al., 2012) shows that the core area of the Isabella anomaly (Vp+4-6%) resembles a prolate antiformal slab that plunges steeply SE into the upper mantle to ~200 km depth, extending down from a zone of lower crustal attachment that runs along the southwestern Sierra Nevada and adjacent eastern San Joaquin basin. Receiver function, refraction and tomography also show that areas to the east and south of lower crustal attachment consist of ascended asthenosphere lying directly beneath tectonized Moho. The lower-velocity envelope of the anomaly (Vp+1-4%) extends to 250-300 km depths and covers cross-sectional areas locally in excess of 2x of the higher Vp core. We have leveraged lithospheric structure and geologic history against thermal-mechanical modeling in pursuit of an integrated story for the physical and geologic processes that are governing the development of the anomaly. Initial structure is constrained by mantle xenoliths, differentially exhumed lower crustal exposures, and deep cores in the basin. The initial state further recognizes that: 1. the sub-Sierra Nevada batholith mantle lithosphere, including a substantial thickness (35-40 km) of eclogitic (arclogite) cumulates that were produced during high magma flux arc activity, was cooled to a conductive geotherm by flat slab subduction at the end of the Cretaceous; and 2. the gravitationally metastable mantle lithosphere was thermally mobilized from beneath in the Neogene by the opening of a slab window, which also imposed a state of modest regional extension. We have resolved a class of models that successfully predicts the structure of the anomaly, the timing and kinematics of related lithospheric separation and focused extensional tectonism, the timing and source characteristics of related volcanism, and the spatial/temporal patterns of observed subsidence and uplift transients. A general aspect of most of our model

  19. Two cryptic anatectic events within a syn-collisional granitoid from the Araçuaí orogen (southeastern Brazil): Evidence from the polymetamorphic Carlos Chagas batholith (United States)

    Melo, M. G.; Stevens, G.; Lana, C.; Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Frei, D.; Alkmim, F. F.; Alkmin, L. A.


    From the earliest (ca. 630 Ma) pre-collisional plutons to the latest (ca. 480 Ma) post-collisional intrusions, the Araçuaí orogen (SE Brazil) records an outstanding succession of granite production events in space and time. The Carlos Chagas batholith (CCB) is the largest ( 14,000 km2) granitic body ascribed to the collisional plutonism (G2 supersuite) in the back-arc region of the Araçuaí orogen, to the east of the Rio Doce magmatic arc. A wide range of monazite and zircon ages (> 725 Ma to ca. 490 Ma) have been found in CCB granites, recording a rich history of crustal recycling and inheritance, magmatic crystallization and anatexis. The CCB includes a dominant granite richer in garnet than in biotite, in which three mineral assemblages can be identified: 1) Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm ± Rt; 2) Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Sil; and 3) Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Sil + Spl. Rocks which contain mineral assemblage 2 and 3 all contain two generations of garnet. Textural evidence for the presence of former melt, recognized in all studied CCB samples, includes: silicate melt inclusions in poikiloblastic garnet, pseudomorphed thin films of melt surrounding both generations of garnet, pseudomorphed melt pools adjacent to garnet and biotite, and plagioclase and quartz with cuspate-lobate shapes occurring among matrix grains. Both generations of garnet crystals (Grt1 and Grt2) are unzoned in terms of major element concentration, contain small rounded inclusions of Ti-rich biotite and, in addition, the Grt2 crystals also contain inclusions of remnant sillimanite needles. Microstructural evidence, in combination with mineral chemistry, indicates that the garnet crystals grew during two distinct metamorphic-anatectic events, as the peritectic products of fluid-absent melting reactions which consumed biotite, quartz and plagioclase, in the case of Grt1, and which consumed biotite, quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite in the case of Grt2. P-T pseudosections

  20. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid


    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  1. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line) (United States)

    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  2. Fractionation of Li, Be, Ga, Nb, Ta, In, Sn, Sb, W and Bi in the peraluminous Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Precursor processes to magmatic-hydrothermal mineralisation (United States)

    Simons, Beth; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.; Shail, Robin K.; Jenner, Frances E.


    The Early Permian Variscan Cornubian Batholith is a peraluminous, composite pluton intruded into Devonian and Carboniferous metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Within the batholith there are: G1 (two-mica), G2 (muscovite), G3 (biotite), G4 (tourmaline) and G5 (topaz) granites. G1-G2 and G3-G4 are derived from greywacke sources and linked through fractionation of assemblages dominated by feldspars and biotite, with minor mantle involvement in G3. G5 formed though flux-induced biotite-dominate melting in the lower crust during granulite facies metamorphism. Fractionation enriched G2 granites in Li (average 315 ppm), Be (12 ppm), Ta (4.4 ppm), In (74 ppb), Sn (18 ppm) and W (12 ppm) relative to crustal abundances and G1 granites. Gallium (24 ppm), Nb (16 ppm) and Bi (0.46 ppm) are not significantly enriched during fractionation, implying they are more compatible in the fractionating assemblage. Sb (0.16 ppm) is depleted in G1-G2 relative to the average upper and lower continental crust. Muscovite, a late-stage magmatic/subsolidus mineral, is the major host of Li, Nb, In, Sn and W in G2 granites. G2 granites are spatially associated with W-Sn greisen mineralisation. Fractionation within the younger G3-G4 granite system enriched Li (average 364 ppm), Ga (28 ppm), In (80 ppb), Sn (14 ppm), Nb (27 ppm), Ta (4.6 ppm), W (6.3 ppm) and Bi (0.61 ppm) in the G4 granites with retention of Be in G3 granites due to partitioning of Be into cordierite during fractionation. The distribution of Nb and Ta is controlled by accessory phases such as rutile within the G4 granites, facilitated by high F and lowering the melt temperature, leading to disseminated Nb and Ta mineralisation. Lithium, In, Sn and W are hosted in biotite micas which may prove favourable for breakdown on ingress of hydrothermal fluids. Higher degrees of scattering on trace element plots may be attributable to fluid-rock interactions or variability within the magma chamber. The G3-G4 system is more boron

  3. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia


    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  4. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK


    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  5. Petrography and geochemistry of the topaz-bearing granite stocks in Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi, western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Lukkari


    Full Text Available The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi granite stocks at the western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi batholith are multiphase rapakivi granite intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz-bearing granite. The Artjärvi stock is composed of porphyritic and even-grained biotite granite and even-grained topaz granite, and the Sääskjärvi stock comprises even-grained biotite granite and porphyritic topazgranite. The granites are metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites, showing within-plate (WPG geochemical characteristics. The topaz granites from the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are petrographically and geochemically similar to other topaz-bearing rapakivi granites in Finland. The anomalous geochemistry of the topaz granite is essentially magmatic; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified its composition. Greisen veins, some of which are mineralized, are widely found associated with the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks.The most characteristic feature of the Artjärvi granite stock is a stockscheider at the roof contact of the topaz granite. The stockscheider is composed of schlieren layering and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The most probable mechanism for the formation of the schlieren layering is velocity-gradient sorting parallel to the flow, which led to accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and the residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures forming pegmatite layers. Textures like graphic intergrowths, aplitic groundmass and fan-shaped alkali feldspar crystals associated with the Artjärvi porphyritic biotite granite and pegmatite indicatecrystallization from undercooled magma. Miarolitic cavities found in the porphyritic biotite granite and topaz granite indicate at least local volatile saturation.

  6. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of anatexis in high-grade migmatite complexes of Central Spain: implications in the Hercynian evolution of Central Iberia (United States)

    Castiñeiras, Pedro; Villaseca, Carlos; Barbero, Luis; Martín Romera, Cristina


    U-Pb SHRIMP ages obtained in zircons from the Sotosalbos and Toledo anatectic complexes in Central Spain give new constraints to the evolution of the inner part of the Hercynian Iberian belt. Pre-Hercynian ages in zircons from the Sotosalbos complex (˜464 Ma) are well preserved and reveal that an age diversity of the Lower Paleozoic magmatism in the area exists, as previous data on westernmost orthogneisses yield significant older ages. Zircon ages in the pelite-derived granites from the Toledo complex also show an important Neoproterozoic age component which points to a metasedimentary protolith deposited maximally 560 Ma ago. Younger zircon populations in both complexes at ˜330 Ma in the Sotosalbos region and ˜317 Ma in the Toledo complex indicate an important diachronism between the anatectic processes in both areas but also that these processes are mainly unrelated to the generation of the later Hercynian granite batholith of Central Spain, which could be of deeper crustal derivation. In addition, as migmatization occurred late in the metamorphic cycle, after peak conditions were attained, the age of anatexis is younger than the age of the main Hercynian metamorphic event, which still is not well constrained.

  7. Central sleep apnea (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  8. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez


    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  9. Interrogating the Isabella Anomaly with the Central California Seismic Array (United States)

    Hansen, S. M.; Schmandt, B.; Dougherty, S. L.; Clayton, R. W.


    The Isabella positive velocity anomaly is located in the uppermost mantle beneath the Great Valley of Central California ( 36°N) and was first recognized by seismic tomography efforts in 1980. The geologic interpretation of this feature remains contentious however. The conventional interpretation is that the anomaly is related to the delamination of a dense mafic root associated with the formation of the Sierra Nevada batholith which lies to the east. Alternatively, the anomaly has been interpreted as a fossil slab fragment associated with the stalled subduction of the Monterey microplate which lies offshore. One of the challenges in interpreting the Isabella anomaly is the relatively poor resolution due to a lack of seismic data in and around the Great Valley. To help further constrain the subsurface structure in this region, we deployed a dense line of 40 broadband seismometers in Central California stretching from the Sierra foothills to the coast that recorded data during 2013-2015. Here we report on our on-going research efforts which include body and surface wave tomography as well as scattered wave imaging derived from P and S wave receiver functions. The most prominent feature observed in the receiver function imaging is a high amplitude crustal discontinuity which is observed over 80 km distance. This westward dipping feature begins near the surface beneath the Sierra foothills and reaches 25 km depth beneath the Great Valley. We speculate that this feature represents the top of a high velocity ophiolite body that underlies most of the Great Valley. Receiver functions also suggest the presence of eastward dipping velocity discontinuities in the uppermost mantle (40-80 km) below the western Great Valley. Body wave travel-time measurements indicate that the Isabella anomaly extends west to beneath the coastal range. These observations support the hypothesis that the Isabella anomaly is a slab fragment rather than a piece of delaminating lithosphere.

  10. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.


    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  11. Idaho Batholith Study Area Gravity Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32,152 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  12. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  13. Central Cord Syndrome (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Central Cord Syndrome Information Page Central Cord Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? Our understanding of central cord syndrome has increased greatly in recent decades as ...

  14. Central venous catheter - flushing (United States)

    ... this page: // Central venous catheter - flushing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have a central venous catheter. This is a tube that goes into a ...

  15. NIDDK Central Repository (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  16. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil (United States)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.


    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  17. Central Laboratories Services (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  18. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  19. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.


    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  20. Central Diffraction at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lämsä, Jerry W


    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  1. Lithospheric Structure in Central California: Towards Identifying the Tectonic Origin of the Isabella Anomaly (United States)

    Dougherty, S. L.; Clayton, R. W.


    The tectonic origin of the Isabella high-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath California's southern Great Valley is unclear. Previous low-resolution seismic imaging studies of the region have been unable to identify the structural connection between this upper mantle anomaly and the overlying lithosphere. The two dominant hypotheses attribute the Isabella anomaly to a fossil slab or the foundered lithospheric root of the Sierra Nevada batholith. The Central California Seismic Experiment (CCSE) is designed to distinguish between these hypotheses. We present results from the CCSE, which consists of 44 broadband seismometers currently deployed in a quasi-linear array spanning from the Pacific coast, across the Great Valley, to the Sierra Nevada foothills, at an approximate latitude of 36°N. Forward modeling of the 2D structure of the crust is performed using local earthquakes recorded by the CCSE and a finite-difference algorithm to provide constraints on the geometry and velocity of the seismic structure of the Great Valley. This sedimentary basin is suggested to be filled with very low velocity material at shallow depths and partially underlain by a high-velocity ophiolite body. Hence, a well-constrained basin structure will be important in correcting surface wave tomography and receiver function images. The impact of the Great Valley basin structure on body waves is evident by an observed delay in P-wave arrival times on the radial component relative to the vertical component for stations located within the basin. Surface waves along the CCSE array also show a distinct slowing by the valley at periods <10 sec. Data from teleseismic events recorded by the CCSE reveal scattered waves arriving tens of seconds after the S-wave, which we will interpret in terms of the lithospheric structure of the region by identifying the source location(s) of the scatterer(s). We may also gain insights into the structural connection between the Isabella anomaly and the

  2. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas


    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...

  3. Central-Acting Agents (United States)

    ... Vongpatanasin W, et al. Central sympatholytic drugs. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2011;13:658. Guanfacine hydrochloride. Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. Accessed June 10, ...

  4. Central nervous system (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  5. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E


    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  6. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  7. Central Asian Republic Info (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  8. South Central Ireland


    Somerville, I.D.; Waters, CN.; Collinson, J.D.


    The South Central Ireland region extends from the South Munster Basin north to the southern margin of the Dublin Basin and from Wexford in the southeast to the Burren in the northwest (Fig. 22.1). The region is dominated by strata of Mississippian age, with Pennsylvanian strata preserved in boreholes in south Co. Wexford and in the upper part of the Leinster and Kanturk Coalfields. Throughout the South Central region, the Tournaisian strata present below the Waulsortian mud-ban...

  9. Balanced Centrality of Networks (United States)

    Sciriha, Irene


    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings. PMID:27437494

  10. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid...... kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC...

  11. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler


    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  12. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  13. Centralized mouse repositories. (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T


    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  14. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  15. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank E.


    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  16. Channeling the Central Dogma


    Calabrese, Ronald L.


    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? O'Leary et al. address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma.

  17. Central Dogma Goes Digital. (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B


    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Channeling the Central Dogma. (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L


    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Central American Climatology (United States)


    Central America, as where mean temperatures are relatively warm throughout the year de- so spite seasonal rainfall changes. 75 Elevation, solar angle...November 1982 Control Hidalgo Anos.1952-1963, Republica de Nicaragua, Ministerio de Formento Y O0.PP, Comision Nacional de Energia . Craig, Richard A., The

  20. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they

  1. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab


    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  2. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies


    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah


    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  3. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies


    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.


    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  4. Central Florida, USA (United States)


    This view of central Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) shows both coasts of the Florida peninsula with Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center readily visible in the center on the Atlantic coast. Other features on the Earth which are visible through the clouds include Tampa Bay, several lakes and the Gulf of Mexico on Florida's east coast. The space shuttle's tail fin and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are seen in the foreground.

  5. West and Central Africa. (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J


    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  6. Central American resource studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.


    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Imaging of central neurocytomas. (United States)

    Donoho, Daniel; Zada, Gabriel


    Central neurocytoma (CN) is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of any intraventricular lesion. Initial evaluation should include noncontrast CT, MRI with and without gadolinium contrast, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, if available. CN classically appear as a partially calcified mass on CT, arising from the septum pellucidum or foramen of Monro, with a soap-bubble multicystic appearance on MR T2-imaging and heterogeneous enhancement on MR T1 postcontrast imaging. MR perfusion/permeability and dynamic contrast imaging are experimental and promising tools in the diagnosis of CN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Central Asia After 2014 (United States)


    low- est score possible in Freedom House’s Freedom in the World 2012 report.23 Karimov’s regime is yet another Central Asian government that has...Russia may have few other op- tions than to return to this partnership with a harder economic and security agenda. The BRIC (Brazil, Rus- sia, India...Disputes With China.” 73 55. “The Ural Summits: BRIC and the SCO,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, June 22, 2009. 56. “Naznachen novy spredstaviltel

  9. Central Sleep Apnea - Mayo Clinic (United States)

    ... sleep apnea while using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for their sleep apnea treatment. This condition is ... may increase the risk of central sleep apnea. CPAP. Some people with obstructive sleep apnea develop central ...

  10. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.


    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Alpha current flow betweenness centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Medyanikov, V.; Sokol, M.


    A class of centrality measures called betweenness centralities reflects degree of participation of edges or nodes in communication between different parts of the network. The original shortest-path betweenness centrality is based on counting shortest paths which go through a node or an edge. One of

  12. Central pain control. (United States)

    Calvino, Bernard; Grilo, Rose Marie


    We describe the anatomic and physiological components involved in pain physiology, with the goal of providing readers with the background information needed to understand central pain control mechanisms. These include spinal segmental controls, supraspinal excitatory and inhibitory controls, and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs). Pain is a subjective sensation produced by an emotionally unpleasant experience considered to originate in adaptive processes taking place within neuron networks located at various levels of the central nervous system. The intensity of the components of pain is influenced by the stimulus characteristics, patient-related factors, and the setting in which the stimulus occurs. The various components of pain and the psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie the affective dimension of pain are reviewed. As a conclusion, phantom pain is used to illustrate the role for physiological systems independent from those involved in the physiology of nociception and pain, such as the motor cortex. This example highlights the extreme complexity of pain and pain control systems in humans.

  13. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel


    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  14. Central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Munch, I.C.; Hasler, P.W.


    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a disease of the retina characterize by serous detachment of the neurosensory retina secondary to one or more focal lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). CSC occurs most frequently in mid-life and more often in men than in women. Major symptoms...... and hypercortisolism. Ophthalmoscopic signs of CSC range from mono- or paucifocal RPE lesions with prominent elevation of the neurosensory retina by clear fluid - typical of cases of recent onset - to shallow detachments overlying large patches of irregularly depigmented RPE. The spectrum of lesions includes RPE...... CSC, treatment should be considered. Resolution of detachment can usually be achieved in acute CSC by focal photocoagulation of leaking RPE lesions or, in chronic CSC, by photodynamic therapy. The effect of therapy on long-term visual outcome is insufficiently documented. Reattachment within 4 months...

  15. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  16. From the batholith to a monument: Machu Picchu


    Mendoza Delgadillo, J.


    La ciudad inca Machu Picchu fue construida, sobre el batolito que lleva el mismo nombre, en plena cordillera de Vilcabamba, nominación regional que toma la cordillera oriental de los Andes del sur del Perú. La cordillera de Vilcabamba está constituida por rocas del Paleozoico y Cenozoico y por batolitos hercínicos y permo-triásicos cuyos plutones intruyen rocas paleozoicas. Machu Picchu se encuentra en un área periglacial, consta de dos partes bien definidas: una urbana y otra agrícola. La pa...

  17. Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal (United States)

    Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio


    This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily

  18. Independent and Accountable Central Banks and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. B. de Sousa


    Full Text Available This paper begins with the concept of central bank independence and focuses its argument around one of its major drawbacks the potential absence of accountability by the monetary authority. Then, beyond defining an alternative legal central bank independence index, we analyse the current Statutes of thirty-two central banks, and we quantify their legal independence and accountability degrees. With that data, we confirm previous studies, showing evidence of a de jure negative relationship between central bank independence and democratic accountability, though not as strong as it is usually argued. Still, we remain aware that some very independent central banks are also very low accountable the European Central Bank (ECB is a good example. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a contract à la Walsh between the ECB and a European Community organ, and we ask for a more in-depth analysis and understanding of these subjects, in order to improve the EMU institutional picture.

  19. Localization and centrality in networks (United States)

    Martin, Travis; Zhang, Xiao; Newman, M. E. J.


    Eigenvector centrality is a common measure of the importance of nodes in a network. Here we show that under common conditions the eigenvector centrality displays a localization transition that causes most of the weight of the centrality to concentrate on a small number of nodes in the network. In this regime the measure is no longer useful for distinguishing among the remaining nodes and its efficacy as a network metric is impaired. As a remedy, we propose an alternative centrality measure based on the nonbacktracking matrix, which gives results closely similar to the standard eigenvector centrality in dense networks where the latter is well behaved but avoids localization and gives useful results in regimes where the standard centrality fails.

  20. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan


    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  1. Mexico and Central America. (United States)

    Bronfman, M


    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  2. General Centrality in a hypergraph


    Busseniers, Evo


    The goal of this paper is to present a centrality measurement for the nodes of a hypergraph, by using existing literature which extends eigenvector centrality from a graph to a hypergraph, and literature which give a general centrality measurement for a graph. We will use this measurement to say more about the number of communications in a hypergraph, to implement a learning mechanism, and to construct certain networks.

  3. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm


    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...

  4. Central African Republic. (United States)


    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  5. Central venous catheter - dressing change (United States)

    ... this page: // Central venous catheter - dressing change To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have a central venous catheter. This is a tube that goes into a ...

  6. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas


    We study the impact of central clearing of over-the-counter (OTC) transactions on counterparty exposures in a market with OTC transactions across several asset classes with heterogeneous characteristics. The impact of introducing a central counterparty (CCP) on expected interdealer exposure is de...

  7. Central presbycusis: an emerging view. (United States)

    Gates, George A


    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  8. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  9. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Canete Basin, Lima, Peru, a plate tectonic model for the Mesozoic evolution of the Central Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, A.M. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))


    An arc-trench system has been active in the Central Andes since at least since Late Triassic. This Mesozoic margin was characterized by subduction-erosion processes, PreMesozoic metamorphic outer basement high, pervasive extension, tectonic inversion, sporadic igneous activity and segmentation of the arc. Episodic variations in the tectonic evolution of the associated basins were controlled by the variable angle of subduction, age of the subducted plate, rate and angle of convergence, and the relative motion of the Farallon and South America Plates. The Canete Basin is an elongate frontal arc basin, subparallel to the arc, which documents the early evolution of the Andean Orogeny. In the Canete Basin, the oldest arc volcanism is documented by the interbedded tuffs, lava flows and tuffaceous marine shales of the Late Jurassic Puente Piedra Group which was deposited along a series of isolated and elongated troughs that formed adjacent to the arc. During Late Berriasian the arc subsided and the lithofacies changed from arc to continental derived lithologies. The shallow marine, quartz rich Morro Solar Group was derived from the uplifted metamorphic basement high in the west, as the result of ensialic extension. Locally, volcanic quiescence was interrupted by deposition of the volcaniclastic rich Pucusana Formation. The Late Hauterivian to Aptian Lima Group consists of lime mudstones, shales and subordinated gypsum and bioclastic limestones with volcaniclastic and lava flow facies of the Chilca Group. Stratigraphic relationship rapid changes in thickness and facies of this unit document the development of an incipient arc and the persistence of ensialic extension prior to the maximum paroxysm of volcanic activity of the overlying Albian to Cenomanian Chillon Group. Interbedded volcaniclastic sandstones, lava flows, hyaloclastic breccias and the tuffaceous shales of the Chillon Group were coeval with the early phases of emplacement of the Coastal Batholith (CB).

