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Sample records for chaceon chilensis proveniente

  1. Pesca artesanal de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Artisanal fishing for golden crab (Chaceon chilensis off the Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile

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    Mauricio Ahumada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la pesca artesanal de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis en las islas Robinson Crusoe y Santa Clara, en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, desarrollada entre julio de 2005 y mayo de 2006. Se dan a conocer aspectos biológico-pesqueros relativos a esfuerzo y rendimientos de pesca, proporción sexual, así como los resultados de una evaluación directa de biomasa vulnerable mediante el método de area de influencia de las trampas. La extracción se efectuó fundamentalmente en el cuadrante NE de ambas islas, mediante botes de madera de 9,0 m de eslora. Se monitorearon 157 salidas de pesca y se capturaron 13.903 ejemplares, los cuales mayoritariamente fueron machos (97,5%. La CPUE promedio fue 16,7 ejemplares por trampa y de 13,5 ejemplares comerciales por trampa. A partir del muestreo sistemático, se detectó al recurso entre 300 y 1000 m de profundidad, con mayores rendimientos entre 400 y 500 m de profundidad (19,8 y 15,9 ejemplares por trampa. Se consideran y discuten dos escenarios de evaluación de stock para ejemplares de talla comercial en el area actualmente explotada (45,8 km , el primero estimó un radio efectivo para las trampas de 13,4 m (area de 564,1 m , con una biomasa vulnerable de 1.002 ton, equivalentes a 832.983 ejemplares, mientras que el segundo consideró un radio de 30,0 m con una biomasa vulnerable de 203 ton equivalente a 168.587 ejemplares.This work describes the artisanal golden crab (Chaceon chilensis fishery off Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara islands in the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile developed between July 2005 and May 2006. We report biological fishery aspects related to the físhing efforts and yields, the sexual proportion of the catch, and the results of a direct evaluation of the vulnerable biomass done using the trap area of influence method. The extraction was done mainly in the NE quadrant of both islands from wooden boats (9.0 m length. Monitoring was done during 157 f

  2. Gracilaria chilensis(Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

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    Maximiliano D. Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria chilensis es un alga roja agarófita perteneciente a la clase Florideophyceae. En este estudio se describe la formación de pelos en talos mantenidos en cultivo en agua de mar enriquecida, bajo condiciones controladas de luz y temperatura. La inducción de los pelos fue realizada colocando porciones de talos en un medio de cultivo carente de compuestos nitrogenados. Se emplearon técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica de transmisión y barrido. Los pelos se desarrollan a partir de células corticales ovoides grandes. Estas células formadoras de pelos (CFPs son multinucleadas, poseen pequeños plástidos y una abundante red de retículo endoplasmático de disposición apical. La formación de los pelos comienza con el desarrollo de una protuberancia, inicialmente cubierta por una pared multilaminar, la cual se rompe junto con la pared del talo, con la consecuente elongación de la protuberancia. El pelo queda establecido cuando se produce una citocinesis en la base de la protuberancia, formándose una conexión citoplasmática obliterada o “pit plug” asimétrica entre la base del pelo y la CFP. Los pelos son unicelulares, poseen una vacuola y numerosos núcleos. Tienen un crecimiento activo dejando, al caerse, una cicatriz de forma concéntrica en la pared. Se compara este proceso con el descrito en otras especies de la clase. En medios de cultivo carentes de nitrógeno, el crecimiento del talo de G. chilensis fue menor, aumentando el número de pelos.

  3. Heavy metals in red crabs, Chaceon quinquedens, from the Gulf of Mexico.

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    Perry, Harriet; Isphording, Wayne; Trigg, Christine; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-12-30

    The red crab, Chaceon quinquedens, is distributed in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and is most abundant in an area associated with sediment deposition from the Mississippi River. Sediment geochemistry and biological and ecological traits of red crabs favor accumulation of contaminants. Red crabs, sediment, and bottom water samples were taken from three distinct geographic locations representing areas with differing exposure to contaminant laden effluents from the Mississippi River. Inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were employed to determine levels of heavy metals in red crab muscle tissue. Ion site partitioning was used to determine metal speciation in sediments. Red crabs showed evidence of heavy metal bioaccumulation in all sample areas with high variability in contaminant levels in individual crabs for some metals. Bioavailability of metals in sediment did not always result in accumulation in muscle tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reference hematological values in Argentinian terrestrial turtle (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Troiano, Juan Carlos; Silva, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas de 150 ejemplares sanos de tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis) por medio de punción de la vena coccígea superior. Las determinaciones que se realizaron incluyeron recuentos de glóbulos rojos, leucocitos y trombocitos, hematocrito, concentración de hemoglobina, índices hematimétricos y fórmulas leucocitarias relativas, las que se compararon con otras especies de Testudinidae. No se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos en lo...

  5. Sulfated Polyhydroxysteroids from the Antartic Ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus Chilensis

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    M. S. Maier

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Five disulfated steroids and a mixture of monosulfated steroids were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the antarctic ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The structures were determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FABMS.

  6. Sulfated Polyhydroxysteroids from the Antartic Ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus Chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Maier; E. Araya; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Five disulfated steroids and a mixture of monosulfated steroids were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the antarctic ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The structures were determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FABMS.

  7. Observaciones sobre el comportamiento de Schroederichthys chilensis (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Daniel; Adams, Grant D.

    2014-01-01

    Schroederichthys chilensis, the redspotted catshark or chilean catshark, is an endemic species to Peruvian and Chilean waters. Observations on its behavior in the National Reserve System of Guano Islands, Islets, and Capes – Punta San Juan and Paracas National Reserve reveal that it curls when threatened. This hypothesized survival strategy has not been previously documented in this species and we recommend further studies to elucidate this behavior. Schroederichthys chilensis, tiburón gat...

  8. Note on the fisheries and biology of the golden crab (Chaceon fenneri off the northern coast of Brazil Nota sobre la biología y la pesca del cangrejo dorado (Chaceon fenneri frente a la costa norte de Brasil

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    Tiago Barros Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of golden crabs (Chaceon fenneri off the northern coast of Brazil was first reported in 2001. Since then, a few companies and boats have exploited this resource. In the state of Ceará, one company has been fishing for these crabs with a single boat since 2003. The production and fishing effort of this company indicated a decrease in the number of trips and total catches per year. Data collected on one trip in 2006 showed that the CPUE was highest at over 650 m depth. As registered for other geryonid crabs, C. fenneri was segregated by sex along the northern slope of Brazil. Male crabs were significantly larger than females, presenting an isometric relationship between carapace width and length and an allometric relationship between carapace width and body weight.La presencia de cangrejos dorados (Chaceon fenneri frente a la costa norte de Brasil fue primeramente descrita en 2001. Desde entonces, algunas embarcaciones y compañías se han dedicado a explotar este recurso. En el Estado de Ceará, una sola compañía ha estado pescando estos crustáceos desde el año 2003 con una sola embarcación. Se presenta la producción y esfuerzo pesquero aplicado por esa compañía, indicando la disminución en el número de viajes y captura total por año. Registros recolectados en un viaje realizado el 2006 muestran que los mayores valores de CPUE se obtienen a profundidades mayores de 650 m. Al igual que lo registrado en otros Geryonidae, agregaciones por sexo se determinaron en C fenneri a lo largo del talud en la región norte de Brasil. Los machos fueron significativamente más grandes que las hembras, presentando una relación isométrica entre el ancho y longitud del caparazón; como también, una relación alométrica entre el ancho y el peso.

  9. New Microsatellite Loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae

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    Cecilia F. Bessega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

  10. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, Cecilia F; Pometti, Carolina L; Miller, Joe T; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2013-05-01

    As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

  11. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae en el sur de Brasil

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    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently exploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the use of allometric growth of chelae and abdomen in relation to carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 12.1 cm (males and 10.7 cm (females. The CW50% was estimated to be 10.9 cm and 12.2 cm for females, respectively considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, and 13.6 cm for males. By size class, the maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females by size class was 0.4 and of males with copula marks was 0.6, suggesting a bi-annual reproductive cycle for individuals of the species. The size composition analysis showed that irnmature individuals may comprise up to 70% of the catches. These results indicate the need to consider enhanced trap selectivity and lower mortality of ovigerous females as new and immediate goals to improve resource management.El cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo real comenzó en el año 2001 por barcos extranjeros que eran intensamente supervisados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado. A partir de muestras obtenidas a bordo de los barcos de pesca, se estim

  12. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo rojo de profundidad Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae al sur de Brasil

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    Rodrigo Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The red crab Chaceon notialis is one of the three deep-sea crab species currently exploited in Brazil. The red crab fishery started in 1998 with foreign vessels that, as of 2000, have been extensively moni-tored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on bio-mass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the allometric growth of the chelae and abdomen in relation to the carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 8.9 cm CW (males and 8.8 cm CW (females. The CW5% was estimated to be 6.9 and 9.7 cm CW for females, considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, respectively, and 8.4 cm CW for males. The maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females and males with copula marks by size class were 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, suggesting an annual reproductive cycle for the species, both at the populational and individuals levels. The size composition analysis showed that up to 97% of the females caught in the fishery were immature. Given these results, enhancing trap selectivity and minimizing the mortality of ovigerous females should be considered as new and immediate goals for the management of the resource.El cangrejo-rojo Chaceon notialis corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo-rojo comenzó en el año 1998 por barcos extranjeros que, desde 2000 fueron intensamente vigilados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado

  13. Observations on the behavior of Schroederichthys chilensis (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae

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    Daniel Flores

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schroederichthys chilensis, the redspotted catshark or chilean catshark, is an endemic species to Peruvian and Chilean waters. Observations on its behavior in the National Reserve System of Guano Islands, Islets, and Capes – Punta San Juan and Paracas National Reserve reveal that it curls when threatened. This hypothesized survival strategy has not been previously documented in this species and we recommend further studies to elucidate this behavior.

  14. Field studies on the photosynthesis of two desert Chilean plants: Prosopis chilensis and Prosopis tamarugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, G; Delatorre, J; Lütz, C; Cardemil, L

    2001-11-01

    Photosynthetic parameters were investigated in relation to light intensity (PAR and UV-B) in two Chilean Prosopis sp., Prosopis chilensis and Prosopis tamarugo in their natural habitats. The objective of this work was to compare the photosynthetic responses and to determine the degree of adaptation of both species to visible- and UV-radiation stress. One of the study sites was Refresco in the Atacama Desert, where P. tamarugo is an endemic plant and P. chilensis was introduced, and the other was Peldehue in the valley of Central Chile where only P. chilensis is present. Due to latitude, light intensity (UV-B and PAR) is higher in Refresco than in Peldehue. The parameters investigated in both species were photosystem II fluorescence, CO(2) assimilation, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigment composition, flavonoid absorption patterns and composition of chlorophyll-protein complexes. Fluorescence studies, CO(2) assimilation and stomatal conductance studies demonstrated that photosynthetic activity is more efficient and stable throughout the day in P. tamarugo than in P. chilensis in Refresco. Chlorophyll-protein complexes also seemed to be more stable in P. tamarugo than in P. chilensis. Photosynthetic pigment analyses indicated possible photodamage in P. chilensis trees in Refresco, but not in Peldehue. Such photodamage was absent in P. tamarugo. There was a considerable change in the flavonoid pattern between noon and afternoon hours in both species at both study sites. The physiological implications of these changes indicate that P. tamarugo is more adapted to high solar radiation than P. chilensis.

  15. Actividad biológica del veneno de Anthothoe chilensis (Lesson, 1830 (Actiniaria: Sagartiidae

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    Fernando Retuerto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre características bioquímicas, actividad hemolítica, citotóxica y citolítica de tres fracciones del veneno de la anémona de mar Anthothoe chilensis. Los tentáculos de 78 ejemplares de A. chilensis, provenientes de la Isla Cabinza-San Lorenzo, Lima, fueron procesados obteniendo un filtrado, el cual se fraccionó por precipitación con tres puntos de saturación con acetona fría: I (20%, II (50%, III (80%. El filtrado mostró una concentración proteica de 1,8 mg/mL. Las pruebas de detección de carbohidratos totales demostraron la presencia de 1,401 mg de glucosa/ml de solución en el filtrado; mientras que la electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida en presencia de dodecil sulfato de sodio (PAGE-SDS evidenció proteínas de 14 a 94 kDa, de las cuales la mayor parte fueron glicoproteínas. Se encontró actividad hemolítica sobre eritrocitos humanos en las fracciones I y II. La fracción III tuvo la actividad fosfolipásica más alta. Las tres fracciones tuvieron una ligera actividad proteolítica sobre caseína siendo la más activa la fracción I. Los efectos citotóxico y citológico fueron evaluados aplicando el Ensayo de Toxicidad en Embriones de Erizo de mar (SET. Las anormalidades morfológicas fueron evaluadas a las 48 horas de desarrollo. Las anormalidades citológicas fueron evaluadas en el estadio de gástrula tardía. Las tres fracciones acetónicas produjeron daños citotóxicos y citológicos importantes en los embriones de erizo de mar. Los efectos sobre los embriones fueron retrasar su desarrollo y producir anomalías morfológicas como lisis de blástulas y exogastrulación. Los daños citológicos observados fueron núcleos heteropicnóticos, núcleos gigantes y espacios celulares anormales. La fracción II fue la más citotóxica produciendo una mortalidad de 75,52 ± 5,5% en los primeros estadíos con 1,0 μg/mL. La fracción I produjo el mayor porcentaje de anomalías en los embriones

  16. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo del chorito (Mytilus chilensis de dos poblaciones naturales sometidas a diferentes temperaturas de acondicionamiento Assessment of the reproductive potential of the mussel (Mytilus chilensis from two natural populations subjected to different conditioning temperatures

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    Luis Lagos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus chilensis tiene ciclos reproductivos que varían latitudinalmente. Presenta reducida diferenciación genética y morfológica debido a un gran potencial de dispersión. Se acondicionaron reproductores de bahía Yaldad (Chiloé y bahía Zenteno (Punta Arenas a 9 ± 0,5°C y 15 ± 0,5°C, alimentados con dieta (1:1 de Isochrysis galbana y Chaetoceros neogracile. Se espera dilucidar si el acondicionamiento a diferentes temperaturas produce variaciones en el potencial reproductivo de las poblaciones. El menor desarrollo gonadal se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 9°C, mientras que el mayor se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 15°C provenientes de Chiloé. La fecundidad de los reproductores de Yaldad fue mayor que los de Zenteno. El diámetro de los ovocitos fue mayor en los reproductores de Zenteno y en ambas poblaciones fue mayor a 9°C. Ni el porcentaje de huevos fecundados ni el porcentaje de eclosión de larvas D mostraron diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones a ninguna de las temperaturas de acondicionamiento. De acuerdo con estos resultados, no se logra establecer diferencias en el potencial reproductivo en las poblaciones y bajo las condiciones de este estudio.The reproductive cycles of Mytilus chilensis vary latitudinally. This species has reduced genetic and morphological differentiation due to its high potential for dispersal. Broodstocks from Yaldad Bay (Chiloé and Zenteno Bay (Punta Arenas were conditioned at 9 ± 0.5°C and 15 ± 0.5°C, and were fed a diet (1:1 of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros neogracile. We expected to determine whether conditioning at different temperatures produces changes in the reproductive potential of the populations. Gonadal development was lowest in the broodstocks conditioned at 9°C, and highest in those conditioned at 15°C, from Chiloé. Fertility was greater in broodstocks from Yaldad than in those from Zenteno. Oocyte diameter was greater in broodstocks

  17. Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens

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    Amanda Lawrence

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG; however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG, and to examine its tissue distribution. To this end, we employed polymerase chain reaction cloning with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length ChqIAG cDNA sequence (1555 nt includes a 366 nt 5′ untranslated region a 453 nt open reading frame encoding 151 amino acids, and a relatively long 3′ UTR of 733 nt. The ORF consists of a 19 aa signal peptide, 32 aa B chain, 56 aa C chain, and 44 aa A chain. The putative ChqIAG amino acid sequence is most similar to those found in other crab species, including C. sapidus and S. paramamosain, which are clustered together phylogenetically.

  18. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

  19. Cell wall proteins in seedling cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J G; Cardemil, L

    1994-01-01

    Four cell wall proteins of cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis seedlings were characterized by PAGE and Western analyses using a polyclonal antibody, generated against soybean seed coat extensin. These proteins had M(r)s of 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 and 63,000, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The proteins exhibited a fluorescent positive reaction with dansylhydrazine suggesting that they are glycoproteins; they did not show peroxidase activity. The cell wall proteins were also characterized by their amino acid composition and by their amino-terminal sequence. These analyses revealed that there are two groups of related cell wall proteins in the cotyledons. The first group comprises the proteins of M(r)s 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 which are rich in glutamic acid/glutamine and aspartic acid/asparagine and they have almost identical NH2-terminal sequences. The second group comprises the M(r) 63,000 protein which is rich in proline, glycine, valine and tyrosine, with an NH2-terminal sequence which was very similar to that of soybean proline-rich proteins.

  20. convencional proveniente de ferrita cúprica

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    NÉSTOR R. ROJAS R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la cianuración, de un residuo proveniente de una lixiviación de una calcina oxidada de metal blanco con alto contenido de cobre (10,6 % en la forma de ferrita cúprica, con tenores de oro y plata de 38,5 y 1085 g/Ton, respectivamente. Las extracciones de cobre en la cianuraciones son siempre más bajas que las reportadas en la literatura, pues bajo condiciones de extracción completa de oro, el cobre se disuelve tan sólo un 0,36 %, mientras que en las condiciones requeridas para una extracción del 60 % de la plata, se obtuvo una disolución cercana al 5 % de cobre. Es posible que la alta refractariedad del cobre en forma de ferrita cúprica sea la causa de la baja disolución de este metal en cianuro.

  1. Distribución temporal de larvas de Mytilus chilensis (Hupé, 1954 (Mollusca: Mytilidae, en el mar interior de Chiloé, sur de Chile Temporal distribution of larvae of Mytilus chilensis (Hupé, 1854 (Mollusca: Mytilidae, in the interior sea of Chiloé, southern Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Entre septiembre 2007 y marzo 2008, en Quillaipe, Metri, Sotomo, Canutillar y Pichicolo (mar interior de Chiloé, se determinó mensualmente la presencia larval de M. chilensis, mediante arrastres verticales de plancton, en una columna de 0-7,5 m y paralelamente se determinó histológicamente el estado reproductivo de ejemplares adultos. Se detectó permanentemente la presencia de larvas en los cinco sitios estudiados, con un significativo incremento entre octubre y diciembre, superando en Canutillar 49 mil larvas por m-3, sitio que junto a Sotomo registraron las mayores densidades. El análisis de cohortes mostró una similitud de los grupos larvales presentes en los diferentes sitios a partir de septiembre, acentuándose durante noviembre y diciembre, así como una permanente aparición de cohortes en estadios iniciales. En contraste con estos resultados, el proceso reproductivo de M. chilensis en estos sitios, se manifestó de enero a marzo. Se discute que los desoves registrados en estos sitios, no serían responsables de la presencia de las larvas, actuando en consecuencia como áreas receptoras, y de retención de larvas provenientes de otros sitios. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de profundizar conocimientos biológicos y ecológicos en áreas de distribución de la especie, así como de dinámica larval y post-larval para identificar áreas exportadoras y de retención, para contribuir a un manejo eficiente y optimizar la captación de semilla.The larval presence of M. chilensis was determined monthly from September 2007 to March 2008, in Quillaipe, Metri, Sotomo, Canutillar, and Pichicolo (interior sea of Chiloé using vertical plankton trawls through a water column from 0 to 7.5 m. At the same time, the reproductive stage of adult individuals was determined histologically. Larvae were detected continuously at the five study sites, with a significant increase from October to December, exceeding 49 thousand per m-3 at Canutillar

  2. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  3. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bustamante, Carlos; Bennett, Michael B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis is endemic to South America. The species is the target of a valuable commercial fishery in Chile, but is highly susceptible to over-exploitation. The complete mitochondrial genome was described from 694,593 sequences obtained using Ion Torrent Next Generation Sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,909 bp, comprising 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. Comparison between the proposed mitogenome and one previously described from "raw fish fillets from a skate speciality restaurant in Seoul, Korea" resulted in 97.4% similarity, rather than approaching 100% similarity as might be expected. The 2.6% dissimilarity may indicate the presence of two separate stocks or two different species of, ostensibly, Z. chilensis in South America and highlights the need for caution when using genetic resources without a taxonomic reference or a voucher specimen.

  4. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The fun...

  5. Agrobacterium rhizogenes vs auxinic induction for in vitro rhizogenesis of Prosopis chilensis and Nothofagus alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Luis A; Santecchia, Natalia; Marinangeli, Pablo A; Curvetto, Néstor R; Hernández, Luis F

    2003-12-01

    The induction and improvement of in vitro rhizogenesis of microshoots of Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz and Nothofagus alpina (Poep. et Endl. Oerst.) were compared using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Ar) versus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the culture media. Microshoots of P. chilensis (1-2 cm length), coming from in vitro grown seedlings, were cultivated in a modified Broadleaved Tree Medium (BTMm) containing half salt concentration of macronutrients and 0.05 mg x L(-1) benzilaminopurine (BAP). After 30 days, microshoots with 2-4 leaves were selected and cultured in BTMm-agar in presence or abscense of Ar and in combination with IBA. For N. alpina, the apical shoots with the first 2 true leaves, from 5 weeks old seedlings, were cultured in the abovementioned medium, but with 0.15 mg x L(-1) of BAP. After 2 months, microshoots with 2-3 leaves were selected and cultured in BTMm-agar, supplemented with 5 mg x L(-1) IBA or in liquid BTMm on perlite and, in the presence or absence of A. rhizogenes (Ar) and in combination with 3 mg x L(-1) IBA. Rooting in P. chilensis reached 100.0% when Ar infection was produced in the presence of IBA, increasing both, the number and dry weight of roots. In N. alpina, 90.0% of rooting efficiency was obtained when Ar infection was produced in liquid culture and in the absence of auxin.

  6. Micropropagation of Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz from young and mature plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, L A; Polci, P A; Lindström, L I; Echenique, C V; Hernández, L F

    2002-04-01

    Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Algarrobo de Chile) is an important native tree species that can be grown in arid and semiarid regions for wood and forage production and environmental protection. Developing a simple and reliable in vitro protocol for cloning it would enable to improve it genetically. Explants of P. chilensis were taken from 4 months-old plants grown in the greenhouse or from adult trees grown in a natural environment. Nodal segments 1-2 cm long containing an axillary bud were selected from elongating shoots. These cuttings were aseptically cultured on two agar-solid basal media, MS or BTMm, and treated with 0.05 mg L-1 BA and 3 mg L-1 of either IAA, IBA or NAA. Sucrose (3% w/v) was used as carbon source. The percentage of sprouted cuttings and whole plant regeneration as well as its shoot and root length were recorded. Number, length and dry weight of shoots and roots were also measured. Rooting was successful with cuttings taken from young or adult plants, but explants from young plants showed a better response. Culturing in BTMm resulted in significantly greater shoot and root biomass than culturing in MS. Moreover, this response was higher in young explants when IBA was used as growth regulator. This paper reports a simple and effective method to micropropagate P. chilensis from young and adult plants.

  7. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leuce...

  8. SIMULACIÓN MATEMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE SECADO DE LA GRACILARIA CHILENA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF DRYING PROCESS OF CHILEAN GRACILARIA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega Gálvez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado por aire caliente del alga Gracilaria (Gracilaria chilensis utilizando un secador convectivo diseñado y construido en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de La Serena a cinco temperaturas de bulbo seco (30, 40, 50, 60 y 70ºC y velocidad de aire de 2.0±0.2 m.s-1. Para el modelado matemático se utilizan tres modelos empíricos (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. Durante el experimento se observa solamente el periodo de velocidad decreciente, por lo que se utiliza la ecuación de la segunda Ley de Fick para el cálculo de la difusividad efectiva de agua. El proceso de secado presenta humedades finales entre 0.096 g agua/g m.s y 0.061 g agua/g m.s para 30ºC y 70ºC, respectivamente. Tanto la difusividad como los parámetros cinéticos k1, k2 y k3 de los modelos propuestos presentan dependencia con la temperatura y al evaluarlos con la ecuación de Arrhenius se obtienen energías de activación de 39.92, 33.85, 33.49 y 33.83 kJ·mol-1, respectivamente. De acuerdo a los análisis estadísticos que se utilizan (r2, SSE, RMSE y X², el modelo de Page muestra la mejor calidad de ajuste sobre los datos experimentales, otorgando así una buena herramienta para el modelado de la cinética de secado industrial de la Gracilaria chilensis y el cálculo del tiempo de secado a diferentes temperaturas, con el fin de alcanzar un contenido de humedad comercial aceptable internacionalmente.The aim of this research is to study and to model the hot air drying kinetics of Gracialaria algae (Gracilaria chilensis, using a convective drier -designed and built at the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de La Serena- at five dry bulb temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC and an air velocity of 2.0 ± 0.2 m.s-1. Three empirical models are used for the mathematic modeling (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. During the experiment, only a falling rate period is observed, hence the Fick's second

  9. Inhibition on cholinesterase and tyrosinase by alkaloids and phenolics from Aristotelia chilensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Balbontin, Cristian; Avila, Jose G; Dominguez, Mariana; Alarcon, Julio; Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Ortiz, Leandro; Peñaloza-Castro, Ignacio; Seigler, David S; Kubo, Isao

    2017-11-01

    It is reported in this study the effect of isolates from leaves of Aristotelia chilensis as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase enzymes. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the activity of A. chilensis towards different enzymes. In addition to pure compounds, extracts rich in alkaloids and phenolics were tested. The most active F5 inhibited AChE (79.5% and 89.8% at 10.0 and 20.0 μg/mL) and against BChE (89.5% and 97.8% at 10.0 and 20.0 μg/mL), showing a strong mixed-type inhibition against AChE and BChE. F3 (a mixture of flavonoids and phenolics acids), showed IC 50 of 90.7 and 59.6 μg/mL of inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase competitively. Additionally, F3 showed and high potency as tyrosinase inhibitor with IC 50 at 8.4 μg/mL. Sample F4 (anthocyanidins and phenolic composition) presented a complex, mixed-type inhibition of tyrosinase with a IC 50 of 39.8 μg/mL. The findings in this investigation show that this natural resource has a strong potential for future research in the search of new phytotherapeutic treatments for cholinergic deterioration ailments avoiding the side effects of synthetic drugs. This is the first report as cholinesterases and tyrosinase inhibitors of alkaloids and phenolics from A. chilensis leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in wound-induced changes in cell-wall peroxidase activities and isoform patterns between seedlings of Prosopis tamarugo and Prosopis chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Gabriele; Cardemil, Liliana

    2003-05-01

    We determined changes in cell-wall peroxidase activities and isoform patterns in response to wounding in seedlings of Prosopis tamarugo Phil. (an endemic species of the Atacama Desert) and Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (a native species of central Chile), to assess tolerance to predation. In seedlings of both species, the maximal increase in peroxidase activity occurred 48 h after wounding, reaching three times the control value in P. tamarugo and twice the control value in P. chilensis. The activity of ionically bound cell-wall peroxidases increased only locally in wounded embryonic axes, whereas the activity of soluble peroxidases increased systemically in unwounded cotyledons. Analysis of ionic peroxidases by isoelectrofocusing revealed two groups of peroxidases in the cell walls of both species: four distinct acidic isoforms and a group of basic isoforms. In response to wounding, there was a large increase in activity of the acidic isoforms in P. tamarugo, whereas there was an increase in the activity of the basic isoforms in P. chilensis. In P. chilensis, the wound-induced increase in activity of the basic isoforms corresponded with one of the two isoforms detected in P. tamarugo prior to wounding. Experiments with protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors indicated that a preexisting basic peroxidase is activated in P. chilensis after wounding. Assays of ionically bound peroxidase activity with four different substrates corroborated the differences found in isoform patterns between species. In P. tamarugo, the largest increases in activity were found with ortho-phenylenediamine and ferulic acid as substrates, whereas in P. chilensis the largest increase in activity was found with guaiacol as substrate. Because the same basic cell-wall peroxidase that accumulated after wounding in P. chilensis was present in P. tamarugo prior to wounding, and the activity of acidic cell-wall peroxidases increased after wounding in P. tamarugo but not in P. chilensis, we conclude

  11. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae on Austrocedrus chilensis and its relation with mal del ciprés in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. G. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Field observations, isolations and pathogenicity tests were performed on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees to determine the pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae and its role in the aetiology of the cypress disease mal del ciprés (MDC) in Argentina. It was found that P. austrocedrae...

  12. Changes in the pattern of protein synthesis of prosopis chilensis induced by high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, C.; Cardemil, L. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Seeds of Prosopis chilensis, a leguminous tree from semi-arid regions of Central Chile, were germinated at temperatures of 25-30-35-40-45 and 50{degree}C. Germination was 100% between 25 and 40{degree}C, being faster at 35{degree}C. The best temperature for root growth was also 35{degree}C. There was not germination at 50{degree}C. However, seedlings coming from seeds germinated at 35{degree}C were capable of growing at higher temperatures of 45 and 50{degree}C. Pattern of protein synthesis was followed in roots incubated with {sup 35}S-methionine at increasing temperatures between 35 and 50{degree}C. SDS-PAGE of the proteins followed by fluorography shows that at temperatures above 35{degree}C, new protein bands appear while others become thicker. Most of the protein bands have decreased at 50{degree}C, with the exception of the new bands. A band of 70 KD, that is present at 35{degree}C, is more prominent at 50{degree}C. These proteins may have an important role in the thermotolerance of Prosopis chilensis to stressing temperatures.

  13. Changes in the pattern of protein synthesis of prosopis chilensis induced by high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Cardemil, L.

    1989-01-01

    Seeds of Prosopis chilensis, a leguminous tree from semi-arid regions of Central Chile, were germinated at temperatures of 25-30-35-40-45 and 50 degree C. Germination was 100% between 25 and 40 degree C, being faster at 35 degree C. The best temperature for root growth was also 35 degree C. There was not germination at 50 degree C. However, seedlings coming from seeds germinated at 35 degree C were capable of growing at higher temperatures of 45 and 50 degree C. Pattern of protein synthesis was followed in roots incubated with 35 S-methionine at increasing temperatures between 35 and 50 degree C. SDS-PAGE of the proteins followed by fluorography shows that at temperatures above 35 degree C, new protein bands appear while others become thicker. Most of the protein bands have decreased at 50 degree C, with the exception of the new bands. A band of 70 KD, that is present at 35 degree C, is more prominent at 50 degree C. These proteins may have an important role in the thermotolerance of Prosopis chilensis to stressing temperatures

  14. CONSUMO ENERGÉTICO PROVENIENTE DE ALIMENTOS ULTRAPROCESSADOS POR ADOLESCENTES

    OpenAIRE

    D’Avila, Helen Freitas; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o consumo proveniente dos alimentos ultraprocessados e fatores relacionados em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 784 adolescentes (de ambos os sexos e entre 12 a 19 anos) de escolas públicas e privadas do município de Palmeira das Missões, Brasil. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo questionário semiquantitativo de frequência de consumo de alimentos e convertido em energia (Kcal/dia). Os alimentos foram classificados em: minimamente processados, gr...

  15. Tamaño relativo encefálico e índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae Relative encephalic size and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELA PISTONE

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición cuantitativa encefálica y se estimaron índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (tero o queltehue. Se estimó el volumen porcentual e índices cerebrales del encéfalo total y de siete de sus componentes, como así también los núcleos de relevo de las vías trigeminal, visual y acústica. El telencéfalo es el componente de mayor volumen relativo, siendo el neoestriado la estructura telencefálica de tamaño superior. El desarrollo del estriado propiamente dicho, tecto óptico y los núcleos de relevo de las vías visual y trigeminal concuerdan con la dieta carnívora de Vanellus c. chilensis. El tamaño relativo del Wulst y de los núcleos de la vía acústica se asocia a las complicadas tácticas que utiliza esta especie en la defensa del nido. Los índices cerebrales de las estructuras encefálicas analizadas indican que Vanellus c. chilensis es un ave progresivaThe quantitative encephalic composition and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (southern lapwing were analyzed. The percentual volumes and cerebral indices for the whole encephalon and for seven components were calculated as well as relevous nuclei of the trigeminal, visual and acoustic pathways. The component of greater relative volume is the telencephalon. The neostriatum is the most developed encephalic structure. Developing of bulbus olfactorius, striatum, tectum opticum and relevous nuclei of visual and trigeminal pathways are according with the carnivorous diet of Vanellus c. chilensis. The relative size of Wulst and relevous nuclei of acoustic pathway appears associated with the complex tactics used by this species in the defense of nest. Cerebral indices of all the analyzed structures suggest that Vanellus c. chilensis is a progresive bird

  16. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  17. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  18. New Microsatellite Loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia F. Bessega; Carolina L. Pometti; Joe T. Miller; Richard Watts; Beatriz O. Saidman; Juan C. Vilardi

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymo...

  19. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  20. Trophic ecology of yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis, a top predator in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleggia, M; Andrada, N; Paglieri, S; Cortés, F; Massa, A M; Figueroa, D E; Bremec, C

    2016-03-01

    The diet and trophic level (TL ) of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis in the south-western Atlantic Ocean (35°-54° S), and how these varied in relation to body size, sex, maturity stage, depth and region were determined by analysis of stomach contents. From 776 specimens analysed, 671 (86·5%) ranging from 180 to 1190 mm total length (LT ) had prey in their stomachs. The diet was dominated by fishes, mainly the notothenioid Patagonotothen ramsayi and the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi. The consumption of fishes and crabs increased with increasing predator size, and these preys were more important in the north than in the south. Isopods and other crustaceans were consumed more in the south and their consumption decreased as the size of Z. chilensis increased. The TL of Z. chilensis increased with LT from 4·29 to 4·59 (mean 4·53), confirming their ecological role as a top predator. The small and large size classes exhibited a low diet overlap and the highest spatial segregation, whereas medium and large specimens had higher co-occurrence and dietary overlap indices. A clear distinction in tooth shape was noted between sexes in adult specimens, with males having longer cusps. This sexual heterodonty may be related to reproductive behaviour, increasing the grasping ability of males during courtship, because there were no differences in diet between the sexes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. CONSUMO ENERGÉTICO PROVENIENTE DE ALIMENTOS ULTRAPROCESSADOS POR ADOLESCENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Freitas D’Avila

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o consumo proveniente dos alimentos ultraprocessados e fatores relacionados em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 784 adolescentes (de ambos os sexos e entre 12 a 19 anos de escolas públicas e privadas do município de Palmeira das Missões, Brasil. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo questionário semiquantitativo de frequência de consumo de alimentos e convertido em energia (Kcal/dia. Os alimentos foram classificados em: minimamente processados, grupo 1 (G1; alimentos processados, grupo 2 (G2; e alimentos ultraprocessados, grupo 3 (G3. As variáveis avaliadas foram: sexo, classe socioeconômica, cor, atividade física, índice de massa corpórea (IMC e níveis pressóricos. Na comparação de variáveis quantitativas foi usado o teste de Mann-Whitney e o teste H de Kruskal-Wallis. Para ajustar as diferenças entre os grupos, considerando os efeitos de calorias totais, foi aplicado o teste de análise de covariância (ANCOVA. Resultados: A mediana do consumo energético total foi de 3.039,8 Kcal e a de ultraprocessados foi de 1.496,5 Kcal/dia (49,23%. O consumo calórico proveniente dos alimentos do G1, do G2 e do G3 não diferiu de acordo com a cor da pele dos adolescentes. Os adolescentes pertencentes às classes C e D são os maiores consumidores de calorias do G2 e do G3 (p<0,001. Os adolescentes insuficientemente ativos consomem menos calorias de alimentos minimamente processados. Os adolescentes eutróficos apresentam maior consumo do G3 (p<0,001, quando comparados aos que possuem excesso de peso. Conclusões: O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados associou-se ao nível social, ao nível de atividade física e ao estado nutricional.

  2. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  3. Ciclo gonadal del chorito Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en dos localidades del sur de Chile Gonadal cycle of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae at two localities in southern of Chile

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    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa el ciclo gonadal del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis en las localidades de Chaihuín y bahía Yal, sur de Chile, entre octubre 2007 y junio 2008. Por medio de análisis histológico gonadal se determinaron cuatro estadios gametogénicos y a su vez se estimó en forma cuantitativa, el Volumen de la Fracción Gamética (VFG, el porcentaje de tejido interfolicular y el índice gonadal. El análisis cuantitativo (VFG fue el mejor indicador para determinar los desoves. En los ejemplares de Chaihuín se observaron dos eventos de emisión gamética en forma simultánea en ambos sexos, que ocurrieron en octubre y marzo. Sin embargo, en los ejemplares de bahía Yal se registraron cuatro desoves, principalmente de marzo a junio (otoño, cuando la temperatura del agua disminuyó. Se determinó una escasa relación entre el Índice Gonadosomático (IG y los estadios gametogénicos, al igual que entre el IG y el porcentaje de ovocitos maduros, por ende el IG no sería un indicador apropiado para los desoves en esta especie. Se sugiere la revisión del periodo de veda de Mytilus chilensis (1 noviembre a 31 diciembre, ya que la mayor parte de los individuos de las poblaciones estudiadas, maduran principalmente en octubre. En ambas localidades, el porcentaje de tejido conjuntivo de los especímenes estudiados fluctúo entre 15 y 70% de cobertura gonadal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias en los ciclos reproductivos de Mytilus chilensis entre las localidades analizadas, las que se podrían atribuir a diferencias ambientales (e.g. temperatura causadas por el gradiente latitudinal.A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of the gonadal cycle of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis from Chaihuín and Yal bay, southern Chile, between October 2007 and June 2008. Four gametogenic stages were determined using histological analysis of the gonads, and quantitative estimates were made of the Gametic Volume

  4. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

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    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  5. Commercially sterilized mussel meats (Mytilus chilensis): a study on process yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Bustamante, J; Simpson, R; Urtubia, A; Pinto, M; Teixeira, A

    2012-06-01

    The processing steps most responsible for yield loss in the manufacture of canned mussel meats are the thermal treatments of precooking to remove meats from shells, and thermal processing (retorting) to render the final canned product commercially sterile for long-term shelf stability. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the impact of different combinations of process variables on the ultimate drained weight in the final mussel product (Mytilu chilensis), while verifying that any differences found were statistically and economically significant. The process variables selected for this study were precooking time, brine salt concentration, and retort temperature. Results indicated 2 combinations of process variables producing the widest difference in final drained weight, designated best combination and worst combination with 35% and 29% yield, respectively. Significance of this difference was determined by employing a Bootstrap methodology, which assumes an empirical distribution of statistical error. A difference of nearly 6 percentage points in total yield was found. This represents a 20% increase in annual sales from the same quantity of raw material, in addition to increase in yield, the conditions for the best process included a retort process time 65% shorter than that for the worst process, this difference in yield could have significant economic impact, important to the mussel canning industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

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    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  7. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Yellownose skate: Zearaja chilensis (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a Yellownose skate, Zearaja chilensis was determined for the first time. It is 16,909 bp in length covering 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes with the identical gene order and structure as those of other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of low G (14.3%), and slightly high A + T (58.9%) nucleotides. The strong codon usage bias against the use of G (6.0%) is found at the third codon positions. Twelve of the 13 protein coding genes use ATG as the start codon while COX1 starts with GTG. As for the stop codon, only ND4 shows an incomplete stop codon TA. This is the first report of the mitogenome for a species in the genus Zearaja, providing a valuable source of genetic information on the evolution of the family Rajidae and the genus Zearaja as well as for establishment of a sustainble fishery management plan of the species.

  9. Espectro trófico de Chelonoidis chilensis (Chelonii: Testudinidae en la provincia fitogeográfica del monte (Mendoza, Argentina

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    Richard, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1983 and 1991, 83 field trips were made to the biogeographical province of Monte, in Mendoza province, Argentina, in order to study the trophic spectrum of Chelonoidis chilensis, among other ecoethological aspects. The trophic period extends from September to April. Adults are herbivorous in strict sense, but this may change according to the available resourees. Trophic spectrum is composed by 14 items (Families of vegetables. Some items have toxic or potentially toxit substances. Finally, the diet of Ch. chilensis is compared with the one of Ch. donosobarrosi and with other desert tortoises.

  10. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  11. Ontogenetic Responses of Calanus chilensis to Hypoxia from Northern Chile (23ºS), Humboldt Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, P. M.; Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.; Franco-Cisterna, B.; Yebra, L.; Keister, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are being subjected to expansion, intensification and shoaling of Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's), as a result of ongoing climate change. To understand how dominant epipelagic copepods may respond to stressful conditions induced by low oxygen, we experimentally studied the effect of hypoxia over the stage-specific physiology of Calanus chilensis from the Mejillones Bay (23°S — 70°W), northern Chile, during the winters of 2013 and 2014. Females, eggs and nauplii (NI to NIV) of C. chilensis were incubated under hypoxia ( 0.7 mg O2 L-1) and normoxia ( 8.3 mg O2 L-1) conditions at a constant temperature of 14ºC as to estimate egg production rate (EPR), hatching success (HS) and naupliar growth and development time. Additionally, we estimated survivorship by using Neutral Red technique, and also examined female metabolism by measuring specific activity of the enzymes Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (spAARS) (growth index) and the electron transport system (spETS) (potential respiration). Survival of females and EPR were not significantly affected by dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, coinciding with no significant changes in their metabolism. By contrast, HS was reduced from normoxia (70%) to hypoxia (30%), whereas naupliar growth (NI to NIII) was lower under hypoxia (0.155 ± 0.007 d-1) than normoxia (0.237 ± 0.006 d-1), resulting also in a longer development time, 6.490 ± 0.353 d and 4.238 ± 0.149 d, respectively. Most eggs and nauplii collected at the end of the experiments were alive, although a higher proportion of organisms were recovered in normoxia than hypoxia. Our results revealed stage-specific responses to hypoxia in C. chilensis and the importance of ontogenetic responses to variable levels of oxygenation in the upwelling zone.

  12. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of the white-crested elaenia Elaenia albiceps chilensis (Aves, Tyrannidae in Chile

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    Danny Fuentes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the ectoparasites and helminths of the white-crested elaenia, Elaenia albiceps chilensis. Feather mites Anisophyllodes elaeniae, Trouessartia elaeniae, and Analges sp. were detected in 51% of birds (n=106, whereas 24% were infected with lice (Tyranniphilopterus delicatulus, Menacanthus cfr. distinctus, and Ricinus cfr. invadens. Helminths Viguiera sp. and Capillaria sp. were found in five of the birds that were necropsied (n=20. With the exception of A. elaeniae, T. elaeniae, and T. delicatulus, all parasites represented new records found for the white-crested elaenia, and therefore for the Chilean repertoire of biodiversity.

  13. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae

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    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2 is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC, followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC during summer. The senescence of the BC occurs mainly in autumn, with a loss of 11-31 % of its SLM. The DC falls synchronously in mid-spring and the SLM loss in winter is 10-13 %. The SLM of A. chilensis (103.6 ± 6.2 g m-2 is intermediate when compared to the general mean values of deciduous (73.7 ± 15.9 g m-2 and evergreen species (154.8 ± 45.8 g m-2. The SLM of deciduous and evergreen species of three different forests near San Carlos de Bariloche varied significantly at the end of the growing season while that of A. chilensis showed more constant values. The periodicity of leaf production and senescence in A. chilensis allows the maintenance of one leaf cohort throughout the year, covering the carbon demand for flowering and leaf production in spring. This differentiates the deciduous from the wintergreen species, despite their similar mean leaf life span values, while the evergreen species have a longer leaf turnover. Considering the conditions for growth in each studied forest, the leaf life span was not the only factor determining the SLM value. This variable would also depend on multiple stresses that may act during the ontogenesis and evolution of the leaves in each phenological groupSe describe la demografía foliar después del verano de la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis, creciendo cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Se compara su peso específico foliar (SLM, g m-2 con los valores de especies deciduas y siempreverdes de los

  15. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

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    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the

  17. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: seawater and food exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhaënsli, François; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838+/-0.175 ng g(-1) (mean+/-asymptotic standard error, p food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  19. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  20. Crecimiento de juveniles de congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis en condiciones de cultivo

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    Rolando Vega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 es un pez altamente demandado por el mercado chileno. Las capturas han disminuido y mantenido bajo 1.000 ton anuales en la década 2000-2010 con un precio de US$7 kg-1. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento de juveniles de primera generación producida de padres silvestres en condiciones de cultivo. Se estimó el crecimiento de 128 juveniles durante cinco meses en el hatchery del CIMARQ, Valparaíso, Chile, distribuidos en cinco grupos de talla en estanques con agua marina (35 g L-1 y rango de temperatura de 12-14°C. Los pesos promedios iniciales variaron desde el grupo menor de 4 g (11 cm al mayor de 23 g (18 cm. Estos fueron alimentados con pellet comercial para peces marinos. Se midió mensualmente la longitud total (cm, peso (g y se estimó sus promedios, porcentaje de crecimiento en peso, tasa de crecimiento específico, coeficiente de crecimiento termal y factor de conversión. A los cinco meses el grupo menor alcanzó un peso promedio de 16 ± 7 g (16 ± 2 cm y el mayor 75 ± 17 g (27 ± 6 cm. Los pesos promedios mensuales se ajustaron con R² = 0,9 a las ecuaciones P = 3,845e0,300t y P = 20,63e0,240t. Los factores de conversión fluctuaron entre 8,6 y 0,3 al mes 5 para el grupo menor y de 0,6 a 0,2 para el mayor. Si se proyecta el crecimiento desde el peso inicial de 4 y 23 g hasta el peso de cosecha de 2 kg, éste se obtendría entre 26 y 18 meses para los grupos menor y mayor respectivamente.

  1. Growth models fitted to Dipturus chilensis length-at-age-data support a two phase growth Modelos de crecimiento ajustados a datos de largo a la edad de Dipturus chilensis confirman un crecimiento en dos fases

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    MARINA I AVERSA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth for the beaked skate was estimated from bands in the vertebral centra of 689 individuals obtained from incidental catches of the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi fishery. Age bias plots and indices of precision indicated that ageing method was precise and unbiased (% CV = 3 % PA = 82.09 %. Edge and marginal increment analysis of the vertebrae support the hypothesis of annual band pair deposition. Three growth models were fitted to length-at-age and the two-phase growth model produced the best fit. This feature has never been described before for D. chilensis and can be related to changes in energy allocation and the shift from juvenile to adult phase. The unrealistic biological estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth model illustrates the importance of fitting alternative models to the data. Female beaked skates reached greater size in length (L∝ as well as in disc width (L∝ = 138.2 cm; DW∝ = 92.46 cm and have lower growth rate (k = 0.08 yr-1 than males (L∝ = 106.7 cm; DW∝ = 74.52 cm; k = 0.121 yr-1. This study provides basic information on age and growth for the beaked skate, D. chilensis, which were previously not available for its south Atlantic range of distribution.La edad y el crecimiento de la raya picuda fue estimado a partir de las bandas en los cuerpos vertebrales de 689 individuos obtenidos de las capturas incidentales de la pesquería de merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. Gráficos de sesgos y el análisis de precisión indicaron que el método utilizado para la determinación de la edad es preciso y no sesgado (% CV = 3 % PA = 82.09 %. El análisis del tipo de borde e incremento marginal vertebral confirmó la hipótesis del depósito anual de un par de bandas. Se ajustaron tres modelos de crecimiento a los datos de largo a la edad y el modelo de dos fases produjo el mejor ajuste. Esta característica nunca antes fue descripta para Dipturus chilensis y podría relacionarse con un cambio en la cuota de

  2. Influencia del fotoperiodo en el desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' y Solidago x luteus Influenee of photoperiod on floral development in plants of Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' and Solidago x tuteus

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    Flórez Roncancio Victor J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus es un híbrido interespecífico entre Solidago ptarmicoides y Solidago canadensis. Este híbrido, Solidago chilensis y Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' son las especies objeto del presente estudio. Son plantas típicas de días largos, las cuales crecen como rosetas en días cortos y son explotadas para flor de corte. Se observaron características vegetativas y reproductivas de estas especies en condiciones fotoperiódicas de 8h y 20h y, en Solidago x luteus, por su mejor performance en cuanto a la inducción floral, se realizaron estudios de comportamiento fotoperiódico del desarrollo desde el botón floral hasta antesis. En forma general, en las tres especies estudiadas, los fotoperíodos largos promueven inducción floral y aumento en el número de ramificaciones laterales y de hojas. En días cortos, las
    plantas de Solidago chilensis permanecieron en roseta, en las de Solidago x luteus hubo inducción y antesis floral, en tanto que, en Aster ericoides, había plantas en roseta y plantas inducidas. La evidencia de que los días cortos aceleraban la antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus, inducidas en
    días largos, se fortaleció con el experimento de diferente duración en días cortos (5; 10 y 15 días; lo cual se confirmó en experimentos subsecuentes, en donde se comprobó que la planta responde a los fotoperíodos cortos (8h; 10h y 12h, acelerando la antesis y a los fotoperíodos largos (16h y 20h, retardándola y los fotoperiódos entre 12h y 16h (14h  estarían en una situación de transición entre días cortos y días largos, caracterizando, así, una respuesta cuantitativa con el aumento del fotoperíodo.
    Solidago x luteus is a hybrid between Solidago ptarmicoides and Solidago canadensis. This hybrid, Solidago chilensis and Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' are the subject of the present work. They are typically long-day plants which grow as rosettes in short days and are exploited as cut

  3. Tracing the Trans-Pacific Evolutionary History of a Domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with Archaeological and Genetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile. PMID:25501717

  4. INFECCIÓN DE HYPOLOBOCERA CHILENSIS EIGENMANI POR METACERCARIAS DE PARAGONIMUS MEXICANUS (= PERUVIANUS EN EL DISTRITO DE CONDEBAMBA (CAJAMARCA, PERÚ

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    Alina Huiza F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cangrejos de rio Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni fueron colectados de acequias durante el año 1997 en estación seca (mayo a diciembre en Chaquicocha, Área que pertenece al distrito de Condebamba (departamento de Cajamarca en la parte norte del Perú. Ciento treinta y un cangrejos colectados fueron transportados al Laboratorio de Parasitología y examinados por disección, 27 de 131 (20,6% estaban infectados por metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus(=peruvianus. La intensidad de la infección fue de 1 a 5 en la mayoría de los; casos (81,5% con un promedio de 4,85 por cangrejo. Estos datos son diferentes; a los de estudios anteriores; en la misma Área donde fueron más; altos, lo que indica una tendencia al decrecimiento del número de cangrejos infectados.

  5. Change in size-at-maturity of the yellownose skate Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae in the SW Atlantic

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    Laura Paesch

    Full Text Available A total of 3518 specimens (1607 males, 1911 females of Dipturus chilensis were sampled. Males ranged from 44.0 to 99.0 cm and females from 45.0 to 110.0 cm. Total length composition of the grouped catches differed significantly among sexes, with females being larger than males. The sex ratio favored the females. The total length at which 50% of the specimens were retained by the gear was 69.0 cm for the males and 73.0 cm for the females. A sub-sample of 124 specimens (48 males, 76 females was analyzed for reproductive assessment. For the males, size at 50% maturity was estimated at 78.5 cm, while for the females this parameter was estimated at 81.4 cm. Preliminary observations on the description of the egg capsules are also provided.

  6. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro; Houlbreque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109 Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109 Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109 Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g -1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109 Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109 Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  7. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  9. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

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    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  10. Proof of the Structure of the Stemodia chilensis Tetracyclic Diterpenoid (+)-19-Acetoxystemodan-12-ol by Synthesis from (+)-Podocarpic Acid: X-ray Structure Determination of a Key Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Francesca; Mostarda, Azzurra; De Angelis, Luca; Lamba, Doriano; Demitri, Nicola; La Bella, Angela; Ceccacci, Francesca; Migneco, Luisa M; Marini Bettolo, Rinaldo

    2016-04-22

    The first synthesis of (+)-19-acetoxystemodan-12-ol (1), a stemodane diterpenoid isolated from Stemodia chilensis, is described. The structure was supported by an X-ray crystallographic analysis of intermediate (+)-9a, which confirmed the proposed structure and excluded the structure of (-)-19-hydroxystemod-12-ene as a possible candidate for the Chilean Calceolaria diterpenoid to which the (-)-19-hydroxystemar-13-ene structure (9b) had been erroneously assigned.

  11. Contenido energetico de algunos invertebrados bentonicos de la costa de Chile y fluctuación anual em Mytilus chilensis Hupe 1854

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    William E Duarte

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric values, ash and hydric percentages were obtained from the most abundant benthic invertebrates of Corral Bay, from which this information was not previously available. The range of these values is not different to those of related taxonomic groups of other oceans. Annual fluctuations of these paramenters were studied in Mytilus chilensis so as to obtain a quantitative estimation of the variation of these values.

  12. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae: a baseline for conservation actions

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    Alejandro Ruete

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae, is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning.Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies.Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model’s uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period.Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species.

  13. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  14. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

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    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  15. QUALIDADE E PERFIL SENSORIAL DESCRITIVO DA CARNE MATURADA PROVENIENTE DE ANIMAIS CRUZADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nassu, Renata Tieko; Verruma-Bernardi, Marta Regina; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Cruz, Geraldo Maria da; Alencar, Maurício Mello de

    2014-01-01

    A maturação é uma alternativa para obtenção de carne de melhor qualidade, além de diminuir a variabilidade da maciez da carne proveniente de animais do mesmo grupo genético. Neste estudo, carnes provenientes de animais cruzados ½ Angus + ½ Nelore (AN) e ½ Senepol + ½ Nelore (SN) foram maturadas até 28 dias e analisadas em relação a parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais. Para todos os parâmetros a interação tempo de maturação x grupo genético não foi significativa, com exceção do atributo te...

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of ferredoxin NADP(H oxidoreductase from Gracilaria chilensis and its complex with ferredoxin

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    María Alejandra Vorphal

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Ferredoxin NADP(H oxidoreductases (EC 1.18.1.2 (FNR are flavoenzymes present in photosynthetic organisms; they are relevant for the production of reduced donors to redox reactions, i.e. in photosynthesis, the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH using the electrons provided by Ferredoxin (Fd, a small FeS soluble protein acceptor of electrons from PSI in chloroplasts. In rhodophyta no information about this system has been reported, this work is a contribution to the molecular and functional characterization of FNR from Gracilaria chilensis, also providing a structural analysis of the complex FNR/Fd. Methods The biochemical and kinetic characterization of FNR was performed from the enzyme purified from phycobilisomes enriched fractions. The sequence of the gene that codifies for the enzyme, was obtained using primers designed by comparison with sequences of Synechocystis and EST from Gracilaria. 5′RACE was used to confirm the absence of a CpcD domain in FNRPBS of Gracilaria chilensis. A three dimensional model for FNR and Fd, was built by comparative modeling and a model for the complex FNR: Fd by docking. Results The kinetic analysis shows KMNADPH of 12.5 M and a kcat of 86 s−1, data consistent with the parameters determined for the enzyme purified from a soluble extract. The sequence for FNR was obtained and translated to a protein of 33646 Da. A FAD and a NADP+ binding domain were clearly identified by sequence analysis as well as a chloroplast signal sequence. Phycobilisome binding domain, present in some cyanobacteria was absent. Transcriptome analysis of Gch revealed the presence of two Fd; FdL and FdS, sharing the motif CX5CX2CX29X. The analysis indicated that the most probable partner for FNR is FdS. Conclusion The interaction model produced, was consistent with functional properties reported for FNR in plants leaves, and opens the possibilities for research in other rhodophyta of commercial interest.

  17. Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] a Chilean blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskowsky, Estefania; Puente, Luis A; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Fernández-López, Juana; Muñoz, Loreto A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine (1) the polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins), (2) the antioxidant using four different methodologies (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC) and (3) the antibacterial properties of maqui berry [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] (MB) grown in Chile. The HPLC analysis of MB showed a total of 19 polyphenolic compounds identified as anthocyanins (eight compounds), flavonols (10 compounds) and ellagic acid. Delphinidin derivatives were the predominant anthocyanins while quercetin derivatives were the predominant flavonols. MB showed an antioxidant activity measured with DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC methods of 28.18, 18.66, 25.22 g Trolox equivalent kg(-1) and 0.12 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent kg(-1) , respectively. With regard to the antibacterial activity, all strains tested were affected by MB. Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria innocua showed the highest sensitivity to maqui berry extracts with MIC values of 40 and a 50 mg mL(-1) , respectively. The results suggest that maqui berry has a great potential to be employed in the food industry as potential food ingredient to functional food development or as bio-preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

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    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  19. Domestication and sustainable production of wild crafted plants with special reference to the Chilean Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis

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    Vogel, Hermine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle threats for sustainable production of wild collected medicinal plants are related to ecological factors, such as endemism, and botanical factors critical for survival, such as the collection of roots or barks or slow growing species. The sustainable way to produce raw material on a large scale would be species specific management of the wild resources that guarantees conservation of biodiversity, or bringing the species under cultivation. A checklist proposed by WHO, UICN and WWF (1993 indicates that domestication of any medicinal plant concerns plant selection and breeding, studies about propagation, cultivation techniques, plant protection, time of harvest, among others. The different domestication steps are illustrated for the Chilean maqui (Aristotelia chilensis, a wild tree whose fruits are demanded in increasing volumes by the international market because of its high antioxidant capacity. High yielding plants with good fruit quality have been selected from wild populations and accessions have been cultivated under different environmental conditions to select the most suitable genotypes for the establishment of commercial orchards.

  20. Towards sustainable fishery management for skates in South America: The genetic population structure of Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

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    Carolina Vargas-Caro

    Full Text Available The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast. Analysis of Z. chilensis populations revealed significant genetic structure among off-shore locations (San Antonio, Valdivia, two locations in the Chiloé Interior Sea (Puerto Montt and Aysén and Punta Arenas in southern Chile. For example, mtDNA haplotype diversity was similar across off-shore locations and Punta Arenas (h = 0.46-0.50, it was significantly different to those in the Chiloé Interior Sea (h = 0.08. These results raise concerns about the long-term survival of the species within the interior sea, as population resilience will rely almost exclusively on self-recruitment. In contrast, little evidence of genetic structure was found for D. trachyderma. Our results provide evidence for three management units for Z. chilensis, and we recommend that separate management arrangements are required for each of these units. However, there is no evidence to discriminate the extant population of Dipturus trachyderma as separate management units. The lack of genetic population subdivision for D. trachyderma appears to correspond with their higher dispersal ability and more offshore habitat preference.

  1. Age-related mechanism and its relationship with secondary metabolism and abscisic acid in Aristotelia chilensis plants subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villagra, Jorge; Rodrigues-Salvador, Acácio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Cohen, Jerry D; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie M

    2018-03-01

    Drought stress is the most important stress factor for plants, being the main cause of agricultural crop loss in the world. Plants have developed complex mechanisms for preventing water loss and oxidative stress such as synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds such as anthocyanins, which might help plants to cope with abiotic stress as antioxidants and for scavenging reactive oxygen species. A. chilensis (Mol.) is a pioneer species, colonizing and growing on stressed and disturbed environments. In this research, an integrated analysis of secondary metabolism in Aristotelia chilensis was done to relate ABA effects on anthocyanins biosynthesis, by comparing between young and fully-expanded leaves under drought stress. Plants were subjected to drought stress for 20 days, and physiological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were performed. The relative growth rate and plant water status were reduced in stressed plants, with young leaves significantly more affected than fully-expanded leaves beginning from the 5th day of drought stress. A. chilensis plants increased their ABA and total anthocyanin content and showed upregulation of gene expression when they were subjected to severe drought (day 20), with these effects being higher in fully-expanded leaves. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between transcript levels for NCED1 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase) and UFGT (UDP glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase) with ABA and total anthocyanin, respectively. Thus, this research provides a more comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that allow plants to cope with drought stress. This is highlighted by the differences between young and fully-expanded leaves, showing different sensibility to stress due to their ability to synthesize anthocyanins. In addition, this ability to synthesize different and high amounts of anthocyanins could be related to higher NCED1 and MYB expression and ABA levels

  2. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

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    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural models of the different trimers present in the core of phycobilisomes from Gracilaria chilensis based on crystal structures and sequences.

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    Jorge Dagnino-Leone

    Full Text Available Phycobilisomes (PBS are accessory light harvesting protein complexes that directionally transfer energy towards photosystems. Phycobilisomes are organized in a central core and rods radiating from it. Components of phycobilisomes in Gracilaria chilensis (Gch are Phycobiliproteins (PBPs, Phycoerythrin (PE, and Phycocyanin (PC in the rods, while Allophycocyanin (APC is found in the core, and linker proteins (L. The function of such complexes depends on the structure of each component and their interaction. The core of PBS from cyanobacteria is mainly composed by cylinders of trimers of α and β subunits forming heterodimers of Allophycocyanin, and other components of the core including subunits αII and β18. As for the linkers, Linker core (LC and Linker core membrane (LCM are essential for the final emission towards photoreaction centers. Since we have previously focused our studies on the rods of the PBS, in the present article we investigated the components of the core in the phycobilisome from the eukaryotic algae, Gracilaria chilensis and their organization into trimers. Transmission electron microscopy provided the information for a three cylinders core, while the three dimensional structure of Allophycocyanin purified from Gch was determined by X-ray diffraction method and the biological unit was determined as a trimer by size exclusion chromatography. The protein sequences of all the components of the core were obtained by sequencing the corresponding genes and their expression confirmed by transcriptomic analysis. These subunits have seldom been reported in red algae, but not in Gracilaria chilensis. The subunits not present in the crystallographic structure were modeled to build the different composition of trimers. This article proposes structural models for the different types of trimers present in the core of phycobilisomes of Gch as a first step towards the final model for energy transfer in this system.

  4. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones-Toledo, Daniela A; Montory, Jaime A; Joyce, Alyssa; Thompson, Raymond J; Diederich, Casey M; Pechenik, Jan A; Mardones, Maria L; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2015-01-01

    Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG) to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps) and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor energy balance

  5. The chilean superfruit black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui as mediator in inflammation-associated disorders.

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    Cespedes, Carlos L; Pavon, Natalia; Dominguez, Mariana; Alarcon, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Kubo, Isao; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Avila, Jose G

    2017-10-01

    The effects of phytochemicals occurred in fractions and extracts of fruits of "Maqui-berry" (Aristotelia chilensis), on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible-nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW-264 cells, as well as their antioxidant activities. The MeOH extract (A), acetone/methanol extract (B), fractions F3, F4, subfractions (SF4-SF6, SF7, SF8-SF10, SF11-SF15, SF16-SF20), quercetin, gallic acid, luteolin, myricetin, mixtures M1, M2 and M3 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that anthocyanins, flavonoids and its mixtures suppressed the LPS induced production of nitric oxide (NO), through the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions and showed a potent antioxidant activity against SOD, ABTS, TBARS, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH. The inhibition of enzymes and NO production by selected fractions and compounds was dose-dependent with significant effects seen at concentration as low as 1.0-50.0 (ppm) and 5.0-10.0 μM, for samples (extracts, fractions, subfractions and mixtures) and pure compounds, respectively. Thus, the phenolics (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids) as the fractions and mixtures may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation associated disorders and therefore might be used as antagonizing agents to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

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    Daniela A Mardones-Toledo

    Full Text Available Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor

  7. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry

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    Javier Villacreses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1. High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs: ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV, Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP; ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs, AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq. Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  9. Biología reproductiva de Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae en una población de Aucó (centro-norte de Chile Reproductive biology of Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae in a population of Aucó (north-central Chile

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    Lorena H. Suárez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus chilensis es una hierba perenne, única representante endémica de la familia Convolvulaceae en Chile. Se estudió el sistema de reproducción, fenología, morfología y longevidad floral de C. chilensis en una población natural ubicada en la localidad de Aucó, dentro de la Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas, IV Región, Chile. Se montó un experimento de polinización controlada considerando los tratamientos de polinización natural, polinización cruzada, autopolinización manual, autopolinización automática y apomixis, evaluándose su efecto sobre la formación de frutos y el número de semillas producidas por fruto. Adicionalmente, se compararon los siguientes atributos de la progenie según tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada: peso de semilla, germinación, altura y número de hojas de plántulas de ocho semanas en condiciones de invernadero. Se encontró que C. chilensis es una especie autocompatible, parcialmente autógama (capaz de autopolinizarse sin mediador y parcialmente apomíctica (capaz de producir semillas sin participación de gameto masculino. La longevidad floral fue estimada en 5,25 h. Durante este período, aproximadamente en 1,5 h hay disponibilidad de polen en los estambres. El período de floración se extiende por 22 semanas (agosto a enero. El tratamiento de apomixis presentó el menor porcentaje de formación de frutos y la menor cantidad de semillas por flor en comparación a los tratamientos de polinización natural, cruzada manual, autopolinización automática y autopolinización manual, los cuales no mostraron diferencias entre sí en ambos atributos. El tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada no afecta el desempeño de la progenie en los atributos de semilla y plántula evaluadosThe perennial herb Convolvulus chilensis is the only endemic species of the Convolvulaceae in Chile. The breeding system, phenology, morphology and floral longevity of C

  10. Paragonimus y paragonimiasis en el norte peruano. Infección natural de Pseudothelphusa chilensis por metacercarias de Paragonimus Braun, 1899

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    César Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el índice de infección natural y la intensidad del parasitismo en cangrejos recolectados en tres provincias del Departamento de Cajamarca, Perú, habiéndose encontrado metacercarias de Paragonimus Braun, 1899 en el 43.97% de 539 especímenes de Pseudothelphusa chilensis Milne Edwards, 1843, único cangrejo hallado en la zona. El órgano parasitado fue casi exclusivamente el hepatopancreas, siendo 10.33 el número promedio de metacercarias por cangrejo. Las formas adultos logradas mediante inoculación de las metacercarias, fueron identificadas como Paragonimus peruvianus Miyazaki, Ibáñez y Miranda, 1969, con excepción de tres ejemplares que correspondieron a lo especie Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968.

  11. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

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    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  12. Representaciones culturales del proceso enfermedad en pacientes provenientes del area rural

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    Noris Madariaga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer las representaciones culturales frente al proceso de enfermedad en los pacientes provenientes del área rural de Norte de Santander, que egresaron del servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz (ESE HUEM. EL estudio es de enfoque cualitativo de abordaje etnográfico. Se definió la muestra de tres informantes, de modo intencional. El método para la recolección de la información que se utilizó en esta investigación fue la observación, las notas de campo y la entrevista a profundidad, que permitió aprender y conocer más a fondo como los pacientes del área rural conceptualizan la experiencia de estar enfermos y cuáles son los cuidados culturales que aplican durante este proceso. Los resultados de esta investigación permitieron observar que la enfermedad es un enemigo común para las personas del área rural y para mantener el equilibrio de la persona con el entorno natural estos pueden a travesar cuatro fases: fase tomásica, fase de rituales culturales, fase auxilio multidisciplinario y fase reestructuración del cuidado. La cultura es definitivamente el juez que califica las acciones de las personas, para unos la enfermedad es un castigo, por el mal comportamiento que han tenido en un momento de su vida y para otros es simplemente una prueba para que Dios perdone sus pecados. Así que el acontecimiento puede ser el mismo pero la cultura transforma la definición del evento.

  13. TRATAMIENTO DE OLORES PROVENIENTES DEL PROCESO DE SAPONIFICACION DE BORRAS DE SOYA

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    Ramiro Escalera Vásquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de laboratorio sobre el desarrollo de un sistema híbrido de tratamiento de olores provenientes de procesos de saponificación de borras de soya. El sistema consiste en un absorbedor de gases seguido por un tanque contactor entre aceites esenciales nebulizados y los gases remanentes del proceso de absorción. Se caracterizaron física y químicamente varias muestras de las borras de soya obtenidas de proveedores nacionales y los gases generados en la saponificación de esas borras. Se probó la efectividad de tres sistemas de tratamiento diseñados y construidos en laboratorio: Un sistema cerrado; un sistema de contacto entre esencias nebulizadas y los gases malolientes y el sistema híbrido mencionado. Los gases sin tratar tienen como principales componentes compuestos orgánicos volátiles (VOCs soluble y no solubles, amoníaco y dióxido de carbono. Las borras con mayor contenido de proteína residual desprenden mayores cantidades de amoníaco libre. Se  establecieron relaciones confiables entre las dosis de aceites esenciales nebulizados y la concentración de VOCs y el Umbral de Olor Mínimo Detectable (CUOMD. El producto de cabeza del aceite de eucalipto es la esencia más efectiva y económica para el tratamiento de los olores generados por los tres tipos de borra de soya probados. Se eliminó totalmente la percepción de olores desagradables utilizando el sistema híbrido que demostró ser el más eficiente. Los métodos y aparatos experimentales utilizados pueden servir para investigaciones similares en problemas de olor que actualmente tienen diversas industrias locales y nacionales.

  14. EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN DE Azospirillum halopraeferens Y Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Prosopis chilensis

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    J.A. Villegas-Espinoza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Las Bacterias Promotoras de Crecimiento de Plantas (BPCP, son microorganismos fijadores de nitrógeno atmosférico y a su vez producen hormonas que aprovechan las plantas para llevar a cabo su desarrollo. Es importante la utilización de microorganismos benéficos para reducir la fertilización química. La investigación científica ha incrementado la busqueda y aislamiento de BPCP de regiones especificas como son las zonas áridas, ya que estos microorganismos estan adaptados a ambientes extremos. La especie Prosopis chilensis esta siendo utilizada para reforestación de escuelas, parques y también como ornato; para reproducir esta planta se esta utilizando fertilizantes químicos que son dañinos al medio ambiente. El objetivo de la presente investigación, consistió en analizar el efecto promotor de las bacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal Bacillus amyloliquefaciens y Azospirillum halopraeferens en la germinación y emergencia del mezquite chileno (P. chilensis bajo cuatro concentraciones salinas (0, 0.25, 0.5 y 0.75 M de NaCl. Se obtuvieron semillas de mezquite chileno de la región de Santa Ana, Sonora, México. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación, tasa de germinación, altura, longitud radicular de plántula, peso fresco de plántula número de células bacterianas adheridas al sistema radicular. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de emergencia, tasa de emergencia, altura y longitud radicular, peso fresco y seco de planta, peso fresco y seco de raíz, número de células bacterianas adheridas al sistema radicular. Los resultados indican que, bajo condiciones in vitro, el porcentaje y tasa de germinación disminuyó conforme la salinidad se incrementa. Sin embargo, estas variables fueron afectadas positivamente por A. halopraeferens y B. amyloliquefaciens en comparación del tratamiento

  15. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

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    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  16. Redescription and Molecular Assessment of Relationships Among Three Species of Echeneibothrium (Rhinebothriidea: Echeneibothriidae) Parasitizing the Yellownose Skate, Dipturus chilensis, in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Veronica M; Caira, Janine N

    2017-06-01

    Much progress has recently been made in revising the taxonomic assignments of genera originally classified in the polyphyletic "Tetraphyllidea." Many of these genera, including Echeneibothrium, were accommodated in the order Rhinebothriidea. However, beyond this larger taxonomic action, little work has been conducted on this genus over the past 50 yr. Consequently, the criteria used for characterizing species of Echeneibothrium have lagged behind those typically used in more modern descriptions of elasmobranch-hosted cestode taxa. A series of collecting trips to Chile to obtain cestodes from the yellownose skate, Dipturus chilensis , provided a unique opportunity to apply modern morphological and molecular methods to investigate the 3 species of Echeneibothrium reported parasitizing this skate, specifically Echeneibothrium megalosoma, Echeneibothrium multiloculatum, and Echeneibothrium williamsi. In addition to redescribing all 3 species, using morphological data from light and scanning electron microscopy, maximum likelihood and bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses of the D1-D3 regions of the 28S rDNA gene were conducted to assess their relationships among other echeneibothriids for which comparable data are available. Sequencing of 59 specimens representing these 3 species of Echeneibothrium allowed us to assess the intra- and interspecific variation in the 28S rDNA gene. The redescriptions use standardized terminology for scolex morphology, proglottid anatomy, and microthrix forms and pattern; they also expand on the original descriptions to include data on scolex size, ovary size, vas deferens and vaginal configurations, testes arrangement, and genital pore position. Our morphological work led to a major reinterpretation of the scolex morphology with the recognition that all 3 species bear an apical bothridial sucker, rather than an apical loculus, prompting emendation of the diagnosis for the family Echeneibothriidae. The presence of a band of spinitriches

  17. Production and performance of larvae and spat of pure and hybrid species of Mytilus chilensis and M. galloprovincialis from laboratory crosses Producción y comportamiento de larvas de especies puras e híbridas entre Mytilus chilensis y Mytilus galloprovincialis obtenidas en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Toro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of M. galloprovincialis from Concepción Bay and M. chilensis from Yaldad Bay, Chile, were transferred to the laboratory to produce crosses of "pure" and "hybrid" species in order to evaluate early larval development and growth. These variables are important for understanding the dynamics of these two mussel species in this potential hybrid zone where they occur sympatrically. The study showed that fertilization occurred in all crosses and significant differences were not detected between pure lines and hybrids in terms of the percentage of eggs that developed into larvae. Hybrid larvae and spat from both reciprocal crosses grew significantly more than those from pure lines, although valve length values were within the ranges reported in the literature.Ejemplares adultos de M. galloprovincialis de la bahía de Concepción y de M. chilensis de la bahía de Yaldad, Chile, se trasladaron al laboratorio para realizar cruzamientos puros de cada especie e híbridos, para evaluar el desarrollo larval temprano y su crecimiento. Estas variables son importantes para entender la dinámica de estas dos especies de mitílidos en esta potencial zona híbrida donde se encuentran en forma simpátrica. El estudio mostró que la fertilización ocurrió en todos los cruzamientos y no se detectó diferencias significativas entre líneas puras e híbridas en el porcentaje de huevos que se desarrollaron a larvas. Las larvas y juveniles híbridos de ambos cruzamientos recíprocos crecieron significativamente más que las larvas de los cruzamientos de especies puras, aunque los valores de longitud de la valva están dentro de los rangos reportados en la bibliografía.

  18. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja) proveniente de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón-Cerdas, Randall; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Flores-Mora, Dora; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Alvarado-Marchena, Luis; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Schmidt-Durán, Alexander; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Alvarado-Ulloa, Carlos; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    2014-01-01

    El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es un frutal de importancia comercial en países como Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, donde se consume como fruta fresca y procesada. Tradicionalmente, es propagado por semillas y estacas, y enfrenta problemas de heterogeneidad y calidad de material de siembra. En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación in vitro del tomate de árbol criollo del fenotipo naranja, proveniente de Costa Rica, el cual presenta potencial para ...