  10. Geologic Map of the Estes Park 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Braddock, William A.


    The rocks and landforms of the Estes Park 30 x 60 minute quadrangle display an exceptionally complete record of geologic history in the northern Front Range of Colorado. The Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the core of the range preserve evidence of Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentation, volcanism, and regional soft-sediment deformation, followed by regional folding and gradational metamorphism. The metasedimentary rocks of the Estes Park quadrangle are distinct within northern Colorado for preserving the complete metamorphic zonation from low-grade chlorite-muscovite phyllites, through middle greenschist-grade rocks with sequential aluminous porphyroblasts, to partially melted gneisses that contain high-grade cordierite and garnet in the non-melted residues. Regional and textural evidence shows that the widespread metamorphism was essentially concurrent with intrusion of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and related magmas and with the peak of deformation in the partially melted high-grade rocks. The metamorphic thermal pulse arrived later following the peak of deformation in the physically higher, cooler, low-grade terrane. Mesoproterozoic time was marked by intrusion of biotite granite in the Longs Peak-St Vrain batholith, a complex, irregular body that occupies nearly half of the core of the Front Range in this quadrangle. The magma was dry and viscous as it invaded the metamorphic rocks and caused wholesale plastic folding of the wall rock structure. Steep metamorphic foliation that resulted from the Paleoproterozoic deformations was bowed upward and re-oriented into flat-lying attitudes as the crystal-rich magma rose buoyantly and spread out in the middle crust. Magma invaded the schists and gneisses along weak foliation planes and produced a characteristic sill-upon-sill intrusive fabric, particularly in the higher parts of the batholith. Broad, open arches and swales that are defined by the flow-aligned feldspar foliation of the granite, as well as by

  11. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of central Antioquia Department (Zone IIA), Colombia (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Alvarez A., Jairo; Rico H., Hector


    This report summarizes the geology of an area of some 6000 square kilometers in the northern part of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The area, in north-central Department of Antioquia, was mapped between 1964 and 1968 as part of the Inventario Minero Nacional (IMN) project. Mineral resources are summarized within a larger area, designated as subzone ILK of IMN Zone If, which comprises almost 22,000 sq. kin, including the area mapped geologically by IMN and additional areas mapped by other agencies. The oldest formation is a micaceous paragneiss of early Paleozoic or possibly late Precambrian age. A thick geosynclinal sedimentary series accumulated during the Paleozoic Era and became regionally metamorphosed to greenschist (locally amphibolite) facies during the Permian or early Triassic; these schists and gneisses are designated collectively as the Valdivia Group. The Permian(?) orogenic episode included intrusion of concordant syntectonic plutons, mostly of tonalitic composition. Rocks of unequivocal Triassic or Jurassic age are not recognized. The Cretaceous is well represented by both igneous and sedimentary assemblages. Eugeosynclinal alpine ophiolites comprising submarine basalt flows and numerous intrusions of gabbro and serpentinite are prominent in the Lower Cretaceous, together with flysch composed of marine shale and lesser sandstone and conglomerate. The Upper Cretaceous is represented along the west border of the mapped area by submarine basalt flows and pyroclastic rocks, locally Interbedded with fine-grained clastic sedimentary beds, and lenses of dark laminated chert, at least part of which is radiolarian. The Late Cretaceous was marked by an orogenic event that profoundly folded and faulted all rocks and in the Central Cordillera caused low-grade metamorphism, the overprint of which is hardly observable in pre-Cretaceous rocks elsewhere. The Late Cretaceous orogeny culminated with discordant intrusion of the epizonal tonalitic

  13. The CDF Central Outer Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, K.T.; CDF Collaboration


    We describe the CDF Central Outer Tracker (COT), an open-cell drift chamber currently being constructed for the CDF detector to run at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron collider. This detector will provide central tracking with excellent momentum resolution in the high- density environment of a hadron collider. It will be able to resolve 132 ns beam crossings and provide tracking trigger information to the Level 1 trigger. The design is based upon the existing and successful CDF Central Tracking Chamber. The preliminary mechanical and electrical designs are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  15. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo


    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)




  17. About the Discriminant Power of the Subgraph Centrality and Other Centrality Measures About the Discriminant Power of the Subgraph Centrality and Other Centrality Measures(Working paper)


    Estrada, Ernesto


    The discriminant power of centrality indices for the degree, eigenvector, closeness, betweenness and subgraph centrality is analyzed. It is defined by the number of graphs for which the standard deviation of the centrality of its nodes is zero. On the basis of empirical analysis it is concluded that the subgraph centrality displays better discriminant power than the rest of centralities. We also propose some new conjectures about the types of graphs for which the subgraph centrality does not ...

  18. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  19. Operating room central serous chorioretinopathy. (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamam, Rola


    The operating room is a place of surgical intervention with its accompanying bodily and cognitive strain on the performers. Stress in the operating room may lead to the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy as reported hereby in a retina surgeon and is labeled as operating room central serous chorioretinopathy. The same operator performed the optical coherence tomography scans on one retina surgeon. A masked observer estimated the maximal height of the subretinal fluid. Central serous chorioretinopathy recurred four times over a 1-year period 1 -2 days after a stressful day in the operating room, especially when cases were done under topical or subtenon anesthesia for cataract surgery, vitreous surgery or combined surgeries with complex ocular and medical problems and inability for anesthesia team to intervene. Stress management allowed resolution of subretinal fluid between 3 and 4 weeks. Adopting this strategy, no further attacks were documented by optical coherence tomography for 5 years. (1) This is one of a few optical coherence tomography documentation of resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy within 3-4 weeks of its occurrence and its recurrence induced by stress in the operating room; (2) Unassisted topical anesthesia required in patients with complex medical and ocular problems causes more cognitive stress than when surgery is carried under assisted local or general anesthesia (partly due to unexpected ocular or bodily movements); and (3) the available evidence suggests that those overcommitted surgeons (type A personality) may very well be most susceptible to burnout and central serous chorioretinopathy.

  20. Downward Crustal Flow During Magma Ascent in the Central Sierran Arc (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.; Zhang, T.; Economos, R.; Memeti, V.; Pignotta, G. S.; Mundil, R.


    Our studies in two areas of the Yosemite region, central Sierra Nevada, California, including the Cinko Lake area to the north and Soldier Lake area on the eastern margin of the Tuolumne batholith, have documented significant downward displacement of Jurassic to Cretaceous volcanic rocks during pluton intrusion. In both areas, plutons and intruded metavolcanic units share down-dip foliated and lineated fabrics. In the Cinko Lake area, the Harriet Lake (102 Ma) and Fremont Lake granodiorite (units (102 to 107 Ma). The Harriet Lake, although variably recrystallized, and the younger Fremont granodiorites, contain hornblendes which exhibit "reverse zoning" with low Al and Ti cores, which we attribute to pseudomorphic replacement after pyroxene. Hornblende rims adjacent to quartz and plagioclase yield HBLD-PLAG estimates of emplacement conditions (calibrations of Anderson and Smith, 1995; Holland and Blundy, 1994) of 684 to 726 C at 2.6 kb for the Fremont intrusion and 684 to 698 C at 2.5 kb for the Harriet Lake, corresponding to emplacement depths of 9 to 10 km. Using the same thermobarometric calibrations in the Solder Lake area, pluton emplacement pressure (depth) lowers with age, including 3.2 kb at 731 C for the Jurassic (165 Ma) Green Lake pluton, 2.3 kb at 696 C for the Soldier Lake (97 Ma) granodiorite, and 1.6 kb at 661 C for the Cathedral Peak (86 Ma) granodiorite. The Cathedral Peak emplacement conditions are problematic. Although consistent with that recently reported by Gray et al. (2008), the implications are either widespread, high-temperature, subsolidus reequilibration or boron solidus temperature reduction. We prefer the latter, given the preponderance of tourmaline-bearing granitic dikes that emanate out of this particular pluton. Metavolcanic and metasedimentary units achieved peak metamorphic conditions of middle to high amphibolite grade near plutons as evidenced by a range of mineral assemblages. HBLD-PLAG thermometry, at pressures derived from

  1. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas. (United States)

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P


    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Mansour


    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  3. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav


    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination,

  4. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc


    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a

  5. Central African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed general medical journal which seeks to promote the practice and science of medicine in Africa. Emphasis is placed on general medical topics, reflecting common and important conditions in the region. The journal also covers related medical fields. Submissions ...

  6. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  7. How transparent are central banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.W. Eijffinger (Sylvester); P.M. Geraats (Petra)


    textabstractCentral bank transparency has become the topic of a lively public and academic debate on monetary policy. However, this has been complicated by the fact that transparency is a qualitative concept that is hard to measure. This paper proposes an index for the transparency of monetary

  8. Central pontine myelinolysis CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential diagnosis of central pontine myelinolysis includes infarct, metastasis, glioma, multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.3 However concomitant involvement of the pons and basal ganglia is specific for osmotic myelinolysis.7 In such cases the imaging differential diagnosis includes hypoxia, ...

  9. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)


    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely

  10. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida


    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  11. Fire management in central America (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán


    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  12. Network Centrality of Metro Systems (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil


    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  13. The Case for Central Bank Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob De Haan


    Full Text Available This paper reviews arguments for central bank independence and presents new evidence on the impact of central bank (independence on the level and variability of inflation, money growth, the level and financing of government budget deficits and economic growth, using three different measures of central bank independence. There are indications that countries with an independent central bank experience a lower and more stable inflation rate than countries with a central bank which comes under direct political control. Moreover, central bank credit to government and government budget deficits are lower, while economic growth is not directly affected by central bank independence.

  14. Is Central Asia really exsiccating? (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.


    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  15. Origin of the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain). Implications for the Origin of Magnetic Anomalies in the Central Iberian Arc (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.; Villalain, J. J.; Alvarez Lobato, F.; Martin Paramio, M.; Rodriguez Gómez, S.; Sanz López, M.


    The aeromagnetic map of Iberia features outstanding anomalies that have been key to define the Central Iberian Arc, a late-orogenic orocline in the western part of the Variscan belt. The most studied of them is the EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly), which follows the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome and is probably associated with it. Among the existing models of this anomaly, those relating it with magnetite-rich inhomogeneous granites and migmatites formed during late-Variscan extension seem to be more plausible ones. However, this and other interpretations involving deep-seated mafic/ultramafic bodies lack resolution as they are based on the aeromagnetic dataset. New ground magnetic data have been acquired in the northern part of the Xistral Tectonic Window, at the core of the Lugo dome where its deepest rocks crop out. The resulting maps show that the anomaly ranges ~1000 nT (vs. 190 nT on the aeromagnetic map) and that the most important maxima lie on top of extensional detachments located on high-grade metasediments or inhomogeneous granites. 2D forward modeling indicates that the magnetization is carried by upper Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian metasediments, partially melted during late-Variscan high-T and low-P metamorphic event linked to the extensional collapse. Furthermore, the anomaly maxima are spatially related with detachments, where the metasediments were strongly sheared. Therefore, the P-T, redox and fluid pressure conditions necessary for the formation of magnetite seem related with the extensional process and the dynamics of its structures. Many magnetic anomalies of the Central Iberian Arc lie on top of Variscan extensional domes and accordingly may have a similar origin. Special attention is paid to the Gredos Magnetic Anomaly, coincident with the batholith of the same name. Preliminary magnetic mapping and modeling indicate that the anomaly is previous to the intrusion of the Jurassic Alentejo-Plasencia dyke and to the tardi

  16. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.


    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  17. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.


    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  18. Central Asia Active Fault Database (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah


    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  19. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook, (United States)


    resistant "stone-lovers" and "sand-lovers" (Ammophila arenaria ) and also halophytes. Zoogeographically, Central Asia is a kingdom of ungulates and rodents...Lasiagrostis, reeds, heterophyllous poplarB, small species of Carex , and tamarisk. In such "wandering" oases small streams are frequently found with lengths...bushes and underbushes belonging to the "kamnelyuby," "peskolyuby," (Ammophila arenaria ) and "solelyuby." Annual plants do not play any noticeable,role

  20. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  1. Pseudorandomness in Central Force Optimization


    Formato, Richard A.


    Central Force Optimization is a deterministic metaheuristic for an evolutionary algorithm that searches a decision space by flying probes whose trajectories are computed using a gravitational metaphor. CFO benefits substantially from the inclusion of a pseudorandom component (a numerical sequence that is precisely known by specification or calculation but otherwise arbitrary). The essential requirement is that the sequence is uncorrelated with the decision space topology, so that its effect i...

  2. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Rachwal, Bartlomiej


    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  3. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F. [INM Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Caroli, E. [Policlinico S. Andrea, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery


    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival.

  4. Structure and age of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin basement, northern Colombia: New reflection-seismic and U-Pb-Hf insights into the termination of the central andes against the Caribbean basin (United States)

    Mora-Bohórquez, J. Alejandro; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Oncken, Onno; de Freitas, Mario; Vélez, Vickye; Mesa, Andrés; Serna, Lina


    Detailed interpretations of reflection seismic data and new U-Pb and Hf isotope geochemistry in zircon, reveal that the basement of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin is the northward continuation of the basement terranes of the northern Central Cordillera, and thus that the Lower Magdalena experienced a similar pre-Cenozoic tectonic history as the latter. New U-Pb and Hf analyses of zircon from borehole basement samples retrieved in the basin show that the southeastern region consists of Permo-Triassic (232-300Ma) metasediments, which were intruded by Late Cretaceous (75-89 Ma) granitoids. In the northern Central Cordillera, west of the Palestina Fault System, similar Permo-Triassic terranes are also intruded by Late Cretaceous felsic plutons and display ESE-WNW-trending structures. Therefore, our new data and analyses prove not only the extension of the Permo-Triassic Tahamí-Panzenú terrane into the western Lower Magdalena, but also the along-strike continuity of the Upper Cretaceous magmatic arc of the northern Central Cordillera, which includes the Antioquia Batholith and related plutons. Hf isotopic analyses from the Upper Cretaceous Bonga pluton suggest that it intruded new crust with oceanic affinity, which we interpret as the northern continuation of a Lower Cretaceous oceanic terrane (Quebradagrande?) into the westernmost Lower Magdalena. Volcanic andesitic basement predominates in the northwestern Lower Magdalena while Cretaceous low-grade metamorphic rocks that correlate with similar terranes in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Guajira are dominant in the northeast, suggesting that the Tahamí-Panzenú terrane does not extend into the northern Lower Magdalena. Although the northeastern region of the Lower Magdalena has a similar NE-SW fabric as the San Lucas Ridge of the northeastern Central Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, lithologic and geochronologic data suggest that the San Lucas terrane terminates to the north against the

  5. Crustal structure of Central Sicily (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo


    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  6. Neurocitoma no sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Torquato Severo


    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com 6 anos de idade, hospitalizada com síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana. Após o exame neuro-radiológico que evidenciou processo expansivo frontal direito, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia, durante a qual ocorreu o óbito. O exame histo-patológico do material retirado durante o ato operatório, permitiu o diagnóstico de neurocitoma, tumor raro no sistema nervoso central.

  7. Increasing production at Cerrejon Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climent, J.; Alvarez, M.


    Colombian coal miner Prodeco is hoping to increase production of its opencast Cerrejon Central mine from 3.1 Mt in 1996 to 10 Mt by 2002. This article discusses how this is to be achieved. The development programme, presently in Phase II of three phases, will affect not only the mine itself but also include improvements to loading facilities at Santa Marta port, at the company`s head office, and construction of a new port nearby. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 3 photos.

  8. Puente del Pedrido, tramo central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo


    Full Text Available Planteada la necesidad de proceder a la ejecución del tramo central del puente en el Pasaje del Pedrido sobre la ría de Betanzos, y encontrándonos con que las armaduras para el mismo, que ya estaban acopiadas a pie de obra antes de la guerra, estaban totalmente no tuvimos inconveniente, puesto que habían de adquirirse de nuevo, en introducir algunas ligeras modificaciones sobre el proyecto anterior, a fin de reducir en lo posible el coste de la obra.

  9. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Roberto


    Full Text Available Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented.

  10. Central Difference Formula in Numerical Analysis. (United States)

    de Alwis, Tilak


    Describes numerical differentiation and the central difference formula in numerical analysis. Presents three computer programs that approximate the first derivative of a function utilizing the central difference formula. Analyzes conditions under which the approximation formula is exact. (MDH)

  11. Central Asia: A New Great Game? (United States)


    Baku’s interest in reuniting with Iran’s Azeri population in return for a nonaggressive policy in Central Asia .25 Finally, the investment funds needed...change of focus. Instead, America’s "damage control " is best achieved through the development of free market democracies in Central Asia . Our strategic...relative freedom of action for the Central Asian states. Moscow may succeed in its gradual reintegration of Central Asia into a Russian sphere of control

  12. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure


    Campiteli, Monica G.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Soles, Paulo R. C.; Soares, Leonardo H. D.; Kinouchi, Osame


    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigen...

  13. A structuralist theory of central bank independence


    Eduardo Zambrano


    Can a heterodox economist find arguments in favor of Central Bank independence? Economists currently favor arguments in favor of Central Bank independence based on Barro-Gordon (1983 a,b), a very ‘orthodox' model. Consequently, those who view the economic orthodoxy with suspicion tend to question Central Bank independence. I argue that Central Bank independence can be beneficial even in a very ‘structuralist' economy: one in which workers are unionized, firms are cartelized and inflation aris...

  14. Central bank independence and inflation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.


    We re-examine the relationship between central bank independence (CBI), proxied by the central bank governor's turnover rate and an indicator based on central bank laws in place, and inflation using a random coefficient model with the Hildreth-Houck estimator for more than 100 countries in the

  15. Central bank independence and inflation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We re-examine the relationship between central bank independence (CBI), proxied by the central bank governor's turnover rate and an indicator based on central bank laws in place, and inflation using a random coefficient model with the Hildreth-Houck estimator for more than 100 countries in the

  16. Accountability of Central Banks : Aspects and Quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Amtenbrink, F.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.


    This paper starts with a discussion of the various aspects of accountability of central banks. On the basis of this discussion we construct an indicator for accountability for 16 central banks, including the European Central Bank. It is shown that the degree of accountability differs considerably

  17. AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Central Neuropathic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Loeser, John D.; Jensen, Troels Staehelin


    . This article focuses on central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, but the AAPT framework can be extended to central pain due to other causes such as traumatic brain injury. The classification of central neuropathic pain is organized according to the AAPT...

  18. "Christofest" New Yorgi Central Parkis / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-


    12. II 2005. a. avatakse Christo ja Jeanne-Claude'i keskkonnainstallatsioon "The Gates" New Yorgi Central Parkis. Paralleelselt toimub Metropolitan Muuseumis näitus "Christo and Jeanne-Claude : The Gates, Central Park, New York", kus eksponeeritakse Central Parki installatsiooni ettevalmistavaid materjale: joonistusi, diagramme, fotosid jne

  19. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education....301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1... of the sources listed in the directory; and (2) Enable the parent of a child eligible under this part...

  20. 34 CFR 303.162 - Central directory. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central directory. 303.162 Section 303.162 Education... Central directory. Each application must include information and assurances demonstrating to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the State has developed a central directory of information that meets the...

  1. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars


    standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...

  2. Pathology of Central American refugees. (United States)

    Molesky, J


    Almost every city in the US has Central American refugees; Houston has 150,000 Salvadorans; San Francisco has 80,000-150,000; and Los Angeles has more than 250,000. There are over 1/2 million Salvadorans in the US, and the number of Guatemalans increases every year. Suffering many losses and burdened in a shadowed life, the refugee is angry, frustrated, and depressed. Mental health specialists in San Francisco observe how similar the refugees symptoms seem to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the psychological syndrome 1st described among Viet Nam veterans and disaster victims in the 1970s. An informal survey of 50 Salvadoran clients in an out-patient program at San Fernando Valley Community Mental Health in Southern California found that PTSD was prevalent in most cases, with 19% of the group reporting depression as a major symptom and 54% seriously ill enough to require medication. There seems to be a consensus among many mental health workers that one way out of PTSD is group work with fellow victims. When Central American refugees find themselves in an emotional crisis, there are few resources of mental health aid for them. Support groups help replicate the organic family support system that so many refugees left behind in their own countries.

  3. Geothermal initiatives in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanold, R.J.; Loose, V.W.; Laughlin, A.W.; Wade, P.E.


    The US Agency for International Development is supporting a new project in energy and resources exploitation for Central America. One of the largest components of the project involves exploration and reservoir development investigations directed at enhancing the production of electricity from the region's geothermal resources. An assessment of the geothermal resources of Honduras is in progress, and interesting geothermal regions in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica are being explored. Well-logging activities are in progress in the production wells at the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica, and preparations are being made for logging critical wells at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. A self-contained logging truck, complete with high-temperature logging cable and logging tools designed for geothermal service, is being fabricated and will be made available for dedicated use throughout Central America. Geochemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected in Panama are being evaluated to select a high-priority geothermal site in that country. Application of low- and medium-enthalpy geothermal fluids for industrial and agricultural processes is being investigated in Guatemala.