  19. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja) proveniente de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Chacón-Cerdas; Dora Flores-Mora; Luis Alvarado-Marchena; Alexander Schmidt-Durán; Carlos Alvarado-Ulloa

    2014-01-01

    El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es un frutal de importancia comercial en países como Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, donde se consume como fruta fresca y procesada. Tradicionalmente, es propagado por semillas y estacas, y enfrenta problemas de heterogeneidad y calidad de material de siembra.  En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación in vitro del tomate de árbol criollo del fenotipo naranja, proveniente de Costa Rica, el cual presenta potencial p...

  20. Obtención y evaluación de taninos provenientes del alquitrán de Hulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Ballesteros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra la posibilidad de obtener taninos sintéticos a partir de la mezcla de fenoles obtenida por destilación del extracto fenólico proveniente de alquitranes de coquización.Las mejores resinas sulfonadas (taninos fueron obtenidas por condensación de formaldehído-fenoles iniciales en una relación molar de 0.6:1.0, durante cuatro horas, y subsiguiente sulfonación en una relación molar de ácido sulfúrico-fenoles iniciales de 0.75:1.00 ó 0.50:1.00, durante dos horas.

  1. NATURALEZA MINERALÓGICA DE ESMECTITAS PROVENIENTES DE LA FORMACIÓN HONDA (NORESTE DEL TOLIMA COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    LAGUNA E, OSCAR HERNANDO; MOLINA G, CARLOS MARTÍN; MORENO, SONIA; MOLINA G, RAFAEL

    2008-01-01

    Cinco materiales arcillosos provenientes del departamento del Tolima (Colombia), fueron caracterizados mineralógica, química y granulométricamente. Los resultados indican que los materiales contienen diferentes proporciones de fase esmectítica dioctaédrica (entre 24 y 64%), con comportamiento similar al de la montmorillonita tipo "chambers", excepto en un caso donde se confirma la presencia adicional de montmorillonita de transformación. El análisis mineralógico reveló tres casos, un grupo de...

  2. Naturaleza mineralógica de esmectitas provenientes de la formación honda (noreste del tolima colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    LAGUNA E., OSCAR HERNANDO; MOLINA G., CARLOS MARTÍN; MORENO, SONIA; MOLINA G., RAFAEL

    2009-01-01

    Cinco materiales arcillosos provenientes del departamento del Tolima (Colombia), fueron caracterizados mineralógica, química y granulométricamente. Los resultados indican que los materiales contienen diferentes proporciones de fase esmectítica dioctaédrica (entre 24 y 64%), con comportamiento similar al de la montmorillonita tipo "chambers", excepto en un caso donde se confirma la presencia adicional de montmorillonita de transformación. El análisis mineralógico reveló tres casos, un grupo de...

  3. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that bacteria related to Arcobacter spp. constitute an abundant and common component of the oyster microbiota (Tiostrea chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J; García-Varela, M; Laclette, J P; Espejo, R T

    2002-11-01

    To explore the bacterial microbiota in Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis), a molecular approach that permits detection of different bacteria, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media, was used. Bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of both the 16S rDNA and the 16S-23S intergenic region, obtained by PCR amplifications of DNA extracted from depurated oysters. RFLP of the PCR amplified 16S rDNA showed a prevailing pattern in most of the individuals analyzed, indicating that a few bacterial species were relatively abundant and common in oysters. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rDNA with the prevailing RFLP pattern indicated that this rRNA was most closely related to Arcobacter spp. However, analysis by the size of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA intergenic regions revealed not Arcobacter spp. but Staphylococcus spp. related bacteria as a major and common component in oyster. These different results may be caused by the absence of target for one of the primers employed for amplification of the intergenic region. Neither of the two bacteria species found in large abundance was recovered after culturing under aerobic, anaerobic, or microaerophilic conditions. This result, however, is expected because the number of bacteria recovered after cultivation was less than 0.01% of the total. All together, these observations suggest that Arcobacter-related strains are probably abundant and common in the Chilean oyster bacterial microbiota.

  4. Distribución, tamaño y estructura poblacional de Jubaea chilensis en "Las Palmas", comuna de Petorca, región de Valparaíso - Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Youlton, Cristian; Hormazabal, Cristina; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Contreras, Patricia; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    La palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis) es una especie endémica de Chile central, clasificada en categoría de conservación vulnerable. De su área de distribución original subsisten algunas agrupaciones (palmares), encontrándose una de ellas en la comuna de Petorca, en el límite norte de la región de Valparaíso. El sector "Las Palmas" fue declarado "Sitio Prioritario para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad", sin embargo, se desconoce el número de palmas presentes, su distribución etaria y espacia...

  5. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species.

  6. Influencia del gobierno corporativo en el costo de capital proveniente de la emisión de deuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Lagos Cortes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento estudia la relación entre la aplicación de prácticas de gobierno corporativo, incluidas en el código de mejores prácticas corporativas (Código País, y el costo de capital proveniente de deuda en empresas listadas en la Bolsa de Valores de Colombia. Usando modelos de regresión, se encuentra evidencia que indica la existencia de una relación inversa entre el nivel de aplicación de prácticas de gobierno corporativo y el costo de la deuda en emisores no financieros (empresas pertenecientes al sector real y de servicios públicos. Para el caso de los emisores financieros, no se encuentra evidencia de esta situación.

  7. Substratos renováveis na produção de mudas de Ficus enormis proveniente de jardim clonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar substratos renováveis à base de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC e fibra de coco (FC sobre o enraizamento e qualidade final de mudas de Ficus enormis Mart. ex Miq. via estaquia caulinar de plantas provenientes de jardim clonal. Foram avaliados seis substratos: comercial (controle, composto por casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita (S1; 100% FC (S2; 100% CAC (S3; 50% FC e 50% CAC (S4; 30% (FC e 70% CAC (S5; 70% FC e 30% CAC (S6. O substrato comercial (S1 e as composições com maior proporção de FC apresentam qualificação superior para a produção de mudas de F. enormis.

  8. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis, a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Patricia Bravo

    Full Text Available Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May, elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug., birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500-600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100-200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals

  9. Desenvolvimento larval de Chrysoperla externa alimentada com Aphis gossypii provenientes de três cultivares de algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Cláudia Schlick-Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa alimentadas com Aphis gossypii provenientes de três cultivares de algodoeiro (FMT 701, Acala 90 e Delta Opal. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade de Cassilândia (MS. Os adultos de C. externa foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC, em sala climatizada. As larvas do predador foram individualizadas em placas de Petri e alimentadas diariamente com pulgões advindos das diferentes cultivares. Larvas que se alimentaram de indíviduos da cultivar FMT 701 apresentaram a viabilidade menor do que as que alimentaram dos afídeos criados nas cultivares Delta Opal e Acala 90. Observou-se redução do consumo diário nas larvas de terceiro ínstar que se alimentaram dos pulgões advindos da cultivar Acala 90. Consequentemente, larvas supridas com pulgões criados nas cultivares Delta Opal e Acala 90, tiveram menor peso, 3,60 e 3,90 mg respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da FMT 701. De modo geral, é possível a utilização de C. externa no controle de A. gossypii nas cultivares estudadas.

  10. ESTABILIZACIÓN ANAEROBIA MESOFÍLICA Y TERMOFÍLICA DE LODOS ACTIVADOS PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA CERVECERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribet Rincón Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, se evaluó la degradación de lodos activados provenientes de una industria cervecera ubicada en el Estado Zulia (Venezuela bajo condiciones mesofílicas (CM, a 37º C y condiciones termofílicas (CT, a 55º C mediante el uso de un digestor anaerobio de crecimiento suspendido y mezcla completa de 3,5 L, que trabajó con flujo discontinuo. Se evaluaron tiempos de retención hidráulicos (TRH, de 30, 25 y 15 días. Las mayores remociones se obtuvieron al aplicar la carga orgánica volumétrica (COV, de 1 kg DQO m3/d (TRH de 30 días, en la cual se removió el 32% de la DQOtotal, 10% de sólidos totales (ST, y 29% de sólidos volátiles (SV, para la CM y 59%, 32% y 43% para DQOtotal, ST y SV respectivamente en la CT. La concentración de metano en el biogás estuvo cerca al 60% para ambas condiciones, y la concentración de ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV se mantuvo siempre menor a 35 mg/L, indicando que toda la DQO acidificada fue transformada a metano.

  11. Factores que afectan la distribución circular del muérdago sin hojas Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae sobre el cacto Echinopsis chilensis Factors affecting the circular distribution of the leafless mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae on the cactus Echinopsis chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAREZZA BOTTO-MAHAN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el patrón de emergencia del muérdago holoparásito Tristerix aphyllus desde su cacto hospedador Echinopsis chilensis en un ecosistema semiárido de Chile. La distribución circular de las inflorescencias del parásito difirió significativamente de una distribución uniforme basada en un proceso aleatorio. Cuantificamos la distribución circular de las semillas defecadas sobre la superficie del cacto por el mímido Mimus thenca, el único ave responsable de la dispersión del muérdago. Nuestros datos no sostuvieron la idea de una deposición de semillas direccional por parte del ave. Para someter a prueba la hipótesis que la distribución circular observada es atribuible a una sobrevivencia diferencial de las semillas debido a variación térmica entre micrositios, infectamos cactos con semillas de T. aphyllus cada 30º y evaluamos la temperatura asociada a cada ángulo. Aun cuando las semillas ubicadas en ángulos con mayor exposición solar presentaron la menor formación de disco haustorial, esta variación en mortalidad no fue suficiente para dar cuenta de la polaridad angular observada. No obstante, las inflorescencias de T. aphyllus que emergieron 17 meses después de la infección experimental, revelaron estadígrafos circulares indistinguibles de aquellos observados en la situación natural. La inspección de la estructura anatómica en dos ángulos opuestos de la cactácea reveló diferencias en la constitución de la epidermis, observándose un espesor en promedio cuatro veces mayor en las muestras orientadas hacia el norte que en las orientadas hacia el sur debido a la formación de corteza altamente lignificada. Sugerimos que la formación de corteza es probablemente el factor más importante en determinar la distribución circular sesgada de T. aphyllusWe describe the pattern of emergence of the holoparasitic mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus from its cactus host Echinopsis chilensis in a semiarid Chilean ecosystem. The

  12. Micro-environmental changes induced by shape and size of forest openings: effects on Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings performance in a Pinus contorta plantation of Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, L.; Urretavizcaya, M.F.; Defosse, G.E.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: to analyze, within a Pinus contorta plantation, the effects of artificially created small rectangular and small medium circular canopy gaps on: i) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and soil temperature and moisture, and ii) survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings, species which formerly composed the natural forest of the area. Study area: A 2 ha stand of a Pinus contorta stand in Los Alerces National Park, Argentina (42°43’S, 71°43’W, 490 m.a.s.l.). Material and methods: The Pinus contorta stand was 25 yr old, 22 m height and 26 cm DBH, presenting 1000 trees ha-1 of density and 53 m2 ha-1 of basal area. In 2009, rectangular and circular gaps were created within the stand and then seedlings were planted. During two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), PAR, soil temperature and moisture were measured in gaps and understory (control), and seedling survival and growth in gaps. Main results: During both seasons, soil temperature did not differ among gaps and control, whereas PAR and soil moisture were lower in control than in gaps. Seedling survival was high in all gaps regardless of species and season. Seedlings showed higher diameter growth in rectangular than in circular gaps. Research highlights: Austrocedrus chilensis and N. dombeyi seedlings survival is high and their growth slightly affected, when planted in differently-sized canopy gaps within a Pinus contorta plantation in Patagonia. However, other gap sizes and stand densities should be tested before recommending which one shows better results for reconverting monocultures into former native forests. Abbreviations used: PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation); DBH (Diameter at Breast Height); INTA (Argentinean Institute of Agricultural Technology); IFONA (Argentinean Forest Institute). (Author)

  13. ¿A qué atribuyen el alto rendimiento escolar los estudiantes de buen rendimiento escolar proveniente de liceos con altos indices de vulnerabilidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Mario; Sepúlveda, Martitza

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como finalidad comprender desde las subjetividades de los participantes egresados de secundaria, provenientes de instituciones escolares con altos índices de vulnerabilidad, los principales factores que han contribuido en la obtención de su alto rendimiento escolar. Son varios los modelos que se han utilizados para explicar el abandono de los estudiantes en los primeros años de universidad (Ethington, 1990; St. John, Cabrera y Asker, 2000; Spady, 1970; Braxton,...

  14. Inferencias paleodietarias mediante isótopos estables en restos óseos humanos provenientes de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinder, Gala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales lineas de acción vinculadas al uso de isótopos estables en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego están orientándose a acotar factores de variación (especialmente la variación espacial y temporal y al cruce con otras lineas de evidencias como los estilos de vida. A partir de la ocupación europea en el Siglo XVIII se modificó el estilo de vida de las poblaciones históricas de la región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos explorar la variabilidad en cuanto al tipo de recursos consurnidos por hombres y mujeres a partir de la información isotópica obtenida de huesos de individuos provenientes de diferentes sectores geográficos (Norte, Sudeste y Beagle y la determinación de la composición de la dieta en términos de contenido proteico. Los datos isotópicos se complementaron con información etnográfica. El análisis Kruskal-Wallis sugiere que existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes sectores geográficos, pero no se registraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Asimismo, los isótopos indican que los individuos del Sudeste consumían preferentemente dietas más ricas en proteínas que sus vecinos del norte de la Isla. En los últimos años, ha crecido el interé por los estudios orientados al análisis de la división sexual del trabajo en sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Este trabajo constituye un primer aporte para evaluar la variabilidad en cuanto a las diferencias en la obtención de recursos entre sexos y el tipo de dieta en individuos históricos de Tierra del Fuego.

  15. Adubação química e cobertura morta em alho proveniente de cultura de tecidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Tiago M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se diferentes épocas de parcelamento da adubação de cobertura com nitrogênio e potássio e o uso de cobertura morta em um clone da cultivar Gravatá proveniente de cultura de tecidos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por solo com e sem cobertura morta e pela adubação de cobertura com N e K parcelada em três períodos de aplicação 45 e 65; 60 e 80; 75 e 95 dias após o plantio. A altura das plantas, número de folhas/planta, diâmetro do bulbo e a taxa de bulbificação foram avaliados 105 dias após o plantio. O parcelamento da adubação com nitrogênio e potássio em cobertura na cultura do alho aos 45 e 65 dias ou aos 60 e 80 dias após o plantio resultaram em bulbos com maior diâmetro, independente do uso de cobertura morta. As demais características avaliadas não foram influenciadas pelas épocas de parcelamento da adubação nitrogenada e potássica. A cobertura morta mostrou-se vantajosa em relação ao solo descoberto para cultura do alho oriundo de cultura de tecidos, permitindo aumentos significativos no crescimento e produtividade, que alcançou 16,76 t/ha com cobertura e 13,44 t/ha sem cobertura.

  16. Caracterización estructural y propiedades funcionales de las harinas de los frutos de Prosopis alba Griseb., P. chilensis (Molina) Stuntz emend. Burkart y P. flexuosa DC. Desarrollo de un proceso de secado, molienda y mezcla para optimizar la calidad del producto

    OpenAIRE

    Mom, María Pía

    2012-01-01

    Prosopis alba, P. chilensis y P. flexuosa "algarrobos", características en las regiones fitogeográficas del Chaco y Monte, Argentina, constituyen un recurso natural con innumerables aplicaciones. Si bien el progresivo avance de la desertización ha puesto en riesgo a estas comunidades vegetales, es indudable que en la actualidad constituyen una fuente inagotable de productos y subproductos. A partir del estudio de los caracteres estructurales (micro, ultra, nano), propiedades funcionales y col...

  17. Evidencia serológica de infecciones de Rickettsia en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E. Bermúdez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde mediados del siglo pasado, se conocen en Panamá casos de rickettsiosis, cuando fueron reportados brotes de tifus en ratones y de fiebres manchadas. A partir de entonces, poca información se tiene sobre su prevalencia en este país, lo cual se debe principalmente a que son confundidos con otras enfermedades. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar la presencia de rickettsiosis en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá, que corresponden a zonas agropecuarias, cercanas a bosques, o que trabajaban en zoológicos. Materiales y métodos. Se escogieron tres localidades para este estudio: Tortí (provincia de Panamá, El Valle de Antón (provincia de Coclé y el Parque Municipal Summit en Ciudad de Panamá. Los voluntarios firmaron un consentimiento informado, además de responder un cuestionario. De cada voluntario se extrajo sangre venosa, la que fue analizada por medio de inmunoflorescencia indirecta, utilizando kits comerciales y láminas sensibilizadas con antígenos cultivados de Rickettsia rickettsii y Rickettsia amblyommii. Resultados. Se tomaron muestras de 97 voluntarios, 25 en Tortí, 37 en El Valle de Antón y 35 en el Parque Municipal Summit. De estos, 38 (39 % de las muestras fueron positivas en algunas de las dos técnicas practicadas: 8 (32 % en Tortí, 18 (48 % en El Valle y 12 (34 % en el Parque Municipal Summit. Conclusión. Se demuestra una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en las tres áreas de estudio, además de presentarse evidencia de títulos para Rickettsia del grupo tifus en El Valle de Antón. Estas zonas podrían considerarse como endémicas por rickettsiosis, ya que existen condiciones que permiten el mantenimiento de las mismas. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i0.831

  18. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer qué, cuánto, cuándo y dónde comen y viven los hospedadores permitiría complementar los estudios parasitarios, ya que la transmisión de los endoparásitos está estrechamente ligada a la dieta, y la de los ectoparásitos al uso del hábitat. Por esto, se describen y comparan la composición y características cuantitativas de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis con datos obtenidos de 108 ejemplares juveniles recolectados desde la zona intermareal de cuatro localidades de la costa de Chile (entre 33º y 40º S, y de 14 adultos recolectados desde el submareal somero de una quinta localidad (36º S, y se discute los resultados a la luz de los cambios ontogenéticos en el nicho de este huésped. Cerca del 70 % de los ejemplares tenía contenido alimentario, en el que se distinguieron 25 ítems presa, de los cuales sólo uno era compartido entre juveniles y adultos. La dieta de los toritos juveniles estuvo compuesta principalmente por anfípodos y la de los adultos por crustáceos decápodos. Cerca de un 40 % de los toritos albergaba un total de 624 parásitos en los que se reconocieron 16 taxa, y sólo cuatro eran compartidos entre juveniles y adultos. En los toritos juveniles muestreados en las cuatro localidades había baja y similar intensidad total, riqueza y diversidad parasitarias, y variaciones geográficas significativas en la prevalencia total, composición de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos. La falta de una relación clara entre la composición de la dieta y del parasitismo en los toritos juveniles puede deberse a que las parasitosis son necesariamente recientes, y a que pueden haber grandes diferencias en el tiempo de residencia de presas y parásitos en el tracto digestivo. En los toritos adultos hubo mayor prevalencia, intensidad y diversidad de parásitos que en los juveniles de una localidad cercana. Se requieren más estudios, en especial en la

  19. ESTABILIZACIÓN DE HECES HUMANAS PROVENIENTES DE BAÑOS SECOS POR UN PROCESO DE FERMENTACIÓN ÁCIDO LÁCTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mindreau Ganoza, Elías; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal y Bioremediación “Luis Basto Acosta”. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú.; Juscamaita Morales, Juan; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal y Bioremediación “Luis Basto Acosta”. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú.; Williams León de Castro, Marta; Profesora Principal, Departamento de Biología. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú.

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluaron los parámetros físico-químicos y microbiológicos de un proceso de estabilización de heces humanas provenientes del uso de “baños secos” de Pamplona Alta (Lima- Perú) durante los meses de agosto y setiembre del 2015 (Mindreau, 2016). Se estudiaron veinticinco tratamientos por triplicado siguiendo un protocolo ya aplicado en otros tipos de residuos (excretas de vacunos, equinos, etc.) mediante la inoculación de bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) de una solución denominada “Biolac” y ac...

  20. Electrorremediación de suelos arenosos contaminados por Pb, Cd y As provenientes de residuos mineros, utilizando agua y acido acético como electrolitos

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, Laura; Vargas Ramírez, Marissa; Reyes Cruz, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizaron estudios potenciostáticos en una celda de electrorremediación experimental, de un suelo real tipo arenoso (93% arena) contaminado por la oxidación residuos mineros proveniente de la zona de Zimapán Hidalgo, se utilizó agua desionizada, CH3COOH y CH3COONH4 0.001 M, ya sea como humectante del suelo o como electrolitos, se aplicó un potencial constante de 20 V durante 24 horas. Al terminar los experimentos se recuperó el suelo, se determinó el pH, observándos...

  1. Metales pesados en plantas provenientes de áreas afectadas por la minería aurífera en la reserva forestal Imataca, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Gil, Rosa; Bermúdez, Alexis; De Abreu, Orlando; Alvarado, José; Dominguez, José

    2006-01-01

    Metales pesados en plantas provenientes de áreas afectadas por la minería aurífera en la reserva forestal Imataca, Venezuela. Reyes Gil, Rosa; Bermúdez, Alexis; De Abreu, Orlando; Alvarado, José y Dominguez, José Resumen La Reserva Forestal Imataca ha sido explotada artesanalmente para la extracción de oro de aluvión con la utilización de técnicas agresivas para el ambiente, que incluyen la deforestación de grandes áreas boscosas y el uso de mercurio. El objetivo de este traba...

  2. Suelos agrícolas contaminados por metales pesados provenientes de depósitos de vehículos de desecho

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Balderas-Plata

    2003-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el grado de contaminación por metales pesados provenientes de depósitos de vehículos de desecho en suelos agrícolas que se encuentran en la periferia de éstos. Las muestras de suelo (0 a 10 y 10 a 30 cm de profundidad) se tomaron a lo largo de un trayecto a intervalos regulares de 5 m, hasta una distancia de 25 m. Se observó que en el suelo estudiado, en el ejido de San Gabriel Jilotepec (ESAJ), los contenidos de Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb y Zn presentan un...

  3. Diseño piloto del sistema de tratamiento pasivo de infiltraciones provenientes del depósito de material inadecuado de Minera La Zanja, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Garayar, Dante Danilo

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio denominado “Diseño piloto del sistema de tratamiento pasivo de infiltraciones provenientes del depósito de material inadecuado de Minera La Zanja, Perú” tiene como objetivo evaluar y seleccionar un piloto de sistema de tratamiento pasivo, para ello se identificará la zona de estudio, los materiales y especies vegetales con potencial para la implementación de este sistema de tratamiento. El método de investigación utilizado es el cualitativo y descriptivo (He...

  4. Aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica provenientes de sedimentos del Humedal El Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Carolina Mora Moreno; Hernando Valencia Zapata

    2006-01-01

    En el humedal el Jaboque (Engativá) Bogotá, Colombia, se aislaron microorganismos lipolíticos provenientes de
    sedimentos, mediante la utilización de medios de cultivo selectivos (agar tributirina, agar aceite de girasol). Primero se evaluó la concentración del sustrato (aceite de girasol) en la cual se encontraba el mayor número de morfotipos aislados, luego se comparó la eficiencia de los dos medios de cultivo de acuerdo a la cantidad de morfotipos aislados. Se evaluaron tres conc...

  5. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Basil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  6. Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis-nodulating rhizobia Sinorhizobium arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 produce tetra- and pentameric LCOs that are N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Petri; Soupas, Laura; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Lindström, Kristina

    2004-04-28

    Sinorhizobium arboris and S. kostiense are rhizobia that nodulate the tropical leguminous trees Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. The lipochito-oligosaccharidic signalling molecules (LCOs) of S. arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The major LCOs produced by the strains were shown to be pentameric, acylated with common fatty acids, N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated, as are the LCOs characterized to date for other Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. Besides the major LCOs the two strains produced (i) tetrameric LCOs, (ii) LCOs acylated with fatty acids other than those commonly found, (iii) LCOs with only an acyl substituent and (iv) noncarbamoylated LCOs. Production of LCOs (i) to (iii) are novel among Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. The roles of the different structural characteristics of LCOs in the rhizobium-A. senegal symbiosis are discussed. Specific structural features of the LCOs are proposed to be important in the selection of effective nitrogen-fixing rhizobia by A. senegal.

  7. Reaproveitamento de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico em cerâmica vermelha

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,G. E.; Holanda,J. N. F.

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho mostra os resultados de um estudo sobre a incorporação de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico na formulação de uma massa argilosa utilizada na fabricação de cerâmica vermelha. As massas preparadas continham os seguintes teores de resíduo de siderurgia: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% em peso. Os resultados de difração de raios X, distribuição de tamanho de partículas e limites de Atterberg são apresentados para as massas argilosas. Os corpos-de-prova foram conforma...

  8. Niveles séricos de IGF-I e IGFBP-3 en adolescentes embarazadas provenientes de un sector socioeconómico de bajos ingresos

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    Stella Carrasco Rodríguez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El eje de la hormona de crecimiento (GH/factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo-l (IGF-I participa en el crecimiento durantela vida postnatal y fetal y se encuentra regulado por la nutrición. Sin embargo, muy pocos estudios se han adelantado con el fin de comprender los efectos de la mala nutrición sobre dicho eje durante el embarazo en la adolescencia. En este estudio se determinaron los niveles séricos del IGF-I y de IGFBP-3 en un grupo (n=62 de adolescentes en el segundo trimestre de embarazo y provenientes de un estrato pobre de la ciudad de Bogotá y se compararon con los de un grupo (n=36 de adolescentes del mismo estrato. Como referencia se tomaron los valores obtenidos en un grupo (n=20 de adolescentes de un estrato de clase media de la misma ciudad. Se encontró que las adolescentes del estrato pobre presentaban un crecimiento por debajo del percentil 3 con talla y peso significativamente (p

  9. Pesquisa da infecção natural por Yersinia pestis, em pulicídeos provenientes de focos pestosos do nordeste do Brasil

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    Darci Pascoal Brasil

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados três processos de acondicionamento e transporte de pulgas, objetivando análise bacteriológica para isolamento da Yersinia pestis. As três abordagens testadas foram: pulgas vivas em tubos de ensaio com tiras dobradas de papel de filtro; pulgas em solução salina; macerados de pulgas em meio de Cary-Blair. Os dois últimos métodos foram quase iguais e superiores ao primeiro. Foram analisadas pelas três técnicas, um total de 29.512 "pools" de pulicideos provenientes de focos de peste do Nordeste do Brasil no período de 1966 a 1982. Deste total, 236 (0,80% dos "pools" foram positivos por cultura e/ou inoculação em animais sensíveis.Three different containment transport processes of fleas were evaluated as an approach to the bacteriologic isolation of Yersinia pestis. The three methods employed were: live fleas in glass tubes containing pieces of wrapped filter paper; dead fleas in saline solution; and maceratedfleas in Cary-Blair culture medium. The two latter methods were almost equal and superior to the first method. A total of 29512 flea pools, from plague foci in Northeast Brazil collected during 1966 to 1982 were evaluated by the three methods. Among these samples, 236 (0.80% flea pools were positive with regard to bacteriological cultivation and/or infection of susceptible animals.

  10. Determinação das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do gesso reciclado proveniente de chapas de gesso acartonado

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    A. Erbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A busca pela viabilidade técnica e econômica da reciclagem de resíduos na cadeia produtiva da construção civil vem atender às novas necessidades do setor de promover crescimento econômico integrado às necessidades sociais e ambientais. O crescente aumento do consumo das chapas de gesso acartonado carrega consigo o problema da geração dos resíduos de gesso, onde a falta de pesquisa e o descarte incorreto acaba destinando o resíduo gerado, na maioria das vezes, para aterros ou bota-foras irregulares, sem controle ou estimativa de volume. No presente trabalho, por meio da adoção de um processo de reciclagem composto das etapas de moagem e calcinação do resíduo das chapas de gesso acartonado, determinaram-se as propriedades físicas e mecânicas do gesso reciclado proveniente das chapas de gesso acartonado. A análise dos resultados mostrou a viabilidade da reciclagem, pois após a reidratação foi possível moldar corpos de prova, demonstrando que é possível reciclar um produto que hoje é descartado.

  11. AUTOIGNICION 3-D EN DEPOSITOS DE LODOS PROVENIENTES DE TRATAMIENTOS DE AGUAS RESIDUALES 3D SELF IGNITION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE WASTE WATER TREAMENT

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    Nelson Moraga B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el transporte de calor y de oxígeno por difusión en pilas de compostajes provenientes de tratamiento de aguas municipales. El modelo 3-D transiente incluye la generación de calor originada por microorganismos y por la descomposición de la celulosa. El sistema de ecuaciones acopladas de difusión de calor y materia se resuelve con el método de volúmenes finitos. Los resultados predicen la variación en el tiempo de la distribución de temperatura y oxígeno. El análisis de los resultados permite proponer un nuevo sistema para el almacenamiento de lodos con el fin de evitar su autoignición.Heat and oxygen transport by diffusion in sewage sludge piles obtained from water treatment is studied. The 3D unsteady mathematical model incorporates the heat generated by microorganisms and by cellulose decomposition. The coupled heat and mass diffusion equations system of partial differential equations is solved by the finite volume method. The results obtained allow predicting the time history of temperature and oxygen concentration distributions. Results analysis suggests a new way to build the solid waste compost piles.

  12. Volatilização de Amônia Proveniente de Ureia Compactada com Enxofre e Bentonita, em Ambiente Controlado

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    José Antônio de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, novas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir as perdas de N quando se utiliza ureia como fonte desse macronutriente. A utilização de fertilizantes de características ácidas pode reduzir as perdas de amônia por volatilização, quando combinados com a ureia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de amônia provenientes de fontes de N revestidas e, ou, incorporadas com ou sem enxofre e bentonita. Esses foram aplicados na superfície de um Planossolo Háplico contido em bandejas (0,1 m2 de área e 10 cm de profundidade, em dose equivalente a 200 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização durante 21 dias, com auxílio de um coletor semiaberto. A adição de diferentes fontes de enxofre e de bentonita no processo de compactação da ureia reduziu as perdas de amônia em até 29 %, quando comparadas com a ureia granulada comercial, comprovando serem alternativas promissoras para aumentar a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada.

  13. ANÁLISE ECONÔMICO-FINANCEIRA DO APROVEITAMENTO ENERGÉTICO DO GÁS METANO PROVENIENTE DE INSTALAÇÃO DE SUINOCULTURA

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    Juciara Oliveira Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar de maneira econômico-financeira o aproveitamento energético do gás metano proveniente das instalações da suinocultura do IFNMG, Campus Januária. Para isso, foram avaliadas duas situações diferentes: o aproveitamento do biogás a partir do biodigestor já instalado e uma segunda situação para analisar desde a instalação do biodigestor ao aproveitamento do biogás. No cenário de 10 anos foram obtidos, na situação 1 payback de 4,46 anos, VPL de R$ 38.209,42, e o TIR de 19%, e na situação 2 payback de 1,10 anos, VPL de R$ 82.698,00 e TIR de 86%. Representando assim, um investimento atraente para a instituição e possivelmente para produtores rurais no Norte de Minas Gerais, com produção suinícola similares a este estudo.

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN CUANTITATIVA DE PRODUCTOS INTERMEDIOS Y RESIDUOS DERIVADOS DE ALIMENTOS DEL ALGARROBO (PROSOPIS FLEXUOSA Y P. CHILENSIS, FABACEAE: APROXIMACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL APLICADA A RESTOS ARQUEOBOTÁNICOS DESECADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylen Capparelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una aproximación experimental se caracterizan los atributos macromorfológicos cuantitativos de productos intermedios y residuales derivados de Prosopis chilensis y P. flexuosa (Algarrobo blanco y Algarrobo negro respectivamente que potencialmente podrían llegar a formar parte del registro arqueobotánico. Se provee descripción morfoanatómica de la vaina y la semilla de las especies tratadas. Se elaboró harina no refinada y refinada, añapa, aloja y arrope, siguiendo técnicas tradicionalmente utilizadas en el Valle de Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina, las cuales fueron registradas por la autora en trabajos previos. Se concluye que el análisis cuantitativo de restos macrobotánicos de Prosopis, en conjunto con el cualitativo, permite la identificación de diferentes etapas de procesamiento del Algarrobo. Para ello resulta esencial la distinción entre las dos especies. La proporción de diferentes categorías de semillas y endocarpos es útil para distinguir la harina refinada de la no refinada. Esta última podría indicar la manufactura de patay, ulpo o aloja. Los residuos de la añapa y aloja se caracterizan por presentar semillas con testa plegada, enrollada o levantada, o carecer de ella, y sus cantidades se encuentran disminuidas o aumentadas con respecto a la cantidad inicial de harina utilizada dependiendo de si las semillas que se recuperan son enteras o fragmentadas. Los residuos del arrope se identifican por poseer grandes piezas de epicarpo y porque todos los endocarpos correspondientes a la cantidad de artejos utilizados inicialmente en su preparación se encuentran presentes. Dichos endocarpos se encuentran cerrados, y excepto en el caso de los residuos de arrope, se considera que la mayoría de las asociaciones arqueológicas de restos de Prosopis representa una proporción muy baja del volumen de materia que le dio origen en su contexto dinámico del pasado.

  15. Aislamiento e identificaci?n de diez cepas bacterianas desnitrificantes a partir de un suelo agr?cola contaminado con abonos nitrogenados proveniente de una finca productora de cebolla en la Laguna de Tota, Boyac?, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ostos Ortiz, Olga Lucia; Benavides L?pez de Mesa, Joaqu?n; Quintero, Gladys

    2006-01-01

    Este articulo presenta los resultados de la versatilidad adaptativa y tolerancia de una consorcio bacteriano constituido por 10 cepas bacterianas end?micas de un suelo agr?cola contaminado, proveniente de una finca productora de cebolla ubicada en la laguna de Tota en Aquitania, Boyac?, Colombia, expuesto al uso incontrolado de fertilizantes nitrogenados. La consorcio bacteriano aislado del suelo est? conformado por: Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetoba...

  16. Mapeamento da deposição irregular dos resíduos provenientes da construção civil na cidade de Mossoró-RN

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    Giordanio Bruno Silva Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A construção civil tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes atividades para o desenvolvimento da sociedade, porém é uma atividade que causa impactos ambientais, pois utiliza recursos naturais, modifica o meio ambiente e gera um grande volume de resíduos. Nota-se que as atividades ligadas à construção civil no município de Mossoró-RN, são responsáveis por gerar uma quantidade considerável de resíduos de construção civil (RCC, que na maioria das vezes, são depositados em locais irregulares, por não haver na cidade um local específico para esse fim. Esses resíduos constituem um grave problema, tanto para o meio ambiente quanto para qualidade de vida da população. A pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de mapear áreas de depósito irregular de resíduos provenientes da construção civil na cidade de Mossoró-RN. Foi realizada a demarcação dos pontos de acordo com a localização do despejo dos resíduos, com a finalidade de identificar e indicar sua localização dentro da zona urbana de Mossoró-RN. No presente estudo, foi possível identificar 11 pontos de deposição irregular de resíduos provenientes da construção civil, espalhados em diferentes locais da cidade, alguns situando-se próximo de áreas residenciais, o que caracteriza sérios riscos à saúde pública, e outros dispostos próximos de cursos d’água, o que provoca degradação do meio ambiente.Mapping of irregular dumping of solid waste from construction industry at Mossoró-RN, BrazilAbstract: Construction industry has been considered one of the most important activities regarding to society development, however it causes environmental impacts, because it uses natural resources, modifies the environment and generate a huge amount of waste. It was observed that in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, a large amount of construction waste is often deposed in unauthorized sites because the municipality does not provide a specific site for this purpose. Such waste

  17. Seed bank from soil of coffee plantations associated with grevillea trees Banco de sementes do solo proveniente de cafezais arborizados com grevílea

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    M.A.F. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the composition and dynamics of seed bank from soil of coffee plantations associated with grevilea trees in the experimental fields of the Southwest Bahia State University, on Vitória da Conquista campus. The experiments were carried out from September 2006 to May 2007. The coffee trees (Coffea arabica were sown at three x one m spacing, associated with grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta and maintained at densities of 277, 139, 123, 69, 62 and 31 plants ha-1, under direct sunlight. One hundred grams of soil were taken from each treatment with four repetitions and later identified and counted with a 10x magnifying glass. To determine seedling emergence, four soil samples of 1000 g were collected from each experimental field and transported to the greenhouse. Seedling emergence was observed by counts after 15, 30 and 45 days. The experimental design was randomized blocks of seven treatments (soil from different tree densities and four replicates; the experimental unit consisted of a plastic tray (0, 30 x 0.22 x 0.06 m containing 1.000 g of soil. The variables utilized to characterize the bank and its dynamics were: relative frequency, relative density, relative abundance, importance index and species diversity (Shannon-Weaver index.Increased number of monocotyledon seeds and sprouts were verified in the treatments maintained under full sunlight.Com o objetivo de estudar a composição e a dinâmica do banco de sementes provenientes de solos de cafezais arborizados com grevíleas, desenvolveu-se um ensaio no campo experimental da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, no campus de Vitória da Conquista. Os cafeeiros (Coffea arabica foram dispostos em espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, associados a grevíleas (Grevillea robusta mantidas em densidades de 277, 139, 123, 69, 62 e 31 plantas ha-1, e a pleno sol, no período de setembro de 2006 a maio de 2007. Para avaliação do número de sementes, foram retirados 100 g de solo de

  18. Novas Ocorrências de Âmbar Provenientes da Bacia do Araripe (Formação Santana, Membro Crato.

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    Ricardo Pereira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O âmbar é uma resina fóssil originada devegetais superiores, tanto gimnospermas quantoangiospermas. A análise de sua composição molecularpermite que se determine a origem botânica domesmo, também apresentando importância pela suaextraordinária capacidade de preservação de inclusõesorgânicas, tais como insetos, pequenos vertebrados erestos vegetais. No Brasil, a Bacia do Araripe constituia bacia sedimentar mais prolífica em âmbar, tendosido relatadas diversas ocorrências. Esses registrossão todos provenientes do Membro Crato, FormaçãoSantana (Cretáceo Inferior, Aptiano, consistindosempre em gotas de material resinoso imersos emcamadas de calcário laminado. A análise químicade algumas dessas amostras indicou a famíliaAraucariaceae como a possível fonte botânica dessesâmbares. Na localidade de Nova Olinda, CE, foramencontrados três fragmentos de material resinosocom aspecto vítreo amarelado e diâmetro médiode 1 cm, constituindo um novo registro de âmbarno Brasil. Os fragmentos encontram-se imersosem placas de calcário laminado, típico do MembroCrato. A superfície dos mesmos apresenta aspectotrincado, com morfologia semelhante a um padrãode fratura do tipo conchoidal. Seus eixos maioresencontram-se paralelos aos planos de estratificaçãodo sedimento, estando deformados nesse sentidoprovavelmente devido à compressão litostática. Nomomento, esses âmbares estão sendo analisados porCromatografia Gasosa acoplada à Espectrometriade Massas para caracterização da composiçãomolecular e conseqüente estabelecimento da origembotânica dos mesmos.