  4. Concept of the central clip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Chan, Pak Hei; Foin, Nicolas


    AIMS: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with the MitraClip(®) was shown to be a safe and feasible alternative compared to conventional surgical mitral valve repair. We analyse the concept of the central clip and the predictors for the need of more than one MitraClip(®) in our high...... with transoesophageal echocardiographic (TOE) guidance. Device success was defined as placement of one or more MitraClips(®) with a reduction of MR to ≤2+. Patients were followed up clinically and with TOE at one month and one year. From September 2009 to March 2012, 43 patients with severe MR with a mean age of 74.......8±10.7 years (30 males, 13 females; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24.1±11, mean LVEF 47.5±18.5%; mean±SD) were treated. Median follow-up was 385 days (104-630; Q1-Q3). Device implantation success was 93%. All patients were treated following the central clip concept: 52.5% of MR was degenerative in aetiology and 47...

  5. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  6. Cancer mortality in central Serbia. (United States)

    Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana; Cirkovic, Andia; Zivkovic, Snezana; Stanic, Danica; Skodric-Trifunovic, Vesna


    Cancer is the one of the leading cause of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine cancer mortality trends in the population of central Serbia in the period from 2002 to 2011. The descriptive epidemiological method was used. The mortality from all malignant tumors (code C00-C96 of the International Disease Classification) was registered. The source of mortality data was the published material of the Cancer Registry of Serbia. The source of population data was the census of 2002 and 2011 and the estimates for inter-census years. Non-standardized, age-adjusted and age-specific mortality rates were calculated. Age adjustment of mortality rates was performed by the direct method of standardization. Trend lines were estimated using linear regression. During 2002-2011, cancer caused about 20% of all deaths each year in central Serbia. More men (56.9%) than women (43.1%) died of cancer. The average mortality rate for men was 1.3 times higher compared to women. A significant trend of increase of the age-adjusted mortality rates was recorded both for males (pSerbia during the period from 2002 to 2011, there was an increasing trend in mortality rates due to cancers in both sexes. Cancer mortality in males was 1.3-fold higher compared to females.

  7. [Central venous blood gas analysis]. (United States)

    Marano, Marco; D'Amato, Anna; Guiotto, Giovanna; Schiraldi, Fernando


    The hemodialysis might interfere with patients hemodynamic, as the technique allows a sophisticated game with extra and intravascular fluids. As the cardiocirculatory response could sometimes be unpredictable, it is interesting to collect valuable information by reaching a deep understanding of the tissue metabolism which is mirrored by the blood gas analysis of variations in arterial and central venous blood samples. Particularly interesting are the time course variations of the central venous hemoglobin saturation (ScvO2), which are directly related to the patient with O2-demand as well as to the O2-Delivery (DO2). The ScvO2 is determined by four parameters (cardiac output, Hb concentration, arterial Hb saturation and O2 consumption): If the fluids subtraction during dialysis was about to determine an occult hypoperfusion, the ScvO2 reduction would be a timely warning sign to be considered. Moreover, while the normal veno-arterial PCO2 difference is 2-4 mmHg, whenever a mismatch between O2-demand and DO2arise, a larger v-aPCO2 difference should be observed.

  8. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL


    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  9. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central. (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander; Lopez, Federico; Garcia, Leyla; Giraldo, Olga; Bucheli, Victor; Dumontier, Michel


    A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at

  10. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Garcia


    Full Text Available A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at

  11. Educated Cities and Regional Centralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper

    This paper provides an overview of Danish student to population ratios in post-primary education from 1982 to 2013. Using administrative register data I document a nationally increased share of enrolled students to population over the 32 years period. The increase followed a pattern of regional...... centralization where the shares of students rose significantly more in urban municipalities than non-urban municipalities. The highest shares of students as well as fastest increases were seen in the municipalities of the four largest cities, Copenhagen, Århus, Odense, and Aalborg. At the national level......, the increases in shares of students to population was driven by medium length and long tertiary as well as high school enrollment. The tertiary enrolled students, however, were unproportionally centred in the urban municipalities. Non-urban municipalities had relatively higher levels of high school...

  12. Central myofibroma of the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur


    Full Text Available Myofibroma is a rare benign localized or generalized proliferation of myofibroblastic tissue occurring mostly in infants or children. In the oral region, most lesions occur in the mandible, lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue; however, the lesions arising in the maxilla are very rare. Myofibroma has an aggressive clinical presentation and is often treated aggressively because of an inappropriate diagnosis. A unique feature of central myofibroma of the jaws is the potential for teeth and other odontogenic structures to be involved by tumor. We report a case of myofibroma arising in the left side of the maxilla of a 12-year-old girl and describe the differential diagnosis from other spindle cell lesions of neural and smooth muscle origin. We treated the case using surgical excision under general anesthesia. Immunohistochemical staining was done for establishing the diagnosis since histopathological diagnosis with conventional staining could not distinguish myofibroma from spindle cell tumors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  14. Wooden Calendars from Central Rhodopes (United States)

    Koleva, V.


    Four wooden calendars from the village of Polkovnik Serafimovo, Smolyan region, in the Central Rhodopes are presented here, and three of them - for the first time. The shape and size, the kind of the signs and structure of the calendar record bear the characteristic features of the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The short notches on the edges represent the days of the year in the Julian (solar) calendar. The special signs on the sides mark the fixed festivals of the Orthodox Church calendar and are also influenced by the local tradition. The type of the signs confirms that the wooden sticks belong to the group of calendars from the Central Rhodopes. According to the beginning date of the calendar record on the sticks, two of the calendars are of the April (May) or October (November) type which corresponds to the very popular economic division of the year in the folk calendar into two periods -- warm and cold. The other two sticks, which are very similar to each other, make an exception in this respect among the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The months are divided into four groups (seasons) on each of the four edges of the stick (only one calendar from Burgas region has the same structure). The most interesting thing about the two sticks is that this is the only case among all known Bulgarian calendars that the beginning of the calendar record coincides with the beginning of the civil year on 1st January (January type) like some wooden calendars from Western Europe. Nowadays it is getting harder and harder to find wooden calendars in Bulgaria and in the neighbouring Balkan countries. The thorough knowledge about them could be helpful in various scientific fields, e.g. history of religion, ethnology, history of astronomy and mathematics, as well as semiotics.

  15. Neoproterozoic A-type granitoids of the central and southern Appalachians: Intraplate magmatism associated with episodic rifting of the Rodinian supercontinent (United States)

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Bartholomew, M.J.; Rankin, D.W.


    Emplacement of compositionally distinctive granitic plutons accompanied two pulses (765-680 and 620-550Ma) of crustal extension that affected the Rodinian craton at the present location of the central Appalachians during the Neoproterozoic. The dominantly metaluminous plutons display mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of A-type granites including high FeO t/MgO ratios, high abundances of Nb, Zr, Y, Ta, and REE (except Eu), and low concentrations of Sc, Ba, Sr, and Eu. These dike-like, sheet complexes occur throughout the Blue Ridge province of Virginia and North Carolina, and were emplaced at shallow levels in continental crust during active extension, forming locally multiple-intrusive plutons elongated perpendicular to the axis of extension. New U-Pb zircon ages obtained from the Polly Wright Cove (706??4Ma) and Suck Mountain (680??4Ma) plutons indicate that metaluminous magmas continued to be replenished near the end of the first pulse of rifting. The Suck Mountain body is presently the youngest known igneous body associated with earlier rifting. U-Pb zircon ages for the Pound Ridge Granite Gneiss (562??5Ma) and Yonkers Gneiss (563??2Ma) in the Manhattan prong of southeastern New York constitute the first evidence of plutonic felsic activity associated with the later period of rifting in the U.S. Appalachians, and suggest that similar melt-generation processes were operative during both intervals of crustal extension. Fractionation processes involving primary minerals were responsible for much of the compositional variation within individual plutons. Compositions of mapped lithologic units in a subset of plutons studied in detail define overlapping data arrays, indicating that, throughout the province, similar petrologic processes operated locally on magmas that became successively more chemically evolved. Limited variation in source-sensitive Y/Nb and Yb/Ta ratios is consistent with results of melting experiments and indicates that metaluminous

  16. Approximating centrality in evolving graphs: toward sublinearity (United States)

    Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George


    The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.

  17. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz


    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  18. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  19. Lobby index as a network centrality measure (United States)

    Campiteli, M. G.; Holanda, A. J.; Soares, L. D. H.; Soles, P. R. C.; Kinouchi, O.


    We study the lobby index (l-index for short) as a local node centrality measure for complex networks. The l-index is compared with degree (a local measure), betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two global measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II). In both networks, the l-index has a poor correlation with betweenness but correlates with degree and Eigenvector centralities. Although being local, the l-index carries more information about its neighbors than degree centrality. Also, it requires much less time to compute when compared with Eigenvector centrality. Results show that the l-index produces better results than degree and Eigenvector centrality for ranking purposes.

  20. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I


    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  1. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.


    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  2. Central-Monitor Software Module (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad


    One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

  3. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles


    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  4. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Oliver


    Given the distributed nature of the grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and scared around the globe, VOs are facing the challenge to monitor the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard SSB (Site Status Board) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be set. During the integration of the CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were implemented; all in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can use them as well. Alongside these enhancements, there were a few changes to the core of the SSB framework from which the CMS production team was able to benefit. We will present the details of the implementation and the adva...

  5. Central heating: a complete guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, J.


    It is increasingly important to have a heating system that is economical to install and run. This book is specially written for the layman. After an initial definition of central heating, which will dispel some common misapprehensions, the reader is taken from first principles to detailed cases. The vices and virtues of the different systems--hot water, warm air, or direct radiation--are discussed. There is complete information on how much each system costs to run through a typical winter using any fuel, and--vital for the prospective purchaser trying to find the right system for his long-term budget--further charts and tables show the comparative cost of each system considering both capital costs (including hire purchase), and running costs. The optimum size and output of heating equipment for all different shapes and sizes of room are set out to arm the purchaser against the partisan claims of heating contractors and the incompetent or unscrupulous actions of installers. Thermal insulation, in principle and in operation, is explained and advice is given on how to calculate real return from money spent.

  6. Unihemispheric central nervous system vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikawat Thanaviratananich


    Full Text Available Patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV usually manifest with multiple enhancing bilateral hemispheric lesions. We presented an extremely rare clinical course and follow-up of a patient with PCNSV affecting only a single (right hemisphere. A 33-year-old previously healthy man presented with a left hand clonic seizure followed by a secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure and dysarthria. MRI brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions confined to only the right hemisphere with contrast enhancement, involving both white and grey matters. He was treated with a methylprednisolone for 5 days followed by prednisone for suspected acute disseminated encephalomyelitis without improvements. He was presented again with left-sided weakness, transient dysarthria and black objects in left visual field. MRI brain was unchanged. MR angiogram and conventional cerebral angiogram were normal. Autoimmune work-ups were all negative. A brain biopsy showed evidence of PCNSV. He was then successfully treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide followed by oral azathioprine. On a follow-up 3 years later, he remains asymptomatic on azathioprine and a repeat MRI showed all areas of enhancement were gone.

  7. Central neural pathways for thermoregulation (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro


    Central neural circuits orchestrate a homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the functional organization of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for heat loss, the brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart for thermogenesis and species-dependent mechanisms (sweating, panting and saliva spreading) for evaporative heat loss. These effectors are regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific neural pathways that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuits include cutaneous thermal receptors, spinal dorsal horn neurons and lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons projecting to the preoptic area to influence warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. PMID:21196160

  8. Central corneal thickness in glaucoma. (United States)

    Sng, Chelvin C A; Ang, Marcus; Barton, Keith


    The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of central corneal thickness (CCT) in the clinical management of a glaucoma patient. The prognostic value of CCT is well recognized in patients with ocular hypertension. However, its predictive value in other glaucoma suspects and patients with established glaucoma is less certain. Tonometry artefacts can result from variations in CCT. However, an adequately validated correction algorithm for Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements does not exist. Newer methods of tonometry are potentially less influenced by CCT but are limited in their clinical use. There may also be biological and genetic associations between corneal thickness and glaucoma. Demographics, environmental factors, glaucoma treatment and the measurement device used have a significant influence on CCT, and should be considered when interpreting the effect of cornea thickness in patients with glaucoma. New measurements of the biomechanical properties of the cornea are likely to be better approximations of the globe biomechanics than CCT, but these require further evaluation. The clinical significance of CCT is well recognized in the context of glaucoma diagnosis and management, though the extent of its importance remains debatable. Corneal biomechanical properties may be more significantly associated with glaucoma than CCT.

  9. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad


    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  10. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks


    Solá Conde, Luis; Romance del Río, Miguel; Criado, R.; Flores Álvarez, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano


    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the...

  11. Starling curves and central venous pressure


    Berlin, Cheryl; Bakker, Jan


    textabstractRecent studies challenge the utility of central venous pressure monitoring as a surrogate for cardiac preload. Starting with Starling’s original studies on the regulation of cardiac output, this review traces the history of the experiments that elucidated the role of central venous pressure in circulatory physiology. Central venous pressure is an important physiologic parameter, but it is not an independent variable that determines cardiac output.

  12. Urban history and modernity in Central Europe


    Klautke, E. F.


    This historiographical review discusses recent literature on cities in modern Central Europe – mainly on Berlin and Vienna – which reflects the great variety of approaches to urban history and underlines the importance of urban history for the study of modernity. The history of urbanisation was a central event in the history of modernity. Especially in the Central European capitals of Berlin and Vienna, where modernisation and urban growth started later and then advanced quicker than in West ...

  13. A LATE BRITTLE COMPONENT OF MOTION WITHIN THE DUCTILE EASTERN SIERRA CREST SHEAR ZONE (ESCSZ) ALONG THE EASTERN BOUNDARY OF THE TOLUMNE BATHOLITH IN THE SADDLEBAG LAKE, CA AREA. WHITESIDES, Andrew1, ENRIQUEZ, Marcus2 , HARDY, Jill1 , EHRET, Philip1, IANNONE, Monika1, CULBERT, Kristan1 GROSS, Ben3, LODEWYK, Jessica3, CAO, Wenrong1 , ZHANG, Tao1, MEMETI, Valbone3, PATERSON, Scott1 SCHMIDT, Keegan4. (1) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, , (2) Department of Geological Sciences, Cal State L.A., 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, (3) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Campus Box 1169, 1 Brookings Dr, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, (4) Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Lewis-Clark State College, 500 8th Ave., Lewiston, ID 83501 (United States)

    Whitesides, A. S.; Enriquez, M.; Hardy, J.; Ehret, P.; Iannone, M.; Culbert, K. N.; Gross, M. B.; Lodewyk, J.; Cao, W.; Zhang, T.; Memeti, V.; Paterson, S. R.; Schmidt, K. L.


    During mapping (by the Undergraduate Team Research program, University of Southern California) in the Saddlebag Lake pendant just along the eastern margin of the Tuolumne batholith we have discovered a brittle slip component in the ESCSZ that juxtaposes largely metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock packages. The metasedimentary package is dominated by bedded sandstones and siltstones and local conglomerates whereas the metavolcanics show a large range of volcanic and volcaniclastic units. All of the units dip steeply and have an average N-NW strike. Dextral oblique ductile shear is distributed in domains in both rock packages with varying width from ~2 km in the South to ~1 km in the North. Shear sense in planes at high angles to a steep to SW plunging mineral lineation include S-C structures, shear bands, asymmetrical folding, sigma and delta clasts, and asymmetrical boudins. Partitioning of shear is common with the metarhyolites and metasediments showing higher non-coaxial strain than in the metaandesite and metadacite units. Map-scale “z-shaped” asymmetrical folds within the shear zone are also consistent with dextral shearing. Folded and sheared dikes of the 88-85 Ma Cathedral Peak phase of the Tuolumne batholith are common in the shear zone. A newly discovered brittle slip surface with breccias, gouge, and local pseudotachylite and large quartz veins was also mapped in the center of the ductile shear zone typically along the contact between the western metasedimentary and eastern metavolcanics (often a metarhyolite at the contact) on the east. Local slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes indicate that the brittle fault also had oblique dextral movement, similar to the ductile shear zone. In the mapped area no dikes originating from the TB cross the brittle fault and some are terminated at the brittle fault surface We interpret these observations to indicate northward displacement of the metasedimentary package by first ductile then brittle faulting during

  14. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi


    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  15. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark (United States)


    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  16. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge


    in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...... in organisational structure, tasks, culture and time with performance contracts is expected to affect the contract content, hypotheses on variation across agencies are deduced. The empirical basis of the paper is a study of all performance contracts between parent ministries and subordinate agencies in Danish...

  17. Central cord injury: pathophysiology, management, and outcomes. (United States)

    Harrop, James S; Sharan, Ashwini; Ratliff, Jonathon


    Cervical spinal trauma can result in a heterogeneous collection of spinal cord injury syndromes. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome is a common category of which no uniform consensus on the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment exists. To evaluate and review potential pathophysiology, current treatment options, and management of central cord injuries. Comprehensive literature review and clinical experience. A systematic review of Medline for articles related to central cord and spinal cord injury was conducted up to and including journal articles published in September 2005. Central cord injuries is a clinical definition which is composed of a heterogeneous population for which medical management and surgical decompression and stabilization provide improved neurologic recovery.

  18. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo


    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  19. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks (United States)

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano


    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced.

  20. Spectral centrality measures in complex networks. (United States)

    Perra, Nicola; Fortunato, Santo


    Complex networks are characterized by heterogeneous distributions of the degree of nodes, which produce a large diversification of the roles of the nodes within the network. Several centrality measures have been introduced to rank nodes based on their topological importance within a graph. Here we review and compare centrality measures based on spectral properties of graph matrices. We shall focus on PageRank (PR), eigenvector centrality (EV), and the hub and authority scores of the HITS algorithm. We derive simple relations between the measures and the (in)degree of the nodes, in some limits. We also compare the rankings obtained with different centrality measures.

  1. Complication rates among peripherally inserted central venous catheters and centrally inserted central catheters in the medical intensive care unit. (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew E; Yadav, Hemang; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo


    There are limited contemporary data describing the rates of catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (CRDVT) and central line-associated bloodstream infection for peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central venous catheters (CICCs) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 200 PICCs (dual/triple lumen) and 200 CICCs (triple/quadruple lumen) placed in medical ICU adults at Mayo Rochester between 2012 and 2013. Central lines were followed from insertion time until hospital dismissal (primary analysis) or ICU discharge (secondary analysis). Symptomatic CRDVT was determined by Doppler ultrasound. Central line-associated bloodstream infection was defined according to federal reporting criteria. During 1730 PICC days and 637 CICC days, the incidence of CRDVT when followed until hospital dismissal was 4% and 1% (4.6 and 3.1 per 1000 catheter-days), respectively, P = .055. When censored at the time of ICU dismissal, the rates were 2% and 1% (5.3 and 3.7 per 1000 catheter-days), P = .685. Only 1 central line-associated bloodstream infection occurred in a PICC following ICU dismissal, P > .999. Thrombotic and infectious complications were uncommon following PICC and CICC insertion, with no significant difference in complication rates observed. Half of PICC DVTs occurred on the general floor, and like all central catheters placed in the ICU, PICCs should be aggressively discontinued when no longer absolutely needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The deglaciation of Central Scandinavia (United States)

    Faulkner, T. L.


    'Central Scandinavia' extends from the Norwegian coast across the Helgeland Nappe Complex to the Caledonide thrust front in Sweden (Faulkner, 2005, who studied the effects of Weichselian deglaciation on the speleogenesis of ~1000 local Caledonide marble caves). Deglaciation was driven by two summer heat fluxes: warming by the sea as it encroached up fjords and caused the icesheet margin to retreat eastwards (accompanied by deglacial seismicity) and direct solar warming that caused the icesheet to ablate from its upper surface (Grønlie, 1975; Mörner, 1979; Andersen and Karlsen, 1986; Sørensen et al., 1987; Mangerud, 1991; Bergstrøm, 1995). The melting height followed an empirical parabolic time relationship (H=0.75t2: Grønlie, 1975), based on many geomorphological observations. Faulkner (2005) reconstructed the Grønlie formula using information about the Younger Dryas (YD) isostatic uplift that increased inland as: H=1700+5(YD isobase-220)-0.75x10-4x(13500-t)2 m, where t=14Ca BP. Deglaciation was modelled by drawing deglacial maps at c. 300a intervals that show the advance of the sea, the recession of the icesheet margin, the synchronous thinning of the icesheet, and the evolution of ice-dammed lakes (IDLs), after the ice began to melt vigorously in the Bølling interstadial below the present 1700m altitude (at the 220m YD isobase at Børgefjell) that was already ice-free. After c. 11ka BP, the melting height lowered at roughly 0.5ma-1 at all isobases. The formula agrees with many marine dates to within 300a in the central and northern part of the area, but downwasting by calving was much faster along the coast, as the sea submerged large areas of the isostatically-depressed strandflat. Across the Swedish border, there is evidence that large IDLs and glaciers remained longer than predicted. Most of the area was systematically flooded by glacial meltwater for periods of 800-120014Ca during deglaciation as local IDLs lowered and coalesced (commonly at j

  3. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengor, A.M.C. (Instanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey))


    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  4. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.


    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  5. A global central banker competency model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Brits


    Full Text Available Orientation: No comprehensive, integrated competency model exists for central bankers. Due to the importance of central banks in the context of the ongoing global financial crisis, it was deemed necessary to design and validate such a model.Research purpose: To craft and validate a comprehensive, integrated global central banker competency model (GCBCM and to assess whether central banks using the GCBCM for training have a higher global influence.Motivation for the study: Limited consensus exists globally about what constitutes a ‘competent’ central banker. A quantitatively validated GCBCM would make a significant contribution to enhancing central banker effectiveness, and also provide a solid foundation for effective people management.Research approach, design and method: A blended quantitative and qualitative research approach was taken. Two sets of hypotheses were tested regarding the relationships between the GCBCM and the training offered, using the model on the one hand, and a central bank’s global influence on the other.Main findings: The GCBCM was generally accepted across all participating central banks globally, although some differences were found between central banks with higher and lower global influence. The actual training offered by central banks in terms of the model, however, is generally limited to technical-functional skills. The GCBCM is therefore at present predominantly aspirational. Significant differences were found regarding the training offered.Practical/managerial implications: By adopting the GCBCM, central banks would be able to develop organisation-specific competency models in order to enhance their organisational capabilities and play their increasingly important global role more effectively.Contribution: A generic conceptual framework for the crafting of a competency model with evaluation criteria was developed. A GCBCM was quantitatively validated.

  6. Centralization and Decentralization in American Education Policy (United States)

    DeBoer, Jennifer


    This article examines the trend toward centralization in American education policy over the last century through a variety of lenses. The overall picture that emerges is one of a continuous tug-of-war, with national and local policymakers stumbling together toward incrementally more standardized and centralized policies. There is a center of power…

  7. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I


    to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bagis


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of central banking, and in particular the American experience of central banking. It provides projections for the future of central banking in the new era of post 2008. The paper initially demonstrates recent improvements in the financial and banking sectors, regulations and different measures of monetary and financial rules both in the USA and the rest of the advanced economies. Then, it claims institutions, such as central banks, will gain new objectives and more significance in this new era and thus will be given new roles, over time and along with the improvements and deepening in the financial system. The paper argues centuries long central bank evolution is not complete yet and that more objectives should be expected to come forward. In that line, there is need for a shift in the conventional policy measures. New trends in central banking such as the helicopter money, popular nominal GDP targeting regime and the retro developmental central banking are all critically analyzed. The paper provides a breakdown of financial development and central banking activities in a historical context and provides a rationale and a new basis for possible future innovations.

  9. Central condensations in Seyfert galaxies. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V.L.; Pimonov, A.A.; Terebizh, V.Y.


    Scanning-photometer observations of 7 normal and 17 Seyfert galaxies show that Seyferts contain a central region 3--4 kpc across characterized by a high density of stars. The luminosity of the spherical component per unit volume is correlated with the luminosity of the central starlike core.

  10. An unusual Complication of Central Venous Cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Kumar


    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC hub fracture is a rare complication of central venous cannulation. We report a case where catheter hub fracture was detected immediately after CVC insertion. Causes of catheter hub fracture and its complications are discussed.

  11. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  12. DELPHI's central partition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barao, F.; Gaspar, C.; Martin, B.; Pimenta, M.; Reis, M.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Gavillet, P.; Moreau, P. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Laugier, J.P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires)


    We describe the software involved in the central partition of the data acquisition for the DELPHI experiment at CERN. The central partition is responsible for collecting the data from the fourteen subdetectors of DELPHI, perform the fourth level trigger and prepare the data to be stored on magnetic tape. (orig.).

  13. Central Asia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Central Asia. Asie centrale. Read more about Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals – Building capacity in the Global South. Language English. Read more about Grants and awards: Gender equality and scaling digital innovation. Language English. Read more about Community access ...

  14. Tree biomass in the North Central Region. (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes


    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  15. South-central Alaska forests: inventory highlights. (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead


    This publication presents highlights of a recent south-central Alaska inventory conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). South-central Alaska has about 18.5 million acres, of which one-fifth (4 million acres) is forested. Species diversity is greatest in closed and open Sitka spruce forests, spruce...

  16. central hospital with acute coronary syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge about coronary artery disease among patients admitted to Aseer central hospital with acute coronary syndrome. Abdullah S. Assiri. Department of Internal Medicine. College of Medicine & Medical Sciences. King Khalid University. Interventional Cardiology Consultant and Chief of Cardiology. Aseer Central ...

  17. The Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a predominantly black population. A total of eighty-five subjects (right eyes) with mean age 44.7 ± 15.1 years consisting of 49 males and 36 females were recruited for this study. The central ...

  18. Starling curves and central venous pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Berlin (Cheryl); J. Bakker (Jan)


    textabstractRecent studies challenge the utility of central venous pressure monitoring as a surrogate for cardiac preload. Starting with Starling’s original studies on the regulation of cardiac output, this review traces the history of the experiments that elucidated the role of central venous

  19. External Review Teams Training in Central America (United States)

    Silva-Trivino; Moises; Ramirez-Gatica, Soledad


    Many Latin American countries have started actions to promote a higher education quality assurance system. Central America appears as a regional effort that includes universities from all seven countries under the initiative of Central American University Higher Council (CSUCA). After focusing in quality management and self-study processes, CSUCA…

  20. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  1. Correlation of Eigenvector Centrality to Other Centrality Measures : Random, Small-World and Real-World Networks


    Xiaojia He; Natarajan Meghanathan


    In this paper, we thoroughly investigate correlations of eigenvector centrality to five centrality measures, including degree centrality, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient centrality, closeness centrality, and farness centrality, of various types of network (random network, small world network, and real-world network). For each network, we compute those six centrality measures, from which the correlation coefficient is determined. Our analysis suggests that the degree centrali...

  2. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash


    Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.

  3. A review of acute central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirnaghi Moosavi


    Full Text Available Central serous chorioretinopathy is a common cause of visual morbidity. It is characterized by idiopathic serous retinal detachment in macular or paramacular regions. The symptoms of the CSC include decreased vision, micropsia and metamorphopsia. The prognosis of the disease is good and almost 90% of patients obtain visual recovery in a few months. However, in less than 5% of patients the chronic disease with poor prognosis is developed. The acceptable approach is to observe patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy, because central serous chorioretinopathy  is self-limited. The pathophysiology of central serous chorioretinopathy  is not clear and not well understood. Therefore, various medical treatments have been suggested such as propranolol, indomethacin, bevacizumab, acetazolamide, mifepristone, labetalol, etc. However, wait and watch would be the most recommended management of the central serous chorioretinopathy.

  4. Clinical study of central taste disorders and discussion of the central gustatory pathway. (United States)

    Onoda, Keiko; Ikeda, Minoru; Sekine, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hisashi


    The aim of this work is to examine the clinical findings of patients with taste disorders due to central lesions and also to study the central gustatory pathway in humans. We conducted a retrospective review of 13 patients with central taste disorders that visited Nihon University Itabashi Hospital. An additional 25 cases with central taste disorders previously reported in the literature were assessed in the study. We examined 38 patients with taste disorders due to central lesions. The sites of the central lesions and their frequencies, the laterality of taste disorders relative to the central lesions, and prognosis of taste disorders were studied. We identified the following taste-related regions in the central nervous system: the medulla, pons, midbrain, thalamus, internal capsule, putamen, corona radiata, and cerebral cortex. As for the laterality of the taste disorders, we observed more ipsilateral cases for lesions located from the medulla to the pons. We observed ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral cases for lesions located above the midbrain, but bilateral cases were more frequently detected. Taste disorders of 80% of the patients improved by 24 weeks. The prognoses of central taste disorders appeared to be good. We identified eight central regions supposed to be relate to taste disorders. From the laterality of the taste disorders relative to the central lesions, it was suggested that the central gustatory pathway ascends ipsilaterally from the medulla to the pons, branches at the upper pons, and then ascends bilaterally from the midbrain to the cerebral cortex.

  5. Centrality and economic development in the Rijnland region : Social and spatial concepts of centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.


    In urban research, spatial and social concepts of centrality are being distinguished. From a spatial point of view, metrical centrality implies that something is located in the middle of an area. However, metrical and topological centrality are not equivalent. In research where space syntax methods

  6. Transtensión y transpresión del Jurásico Medio-Superior al Cretácico Inferior durante la construcción del arco magmático en Chile central: evidencia a partir de enjambres de diques máficos Middle-Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous transtension and transpression during arc building in Central Chile: evidence from mafic dike swarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Creixell


    Full Text Available The Middle-Late Jurassie mafic dike swarms of central Chile between 33°and 33°45'S registerthe tectonic activity of the contemporaneous are represented by the Coastal batholith. These dike swarms evidence alternate episodes of transtension and transpression across NW-striking structures, which controlled the construction of the magmatic are. The Middle-Upper Jurassie and Lower Cretaeeous mafic dike swarms in the Coastal range of central Chile has been studied through field observations, geochronology and AMS (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility to document the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Jurassic-Cretaceous are at this latitude. Middle to Upper Jurassie dike swarms (Concón and Cartagena mafic dike swarms were emplaced between 163 and 157 Ma, along NW-SE to WNW-ESE-striking host fractures, registering a first stage of magma emplaeement under simstral transtension. During this stage, dikes acquired a fabric characterized by magnetic foliation clock wise oblique to dike trend and gently plunging lineations. This stage was followed rapidly by dike emplaeement under sinistral transpression, with associated steeply plunging lineations in the dikes, reverse shear zones in the country rocks and local oceurrence of horizontal mafic dikes. On the other hand, the Lower Cretaeeous El Tabo dike Swarm was emplaced along tensile fractures that do not register shear displacements along their walls. These dikes were emplaced at shallower crustal levels along tensile fractures.Within each dike swarm, differences in the tectonic style of emplaeement correlates with changes in the geochemical composition of the dikes, suggesting a strong coupling between tectonics and nature of magma supplies in the are. Finally, the current results show that the Mesozoic evolution of the Coastal Batholith of central Chile oceurred in several stages of deformation and not under a simple scenario of extensional tectonics. This magmatism and deformation were strongly

  7. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data. (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S


    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Central Hemodynamics for Management of Arteriosclerotic Diseases. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Junichiro


    Arteriosclerosis, particularly aortosclerosis, is the most critical risk factor associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. The pulsatile hemodynamics in the central aorta consists of blood pressure, flow, and stiffness and substantially differs from the peripheral hemodynamics in muscular arteries. Arteriosclerotic changes with age appear earlier in the elastic aorta, and age-dependent increases in central pulse pressure are more marked than those apparent from brachial pressure measurement. Central pressure can be affected by lifestyle habits, metabolic disorders, and endocrine and inflammatory diseases in a manner different from brachial pressure. Central pulse pressure widening due to aortic stiffening increases left ventricular afterload in systole and reduces coronary artery flow in diastole, predisposing aortosclerotic patients to myocardial hypertrophy and ischemia. The widened pulse pressure is also transmitted deep into low-impedance organs such as the brain and kidney, causing microvascular damage responsible for lacunar stroke and albuminuria. In addition, aortic stiffening increases aortic blood flow reversal, which can lead to retrograde embolic stroke and renal function deterioration. Central pressure has been shown to predict cardiovascular events in most previous studies and potentially serves as a surrogate marker for intervention. Quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of central hemodynamics is now available through various noninvasive pressure/flow measurement modalities. This review will focus on the clinical usefulness and mechanistic rationale of central hemodynamic measurements for cardiovascular risk management.

  9. Central hypothyroidism - a neglected thyroid disorder. (United States)

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Rodari, Giulia; Giavoli, Claudia; Lania, Andrea


    Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism. Obtaining a positive diagnosis for central hypothyroidism can be difficult from both a clinical and a biochemical perspective. The diagnosis of central hypothyroidism is based on low circulating levels of free T 4 in the presence of low to normal TSH concentrations. The correct diagnosis of both acquired (also termed sporadic) and congenital (also termed genetic) central hypothyroidism can be hindered by methodological interference in free T 4 or TSH measurements; routine utilization of total T 4 or T 3 measurements; concurrent systemic illness that is characterized by low levels of free T 4 and normal TSH concentrations; the use of the sole TSH-reflex strategy, which is the measurement of the sole level of TSH, without free T 4 , if levels of TSH are in the normal range; and the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism based on TSH analysis without the concomitant measurement of serum levels of T 4 . In this Review, we discuss current knowledge of the causes of central hypothyroidism, emphasizing possible pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.

  10. Central polydactyly: an alternative method of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Владимирович Говоров


    Full Text Available Polydactyly is a rare congenital malformationcharacterized by an increase in the number of segments of hand ray. Central polydactyly is much rarerthan other types of polydactyly and is characterizedby a doubling of the segments of the second, thirdand fourth fingers. The main methods of surgicaltreatment of central polydactyly consist in the resection of additional segments and removal of the existing union. Often, the result of this treatment is the development of secondary deformities, leading to unsatisfactory results. The article describes the clinical example of microsurgical reconstruction of the patient’s hand with central polydactyly of both hands and presentation of long-term outcome.

  11. A graph theoretic analysis of leverage centrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vargas, Jr.


    Full Text Available In 2010, Joyce et al. defined the leverage centrality of vertices in a graph as a means to analyze functional connections within the human brain. In this metric a degree of a vertex is compared to the degrees of all it neighbors. We investigate this property from a mathematical perspective. We first outline some of the basic properties and then compute leverage centralities of vertices in different families of graphs. In particular, we show there is a surprising connection between the number of distinct leverage centralities in the Cartesian product of paths and the triangle numbers.

  12. Central Limit Theorems under additive deformations. (United States)

    Eck, Daniel J; McKeague, Ian W


    Additive deformations of statistical systems arise in various areas of physics. Classical central limit theory is then no longer applicable, even when standard independence assumptions are preserved. This paper investigates ways in which deformed algebraic operations lead to distinctive central limit theory. We establish some general central limit results that are applicable to a range of examples arising in nonextensive statistical mechanics, including the addition of momenta and velocities via Kaniadakis addition, and Tsallis addition. We also investigate extensions to random additive deformations, and find evidence (based on simulation studies) for a universal limit specific to each statistical system.

  13. An Integrated Geophysical Study of Laramide Age Structures: Central Colorado (United States)

    Trevino, L.; Keller, G.


    The North Park, South Park, and the Raton basins and the Colorado Mineral Belt (CoMB) evolved in the compressive environment of the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Laramide orogeny (70-35 Ma). The purpose of this study is to determine the structure and origin of the North and South Park and Raton basins as well as that of the CoMB. Results of this study will be integrated with results of other studies carried out by the CD-ROM (Continental Dynamics-Rocky Mountain) project. Gravity and magnetic data have been modeled for North Park, South Park and the Raton Basin resulting in a series of filtered (smoothed and bandpassed) maps and 2.5-D models. A gravity low on the filtered gravity map for North Park is the result of Tertiary basin fill. The complex structure of South Park is attributed to westward movement of Precambrian rocks over Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks along the Elkhorn Thrust Fault. The Raton Basin is the easternmost of the Laramide age basins and displays a structure that is similar to the northern basins. Recent work on the CoMB has resulted in a model that indicates a shallow batholithic intrusion to explain steep gravity gradients and very negative Bouguer gravity anomalies in the span of this study. Spatial analyses of the various data are being used to clarify the structure and origin of these basins. Some of the methods employed include overlays of gravity contours over topography using a DEM. TM images will also be used in the construction of other overlays.

  14. Paleomagnetism of the Puente Piedra Formation, Central Peru (United States)

    May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.


    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.

  15. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  16. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.


    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity

  17. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  18. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahnovski, Sergej; Akramov, Kamil; Karasik, Theodore


    This report assesses the political implications of economic and related social problems in the five post-Soviet Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It also suggests U.S...

  19. Centrality measures for immunization of weighted networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khansari


    Full Text Available Effective immunization of individual communities with minimal cost in vaccination has made great discussion surrounding the realm of complex networks. Meanwhile, proper realization of relationship among people in society and applying it to social networks brings about substantial improvements in immunization. Accordingly, weighted graph in which link weights represent the intensity and intimacy of relationships is an acceptable approach. In this work we employ weighted graphs and a wide variety of weighted centrality measures to distinguish important individuals in contagion of diseases. Furthermore, we propose new centrality measures for weighted networks. Our experimental results show that Radiality-Degree centrality is satisfying for weighted BA networks. Additionally, PageRank-Degree and Radiality-Degree centralities showmoreacceptable performance in targeted immunization of weighted networks.

  20. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  1. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  2. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics (United States)

    Eicker, P. J.


    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components were completed in the last year. The results of these studies were used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown.

  3. Francis Crick, DNA, and the Central Dogma (United States)

    Olby, Robert


    This essay describes how Francis Crick, ex-physicist, entered the field of biology and discovered the structure of DNA. Emphasis is upon the double helix, the sequence hypothesis, the central dogma, and the genetic code. (VW)

  4. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS) (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  5. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  6. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA Pub Central (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PubMed Central (PMC) is a full-text, online archive of journal literature operated by the National Library of Medicine. The EPA is using PMC to permanently preserve...

  7. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. The rise and fall of central dogmas. (United States)

    Klein, George; Klein, Eva


    Stimulated by Francis Cricks "central dogma of molecular biology" open to criticism and rebuttal, five statements are formulated on current notions of tumor biology, inviting the criticism of the reader.

  9. Does the central dogma still stand?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koonin, Eugene V


    .... Latest screening shows that prions are common, at least in fungi. Thus, there is non-negligible flow of information from proteins to the genome in modern cells, in a direct violation of the Central Dogma of molecular biology...

  10. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  11. Central exclusive production and the Durham model (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.


    We review some selected results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications for a selection of processes.

  12. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  13. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  14. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  15. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.


    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  16. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  17. Central Oregon 6 arc-second DEM (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Central Coastal Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex


    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influential nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  19. Transient central diabetes insipidus following ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman


    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following ischemic infarction of the brain has been described as a rare presentation. Posterior pituitary ischemia has also been postulated as a possible cause of idiopathic CDI. We encountered a young male with bilateral extensive ischemic infarction sustained at high altitude, who had transient polyuria due to central diabetes insipidus, requiring desmopressin therapy. DI completely resolved during the course of his neurological recovery.

  20. Infrastructure Projections of Geoeconomics in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Rakhimov


    Full Text Available The article considers peculiarities of the geoeconomics and geopolitics of Central Asia through the system of transport corridors and their economical impact to the CA countries. The special attention is paid to the railway construction project in the region. Considered the possible scenarios of Russia's actions in the CA. Particular attention is paid to the nature of the Russian presence in Central Asia and the potential participation of the Russian Federation in the construction of the railways in this region.

  1. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of Simple Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Thankappan


    Full Text Available Central odontogenic fibroma (COF is an extremely rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth resembling dentigerous cyst. In this report, a 10-year-old male patient is presented, who was diagnosed with central odontogenic fibroma of simple type from clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings.

  2. Photovoltaic central-station power conditioner subsystems (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bahrami, K.; Bulawka, A.


    The potential of applying new advanced circuit topologies and semiconductors with improved switching characteristics to the design and development of central-station power conditioning subsystems is assessed. State-of-the-art large power conditioners suitable for photovoltaic central-station application are reviewed. Advanced topology power conditioning subsystems, when compared to available production hardware, promise improved performance, significant cost reduction, and lower cost-to-efficiency ratios.

  3. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)


    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  4. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, P.K.


    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  5. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC (United States)

    Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Schicker, Rainer


    Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented. L.J. gratefully acknowledges an EMMI visiting Professorship at the University of Heidelberg for completion of this work. He is grateful to the organizers of this meeting for their hospitality and support. His work was supported also by DOMUS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.


    Centralized architectures with fronthauls can be used to deal with some of the problems inherently associated with dense small cell deployments. This study examines a joint cell assignment and scheduling solution for the downlink to increase the users’ data rates, based on cell switching and a su...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection....

  7. Central polydactyly: an alternative method of treatment


    Антон Владимирович Говоров; Сергей Иванович Голяна; Владимир Иванович Заварухин; Андрей Валерьевич Сафонов


    Polydactyly is a rare congenital malformationcharacterized by an increase in the number of segments of hand ray. Central polydactyly is much rarerthan other types of polydactyly and is characterizedby a doubling of the segments of the second, thirdand fourth fingers. The main methods of surgicaltreatment of central polydactyly consist in the resection of additional segments and removal of the existing union. Often, the result of this treatment is the development of secondary deformities, lead...

  8. Central de ciclo combinado en Escombreras (Murcia)


    Ávila Robledo, Natalia


    Este proyecto desarrolla el diseño de una central de ciclo combinado de 940 MW de potencia. Su objeto es cubrir la demanda energética que tiene actualmente la Región de Murcia y generar la energía suficiente para cesar el uso de la central térmica de carbón, que cubre la demanda actual.

  9. Collection development at the NOAA Central Library (United States)

    Quillen, Steve R.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Central Library collection, approximately one million volumes, incorporates the holdings of its predecessor agencies. Within the library, the collections are filed separately, based on their source and/or classification schemes. The NOAA Central Library provides a variety of services to users, ranging from quick reference and interlibrary loan to in-depth research and online data bases.

  10. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe. (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka


    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast network centrality analysis using GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhiao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exploding volume of data generated by continuously evolving high-throughput technologies, biological network analysis problems are growing larger in scale and craving for more computational power. General Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU provides a cost-effective technology for the study of large-scale biological networks. Designing algorithms that maximize data parallelism is the key in leveraging the power of GPUs. Results We proposed an efficient data parallel formulation of the All-Pairs Shortest Path problem, which is the key component for shortest path-based centrality computation. A betweenness centrality algorithm built upon this formulation was developed and benchmarked against the most recent GPU-based algorithm. Speedup between 11 to 19% was observed in various simulated scale-free networks. We further designed three algorithms based on this core component to compute closeness centrality, eccentricity centrality and stress centrality. To make all these algorithms available to the research community, we developed a software package gpu-fan (GPU-based Fast Analysis of Networks for CUDA enabled GPUs. Speedup of 10-50× compared with CPU implementations was observed for simulated scale-free networks and real world biological networks. Conclusions gpu-fan provides a significant performance improvement for centrality computation in large-scale networks. Source code is available under the GNU Public License (GPL at

  12. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks. (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi


    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  13. Notes on Central Europe from Sociological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Musil


    Full Text Available The following article is an attempt to establish whether the Central Europe of the 20th century is indeed a specific, internally homogenous socio-cultural macro-region. Two mutually complementary approaches were used. One is an analysis of the measure of homogeneity of countries referred to as central Europe by means of selected structural features in two periods of the 20th century. The other is a measurement of the level of interaction among individual Central European countries in three periods during the 20th century. The other analysis, dealing with the intensity of interactions, was limited to the investigation of trends of mutual trade exchange. Central Europe was represented in these analyses by the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary and Poland. The results of both approaches applied indicate that in terms of certain structural features, Central Europe has always been a relatively homogenous and specific European macro-region. However, the level of this structural homogeneity has changed according to historical, especially political, conditions. This historical variability was validated also by partial analysis of the interaction. Central Europe continues to exist as a unique and rather loosely structured macro-region of Europe. Although this not a significant bearing, numerous surveys show it is not negligible, either. The region obviously achieved the highest level of homogeneity and intaraction in the latter half of the 19th century and the 1910s.