  19. ASPECTOS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS DE AZEITES DE OLIVA E DE FOLHAS DE OLIVEIRA PROVENIENTES DE CULTIVARES DO RS, BRASIL

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    Lucilene Dornelles MELLO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo apresentar os resultados da caracterização físico-química de azeites de oliva e folhas de oliveira da variedade Arbequina, cultivadas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e determinar o potencial antioxidante pelo ensaio do DPPH na atividade sequestrante de radicais livres (ASRL %, atividade quelante (% AQ e poder redutor de extratos aquosos de folhas de oliveira in natura, folhas processadas para chás (comercial 1 e comercial 2 e azeites de oliva provenientes de olivais dos municípios de Caçapava do Sul (azeite 1 e Cachoeira do Sul (azeite 2. Os azeites de oliva também foram avaliados quanto aos índices de iodo, saponificação, peróxidos, refração absoluto a 20ºC e determinação da acidez, densidade, medida da absorbância no ultravioleta a 270nm/232nm e determinação do perfil de ácidos graxos. Os estudos com os derivados de oliveira para a fração fenólica e a atividade antioxidante elevaram-se concomitantemente. Os extratos de folhas processadas e os azeites de oliva foram às amostras que apresentaram teores mais altos de fenóis totais e as melhores respostas de ASRL (> 80%. Todas as amostras apresentaram baixos valores percentuais de AQ (< 30% e poder redutor (entre 20 – 50%. Pela análise dos parâmetros físico-químicos e perfil de ácidos graxos, os azeites de oliva podem ser classificados como azeite virgem extra.

  20. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Salmonella enterica PROVENIENTES DE PISOS, EQUIPOS, UTENSILIOS Y PRODUCTO TERMINADO EN PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO PORCINO EN COLOMBIA

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    P. M. Bermúdez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La diseminación de Salmonella spp. resistente a antimicrobianos en las cadenas productivas de alimentos de origen animal es una preocupación de salud pública de carácter mundial. Este estudio describe los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 283 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica procedentes de plantas de beneficio porcino en Colombia. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana frente a diez antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión en disco: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico (30 ug, ampicilina (10 ug, ceftiofur (30 ug, ciprofloxacina (5 ug, cloranfenicol (30 ug, florfenicol (30 ug, gentamicina (10 ug, sulfadiazina/trimetroprim (25 ug, tetraciclina (30 ug y tilmicosina (15 ug. Los resultados evidenciaron la presencia de 279 aislamientos multirresistentes de Salmonella enterica de origen porcino provenientes del ambiente y del producto terminado en las plantas de beneficio evaluadas (46,64% n: 132. Se detectaron 52 patrones de multiresistencia: el más común fue ceftiofur-tetraciclina-tilmicosina en el 9,89% (n: 28 de los aislamientos. Con referencia a estos antimicrobianos, 96,82% (n: 274 de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a tetraciclina, 73,14% (n: 207 a tilmicosina y 28,27% (n: 80 a ceftiofur. De especial interés fue la alta proporción de aislamientos resistentes a ceftiofur, debido a una posible resistencia cruzada con ceftriaxona. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de promover el diseño e implementación de un Programa oficial Integrado de Vigilancia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana, además de sistemas de monitoreo voluntario en cada eslabón de la cadena productiva porcina, para contribuir a la prevención y control de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes de origen alimentario en el marco del sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en Colombia.

  1. Caracterización Antimicrobiana Y Fisico-Quimica De Muestras De Propoleo Proveniente De La Región Andina Colombiana

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    E Bastos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso, de origen animal, producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propoleo provenientes de la región  andina Colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y físico-químico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco- difusión, frente a las especies Eschericia coli, S.aureus y Candida albicans. Para la caracterización físico-química se evaluo el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenidio de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y  23,5 mm para S. aureus, no se observo ninguna actividad para C. albicans. Los parámetros fisico-químicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al físico-químico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.

  2. Caracterización de propóleos provenientes del municipio de Caldas obtenido por dos métodos de recolección

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    Julián Martínez G.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características fisicoquímicas y la actividad antimicrobiana de propóleos de Apis mellifera, provenientes del municipio de Caldas, obtenidos por dos métodos de recolección. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron dos métodos de recolección: de raspado y trampa plastica. Se estableció el contenido de cera, ceniza, material insoluble y resina de los propóleos crudos. Al extracto etanólico de los propóleos se les determinó el perfil cromatográfico (GC-MS y el espectro UV; además, se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro frente a hongos (Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Colletotrichum acutatum y C. gloesporioides, y bacterias (Salmonella tiphy, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Resultados. El material obtenido mediante malla matrizada presentó un perfil químico amplio, buena actividad antimicrobiana y mejores parámetros de calidad, de acuerdo con estándares establecidos por normas internacionales que los propóleos obtenidos por el método de raspado. Además, pudo observarse que la acción antimicrobiana de los propóleos fue dependiente de la concentración del extracto y del hongo o bacteria evaluada. Conclusiones. La composición química y la actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de los propóleos están relacionadas con el método de recolección. El presente estudio aporta información para la selección de la técnica de cosecha del propóleo de acuerdo con la aplicación que se desee dar.

  3. Obtenção e caracterização do amido do endocarpo da manga Tommy Atkins proveniente do resíduo agroindustrial

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    Eliane Alves Onias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A agroindústria da manga é uma atividade em expansão e produz grande volume de resíduos que não são reaproveitados, mas descartados de forma inadequada. O objetivo deste trabalho é obter e caracterizar o amido da amêndoa do endocarpo da manga, variedade Tommy Atkins, proveniente dos resíduos agroindustriais para que esse possa ser usado na formulação de novos produtos na indústria alimentícia. A amêndoa e o amido foram caracterizados através de análises físico-químicas. A amêndoa da manga Tommy Atkins apesentou umidade de 59,00%, cinza de 1,16%, teor de lipídio de 4,17%, proteína de 3,79% e quase 50% de carboidratos totais. No processo de extração do amido variando a concentração da solução de extração e o tempo de trituração da amêndoa, de acordo com planejamento experimental,observou-se rendimento de extração variando de 18,28 à 27,11%. A qualidade do amido é influenciada pela concentração dos outros componentes presentes, sendo assim, o amido extraído apresentou boa qualidade com teor de umidade de 10,4%, proteína de 2,49%, cinzas de 0,07% e lipídios de 4,6%. O amido apresentou características desejáveis podendo ser largamente utilizado na indústria de alimentos.

  4. Perfil de consulta en niños alérgicos provenientes de familias de bajos ingresos Profile of consultation of allergic children from low income families

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    Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades alérgicas son una de las principales causas de atención médica en la infancia y su impacto se acentúa más en las familias de bajos ingresos. En un estudio descriptivo analítico se caracterizó el perfil de consulta del niño alérgico proveniente de familias mexicanas de bajos recursos económicos. Las enfermedades alérgicas predominaron en el sexo masculino y la edad escolar; el 71 % de los enfermos provenía de localidades urbanas. El asma fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (64 %, seguido de la rinitis alérgica (30 %, dermatitis atópica (6 % y urticaria (3 %. Las reactividades encontradas con más frecuencia en la prueba cutánea fueron Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, gato (17 %, perro (14 % y Cynodon dactylon (11 %. El alto grado de disfunción familiar y la poca adhesión a tratamientos prolongados posibilitan la perpetuidad de los síntomas y el pronóstico incierto en este grupo de niños.Allergic diseases are one of the main causes for seeing the doctor in childhood and their impact is more acute in low income families. An analytical descriptive study characterized the profile of medical consultation of the allergic child from Mexican low income families. Allergic diseases prevailed in males and at school age, and 71 % of the sick children lived in urban settings. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis (64 % followed by allergic rhinitis (30%, atopic dermatitis (6 % and urticaria (3 %. The most commom reactivity rates in the cutaneous test were Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, cat (17 %, dog (14 % and Cynodon dactylon (11 %. The high level of family dysfunction and low adhesion to long therapies make it possible the persistence of symptoms and the uncertain prognosis in this group of children.

  5. Fauna helmintológica de ovinos provenientes da microrregião de Jaboticabal, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Willian Giquelin Maciel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a prevalência e a contagem parasitária das diferentes espécies de helmintos de ovinos provenientes da microrregião de Jaboticabal, região Noroeste de São Paulo. Para tanto, foram utilizados 66 animais naturalmente infectados, de quatro a 36 meses de idade, criados em regime extensivo. Os resultados necroscópicos revelaram a presença de sete gêneros e 12 espécies, com a seguinte prevalência e a média de parasitismo: Haemonchus contortus: 100,0% (2947,2; Trichostrongylus colubriformis: 90,9% (3048,8; Cooperia curticei: 56,0% (256,5; Oesophagostomum columbianum: 48,4% (36,0; Cooperia punctata: 30,3% (94,5; Trichostrongylus axei: 22,7% (26,5; Strongyloides papillosusi: 19,6% (83,0; Haemonchus contortus (L4: 7,5% (17,2; Cooperia pectinatai: 10,6% (12,9; Trichuris ovis: 10,6% (0,6; Cooperia spatulata 4,5% (0,3; Capillaria bovis: 4,5% (0,1. A carga parasitária média foi de 6.524,7 helmintos por animal. Haemonchus contortus (Adultos e L4 e Trichostrongylus colubriformis corresponderam a 45,4% e 46,7% da carga parasitária média total, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que as duas espécies de helmintos mais abundantes e importantes da microrregião de Jaboticabal/São Paulo foram Trichostrongylus colubriformis e Haemonchus contortus, sendo que essas duas espécies perfizeram 92,1% da distribuição percentual dos helmintos recolhidos de todos os animais. Tais resultados demonstram a importância em se realizar um monitoramento das contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG dos rebanhos desta região, quando o método FAMACHA for empregado em uma determinada propriedade, uma vez que este método de controle, geralmente, não permite diagnosticar os danos/sinais clínicos desencadeados nos animais pelo T. colubriformis, em função de essa espécie não possuir hábito de hematofagismo sobre os hospedeiros.

  6. ESPECIACION QUÍMICA DE METALES PESADOS EN SUELOS INCUBADOS CON LODOS RESIDUALES PROVENIENTES DE UNA PLANTA DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS

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    Adriana Forero Hernandez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar el destino de los metales pesados en los suelos agrícolas, provenientes de los lodos de las aguas residuales de plantas de tratamiento, se determinó la especiación química en los suelos después de 9 semanas de aplicación, para lo cual se realizaron ensayos de incubación utilizando una dosis de 2,5% de lodo p/p equivalente a 81,5 Ton lodo/ha de suelo. Las unidadesexperimentales consistieron en materos con una mezcla suelo-lodo que se mantuvieron entre 17 y 25 ºC, humedad acapacidad de campo, dispuestos en invernadero con un diseño estadístico completamente aleatorizado con cuatroréplicas y siete tratamientos. Se encontró que los niveles de concentración total en el lodo de Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb y Zn fueron muy inferiores a los establecidos por la normatividad del Environmental Protection Agency (EPA para su utilización en suelos.Además, el contenido de carbono orgánico, nitrógeno y fósforo disponible estuvo en el intervalo normal reportado para fertilizantes orgánicos.La adición de lodo al suelo produjo un incremento significativo de la fracción de Cd enlazada a materia orgánica comparada con las fracciones intercambiable y unida a óxidos de hierro-manganeso, el Cu presentó mayor afinidad por la fracción de óxidos de hierro- manganeso, el Pb mostró una fracción enlazada a materia orgánica la cual estaba ausente en el suelo testigo, el Zn tuvo una mayor proporción en la fracción asociada a óxidos de hierro-manganesoy el Mn en comparación con los otros metales fue el que presentó la mayor fracción intercambiable.

  7. Caracterização de águas residuárias de suinocultura provenientes de dois sistemas de tratamento

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    Tatiane Cristina Dal Bosco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As águas residuárias de suinocultura apresentam características físico-químicas que variam de acordo com o sistema de higienização das baias, estádio de desenvolvimento dos animais, alimentação, condições climáticas, genética, entre outros fatores. No Brasil, o tratamento dessas águas residuárias, com elevada carga poluente, ocorre, geralmente, em esterqueiras e biodigestores. Na maioria das propriedades rurais, o destino final dos efluentes tratados é o solo. Pratica-se, portanto, o reúso de água na agricultura, que pode interferir na dinâmica de diversos poluentes no solo, como é o caso dos pesticidas. As águas residuárias apresentam-se na forma total e dissolvida, sendo esta a fração mais investigada atualmente na dinâmica desses poluentes. Neste sentido, objetivou-se utilizar a técnica de espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio com transformada de Fourier na caracterização da matéria orgânica total e dissolvida proveniente de águas residuárias de suinocultura tratadas em biodigestor e esterqueira. Nos resultados, não foi possível observar diferenças na composição das águas residuárias pela espectroscopia infravermelha com transformada de Fourier. Entretanto, pode-se identificar a presença de materiais ainda pouco degradados e a ocorrência de grupos funcionais nitrogenados, que apontam para a liberação do nitrogênio no solo quando degradados, evidenciando o potencial de reúso dessas águas residuárias na agricultura como forma de fertirrigação. Palavras-chave: Infravermelho. Esterqueira. Biodigestor. Efluentes.

  8. Painéis de partículas provenientes de rejeitos de Pinus sp. tratado com preservante cca e resina derivada de biomassa

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    Marília Silva Bertolini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do preservante CCA (sais de cromo, cobre e arsênio tem sido questionada devido ao impacto relacionado à dispersão, principalmente, do cobre e do arsênio para o ambiente, antes de sua completa fixação na madeira. Outra questão se relaciona à disposição indevida dos resíduos provenientes da madeira tratada, viabilizando a lixiviação devido à maior área passível desses rejeitos sujeita a tal fenômeno. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a produção de painéis de partículas, avaliando o efeito da adição de resíduos de Pinus sp. tratado com sais de cromo, cobre e arsênio (CCA, em associação com material da mesma espécie sem preservantes, além de alterações no teor de adesivo poliuretano à base de mamona empregado na produção. As propriedades dos painéis produzidos foram determinadas conforme recomendações da NBR 14810-3: 2006. Por meio de análise estatística, observou-se que a adição da madeira tratada proporcionou desempenho superior no inchamento em espessura (2 h, ao passo que esse insumo utilizado na mesma proporção que a madeira sem preservantes foi significante, obtendo os melhores resultados na adesão interna. Os módulos de ruptura e de elasticidade na flexão não sofreram influência das variações nos insumos utilizados nos painéis. Os painéis, em grande parte, apresentaram-se em conformidade com os principais requisitos nesse âmbito, mostrando a possibilidade da utilização dos referidos insumos na produção, além da obtenção de um produto com considerável apelo ambiental.

  9. Diseño y evaluación de un sistema de tratamiento piloto para las aguas residuales provenientes de la construcción del sector inmobiliario privado en la ciudad de Manizales

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    Cruz Henao, Claudia Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Tesis (Maestria en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2015 Con el fin de diseñar un sistema de tratamiento para las aguas residuales provenientes de la construcción en el sector inmobiliario privado en la ciudad de Manizales, se realizó una caracterización de la cantidad y calidad de los vertimientos generados en esta actividad. La cantidad promedio de agua residual generada fue el 71% del agua us...

  10. Variaciones nucleotídicas de dos grupos de tepezcuintles, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, en cautiverio provenientes de dos localidades de Yucatán, México

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    Rubén C Montes-Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimamos las variaciones nucleotídicas entre dos grupos de tepezcuintles (Agouti paca provenientes de los estados de Campeche y Quintana Roo, México y, dentro de cada grupo. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas de once A. paca mantenidos en cautiverio. El ADN de leucocitos se utilizó para efectuar la amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos de ADN (RAPD. Se seleccionaron los iniciadores número tres 5’ -d(GTAGACCCGT-3’ y seis 5’ -d(CCCGTCAGCA-3’ del estuche (Ready.To.Go. RAPD Analysis Beads, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, porque produjeron un adecuado número de bandas. Los patrones electroforéticos de bandas fueron procesados con el software para análisis filogenético basado en el método de UPGMA para estimar la variación nucleotídica. El árbol filogenético obtenido con el iniciador tres reveló una agrupación dicotómica entre los animales de ambos estados de la Península de Yucatán, con un valor de divergencia de 1.983 nucleótidos de cada cien. Los animales de Quintana Roo mostraron un agrupamiento con el iniciador seis y, otro grupo más con animales procedentes de Campeche. La variación nucleotídica entre estos dos grupos fue de 2.118 nucleótidos por cada cien. Las variaciones nucleotídicas dentro de los grupos procedentes de ambos estados, para los dos iniciadores, mostraron valores que fluctuaron entre 0.46 y 1.68 nucleótidos de cada cien, lo cual indica que la variación nucleotídica entre los dos grupos de animales es alrededor de dos nucleótidos por cada cien y, dentro de grupos es menor a 1.7 nucleótidos por cada cien.Nucleotidic variations of two captive groups of tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, from two sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The objective of this work was to estimate the nucleotidic variation between two groups of tepezcuintles (Agouti paca from the states of Campeche and Quintana Roo, Mexico and within members of each group. Blood samples were collected from eleven A. paca kept in

  11. Utilization of Boron (10B derived from fertilizer by sugar cane Aproveitamento do Boro (10B proveniente do fertilizante pela cana-de-açúcar

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    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of 10B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B (10B derived from fertilizer (boric acid, an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m where 4 kg ha-1 B (boric acid with 85.95 % in 10B atoms dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005. The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006 the B content and 10B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha-1 in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots. The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha-1 and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha-1, totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha-1. The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount.No agrossistema da cana-de-açúcar a resposta à aplicação de B é ainda uma questão não esclarecida, porém é um procedimento que vem sendo utilizado com certa frequência. O uso de fertilizantes marcados com 10B pode auxiliar no entendimento dessa prática. Com o objetivo de avaliar o aproveitamento do B (10B proveniente do fertilizante (ácido bórico pela cana-de-açúcar, realizou-se um experimento em campo, na safra de 2005/2006, que consistiu na instalação de microparcelas (2 m de comprimento por 1,5 de largura, que, após 90 dias do plantio (maio de 2005, receberam 4 kg ha-1 de B (ácido bórico com 85,95 % em

  12. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos de enterobacter cloacae multirresistentes, productores ß-Lactamasas provenientes de pacientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá

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    Ibonne Aydee García Romero

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las enterobacterias, antaño flora normal del tracto gastrointestinal, han cambiado su biología y emergido como agentes patógenos nosocomiales que se tornan resistentes los antibióticos conocidos. Objetivo. Realizar la caracterización epidemiológico-molecular de 20 aislamientos de Enterobacter cloacae resistentes a cefalosporinas de tercera generación; provenientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá-Colombia. Material y métodos. Los aislamientos fueron identificados mediante sistemas automatizados Microscan y VITEK, se utilizó el Enterobacter asbureae como control externo inter-especie. La confirmación de resistencia se hizo por técnica de difusión en agar, y una vez establecida se realizó BLEE para comprobación. La determinación de puntos isoeléctricos se hizo, mediante lisis por ultrasonido y la genotipificación mediante la metodología para bacterias Gramnegativas propuesta por Versalovic. Resultados: Los aislamientos colectados durante un año fueron causantes de 15 casos de infección Intrahospitalaria y dos colonizaciones. Todos los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, aztreonam y ciprofloxacina, 95% a amikacina, gentamicina y cloranfenicol, 75% a trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, 20% a cefepime y todos fueron sensibles a imipenem. Dos aislamientos fueron confirmados como productores de â-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE por la técnica microbiológica de disco combinado. Por isoelectroenfoque presentaron dos â-lactamasas con puntos isoeléctricos (pI de 5,4 y 8,2. En los 18 aislamientos no inhibidos por ácido clavulánico, se detectaron entre 2 y 4 â-lactamasas con pI de 5,4; 6,0; 7,0; 8,2 y mayor que 8,2; la resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera generación podría ser atribuida a la hiperproducción de AmpC; los valores de pI sugieren la producción simultánea de â-lactamasas tipo SHV y TEM. La genotipificación mediante tres metodologías de rep

  13. Micorrizas arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de sabiá em um substrato proveniente da mineração de manganês

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    Kaio Gráculo Vieira Garcia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O manganês (Mn é considerado um micronutriente essencial às plantas, porém o seu excesso pode resultar em toxidez, causando clorose e necrose nas folhas. O uso de leguminosas inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tem se tornado uma importante estratégia do ponto de vista da remediação de áreas contaminadas com metais como é o caso do manganês. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. inoculadas com micorrizas arbusculares sob condições de substrato esterilizado e natural proveniente de uma área de mineração de Mn do município de Ocara – CE. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2, considerando-se: quatro tratamentos de inoculação (controle não-inoculado, inoculado com Glomus clarum, inoculado com Glomus etunicatum e com a mistura dos dois fungos (Mix e duas condições de substrato (estéril e natural, com quatro repetições. As mudas de sabiá foram produzidas em bandeja de isopor, sendo transplantadas e inoculadas em vasos após treze dias da semeadura. Após trinta dias do transplantio foram realizadas avaliações de altura da parte áerea, diâmetro do colo, número de folíolos e porcentagem de sobrevivência. A inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares favoreceu o crescimento das mudas de sabiá em substrato da mineração de manganês, em condições naturais, principalmente quando se utilizou o Glomus etunicatum. No substrato esterilizado a inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares proporcionou a atenuação da toxidez de Mn nas mudas de sabiá favorecendo o crescimento das mesmas nestas condições.Arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of sabiá seedlings on a substrate from the manganese miningAbstract: Manganese (Mn is considered an essential micronutrient to plants but its excess can result in toxicity causing chlorosis and necrosis on

  14. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

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    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da temperatura de refrigeração e idade do cacho sobre a conservação e qualidade pós-colheita da banana 'Prata Anã', produzida no Norte de Minas Gerais, visando a exportação. Utilizaram-se frutos de bananeira 'Prata Anã' provenientes do município de Nova Porteirinha, MG. A colheita foi realizada na 16ª, 18ª e 20ª semanas após a emissão floral. Dos cachos colhidos, utilizou-se às segundas pencas, separadas em buquês com 5 frutos, lavados e pesados (18 kg. Em seguida, os frutos foram revestidos com embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade, com 50m de espessura, sob vácuo parcial, acondicionados em caixas de papelão e distribuídos em paletes. Depois de embalados e paletizados, os frutos foram transportados para a EPAMIG/CTNM, onde foram armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (10 e 12ºC e umidade relativa de 95%, por um período de 35 dias, sendo analisados antes e após a refrigeração. O armazenamento de bananas 'Prata Anã', provenientes de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas, por 35 dias a temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC, não promoveu "chilling" nos frutos. A temperatura de 10ºC foi mais eficaz em prevenir a evolução da coloração da casca de bananas provenientes de cachos com 18 semanas, que à temperatura de 12ºC, enquanto as temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC foram igualmente eficientes na contenção da mudança de cor de bananas provenientes de cachos com 16 semanas. Frutos provenientes de cachos com 20 semanas amadureceram desuniformemente, ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado.This work had, as objective, to verify the influence of refrigeration temperature and bunch age on the conservation and post-harvest quality of the 'Prata Anã' banana produced in the North of Minas Gerais, looking towards exportation. 'Prata Anã' banana tree fruits were used originating from the municipal district of Nova Porteirinha, MG. The crop was harvested in the 16th, 18th

  15. Valoración biogeográfica del bosque mediterráneo esclerófilo con palmeras (Jubaea chilensis Mol (Baillon en la cuenca del Quiteño (Chile, a partir de la aplicación del método de valoración LANBIOEVA

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    Quintanilla Pérez, Victor G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is based on research work that has been carried out for more than 20 years with the purpose of consolidating a method of biogeographic valuation of different plant scenes at a global scale. A few years ago, as a result of a research stay, different units of the Mediterranean environment of Chile were assessed. Among the results, the sclerophyllous Mediterranean forest with palms (Jubaea chilensis clearly called one’s attention because it not only achieved the highest scores in this setting, but it got the absolute record to date. The paper is centered on, presents and analyzes the results obtained in that unit, but this time with systematic inventories and assessments made in 2015. The base study area is concentrated in a small microbasin, El Quiteño, in the coastal mountains of Viña del Mar. The natural and cultural values do not differ from some formations of the surrounding, even from formations situated in the European setting, yet the conservation priority shoots up taking into account that the participations referred to the global threat factor are very high.El artículo se basa en un trabajo de investigación desarrollado desde hace más de 20 años con el fin de consolidar un método de valoración biogeográfica de diferentes paisajes vegetales a escala global. Hace unos años, como consecuencia de una estancia de investigación, se valoraron diferentes unidades del ámbito mediterráneo de Chile. En los resultados llamaba la atención, sobremanera, el bosque mediterráneo esclerófilo con palmeras (Jubaea chilensis, ya que alcanzaba las puntuaciones más elevadas de este ámbito, y obtenía –además– el record absoluto hasta la fecha. El artículo se centra, expone y analiza los resultados obtenidos en la mencionada unidad, pero esta vez con inventarios y valoraciones sistemáticas realizadas en el año 2015. El área base de estudio se concentra en una pequeña microcuena: El Quiteño, del litoral monta

  16. Relevancia de la infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi en triatominos selváticos provenientes de seis municipios de Santander, Colombia

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    Sergio Gómez

    2016-06-01

    genotipificación se realizó mediante PCR del espaciador intergénico del gen mini-exón (SL-IR, que amplifica fragmentos de 350 y 300 pb para T. cruzi I (TcI y T. cruzi II o V-VI (TcII-V-VI, respectivamente. Resultados: Se analizaron 50 especímenes adultos de Panstrongylus geniculatus (64% y Rhodnius pallescens (36% capturados principalmente en el domicilio y peridomicilio, respectivamente. La TI en los triatominos fue de 53,6% al examen directo y de 68,0% mediante PCR de satADN. La TI fue mayor para R. pallescens (77,8% en comparación con P. geniculatus (62,5%. Se observaron altas tasas de infección en triatominos provenientes de Floridablanca (90,9%, Bucaramanga (66,7% y Capitanejo (50,0%. En San Vicente de Chucurí y Lebrija también se detectaron altos índices de infección, no obstante, el número de vectores capturados en estos municipios fue muy bajo (entre 1 y 3. Se determinaron las DTUs de las poblaciones de T. cruzi presentes en el 41,2% de los triatominos selváticos positivos por PCR de satADN. En ambas especies vectoriales se evidenció el predominio de TcI (86% y una alta frecuencia (33% de infección mixta por TcI y TcII-V-VI en R. pallescens. Conclusiones: Se determinó la alta tasa de infección por T. cruzi en triatominos selváticos capturados en los municipios evaluados, lo cual resalta su importancia epidemiológica por la posibilidad de transmisión del parásito por vía oral, aún en zonas de baja endemia o donde no hay reporte de vectores domiciliados. Igualmente, es urgente la implementación de estrategias de control dirigidas a prevenir la intrusión domiciliaria de estos vectores.

  17. Caracterização do Resíduo Sólido Proveniente do Processo de Beneficiamento de Areia e sua Viabilidade de Uso em Cerâmica.

    OpenAIRE

    BIFF, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo efetuar a caracterização química e física do resíduo sólido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia industrial, areia esta destinada às indústrias cerâmicas, vidro e de fundição. Adicionalmente foi avaliado o potencial uso do resíduo na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos em substituição às matérias-primas convencionalmente utilizadas na composição das massas cerâmicas. O resíduo sólido, objeto deste estudo foi gerado pelo processo de ben...

  18. Mineralogía del proceso de biodesulfurización de carbones provenientes de la zona río Guachinte - río Asnazú (Valle del Cauca y Cauca)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Rendón, Isabel Cristina

    2008-01-01

    En Colombia, los depósitos carboníferos se encuentran distribuidos a lo largo de todo el país, encontrándose las mayores reservas en los departamentos de La Guajira, Cesar y Cundinamarca. Los carbones de la región suroccidental del país son útiles para la generación de vapor, pero tienen los más altos contenidos de azufre, principalmente en forma de azufre orgánico y pirita. Para dos muestras de carbón provenientes de la zona río Guachinte – río Asnazú, fue llevado a cabo un proceso de biodes...

  19. ESTUDIO DE MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS DE REMOCIÓN DE CIANURO PRESENTE EN RESIDUOS DE CIANURACIÓN PROVENIENTES DEL PROCESO DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ORO DE VETA EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE NARIÑO

    OpenAIRE

    FAJARDO, JONNY ARIEL; BURBANO, DIANA CAROLINA; BURBANO, EDITH JACKELINE; APRAEZ, NÉSTOR JAVIER; MOREANO, MILTON ROSERO

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación se centró en la neutralización a nivel de laboratorio de residuos cianurados provenientes de la mina Nueva Esparta ubicada en el municipio de los Andes-Sotomayor (Nariño), con tres neutralizantes de tipo comercial en distintas relaciones en peso (gramos de neutralizante/gramos de CN- libre/total a neutralizar): peróxido de hidrógeno H2O2 2/1, 5/1 y 8/1, hipoclorito de sodio NaOCl 7/1, 12/1 y 17/1 y sulfato ferroso FeSO4 6/1, 12/1 y 18/1. Las arenas residuales se trataron as...

  20. Metais pesados provenientes de rejeitos de mineração e seus efeitos sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v4i1.24

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    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento nas concentrações de metais pesados no solo e na água próximos a zonas de mineração pode estar relacionado com processos químicos e biológicos que controlam a solubilidade, a disponibilidade e a mobilidade desses metais. Os efeitos tóxicos dos metais pesados no ser humano estão associados aos compostos orgânicos e inorgânicos por eles formados e são determinados pela quantidade do metal envolvida e pelo tempo de exposição. Com base em revisão bibliográfica, o presente artigo enfoca e discute aspectos relevantes sobre o estudo de metais, como arsênio, cádmio, cromo e mercúrio, provenientes de rejeitos de mineração.

  1. La lucha de la Unión Europea contra el crimen organizado transnacional. Estudio de caso: tráfico ilegal de armas pequeñas y ligeras provenientes de Albania y Kosovo (2001-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    García Pinilla, Juan Daniel

    2014-01-01

    En el contexto de la lucha de la Unión Europea contra el crimen organizado transnacional, el tráfico ilegal de armas pequeñas y ligeras proveniente de los grupos criminales albaneses y kosovares, es uno de los delitos a los que la Unión Europea ha tenido que hacer frente. Así pues, esta investigación logró analizar cómo la falta de coordinación de las políticas europeas implementadas para luchar contra el tráfico ilegal de armas pequeñas y ligeras y la corrupción estatal en Albania y Kosovo, ...

  2. Comportamento de adesão da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis proveniente de três condições de manejo

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    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985739O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de adesão da madeira serrada de eucalipto proveniente de três sistemas de manejo, empregando-se os adesivos: resorcina formaldeído, e dois adesivos em emulsão aquosa à base de poliacetato de vinila. Os sistemas de manejo foram caracterizados por três estratos, sendo o estrato um (E1 caracterizado por madeira proveniente de talhadia e idade de 70 meses; o estrato dois (E2 caracterizado por madeira de reforma e idade de 166 meses e o estrato três (E3 caracterizado também por reforma aos 70 meses de idade. A madeira foi originada de uma mistura aleatória das duas primeiras toras serradas, de três metros cada, a partir da base, que compuseram três tratamentos, relativos aos adesivos utilizados. Foi avaliada a resistência ao cisalhamento por compressão paralela e o percentual de falha na madeira na linha de cola. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se afirmar que a adesão apresentou desempenho satisfatório em todas as resinas utilizadas, sendo que os valores médios da resistência ao cisalhamento da linha de cola mostraram-se equivalentes à resistência ao cisalhamento da madeira sólida apenas para as amostras aderidas com o adesivo Wonderbond, proporcionando também maiores valores para falha na madeira (97,64%. A maior densidade presente na madeira do segundo estrato (E2 influenciou apenas na colagem com a resina resorcina formaldeído. Para o acetato de polivinila (Cascorez 2590, os valores do cisalhamento diminuíram na terceira condição de manejo (E3.

  3. Aproveitamento de silício proveniente de escória siderúrgica por cultivares de cana-de-açúcar Recovery of silicon from metallurgy slag by sugarcane cultivars

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    Robson Thiago Xavier de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é uma espécie acumuladora de silício (Si, capaz de responder à adubação silicatada, principalmente, em solos pobres desse elemento. As escórias de siderurgia constituem em uma interessante fonte de Si para aplicação em solos cultivados com essa cultura. Objetivou-se estudar o aproveitamento do Si proveniente da escória siderúrgica pela cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Uberlândia (MG, entre 15 de agosto de 2007 e 2 de maio de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo duas cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (SP81 - 3250 e RB86 - 7515 e quatro doses de Si (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 em quatro repetições. A cana foi cultivada em tambores plásticos (200 L. A aplicação de escória de siderurgia (silicato aumentou o teor de Si disponível no solo e o teor foliar da cana-de-açúcar. A quantidade de Si acumulada pela parte aérea da cana proveniente do silicato aplicado variou entre 23% e 56%, respectivamente, para as variedades RB86-7515 e SP81-3250. Em média, 39% do Si absorvido pela parte aérea da cana foram provenientes do fertilizante aplicado (silicato.Sugarcane is a species that accumulates silicon (Si and is capable of responding to Si applications, especially in soils lacking Si.. Metallurgy slag is an interesting source of Si for soils cultivated with this crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of Si from metallurgy slag by sugarcane. The experiment was carried out at Uberlândia-MG, from August 15, 2007 to May 02, 2008. The experimental design was randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement being two cultivate of sugarcane (SP81 - 3250 and RB86 - 7515 and four Silicon doses (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1 with four replications. The sugarcane was cultivated in plastic drums (200 L. The application of slag (silicates increased the content of available silicon in soil and leaf of sugarcane. The amount of Si accumulated in

  4. DESEMPENHO DE MOTOR-GERADOR DE CICLO OTTO OPERADO COM GASOLINA E BIOGÁS PROVENIENTE DE SUINOCULTURA / PERFORMANCE MOTOR-GENERATOR OPERATED WITH OTTO CYCLE GASOLINE AND BIOGAS FROM THE PIG.

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    C. Rossetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A busca por novas fontes energéticas que não poluam o meio ambiente, bem como a mitigação dos impactos ambientais gerados pelo aumento da população, abre uma nova perspectiva no campo da pesquisa do biogás provenientes do resultado de tratamento de efluentes. O processo de transformação de energia gerada pela combustão do biogás para energia em motores no ciclo Otto e posterior transformação em energia elétrica é de fácil realização sendo necessárias algumas adaptações no motor, neste trabalho foi realizada apenas a substituição do carburador por um misturador de ar/combustível tipo Venturi. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de motor-gerador ciclo Otto alimentado com biogás proveniente de suinocultura. Como testemunha foram utilizados ensaios com gasolina, simulando diferentes condições de trabalho, com cargas de 0; 0,250 kW (10 % da carga; 0,500 kW (20 % da carga; 0,750 kW (30 % da carga; 1 kW (40 % da carga; 1,250 kW (50 % da carga; 1,500 kW (60 % da carga; 1,750 kW (70 % da carga; 2 kW (80 % da carga; 2,250 kW (90 % da carga e 2,500 kW (100 % da carga. Onde foram avaliadas as emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2, monóxido de carbono (CO e oxido de nitrogênio (NOx, e analisado o rendimento do motor-gerador que foi baixo em torno de 76 % menor quando comparado com gasolina, sendo necessários ajustes para o melhor desempenho. 