  14. Community centrality and social science research. (United States)

    Allman, Dan


    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  15. Network centrality in the human functional connectome. (United States)

    Zuo, Xi-Nian; Ehmke, Ross; Mennes, Maarten; Imperati, Davide; Castellanos, F Xavier; Sporns, Olaf; Milham, Michael P


    The network architecture of functional connectivity within the human brain connectome is poorly understood at the voxel level. Here, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 1003 healthy adults, we investigate a broad array of network centrality measures to provide novel insights into connectivity within the whole-brain functional network (i.e., the functional connectome). We first assemble and visualize the voxel-wise (4 mm) functional connectome as a functional network. We then demonstrate that each centrality measure captures different aspects of connectivity, highlighting the importance of considering both global and local connectivity properties of the functional connectome. Beyond "detecting functional hubs," we treat centrality as measures of functional connectivity within the brain connectome and demonstrate their reliability and phenotypic correlates (i.e., age and sex). Specifically, our analyses reveal age-related decreases in degree centrality, but not eigenvector centrality, within precuneus and posterior cingulate regions. This implies that while local or (direct) connectivity decreases with age, connections with hub-like regions within the brain remain stable with age at a global level. In sum, these findings demonstrate the nonredundancy of various centrality measures and raise questions regarding their underlying physiological mechanisms that may be relevant to the study of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets


    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  17. Central Hemodynamics and Microcirculation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovskikh


    Full Text Available Objective: to compare central hemodynamic and microcirculatory changes in critical conditions caused by different factors and to reveal their possible differences for a further differentiated approach to intensive therapy. Subjects and methods. The study covered 16 subjects with severe concomitant injury (mean age 41.96±2.83 years and 19 patients with general purulent peritonitis (mean age 45.34±2.16 years. Their follow-up was 7 days. The central hemodynamics was estimated by transpulmonary thermodilution using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus system (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The microcirculatory bed was evaluated by cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-02 capillary blood flow laser analyzer (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, Russian Federation. Results. The pattern of central hemodynamic and microcirculatory disorders varies with the trigger that has led to a critical condition. Central hemodynamics should be stabilized to ensure the average level of tissue perfusion in victims with severe concomitant injury. In general purulent peritonitis, microcirculatory disorders may persist even if the macrohemodynamic parameters are normal. Conclusion. The macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory differences obtained during the study suggest that a complex of intensive therapy should be differentiated and, if the latter is used, it is necessary not only to be based on the central hemodynamics, but also to take into consideration functional changes in microcirculation. Key words: severe concomitant injury, general purulent peritonitis, micro-circulation, central hemodynamics, type of circulation.

  18. Central Poststroke Pain: An Abstruse Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Henry


    Full Text Available Central poststroke pain (CPSP, formerly known as thalamic pain syndrome of Déjerine and Roussy, is a central neuropathic pain occurring in patients affected by stroke. It is one manifestation of central pain, which is broadly defined as central neuropathic pain caused by lesions or dysfunction in the central nervous system. Thalamic pain was first described 100 years ago by Déjerine and Roussy and has been described as “among the most spectacular, distressing, and intractable of pain syndromes”. CPSP is characterized by constant or intermittent pain and is associated with sensory abnormalities, particularly of thermal sensation. While the pain is frequently described as burning, scalding, or burning and freezing, other symptoms are usually vague and hard to characterize, making an early diagnosis particularly difficult. In fact, those who develop CPSP may no longer be under the care of health care professionals when their symptoms begin to manifest, resulting in misdiagnosis or a significant delay before treatment begins. Diagnosis is further complicated by cognitive and speech limitations that may occur following stroke, as well as by depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Patients may also exhibit spontaneous dysesthesia and the stimulus-evoked sensory disturbances of dysesthesia, allodynia and hyperalgesia. The present study offers a historical reference point for future clinical and basic research into this elusive type of debilitating pain.

  19. Incidence of central venous catheter hub contamination. (United States)

    Holroyd, Julie L; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rice, Mark J; Rand, Kenneth H; Fahy, Brenda G


    To investigate microorganisms causing central venous catheter contamination and how this contamination differs across different catheter metrics. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, 830 cultures were prospectively obtained from 45 ICU patients with central venous catheter or peripherally inserted central catheter. Bacterial colonies were identified by mass spectrometry. Bacterial contamination of central catheter hubs occurred 44% of the time in this study in the ICU setting. Coagulase-positive staphylococci cultures had higher median (±interquartile range) CFUs (12±232) versus coagulase-negative (3±10) and other bacteria (1±3; Pcentral venous pressure monitoring connections (25.8% vs. 7.1% without). Internal jugular sites (10.0% vs. 2.7% femoral, 6.2% PICC, P=0.031) and medial lumens of triple lumen catheters (11.9% vs. 5.6% distal, 7.0% proximal, P=0.049) had increased incidence of higher bacteria loads (>15 CFUs). This study found a high incidence of central access catheter hub bacterial contamination, which correlated with positive blood cultures in 2 of 3 total bacteremia cases identified in the 45 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geology of the Vilama caldera: A new interpretation of a large-scale explosive event in the Central Andean plateau during the Upper Miocene (United States)

    Soler, M. M.; Caffe, P. J.; Coira, B. L.; Onoe, A. T.; Kay, S. Mahlburg


    The Vilama caldera is one of the very large-volume volcanic structures that formed during the ignimbrite flare-up that lasted from 10 Ma to 4 Ma on the central Andean plateau. Formerly, the Vilama structure was interpreted as a 65 × 40 km wide caldera with a two stage evolution. New field correlations, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data lead to a substantially larger reinterpreted Vilama ignimbrite, whose outcrops cover more than 4000 km 2. New and existing K/Ar and Ar/Ar dating shows that the dacitic Vilama ignimbrite erupted from the Vilama caldera at 8.4-8.5 Ma. The ignimbrite can be divided into extracaldera outflow and intracaldera deposits. The outflow has a mean thickness of ˜ 40 m and is separated into a restricted valley-ponded lower cooling unit, and a laterally extensive low aspect ratio upper cooling unit. The Vilama caldera, which is roughly rectangular (35-40 km × 15-18 km) in shape and has central coordinates of 22°24' S and 66°57' W, is considered to have formed in a single-stage collapse event. As the topographic rim is only seen on the western side, the extent of collapse and geometry of the caldera are incompletely known and inferred from indirect data. Possible collapse geometries include a slightly asymmetric single-block subsidence and non-chaotic multiple-block collapse. Estimated erupted volumes range from ˜ 1800 to 1200 km 3, or 1400 to 1000 km 3 in dense rock equivalents. The properties of the Vilama ignimbrite which include a crystal-rich and pumice-poor nature, a high degree of welding and induration and a prodigious volume, suggest that an external drive, rather than volatile overpressures, controlled and maintained the eruption. The best candidate is caldera subsidence triggered by the instability of a magma chamber roof above a batholith-scale magma body. Transtensive/distensive tectonic stresses resulted in the northwest elongation of the magma chamber and/or influenced the roughly rectangular

  1. [Centralized biobanks: a basis for medical research]. (United States)

    Bernemann, Inga; Kersting, Markus; Prokein, Jana; Hummel, Michael; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas


    Biobanks are the basis for a substantial part of biomedical research. The development, establishment and operation of biobanks are connected to a broad range of aspects, mainly concerning the preparation, storage, usage and dissemination of samples and associated data, in addition to the social and public involvement of these processes. These complex requirements can often only be managed in large centralized biobanks. In recent years, centralized clinical biobanks have been established in several university clinics in Germany. Similar activities take place in other European countries and worldwide. This article highlights the requirements and main tasks of centralized clinical biobanks: high-quality pre-analytics and sample storage, the creation of professional IT structures, data protection, ethical issues, in addition to quality and project management.

  2. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk


    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...... an uptake area of 2.4 million in Denmark were included at admission to a regional brain injury unit (BIU), on average 19 days after injury. Patients in the retrospective study used for comparison were randomly chosen from the national hospital register. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 117 patients...... post-trauma was 0.29, and at 1 year 0.055 per 100,000 population. By comparison of 39 patients from the centralized unit injured in 2000-2003 with 21 patients injured in 1982, 1987 or 1992 and with similar PTA- and age distributions and male/female ratio, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge...

  3. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar


    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  4. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan


    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  5. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations. (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan


    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  6. Generation of central exclusive final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennblad, Leif [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Zlebcik, Radek [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)


    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher-order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate the effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and we find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor. (orig.)

  7. Central venous obstruction in the thorax. (United States)

    Collin, G; Jones, R G; Willis, A P


    Central venous stenosis and occlusion can occur secondary to a spectrum of conditions ranging from aggressive malignancy to benign extrinsic anatomical compression in otherwise healthy individuals. Irrespective of aetiology, significant morbidity in the acute setting and long term can occur unless prompt accurate diagnosis and appropriate management is initiated, the radiologist being central to both. The present review will provide radiologists with a thorough illustration and explanation of the range of central venous conditions in the thorax (including deep vein thrombosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, haemodialysis, and malignancy related causes), the salient imaging findings and interventional management using case examples from the authors' practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek


    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  9. Nonlinear Squeeze Film Dampers without Centralized Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Changsheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of a flexible rotor supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs is analyzed numerically by means of rotor trajectories, Poincar maps, bifurcation diagrams and power spectra, based on the short bearing and cavitated film assumptions. It is shown that there also exist two different operations (i.e., socalled bistable operations in some speed regions in the rotor system supported on the nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs. In the bistable operation speed regions, the rotor system exhibits synchronous, sub-synchronous, sub-super-synchronous and almost-periodic as well as nonperiodic motions. The periodic bifurcation behaviors of the rotor system supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs are very complex and require further investigations.

  10. Central Venous Catheter-Related Hydrothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hun Kim


    Full Text Available This report describes a case of 88-year-old women who developed central venous catheter-related bilateral hydrothorax, in which left pleural effusion, while right pleural effusion was being drained. The drainage prevented accumulation of fluid in the right pleural space, indicating that there was neither extravasation of infusion fluid nor connection between the two pleural cavities. The only explanation for bilateral hydrothorax in this case is lymphatic connections. Although vascular injuries by central venous catheter can cause catheter-related hydrothorax, it is most likely that the positioning of the tip of central venous catheter within the lymphatic duct opening in the right sub-clavian-jugular confluence or superior vena cava causes the catheter-related hydrothorax. Pericardial effusion can also result from retrograde lymphatic flow through the pulmonary lymphatic chains.

  11. Does Central Bank Tone Move Asset Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeling, Maik; Wagner, Christian

    We explore whether the tone of central bank communication matters for asset prices. Using press conference statements by the ECB, which was the first central bank to establish live press conferences after meetings of its Governing Council, we find that tone changes have a statistically...... the next press conference. Moreover, we find that positive tone changes are associated with increasing government bond yields, lower implied equity volatility, lower variance risk premia, and lower corporate credit spreads. Since we also show that tone changes are unrelated to current and future economic...... fundamentals, these results support the conjecture that central bank tone matters for asset prices through a risk-based channel. Our main findings also apply to U.S. markets, where stock prices and Treasury yields increase when the Fed chair’s tone in the Congressional Testimony becomes more positive....

  12. Central limit theorem and almost sure central limit theorem for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 2. Central Limit Theorem and almost sure Central Limit Theorem for the Product of some Partial Sums. Yu Miao. Research Articles Volume 118 Issue 2 May 2008 pp 289-294 ...

  13. The primary Maxillary Central Incisor in the Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Balslev-Olesen, M


    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the c...

  14. Central Sensitization: A Generator of Pain Hypersensitivity by Central Neural Plasticity (United States)

    Latremoliere, Alban; Woolf, Clifford J.


    Central sensitization represents an enhancement in the function of neurons and circuits in nociceptive pathways caused by increases in membrane excitability and synaptic efficacy as well as to reduced inhibition and is a manifestation of the remarkable plasticity of the somatosensory nervous system in response to activity, inflammation, and neural injury. The net effect of central sensitization is to recruit previously subthreshold synaptic inputs to nociceptive neurons, generating an increased or augmented action potential output: a state of facilitation, potentiation, augmentation, or amplification. Central sensitization is responsible for many of the temporal, spatial, and threshold changes in pain sensibility in acute and chronic clinical pain settings and exemplifies the fundamental contribution of the central nervous system to the generation of pain hypersensitivity. Because central sensitization results from changes in the properties of neurons in the central nervous system, the pain is no longer coupled, as acute nociceptive pain is, to the presence, intensity, or duration of noxious peripheral stimuli. Instead, central sensitization produces pain hypersensitivity by changing the sensory response elicited by normal inputs, including those that usually evoke innocuous sensations. Perspective In this article, we review the major triggers that initiate and maintain central sensitization in healthy individuals in response to nociceptor input and in patients with inflammatory and neuropathic pain, emphasizing the fundamental contribution and multiple mechanisms of synaptic plasticity caused by changes in the density, nature, and properties of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:19712899

  15. Central limit theorem and almost sure central limit theorem for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, 430072 Hubei, China. E-mail: MS received 26 January 2007; revised 27 May 2007. Abstract. In this paper, we give the central limit theorem and almost sure central limit theorem for products of some partial sums of independent ...

  16. Central venous catheters: the role of radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, P.L. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Gibson, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom)


    The insertion and management of long-term venous catheters have long been the province of anaesthetists, intensive care physicians and surgeons. Radiologists are taking an increasing role in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) because of their familiarity with the imaging equipment and their ability to manipulate catheters and guide-wires. The radiological management of the complications of CVCs has also expanded as a result. This article reviews the role of radiology in central venous access, covering the detection and management of their complications.

  17. Els ocellaires de la Catalunya Central


    Pujol Rusell, Francesc


    El TFC està pensat per a emmarcar en l'actualitat una tradició centenària portada a terme pels ocellaires de la Catalunya Central, concretament a les comarques d'Osona i el Ripollès. El TFC está pensado para enmarcar en la actualidad una tradición centenaria llevada a cabo por pajareros de la Cataluña Central, concretamente en las comarcas de Osona y el Ripollès. This bachelor thesis is designed to enshrine, at present, a century old tradition carried out by bird trappers in Catalonia's...

  18. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience (United States)

    Pfau, Madeline L.; Russo, Scott J.


    Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress. PMID:25506605

  19. Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J


    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

  20. Centralized vs. Distributed Databases. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Magdalena Iacob


    Full Text Available Currently, in information technology domain and implicit in databases domain can be noticed two apparently contradictory approaches: centralization and distribution respectively. Although both aim to produce some benefits, it is a known fact that for any advantage a price must be paid. In addition, in this paper we have presented a case study, e-learning portal performance optimization by using distributed databases technology. In the stage of development in which institutions have branches distributed over a wide geographic area, distributed database systems become more appropriate to use, because they offer a higher degree of flexibility and adaptability then centralized ones.

  1. Central odontogenic fibroma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [School of Dentistry, Busan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Central odontogenic fibroma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm that originates from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. Here, a case of central odontogenic fibroma in a 17-year-old male is reported. Since the present case showed a multilocular radiolucency with partially ill-defined border between the right mandibular condyle and the distal root of the right mandibular third molar, differential diagnosis involved a wide range of pathosis from benign lesions like ameoloblastic fibroma and odontogenic myxoma to more aggressive lesions such as desmoplastic fibroma, juvenile aggressive fibromatosis, or fibrosarcoma.

  2. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline L. Pfau


    Full Text Available Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress.

  3. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.


    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  4. Switchings, extensions, and reductions in central digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kündgen, André; Leander, Gregor; Thomassen, Carsten


    A directed graph is called central if its adjacency matrix A satisfies the equation A2=J, where J is the matrix with a 1 in each entry. It has been conjectured that every central directed graph can be obtained from a standard example by a sequence of simple operations called switchings, and also ...... that it can be obtained from a smaller one by an extension. We disprove these conjectures and present a general extension result which, in particular, shows that each counterexample extends to an infinite family....

  5. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van


    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...... exhibiting various tradeoffs with respect to performance. Two of the algorithms are cache-oblivious. We describe general algorithms for networks with weighted and unweighted edges and a specialized algorithm for networks with small diameters, as is common in social networks exhibiting the “small worlds...

  6. Does Central Bank Transparancy Reduce Interest Rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, P.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.


    Central banks have become increasingly transparent during the last decade. One of the main bene ts of transparency predicted by theoreticalmodels is that it enhances the credibility, reputation, and exibility of monetary policy, which suggests that increased transparency should result in lower

  7. [WN] central stars of planetary nebulae (United States)

    Todt, H.; Miszalski, B.; Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.


    While most of the low-mass stars stay hydrogen-rich on their surface throughout their evolution, a considerable fraction of white dwarfs as well as central stars of planetary nebulae have a hydrogen-deficient surface composition. The majority of these H-deficient central stars exhibit spectra very similar to massive Wolf-Rayet stars of the carbon sequence, i.e. with broad emission lines of carbon, helium, and oxygen. In analogy to the massive Wolf-Rayet stars, they are classified as [WC] stars. Their formation, which is relatively well understood, is thought to be the result of a (very) late thermal pulse of the helium burning shell. It is therefore surprising that some H-deficient central stars which have been found recently, e.g. IC 4663 and Abell 48, exhibit spectra that resemble those of the massive Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence, i.e. with strong emission lines of nitrogen instead of carbon. This new type of central stars is therefore labelled [WN]. We present spectral analyses of these objects and discuss the status of further candidates as well as the evolutionary status and origin of the [WN] stars.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight promising bread wheat lines and one standard check cultivar were evaluated for grain yield performance, stability and adaptation across nine environments of the central highlands of Ethiopia. Results of the combined analysis of variance for grain yield showed highly significant effects of genotypes, environments, and ...

  9. Central bank independence and public debt policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.


    The various proposals for the institutional design of the European Monetary Union have drawn fresh attention to the link between monetary and public debt policies. This paper explores the strategic interaction between fiscal authorities setting public debt and the central bank controlling monetary

  10. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led t...

  11. Primary Angiitis Of The Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Meenakshi


    Full Text Available An unusual case of primary angiitis of central nervous system (PACNS presenting with headache, seizures and focal deficits is presented. Despite multiple lesions noted on brain MRI, definitive diagnosis required a brain biopsy. A high index of clinical suspicious and the utility of brain biopsy for diagnosis are emphasized.

  12. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2016 on randomly selected 250 households who reared goats in Emba Alaje District to assess management practices of central highland goats and their major constraints. A pretested and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the required data. Out of ...

  13. Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness, Vitreous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shufelt C, Fraser-Bell S, Ying-Lai M, Torres M, Varma R. Refractive error, ocular biometry, and lens opalescence in an adult population: The Los Angeles Latino .... J. Age-related changes in central corneal thickness in normal eyes among the adult Lithuanian population. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2014; 9: 1145-1151.

  14. Central serotonin metabolism and frequency of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, H.M. van; Haan, S. de


    Central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) metabolism can be disturbed in a subgroup of patients with vital (endogenous, primary) depression. Presumably these disturbances do not result from the depression and have a predisposing rather than a causative relationship to it. This latter statement

  15. East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objects of the Association journal shall be the advancement of the science and art of surgery and the promotion of friendship and exchange of ideas between surgeons in the constituent countries of The Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) and The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa ...

  16. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek


    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  17. Central regional profile of dental hygiene students. (United States)

    Nelson, D M


    This study was designed to identify personal, familial, academic, and employment characteristics of dental hygiene students from the central region of the United States to develop a comprehensive student profile for research and recruitment purposes. In fall 1990, 25 dental hygiene program directors in ten states in the central region of the United States and 475 students enrolled in these programs were mailed surveys to develop program and student profiles. Data were analyzed using measures of central tendency and frequency. Directors and students from 24 of 25 dental hygiene programs responded. Data are reported from these 24 directors and 422 of 464 (91%) of the students enrolled in the programs. Dental hygiene students in the central region of the United States are similar in personal, parental, and academic backgrounds to the general population of college students nationally. Unlike the general college population, the regional dental hygiene population tends to be singularly female. Students chose to major in dental hygiene for economic and personal reasons. The availability of employment opportunities, the flexibility to work full- or part-time, and the prospects of making a better income and becoming a professional influenced their decision. Students identified dentists, dental hygienists, and relatives as being influential in their becoming interested in the dental hygiene profession. Previous dental office employment experience also influenced many students in their career choice. The study findings provide information for dental hygiene educators and others interested in student characteristics and factors that influence the selection of dental hygiene as a career.

  18. The Politics of Central Bank Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester


    This paper reviews recent research on the political economy of monetary policy-making, both by economists and political scientists. The traditional argument for central bank independence (CBI) is based on the desire to counter inflationary biases. However, studies in political science on the

  19. Abyssal benthos of the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Harkantra, S.N.; Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Quantitative studies of the abyssal benthos (3600 to 5300 m) of the central Indian Ocean show a rich fauna and high standing crops. Density of 3 meiofaunal and 12 macrofaunal taxa are large (2175 to 15233; chi = 6441 m-2). Polychaetes (41...

  20. Forest statistics for Central Georgia, 1982 (United States)

    Raymond M. Sheffield; John B. Tansey


    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey of Central Georgia. Fieldwork began in October 1981 and was completed in June 1982. Four previous surveys, completed in 1936, 1952, 1961, and 1972, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 46 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes and trends since...

  1. Central Core Disease Associated with Elevated Creatine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A further example of central core disease is described in a patient with various musculoskeletal abnormalities, who survived two episodes of malignant hyperpyrexia. Similar pathology, though less severe, was found in his asymptomatic mother. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 640 (1974) ...

  2. Central Core Disease Associated with Elevated Creatine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A further example of central core disease is described in a patient with various ... The abnormality was also present in the muscle of his mother, although few fibres were involved in her case. The details of this family have been described previously.'" CASE REPORT .... and the case of congenital myopathy associated with ...

  3. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.


    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new,

  4. Central condensations in Seyfert galaxies. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V.L.; Pimonov, A.A.; Terebizh, V.Yu. (AN SSSR, Nizhnij Arkhyz. Spetsial' naya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)


    Results of observations with scanning photometer of 7 normal and 17 Seyfert galaxies show that in the Seyfert galaxies a central regions of 3-4 kpc in size exist noted for the high stellar density. A correlation between the volume luminosity of spherical component and the luminosity of the galaxy nucleus is found.

  5. Identity and Space in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stride


    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an introduction to Central Asia from a geographic, historical and ethnolinguistic perspective. It demonstrates how the environment has conditioned the patterns of human settlement and, in particular, the relationship betweensemi-nomadic, pastoral populations and sedentary, agricultural populations. Logically, this human geography of Central Asia has had and continues to have a profound effect on notions of identity, which have little to do with those of the modern European concept of Nation-State. Thus, while the languages, ethnic groups and cultures of the current five former Soviet republics of Central Asia seem to have existed for centuries, in reality they were invented by the Soviet regime in the 1920’s. Nevertheless, far from being rejected by the new independent countries, the Soviet categories have been ratified and are today considered unquestionable. It is, however, of fundamental importance that this fact be taken into account in an analysis of the region, because in many cases the current CentralAsian regimes purposefully use notions such as Islamic fundamentalism, natural resources or economic liberalisation, which are very much in vogue at the present time, in order to mask problems which in reality are linked to identities and events from a distant past.

  6. Petrology of tectonically segmented Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Distribution and mineralogy of various rock types along the 4200-km-long slow-spreading Central Indian Ridge, between Owen fracture zone in the north and Indian Ocean triple junction in the south, is studied in the light of ridge segmentation...

  7. A Theory of Central Bank Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoeberichts, M.M.; Schaling, E.


    This paper develops a theory of central bank accountability. Two aspects of accountability are considered. The first one is transparency of actual monetary policy, the second aspect is the question of who bears final responsibility for monetary policy. Monetary policy is transparent if there is

  8. Best Minds Sought for Central Office, Startups (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.


    The central office isn't being overlooked in the movement to find and develop top talent for school districts. Although ways to recruit, groom, and keep top teachers and strong principals tend to dominate discussions of "human capital" needs in education, a handful of nonprofit organizations and foundations also see providing smart managers as…

  9. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Jan W. M.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Bresters, Dorine; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.


    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  10. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill


    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  11. Dust on UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia


    In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

  12. Central Cholinesterase Inhibition Enhances Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission


    Kozhemyakin, Maxim; Rajasekaran, Karthik; Kapur, Jaideep


    Central cholinergic overstimulation results in prolonged seizures of status epilepticus in humans and experimental animals. Cellular mechanisms of underlying seizures caused by cholinergic stimulation remain uncertain, but enhanced glutamatergic transmission is a potential mechanism. Paraoxon, an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, enhanced glutamatergic transmission on hippocampal granule cells synapses by increasing the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic cu...

  13. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  14. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen


    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  15. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka


    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  16. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  17. Combined central retinalartery and vein occlusion complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital Cellulitis is a dreaded ophthalmologic disease. Itmay destroy vision and the eye andmay even become life threatening. Often visual loss is the result of exposure and subsequent destruction of ocular tissue commonly the cornea and the uvea. We report a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion ...

  18. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)


    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  19. The Marstal Central Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Jochen, Dahm


    The central solar heating plant in Marstal is running since 1996 and has been monitored since. The resulting data from the plant is analysed and the plant performance evaluated. A TRNSYS-model (computersimulation) id prepared and validated based on the measured data from the plant. Acceptable good...

  20. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov


    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  1. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology - A Retrospective after Fifty Years. Michel Morange. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 236-247. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Ablated tektite from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glass, B.P.; Chapman, D.R.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    , if it originated in Southeast Asia, it must have had a very shallow trajectory (only a few degrees) and a velocity on the order of 7 km/s as it re-entered the atmosphere. The central Indian Ocean tektite is compositionally similar to high-magnesium (HMg...

  3. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban


    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  4. Prehistoric archaeology in Central Europe: beyond diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Kolář, Jan; Květina, Petr; Trampota, F.


    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-130 ISSN 0323-1119. [ Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeological theory * artefact * communication * environment * history of archaeology * reflexivity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Stone age transitions. Neolithisation in central Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Knutsson


    Full Text Available A summary of a series of individual research projects focused on the processes from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic in central Scandinavia. The projects were embeded in the "Coast to Coast project". The historicity in this process was emphasised.

  6. Network centrality in the human functional connectome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, X.N.; Ehmke, R.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Imperati, D.; Castellanos, F.X.; Sporns, O.; Milham, M.P.


    The network architecture of functional connectivity within the human brain connectome is poorly understood at the voxel level. Here, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 1003 healthy adults, we investigate a broad array of network centrality measures to provide novel

  7. Central Bank Challenges in the Global Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian)


    textabstractIntroductory Remarks: There are few institutions linked to the exercise of public power in the economic sphere that have stood the test of time for as long as central banks. Indeed their origins can be traced back to the seventeenth century when in 1668 the Swedish ‘Bank of the Estates

  8. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa R. [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Radiology Department, Little Rock, AR (United States); Badawi, Mona H. [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kuwait (Kuwait)


    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification. (orig.)

  9. Centrale parametre til karakterisering af bygningers indeklima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel

    Denne rapport omhandler arbejdet med identifikation af de parametre, der i vores indeklima påvirker vores komfort og/eller sundhed. Rapporten skal ses som en afrapportering af de overvejelser og valg, der er truffet forud for identifikationen af de centrale parametre, som kommer til at danne...

  10. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei


    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  11. Larger foraminifera from Central Falcon (Venezuela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Nettie E.; Vlerk, van der I.M.


    Dr. H. G. Kugler, chief geologist of the North Venezuelan Petroleum Company, at Puerto Cabello, entrusted us with the examination of a collection of larger foraminifera, selected from material collected by the geologists of this Company in Central Falcon. Dr. A. Senn kindly added material that had

  12. Genetics Home Reference: central precocious puberty (United States)

    ... condition can only be inherited from a person's father. Either sons or daughters can have central precocious puberty , although researchers suspect ... do not show signs of the condition. A father can pass the condition to his sons and daughters. The condition can also occur in people with ...

  13. Central sensitization in humans: assessment and pharmacology. (United States)

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars


    It is evident that chronic pain can modify the excitability of central nervous system which imposes a specific challenge for the management and for the development of new analgesics. The central manifestations can be difficult to quantify using standard clinical examination procedures, but quantitative sensory testing (QST) may help to quantify the degree and extend of the central reorganization and effect of pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, QST may help in optimizing the development programs for new drugs.Specific translational mechanistic QST tools have been developed to quantify different aspects of central sensitization in pain patients such as threshold ratios, provoked hyperalgesia/allodynia, temporal summation (wind-up like pain), after sensation, spatial summation, reflex receptive fields, descending pain modulation, offset analgesia, and referred pain areas. As most of the drug development programs in the area of pain management have not been very successful, the pharmaceutical industry has started to utilize the complementary knowledge obtained from QST profiling. Linking patients QST profile with drug efficacy profile may provide the fundamentals for developing individualized, targeted pain management programs in the future. Linking QST-assessed pain mechanisms with treatment outcome provides new valuable information in drug development and for optimizing the management regimes for chronic pain.

  14. Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness, Vitreous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central corneal thickness (CCT), Vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and axial length (AL) are important ocular parameters used in the assessment of ocular health in relation to some ocular morbidities. Determining the differences in these parameters in relation to each other is fundamental to understanding the general eye ...

  15. Central America Social Expenditures and Institutional Review


    World Bank


    Nicaragua has had decent economic growth in the past decade, which has contributed to substantial poverty reduction (the largest in Central America), as well as improvements in human development indicators. Fiscal accounts have deteriorated recently, which may pose some challenges to the sustainability of current levels of financing for social sector expenditures. Better planning and monit...

  16. Using centrality to rank web snippets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Peñas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.


    We describe our participation in the WebCLEF 2007 task, targeted at snippet retrieval from web data. Our system ranks snippets based on a simple similarity-based centrality, inspired by the web page ranking algorithms. We experimented with retrieval units (sentences and paragraphs) and with the

  17. Central venous pressure monitoring in clinical practice. (United States)

    Scales, Katie

    This article provides an overview of central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in clinical practice. It explores the underpinning anatomy and physiology, as well as the indications and means of access, for the procedure. The mechanics and practicalities of measuring CVP are discussed and information for troubleshooting is provided.

  18. Nodules of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) extends from 0 degree S to 25 degrees S latitudes and 70 degrees E to 90 degrees E longitudes The major portion of CIOB is an abyssal plain and the plains are believed to be developed by the Ganges Fan turbidity...

  19. Stochastic modelling of central heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Henrik


    and the degree Erhvervsforsker (a special Danish degree, equivalent to ``Industrial Ph.D.''). The thesis is mainly concerned with experimental design and system identification for individual components in water based central heating systems. The main contribution to this field is on the nonlinear dynamic...

  20. Central neurogenic hyperventilation: a case report and discussion of pathophysiology. (United States)

    Tarulli, Andrew W; Lim, Chun; Bui, Jonathan D; Saper, Clifford B; Alexander, Michael P


    Central neurogenic hyperventilation is a rare condition with poorly understood pathophysiology. To describe a patient with central neurogenic hyperventilation caused by an infiltrative brainstem lymphoma. Based on analysis of this patient and other case reports, we propose that central neurogenic hyperventilation is uniquely the result of infiltrative tumors that stimulate pontine respiratory centers and central chemoreceptors.

  1. Isovector coupling channel and central properties of the charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of the isovector coupling channel on the central depression parameter and the central value of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei was studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to about 50% increase of the central depression parameter, and weakens the dependency of both central ...

  2. Clinical significance of central corneal thickness and comparison of central corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çakıcı


    Full Text Available Significance of central corneal thickness has been increasing in ophthalmology practice. It is an important clinical evaluation tool especially prior to refractive surgery and in diagnosis of glaucoma and keratoconus. Refractive surgery is planned according to preoperative central corneal thickness measurements. Besides, in order to determine actual intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness is measured and corrected eye pressure is obtained. Today, devices used in measurement of central corneal thickness do the measurement according to two principles. First and relatively older method is ultrasonic method. Optic method is the second and more recent method. In daily practice, the most commonly used clinical method in measurement of central corneal thickness is ultrasound pachymeter. However, this measurement technique requires contact between cornea and probe and gives thinner measurement results compared to the methods that use optic principle. Recently, several technologic methods based on optics have been put in use; they provide advantages of non-contact technique and objective determination of central corneal thickness. Of these methods, most commonly used include Specular Microscopy, Optical coherence tomography, Laser Doppler Interferometry, Optical low coherence reflectometry pachymetry, Optic based topographic mapping (also called screening section pachymetry and Pentacam. In this article, it was aimed to evaluate importance of central corneal thickness in clinical use and compare measurement methods. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 153-158

  3. Central diabetes insipidus, central hypothyroidism, renal tubular acidosis and dandy-walker syndrome: new associations. (United States)

    Alafif, M M; Aljaid, S S; Al-Agha, A E


    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare brain malformation involving the cerebellum, and the fluid filled spaces around it, usually detected during the antenatal period or the early infancy. Clinically, it is characterized by mental retardation, developmental delay as well as cerebellar ataxia. It has been frequently associated with other conditions such as congenital heart diseases, primary hypothyroidism, and other disorders of the central nervous, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and orthopedic systems. In this report, we describe a 3-month-old Saudi boy with the rare association of DWS with central diabetes insipidus, congenital central hypothyroidism, and type-2 renal tubular acidosis.

  4. Central venous pressure monitoring via peripherally or centrally inserted central catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Martucci, Gennaro; Farbo, Marco; Burgio, Gaetano; Biasucci, Daniele G


    The central venous pressure (CVP) is the most commonly used static marker of preload for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients, though its usefulness remains controversial. Centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) are the gold-standard devices for CVP monitoring but peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may represent a valid alternative. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim to investigate whether the difference between PICC- and CICC-measured CVP is not significant. We searched for clinical studies published in PubMed and EMBASE databases from inception until December 21st 2016. We included studies providing data on paired and simultaneous CVP measurement from PICCs and CICCs. We conducted two analyses on the values of CVP, the first one according to the total number of CVP assessments, the second one considering the number of patients recruited. Four studies matched the inclusion criteria, but only three of them provided data for the meta-analyses. Both analyses showed non-significant differences between PICC-measured and CICC-measured CVP: 1489 paired simultaneous CVP assessments (MD 0.16, 95%CI -0.14, 0.45, p = 0.30) on a total of 57 patients (MD 0.22, 95%CI -1.46, 1.91, p = 0.80). Both analyses showed no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). Available evidence supports that CVP monitoring with PICCs is accurate and reproduces similar values to those obtained from CICCs. The possibility to monitor CVP should not be used among clinical criteria for preferring a CICC over a PICC line.

  5. Peripherally inserted central catheters are equivalent to centrally inserted catheters in intensive care unit patients for central venous pressure monitoring. (United States)

    Latham, Heath E; Rawson, Scott T; Dwyer, Timothy T; Patel, Chirag C; Wick, Jo A; Simpson, Steven Q


    To determine the equivalency of pressure measurements from peripherally inserted central catheters(PICCs) versus centrally inserted central venous catheters(CVCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. The in vitro study was performed in a clinical laboratory. Static pressure measurements from PICCs and CVCs were obtained in vitro over a physiologic range of 5–25 mmHg. Triple and dual lumen PICCs were directly compared to CVC controls.Dynamic pressure waveforms were recorded to simulate physiologic intravascular pressure variation. The in vivo study was executed in the medical intensive care unit(MICU) of a tertiary-level academic medical center. Data was collected from ten adult patients with both a PICC and a CVC in place for on-going clinical care. Measurements of central venous pressure (CVP) were recorded simultaneously from PICCs and CVCs. Duplicate measurements were taken after a stable waveform was recorded. For the in vitro study, a total of 540 pressure measurements were recorded. The average bias determined by Bland–Altman plot was 0 mmHg for the 5Fr PICC and 0.071 mmHg for the 6Fr PICC. The correlation coefficient for both catheters was 1.0 (P<0.001). Dynamic pressure waveforms revealed equivalent amplitude. During the in vivo trial, 70CVP measurements were collected. The paired CVP measurements were found to be highly reliable across subjects (r = 0.99, P<0.0001). No significance in the average difference in CVP measurement (PICC–CVC) was determined by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test (S = 1,P = 0.93). In conclusion, PICCs are equivalent to CVCs when measuring static and dynamic pressure in vitro and CVP in ICU patients.

  6. The geological manifestation of earthquake swarms: Evidence from the Adamello Batholith in the Southern Italian Alps (United States)

    Dempsey, E. D.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Di Toro, G.; Bistacchi, A.


    Earthquake swarms are often characterised by clusters of seismic events with highly variable earthquake focal mechanisms, irrespective of whether or not they are associated with a main shock event. Our current understanding of how such multiple seismic events manifest themselves in the geological record is based largely on the Hill (1977) and Sibson (1996) 'fracture mesh' models. Whilst these simple models are theoretically sound for homogeneous isotropic rock masses, they do not account for the effects of variably oriented pre-existing mechanical anisotropies and how these may lead to a more complex fracture evolution and geologic strain. Interconnected networks of faults and veins filled with zeolites and other hydrothermal minerals are widespread in many orogenic terrains, including deformed granitic plutons and regions of metamorphic basement. Typically the fracture fills formed late in the tectonic history, at relatively low temperatures (e.g. stress loading and reactivation of widely distributed pre-existing structures (contacts, joints, shear zone fabrics, faults). The differing orientations of the pre-existing structures relative to the far-field and near-field stresses lead to the simultaneous development of interlinked reverse, strike-slip and extensional faults. The kinematic complexity and cyclic nature of the hydraulically-induced fracturing provides compelling evidence that the mineralised fracture systems represent a geologic manifestation of foreshock-aftershock swarm development. Our proposal highlights the key role of crustal fluids during earthquake swarm development and the inherent geometrical complexities that may result from the reactivation of pre-existing anisotropies in rocks.

  7. Hydraulically-induced earthquake swarms: Geological evidence from the Adamello Batholith in the Southern Italian Alps. (United States)

    Dempsey, Eddie; Holdsworth, Bob; DiToro, Giulio; Bistacchi, Andrea


    Earthquake swarms are often characterised by clusters of seismic events with highly variable earthquake focal mechanisms, irrespective of whether or not they are associated with a main shock event. Our current understanding of how such events manifest themselves in the geological record is based largely on the Hill (1977) and Sibson (1996) 'fracture mesh' models. Whilst these simple models are theoretically sound for homogeneous isotropic rock masses, they do not account for the effects of variably oriented pre-existing mechanical anisotropies and how these may lead to a more complex fracture evolution and geologic strain. Interconnected networks of faults and veins filled with zeolites and other hydrothermal minerals are widespread in many orogenic terrains, including deformed granitic plutons and regions of metamorphic basement. Typically the fracture fills formed late in the tectonic history, at relatively low temperatures (e.g. stress loading and reactivation of widely distributed pre-existing structures (contacts, joints, shear zone fabrics, faults). The differing orientations of the pre-existing structures relative to the far-field and near-field stresses lead to the simultaneous development of interlinked reverse, strike-slip and extensional faults. The kinematic complexity and cyclic nature of the hydraulically-induced fracturing provides compelling evidence that the mineralised fracture systems represent a geologic manifestation of foreshock-aftershock swarm development. Our proposal highlights the key role of crustal fluids during earthquake swarm development and the inherent geometrical complexities that may result from the reactivation of pre-existing anisotropies in rocks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica MIHALACHE


    Full Text Available The present study highlights the cooperation-competition ratio in the Central Asia region aiming at maintaining a force balance between Russia and China – as main state actors of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, and avoiding the dominance of a state over the other member states of the Organization. Our paper attempts to identify the theoretical arguments that might render a better insight in this organization as a framework meant to mutually balance influence between Russia and China, with the purpose of reciprocally monitoring and limiting their power in a region considered the core of SCO – from a geographical point of view and from the point of view of the two powers’ interest. On the other hand, we should take into account that promoting multipolarity in the global politics is a common interest of China and Russia; both countries started to exclude, to various extents, the Western powers’ interests in Central Asia.

  9. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos


    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  10. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Pigarova


    Full Text Available Diabetes insipidus represents a serious disease that dramatically interferes with the everyday life of patients due to the need to constantly replenish of fluid lost in the urine, which comes amid shortage of synthesis, secretion or action of pituitary hormone vasopressin. The main difficulty is the differential diagnosis of types of diabetes insipidus in patients with the syndrome of polydipsia-polyuria as the correct differential diagnosis of these forms predetermine the safety and efficacy of further treatment. This lecture presents the current concepts of etiology, diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus (CDI. We give the comparative characteristics of various preparations of desmopressin for the treatment of the central form of the disease. We also consider the features of the management of selected patient populations with CDI: during pregnancy and lactation, pathology of the thirst sensation, after traumatic brain injury and neurosurgery.

  12. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture...... and analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated...... by similar evidence from other cases. Our goal is to develop centrality measures for fragmented and non-navigational states of criminal network investigations. A network model with three basic first class entities is presented together with a topology of associations between network entities. We implement...

  13. Factoring Central Asia into China's Afghanistan policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Dhaka


    Full Text Available China's footprints in Afghanistan are vied by many, both, friends and rivals as it cautiously reveals its geostrategic goals. It would like to emulate the African and Central Asian success story in Afghanistan as well, which is not terra incognito. Afghanistan has been the fulcrum of geopolitical balance of power during the Cold war days. China's Afghanistan policy (CAP is marked by its insecurities of terrorism, extremism and separatism in Xinjiang province. It has heavily invested in procuring Central Asian energy resources. Both, the concerns go well in formulation of CAP. However, the presence of the US and Russia make the scenario competitive, where its ‘Peaceful Rise’ may be contested. Besides, China sees South Asian Region as its new Geoeconomic Frontier. All these concerns get factored into CAP. It remains to be seen what options partake in CAP, as China prepares for durable presence in Afghanistan in the long run.

  14. Centralizers in simple locally finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kuzucuoğlu


    Full Text Available This is a survey article on centralizers of finitesubgroups in locally finite, simple groups or LFS-groups as wewill call them. We mention some of the open problems aboutcentralizers of subgroups in LFS-groups and applications of theknown information about the centralizers of subgroups to thestructure of the locally finite group. We also prove thefollowing: Let $G$ be a countably infinite non-linear LFS-groupwith a Kegel sequence $mathcal{K}={(G_i,N_i | iinmathbf{N} }$. If there exists an upper bound for ${ |N_i| |iin mathbf{N} }$, then for any finite semisimplesubgroup $F$ in $G$ the subgroup $C_G(F$ has elements oforder $p_i$ for infinitely many distinct prime $p_i$. Inparticular $C_G(F$ is an infinite group. This answers Hartley'squestion provided that there exists a bound on ${ |N_i| | iin mathbf{N}$.

  15. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike. (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A


    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  16. Does the central dogma still stand? (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V


    Prions are agents of analog, protein conformation-based inheritance that can confer beneficial phenotypes to cells, especially under stress. Combined with genetic variation, prion-mediated inheritance can be channeled into prion-independent genomic inheritance. Latest screening shows that prions are common, at least in fungi. Thus, there is non-negligible flow of information from proteins to the genome in modern cells, in a direct violation of the Central Dogma of molecular biology. The prion-mediated heredity that violates the Central Dogma appears to be a specific, most radical manifestation of the widespread assimilation of protein (epigenetic) variation into genetic variation. The epigenetic variation precedes and facilitates genetic adaptation through a general 'look-ahead effect' of phenotypic mutations. This direction of the information flow is likely to be one of the important routes of environment-genome interaction and could substantially contribute to the evolution of complex adaptive traits.