  5. Sensory response of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi to stimuli from the bug Euschistus heros Resposta sensorial do parasitóide de ovos Telenomus podisi a estímulos provenientes do percevejo Euschistus heros

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    Cleonor Cavalcante Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the foraging behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae in the presence of stimuli from its host, Euschistus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. The stimuli selected were: egg mass; virgin males and females; volatile extracts of sexually mature males and females; components of male sex pheromone; a component of the alarm pheromone, hexane and an empty cage as control. In a closed arena, the parasitoids were given the choice between single and combined stimuli presented to them simultaneously. To find the host egg, T. podisi primarily uses the sensory cues released from the male insects. The orientation toward odors of male chemical extract indicates that a source of kairomone was detected. Gas chromatographic analyses of this substance showed peak of methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate, the main component of male sexual pheromone. The sensory response to methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate confirms that this compound may act as a kairomone to find host eggs. Females and egg mass stimuli were weakly attractive to the parasitoid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de busca de Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, em presença de estímulos provenientes do hospedeiro Euschitus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. As fontes de estímulos utilizadas foram: massas de ovos, machos e fêmeas virgens, extratos químicos de machos e fêmeas sexualmente maduros, componentes sintéticos do feromônio sexual do macho de E. heros, um composto sintético do feromônio de alarme, hexano e uma gaiola vazia como controle. Os testes foram conduzidos em arenas, onde foi dada a oportunidade para os parasitóides escolherem entre estímulos isolados e estímulos combinados. Para encontrar o hospedeiro, T. podisi utiliza principalmente estímulos olfativos emitidos pelos machos. As respostas sensoriais aos odores liberados pelos extratos químicos do macho indicam que uma fonte de

  6. ANÁLISIS DE LA DINÁMICA BIOLÓGICA PRESENTE EN UN SISTEMA PILOTO DE LOMBRICULTURA PARA EL MANEJO DE BIOSÓLIDOS PROVENIENTES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES

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    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la dinámica biológica presente en un sistema piloto de lombricultura con la especie Eisenia foetida para el manejo de biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de Tratamiento Aguas Residuales -PTAR- Salitre, Bogotá D. C., con el fin de establecer la influencia de los organismos presentes en la transformación y translocación de la materia orgánica -MO-, la eficiencia de este proceso, así como la calidad del humus y su posible uso como abono orgánico. Esto, mediante análisis biológicos en diferentes etapas. En la primera fase del sistema se identificó que los biosólidos están clasificados como tipo B de acuerdo con la EPA (Agencia de Protección del Medioambiente de los EE. UU., y presentan condiciones desfavorables para su aplicación a cultivos agrícolas. Sin embargo, luego de dos meses de procesamiento biológico, el humus tuvo características similares a las de un compost maduro, con baja presencia de microorganismos patógenos, así como también un leve aumento en la diversidad y equitatividad de la meso y la macrofauna.

  7. Perfil sensorial e composição físico-química de cervejas provenientes de dois segmentos do mercado brasileiro Sensorial and physical-chemical evaluation of beers deriving from two segments of Brazilian market

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    F.B. Araújo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas seis marcas de cervejas produzidas no Brasil, das quais as marcas 1, 2, 3 e 4 foram provenientes de microcervejarias e as 5 e 6 são líderes do mercado nacional, com o objetivo de avaliar sua qualidade pelas características físico-químicas e sensoriais. A marca 1 constituiu cerveja "ale", tipo Trigo; a 2, cerveja "lager", tipo Amber; e as demais foram cervejas "lager", tipo Pilsen. As marcas 1 e 2 apresentaram concentrações mais elevadas de ácidos voláteis e foram as que evidenciaram maior intensidade do gosto amargo. Observou-se que as marcas provenientes de microcervejarias foram as que apresentaram maior intensidade dos atributos sensoriais, devendo-se ressaltar que as marcas 1 e 2 foram as que apresentaram cor, aroma de levedura, aroma de fruta, aroma de papelão, sabor oxidado, gosto doce e aroma de diacetil mais intensos. As marcas que apresentaram, mediante análise físico-química, maior concentração de acetato de etila foram as que tiveram aroma de fruta perceptível pela equipe sensorial, não sendo este atributo detectado nas marcas 3, 4, 5 e 6. O aroma de solvente não foi detectado em nenhuma das marcas avaliadas, o que indica que a concentração de álcoois superiores estava abaixo do limiar sensorial de detecção. As marcas 3, 4 e 5 foram utilizadas para avaliar a aceitação do produto, não tendo sido verificada diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre elas, que se situaram entre os termos hedônicos "gostei muito" e "gostei ligeiramente", o que contraria o esperado, já que as microcervejarias objetivam uma cerveja diferenciada e de maior atração para o consumidor.Six brands of beer produced in Brazil, of which brands 1, 2, 3 and 4 derived from small brewery and brands 5 and 6 were leaders of the national market, were studied to evaluate their quality through physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics. Brand 1 constitutes the "ale" Wheat type and brand 2 the "lager" Amber type. The other

  8. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

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    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta durante o ciclo vegetativo de 1995/1996. O experimento foi realizado em oito vinhedos localizados nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Monte Belo do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação, com duas repetições para cada vinhedo, os quais foram analisados por processos físico-químicos, espectrofotometria de absorção atômica e cromatografia líquida e gasosa. Os parâmetros das variáveis mais significativas foram os seguintes: álcool 9,65%, acidez total 69 meq L-1, pH 3,46, extrato seco reduzido 16,0 g L-1, K nas cinzas 49,4%, ácido tartárico 33 meq L-1, glicerol 9,3 g L-1, prolina 669 mg L-1, antocianinas 330 mg L-1, taninos 1,19 g L-1, intensidade de cor 0,286, K 1.078 mg L-1, metanol 101,7 mg L-1 e soma dos álcoois superiores 450 mg L-1. Os resultados dos vinhos avaliados foram relativamente similares aos encontrados em vinhos Cabernet Franc da mesma região elaborados com uvas provenientes de videiras conduzidas em latada. Eles evidenciam que o sistema de condução da videira em lira aberta constitui-se como alternativa para a produção de vinho tinto fino na Serra Gaúcha.The objective of the work was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of the Cabernet Franc wine from the 1995/1996 vegetative cycle. It was conducted in eight vineyards in the communes of Bento Gonçalves and Monte Belo do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From each vineyard, two microvinifications were elaborated and wines were analysed by physicochemical, atomic absorption spetrophotometry, and liquid and gas chromatography processes. The parameters of the most significant variables were the following: alcohol 9.65%, total titratable acidity 69 meq L-1, pH 3.46, reduced dry extract 16.0 g L-1, K in the ashes 49.4%, tartaric acid 33 meq L-1

  9. Caracterização físico-química do mel de abelhas proveniente da florada do cajueiro Physicochemical characterization of the bee honey originating in the cashew flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar e caracterizar o mel proveniente da florada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. O estudo foi realizado a partir de 24 amostras de mel coletadas em apiários distribuídos num cajueiral de aproximadamente 1000 hectares, localizado no município de Cascavel, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. As mesmas foram submetidas a análises melissopalinológicas e físico-químicas (umidade, acidez total, cinzas, açúcares totais, Lund, pH, condutividade elétrica, HMF, atividade de água e densidade. Com base nas análises melissopalinológicas, o mel foi considerado monofloral, proveniente da floradado cajueiro. Os intervalos de variação dos parâmetros físico-químicos analisados foram: 16,5-19,2% (umidade, 22-40meq kg-1 (acidez total, 0,182-0,301% (cinzas, 80,8-83,5% (açúcares totais, 1,0-2,0mL (Lund, 3,48-3,83 (pH, 179-198µS cm-1 (condutividade elétrica, 9,6-30,91mg kg-1 (HMF, 0,62-0,76 (atividade de água e 1,33-1,43g mL-1 (densidade. As análises mostraram que o mel da florada do cajueiro apresenta características físico-químicas dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente.The present study was aimed at the identification and characterization of the bee honey (Apis mellifera derived from cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale L.. The study was carried out through the analysis of 24 samples of honey collected from apiaries distributed in a cashew plantation of about 1000 hectares, located in the area around the town of Cascavel, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were submitted to melissopalinological and physicochemical analysis (humidity, total acidity, ashes, total sugars, Lund, pH, electrical conductivity, HMF, water activity, and density. On the basis of the melissopalinological analysis, the honey was considered unifloral, with its origin traced to the cashew flowering. The variation intervals of the physicochemical parameters under analysis were: 16

  10. Molecular characterization of Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia furfur from cattle with and without otitis Caracterização molecular de isolados de Malassezia sympodialis e Malassezia furfur provenientes de bovinos com e sem otite externa

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    E.R. Duarte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A molecular study of Malassezia strains isolated from cattle with or without otitis was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. DNA was extracted and purified from nine strains of Malassezia sympodialis and fourteen of Malassezia furfur. These microorganisms were collected from eight different bovine herds in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The RAPD analysis and phenograms did not show the formation of genetically distinct groups among the strain isolated from cattle with or without otitis raised in the same herds. Genetic heterogeneity was observed among Malassezia strains from different geographic origins. These data suggest that genetically similar M. sympodialis and M. furfur strains found as members of the normal ear microbiota could become opportunistically active in the inflammatory process in cattle.A caracterização molecular de amostras de Malassezia spp., isoladas de bovinos com e sem otite, foi realizada por meio da técnica do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD. DNAs de nove amostras de Malassezia sympodialis e quatorze de M. furfur foram extraídos e purificados. Essas amostras foram provenientes de oito diferentes rebanhos bovinos no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A análise de RAPD e os fenogramas não revelaram a formação de grupos geneticamente distintos entre amostras isoladas de bovinos, criados no mesmo rebanho, com ou sem otite. Heterogeneidade genética foi observada entre amostras de diferentes origens geográficas. Os dados sugerem que isolados geneticamente semelhantes e membros da microbiota normal do ouvido podem participar, como oportunistas, no processo inflamatório do conduto auditivo externo de bovinos.

  11. Descrição morfológica do coração e dos vasos da base do jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin, 1802 proveniente de zoocriadouro

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    Ana C. Alves

    Full Text Available Resumo: Com este estudo objetivou-se descrever os aspectos anatômicos e histológicos do coração do jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare, proveniente de zoocriadouro. Para tanto, estudou-se 13 exemplares da espécie, os quais foram perfundidos, conservados em solução de formaldeído a 10% e submetidos às técnicas anatômicas específicas. O coração foi separado e amostras foram colhidas e submetidas à avaliação histológica. Macroscopicamente o coração é tetracavitário, e além de dois átrios e dois ventrículos, apresenta uma estrutura denominada cone arterial, do qual emergem os vasos da base do coração. Foram identificadas duas aortas, direita e esquerda, sendo que a esquerda emerge do ventrículo direito e se comunica com o tronco sistêmico direito por meio do forame de Panizza. Histologicamente o coração possui epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio típicos. Concluímos que a histologia do coração, no jacaré-do-pantanal, é semelhante à de outras espécies de répteis. Contudo, anatomicamente apresenta particularidades importantes, as quais representam, possivelmente, adaptações que permitiram a perpetuação da espécie.

  12. Autonomia, gênero e gravidez na adolescência: uma análise comparativa da experiência de adolescentes e mulheres jovens provenientes de camadas médias e populares em Belo Horizonte

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    Alessandra Sampaio Chacham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investiga-se como desigualdades de classe e de gênero atuam no sentido de reduzir o grau de autonomia de adolescentes (15 a 19 anos e mulheres jovens (20 a 24 anos, influenciando seu comportamento sexual e reprodutivo, especificamente na experiência da gravidez na adolescência. Na análise foram utilizados dados provenientes de dois inquéritos, cuja amostra total foi de 648 jovens do sexo feminino entre 15 e 24 anos de idade, 292 residentes em bairros de classe média e 356 em favelas situados na região centro-sul da cidade de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Nos resultados, encontrou-se uma prevalência bruta de 27,3% de gravidez até os 19 anos entre as jovens residentes em favelas e de 1,7% entre as moradoras em bairros da região centro-sul de Belo Horizonte. Os dados apontam para uma relação direta entre a gravidez na adolescência com o controle e a violência por parte do parceiro. Entre aquelas residentes em favelas, 48% das que declararam ter sofrido violência física por parte de um parceiro e 58% das que declararam ter sofrido violência sexual haviam engravidado ao menos uma vez antes dos 19 anos. A associação da violência de gênero com a gravidez na adolescência se manteve presente mesmo quando controlada por classe social, ainda que seu peso fosse muito mais pronunciado entre as jovens de baixa renda. Esses resultados reforçam a importância de se aprofundar a compreensão acerca do impacto das desigualdades de classe e gênero no comportamento sexual e reprodutivo de adolescentes e mulheres jovens.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS EFLUENTES PROVENIENTES DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA DEL FIQUE EN EL MUNICIPIO DE TOTORÓ - CAUCA. EVALUATION OF THE ORIGINATING EFFLUENTS OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRY OF THE FIQUE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF TOTORÓ - CAUCA.

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    CRISTIAN F DAGUA-MOSQUERA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efluentes provenientes de la agroindustria del fique en el río Molino del corregimiento de Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca en tres fincas y en cuatro sitios a lo largo del río (1: Bocatoma del acueducto de Paniquitá, 2: Finca La Esperanza, 3: El Puente y 4: San José Bajo para generar alternativas de manejo. Los resultados muestran que la carga contaminante para el sitio 3 fue la DBO5 (8.42 kg/día, SST (61.16 kg/día, el 4 registró un valor de DBO5 (113.33 kg/día, SST (70.76 kg/día y el 1 presenta las características del nacimiento de un río. Para las tres fincas evaluadas registraron valores promedios de DBO5 (3113.88 kg/día, SST (3673.13 kg/día.The originating effluents of the agro-industry of fique in the Molino river of the group of judges of Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca in three farms and four sites along river (1: Of the aqueduct of Paniquitá, 2: Farm La Esperanza, 3: El Puente, 4: San José Bajo generating handling alternatives. The results show that the polluting load for site 3 was the DBO5 (8,42 kg/día, SST (61,16 kg/día, the 4 registered a value of DBO5 (113,33 kg/día, SST (70,76 kg/ día and the 1 presents/displays the characteristics of the birth of a river. For the three evaluated farms they registered values averages of DBO5 (3113,88 kg/día, SST (3673,13 kg/día.

  14. Mineralização do nitrogênio proveniente da aplicação do resíduo da indústria processadora de goiabas em Argissolo

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    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a mineralização de subprodutos são importantes para o correto manejo desses materiais em áreas agrícolas. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a mineralização do nitrogênio proveniente do resíduo da indústria processadora de goiabas, aplicado em Argissolo cultivado com goiabeiras. Amostras do solo mais o subproduto foram acondicionados em frascos de polietileno com capacidade de 0,25 dm³. Foram pesados 100 g de solo mais o resíduo referente a cada tratamento (doses do subproduto: 0; 9; 18 e 36 t ha-1, sendo tal procedimento realizado em triplicata. O período máximo de incubação foi de 11 semanas, analisando-se as amostras nos seguintes tempos: 0; 7; 14; 28; 42; 56; 70; 84; 98; 112 e 126 dias. A umidade foi corrigida para 70% da capacidade de retenção de água do solo, sendo monitorada diariamente através de pesagens dos potes. Nos tempos estabelecidos realizou-se a desmontagem de três frascos correspondentes a cada tratamento, determinando-se o nitrogênio inorgânico. Pode-se afirmar que a mineralização do N ou a liberação é lenta, ou seja, não há rápida disponibilização de nitrogênio. No período avaliado, 126 dias, a fração média de mineralização foi de 23% e, a meia vida média de 73 dias.

  15. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  16. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

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    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  17. Obtenção e caracterização de carbono ativado a partir de resíduos provenientes de bandas de rodagem Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from thread of tire waste

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    Irene T. S. Garcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a preparação de carbonos ativados através da pirólise de composições elastoméricas provenientes de resíduos de bandas de rodagem de pneus de automóveis. O material foi processado nas temperaturas de 500, 620 e 700 °C, em atmosfera de N2, utilizando-se o hidróxido de potássio como agente ativador. Os produtos resultantes foram caracterizados pela fisisorção de N2 a 77 K, através de isotermas de Brunauer, Emmet e Teller e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Esses carbonos ativados apresentam estruturas típicas de sólidos mesoporosos e a temperatura de pirólise tem grande influência na área específica e distribuição de volume de poros. O carbono ativado obtido a 700 °C apresentou maior área específica e estrutura porosa compacta. Esse material apresenta melhor desempenho frente à adsorção de azul de metileno, removendo até 1,0 x 10-1 g de corante por grama de carbono utilizado, em tempos inferiores a 300 s.In this work, the preparation of activated carbons through the pyrolysis of elastomers, arising from car threads of tire waste, was investigated. The material was processed at 500, 620 and 700 °C, under N2 atmosphere, by using potassium hydroxide as activating agent. The resulting products were characterized by physisorption of N2 at 77 K, through Brunauer, Emmet and Teller isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbons obtained display a characteristic structure of mesoporous materials and the pyrolysis temperature has strong influence on the specific area and porous volume distribution. The activated carbon obtained at 700 °C has high specific area and compact structure. It exhibited high performance for adsorption of methylene blue solution, removing 1.1 x 10-1 g of the dye per gram of carbon in less than 300 s.

  18. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

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    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  19. Caracterização de sedimento proveniente de dragagem de canais pluviais do município de Salvador-BA visando sua utilização em cerâmica estrutural

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    O. C. Santos

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o sedimento proveniente de dragagem de canais pluviais (SCP, do município de Salvador-BA, visando sua máxima substituição pela argila em cerâmica estrutural, uma vez que essa mistura binária faz parte do projeto piloto da massa padrão, na pesquisa da formulação de blocos intertravados cerâmicos. Inicialmente o sedimento foi submetido aos ensaios de índice de plasticidade, analise química por fluorescência de raios X, análise mineralógica por difração de raios X, analise térmica e granulométrica. A morfologia do material foi analisada utilizando-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura, acompanhada de espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. Em seguida foram feitas adições de sedimento (SCP a uma argila do município de Candeias-BA, nas proporções de 10, 20, 30 e 40% em massa. Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial nas dimensões 60 mm x 20 mm, com pressão de compactação de 25 MPa, sendo que o material foi umidificado com 8% de água. A queima foi realizada em forno resistivo a 850, 950 e 1050 °C, com taxa de aquecimento de 5 °C/min. As propriedades avaliadas foram retração linear, absorção de água e módulo de ruptura à flexão. Os resultados indicaram que é possível a utilização do SCP em cerâmica estrutural, mediante os pré-requisitos exigidos em normas, na fabricação de telhas, blocos de vedação e tijolos.

  20. Vigor de sementes de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. provenientes de sistemas orgânico e convencional Evaluation of force of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. seeds from the organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.D. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. é uma hortaliça amplamente consumida no Brasil como condimento. É muito importante, especialmente para a horticultura do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. É provável que, em relação ao valor de mercado, seja a segunda hortaliça folhosa em importância para o Brasil, com grande volume de importação e produção nacional de sementes. Problemas relacionados ao baixo vigor das sementes e ao estabelecimento da cultura são uma constante nesta espécie. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência do sistema de produção orgânico e convencional sobre o potencial fisiológico das sementes de coentro. Foram avaliados lotes de sementes de coentro, cultivar Verdão, provenientes de sistemas de cultivo convencional e orgânico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de cinqüenta sementes. Foram avaliados o grau de umidade, porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem do teste de emergência, peso de mil sementes, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas e teste de condutividade. As avaliações realizadas mostraram que os sistemas de cultivo de modo geral não diferem entre si quanto ao potencial fisiológico das sementes.The coriander (Coriandum sativum L. is an herb widely consumed in Brazil as a condiment. It is very important, particularly for horticulture in North and Northeast of Brazil. IT is likely that, in terms of market value, it is the second herb hardwood dusts in importance for Brazil, losing only to the lettuce and the high volume of imports and domestic production of seed. Problems related to the low seed vigor and the establishment of culture are a constant in this species. In the present work lots of coriander seeds, the cv. Verdão, from systems of conventional and organic were evaluated, having as objective is to verify the influence of the physiological potential of the seeds on the initial development of

  1. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  2. Utilização de resíduo de serragem de granito proveniente do estado do Espírito Santo em cerâmica vermelha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira J. M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar um resíduo de serragem de granito, proveniente da indústria de pedras ornamentais do estado do Espírito Santo, como aditivo na fabricação de produtos cerâmicos para construção civil. Este resíduo é um material não biodegradável que quando descartado gera poluição e degrada o meio ambiente. Assim, uma amostra deste material foi selecionada de modo que suas características com respeito a composição química, difração de raios X, análise de tamanho de partícula, massa específica real e plasticidade pudessem ser estudadas. Foram preparadas misturas contendo até 10% em peso de resíduo, e sinterizadas em sete diferentes temperaturas entre 850 ºC e 1150 ºC. A evolução na formação de fases cristalinas nos corpos cerâmicos durante a sinterização foi acompanhada por DRX. As propriedades físico-mecânicas foram determinadas em função da temperatura de sinterização e % de resíduo adicionado. Os resultados revelaram que o resíduo é um material polimineral não plástico constituído basicamente por sílica, feldspatos, mica e calcita. Uma série de transformações de fases ocorreram durante a sinterização. Além do mais, os corpos sinterizados contendo resíduo de serragem de granito têm uso provável em cerâmica vermelha, contribuindo para a minimização de resíduos e desenvolvimento auto-sustentado.

  3. Caracterização tecnológica de jabuticabas 'Sabará' provenientes de diferentes regiões de cultivo Physico chemical characteristcs of 'Sabara' jaboticaba provenients of differents regions of cultivation

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    Antônio Luís de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Características fisico-químicas de jabuticabas 'sabará', provenientes de 10 diferentes regiões de cultivo localizadas no Estado de São Paulo, foram analisadas de agosto a setembro de 2001 para determinação de sua qualidade. De cada local de cultivo foram colhidos 3 kg de frutos. Diferenças significativas foram observadas em todas as características avaliadas. A média de peso por fruto variou de 3,56 a 7,40g, e os frutos oriundos de pomar situado na cidade de Casa Branca - SP foram os que apresentaram os maiores pesos. As médias do índice de formato e do fruto e do diâmetro oscilaram de 0,962 a 0,990 e de 2,45 a 1,73 cm, respectivamente. A coloração dos frutos foi mais roxa-escura do que roxa. A firmeza dos frutos variou de firme a mole, e os frutos colhidos em pomares situados nas regiões de Casa Branca - SP, Pedregulho - SP e Miguelópolis -SP apresentaram-se mais firmes, sugerindo um maior potencial de conservação pós-colheita. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais variou de 11,6 a 17,9, o pH de 2,91 a 3,70 sendo maiores em jabuticabas colhidas em pomares situados nas cidades de Guaíra-SP e Ituverava-SP. A acidez total titulável, expressa em g de ácido cítrico por 100g, variou de 0,888 a 1,625, os teores de vitamina C variaram de 14,86 a 24,67 mg de ácido ascórbico por 100g, e os de carboidrato solúvel de 0,91 a 11,39g de glicose por 100g, respectivamente. Os resultados levam a concluir que as jabuticabas provenientes de pomares situados na cidade de Casa Branca-SP apresentaram melhor qualidade, sendo adequadas tanto para a indústria como para o consumo de fruta fresca e com maior potencial de conservação pós-colheita.The physical and chemical characteristics of 'sabara' jaboticaba from 10 differents regions of cultivation in São Paulo state were determined from August to September 2001 to evaluated its quality. The average fruit weight varied from 3.56 to 7.40g and it was the highest in jaboticaba fruits harvested

  4. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus- PI e região metropolitana do Recife- PE, Brasil.

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    Jamile Prado dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania infantum a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisafoi verificar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus PI e Região Metropolitana de Recife - PE, Brasil. Cães do município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, e do bairro de Muribeca, município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco...

  5. ESTIMACIÓN DE LAS EMISIONES DE CONTAMINANTES ATMOSFÉRICOS PROVENIENTES DE FUENTES MÓVILES EN EL ÁREA URBANA DE ENVIGADO, COLOMBIA ESTIMATIVA DAS EMISSÕES DE CONTAMINANTES ATMOSFÉRICOS PROVENIENTES DE FONTES MÓVEIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE ENVIGADO, COLÔMBIA ESTIMATION OF THE EMISSIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS FROM MOBILE SOURCES IN THE URBAN AREA OF ENVIGADO, COLOMBIA

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    James Londoño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación presenta los resultados de la estimación de contaminantes atmosféricos (CO, NOx, SO2, PM10 y COV provenientes de fuentes móviles en la zona urbana del municipio de Envigado para el año 2010. Se utilizó información de vehículos matriculados en el municipio, aforos, distribución y actividad vehiculares. Las emisiones fueron estimadas mediante los factores establecidos en el método IVE que mejor se ajustaron a los patrones de movilidad, características del parque automotor y tipo de combustibles presentes en la zona de estudio. Como resultado, fue posible estimar las emisiones horarias y diarias de los contaminantes analizados, y con la ayuda de un sistema SIG, se representaron gráficamente. A partir de los resultados, se evidenció que las mayores emisiones se presentaron sobre las vías con mayor tránsito vehicular (Carrera 50 o Avenida Regional, carrera 48 o Avenida Las Vegas, carrera 43A o Avenida El Poblado y vía paralela a la quebrada La Ayurá; el mayor aporte lo hace el monóxido de carbono (CO con 18,4 t d-1 (71,3%, la hora del día con mayor emisión de este contaminante es las 12:00 horas con 1,4 t h-1 (7,4% y la categoría vehicular que más aporta a los niveles ambientales con este contaminante es Autos con 8,3 ton d-1 (32,7%.Este trabalho de pesquisa apresenta os resultados da estimativa de contaminantes atmosféricos (CO, NOx, SO2, PM10 e COV provenientes de fontes móveis na zona urbana do município de Envigado para o ano 2010. Utilizou-se informação de veículos matriculados no município, contagens de tráfego, distribuição e atividade veicular. As emissões foram estimadas mediante os fatores estabelecidos no método IVE que melhor se ajustaram aos padrões de mobilidade, características do parque automotor e tipo de combustíveis presentes na zona de estudo. Como resultado, foi possível estimar as emissões horárias e diárias dos contaminantes analisados, e com a ajuda de um

  6. Reaproveitamento de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico em cerâmica vermelha Utilization of solid waste from siderurgical industry in red ceramic

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    G. E. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho mostra os resultados de um estudo sobre a incorporação de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico na formulação de uma massa argilosa utilizada na fabricação de cerâmica vermelha. As massas preparadas continham os seguintes teores de resíduo de siderurgia: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% em peso. Os resultados de difração de raios X, distribuição de tamanho de partículas e limites de Atterberg são apresentados para as massas argilosas. Os corpos-de-prova foram conformados por extrusão a vácuo e queimados nas temperaturas de 850 ºC, 900 ºC, 950 ºC, 1000 ºC e 1050 ºC. As propriedades físico-mecânicas foram determinadas em função da temperatura de queima e do conteúdo de resíduo de siderurgia. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o resíduo sólido de siderurgia adicionado modificou as características físico-químicas e, também, as propriedades da massa argilosa pura. As massas cerâmicas contendo resíduo de siderurgia têm potencial para serem empregadas na fabricação de produtos de cerâmica vermelha para a construção civil.This work presents the results of a study on the incorporation of solid waste from siderurgical industry in the formulation of a clayey mass used in the production of red ceramics. The prepared masses contained the following amounts of siderurgy waste: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0wt%. The results of X-ray diffraction, granulometry and Atterberg's limits are presented for the ceramic masses. Test specimens were conformed by vacuum extrusion and fired at temperatures of 850 ºC, 900 ºC, 950 ºC, 1000 ºC and 1050ºC. The physical-mechanical properties were determined as a function of firing temperature and content of siderurgy waste. The results indicate that the addition of siderurgy solid waste modify the physic-chemical characteristics of the clayey mass and the ceramic properties of the test specimens. The results suggest also that the ceramic masses

  7. Tolerância ao sal e às altas temperaturas de estirpes de Sinorhizobium provenientes de zonas secas do Alentejo Salt and temperature tolerance of Sinorhizobium strains isolated from dry environments in Alentejo

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    P. Fareleira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como principal objectivo a obtenção de estirpes de rizóbio adequadas à nodulação de luzernas anuais e adaptadas a sobreviver nas condições ambientais susceptíveis de ocorrer em solos degradados. Dado que as populações de rizóbio apresentam variabilidade considerável no que respeita à tolerância a factores ambientais, os estudos focaram-se na pesquisa e na selecção de estirpes resistentes a condições adversas. Efectuaram-se colheitas de solos em diversas zonas no sul do País, seleccionando-se locais afectados por secura, temperaturas elevadas e, pontualmente, salinidade. A partir destes solos, isolaram-se estirpes de rizóbio, usando como planta hospedeira a luzerna anual Medicago polymorpha. Estudaram-se os efeitos de condições de stresse ambiental, como a salinidade e as altas temperaturas, no crescimento das estirpes isoladas. Dos 41 isolamentos analisados, 11 apresentaram crescimento em meio con-tendo 1,4 M de cloreto de sódio e suplementado com 10% de extracto de terra, e 22 cresceram quando incubadas a 45 ºC em meio sem aditivos. Três estirpes mostraram ter capacidade para crescer sob os efeitos conjuntos da salinidade e da alta temperatura. A análise de extractos etanólicos de estirpes tolerantes à salinidade revelou, na maior parte dos casos, a acumulação, induzida pelo sal, dos solutos compatíveis de Sinorhizobium: o dipéptido N - acetilglutaminilglutamina amida, vários tipos de betaínas, trealose, glutamato e prolina. A observação, por NMR de 31P in vivo, de uma estirpe tolerante ao sal, proveniente de um solo xistoso de baixo teor em fósforo, mostrou a presença de níveis elevados de reservas intracelulares de fosfato inorgânico (polifosfato, sugerindo um bom potencial para utilização em solos onde os riscos de salinização se conjuguem com deficiências em fósforo assimilável.The main objective of this work was to obtain rhizobial strains able to nodulate annual medics and

  8. Composición química y calidad sensorial de jamones curados provenientes de cerdos alimentados con una dieta rica en ácido oleico y pasturas

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    Ana Echenique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La dieta animal es uno de los factores que más incide sobre la calidad de los productos porcinos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la utilización de semilla de girasol de alto oleico (SGAO y pasturas sobre la calidad química y sensorial del jamón curado. Se analizaron jamones provenientes de 60 cerdos faenados a los 145 kg. Éstos fueron sometidos a cuatro tratamientos, consistentes en el suministro de dietas con diferente aporte lipídico en cantidad y composición química, con y sin acceso a pasturas: i ración estándar, sin pasturas; ii ración estándar, con pasturas; iii ración con SGAO, sin pasturas, y iv ración con SGAO, con pasturas.Se evaluaron parámetros físico-químicos y sensoriales de jamones obtenidos luego de un curado tradicional de nueve meses. La ración con SGAO dio lugar a jamones con una mayor proporción de C18:1(9 y menor de ácidos grasos saturados en relación a la estándar. Las pasturas incidieron sobre el color y determinaron una mayor proporción de C18:3(3 y C22:6(3. Se concluye que con una dieta compuesta por SGAO y pasturas se obtienen jamones con mayor proporción de ácidos grasos oleico y 3 yrelaciones 6/3 más favorables para la salud humana, sin que se vean afectados atributos sensoriales.Palabras clave: Porcinos, sistema de alimentación, ácidos grasos, calidad.AbstractOne of the most important factors that determine the quality of pork products is the pig´s diet. This study was performed to evaluate the use of sun ower seed with high oleic acid (HOSS and the use of pastures on the chemical and sensorial quality of dry-cured ham. Dry-cured hams from 60 pigs slaughtered at 145 kg were analyzed. These animals were fed with two diets with different lipid content and chemical composition, and with and without access to pastures: i standard diet without pastures;ii standard diet with pastures; iii diet with HOSS without pastures and iv diet with HOSS with pastures. Dry-cured hams obtained after

  9. Qualidade de sementes de marcela (Achyrocline satureioides provenientes de duas populações do Rio Grande do Sul Seed quality of marcela (Achyrocline satureioides of two populations from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Flávia Charão Marques

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcela é uma planta medicinal de largo uso popular, cujas propriedades despertam interesse da indústria farmacêutica. Com o objetivo de avaliar sementes de diferentes procedências e épocas de coleta, aquênios de marcela foram coletados em Eldorado do Sul e Viamão/RS, em 11 de março; 24 de março e 11 de abril. Os aquênios foram classificados em cheios, intermediários e chochos, conforme seu tamanho, coloração e rugosidade do pericarpo. A umidade foi determinada pelo método da estufa a 105ºC (± 3ºC/24h, o vigor foi avaliado pelo teste de condutividade elétrica e velocidade de germinação. A germinação foi testada a 20ºC e iluminação constante. Os lotes de 24 de março reuniram melhores características, pois aliaram maior quantidade de sementes cheias (58%, com vigor e germinação (64% satisfatórios. Sementes de 11 de abril, embora tenham atingido maior germinação (82%, apresentaram grande quantidade de sementes chochas (49%, baixando a qualidade do lote. Em 11 de março, as sementes apresentaram significativamente maior umidade, caracterizando sua imaturidade. Os lotes coletados em Eldorado do Sul/RS apresentaram qualidade superior àqueles provenientes de Viamão/RS, evidenciando diferenças populacionais. A melhor época de coleta foi em 24 de março; a maturação das sementes parece estar relacionada à senescência da planta mãe.Marcela is a plant used in folk medicine in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, whose properties are important to pharmaceutical industry. With the objective of evaluating seeds of different origins and collection times, achenes of marcela were collected in Eldorado do Sul and Viamão/RS, in March 11; March 24 and April 11. Achenes were classified in full, intermediary and shrivelled, according to size and characteristic of pericarp. Moisture was determined by the owen method at 105ºC (± 3ºC/24h, the vigor was evaluated by the test of electric conductivity and germination velocity. Germination

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of bovine oocytes from ovarian follicles with different diametersAnálise ultra-estrutural de oócitos bovinos provenientes de folículos ovarianos com diferentes diâmetros

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    Cesar Roberto Esper

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production is an important technique for facilitating the reproduction of animals with high genetic merit. The greatest challenge for the reproducibility of this technique is the quality of the oocyte that is submitted for in vitro maturation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of oocytes from follicles of different diameters using transmission electron microscopy. The animals were divided into 2 groups and were given a single i.m. injection of 250 IU FSH (Pluset, Serono, Italy. To synchronize the follicular growth, all follicles > 2 mm were aspirated during the estrous cycle, which was considered day zero (D0. Group 1 (G1; n = 4 received FSH on day 1 (D1, and the 2- to 5-mm follicles were aspirated on day 2 (D2. The animals in group 2 (G2; n = 5 received FSH on day 2 (D2, and their 10- to 15-mm follicles were aspirated on day 5 (D5. After aspiration, the oocytes from both groups were fixed and prepared for ultrastructural analysis. The oocytes analyzed from both groups had similar ultrastructural characteristics. The presence and distribution of organelles in the cytoplasm of the oocytes did not differ between groups, suggesting that, in relation to the ultrastructural characteristics, oocytes from 2 to 5 mm and 10 to 15 mm follicles are similar.A produção in vitro de embriões é uma técnica importante para facilitar a reprodução de animais com elevado mérito genético. O maior desafio para a reprodutibilidade desta técnica é a qualidade do oócito destinado à maturação in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características ultra-estruturais de oócitos provenientes de folículos com diferentes diâmetros por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos e receberam uma única injeção im de 250 UI de FSH (Pluset, Serono, Itália. Para sincronizar o crescimento folicular, todos os folículos > 2 mm foram aspirados durante o ciclo

  11. In Vitro Propagation of Heliconia bihai (L. L. from Zygotic Embryos Propagação In vitro de Heliconia bihai (L. L. provenientes de embriões zigóticos

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    Cláudia Ulisses

    2010-03-01

    embriões inoculados desenvolveram em plantas quando cultivados em meio ½MS com sacarose, contrastando com 41% cultivados no mesmo meio nutritivo acrescido de glucose. Na fase de multiplicação, as plantas cultivadas em meio ½MS acrescido de 2.5 mg L-1 de BAP apresentaram maior formação de gemas laterais. A análise isoenzimática apresentou diferença na intensidade de coloração e migração de algumas bandas. Esse comportamento pode estar associado com a diferença fisiológica relacionada à idade entre a planta mãe e as plantas provenientes do cultivo de embrião in vitro.

  12. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciana Casartelli Alves; Cleide Cristina Apolinário Borges; Sidnei da Silva; Sebastião Enes Reis Couto; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A) e experimentação (B) do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os...

  13. Aspectos micológicos e suscetibilidade in vitro de leveduras do gênero Candida em pacientes HIV-positivos provenientes do Estado de Mato Grosso Mycological aspects and susceptibility in vitro the yeast of the genus Candida from HIV-positive patients in the State of Mato Grosso

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    Olivia Cometti Favalessa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase é uma das infecções fúngicas mais frequentes entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O presente estudo objetivou a caracterização das leveduras do gênero Candida de distintas amostras clínicas, provenientes de pacientes HIV - positivos, assim como a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a cinco drogas antifúngicas. MÉTODOS: A caracterização dos isolados de Candida sp foi realizada através da metodologia clássica, testes bioquímicos (zimograma e auxanograma e morfológicos (prova do tubo germinativo e microcultivo em lâmina. Também, foram realizadas a técnica genotípica (PCR e identificação pelo método comercial API 20C AUX (BioMeriéux. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro, foram utilizadas cinco drogas antifúngicas (cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B, através do método comercialmente disponível - Etest. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 105 isolados de leveduras do gênero Candida provenientes de 102 pacientes infectados pelo vírus HIV. Destes, foram caracterizadas 82 (78,1% Candida albicans, 8 (7,6% Candida parapsilosis, 8 (7,6% Candida tropicalis, 4 (3,8% Candida krusei, 2 (1,9% Candida glabrata e 1 (1% Candida guilliermondii. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando o perfil geral de sensibilidade, 60% dos isolados foram suscetíveis a todos os antifúngicos testados, porém as espécies C. tropicalis e C. krusei demonstraram uma tendência a valores mais elevados de CIMs para os azóis do que os encontrados paraC. albicans, sugerindo resistência.INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections among patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus. The present study aimed to characterize yeasts of the genus Candida from distinct clinical samples from HIV-positive patients and determine the in vitro susceptibility profile to five antifungal drugs. METHODS: Characterization of

  14. VALORACIÓN DE ENERGÍA DIGESTIBLE DE LA GLICERINA CRUDA PROVENIENTE DE ACEITE DE PALMA – Elaeis guineensi – PARA CERDOS EN CRECIMIENTO EN FUNCIÓN DEL NIVEL DE ALMIDÓN DE MAÍZ EN LA DIETA

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    C. A. Ordóñez-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la energía digestible aparente (EDA de la glicerina cruda (GC proveniente del aceite de palma ( Elaeis guineensis en cerdos se realizaron dos experimentos (E. En E1 se determinó la EDA para GC con la técnica de la bolsa móvil de nailon (TBMN utilizando ocho cerdos castrados con cánula duodenal. En E2 se determinaron la EDA y la energía metabolizable aparente (EMA para GC, por el método convencional con indicador (MCI, con 10 cerdos castrados ubicados en jaulas metabólicas. En E1 y E2 se evaluaron, en un arreglo factorial 2 x 5, dos niveles de almidón de maíz (NA en la dieta, 10% (NA10 y 12% (NA12, y cinco niveles de sustitución con GC (0%, 2 , 5%, 5,0%, 7 , 5% y 10% en E1 en un diseño completo al azar y en E2 en un diseño de cuadrado latino. Para TBMN y MCI los datos se analizaron mediante regresión lineal múltiple y el metabolismo del nitrógeno en MCI como un diseño de cuadrado latino utilizando los módulos REG y GLM del paquete SAS. Por TBMN no hubo efectos (P > 0 , 05 del NA sobre la EDA de GC. La EDA de GC se calculó en 3.251 kcal/kg MS. La EDA de GC en MCI dependió de NA (P 0 , 05. Los resultados de EDA corregidos por NA con MCI mostraron correlación alta (R 2 = 0 , 82 con TBMN. Con MCI se pudo establecer que el aumento en NA en la dieta reduce la EDA de GC.

  15. Risks from dental radiology; Os riscos provenientes da radiologia odontologica

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    Costa, Tamara Goularte [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the risks and consequences of exposure to dental X-ray. The methodology used was the survey of bibliographic literature on this matter. First, we tried to understand the operation and characteristics of dental X-rays. Afterwards, we tried to know about the risks that this procedure offers to workers and patients. And concluded with the consequences of such exposure. The results showed that dental x-rays only offer risks in prolonged exposure, can affect the worker or patient to pathologies such as cancer or a life-time decreased due to the stochastic effect. Therefore, radiological protection standards must be respected and practised. (author)

  16. Aspectos biológicos de Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometriadae provenientes de lagartas criadas em folhas de Eucalyptus cloeziana ou de Psidium guajava sob condições de campo Biological aspects of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometridae adults originated from caterpillars reared on leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava under field conditions

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    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios de Eucalyptus no Brasil podem sofrer danos por espécies nativas de insetos de diversas ordens, como Orthoptera, Coleoptera e Lepidoptera. Esses insetos podem alimentar-se tanto de mirtáceas brasileiras como goiabeira, gabirobeira, jabuticabeira, entre outras, como de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Entre os desfolhadores, destaca-se Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae como o mais daninho dessa ordem para a eucaliptocultura brasileira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar aspectos biológicos de adultos de T. arnobia provenientes de lagartas alimentadas com plantas de eucalipto e, ou, goiabeira. Adultos deste inseto criados em folhas de eucalipto e, ou, de goiabeira apresentaram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos aspectos biológicos avaliados, exceto para a duração dos períodos de préoviposição, de oviposição e razão sexual. Assim, insetos herbívoros que vivem em hospedeiros filogeneticamente próximos ao eucalipto são capazes de causar danos consideráveis em reflorestamentos com espécies desse grupo, o que provavelmente ocorre pelo fato de elas estarem ainda em processo de adaptação a essa praga que atacaria o eucalipto, por estar fugindo da pressão exercida por barreiras físicas e químicas existentes nas mirtáceas nativas brasileiras.Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil may be damaged by native insects of many orders including Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. These insects feed on Brazilian tree species of the family Myrtaceae to which the genus Eucalyptus belongs. The Lepidoptera Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is the most harmful defoliator of Eucalyptus in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of T. arnobia adults originated from caterpillars fed on guava or eucalyptus plants. Adults of T. arnobia originated from caterpillars reared with eucalyptus or guava leaves presented significant differences for most biological

  17. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciana Casartelli Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera

  18. Presence of Leishmania amastigotes in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas, Northeast Brazil Presença de formas amastigotas de Leishmania em fluido peritoneal de cão com leishmaniose proveniente de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this short communication is to report the uncommon presence of intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas State, Brazil. Physical examination of an adult male rottweiler suspected to be suffering of leishmaniasis revealed severe loss of weight, ascitis, splenomegaly, moderately enlarged lymph nodes, onychogryphosis, generalized alopecia, skin ulcers on the posterior limbs, and conjunctivitis. Samples of bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, skin ulcer, and peritoneal fluid were collected and smears of each sample were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Numerous amastigotes were detected in bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, and skin ulcer smears. Smears of peritoneal fluid revealed the unusual presence of several free and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania. Future studies are needed to determine whether the cytology of ascitic fluid represents a useful tool for diagnosis Leishmania infection in ascitic dogs, particularly in those living in areas where canine leishmaniasis is enzootic.O objetivo desta comunicação é descrever a presença incomum de formas amastigotas de Leishmania em fluido peritoneal de um cão com leishmaniose proveniente do Estado de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil. O exame físico de um cão macho adulto da raça rottweiler, apresentando suspeita de leishmaniose, revelou perda de peso severa, esplenomegalia, linfonodos moderadamente aumentados, ascite, onicogrifose, alopecia generalizada, conjuntivite e presença de lesões cutâneas ulceradas localizadas nos membros posteriores. Foram coletadas amostras de medula óssea, linfonodo poplíteo, fluido peritoneal e úlcera cutânea. A partir das amostras, foram elaborados esfregaços, os quais foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina. Inúmeras formas amastigotas foram detectadas na medula óssea, linfonodo poplíteo e úlcera cutânea. Esfregaços de fluido peritoneal revelaram a presença, n

  19. ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIAL Y COMPOSICIÓN CUALITATIVA DE PROPÓLEOS PROVENIENTES DE DOS ZONAS CLIMÁTICAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CAUCA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA E COMPOSIÇÃO QUALITATIVA DE PRÓPOLIS DE DUAS ÁREAS CLIMÁTICAS DO DEPARTAMENTO DO CAUCA ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND CUALITATIVE COMPOSITION PROPOLIS FROM TWO CLIMATIC REGIONS CAUCA DEPARTMENT

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    NANCY SAMARA ORTEGA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de dos extractos etanólicos de Propóleo (EEP provenientes de apiarios de los municipios de Totoróy Buenos Aires en el Departamento del Cauca, frente a una bacteria Gram positiva y otra Gram negativa y se determinó la composición cualitativa de metabolitos secundarios de los dos extractos. La actividad bactericida se evaluó por el método de dilución en caldo y el análisis químico se realizó mediante pruebas de reacciones coloridas, cromatografía bidimensional y cromatografía de capa delgada. Ambos EEP mostraron efecto bactericida, donde el Propóleo de Buenos Aires fue más efectivo que el de Totoró frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, al inhibir su crecimiento a una concentración inferior (p0,05 entre los dos extractos. El análisis químico reveló que ambos propóleos poseen flavonoides, alcaloides y cumarinas, entre otros, además que el Propóleo de Buenos Aires posee una mayor complejidad química, lo que sugiere la presencia de compuestos antibacterianos que pueden actuar eficientemente contra bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas.Neste estudo, avaliouse a efeito antimicrobiano nós avaliamos a atividade antimicrobiana de dois extratos etanóicos de própolis (EEP vindos de apiários dos municipios de Totoró e Buenos Aires no Departamento do Cauca, contra uma bactéria Gram positiva e Gram negativa e se determinou a composição qualitativa de metabólitos secundários dos dois extratos. A atividade bactericida foi avaliada pelo método de diluição em caldo e a análise química foi realizada por cromatografia em fase de teste, colorido bidimensional e cromatografia em camada delgada. Os resultados mostraram que os dois EEP tiveram um efeito bactericida, onde a própolis de Buenos Aires foi mais eficaz do que a de Totoró contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inibindo seu crescimento em menor concentração (p0,05 entre os dois extratos. A análise química mostrou que ambas

  20. Producción de caña semilla en Semilleros Registrados provenientes de micropropagación y de hidrotermoterapia de tres cultivares de caña de azúcar Seedcane production in Registered Nurseries obtained through micropropagation and hot water treatment of three sugarcane cultivars

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    Patricia A. Digonzelli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los componentes de la producción de caña semilla en Semilleros Registrados de caña de azúcar provenientes de micropropagación e hidrotermoterapia (50ºC, 2 h, en tres variedades (LCP 85-384, CP 65-357 y CP 48-103 y tres épocas de plantación (mayo, agosto y octubre. La semilla micropropagada y la hidrotermotratada estaban libres de achaparramiento de la caña soca (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli o RSD, por sus siglas en inglés, y escaldadura de la hoja (Xanthomonas albilineans. El diseño experimental fue un factorial completamente aleatorizado 3x3x2, con tres repeticiones. Los factores fueron: época de plantación (tres niveles, variedad (tres niveles y origen de la semilla (dos niveles. Cada parcela constaba de cinco surcos de 3 metros, evaluando los tres surcos centrales. En la cosecha del semillero se contaron todos los tallos por parcela y se midió su altura hasta hoja TVD. En una muestra de 45 tallos por parcela se determinaron el peso y número de yemas por tallo. A partir de los datos obtenidos se calculó el número de yemas por surco de 100 metros de longitud y por hectárea. El origen de la caña semilla (micropropagada o hidrotermotratada afectó el número de tallos y la altura y número de yemas por tallo, por surco y por hectárea. La época de plantación y la variedad afectaron los componentes de la producción de caña semilla. La micropropagada presentó una mayor población, altura y número de yemas por tallo, permitiendo aumentar entre el 8% y 23% el área que es posible plantar a partir de una hectárea de Semillero Registrado. La magnitud de las diferencias entre la caña semilla micropropagada y termotratada varió según cultivares y época de plantación.Seedcane yield components in sugarcane Registered Nurseries obtained through micropropagation and hot water treatment (50ºC, 2 h were evaluated, considering three varieties (LCP 85-384, CP 65-357 and CP 48-103 and three plantation dates (May, August

  1. Helminthic phaune of dogs and cats of some municipalities of São Paulo State/ Fauna helmíntica de cães e gatos provenientes de alguns municípios do Estado de São Paulo

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    Adjair Antônio do Nascimento

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight dogs and 11 cats from São Paulo State Municipalities (Araraquara, Cosmorama, Jaboticabal, Pontal, Sertãozinho and Taiuva cities were submeeted to nechropsy. The animals, males and females, no defined race, with different ages and naturally infected by parasites were transported to the CPPAR – Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal – UNESP. After a five days period, in which the animals have recived water and ration “ ad libitum”, they were killed under normal ethic anesthetic scientific research procedures. A total of 1010 parasites were identified in the dogs, with the following occurrence and infection range: Toxocara canis (71,43% and 0 to 58%; Ancylostoma caninum (76,14% and 0 to 77, Ancylostoma braziliense (57,14% and 0 to 117; Dipylidium caninum (42,86% and 0 to 73 and Physaloptera praeputialis (3,57% and 0 to 1. Among the 750 helminths identified in the felidae the occurrence and infection range were: A.caninum (100% and 3 to 275, D. caninum (54,54% and 0 to 33, Hydatigera taeniformis (45,45% and 0 to 45, P. praeputialis (54,54% and 0 to 20 and Platynosomum fastosum (27,27% and 0 to 5.Foram submetidos à necropsia 28 cães e 11 gatos, provenientes dos canis municipais de Araraquara, Cosmorama, Jaboticabal, Pontal, Sertãozinho e Taiúva, Estado de São Paulo. Os animais, machos ou fêmeas, sem raça definida, de diferentes faixas etárias e naturalmente infectados por parasitos, foram alocados no “Setor de Cães e Gatos” do CPPAR – Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal – UNESP, durante cinco dias (período de adaptação, recebendo água e ração “ad libitum”. O sacrifício dos animais foi efetuado de acordo com os procedimentos anestésicos recomendados pelas normas éticas utilizadas na pesquisa científica. Nos cães, 1010 helmintos foram diagnosticados. A ocorrência e amplitude de infecção foram: Toxocara canis (71,43% e 0 – 58, Ancylostoma caninum (67,86% e 0 – 77, Ancylostoma braziliense

  2. Evaluación de la técnica de MSP-PCR para la caracterización molecular de aislamientos de Rhodotorula mucilaginosa provenientes de la Patagonia noroccidental Assessment of the MSP-PCR technique for the molecular characterization of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolates from northwestern Patagonia

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    D. Libkind

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La identificación rápida de levaduras de origen ambiental o clínico es de importancia para el estudio de la biodiversidad de estos microorganismos y para la detección de posibles patógenos. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa es una levadura ubicua y pigmentada, capaz de producir infecciones en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. En este trabajo se evaluó la utilidad de la técnica de fingerprinting conocida como MSP-PCR (Micro/Minisatellite-Primed PCR en la caracterización e identificación de aislamientos ambientales de R. mucilaginosa provenientes de la Patagonia noroccidental. Sobre la base de sus caracteres fenotípicos, de un total de 200 levaduras pigmentadas se seleccionaron 110 aislamientos que presuntamente corresponderían a la especie R. mucilaginosa. Se evaluaron los iniciadores (GTG5, (GAC5 y M13 en aislamientos representativos, y se seleccionó el iniciador (GTG5 por ser el que permitió una mejor agrupación de los aislamientos pertenecientes a R. mucilaginosa y una mejor diferenciación de éstos con los de especies filogenéticamente próximas. Utilizando dicho iniciador, el 87% de los aislamientos de R. mucilaginosa presentó un perfil de MSP-PCR similar (> 60% al de la cepa de referencia CBS 316T de R. mucilaginosa. La técnica de MSP-PCR resultó efectiva, tanto para caracterizar e identificar un número elevado de aislamientos ambientales de R. mucilaginosa como para detectar polimorfismos en la especie.The rapid identification of environmental or clinical yeast isolates is important for biodiversity studies and the detection of probable pathogens. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is a ubiquitous and pigmented yeast capable of infecting immunocompromised patients. In this study, we evaluated the Micro/mini satellite-primed PCR (MSP-PCR fingerprinting method for the characterization and identification of R. mucilaginosa isolates from natural environments in northwestern Patagonia. There were selected 110 putative R. mucilaginosa isolates

  3. Assistência pré-natal na percepção de puérperas provenientes de diferentes serviços de saúde Prenatal care in the perception of postpartum women from different health services

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    Marizete Ilha Ceron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer a percepção de puérperas acerca da assistência pré-natal. MÉTODO: foram entrevistadas em até 48 horas após o parto, 150 puérperas, provenientes de diferentes serviços de saúde que acessaram o Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria/RS, no período de dezembro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: das 150 puérperas, 91,33% realizaram consultas de pré-natal em algum serviço de saúde do município e 8,67% não realizaram nenhuma consulta. 56,67% das puérperas entrevistadas consideraram que fazer o pré-natal é importante tanto para a mãe quanto para o bebê; quanto à assistência pré-natal realizada no município 84,67% das puérperas julga que não há necessidade de mudanças. CONCLUSÃO: apesar das usuárias considerarem a assistência como adequada, as autoras avaliam que existem carências na atenção pré-natal nos diferentes serviços e que poderiam ser supridas com a realização de um trabalho multiprofissional e interdisciplinar. Nesse sentido, intensificar o processo educativo entre as gestantes pode melhorar a qualidade da atenção, eliminar a falta de realização de pré-natal e diminuir a morbi-mortalidade materno-infantil no município.PURPOSE: to know the mothers perception about the prenatal care. METHOD: there were interviewed within 48 hours after the delivery, 150 postpartum women, from various health services that accessed the Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria / RS, from December 2010 to February 2011. RESULTS: from the 150 postpartum women, 91,33% attended prenatal consultation in a health system from the town and 8,67% did not attend any consultation. 56,67% of postpartum women considered that prenatal care is important both for the mother and for the baby; regarding prenatal care held in the city, 84.67% of postpartum women judges that there is no need for change. CONCLUSION:despite of the users consider the assistance appropriate, the authors estimate that there are

  4. Overlapping of mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow in rats' intervertebral discs: an in vitro study Sobreposição de células mononucleares provenientes da medula óssea em disco intervertebral de ratos: estudo in vitro

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    Erica Batista Fontes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC derived from rats were used in order to promote intervertebral disc regeneration. These cells were isolated after centrifugation in a Ficoll-Paque™ PLUS density gradient and then placed in plastic dishes to proliferate during a period of 14 days. The BM-MNCs were previously labeled with the fluorescent membrane marker Chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-DIL, and thereafter were implanted in rats' intervertebral discs explants as an in vitro experimental model. Daily analyses of the cells under a fluorescence microscope revealed morphological changes, which assumed a thin and elongated shape similar to cells that originally form the annulus fibroses. Histopathological analysis demonstrated the presence of mononuclear cells interspersed within collagen fibers. The presence of viable cells, in which were found morphological changes and their disposal in the same pattern of the layers that originate the annulus fibrosus, is an indicator that they engrafted and proliferated on the intervertebral disc. Therefore, morphological changes presented by these cells indicate that they presented mesenchymal stem-like cell characteristics.Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas células mononucleares provenientes da medula óssea (MO de ratos para implantação em discos intervertebrais, a fim de estudar a sua participação em possível regeneração tecidual. Essas células foram obtidas por centrifugação, em gradiente de Ficoll-Paque™ PLUS, e cultivadas em frascos apropriados, por um período de 14 dias. Em etapa posterior, foram submetidas à marcação celular, em que foi utilizado o marcador citoplasmático CM-Dil, seguida de implantação em discos intervertebrais de ratos, em um sistema de cultivo in vitro. Foram feitas avaliações diárias dos discos com utilização de um microscópio de fluorescência, sendo constatadas alterações morfológicas com um formato alongado semelhante a c

  5. Toxicity and teratogenicity evaluation of fenproporex in mice fetuses descending from parents that were exposed to this drug during intrauterine life Avaliação da toxicidade e da teratogenicidade do femproporex em fetos de camundongos provenientes de pais expostos à droga durante a vida intra-uterina

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    Camila Queiroz Moreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fenproporex is an anorectic drug that is transformed into amphetamine in the organism. The use of amphetaminic compounds during pregnancy increases the risk of exencephaly, cleft palate and cardiac malformations. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryo-fetal development, embryotoxicity and possible teratogenic effects in mice fetuses descending from parents that were exposed to fenproporex duringintra-uterine development. Pregnant females were treated daily, by gavage, with 15 mg/kg of fenproporex during all the gestation. When the off springs reached the adult age, they were mated with integral mice, obtaining the2nd generation. On the 18th gestational day, female mice were killed. It was observed that fenproporex did not alter significantly placent weight, fetuses length, rate of postimplantation loss, visceral and skeletal analysis. This may have occurred due to the decrease of the amphetamine effects on the 2nd generation. However, there was statistically significant difference in relation to the fetuses weight. The reduction of fetal weight is used as parameter to evidence toxic effects of asubstance. Therefore, the results suggest that fenproporex presented fetaltoxicity in the tested experimental conditions. Femproporex é um anorexígeno que se transforma em anfetamina no organismo. O uso de compostos anfetamínicos durante a gravidez aumenta o risco de exencefalia, de fenda palatina e de malformações cardíacas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento embriofetal, a embriotoxicidade e possíveis efeitos teratogênicos em fetos de camundongos provenientes de pais que foram expostos ao femproporex durante o desenvolvimento intra-uterino. As fêmeas prenhes foram tratadas diariamente, via gavage, com 15 mg/kg de femproporex, durante toda a gestação. Quando as progênies atingiram a idade adulta, foram acasaladas com camundongos íntegros, obtendo-se a 2ª geração. No 18º dia de prenhez, as fêmeas foram mortas

  6. Caracterização e incorporação de resíduos provenientes de Estação de Tratamento de Água em cerâmica argilosa Characterization and incorporation of wastes from Water Treatment Plant into clayey ceramic

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    J. P. D. Vitorino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar e incorporar, em cerâmica argilosa, três tipos de resíduos provenientes das etapas de desarenação, decantação e de filtração de uma estação de tratamento de água - ETA. Os resíduos foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, fluorescência de raios X, análise termogravimétrica e térmica diferencial, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e técnicas de peneiramento e sedimentação. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas das cerâmicas incorporadas com até 10% em peso de resíduos e queimadas a 700 ºC foram retração linear, absorção de água e compressão diametral. Os resultados mostraram que os resíduos do decantador e do filtro possuem composição química e mineralógica semelhantes, formados por minerais argilosos, hidróxidos de alumínio e de ferro, mica e quartzo. O resíduo do desarenador é formado basicamente de quartzo com traços de mica e de caulinita. Os três tipos de resíduos apresentaram potencialidade para utilização em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo arenoso do desarenador foi o tipo de resíduo que possibilitou benefícios diretos como a melhoria da trabalhabilidade da massa bem como redução da retração linear e da absorção de água da cerâmica queimada.This work has for objective to characterize and to incorporate into a clayey body three types of wastes from the stage of sand collecting, decantation and filtration of a water treatment plant. The wastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses as well as by sieving and sedimentation. The evaluated physical and mechanical properties of the ceramics, incorporated with up to 10 wt.% of wastes and fired at 700 ºC, were linear shrinkage, water absorption and diametrical compression. The results showed that the wastes from the decantation and filter have chemical and mineralogical compositions similar to clays

  7. Avaliação quantitativa de monoepoxiácidos, monocetoácidos e monohidroxiácidos em óleos e gorduras provenientes de fritura descontínua de batatas Quantitative evaluation of monoepoxyacids, monoketoacids and monohydroxyacids in fats and oils used in discontinuous frying of potatoes

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    Eliana Rodrigues Machado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Na fritura, os óleos e gorduras sofrem degradação formando os compostos polares, como os triacilgliceróis polimerizados e os monômeros de triacilgliceróis oxidados, estes últimos têm sido relacionados a patologias e se constituem de grupos como os monoepoxiácidos, monocetoácidos e monohidroxiácidos. Foram determinados os teores destes três grupos de substâncias, através da análise cromatográfica a gás dos ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos após derivação a frio das amostras e concentração posterior das substâncias de interesse mediante extração em fase sólida, e os teores dos ácidos graxos polares polimerizados, utilizando a combinação das técnicas cromatográficas de adsorção em coluna e por exclusão, em gordura de soja parcialmente hidrogenada e óleos de soja e de palma, aquecidos a 180 °C por 25 horas, provenientes de experimentos de fritura. Foram encontrados teores de 3,30 a 8,24; 1,51 a 4,32 e 3,42 a 8,71 mg.g-1 de monoepoxiácidos, monocetoácidos e monohidroxiácidos, respectivamente, nas amostras com níveis de compostos polares de 20,8 a 44,1% (m/m, e predominância de formação de polímeros. Os resultados sugeriram que óleos e gorduras monoinsaturados apresentam maior tendência à formação de monômeros oxidados e menor tendência à formação de polímeros, ao contrário dos óleos poliinsaturados.During frying, fats and oils undergo degradation with the formation of polar compounds. Among these are polymeric triglycerides, as well as oxidized monomeric triglycerides. The last group has been related to several diseases and contains groups including epoxy, keto and hydroxy groups of importance from a quantitative point of view. In this study, monoepoxyacids, monoketoacids and monohydroxyacids were quantified in partially hydrogenated soybean oil, soybean oil and palm oil, after heating for 25 hours, at 180 °C, in frying experiments. The determination was carried out by gas chromatography

  8. Genetic variability among Commelina weed species from the states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil Variabilidade genética entre espécies de plantas daninhas do gênero Commelina provenientes dos estados do Paraná e São Paulo, Brasil

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    D.C. Rocha

    2009-01-01

    . Os resultados mostraram que há variabilidade genética inter e intraespecífica nas plantas do gênero Commelina. A análise da diversidade genética entre as espécies indicou quatro agrupamentos monoespecíficos, e isso sugere manter C. villosa como uma espécie. Considerando a variabilidade genética intraespecífica somente de C. benghalensis, apesar das 13 populações provenientes de dois Estados geográficos, três grupos foram identificados. Entretanto, esses agrupamentos não correspondem às características morfológicas distintas observadas.

  9. Efeito do calcário dolomítico e nitrato de potássio no desenvolvimento inicial de mudas da bananeira 'Prata-Anã' (AAB, provenientes de cultura in vitro Efect of dolomiotic limestone and potassium nitrate in the initial development of seedlings of 'Prata-Anã' (AAB banana tree from in vitro culture

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    Jackson de Araújo dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do nitrato de potássio e do calcário dolomítico no desenvolvimento, em viveiro, de mudas da bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de cultura in vitro. As mudas foram plantadas em sacos de polietileno (32 x 14 cm, contendo o substrato composto de 60% de solo, 20% de casca de arroz e 20% de areia grossa. O experimento foi desenvolvido em viveiro coberto com tela plástica (50% de insolação, adotando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados completos, com 16 tratamentos, 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 4 doses de calcário dolomítico (0; 3; 6 e 9 kg.m³ de substrato combinados com 4 doses de KNO3 (0; 5,1; 10,2 e 20,4 g.planta.aplicação. As aplicações em cobertura, a cada 12 dias, iniciaram-se após 20 dias do transplante, com 200 mL de solução de KNO3 por planta. Aos 95 dias de enviveiramento, observou-se efeito apenas do KNO3, principalmente na altura das mudas, na área foliar e no número de folhas. Nas doses de 5,1 g e 10,2 g de KNO3.planta.aplicação, as mudas atingiram 18,80 cm e 14,71 cm de altura, respectivamente. O diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas foi superior na dose de 5,1 g de KNO3.planta.aplicação, atingindo 3,44 cm. A área foliar e o número de folhas foram influenciados significativamente pelo KNO3, nas doses de 5,1 g e 10,2 g.planta.aplicação, apresentando 246,03 cm² e 10,34 e 182,14 cm² e 9,36, respectivamente. Não houve efeito do calcário para as características avaliadas.The effect of potassium nitrate and dolomitic limestone in the initial development in nursery of 'Prata-Anã' bananas from in vitro culture was evaluated. The seedlings were planted in polyethylene bags (32 x 14 cm, containing the substrate composed: of 60% of soil, 20% of rice husk and 20% of gross sand. The experiment was developed in a plastic screen-covered nursery (50% of insolation, adopting the complete randomized block experimental design with 16

  10. Giant virus Megavirus chilensis encodes the biosynthetic pathway for uncommon acetamido sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G

    2014-08-29

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  12. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Δ7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Δ7-estigmastenol.

  13. Digital Native Chilensis: The Young people, of South of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Felipe Andres Nesbet Montecinos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the Internet has a capital importance in the contemporary society. In the new technological paradigm, known as the Information Age, the relevance of the network is equivalent to that of oil in the Industrial Age. Although we can dissent of the prediction done by Nicholas Negroponte in 1995, in its famous book “Being Digital”, with respect to which the digital divide would be translated in a subject, net, generational, expressed in the dichotomy: young person-rich versus old-poor men. However, this author (1995 guessed right in his theory of the greater facility of the young people towards the new technologies. For that reason, the Internet is dominated by young people. The appearance of Wena Naty, a video uploaded to the network (with the explicit consent of their protagonists in which a 14 year old girl practiced oral sex to a partner in a public square, is the most dramatic demonstration of the use and abuse that young Chileans make new technologies.The present article reviews data collected on the use of technologies in Chile (INJUV 2002, Godoy 2006 y PNUD 2006. As well as it analyzes collected own data from the investigations of Carcamo “Percepción del tiempo y de la motivación ante tareas de búsqueda de información y conferencias de texto (Chat mediadas por computador en estudiantes secundarios de Chile” and Nesbet (2007, “Usos de la mensajería instantánea en estudiantes secundarios de Valdivia.”

  14. Digital Native Chilensis: The Young people, of South of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Felipe Andres Nesbet Montecinos; Dr. Luis Ramón Cárcamo Ulloa

    2008-01-01

    It is undeniable that the Internet has a capital importance in the contemporary society. In the new technological paradigm, known as the Information Age, the relevance of the network is equivalent to that of oil in the Industrial Age. Although we can dissent of the prediction done by Nicholas Negroponte in 1995, in its famous book “Being Digital”, with respect to which the digital divide would be translated in a subject, net, generational, expressed in the dichotomy: young person-rich versus ...

  15. Tachymenis chilensis Schegel, 1837 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae. New record and geographic distribution map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morando, Mariana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the first vouchered record from Chubut provincein Futaleufú Department. Suburbs of Esquel city, along Ruta Nacional 259 to Trevelin on El Pinar, Roberts Farm. This is the southernmost record for the species; to our knowledge the previous southernmost registered specimen was based on collected specimens from Piltriquitrón Mountain in El Bolson, Los Lagos Department, Rio Negro Province.

  16. Prevalência e aspectos anatomopatológicos da mineralização metastática em coelhos provenientes de biotérios e criação comercial do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Prevalence and morphological aspects of metastatic mineralization in rabbits from animal houses and a comercial breeding in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Almeida Matias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma investigação sobre a prevalência e os aspectos anatomopatológicos de casos naturais da mineralização metastática em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foi realizada em 79 animais provenientes de dois biotérios de criação (A e B e de uma criação comercial, do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A ração comercial fornecida aos animais dos três criatórios foi a mesma. Apenas animais do biotério A, com uma prevalência de 21%, apresentaram alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas relacionadas à mineralização metastática. Todos os coelhos acometidos possuíam idade acima de 1 ano e 92% eram fêmeas. Os órgãos mais freqüentemente atingidos foram a artéria aorta e principais ramos, que apresentavam mineralização das túnicas íntima e média, metaplasia cartilaginosa e óssea na túnica média, arterite granulomatosa e degeneração hialina. Os rins foram o segundo órgão mais comumente acometido, mostrando mineralização da cápsula de Bowman, distensão do espaço de Bowman, fibrose intersticial e mineralização da parede, dos túbulos contornados e dos ductos coletores. As alterações patológicas foram similares às observadas nos casos de hipervitaminose D, excesso de cálcio e fósforo na dieta de coelhos, devendo os níveis dessas substâncias serem revistos e analisados periodicamente nas rações comerciais desses animais.A survey on the prevalence and morphological aspects of natural cases of metastatic mineralization was performed in 79 rabbits from two breeding animal houses (A and B and from a commercial rabbit breeding facility in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Rabbits from the three facilities were fed with the same commercial ration. Only rabbits from the facility A presented gross and microscopic alterations associated with metastatic mineralization with a prevalence of 21%. All of the affected rabbits were older than one year old and 92% were females. The most altered organs were the aorta and its main branches

  17. Marine fisheries review, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1992. Quarterly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Contents: characteristics of billfish anglers in the u.s. atlantic ocean; effects of the santa barbara, calif., oil spill on the apparent abundance of pelagic fishery resources; remote camera and trapping survey of the deep-water shrimps heterocarpus laevigatus and h. ensifer and the geryon crab chaceon granulatus in palau; and on the distribution and fishery potential of the japanese red crab chaceon granulatus in the palauan archipelago, western caroline islands

  18. Adolescencia femenina y cultura. Proyectos de vida de mujeres adolescentes provenientes de diversos medios culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de convertirse en mujer no es el mismo en México que en Finlandia o en Rusia, la cultura en la que una niña se socializa deja marca en ella, incide en sus planes, inquietudes, temores, esperanzas, influye, en suma, en su forma de entender el mundo y en los bosquejos que ella imagina y ensaya de su identidad como adulta. Y, a pesar de un mundo globalizado, de la pluriculturalidad que prevalece en muchos países (y que puede ser factor de enriquecimiento personal, las adolescentes necesitan y buscan un lugar social de arraigo y una comunidad de pertenencia que confiera sentido a su vida

  19. Reciclagem de cobre proveniente de analisador automático de carbono e nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendassolli José Albertino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and elemental analysis of N, C and S in liquid and solid samples has been simplified with the advent of automated systems. The simplest method of automation for this kind of analysis involves an elemental analyzer interfaced directly to the ion source of an IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. In the analyzer reduction system, an expressive amount of oxidized copper is generated as solid residue. This material is normally imported and the price is very high. A methodology was proposed for the recovery of metallic copper in order to recycle this reagent in the reduction system of a GC-IRMS, using the hydrogen gas in the vacuum line. Results show that it is possible to obtain a recycle of about 95 % of the initial metallic copper used in the reduction system.

  20. QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS DE DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE MELANCIA PROVENIENTES DE MOSSORÓ - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZAIAS DA SILVA LIMA NETO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the production of watermelon with seeds is highly representative. However, available information about fruit quality of different varieties grown in the same environment is still rare, which makes it necessary to carry out trials that can fill this gap. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality of different varieties of watermelon (Crimson Sweet, Charleston Gray, Sugar Baby, Fairfax and Tendersweet, grown under conventional conditions in Mossoró - RN. The experiment was carried out from September to November 2008 in the experimental field of the Federal Rural University of the Semiarid (UFERSA. The data for the fruit quality were recorded in the Laboratory of Postharvest of UFERSA. The experiment was set under a completely randomized design with six replications and each replication consisted of a fruit. The quality characteristics were analyzed: fruit fresh mass (kg, fruit dimensions (greater length and width, overall appearance, pulp yield in percentage, seed characteristics, pH, acidity, vitamin C, soluble solids and SS/TA ratio. The physical determinations showed variations for fruit fresh mass (4.2 to 9.7 kg, pulp yield (42.0 to 58.5%, rind thickness (1.1 to 2.5 cm, as well as to the number and mass of seeds. In the physical-chemical determinations it was observed phenotypic uniformity among the varieties for almost all variables and, although all of them favorable to consumption, this result indicates narrowing of the genetic basis of varieties, which makes it necessary the evaluation of other genotypes.

  1. DIFFERENTIATION OF MAQUI (ARISTOTELIA CHILENSIS) GENOTYPES ACCORDING TO THEIR ANTHOCYANIN CONTENT AS A CRITERION OF SELECTION FOR ITS COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    FREDES GONZALEZ, CAROLINA PAZ

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing international demand for new health products, and the ethnic character of certain raw materials has gained particular interest (Raghavan, 2004; Seeram, 2008, Sloan, 2009). This market requires products with certain standard active ingredients and production-level certifications, such as traceability and safety. These factors have generated the need for scientific and technological knowdledge for the proper use of native plant resources. This knowledge includes domestica...

  2. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  3. Evaluación antileishmanial in vitro de extractos provenientes de Citrus limetta, Cucurbita maxima y Rhoeo spathacea

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, Marley; Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Montalvo Álvares, Ana Margarita; Scull Lizama, Ramón

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la leishmaniosis comprende un grupo de enfermedades infecciosas causadas por organismos hemoflagelados del género Leishmania. Hoy día, esta enfermedad prevalece en 88 países tropicales alrededor del mundo y existe un estimado de 1,5 a 2 millones de nuevos casos por año. Su control es deficiente, principalmente al no contar con una vacuna eficaz. Aunque existen varios fármacos para su tratamiento, todos requieren una administración parenteral, tratamientos muy largos, costosos, y...

  4. IMPACTO AMBIENTAL DE LOS CONTAMINANTES PROVENIENTES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DE FEED-LOT SOBRE AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter M. Glessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigó el impacto de los contaminantes de efluentes líquidos generados por doce feedlot del sudeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objeto de determinar los aspectos significativos sobre la vulnerabilidad de las aguas subterráneas. Se utilizó la Guía metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental propuesta por Conesa (2010 partiendo de do ce Estudios de Impacto Ambiental y analizando como influye la actividad sobre el agua subterránea. Se analizó la dimensión de los establecimientos partiendo del número de animales, el tipo de suelo, profundidad freática y tipo de práctica (estacional o continua, así como las doce matrices de impacto en la emisión de contaminantes sobre el medio físico agua. Se obtuvo que los parámetros de mayor incidencia son: el grado de Destrucción, el área de influencia, el momento de manifestación del efecto y la regularidad de la manifestación.