  17. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  18. Central tarsal bone fracture in a cat. (United States)

    Cinti, Filippo; Pisani, Guido; Penazzi, Claudio; Carusi, Umberto; Vezzoni, Luca; Vezzoni, Aldo


    Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors' knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb.

  19. Expansion of museums in Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The paper presents reflections on the specificity of collections and museums of contemporary art in Central Europe and considers a possibility of creating a regional alternative for the West. The analysis is conducted in the context of the expansionist policy of contemporary museums – notably the Louvre, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Hermitage – whose numerous new development projects gave rise to a number of dilemmas in the museological world. The author discusses global "museum brands" that invest in Central Europe and addresses the possible profits of the expansion of such "concerns" for culture in the region, as well as emphasises the potential of the region itself, which may be used for its development without the avail of the internationally renowned collectors' names.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL


    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  1. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, James [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh → h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.

  2. Comprehensive management of presbycusis: central and peripheral. (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Lin, Frank R; Coelho, Daniel H; Sataloff, Robert T; Gates, George A


    The prevailing otolaryngologic approach to treatment of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, emphasizes compensation of peripheral functional deficits (ie, hearing aids and cochlear implants). This approach does not address adequately the needs of the geriatric population, 1 in 5 of whom is expected to consist of the "old old" in the coming decades. Aging affects both the peripheral and central auditory systems, and disorders of executive function become more prevalent with advancing age. Growing evidence supports an association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Thus, to facilitate optimal functional capacity in our geriatric patients, a more comprehensive management strategy of ARHL is needed. Diagnostic evaluation should go beyond standard audiometric testing and include measures of central auditory function, including dichotic tasks and speech-in-noise testing. Treatment should include not only appropriate means of peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling.

  3. Iowa Central Quality Fuel Testing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heach, Don; Bidieman, Julaine


    The objective of this project is to finalize the creation of an independent quality fuel testing laboratory on the campus of Iowa Central Community College in Fort Dodge, Iowa that shall provide the exploding biofuels industry a timely and cost-effective centrally located laboratory to complete all state and federal fuel and related tests that are required. The recipient shall work with various state regulatory agencies, biofuel companies and state and national industry associations to ensure that training and testing needs of their members and American consumers are met. The recipient shall work with the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship on the development of an Iowa Biofuel Quality Standard along with the Development of a standard that can be used throughout industry.

  4. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel


    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  5. Angiotensin II during Experimentally Simulated Central Hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal


    Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, such as the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist...... compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use...... of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies, investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role...

  6. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wastnidge


    Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.

  7. Lagrange, central norms, and quadratic Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin


    Full Text Available We consider the Diophantine equation of the form x2−Dy2=c, where c=±1,±2, and provide a generalization of results of Lagrange with elementary proofs using only basic properties of simple continued fractions. As a consequence, we achieve a completely general, simple, and elegant criterion for the central norm to be 2 in the simple continued fraction expansion of D.

  8. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Central America (United States)


    Council in September 1980, demonstrating the political views of his banana plantation constituents in Bocas del Toro . The PPP is one of three regional...that of the United States, the central provinces formed the Provincial Unidas del Centre de America, with a seat of government in Guatemala City... Guillermo Navarrete sought political asylum in Costa Rica. Chamber of Commerce president Reynaldo Hernandez sought asylum in Venezuela embassy. Two

  9. Strangeness production as a function of centrality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, D.E.; NA36 Collaboration


    A correction to the TPC efficiency calculations based on discriminator response data is shown to have an average effect of 20% on the absolute magnitude of the earlier results. Consistency between runs with the NA36 magnet in different polarities is demonstrated. Comparisons are made with NA35 S + Ag data. The absolute flux of {Lambda} particles is approximately a factor of two in disagreement between the two experiments. A dependence of the rapidity spectrum for lambda`s on centrality is demonstrated.

  10. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma†


    Yung, Sonja B.; Primm, Todd P.


    The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  11. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung


    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  12. Polynomial Apodizers for Centrally Obscured Vortex Coronagraphs


    Fogarty, Kevin; Pueyo, Laurent; Mazoyer, Johan; N'Diaye, Mamadou


    Several coronagraph designs have been proposed over the last two decades to directly image exoplanets. Among these designs, the vector vortex coronagraphs provide theoretically perfect starlight cancellation along with small inner working angles when deployed on telescopes with unobstructed pupils. However, current and planned space missions and ground-based extremely large telescopes present complex pupil geometries, including secondary mirror central obscurations, that prevent vortex corona...

  13. Fetish: Magic Figures in Central Africa


    John Mack


    Originally published in Anthony Skelton (ed.), Fetishism: Visualising Power and Desire, London: The South Bank Centre in collaboration with Lund Humphries Publishers, 1995. This article was originally published as a catalogue essay accompanying an exhibition exploring the idea of ‘fetishism’ in western art and thought. It discusses a well-known African example, the nkisi and related objects of the Kongo peoples of west central Africa and examines its uses and significance. Expectations base...

  14. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations


    Dommerholt, Jan


    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  15. Vectorised Spreading Activation algorithm for centrality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Troussov


    Full Text Available Spreading Activation is a family of graph-based algorithms widely used in areas such as information retrieval, epidemic models, and recommender systems. In this paper we introduce a novel Spreading Activation (SA method that we call Vectorised Spreading Activation (VSA. VSA algorithms, like “traditional” SA algorithms, iteratively propagate the activation from the initially activated set of nodes to the other nodes in a network through outward links. The level of the node’s activation could be used as a centrality measurement in accordance with dynamic model-based view of centrality that focuses on the outcomes for nodes in a network where something is flowing from node to node across the edges. Representing the activation by vectors allows the use of the information about various dimensionalities of the flow and the dynamic of the flow. In this capacity, VSA algorithms can model multitude of complex multidimensional network flows. We present the results of numerical simulations on small synthetic social networks and multi­dimensional network models of folksonomies which show that the results of VSA propagation are more sensitive to the positions of the initial seed and to the community structure of the network than the results produced by traditional SA algorithms. We tentatively conclude that the VSA methods could be instrumental to develop scalable and computationally efficient algorithms which could achieve synergy between computation of centrality indexes with detection of community structures in networks. Based on our preliminary results and on improvements made over previous studies, we foresee advances and applications in the current state of the art of this family of algorithms and their applications to centrality measurement.

  16. Floods in central Texas, August 1978 (United States)

    Schroeder, E.E.; Massey, B.C.; Waddell, Kidd M.


    Catastrophic floods, which resulted in millions of dollars in property damages and the loss of 33 lives, occurred in Central Texas during August 1-4, 1978, as a result of intense rainfall produced by the remnants of tropical storm Amelia. Rainfall in excess of 30 inches was unofficially reported at several locations, while the highest 24-hour amount recorded by the National·Weather Service was 29.05 inches at Albany in Shackelford County.

  17. Comprehensive management of presbycusis: Central and peripheral


    Parham, Kourosh; Lin, Frank R.; Coelho, Daniel H.; Sataloff, Robert T.; Gates, George A.


    The prevailing otolaryngologic approach to treatment of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, emphasizes compensation of peripheral functional deficits (i.e., hearing aids and cochlear implants). This approach does not address adequately the needs of the geriatric population, one in five of whom is expected to consist of the “old old” in the coming decades. Aging affects both the peripheral and central auditory systems, and disorders of executive function become more prevalent with ad...

  18. Central bank forecasting: an international comparison


    John C. Robertson


    Forecasts, whether explicit or implicit, are at the heart of policy making. In considering forecasting for monetary policy, this article contrasts the forecasting processes at three central banks-the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, the Bank of England, and the U.S. Federal Reserve. ; In the United States policymakers consider confidential staff forecasts in policy discussions, but these do not necessarily represent the consensus forecasts of the policy committee. At the Bank of England, official...

  19. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System


    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite


    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  20. Towards an Orthogonal Central Dogma (Preprint) (United States)


    expression. Synthetic biologists therefore write genetic programs with the host organism in mind and accept both the rigidities and regulatory...organism in mind and accept both the rigidities and regulatory complexities associated with host central dogma systems. This dependency creates two...Expanding and reprogramming the genetic code of cells and animals . Annu Rev Biochem 83, 379–408 (2014). 17. Wang, K. et al. Optimized orthogonal

  1. The central part of CMS is lowered

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

  2. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah


    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  3. Probing peripheral and central cholinergic system responses. (United States)

    Naranjo, C A; Fourie, J; Herrmann, N; Lanctôt, K L; Birt, C; Yau, K K


    OBJECTIVE: The pharmacological response to drugs that act on the cholinergic system of the iris has been used to predict deficits in central cholinergic functioning due to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, yet correlations between central and peripheral responses have not been properly studied. This study assessed the effect of normal aging on (1) the tropicamide-induced increase in pupil diameter, and (2) the reversal of this effect with pilocarpine. Scopolamine was used as a positive control to detect age-dependent changes in central cholinergic functioning in the elderly. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy elderly (mean age 70) and 9 young (mean age 33) volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Pupil diameter was monitored using a computerized infrared pupillometer over 4 hours. The study involved 4 sessions. In 1 session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to one eye and placebo to the other. In another session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to both eyes, followed 23 minutes later by the application of pilocarpine (20 microL, 0.1%) to one eye and placebo to the other. All eye drops were given in a randomized order. In 2 separate sessions, a single dose of scopolamine (0.5 mg, intravenously) or placebo was administered, and the effects on word recall were measured using the Buschke Selective Reminding Test over 2 hours. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pupil size at time points after administration of tropicamide and pilocarpine; scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between elderly and young volunteers in pupillary response to tropicamide at any time point (p > 0.05). The elderly group had a significantly greater pilocarpine-induced net decrease in pupil size 85, 125, 165 and 215 minutes after administration, compared with the young group (p tropicamide. Thus, pilocarpine may be useful to assess variations in central cholinergic function in elderly patients. PMID

  4. Expenditure Issues and Governance in Central America


    Ana Corbacho; Hamid R Davoodi


    This paper analyzes Central America's track record on inequality, poverty, and quality of fiscal adjustment in relation to economic growth; health and education outcomes; adequacy of social safety nets; and governance. It then assesses the degree to which the track record can be traced to reforms in public expenditure and governance. Despite the considerable heterogeneity among the countries in the region, there are some policies that all countries need to pursue. Sustained growth and a bette...

  5. Do Central Banks React to House Prices?


    Finocchiaro, Daria; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia


    The substantial fluctuations in house prices recently experienced by many industrialized economies have stimulated a vivid debate on the possible implications for monetary policy. In this paper, we ask whether the U.S. Fed, the Bank of Japan and the Bank of England have reacted to house prices. We study the responses of these central banks by estimating a structural model for each country where credit constrained agents borrow against real estate. The main result is that house price movements...

  6. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, M; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is responsible for reducing the anticipated LHC collision rate from 40 MHz to less than 100 kHz. The custom-built electronics of the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger receives inputs from the ATLAS Level-1 Triggers and the LHC. The Level-1 calorimeter triggers are based on coarse detector information to identify high-ET jets, electrons/photons and hadrons, along with missing and total energy. In addition there are dedicated muon and forward detectors, providing triggers for different energy thresholds. The Level-1 Central Trigger combines these trigger inputs to form a Level-1 accept. This, along with trigger summary information, is then passed onto the higher levels of the trigger. From the LHC itself the Level-1 Central Trigger passes the bunch clock to all ATLAS sub-detectors. We present how the rigger information, along with dead-time rates, are monitored and logged by the online system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. Also presented are ...

  7. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, M; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is responsible for reducing the anticipated LHC collision rate from 40 MHz to less than 100 kHz. This Level-1 selection identifies, jet, tau/hadron, electron/photon and muon candidates, with additional triggers for missing and total energy. These inputs are used by the Level-1 Central Trigger to form a Level-1 Accept decision. This decision, along with summary information, is then passed into the higher levels of the trigger system and sub-detectors, which also receive the clock from the Level-1 Central trigger. The performance of the Central Trigger during the first collisions will be shown. This includes details of how the trigger information, along with dead-time rates, are monitored and logged by the online system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. Also presented are the software tools used to efficiently display the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts.

  8. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)


    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities. (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar


    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fibromyalgia: the prototypical central sensitivity syndrome. (United States)

    Boomershine, Chad S


    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), the most common central sensitivity syndrome (CSS) affecting over 5% of the population, is a disorder of chronic widespread pain accompanied by numerous other symptoms that causes significant functional impairment. The core FM symptom domains can be recalled using the FIBRO mnemonic and include Fatigue and Fog (cognitive dysfunction), Insomnia (difficulties with all aspects of sleep including initiation, maintenance and restorative), Blues (depression and anxiety), Rigidity (stiffness in muscles and joints) and Ow! (widespread pain and tenderness). While typically presenting in middle-aged women, FM can affect both sexes at any age. FM is a syndrome of abnormal central pain processing and increased central sensitivity caused by neurobiological changes that cause dysregulation of mechanisms that normally regulate pain sensation. There are currently three different methods for diagnosing FM; the 1990, 2010 and modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. While disabling, FM symptoms can be managed with a regimen of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. Medication types with benefit in treating FM include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxers, tramadol, and stimulants. Beneficial nonpharmacologic therapies include aerobic and resistance exercise, stretching, cognitive behavioral therapy, and education. Effective management requires formulation of an individualized regimen since patients differ widely in symptoms and treatments they find beneficial. Such an individualized regimen should be based on a systematic assessment of problematic symptoms conducted at baseline and each follow-up with treatments modified over time. While challenging, FM symptoms can be effectively managed and patients can lead full, productive lives.

  11. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.


    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  12. Central tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye


    Full Text Available Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 is a naturally occurring cofactor essential for critical metabolic pathways. Studies suggest that BH4 supplementation may ameliorate autism symptoms; the biological mechanism for such an effect is unknown. To help understand the relation between central BH4 concentration and systemic metabolism and to develop a biomarker of central BH4 concentration, the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid BH4 concentration and serum amino acids was studied. BH4 concentration was found to be distributed in two groups, a lower and higher BH4 concentration group. Two serum amino acids, citrulline and methionine, differentiated these groups, and the ratio of serum citrulline-to-methionine was found to correlate with the cerebrospinal fluid BH4 concentration (r = -0.67, p < 0.05. Both citrulline and methionine are substrates in inflammation and oxidative stress pathways - two pathways that utilize BH4 and are abnormally activated in autism. These data suggests that central BH4 concentration may be related to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress pathways.

  13. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM


    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour,1,2 Rafic S Antonios,1 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed3 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods: We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results: This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion: The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. Keywords: brunescent cataract, cortex aspiration, phacoemulsification, pseudo-exfoliation, weak zonules

  14. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency. (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K


    Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. The dogma of "complete cortical cleanup" in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens-capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively.

  15. The ATLAS level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Berge, D; Caracinha, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Ohm, C; Pauly, T; Perantoni, M; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Wengler, T; PH-EP


    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger consists of the Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface (MUCTPI), the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), and the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) partitions of the sub-detectors. The MUCTPI connects the output of the muon trigger system to the CTP. At every bunch crossing it receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six pT thresholds. The CTP combines information from the calorimeter trigger and the MUCTPI and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). The MUCTPI and the CTP provide trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) for every event selected at the Level-1. They further provide accumulated and, for the CTP, bunch-by-bunch counter data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The TTC partitions send timing, trigger and control signals from the CTP to the...

  16. Central and peripheral control of food intake. (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I


    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  17. Heterotrophic protists in the Central Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.; Fessenden, Lynne

    Distribution, general composition and activity of heterotrophic protists, as well as the distribution of bacteria, were assessed in the upper water column of the central Arctic Ocean during the Arctic Ocean Section, July-September 1994. Bacterial biomass varied from 5 to > 25 mg C 1 -1, with the highest values occurring in the Chukchi Sea. Protist biomass was highest (5-107 mg Cl -1) in the upper 50 m of the water column. Higher integrated (0-50 m) protist biomass values (average 910±250 mg C m -2, range 580-1370 mg C m -2) were found in the Chukchi Sea, compared to the central Arctic Ocean (average 480±320 mg C m -2, range 120-1120 mg C m -2). Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were more abundant than ciliates in the >20 μm size class at all stations. In the central Arctic Ocean, the cryptomonads and diatoms, as well as pico-autotrophs. Clearance rates of 10-100 μm sized ciliates and dinoflagellates, based on the uptake of 1-5 μm fluorescent microspheres, were similar to rates reported for herbivorous protists in temperate waters. In terms of ecosystem carbon flow, we infer that phagotrophic protists in the Arctic Ocean are important consumers of phytoplankton and bacteria, and may represent a significant food resource for zooplankton.

  18. Does Al Qaeda Central Still Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangil Lee


    Full Text Available El artículo discute si Al Qaeda central es todavía relevante o no. Tras estudiar la actividades de Al Qaeda central cuyo objetivo es provocar la violencia en Afganistán y Pakistán, así como los planes continuos de ataques directos contra los Estados Unidos, el artículo muestra que la capacidad operativa de Al Qaeda es más sólida y fuerte que la que Estados Unidos y otros investigadores y eruditos han anticipado. Además, el apoyo virulento y la contribución Al Qaeda en la Península Arábiga a la red de Al Qaeda muestra que la longevidad de Al Qaeda depende de la relación con sus afiliados. El artículo concluye que, en estas condiciones, Al Qaeda central todavía ocupa un lugar en las discusiones de seguridad global.

  19. How viruses infiltrate the central nervous system. (United States)

    Michalicová, A; Bhide, K; Bhide, M; Kováč, A

    Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Penetration of viruses to brain can lead to the blood-brain barrier dysfunction, including increased permeability, pleocytosis and encephalopathy. Viruses causing the central nervous system infections include human immunodeficiency virus type 1, rhabdovirus, different flaviviruses, mouse adenovirus type 1, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, reovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, arbovirus, cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, parvovirus B19, measles virus, human T-cell leukemia virus, enterovirus, morbillivirus, bunyaviruses, togaviruses and others. In this review we summarized what is known about the routes of how some viruses enter the brain and how neurons and glial cells react to infection.

  20. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.


    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  1. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo


    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  2. Silurian stratigraphy of Central Iran - an update (United States)

    Hairapetian, Vachik; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Popov, Leonid E.; Männik, Peep; Miller, C. Giles


    The Silurian biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and facies of Central Iran including the Kashmar (Boghu Mountains), Tabas (Derenjal Mountains, Ozbak-Kuh), Anarak (Pol-e Khavand) and Kerman regions is reviewed and updated. The current state of knowledge of the Silurian in the Zagros Basin, Alborz, Kopet-Dagh and Talysh regions, as well as in a few areas scattered across the Sabzevar Zone, and the Sanandaj-Sirjan terranes is also reviewed. Silurian volcanism in various parts of Iran is briefly discussed. The end of the Ordovician coincided with a widespread regression across Iran synchronous with the Hirnantian glaciation, and only in the Zagros Basin is there a continuous Ordovician-Silurian transition represented by graptolitic black shales of the Sarchahan Formation. In the Central-East Iranian Platform marine sedimentation re-commenced in the early to mid Aeronian. By the Sheinwoodian, carbonate platform depositional environments were established along its north-eastern margin. In other parts of Iran (e.g., Kopet-Dagh and the Sabzevar Zone), siliciclastic sedimentation continued probably into the late Silurian. The Silurian conodont and brachiopod biostratigraphy of Central Iran is significantly updated facilitating a precise correlation with the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, as well as with key Silurian sections in other parts of Iran. The Silurian lithostratigraphy is considerably revised and two new lithostratigraphical units, namely the Boghu and Dahaneh-Kalut formations, are introduced.

  3. Pediatric central venous access devices: nursing interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy EA


    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Duffy, Kathryn N Nelson Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: A central venous catheter (CVC is an indwelling catheter that provides permanent or temporary stable venous access for both acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. These catheters provide stable venous access that can be used for a variety of medical purposes including drawing blood, hemodynamic monitoring, infusion of intravenous medications, infusion of intravenous fluids, chemotherapy, blood products, and parenteral nutrition. Each day, nurses access and care for CVCs in infants, children, and adolescents; the precision of this care can prevent life-threatening complications. The purpose of this review and the case study is to highlight the importance and components of evidence-based nursing practice in pediatric CVC care. A historical perspective of CVC care is provided in conjunction with current national initiatives to improve patient outcomes for children with CVCs. Infection prevention, clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement, and evidence-based care bundles are discussed. Keywords: pediatric nursing, central venous catheters, central line-associated bloodstream infection, care bundles, pediatric case study 

  4. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.


    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  5. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marushiakova


    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations During recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection. A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.     Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami

  6. Complications of central venous stenosis due to permanent central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis. (United States)

    Rinat, Choni; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Becker-Cohen, Rachel; Feinstein, Sofia; Frishberg, Yaacov


    Central venous catheters are frequently used as access for hemodialysis (HD) in children. One of the known complications is central venous stenosis. Although this complication is not rare, it is often asymptomatic and therefore unacknowledged. Superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis is obviously suspected in the presence of upper body edema, but several other signs and symptoms are often unrecognized as being part of this syndrome. We describe four patients with various manifestations of central venous stenosis and SVC syndrome. These sometimes life- or organ-threatening conditions include obstructive sleep apnea, unresolving stridor, increased intracranial pressure, increased intraocular pressure, right-sided pleural effusion, protein-losing enteropathy and lymphadenopathy. The temporal relationship of these complications associated with the use of central venous catheters and documentation of venous stenosis, together with their resolution after alleviation of high venous pressure, points to a causal role. We suggest pathophysiological mechanisms for the formation of each of these complications. In patients with occlusion of the SVC, various unexpected clinical entities can be caused by high central venous pressure. As often the etiology is not obvious, a high index of suspicion is needed as in some cases prompt alleviation of the high pressure is mandatory.