  5. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav. Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja proveniente de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Chacón-Cerdas

    2014-06-01

    Se determinó que la desinfección con 2,5% de Ca(ClO2 fue la mejor para el establecimiento in vitro; el mejor medio de cultivo para la micropropagación del material fue el M1, compuesto por sales MS(1962 al 100%, sacarosa al 3%, phytagel® 1,8g/L, 0,5mg/L de AG3, 0,25mg/L de BAP y 2,0 mg/L de PaCa, el cual presentó el mejor balance entre el número promedio de brotación/explante y el número promedio de entrenudos/explante, sin formación excesiva de callo, mientras que el medio de cultivo E5, constituido por sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 6,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento y el medio de cultivo E6, que incluía las sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 8,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento, mostraron el periodo más corto para la formación de raíces, el mayor número promedio de raíces y la mayor longitud promedio de raíz y tallo.

  6. DIOCTOFIMOSE EM UM CÃO PROVENIENTE DO MUNICÍPIO DE VALENÇA, RJ: RELATO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Zacaron MARQUES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioctophyma renale é o maior nematóide conhecido. Seu parasitismo tem sido descrito em várias espécies animais e no homem. Este helminto localiza-se preponderantemente no rim direito ou livre na cavidade abdominal de seus hospedeiros. Sinais clínicos como abatimento, inapetência e emagrecimento podem estar associados à dioctofimose, apesar do curso da parasitose ser muitas vezes assintomático nos animais e pessoas infectadas. O único tratamento eficaz é a remoção cirúrgica do parasito e, em alguns casos, do rim afetado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo relatar um caso de parasitismo por Dioctophyma renale em um cão no município de Valença/RJ. O animal foi resgatado por apresentar um tumor na pata e também hérnia perianal, mas ao caminho da policlínica veterinária apresentou também uma urina de odor fétido, que através da urinálise observou-se presença de ovos compatíveis com os de Dioctophyma renale.Dado o diagnóstico e localização do parasito, o animal foi encaminhado para a Policlínica de Pequenos Animais, da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Valença, onde optou-se pela nefrectomia do rim afetado. 

  7. SANIDADE DE SEMENTES DE GIRASSOL PROVENIENTES DE TRÊS MUNICÍPIOS DO ESTADO DO MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delineide Pereira Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of sunflower leads to studies on seed pathogen, to guarantee crop sanity and to provide identification of pathogens in new areas. Genotypes seeds lots produced in Embrapa Soja assays carried out in tree cities of the State of Maranhão, Brazil (Balsas, São Luís and Timon were analyzed, with the objective of evaluating sanitary quality of sunflower seeds. Sanitary analysis was performed by blotter test method and identification of fungi genera was based on morphological features. The occurrence of Fusarium sp., Alternaria spp., Curvularia sp., Dreschelera sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Trichoderma sp., Botrytis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp., Colletotrichum sp., Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was observed in seeds of sunflower, with variable incidences.

  8. Argamassa de revestimento utilizando areia proveniente da britagem de resíduo de construção civil

    OpenAIRE

    Pissolato Junior, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    O grande descarte de rejeitos da construção civil, em função das reformas e demolições como também do desperdício gerado pela baixa qualidade da mão de obra, faz da indústria da construção civil uma das grandes poluidoras do meio ambiente. Nas últimas décadas, vem-se obrigando o recolhimento organizado dos entulhos e sua reciclagem por meio da imposição das leis ambientais, de modo que a construção civil, paulatinamente, tem-se disciplinando no sentido de autogerir os seus descartes. Estudos ...

  9. Estudio de la fitohemaglutinina proveniente del frijol colorado (Phaseolus Vulgaris Study of phytohemagglutinin from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Díaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron preparaciones crudas de fitohemaglutinina (PHA a partir de frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris por 2 métodos: extracción acuosa y extracción ácida. Por el método ácido se obtuvieron mejores resultados en cuanto a concentración de proteínas y pureza de la misma. Se empleó la cromatografía en hidroxiapatita para separar las isoformas que forman la PHA y se obtuvieron 5 fraccciones proteicas que se evaluaron funcionalmente junto con las preparaciones crudas, a través de sus propiedades eritroaglutinantes y leucoaglutinantes. A medida que se aumentó la fuerza iónica del medio se observó que las fracciones obtenidas presentaban una disminución relativa de la actividad leucoaglutinante, así como un incremento relativo de la actividad eritroaglutinante. Las preparaciones crudas y las fracciones se evaluaron electroforéticamente y se obtuvieron bandas muy similares a la de la PHA patrón utilizadaRaw preparations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA were obtained from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris by 2 methods: aqueous extraction and acid extraction. Better results were obtained with the acid methods as regards the protein concentration and its purity. Hydroxyapatite chromatography was used to separate the isoforms forming the phytohemagglutinin. 5 protein fractions were obtained and functionally evaluated together with the raw preparations through their erythroagglutinating and leukoagglutinating properties. As the ionic force of the medium increased it was observed that the fractions obtained presented a relative decrease of the leukoagglutinating activity as well as a relative rise of the crythroagglutinating activity. The raw preparations and the fractions were electrophoretically evaluated and bands very similar to that of the PHA used as a pattern were obtained

  10. Understanding the risk coming from the radiation exposure; Entendiendo el riesgo proveniente de la exposicion a la radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierzo, J A [Sociedad Mexicana de Medicina Nuclear A.C., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    From 1972, the National Academy has published a series of reports on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR) in relation to the health effects of the low level radiation. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy and the Academy of Sciences of US, began in 1996 the first phase of the BEIR VII report about the health risks associated to the exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The purpose of the first phase of the study is to revise the literature and to decide if enough novel information existed to guarantee the complete study. The National Academies concluded that enough information existed with an appropriate time to carry out the reanalysis. Among the conclusions of BEIR VII are that the current scientific evidence is concordant with the hypothesis of the existence of a linear model without threshold (LSU) in the dose-response relationship among the exposure to ionizing radiation and the cancer development in humans. This implies that very low dose even has the potential of causing deleterious effects in the health, although the risk to low dose is very small. (Author)

  11. Contenido de yodo en sal a nivel de puestos de venta provenientes de distintas localidades en tres regiones argentinas

    OpenAIRE

    López Linares, S; Heer I, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La deficiencia de yodo es la principal causa prevenible de retardo mental y daño cerebral en la población. La yodación de la sal en Argentina es obligatoria según Ley 17259/67. El objetivo fue determinar el contenido de yodo en sal obtenida de puestos de venta de distintas localidades de provincias que integran la región del noroeste (NOA), nordeste (NEA) y Cuyo. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. Se analizaron 80 sales adquiridas por compra directa, mercado ...

  12. Atividade enzimática em plântulas de eucalyptus grandis provenientes de sementes envelhecidas artificialmente e naturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Camargo Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the standard procedure developed for crop seeds to examine the biochemical processes in accelerated aging seeds (kept for 96 hours at 42ºC and 100% RH and stored seeds (from 5, 10 and 15 years using isoenzyme electrophoresis and peroxidase activity by colorimetric assay. There was significant decrease (z-test in the vigor of accelerated aging seeds (54,9% when compared to the stored ones (97,25%, 95,22% and 89,25%.The peroxidase (PER, EC 1.11.1.7 activity was low, however there was na increase in activity with seed aging. There was a simultaneous increase in both malate dehidrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and esterase (EST, EC 3.1.1.1 activities. The results fllowed the in crease in the seeds storage period of time and of the stress which occurs due to the temperature and humidity conditions utilized in accelerated aging.

  13. Prevalencia de Listeria Monocytogenes en salchichas tipo Huacho provenientes de los mercados de abastos del Cercado de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alarcón, María Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Se analizaron 60 muestras de Salchicha tipo Huacho de los Mercados de Abastos del Cercado de Lima, con la finalidad de determinar la incidencia de Listeria monocytogenes. Estas muestras se llevaron al Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, en recipientes estériles, refrigerados y se procesaron dentro de las 24 horas de colectadas. Para el análisis microbiológico se utilizó la técnica según USDA- FSIS, que consta...

  14. Resistencia mecánica de ladrillos preparados con mezclas de arcilla y lodos provenientes del tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the mechanical properties of bricks that were made with clay and sludge mixtures. We analyzed 100:0, 99:1, 95:5, 90:10, 80:20 and 60:40 proportions of clay and sludge. Bricks were cooked between 35 ºC to 1100 ºC. The sludge used in this study came from sewage treatment plant of G.M. Colmotors Company. These tests were carried out: Water Absorption and mechanical resistance of bricks compression. The results of this study showed that the best percentage of sludge to mix with clay was 5 % to 10 %. Since, this percentage range meets the quality standards of the product demanded in Colombia.

  15. Recycling of platinum group metals from the automotive catalysts; Reciclagem de metais do grupo da platina proveniente de catalisadores automotivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benevit, Mariana; Petter, Patricia Melo Halmenschlager; Veit, Hugo Marcelo, E-mail: patymhp@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Currently it is very important to use alternative sources of raw material for obtaining metals, avoiding the traditional mining. This work aims to characterize and evaluate the recoverability of platinum group metals present in automotive catalysts. Thus, the catalysts were divided into two groups: the first was catalysts used in 1.0 cars and the second was catalyst used in 2.0 cars. DRX and FRX techniques and chemical analysis performed by ICP/OES was used to characterized these materials. The results showed that there is a significant amount of platinum group elements in catalyst waste, which can be separated and reused. In the next step, hydro and pyrometallurgical routes, for metals extraction from catalyst waste, will be studied. (author)

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DE TRES SUELOS PROVENIENTES DEL MUNICIPIO DE AQUITANIA BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S. Mosquera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La materia orgánica del suelo puede variar considerablemente en su estructura, composición y conformación, de acuerdo con el origen y la edad de los materiales que la constituyen. En la presente investigación se procedió a caracterizar, mediante el empleo de la espectroscopia infrarroja y la resonancia magnética nuclear en estado sólido, dos suelos inceptisoles (I01 y I02 y un histosol (H03 destinados al cultivo de cebolla larga, en el municipio de Aquitania-Boyacá, Colombia, a dos profundidades: 0 - 10 y 40 - 50 cm. Según los espectros infrarrojos, se detectó la presencia de grupos OH (debida posiblemente a fenoles, ácidos carboxílicos o alcoholes, grupos aromáticos y alifáticos. Los espectros de 13C-RMN en estado sólido con CPMAS evidenciaron el siguiente orden respecto a la cantidad de carbonos que conforman la materia orgánica del suelo: H03-0 = 100 y H03 -40 = 88, I02-0 = 23 y I02-40 = 0, y finalmente I01-0 = 17 y I01-40 = 12, confirmándose la disminución de carbonos en la materia orgánica a través del perfil del suelo, y además se estableció que el carbón resonante en la región delta = 108-50 ppm de los espectros (N – y O-alquilos y acetales dominó en toda la MOS obtenida; le siguió el carbón aromático (delta = 168-108 ppm para los suelos I01-0 y H03-40, y el carbón alifático (delta = 0-50 ppm para los suelos I01-40, I02-0 y H03-0. Finalmente, el carbónC=O( delta= 220-162 ppm fue el menos dominante en la materia orgánica del suelo en todos los tres suelos caracterizados.

  17. Characterization of natural fiber from agricultural-industrial residues; Caracterizacao de fibras naturais provenientes de residuos agroindustriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Karen S.; Spinace, Marcia A.S., E-mail: marcia.spinace@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC, Campus de Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Natural fibers show great potential for application in polymer composites. However, instead of the production of inputs for this purpose, an alternative that can also minimize solid waste generation is the use of agro-industrial waste for this purpose, such as waste-fiber textiles, rice husks residues and pineapple crowns. In this work the characterization of these three residues and evaluate their properties in order to direct the application of polymer composites. Was analyzed the moisture, density, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis of the fibers. The results show that the use of these wastes is feasible both from an environmental standpoint and because its properties suitable for this application. (author)

  18. De la responsabilidad proveniente de un hecho de las cosas inanimadas según el derecho francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Kiefer Marchand

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available En. Octubre de 1939, el PROFESOR JULLIOT DE LAMORANDIIERE dictó, en la Universidad Católica, una conferencia bajo el título que encabeza estas líneas. Catecdrático de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de París, el Profesor Julliot de la Morandiere fué Asesorde la Comisión Reformadora del Código Civil Colombianoy es autor de numerosas obras de Derecho Civil y Comercial. A continuación publicamos una traducción de la Conferenciadel notable jurista francés sobre un tema que es objeto de frecuentes discusiones entre nosotros.

  19. Conversion of the biogas from sewage to electric power; Conversao do biogas proveniente de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, , SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.usp.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the ENERG-BIOG project, electric power generation by using 30 kW (ISO) microturbines with biogas generated in the process of sewage treatment of the Sewage Treatment Station (ETE) from SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of the Sao Paulo State) in Barueri, BR. It is a pioneer project at Latin America, being jointly accomplished with Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), and CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executor), supported by the FINEP/CT-ENERG (financial support)

  20. La colonización de Baja California con mexicanos provenientes de Estados Unidos (1935-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Saúl Alanís Enciso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración internacional en el espacio fronterizo México-Guatemala se ha vuelto en los últimos años de alto riesgo. En este artículo presentamos algunos resultados preliminares de un proyecto de investigación que tiene como objetivo documentar y analizar la situación de riesgo en la ruta principal que han utilizado los migrantes centroamericanos (en este caso, indocumentados de paso en la costa chiapaneca, conocida como el Soconusco, en la frontera México-Guatemala. El análisis presenta los resultados del rastreo de registros en instituciones que tienen contacto con los migrantes, de las entrevistas en profundidad y de la observación participante. Se describen algunas de estas situaciones señalándolas en los mapas de riesgo, para elaborar un registro espacial de los peligros que permita explorar de qué manera el espacio refleja la situación de riesgo que viven los migrantes y cómo contribuye al fenómeno

  1. Algunos problemas provenientes de la Teoría de Rayos Aplicada a las Ecuaciones de Onda Sísmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Piedrahita Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La parte inicial de este artículo revisa la aplicación de la teoría de rayos en las ecuaciones de onda sísmicas, en particular, la propagación de ondas P. La parte final del artículo se centra en un par de problemas que se generan a partir del análisis utilizando teoría de rayos. Estos problemas posee un interés académico en su formulación matemática, además tienen un interés práctico para el  área de la Geofísica de Exploración y/o Producción.

  2. Caracterización estructural y térmica de almidones provenientes de diferentes variedades de papa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Pardo C

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando análisis fisicoquímico, estructural y térmico, se evaluaron almidones de las variedades de papa Parda Pastusa (P, Tuquerreña (T, ICA Huila (IH, ICA Puracé (IP, ICA Única (IU, Criolla Latina (C y R-12 (R, cultivadas en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. En cada una de ellas se determinaron los contenidos de ceniza y proteína siguiendo métodos de la AOAC, humedad utilizando un analizador, estructura cristalina mediante difracción de rayos-X (DRX y propiedades térmicas utilizando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 entre los contenidos de humedad en almidones. El almidón de la variedad IU presentó el mayor contenido de ceniza y el de la variedad T, el menor. Los difractogramas mostraron para todas las variedades patrones de cristalinidad tipo B; no obstante el almidón de las variedades IP, P, IU, T y IH presentó un patrón más cristalino que el de las variedades C y R. Los termogramas de los almidones mostraron el primer y segundo pico endotérmico, entre 123 y 163 J/g y entre 141 y 213.3 J/g, respectivamente, para las variedades IP, P, IU, T y IH; mientras que para los almidones de las variedades C y R estos valores fueron entre 68 y 77 J/g y entre 334 y 358 J/g, respectivamente.

  3. Inventário da emissão do material particulado proveniente de diesel e biodiesel brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Thiago de Oliveira Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: A elaboração de um inventário de emissões atmosféricas demanda estudos de grandes proporções, pois abrange áreas importantes da ciência e sociedade (saúde, economia, tecnologia). Dessa forma, deve ser muito bem planejado, para que sua execução seja bem sucedida e gere resultados confiáveis, que possam servir de base para o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias, bem como útil para o monitoramento ambiental pertinente em grandes cidades, por exemplo. O biodiesel é visto com simpatia por ...

  4. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the red cusk-eel Genypterus chilensis (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae) off Chile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Chávez, R. A.; Oliva, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 227-232 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Genypterus * Chile Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  5. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota : Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s

  6. Evaluation of protective effect of different dietary fibers on polyphenolic profile stability of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Lucas-Gonzalez, Raquel; Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Muñoz, Loreto A; Fernández-López, Juana

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this work was to determine the protective effect of different dietary fibers on (i) the recovery and bioaccessibility indexes, and (ii) the stability of polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) of maqui berry powder subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GID). The extracts obtained in each phase (oral, gastric and intestinal) of GID were used to analyze the stability of polyphenolic compounds by HPLC, and the bioaccessibility of these compounds was also determined. At the end of the GID process, the mixture of maqui berry with the different fibers increased the bioaccessibility index of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all cases. The results obtained suggest that the anthocyanins and phenolic acids and flavonoid compounds present in maqui are stabilized through dietary fiber interactions, which might provide sufficient levels for absorption during gastrointestinal digestion. The gums sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum provided the best protective effect.

  7. Contaminação por crômio de águas de rios proveniente de curtumes em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão Cláudio Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the chromium contamination from tannery discharges into rivers in the State of Minas Gerais, samples of water and suspended material were collected and submitted to chemical analysis. The total content of chromium in the samples was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Water samples were analysed by standard addition method, while chromium concentration in suspended materials was determined by calibration curves. Localities investigated were Ipatinga, Matias Barbosa, Dores de Campo, Ressaquinha, Ubá and Juiz de Fora. Samples from a not-industrialized area were also analysed to obtain regional background values. Metal inputs were related to effluent discharges into the rivers. Suspended material transported Cr downriver. Chromium concentration in river water exceeded 656 times the value of the Brazilian Environmental Standards, while its concentration in suspended material ranged from 15 to 11066 µg g-1.

  8. Comparación de la reglamentación para el manejo de lodos provenientes de agua residual en Argentina, Chile y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Andrés Ospina López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta resultados de una revisión sobre el manejo y disposición final de lodos generados en las plantas de tratamiento de agua residual, los cuales deben ser sometidos a diferentes tratamientos para ser transformados en biosólidos y lograr determinar su uso sujeto a la clasificación que se presenta en Argentina, Chile y Colombia. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los diferentes parámetros que se tienen en cuenta en los reglamentos de cada uno de estos países, evidenciando los cambios entre ellos. Fue posible identificar que Chile no presenta valores máximos de aplicación como los otros países, pero presenta un plan de aplicación. Respecto a Argentina y Colombia se percibe que varios de sus criterios presentan unos valores con una gran diferencia uno respecto al otro, además la normatividad argentina no tiene en cuenta los valores de Selenio en biosólidos, mientras que el reglamento colombiano maneja la normatividad US EPA.Producto Asociado al Proyecto de Investigación INV ING 2127 de la Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones de la UMNG

  9. RELAÇÕES ENTRE CARACTERES DE PIMENTÃO PROVENIENTES DE SEMENTES COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÉLIA RODRIGUES BRUNES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between morphological variables and production variables in bell pepper plants derived from seeds of different physiological levels. The experiments were car-ried out in a randomized block design with eight replications in a protected setting at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Treatments included three lots of hybrid Tiberius seeds and one lot of Rubi Giant seeds during Spring-Winter and Autumn-Winter season with different levels of physiological quality as shown by vigor and germination tests. The following characters (variables were measured: plant height, first fork height, stem di-ameter, and stem diameter below the first fork after 50 days, 70 days and 90 days of transplanting, average weight of fruits, average production per harvest, total production, average fruit length, and average width of fruits. Next, for each level of vigor was estimated the correlation matrixes, multicollinearity diagnosis, and then path analysis, considering the total production as the main variable.Plants derived from high-, low- and medium vigor seeds whose first fork diameters were greater after 50 days and 70 days of transplanting are more produc-tive during Spring-Winter seeding. Coefficients of correlation and effect of low magnitude were identified in vigor levels (being high, low, medium, and extremely low during Autumn-Winter season, indicating a weak relationship between cause and effect of explanatory variables measured on total fruit production of bell pepper.

  10. Protocol proposal for radon concentration mensuration from granitic rocks in marble factory; Proposta de protocolo para medicao de concentracoes de radonio proveniente de rochas graniticas em marmorarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia

    2016-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. Radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), the thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radio ({sup 2}'2'6Ra), thorium ({sup 23}'2Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K) may occur in materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. Thus, the radioactivity from marbles and granites is of importance, so that under certain conditions these materials radioactivity levels can be hazardous requiring the implementation of mitigation measurements. This research presents a technical protocol marble factories for the control human exposure to natural radioactivity exhaled from granitic rocks. The protocol was based on measurements of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentration in Brazilian granite rocks commonly nationally and exported. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were done using the AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and RAD7 (Durridge Company) apparatus, respectively. The samples of granite were sealed in glass jars for 40 days in to achieve secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn radionuclides. The measurements were performed on Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Parana. Also, solid-state nuclear track detectors CR-39 were installed in a marble factory environments located in Curitiba - Parana for the evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in workplaces. The CR-39 detectors were exposed for about 90 days and submitted to etching process. The alpha particle tracks were observed using an optical microscope. Some granite samples analyzed presented {sup 222}Rn concentrations of attention, since the average values ranged from 3 ± 1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087 ± 19 Bq/m{sup 3}. The results obtained underscore the importance of this research in the data contribution to the development of national legislation that establishes limits of radioactivity values for marketing and use of granitic rocks. The results also contribute to the Brazilian granite to attend the international standards. (author)

  11. Estudio de las características de los morteros con adiciones provenientes de neumáticos fuera de uso (NFUs).

    OpenAIRE

    Gualdrón Pernía, Karla Andreina

    2011-01-01

    La creciente evolución de las sociedades y grandes ciudades, ha estado marcada por el desarrollo de industrias que intentan satisfacer las necesidades de los habitantes, entre estas se encuentra la industria automotriz, evolucionando notoriamente en los últimos 100 años, y provocando una serie de consecuencias e impactos medioambientales, muchas veces irreparables. Junto con la industria automotriz crece exponencialmente la de neumáticos, ocasionando la generación incontrolada de residuos ...

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE MATERIALES FILTRANTES PARA EL REÚSO EN AGRICULTURA DE AGUAS RESIDUALES TRATADAS PROVENIENTES DE ZONAS ÁRIDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La creciente y enorme cantidad de datos, del orden de exabytes, generados por las aplicaciones empresariales actuales han originado conjuntos masivos de estos. Los sistemas de gestión de bases de datos (SGBD NoSQL han surgido como una alternativa a los SGBD relacionales para la gestión de estos conjuntos. Entre los principales SGBD NoSQL está MongoDB. En este artículo se compara el rendimiento entre MongoDB y Oracle (uno de los principales SGBD que soporta bases de datos relacionales. La comparación se basa en las operaciones de inserción, consulta, actualización y borrado (CRUD, por sus siglas en inglés. Aunque se requieren experimentos más exhaustivos y muchos otros tipos de pruebas, los resultados ofrecen un punto de partida para el análisis de rendimiento en estos SGBD.

  13. Faces prototípicas provenientes de amostras populacionais de uma região brasileira Prototypical faces from samples of the population of a Brazilian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Irene Fonseca Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi gerar, por meio de técnica de computação gráfica denominada morphing, faces prototípicas masculinas e femininas a partir de amostras de pessoas que se autodeclaram brancas, pardas e pretas na região de Ribeirão Preto (SP. A cada face prototípica foram utilizadas 64 imagens de faces de voluntários. As faces prototípicas e as faces que as compuseram tiveram a tipicidade de sua cor ou raça julgada por terceiros. Os julgamentos indicaram uma concordância entre a cor/raça-autodeclarada e a heteroatribuída o que indica que os protótipos são representativos de suas respectivas categorias de cor/raça. Discute-se como as faces prototípicas podem ser empregadas em pesquisas básicas e aplicadas em percepção e reconhecimento de faces.The goal of this study was to generate male and female prototypical faces, by morphing technique, from faces of people who were self-declared as white, "mixed race" and black in Ribeirão Preto-SP. Each prototypical face was generated from 64 face images of volunteers. Another sample of volunteers judged the typicality of color/race of the prototypical faces and the faces that composed them. The results suggested a concordance between the self-declared color/race and the judgments, indicating that the prototypical faces are representative of their respective categories of color/race. Applications of the prototypical faces in studies of face perception and face recognition were discussed.

  14. Characterization of contaminated oil with tritium, from of production of gas tripolar scintillators; Caracterizacao de oleo contaminado com tritio, proveniente da producao de centelhadores tripolares a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Marumo, Julio T.; Goes, Marcos M.; Isiki, Vera L.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate the activity level present in radioactive oil samples. This oil is derived from vacuum pumps used to produce tension protector of electronic equipment in telecommunication area. The method consisted in obtain a calibration curve in counts per minute versus tritium activity. After the equipment calibration it was analyzed 3 batches of radioactive oil samples. (author)

  15. Caracterização e qualidade de frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin provenientes do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barros dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O Recôncavo Sul da Bahia apresenta uma significativa riqueza de fruteiras nativas com grande potencial alimentício. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. A exemplos destas fruteiras, encontram-se os frutos do umbu-cajá (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin que são amplamente consumidos in natura ou na forma de produtos processados em quase todo o Brasil. Devido à crescente aceitação de seus produtos e à incessante busca por novos sabores, as agroindústrias vêm despertando o interesse tanto para o mercado interno quanto para exportações. Entretanto, apesar do forte interesse comercial, poucos estudos foram efetuados na busca de respostas sobre a sua composição. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve o objetivo de efetuar a caracterização física, físico-química e mineralógica dos frutos de umbu-cajá cultivados nas condições climáticas do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia. Foram realizadas análises de peso do fruto e da casca; tamanho e diâmetro; percentagem de casca, semente e polpa; pH; sólidos solúveis totais; acidez titulável; relação sólido solúveis/acidez (Ratio; índice tecnológico; açúcares (redutores, não redutores e totais; vitamina C; proteína; umidade; lipídios; fibra bruta; amido; e minerais (fósforo, ferro, cálcio, sódio e potássio. Os frutos apresentaram tamanho grande (23,18g com rendimento considerável de polpa (69,70 % e razoáveis valores de açucares (7,49 %, acidez (1,32 %, fibras (1,36 %, vitamina C (8 mg /100g e minerais ( Na-40 mg /100g; K-44mg /100g; P-17,76mg /100g; Fé-0,59mg /100g; e Ca-12,25mg /100g, demonstrando ser uma alternativa para o mercado de frutas in natura, bem como para a agroindústria na região.

  16. Liquid radioactive wastes characterizing obtained of {sup 99} Mo production by fission; Caracterizacion de residuos liquidos radiactivos provenientes de la produccion de {sup 99} Mo por fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devida, Claudio; Bouza, Edgardo; Gil, Daniel; Neuringer, Silvia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenso Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Unidad de Actividad Materiales y Combustibles Nucleares; Ramallo, Telma [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Unidad de Actividad gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    1999-11-01

    Among its facilities, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has a {sup 99} Mo by Fission Production Plant, which generates, among others, low and medium activity liquid waste. The characterization of the waste aims at obtaining the array of data that is necessary to carry out the processed which lead to obtain an acceptable product for its storage and final disposal. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory faced the development, adjustment and execution of the necessary analytical procedures to achieve the physico-chemical characterization of the main liquid waste. Given the complexity and activity of the waste, high sensitivity instrumental analytical techniques were chose and the equipment was adapted to work in radiochemical hoods. In a first stage, simulated solutions were used in order to adjust the methods and techniques and to carry out studies about interference and results statistics. Afterwards, physico-chemical analysis were performed on real waste samples yielding satisfactory results as regards precision required for this kind of waste. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DA ESTABILIDADE DE UM TALUDE RODOVIÁRIO ATRAVÉS DE DADOS PROVENIENTES DE INSTRUMENTAÇÃO GEOTÉCNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Cardoso Malko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de Santa Catarina sempre sofreu com desastres naturais, porém esse fato ganhou amplitude com os acontecimentos das enchentes de 2008, onde deslizamentos aconteceram em diversas regiões, causando mortes e prejuízos para toda a população. Entre todos os acontecimentos, um deles foi o escorregamento de parte do talude rodoviário do Morro do Boi no km-140 da rodovia BR-101 sentido sul. A rodovia ficou interditada nas suas três pistas de rolamento, causando problemas para quem precisava passar pelo local e prejuízos para todo o estado, pois esta é uma das mais importantes ligações da capital Florianópolis com o Vale do Itajaí e região norte do estado. É primordial que seja feito um estudo do talude rodoviário antes mesmo de sua implantação e de qualquer projeto relacionado a obras rodoviárias, a estabilidade e a segurança da rodovia é de grande importância e na maioria dos casos só é estudada depois que algum deslizamento acontece. Portanto, o objetivo principal desse estudo foi avaliar por meio de instrumentação geotécnica, a estabilidade do talude do km-140 da BR-101 no Morro do Boi localizado no município de Balneário Camboriú – SC. Para um conhecimento geotécnico da área em estudo, foram realizadas sondagens a percussão. Os dados dessas sondagens permitiram identificar uma camada de solo residual de migmatito com espessura da ordem de 3 m, representado por camadas silto-areno-argilosas. O estudo de análise da estabilidade indicou uma forte influência da posição do lençol freático no Fator de Segurança do talude, indicando que quando mais alto for o lençol freático, menor é o Fator de Segurança da encosta. Verificou-se a importância da análise da estabilidade, podendo assim entender como um talude chega a sua ruptura. Durante o monitoramento dos instrumentos, o comportamento do talude se mostrou estável, acima dos 1,50 preconizados por norma.

  18. Mineralogical characterization of the argillaceous material from the Municipality of Santa Barbara, Para, Brazil; Caracterizacao mineralogica de material argiloso proveniente do municipio de Santa Barbara, Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A., E-mail: edemarino@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Sheller, T.; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Geologia. Inst. de Geociencias; Neves, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Inst. de Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    In the present work were investigated mineralogical phases in a material with argillaceous characteristic of the region of Genipauba, Santa Barbara, State of Para. Characterization of the collected sample was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results of the assays indicate the presence of the clay minerals like kaolinite and muscovite, as well as minerals as quartz and anatase. (author)

  19. Estudio de la actividad antifúngica de un extracto de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera proveniente del estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Londoño Orozco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la acción inhibitoria de un extracto etanólico al 15% de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera, procedente del apiario de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM, sobre el crecimiento de Candida albicans (ATCC 14055, Cryptococcus neoformans, y Aspergillus fumigatus, mediante dos pruebas de susceptibilidad: difusión en agar y microdilución. Se impregnaron los discos con el extracto de propóleo. Las pruebas de difusión fueron efectuadas sobre agar dextrosa Sabouraud (SDA, Müeller-Hinton con 2% de glucosa y 0,5 μg/mL de azul de metileno (MHAM: documento NCCLS M-44ª y RPMI 1640 con agar noble. Para obtener la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM, se realizaron pruebas de microdilución según los métodos M27-A2 (levaduras y M38-A (filamentosos del NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard: ahora Institute for Clinical Laboratory Standard. Se observó actividad inhibitoria sobre el desarrollo de todos los hongos estudiados. Estos resultados sugieren el posible potencial del propóleo como un tratamiento alternativo contra las infecciones por hongos, tanto levaduriformes como filamentosos.

  20. Qualidade de carnes provenientes de cortes da carcaça de cordeiros e de ovinos adultos Quality of meats from cuts of lamb and adult sheep carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as características qualitativas da carne de ovinos de diferentes categorias quanto aos músculos dos cortes da carcaça (paleta, lombo e perna, utilizaram-se 18 ovinos ½ Ile de France ½ Ideal (seis cordeiros não-castrados, seis ovelhas de descarte e seis machos adultos castrados. Os animais foram criados em pasto de capim-tifton 85 e receberam suplementação (concentrado. Os cordeiros foram abatidos aos 32 kg, com aproximadamente 5 meses de idade, e as ovelhas e os machos adultos castrados, com 55 kg e aos 60 meses de idade. Não houve diferenças nos valores de pH 45 minutos e pH 24 horas entre as categorias animais e nos músculos dos cortes da carcaça. A idade de abate influenciou a luminosidade da carne de todos os músculos. O teor de vermelho não diferiu entre os animais adultos, mas foi superior aos valores obtidos na carne dos cordeiros. A carne de animais adultos é mais escura que a de cordeiros. As perdas por cocção no músculo Triceps brachii são maiores que no Longissimus lumborum e Semimembranosus. Os valores de pH e a capacidade de retenção de água são similares entre as categorias animais.Eighteen ½ Ile de France ½ Polwarth sheep (6 no castrated lambs, 6 discarded ewes and 6 discarded wethers were used to evaluate qualitative traits of meat from different categories of sheep for muscle cuts (shoulder, loin and leg. The animals were raised in grazing system with tifton-85 pastures and supplemented with concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight, close to 5 months of age. Ewes and wethers were slaughtered with 55 kg and 60 months of age. There were no differences in pH45mim and pH24h values among different animal categories and muscles of carcass cuts. There was difference in meat luminosity between lambs and adult animals, considering all the evaluated muscles. The red level did not differ between adult categories, but it was higher than values observed in lambs. In conclusion, meat from adult animals was darker than lamb meat. Considering all animal categories, cooking losses were higher in Triceps brachii compared to Longissimus lumborum and Semimembranosus. Values of pH and water retention capacity were similar among animal categories.

  1. Electric power generation from the biogas originated at the sewage treatment; Geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas proveniente do tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Pecora, Vanesa; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [CENBIO - Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.usp.br; vpecora@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The PUREFA - Programa de Uso Racional de Energia e Fontes Alternativas, had three main goals: to implant measurements of management and energy efficiency actions allowing the reduction of electric power consumption at the University; amplify the distributed generation at USP from renewable and non conventional energy resources, and to implant incentive policies for the efficient and rational use of energy. Among the fourteen goals integrating this project, the CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa - compromised itself with the realization of two goals. The activities included the implementation of a system for impounding, purification and storage of the biogas generated by a bio digester, Anaerobic Flux Ascendent Reactor (RAFA) localized at the CTH - Centro Tecnologico de Hidraulica - at USP campus beside the electric power generation by using the biogas stored as fuel in a Otto cycle engine.

  2. Balanço de massa no tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos provenientes de restaurantes em biorreator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Girardi Neto

    Full Text Available RESUMO O tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos por digestão anaeróbia é realizado por um consórcio de micro-organismos, no qual as archaea metanogênicas são as limitantes do processo, por serem mais sensíveis às mudanças nas condições do meio e possuírem crescimento lento. Para acompanhar a evolução do tratamento, algumas variáveis do processo de digestão anaeróbia são monitoradas, dentre elas, a demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, geralmente utilizada para estimar a matéria degradável e passível de ser convertida em biogás. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do processo de conversão de biomassa em metano, este artigo se baseou no balanço de massa adaptado da literatura, utilizando valores de DQO e volume de biogás gerado no reator anaeróbio, aqui chamado de biorreator. A produção de biogás foi monitorada diariamente utilizando o método de deslocamento de água, com o auxílio de um contador eletrônico. Com base no balanço de massa, o tratamento mostrou-se viável, visto que 50% da concentração de DQO que entrou no sistema foi convertida em gás metano. Comparando-se aos valores descritos na literatura, que se encontram na faixa de 50 a 70%, a eficiência do tratamento poderá ser elevada com ajustes nos parâmetros de controle que influenciam o processo de digestão anaeróbia, tais como manter a temperatura constante em 37°C e o pH e a alcalinidade equilibrados, o que poderá melhorar as condições do meio em todas as etapas de degradação da matéria orgânica e aumentar a conversão em gás metano.

  3. Estudio fitoquímico y biológico preliminar de la corteza (tallo de vismia cayennensis proveniente del estado Amazonas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín, Karina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical and biological preliminary study of the species Vismia cayennensis, collected in the Amazonas state, Venezuela. The antibacterial test of plant bark extract showed significant inhibition in Escherichia coli, Shigella sp and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, three of the five soluble fractions of different polarity solvents, specifically those of chloroform, acetone and water, maintained moderately active against Shigella sp strain. The hydroalcoholic extract of the plant and the fraction soluble in chloroform, exhibited a significant antiinflammatory effect. Cytotoxicity tests performed by the methods of (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboximetoxifenil-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium/phenazine methosulfate of (MTS/PMS and sulforhodamine B , revealed that only has water soluble cytotoxic effect. Additionally, a study phytochemical obtained information on the presence of some families of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, anthraquinones, triterpenes and sterols. It can be inferred that the stem bark of the plant V. cayennensis, is a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites

  4. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant; Reaproveitamento do torio contido em residuos provenientes da Usina de Purificacao do Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Filho, D; Hespanhol, E C.B.; Baba, S; Miranda, L E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author).

  5. Methodology for monitoring aquatic environment impacts derived from petrochemical and similar industries; Metodologia para monitoramento de impactos ambientais sobre o meio aquatico provenientes de industria petroquimica e afins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Eduardo von [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Methodological suggestions concerning the implementation of monitoring programs in aquatic environments subjected to impacts derived from petrochemical industries are presented. Some considerations are made about assessment criteria, with emphasis in the utilization hydro biological indicators, whose response capacity is far superior than that of the physicochemical parameters. (author). 1 ref.