  7. Processing two tasks with varying task order: central stage duration influences central processing order. (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, Susana; Leonhard, Tanja; Rolke, Bettina; Ulrich, Rolf


    In a recent study, Sigman and Dehaene (2006, PLoS Biology, 4, 1227-1238) reported that perceptual processing duration influences processing order of two tasks in the psychological refractory period paradigm (PRP). The present study examines whether the duration of central processes also influences processing order. For this purpose, we employed letter tasks with different central processing durations and varied task order in the PRP. In one part of the experiment, a tone discrimination task was combined with a similar time-consuming letter discrimination task. In the other part, the tone task was combined with a more time-consuming letter task, which required a mental rotation of the letter thereby prolonging central processing. If the duration of central processes influences processing order, participants should perform the tone task first more often when it is presented with the more time-consuming mental rotation task, than when it is presented with the similar time-consuming letter task. The results clearly confirm this prediction and thus show that not only perceptual processing duration but also central processing duration affects processing order in a dual-task situation. We suggest that the reported effect mirrors a tendency of participants to minimize total reaction time to both tasks by reducing slack time. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Angiotensin II during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Walther Jensen


    Full Text Available Abstract:Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, like the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia.To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE for studies that measured variables of the renin-angiotensin system or its effect during simulated hypovolemia. 12 articles, using one of the three models, were included and showed a possible organ protective effect and an effect on the sympathetic system of angiotensin II during hypovolemia. The results support the possible organ protective vasodilatory role for the AT2-receptor during hypovolemia on both the kidney and the splanchnic tissue.

  9. HIS Central and the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog (United States)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.


    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project maintains a comprehensive workflow for publishing hydrologic observations data and registering them to the common Hydrologic Metadata Catalog. Once the data are loaded into a database instance conformant with the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), the user configures ODM web service template to point to the new database. After this, the hydrologic data become available via the standard CUAHSI HIS web service interface, that includes both data discovery (GetSites, GetVariables, GetSiteInfo, GetVariableInfo) and data retrieval (GetValues) methods. The observations data then can be further exposed via the global semantics-based search engine called Hydroseek. To register the published observations networks to the global search engine, users can now use the HIS Central application (new in HIS 1.1). With this online application, the WaterML-compliant web services can be submitted to the online catalog of data services, along with network metadata and a desired network symbology. Registering services to the HIS Central application triggers a harvester which uses the services to retrieve additional network metadata from the underlying ODM (information about stations, variables, and periods of record). The next step in HIS Central application is mapping variable names from the newly registered network, to the terms used in the global search ontology. Once these steps are completed, the new observations network is added to the map and becomes available for searching and querying. The number of observations network registered to the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog at SDSC is constantly growing. At the time of submission, the catalog contains 51 registered networks, with estimated 1.7 million stations.

  10. Polynomial Apodizers for Centrally Obscured Vortex Coronagraphs (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Pueyo, Laurent; Mazoyer, Johan; N'Diaye, Mamadou


    Several coronagraph designs have been proposed over the last two decades to directly image exoplanets. Among these designs, vector vortex coronagraphs provide theoretically perfect starlight cancellation along with small inner working angles when deployed on telescopes with unobstructed pupils. However, current and planned space missions and ground-based extremely large telescopes present complex pupil geometries, including large central obscurations caused by secondary mirrors, which prevent vortex coronagraphs from rejecting on-axis sources entirely. Recent solutions combining the vortex phase mask with a ring-apodized pupil have been proposed to circumvent this issue, but provide a limited throughput for vortex charges > 2. We present pupil plane apodizations for charge 2, 4, and 6 vector vortex coronagraphs that compensate for pupil geometries with circularly symmetric central obstructions caused by on-axis secondary mirrors. These apodizations are derived analytically and allow vortex coronagraphs to retain theoretically perfect nulling in the presence of obstructed pupils. For a charge 4 vortex, we design polynomial apodization functions assuming a grayscale apodizing filter that represent a substantial gain in throughput over the ring-apodized vortex coronagraph design, while for a charge 6 vortex, we design polynomial apodized vortex coronagraphs that have ≳ 70 % total energy throughput for the entire range of central obscuration sizes studied. We propose methods for optimizing apodizations produced with either grayscale apodizing filters or shaped mirrors. We conclude by demonstrating how this design may be combined with apodizations numerically optimized for struts and primary mirror segment gaps to design terrestrial exoplanet imagers for complex pupils.

  11. Outcome of advanced, unresectable conventional central chondrosarcoma. (United States)

    van Maldegem, Annemiek M; Gelderblom, Hans; Palmerini, Emanuela; Dijkstra, Sander D; Gambarotti, Marco; Ruggieri, Pietro; Nout, Remi A; van de Sande, Michiel A J; Ferrari, Cristina; Ferrari, Stefano; Bovée, Judith V M G; Picci, Piero


    For patients who have chondrosarcoma with unresectable disease, because of tumor location, tumor size, or extensive metastatic disease, treatment options are very limited because of their relative resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The overall survival of this patient population is poor; however, specific studies are lacking, and large series have not been published. Therefore, the authors conducted this retrospective, 2-center study to gain insight into the outcome of patients with advanced, unresectable, conventional central chondrosarcoma. All patients with unresectable conventional central chondrosarcoma who were diagnosed between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2011 in 2 major European bone sarcoma centers (Rizzoli Institute, Bologna, Italy and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands) were selected. Relevant information was collected from the medical records at both centers. In total, 171 patients met the selection criteria. The overall survival rate for all patients was 48% at 1 year, 24% at 2 years, 12% at 3 years, 6% at 4 years, and 2% at 5 years. Patients with unresectable, locally advanced disease without distant metastases had a significantly better survival than patients with metastatic disease (P = .0014). Systemic treatment, consisting of either doxorubicin-based chemotherapy or the noncytotoxic drugs imatinib and sirolimus, improved survival significantly compared with no treatment (P = .0487). For patients who had locally advanced disease without metastases, radiotherapy was associated with a survival benefit (P = .0032). This study provides a standard for overall survival rates after a diagnosis of unresectable conventional central chondrosarcoma. Systemic treatment and radiotherapy may improve survival, although selection bias because of the retrospective nature of this study may have influenced the outcome. The poor survival underlines the need for new therapeutic options for this patient population. Cancer 2014

  12. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Franciscus Janz


    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  13. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  14. Anteproyecto de la central reversible de Zújar


    Rodríguez Barrón, Arrate Estíbaliz


    El objeto de este proyecto es construir un aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico en el municipio del Zújar (Granada). Se aprovechará la orografía para conseguir un gran salto y el embalse del Negratín (existente). El otro embalse se sitúa de manera óptima para el aprovechamiento después de estudiar varias localizaciones. Se trata de una central reversible: se turbina agua para producir energía en las horas puntas y se bombea agua en las horas valle al embalse superior. De esta manera ...

  15. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Fiala


    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  16. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  17. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo


    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  18. Central odontogenic fibroma of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Chhabra


    Full Text Available Central odontogenic fibroma (COF is an extremely rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. It appears as an asymptomatic expansion of the cortical plate of the mandible or maxilla. Radiologically it presents as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency. It responds well to surgical enucleation with no tendency for recurrence. We describe a case of COF in mandibular right posterior region in a 16-year-old female. The lesion was surgically removed and analyzed histopathologically.

  19. Temperature of the Central Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lavrov


    Full Text Available Heat is inevitably generated in the semiconductors during operation. Cooling in a computer, and in its main part – the Central Processing Unit (CPU, is crucial, allowing the proper functioning without overheating, malfunctioning, and damage. In order to estimate the temperature as a function of time, it is important to solve the differential equations describing the heat flow and to understand how it depends on the physical properties of the system. This project aims to answer these questions by considering a simplified model of the CPU + heat sink. A similarity with the electrical circuit and certain methods from electrical circuit analysis are discussed.

  20. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... of the seasonal cycle is also documented. The literature so far has concentrated on the measurement of this phenomenon by various methods, among which complex demodulation and wavelet decompositions are prominent. We offer new insight by considering a model that allows for seasonally varying deterministic...

  1. Consumer Central Energy Flexibility in Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    Energy flexibility in buildings will play an important role in the smart energy system. Office buildings have more potentials to provide energy flexibility to the grid compared to other types of buildings, due to the existing building management, control systems and large energy consumption....... Consumers in office buildings (building owners/managers and occupants) take a main role for adopting and engaging in building energy flexibility. In this paper provides a systematic review of consumer central energy flexibility in office buildings with the discussion of social, technical and business...... can boost energy flexibility in the office buildings....

  2. D0 Central Tracking Chamber Performance Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, Domenico [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)


    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an $R\\Phi$ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against $\\gamma \\to e^+ e^-$ events.

  3. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazcilevich, D. Aron; Garcia, R. Agustin; Suarez, Gerardo Ruiz; Magana, R. Victor; Perez, L. Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Mexico City (Mexico); Fuentes-Gea, Vicente [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios del Posgrado, Mexico City (Mexico)


    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  4. Ferrobasalts from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Popko, D.C.

    al. 1980), the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR; Spiess Ridge) (le Roex et al. 1982) and the Australian}Antarctic Discordance (AAD) (Klein et al. 1991). In this new report we describe and discuss the ferrobasalts of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB... et al. 1976); DSDP"Deep Sea Drilling Project (Thompson et al. 1978); EPR"East Paci"c Rise (Hekinian 1982), Iceland (Thy 1989); Spiess and Chain ridges (le Roex et al. 1982) crest (’50 Ma ago) and the second in an intraplate environment. Petrochemistry...

  5. Central schemes for open-channel flow (United States)

    Gottardi, Guido; Venutelli, Maurizio


    The resolution of the Saint-Venant equations for modelling shock phenomena in open-channel flow by using the second-order central schemes of Nessyahu and Tadmor (NT) and Kurganov and Tadmor (KT) is presented. The performances of the two schemes that we have extended to the non-homogeneous case and that of the classical first-order Lax-Friedrichs (LF) scheme in predicting dam-break and hydraulic jumps in rectangular open channels are investigated on the basis of different numerical and physical conditions. The efficiency and robustness of the schemes are tested by comparing model results with analytical or experimental solutions.

  6. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.


    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  7. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, Domenico [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)


    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e- events.

  8. Utilizing Centralized Diamond Architecture for Searching Algorithms (United States)

    Damrudi, Masumeh; Jadidy Aval, Kamal


    Searching data elements and information in a fraction of time is still an important task for many areas of works. The importance of finding the best answer leads to use different algorithms which consume time. To improve the speed of searching information within mass information, employing parallel processing is inevitable. A search algorithm with constant time(CS) is proposed on centralized diamond architecture. We have optimized this algorithm to find the location and the number of occurrence of data, if there exists any.

  9. Central limit theorems under special relativity. (United States)

    McKeague, Ian W


    Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior.

  10. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut


    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system....

  11. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Small molecules: the missing link in the central dogma. (United States)

    Schreiber, Stuart L


    Small molecules have critical roles at all levels of biological complexity and yet remain orphans of the central dogma. Chemical biologists, working with small molecules, expand our understanding of these central elements of life.

  13. GFT centrality: A new node importance measure for complex networks (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Manoj, B. S.


    Identifying central nodes is very crucial to design efficient communication networks or to recognize key individuals of a social network. In this paper, we introduce Graph Fourier Transform Centrality (GFT-C), a metric that incorporates local as well as global characteristics of a node, to quantify the importance of a node in a complex network. GFT-C of a reference node in a network is estimated from the GFT coefficients derived from the importance signal of the reference node. Our study reveals the superiority of GFT-C over traditional centralities such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and Google PageRank centrality, in the context of various arbitrary and real-world networks with different degree-degree correlations.

  14. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery: About this journal. Journal Home > East and Central African Journal of Surgery: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  17. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  18. Archives: East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... Archives: East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home > Archives: East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  20. Factors associated with central overweight and obesity in students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 18, 2013 ... Keywords: alcohol consumption, central obesity, coffee consumption, Ghana, physical activity, Tamale, University students, WHR ... Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of central overweight and obesity in students of the University for Development Studies in ... Energy expenditure, measured.

  1. Geology of the Payette National Forest and vicinity, west-central Idaho (United States)

    Lund, Karen


    Before the Late Cretaceous, the eastern and western parts of the geologically complex Payette National Forest, as divided by the Salmon River suture, had fundamentally different geologic histories. The eastern part is underlain by Mesoproterozoic to Cambrian(?) rocks of the Laurentian (Precambrian North American) continent. Thick Mesopro-terozoic units, which are at least in part equivalent in age to the Belt Supergroup of northern Idaho and western Montana, underwent Mesoproterozoic metamorphic and deformational events, including intrusion of Mesoproterozoic plutons. Dur-ing the Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic, the western edge of Laurentia was rifted. This event included magmatism and resulted in deposition of rift-related Neoproterozoic to Lower Cambrian(?) volcanic and sedimentary rocks above Mesopro-terozoic rocks. The western part of the forest is underlain by upper Paleozoic to lower Mesozoic island-arc volcanic and sedimentary rocks. These rocks comprise four recognized island-arc terranes that were amalgamated and intruded by intermediate-composition plutons, probably in the Late Juras-sic and Early Cretaceous, and then sutured to Laurentia along the Salmon River suture in the Late Cretaceous. The Salmon River suture formed as a right-lateral, transpressive fault. The metamorphic grade and structural complexity of the rocks increase toward the suture from both sides, and geochemical signatures in crosscutting plutonic rocks abruptly differ across the crustal boundary. Having been reactivated by younger structures, the Salmon River suture forms a north-trending topographic depression along Long Valley, through McCall, to the Goose Creek and French Creek drainages. During the last stages of metamorphism and deformation related to the suture event, voluminous plutons of the Idaho batholith were intruded east of the suture. An older plutonic series is intermediate in composition and preserved as elon-gated and deformed bodies near the suture and as parts of

  2. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  3. Systematic Review of Central Post Stroke Pain: What Is Happening in the Central Nervous System? (United States)

    Akyuz, Gulseren; Kuru, Pinar


    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common central neuropathic pain syndromes seen after stroke. It is mainly related with vascular damage at certain brain territory and pain related to corresponding body areas. In the past, it was described as one of the definitive symptoms of thalamic lesion. However, recent findings suggest that it is not only seen after thalamic lesions but also seen after vascular lesions in any part of the central nervous system. Although there are certain hypotheses to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of CPSP, further evidence is needed. The majority of the cases are intractable and unresponsive to analgesic treatment. Electrical stimulation such as deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seems to be effective in certain cases. In this systematic review, recent advancements related to CPSP mechanisms have been evaluated. Further investigations are needed in order to reveal the mystery of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CPSP.

  4. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao


    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  5. Drug Trafficking and Violence in Central America and Beyond


    Demombynes, Gabriel


    This paper examines the relationship between narcotics trafficking and violence in Central America. The first part of the paper addresses particular questions posed for the 2011 World Development Report and examines several competing hypothesis on the drivers of crime in Central America. A key finding is that areas exposed to intense narcotics trafficking in Central America suffer from hig...

  6. Central Diabetes insipidus in a Nigerian child : A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is rare in children. About 30 - 50% of cases are idiopathic. Early and accurate diagnosis are crucial for safe and effective treatment. This is the first report of Central diabetes insipidus in a child in Nigeria. Case report: We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a female ...

  7. 34 CFR 6.4 - Central records; confidentiality. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central records; confidentiality. 6.4 Section 6.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.4 Central records; confidentiality. Central files and records shall be maintained of all inventions, patents, and...

  8. Mandibular meslodens with agenesis of central incisors - A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mesiodens is commonly located in maxillary central incisor region and rarely in the mandible. Congenital absence of mandibular central incisor is uncommon. This is a report of a rare association of mandibular mesiodens with congenitally absent permanent central incisors. This is the first case report of such an association.

  9. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a ...

  10. Central State University. Its Unique Role: In Retrospect, In Prospect. (United States)

    Central State Univ., Wilberforce, OH.

    After a devastating tornado, a firm commitment was made to rebuild Central State University. As a college, its mission was to provide teacher training, to develop technical programs, and to stabilize these programs for minority students. In 1965, Central State was granted university status. The Central State University is plagued by two issues:…

  11. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs. 201-207...

  12. Isovector coupling channel and central properties of the charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The influence of the isovector coupling channel on the central depression parameter and the central value of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei was studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to about 50% increase of the central depression parameter, and weakens the dependency of both ...

  13. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central processing of orders. 1305.24 Section 1305... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.24 Central processing of orders. (a) A supplier that has one or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are...

  14. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia (United States)

    Jones, Peter


    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  15. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders


    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  16. Plasticity of central chemoreceptors: effect of bilateral carotid body resection on central CO2 sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Dahan


    Full Text Available Human breathing is regulated by feedback and feed-forward control mechanisms, allowing a strict matching between metabolic needs and the uptake of oxygen in the lungs. The most important control mechanism, the metabolic ventilatory control system, is fine-tuned by two sets of chemoreceptors, the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies (located in the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries and the central CO2 chemoreceptors in the ventral medulla. Animal data indicate that resection of the carotid bodies results, apart from the loss of the peripheral chemoreceptors, in reduced activity of the central CO2 sensors. We assessed the acute and chronic effect of carotid body resection in three humans who underwent bilateral carotid body resection (bCBR after developing carotid body tumors.The three patients (two men, one woman were suffering from a hereditary form of carotid body tumors. They were studied prior to surgery and at regular intervals for 2-4 y following bCBR. We obtained inspired minute ventilation (Vi responses to hypoxia and CO2. The Vi-CO2 responses were separated into a peripheral (fast response and a central (slow response with a two-compartment model of the ventilatory control system. Following surgery the ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreceptors and the hypoxic responses were not different from zero or below 10% of preoperative values. The ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of the central chemoreceptors decreased by about 75% after surgery, with peak reduction occurring between 3 and 6 mo postoperatively. This was followed by a slow return to values close to preoperative values within 2 y. During this slow return, the Vi-CO2 response shifted slowly to the right by about 8 mm Hg.The reduction in central Vi-CO2 sensitivity after the loss of the carotid bodies suggests that the carotid bodies exert a tonic drive or tonic facilitation on the output of the central chemoreceptors that is lost upon their resection

  17. Plasticity of central chemoreceptors: effect of bilateral carotid body resection on central CO2 sensitivity. (United States)

    Dahan, Albert; Nieuwenhuijs, Diederik; Teppema, Luc


    Human breathing is regulated by feedback and feed-forward control mechanisms, allowing a strict matching between metabolic needs and the uptake of oxygen in the lungs. The most important control mechanism, the metabolic ventilatory control system, is fine-tuned by two sets of chemoreceptors, the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies (located in the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries) and the central CO2 chemoreceptors in the ventral medulla. Animal data indicate that resection of the carotid bodies results, apart from the loss of the peripheral chemoreceptors, in reduced activity of the central CO2 sensors. We assessed the acute and chronic effect of carotid body resection in three humans who underwent bilateral carotid body resection (bCBR) after developing carotid body tumors. The three patients (two men, one woman) were suffering from a hereditary form of carotid body tumors. They were studied prior to surgery and at regular intervals for 2-4 y following bCBR. We obtained inspired minute ventilation (Vi) responses to hypoxia and CO2. The Vi-CO2 responses were separated into a peripheral (fast) response and a central (slow) response with a two-compartment model of the ventilatory control system. Following surgery the ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreceptors and the hypoxic responses were not different from zero or below 10% of preoperative values. The ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of the central chemoreceptors decreased by about 75% after surgery, with peak reduction occurring between 3 and 6 mo postoperatively. This was followed by a slow return to values close to preoperative values within 2 y. During this slow return, the Vi-CO2 response shifted slowly to the right by about 8 mm Hg. The reduction in central Vi-CO2 sensitivity after the loss of the carotid bodies suggests that the carotid bodies exert a tonic drive or tonic facilitation on the output of the central chemoreceptors that is lost upon their resection. The

  18. Communities, households and animals. Convergent developments in Central Anatolian and Central European Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Marciniak


    Full Text Available This paper intends to scrutinize striking similarities in cultural developments and social transformations in Neolithic communities in the North European Plain of Central Europe and Central Anatolia in the early phase of their development and in the following post-Eearly Neolithic period. They will be explored through evidence pertaining to architecture and the organization of space, alongside changes in settlement pattern, as well as animal bone assemblages and zoomorphic representations. Social changes, in particular a transition from communal arrangements of local groups in the Early Neolithic to autonomous household organization in the following period, will be debated.

  19. The Transformations of the Central Area of Nora: the 3D Reconstruction of the Central Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Capuzzo


    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of the Central Baths of Nora has required a long and reasoned analysis. On the basis of precise comparisons, a planimetric study of the complex has been first carried out, followed by the more difficult one of the elevations and the roofs, in order to create a model that allows to appreciate the building not only in its structural complexity, but also in the relationship with the spatial context in which it stood. This work represents only a part of a larger project that lead to the creation of a 3D model of the whole central district of Nora.

  20. [Patient's consent to central venous catheterization]. (United States)

    Fiorini, F; Palumbo, G; Ciliberti, R


    The need to obtain a patient's consent for his health care is a principle set out in the Italian Constitution, which safeguards a person's right to health. Articles 13 and 32.2 confirm a person's freedom and the right to make free decisions about one's medical treatment. Nobody must be obliged to any medical procedure, unless as by law enacted. The obligation to inform patients is important during the contractual phase: consent is an essential element in the professional contract governing the relationship between a physician and a patient. The former is obligated to inform the latter about his medical intervention clearly and precisely, to enable the patient to decide freely whether to undergo a medical procedure. At this point, it is also essential to obtain a patient's consent for those treatments that although they are carried out in a correct and careful way, could damage a person's physical integrity. The failure to obtain consent could give rise to a burden of responsibility on behalf of the clinician. A central venous catheterization in hemodialysis (HD) is a common procedure performed during routine nephrological treatments. Our signed informed consent form prior to introducing a central venous catheter is thought to satisfy requirements provided for in current regulations to give correct information.