  6. PRODUÇÃO DE ETANOL DE SEGUNDA GERAÇÃO PROVENIENTE DO BAGAÇO DE PENDÚCULOS DO CAJU

    OpenAIRE

    EZENILDO EMANUEL DE LIMA; FLÁVIO LUIZ HONORATO DA SILVA; LÍBIA DE SOUSA CONRADO OLIVEIRA; ADRIANO SANT\\u2019ANA SILVA; JOSÉ MARIANO DA SILVA NETO

    2015-01-01

    The use of cashew apple bagasse for bioethanol production aimed at taking advantage of a re-gional culture that has about 85% of waste. Due to the complex structure of the material, it is necessary to sub-mit it to physical pretreatments and/or chemicals such as acid prehydrolysis, alkali, steam explosion, CO2 ex-plosion, hot water treatment, pretreatment with microwave, among others, before hydrolysis process for ethanol production. The aim of this paper was to study the prehydrolysis and ac...

  7. Calidad microbiológica de argopecten purpuratus "concha de abanico" utilizados en acuicultura proveniente de bahía samanco - ancash, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Ramírez, Jessica Karina

    2016-01-01

    The aquaculture activity in Peru has been increasing by national and international demand for seafood products, being one of the products most in demand Argopecten purpuratus "scallops". For this food product is considered apt for human consumption must comply with maximum permissible limits for microbiological parameters of Salmonella: Absence / 25g and E. coli:

  8. DIAGNOSTICA PER IMMAGINI DI UN CAPOLAVORO DI CARAVAGGIO IMMAGINI OLTRE IL VISIBILE PER IL SEPPELLIMENTO DI SANTA LUCIA PROVENIENTE DALLA CHIESA DI SANTA LUCIA AL SEPOLCRO DI SIRACUSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Prestileo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Il 28 maggio 1606 Michelangelo Merisi fugge da Roma dove non fará mai piú ritorno; l’ultimo duello gli è costato la condanna a morte. Iniziano per lui gli anni della latitanza, anni che trascorrerá tra Napoli, Malta e la Sicilia. Nel suo passaggio in Sicilia, Caravaggio realizza dipinti di eccezionale qualitá, sicuramente tra i piú belli della sua breve e intensa esistenza. Nell’isola l’artista arriva nell’ottobre del 1608, dopo l’ennesima fuga, questa volta da Malta. La sua prima tappa siciliana è Siracusa, dove vive un artista suo amico: Mario Minniti. Da lui trova riparo e lavoro perché dipinge su commissione una grande tela per la chiesa di Santa Lucia al Sepolcro, Il Seppellimento di Santa Lucia, realizzata in un breve lasso di tempo, trasferendosi Caravaggio a Messina nel dicembre dello stesso anno.

     

    Diagnostic campaign on Caravaggio’s painting

    The Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana, Diparti-mento dei Beni Culturali e  dell'Identitá Siciliana, Regione Siciliana (i nomi italiani tutti in corsivo has carried out a diagnostic cam-paign on the painting Il Seppellimento di Santa Lucia (oil on canvas, 1608 by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, in order to evaluate the state of conservation of the work of art before its return to Syracu-se, in the Church of S. Lucia al Sepolcro (the original placing from which the painting was removed at the end of the Seventies due to the unsuitable and unstable environment conditions of the exhibi-tion area, which inevitably led to its bad conservation conditions. The diagnostic campaign has been carried out in situ with portable instruments, for a one-month period, during the open exhibition in the Regional Gallery of Sicily of Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo, where the painting has temporarily been displayed in 2006. The investigations were aimed at having a deeper knowledge of the work of art with reference to its execution technique, to the original materials being employed and to any previous restoration work.The paper presents some results obtained from multi-spectral and radiological investigations.

  9. Análisis de la funcionalidad de los sistemas de tratamiento de lixiviados provenientes de vertederos mediante evaporación natural, para los municipios de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Alvear, Isabel Margarita

    2014-01-01

    El manejo y tratamiento de lixiviados es uno de los principales desafíos a resolver en las temáticas de los residuos domiciliarios a nivel mundial, siendo esta situación más grave en los países del tercer mundo, entre ellos los latinoamericanos. En el caso particular de Ecuador, se sabe que la problemática es de base, ya que aún se tienen 144 botaderos a cielo abierto, en los cuales los lixiviados se encuentran recogidosen piscinas esperando su evaporación. La evaporación de lixiviado ocurre ...

  10. ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE MICOBACTÉRIAS EM ÁGUAS TRATADAS PROVENIENTES DO SISTEMA DE ABASTECIMENTO DE ARARAQUARA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Aparecida GASPAR-GRILLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da água é muito importante para a saúde e bem-estar do ser humano e o sistema de abastecimento público deve fornecer água de qualidade e em quantidade suficiente para toda a população. As estações de tratamento de água constituem o principal caminho para obtenção de água de qualidade. Quando isso não ocorre vários problemas podem afetar a população que passa a consumir água com qualidade inadequada e com o risco constante de surgimento de várias doenças. A eliminação de micro-organismos em água tratada reduz a competição, favorecendo a multiplicação de bactérias resistentes ao cloro como as do gênero Mycobacterium frequentemente isoladas de águas tratadas e cloradas. Considerando a não indicação da pesquisa de micobactérias nos exames laboratoriais de rotina para controle de qualidade de água para consumo humano e outros usos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença, isolar e identificar as micobactérias ambientais no sistema de abastecimento de água de origem superficial da cidade de Araraquara – SP. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de águas, assim distribuídas: dez de água bruta colhidas na Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA, dez colhidas após filtração, dez colhidas no reservatório após cloração e dez na rede de distribuição. Foram recuperados 43 isolados de micobactérias. Todos os isolados foram submetidos ao PCR-PRA. As espécies de micobactérias identificadas foram M. lentiflavum, M. parafortuitum, M. genavense, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. confluentis, M. duvalii, M. avium subespécie paratuberculose e M. szulgai. Com esses resultados, concluiu-se que a água é importante fonte de micobactérias ambientais provavelmente relacionadas a várias doenças humanas, sugerindo-se a realização de acompanhamento contínuo desses micro-organismos no sistema de água potável.

  11. PRODUÇÃO DE ETANOL DE SEGUNDA GERAÇÃO PROVENIENTE DO BAGAÇO DE PENDÚCULOS DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZENILDO EMANUEL DE LIMA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cashew apple bagasse for bioethanol production aimed at taking advantage of a re-gional culture that has about 85% of waste. Due to the complex structure of the material, it is necessary to sub-mit it to physical pretreatments and/or chemicals such as acid prehydrolysis, alkali, steam explosion, CO2 ex-plosion, hot water treatment, pretreatment with microwave, among others, before hydrolysis process for ethanol production. The aim of this paper was to study the prehydrolysis and acid hydrolysis in the cashew bagasse peduncle (Anarcadium occidentale L., and the removal of toxic compounds from the hydrolyzate liquor using the residual lignin as adsorbent and alcoholic fermentation of liquors for the production of the second genera-tion bioethanol. The cashew bagasse, based on its chemical characterization and physical chemistry, presented itself as a promising source in order to produce bioethanol. The prehydrolysis, is effective in the removal of hemicelluloses mainly in the extraction of arabinose, the temperature being the major variable influencing the process. For the acid hydrolysis done with the following hydrolysis conditions: temperature at 200 °C, acid concentration equal to 6% and ratio of 1:6 has presented the combination of the highest concentration of sugars with a minimum concentration of toxic compounds. During the study of the alcoholic fermentation of liquors with hydrolyzed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, presented yield and efficiency of production of ethanol from cellulosic pulp of processing stalk cashew maximum dry were respectively 0.445 g ethanol/g of pulp and 87.1% hydrolyzed liquor with the addition of cashew apple juice.

  12. Determinação de metais em óleos lubrificantes, provenientes de motores de ônibus urbano, utilizando a FAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lúcia Cardoso Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposed a procedure to examine ashes produced in burning lubricating oils used in public transportation, in Teresina PI. Sulphanilic acid was added to the oil samples, which were burned at 550 °C for three hours and 650 °C for two hours. The ash solutions were analyzed by FAAS and there were significant differences in the metal contents of the waste oil produced from normal car service. The quantification limits in μg g-1 were 5.9 (Fe, 4.4 (Pb, 1.7 (Ni, 2.1 (Cu, and 1.2 (Zn. The results showed positive accuracy and precision with recoveries between 88 and 108%, and RSD lower than 10%.

  13. Determinação das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do gesso reciclado proveniente de chapas de gesso acartonado

    OpenAIRE

    Erbs,A.; Nagalli,A.; Mymrine,V.; Carvalho,K. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Resumo A busca pela viabilidade técnica e econômica da reciclagem de resíduos na cadeia produtiva da construção civil vem atender às novas necessidades do setor de promover crescimento econômico integrado às necessidades sociais e ambientais. O crescente aumento do consumo das chapas de gesso acartonado carrega consigo o problema da geração dos resíduos de gesso, onde a falta de pesquisa e o descarte incorreto acaba destinando o resíduo gerado, na maioria das vezes, para aterros ou bota-foras...

  14. Increase in the amount of evaporator concentrate from nuclear power plants in cemented products; Aumento da quantidade de concentrado de evaporador proveniente de usinas nucleares em produtos cimentados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruna S., E-mail: brusilveirac@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tello, Clédola C.O., E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear power plants, research centers and other nuclear facilities are sources of radioactive liquid waste generation. These wastes can come from cooling of the primary reactor system, cleaning spent pool of fuel, washing contaminated clothing, among others. One of the most used methods for the treatment of these aqueous flows is the evaporation, which generates the concentrate of the evaporator, waste classified as low and medium level of radiation. Norms determine that radioactive waste must be minimized, and that to be accepted in repositories, they must be solidified. The work sought to reduce the volume of the evaporated concentrate waste and its subsequent solidification in cement. In order to carry out the tests, the evaporator concentrate (CE) simulation solution was prepared and then dried in an oven. Subsequently, cementation of the dry material was made using cement, fluidizer, NaOH and water. After a curing time of 28 days, the compressive strength tests were made for all specimens obtained, and for the samples that obtained resistance above that required by the norm, which is 10MPa, the percentages of reject incorporated and volume reduction. The results showed that, by drying the evaporator concentrate, it was possible to reduce the volume of the waste generated by up to 27% in relation to the waste without drying, which shows that drying is an effective way to increase the incorporation of the evaporator concentrate in packaged waste.

  15. TRABAJABILIDAD DE LA MADERA DE Pinus oaxacana Mirov. PROVENIENTE DE UNA PLANTACIÓN EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Machuca-Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de maquinado es diferente en cada especie, por tanto, es necesario conocer las características y propiedades que intervienen en este proceso, tales como; la estructura anatómica, contenido de humedad, densidad básica, velocidad de crecimiento, número de anillos de crecimiento por pulgada y dirección del grano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de los ensayos de cepillado, lijado, moldurado, torneado y barrenado en la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. El material de estudio se obtuvo en la plantación localizada a un costado de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Los ensayos de maquinado, la evaluación de los defectos y clasificación se realizaron según la Norma ASTM-D 1666-87, con algunas modificaciones realizadas en función de la maquinaria y contenidos de humedad. En general, la madera de P. oaxacana fue clasificada como una especie con excelente trabajabilidad, exceptuando el ensayo de moldurado en el corte preliminar que fue clasificado como bueno. Este ensayo mejoró en el segundo corte, por lo tanto, la especie puede ser utilizada en la elaboración de productos con mayor valor agregado, por ejemplo; en puertas, ventanas, marcos, piezas torneadas, molduras, lambrín o recubrimientos y muebles en general.

  16. Produção de sulfato ferroso a partir do resíduo proveniente da mineração de ferro

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Kelly Araldi

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2012. O ferro é o metal de transição mais abundante da crosta terrestre e o quarto de todos os elementos. O ferro é encontrado em uma gama de minerais, destacando-se: a hematita (Fe2O3), a magnetita (Fe3O4), a limonita (FeO(OH)), a siderita (FeCO3), a pirita (FeS2) e a ilmenita (FeTiO3). O ferro é também um nutriente essencial para a vida e at...

  17. Gestión ambiental de aguas residuales industriales con mercurio proveniente de la minería aurífera a nivel mundial: Estado del arte

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón-Gutiérrez, Jennyfer Magdalia; Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Dada la problemática social y ambiental generada por la minería aurífera artesanal y a pequeña escala (MAAPE), se lleva a cabo en el presente documento la revisión del estado del arte en cuanto a la gestión ambiental de aguas residuales con mercurio (Hg) a nivel mundial. Materiales y métodos: La revisión se realizó a partir de artículos científicos publicados durante los últimos cinco años, encontrando que las intervenciones para abordar los impactos por Hg en la MAAPE, se han e...

  18. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  19. Estudio de la flotabilidad de pirita aurífera proveniente de desechos de procesos venezolanos de cianuración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Yorio, C.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Gold recovery from by-products of metallurgical cyaniding processes has been frequently subject of study. This work studies the flotability of auriferous pyrite by means of column flotation, taking into consideration its extremely fine size and the presence of residual cyanide. From preliminary results it was decided to study three variables: pH; Aero promoter 407 concentration; and conditioning time. The pH was varied between 4.5 and 6.0; the reagent dose between 33.3 and 133.3 g/t; and the conditioning time between 1 and 5 min. All the other conditions were kept constant. Sulphur content was analysed for all the concentrates obtained in the flotation tests. It was determined that the pH of the pulp and the ion interference on the adsorption of the collector on the surface of the ore exert a notable influence on both the recovery and the quality of the concentrates. The best results were obtained in conditions of pH 4.5 and 5.0, with 1 and 3 min of conditioning time, respectively; the most effective amount of reagent was 66.6 g per ton of cyaniding solid waste.

    La recuperación de oro a partir de desechos de procesos metalúrgicos de cianuración ha sido objeto de estudio frecuentemente. En el presente trabajo, se estudia la flotabilidad de la pirita aurífera mediante el uso de la flotación en columna, tomando en consideración su granulometría, extremadamente fina, y la presencia de cianuro residual del propio proceso de cianuración. A la vista de los resultados preliminares, se decidió estudiar tres variables: pH, dosis de reactivo (Aero promoter 407 y tiempo de acondicionamiento. El pH se varió entre 4,5 y 6,0; la dosis de reactivo entre 33,3 y 133,3 g/t y el tiempo de acondicionamiento entre 1 y 5 min; todas las demás condiciones se mantuvieron fijas. Se analizó el contenido de azufre para todos los concentrados obtenidos en los ensayos de flotación. Se determinó que el pH de la pulpa y la interferencia iónica sobre la adsorción del colector en la superficie del mineral ejercen una notable influencia sobre la recuperación y la calidad de los concentrados. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a condiciones de pH 4,5 y 5,0, con 1 y 3 min de acondicionamiento, respectivamente. La cantidad de reactivo más satisfactoria fue 66,6 g por tonelada de desechos de procesos de cianuración

  20. Estudio de la flotabilidad de pirita aurífera proveniente de desechos de procesos venezolanos de cianuración

    OpenAIRE

    di Yorio, C.; Calles, B.; Peña, Y.; García-Carcedo, F.; Ayala, J. N.; Cornejo, N.; Hernández, A.; Munroe, N.

    2003-01-01

    Gold recovery from by-products of metallurgical cyaniding processes has been frequently subject of study. This work studies the flotability of auriferous pyrite by means of column flotation, taking into consideration its extremely fine size and the presence of residual cyanide. From preliminary results it was decided to study three variables: pH; Aero promoter 407 concentration; and conditioning time. The pH was varied between 4.5 and 6.0; the reagent dose between 33.3 and 133.3 g/t; and the ...

  1. Radioactivity of rocks from the geological formations belonging to the Tibagi River hydrographic basin; Radioatividade de rochas provenientes das formacoes geologicas pertencentes a bacia hidrografica do Rio Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    This work is a study of the {sup 40}K and the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series radioactivity in rocks measured with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The rocks were taken from the geologic formations in the region of the Tibagi river hydrographic basin. The course of this river cuts through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences of the Parana sedimentary basin. In order to take into account the background radiation attenuation by the samples, a technique was developed that eliminated the need to measure a blank sample. The effects of the radiation's self-attenuation in the sample matrix were taken into account by using a gamma ray direct transmission method. The results for 87 rock samples, taken from 14 distinct formations, and their corresponding radioactivity variations are presented and discussed according to the possible geological processes from which they originated. Among the most discussed results are: an outcrop that profiles shale, limestone and rhythmite in the Irati Formation; a sandstone and siltstone sequence from the Rio do Rasto Formation; and a profile sampled in a coal mine located in the Rio Bonito Formation. The calculations of the rocks' contributions to the outdoor gamma radiation dose rate agree with the values presented by other authors for similar rocks. The highest dose values were obtained from felsic rocks (rhyolite of the Castro group, 129.8 {+-} 3.7 nGy.h{sup -1}, and Cunhaporanga granite, 167 {+-} 37 nGy.h{sup -1}). The other highest values correspond to the shale rocks from the Irati Formation (109 {+-} 16 nGy.h{sup -1}) and the siltic shale rocks from the Ponta Grossa Formation (107.9 {+-} 0.7 nGy.h{sup -1}). The most recent geological formations presented the lowest dose values (e.g. the Botucatu sandstone, 3.3 {+-} 0.6 nGy.h{sup -1}). The average value for sedimentary rocks from seven other formations is equal to 59 {+-} 26 nGy.h{sup -1}. The Rio Bonito Formation presented the highest dose value (334 {+-} 193 nGy.h{sup -1}) mainly due to the anomalous {sup 226}Ra concentration in the samples. The Ra{sub eq} parameter and the activity concentration index for environmental radioactivity monitoring were calculated for rocks used as building materials. Only one sample reached a Ra{sub eq} value higher than 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}. In relation to the activity concentration index ali results are lower than two, satisfying the most rigorous dose criterion (0.3 mSv.a{sup -1}) for materials with restricted use (e.g. tiles and coverings). When materials used in bulk amounts are considered (e.g. bricks, sand, gravel), the Castro group and the Cunhaporanga granite samples do not satisfy the less rigorous dose criterion (1 mSv.a{sup -1}). This indicates that there is a radiological protection concern when these materials are used as concrete gravel. This result warrants a more detailed analysis using dose assessments based in the scenarios where these rocks are typically used. (author)

  2. Characterization of waste soda-lime glass from the process lapping; Caracterizacao do rejeito de vidro sodo-calcico proveniente do processo de lapidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, A.C.P.; Farias, A.C.M. de; Mendes, J.U.L., E-mail: galvao_alvaro@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The beneficiation process of plates by stoning of soda-lime glass in glass industry generates, by itself, a residue not used (waste). The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing environmental impacts. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of stoning of soda-lime glass (GP). After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and subsequently characterized through the chemical analysis (XRF, XRD, EDS), morphology by SEM, particle size by laser diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DSC). It was observed that the particles of GP are micrometer and irregular with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca, which are the characteristic elements of an amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric characteristics of GP allowed to suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulators. (author)

  3. Valorización de un residuo proveniente de la industria de galvanizado en caliente mediante la síntesis hidrometalúrgica de sales de zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Andrés Casal-Ramos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of adding value to a residual dust from hot-dip galvanizing process was explored, through the synthesis of potentially marketable organic zinc salts. The valorization process started by dissolving the residue in HCl, citric acid was then added and zinc salts were finally precipitated by the addition of NaOH. In another experiment, absolute ethanol was added as a modifying agent. In both cases, the products were fine white powders which were characterized by pycnometry, atomic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x–ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. In the synthesized products, the following phases were identified: Zn(C2H3O22.2H2O, Na3C6H5O7.2H2O and NaCl

  4. MORFOMETRÍA COMPARADA DE SEMILLAS DE NICOTIANA (SOLANACEAE E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE SEMILLAS CARBONIZADAS PROVENIENTES DE UN SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO EN CHILE CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Planella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia frecuente de pipas para fumar en sitios arqueológicos del Período Alfarero Temprano deChile central y las evidencias en relación con la costumbre de fumar especies de Nicotiana halladas en sitios prehispánicos de otros lugares de las Américas, muestran la necesidad de contar con una metodología para identificar las especies de este género usadas en Chile. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio morfométrico en semillas de especies de Nicotiana que sirve de referencia para comparaciones con semillas de origen arqueológico. La forma y tamaño de la semilla, el patrón de ornamentación dado por las células epidérmicas y la ubicación del hilum resultaron ser caracteres relevantes para identificaciones confiables. Utilizando estos caracteres, se determinaron como N. corymbosa a las semillas recuperadas en el sitio arqueológico Las Morrenas 1, ubicado en Chile central.

  5. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos en biopelículas provenientes del Castillo de Chapultepec, Ciudad de México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de la Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today microbiology is based on pure cultures and separate microorganisms, pure cultures really do not exist in nature, because that microorganism are combined into large colonies slimy (biofilms in which the various individuals establish relationships and dependencies. Only in the United State of America is estimated that biofilms cause billions of dollars in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. This paper presents the results of the isolation of microorganisms by microbiological and molecular methods, from biofilms located in the Castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City. In the biofilm coexist different genres of filamentous fungi such as Cladosporium, Mucor, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Rhodotorula and others in those biofilms; besides bacterial genera as Bacillus, Pantoea, Kokuria, etc. Many of these microbial genera have been widely reported as a participating in biodeterioration processes to monuments and others are reported as contributing to its restoration, so this work opens the door to future researches that allow biological restoration of monuments, conservation and development of new biotechnological processes.   Keywords: Microbiology; pure cultures; biofilms; isolation of microorganism; microbiological methods; biodeterioration processes. 

  6. BIODEGRADACIÓN AEROBIA DE FRACCIONES DE HIDROCARBUROS PROVENIENTES DE LA ACTIVIDAD PETROLERA EN UN SUELO DE LA REGIÓN PATAGONIA NORTE, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, Cecilia E. Silvana; Arocena, Lucas Agustín; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Nudelman, Norma Ethel S.

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Las técnicas recientes de evaluación de sitios contaminados con hidrocarburos se fundamentan en la metodología del análisis de riesgo. El efecto sobre la salud y el ecosistema que producen agentes químicos presentes en un ambiente contaminado es estimado como la sumatoria de riesgos individuales, siendo la concentración de hidrocarburos un dato relevante. La biorremediación es una tecnología sustentable que acelera la degradación del petróleo en suelos contaminados y posee una relació...

  7. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  8. Avaliação do teor de antocianinas em polpa de acerola congelada proveniente de frutos de 12 diferentes aceroleiras (Malpighia emarginata D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Vera Lúcia Arroxelas G. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ampla variabilidade genética nos pomares de aceroleiras brasileiros tem gerado frutos de coloração amarela a vermelha púrpura dificultando a obtenção de produtos de coloração avermelhada, cor esperada pelos consumidores. As antocianinas são pigmentos instáveis, responsáveis pela cor vermelha deste fruto maduro. Com o objetivo de determinar o teor destes pigmentos em polpa de acerola submetida ao congelamento foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualisado. As polpas obtidas de frutos de 12 acessos (plantas do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE foram armazenadas a -18ºC, por um período de 06 meses. Unidades amostrais de 30g foram coletadas ao acaso, no período inicial e final do experimento, e submetidas a determinação quantitativa de antocianinas totais utilizando um método espectrofotométrico. Grande variação nos teores de antocianinas totais foi observada nos acessos estudados. No tempo zero de armazenamento o valor mínimo e máximo deste fitoquímico foi de 59,74mg e 3,79mg.100g -1 de polpa, respectivamente. Após seis meses de congelamento foi constatada uma redução de 3,4% a 23,6% no teor desse pigmento nas amostras avaliadas. Evidenciou-se, portanto, que o armazenamento a -18ºC por seis meses reduziu o teor de antocianinas e que os pigmentos antociânicos dos acessos 08 e 13 apresentaram-se mais estáveis ao congelamento.

  9. Effect of chemical treatment on thermal properties of fibers from pineapple;Estudo da modificacao quimica nas fibras provenientes da coroa do abacaxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rafael I.M.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Carvalho, Kelly C.C.; Conejo, Luiza dos Santos; Voorwald, Herman J.C.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H., E-mail: rafaelimf@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the effect of the chemical modification of natural fibres from of pineapple fibres with alkaline solution was studied. After modification the in nature and modified fibres were analyzed by XRD diffractometry and thermogravimetry with objective to evaluate influence chemical treatment in surface and in the thermal properties fibres. With the obtained results it was possible to verify an increase of 10.4 % in the crystallinity index of fibres beyond the increase around 4.5% in the degradation temperature, what it indicates an increase in the stability thermal of the fibres. (author)

  10. Difusión e impactos del programa Talento e Inclusión en estudiantes provenientes de establecimientos de alto índice de vulnerabilidad en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Karla; Muñoz, Javiera; García, Catalina; Vera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    La Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UC), en concordancia con su Plan de Desarrollo 2015-2020, favorece el acceso de estudiantes talentosos que no han tenido la posibilidad de acceder a una educación escolar de calidad y que, por tanto o cumplen los requisitos de la Prueba de Selección Universitaria (PSU) necesarios para ingresar a la educación superior. Dichos puntajes están altamente correlacionados con el nivel socioeconómico de los postulantes, generando una sobre representación d...

  11. Obtainment of Hg-free Mn/Zn solutions from spent alkaline batteries; Obtencion de soluciones de Mn/Zn libres de Hg provenientes de pilas alcalinas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nicolas, L.; Espinosa-Ramirez, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lepeni@hotmail.com; Aguilar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Palacios-Beas, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    As in many other countries, the excessive consumption of alkaline batteries in Mexico has generated highly contaminating wastes, with heavy metal contents such as Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu and Ni, among others. This has caused a large degree of environmental degradation with repercussions for the health of living beings. Because there are no regulations regarding the disposal of spent batteries, they are thrown out with the rest of the domestic wastes or directly into nature, ending up in open-air landfills or containers where they are incinerated, thereby contaminating the planet's environment, soil and springs. The present work studies the obtainment of solutions of Hg-free Mn and Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) from spent alkaline batteries for use in synthesis of (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by a wet method. The effect is analyzed of the dissolution medium (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl and HCl/NO{sub 3}) temperature and time on the percentage of dissolution of the metals present in the electrode material, characterized by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the investigation indicate that the best dissolution conditions are MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 degrees Celsius and t =30 min, where 94.1 and 90.7 % (w/w) of Mn and Zn are obtained, respectively, with Mn/Zn = 1.51. The mercury content was determined to be 3.91%, higher than that stated by the battery specifications, which is recovered by dissolving with HCl/HNO{sub 3} in the residual solid. [Spanish] En Mexico como en muchos otros paises, el consumo excesivo de pilas alcalinas ha generado desechos altamente contaminantes, con contenidos de metales pesados como Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu y Ni entre otros, que han provocado un gran deterioro en el medio ambiente repercutiendo en la salud de los seres vivos. Dado que no se tiene una regulacion en cuanto a la disposicion de pilas gastadas, estas se desechan con el resto de las residuos domesticos o directamente a la naturaleza, terminando en basureros al aire libre o contenedores donde son incinerados, contaminando el ambiente, los suelos y los mantos acuiferos del planeta. Por lo anterior, en el presente trabajo se estudia la obtencion de soluciones de Mn y Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) libres de Hg a partir de pilas alcalinas gastadas, para su utilizacion en la sintesis de ferritas (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} por via humeda. Se analiza el efecto del medio disolvente (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl y HCl/NO{sub 3}), la temperatura y el tiempo sobre el porcentaje de disolucion de los metales presentes en el material electrodico, utilizando espectroscopia de absorcion atomica (AA) y difraccion de rayos X (DRX) para la caracterizacion. Los resultados de la investigacion indican que las mejores condiciones de disolucion son MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 grados centigrados y t =30 min, donde se obtiene 94.1 y 90.7 % (w/w) de Mn y Zn respectivamente, con Mn/Zn = 1.51. Se determino que el contenido de mercurio es 3.91%, superior al declarado en las especificaciones de las pilas, que se recupera mediante disolucion con HCl/HNO{sub 3} en el solido remanente.

  12. Perfiles de resistencia a fluoroquinolonas en aislamientos clínicos de cocos Gram positivos provenientes de hospitales colombianos, 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Arias

    2008-06-01

    Conclusión. Los aislamientos colombianos de S. pneumoniae mantienen susceptibilidad a las fluoroquinolonas de última generación. La resistencia a fluoroquinolonas es alta en S. aureus, especialmente en aislamientos resistentes a la meticilina (cercana al 100%.

  13. Plántulas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. provenientes de semillas embebidas en diferentes soluciones de giberelinas (GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaguera-López Helber Enrique

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La obtención de plántulas de tomate vigorosas y en menor tiempo para el trasplante se ha convertido en un factor clave a la hora de iniciar la producción. Con el fin de disminuir el efecto postrasplante e impulsar el desarrollo vegetativo de las plántulas, se sometieron semillas del híbrido larga vida Daniela a imbibición (6, 12, 18, 24, 30 y 36 horas en tres concentraciones de ácido giberélico (300, 600 y 900 mg L-1 y se sembraron en bandejas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, 18 tratamientos más un testigo con cuatro repeticiones durante cuatro semanas, primera fase. Luego en segunda fase, se trasplantaron cuatro plantas al azar por tratamiento en bolsas de polietileno, y cuatro semanas después se evaluaron. El tratamiento de 36 horas de imbibición y 300 mg L-1 de GA3 mostró diferencias estadísticas en la primera fase para el área foliar, masa fresca de hojas, tallo y raíces y longitud de raíces, y en la segunda fase en la masa seca de hojas, tallo y raíz y en el área foliar. Semillas de tomate embebidas en 300 mg L-1 de GA3 generan plántulas con mayor vigor.

  14. PESQUISA DE PARASITOS EM ALFACE E COUVE PROVENIENTES DE FEIRAS DA REGIÃO CENTRAL E SUAS MEDIAÇÕES NA CIDADE DE ANÁPOLIS-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the parasitological quality of vegetables lettuce (Lactuca sativa and cabbage (Brassica oleracea marketed by 28 stalls divided into four exhibitions located in central and mediations in the city of Anápolis-GO. Methods: A total of 28 samples of lettuce and 28 samples of cabbage by spontaneous sedimentation techniques and Craig. Results: We obtained 16% contamination by intestinal parasites in 56 samples. Lettuce showed greater contamination (25% and cabbage showed contamination of 7.1%. The enteroparasite more prevalent among the lettuce was Entamoeba coli (17.8%; on cabbage samples, as well as Entamoeba coli (3.5%, we found Ascaris lumbricoides (3.5%. Conclusions: Probably the presence of these enteroparasito can be related to a low hygienic standard in some management steps of greenery. There is a clear need to increase health education of vegetable handlers and improving the quality of water used in these vegetable crops processes.

  15. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition; Nitrogenio proveniente da adubacao nitrogenada e de residuos culturais na nutricao da cana-planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro-Sul; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, E-mail: henrique.franco@bioetanol.org.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Ferreira, Danilo Alves; Otto, Rafael; Fortes, Caio, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b, E-mail: danilo.alves.ferreira@usp.b, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: cfortes@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ({sup 15}N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in {sup 15}N atoms) and 14 Mg ha{sup -1} crop residues - 9 Mg ha{sup -1} of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} of root system, labeled with {sup 15}N (1.07 and 0.81% in {sup 15}N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the {sup 15}N-urea, {sup 15}N-SS and {sup 15}N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  16. Utilización de un desecho agroindustrial proveniente de una empresa refinadora de aceite comestible para la producción de jabones

    OpenAIRE

    Altomare, Vanessa; Fernández, Celeste; Ros, Mario

    2008-01-01

    La presente investigación esta enmarcada en el diseño de un proceso técnico factible a escala industrial para la reutilización, de las arcillas blanqueadoras agotadas, que se generan como residuos del proceso de elaboración de aceite comestible a partir de semillas oleaginosas, para obtener un producto de mayor valor agregado. La caracterización de las arcillas así como la síntesis del jabón de tocador se llevó a cabo a nivel de laboratorio, obteniéndose un contenido de aceite de palma de (58...

  17. Mercury and toxic metals in ash from combustion and incineration processes; Mercurio y metales toxicos en cenizas provenientes de procesos de combustion e incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V.; Amador, M.A.; Torres, M.; Figueroa, J. de J. [Universidad Autonomo-Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Reynosa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In Mexico, most of the ashes from combustion and incineration process were not appropriately disposed, they are either left on industrial yards and cliffs or thrown away in open spaces and then carried by the wind to places where they can harm population, affect aquatic environment or soils. For prevention and control, the knowledge on the concentration of trace elements in waste ashes is necessary. In this study, several oxidation methods for digestion of ashes followed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry were evaluated. Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V were determined in ashes from coal and fuel oil combustion, as well as in ashes from the incineration of municipal, water treatment sludge, and medical wastes. Results showed important concentrations of different trace elements in the ashes. This suggests that adequate disposal of these wastes should be mandatory. On the other hand, concentration of trace elements in the leachates indicated that these wastes are not toxic and they could be disposed in sanitary landfill. 23 refs.

  18. Aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica provenientes de sedimentos del Humedal El Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Carolina Mora Moreno

    2006-07-01

    sedimentos, mediante la utilización de medios de cultivo selectivos (agar tributirina, agar aceite de girasol. Primero se evaluó la concentración del sustrato (aceite de girasol en la cual se encontraba el mayor número de morfotipos aislados, luego se comparó la eficiencia de los dos medios de cultivo de acuerdo a la cantidad de morfotipos aislados. Se evaluaron tres concentraciones diferentes de sustrato. Se aisló un total de 18 cepas pertenecientes a los géneros Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Streptomyces, Penicillium, Alternaria. Los medios evaluados constituyen alternativas sencillas de aislamiento de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica en sedimentos.

  19. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining; Producao de sulfato ferroso a partir de residuo proveniente da mineracao de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engrenharia Quimica; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustivel Nuclear

    2012-11-15

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  20. Entre condiciones expertas y negociaciones prácticas: la generización del dinero proveniente de las transferencias monetarias condicionadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hornes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Basados en entregas directas de dinero a los hogares pobres, las transferencias monetarias condicionadas (TMC se han convertido en las políticas sociales predominantes en Argentina y América Latina. Los saberes expertos vinculados a las TMC pretenden construir un monopolio técnico y moral sobre el dinero transferido, otorgándole una definición unívoca ajustada a las condicionalidades de los programas. Principalmente destacan la titularidad del beneficio sobre las mujeres, en vistas a abordar las disparidades de género y por considerarlas más eficientes en el manejo del dinero. A través de la reconstrucción de los presupuestos de hogares receptores de distintas TMC, observaremos como los integrantes organizan sus dineros construyendo esquemas de clasificación y evaluación sobre el uso del mismo. Indagaremos sobre cómo dichos esquemas se constituyen a partir de las construcciones sociales del género y las negociaciones entre las condicionalidades programáticas y los significados sociales que el dinero adquiere en los hogares.

  1. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing; Biodegradacao de rejeitos radioativos liquidos organicos provenientes do reprocessamento do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-07-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  2. Generation of electric power from biogas originating from sewage treatment; Geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas proveniente do tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Pecora, Vanessa; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, gbntumbo@iee.usp.br, vpecora@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of the effluent treatment is to correct its undesirable characteristics, however, during this process, residues like sludge and biogas are generated, and those residues can be used as raw materials The PUREFA (Program of Rational Energy Use and Alternative Sources), compound by 14 purposes, is about a project of the USP - University of Sao Paulo, financial backer FINEP - Financier of Studies and Projects. This project had three main objectives: to implant measures of management and action of energy efficiency, to increase the distributed generation in the USP from the renewable resource and not conventional energy and to introduce incentive permanent politics to the efficient and rational use of energy. In the context, the Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass was responsible for two purposes, related to the biogas use for electricity generation. The first purpose had main objective to implant the generation system, to capture and to stock the biogas, produced by biodigester in the Technological Hydraulically Center (CTH - USP). The biodigester is a UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket), whose outflow of the biogas produce is near 4 m{sup 3}/day, opera rates 24 hours per day and utilize the sewer from the residential buildings located in Sao Paulo University, inside the campus. For the biogas utilization, was made its outflow, chemical composition and heat value identifications, parameters that allowed to determinate the real potential for generation and to shown the necessity of the previous treatment, as H{sub 2}S removal. Finished this stage, was started the next purpose, regarding biogas used as fuel for electricity generation using a generator group Otto cycle. Nowadays this project is a demonstrative project. In this article the technical and environmental project results obtained will be presented. (author)

  3. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America; Los fondos provenientes del Premio Nobel otorgado al OIEA se destinan a combatir el cancer en America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-18

    Full text: More than 60 of the world's leading cancer experts are being brought together in Buenos Aires, 23-27 April 2007, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess Latin America's growing cancerden. Poor medical facilities and lack of trained personnel and funding are limiting countries' ability to expand cancer care services and treat patients, while cancer rates are expected to double by 2020. More than 70 per cent of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries and globally cancer kills more people than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. Through its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) the IAEA is using funds, awarded for the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize, to sponsor training workshops, such as the Buenos Aires event, that alert policy makers and health experts to the pressing need for national cancer control plans and programmes. 'I hope that this event in Latin America is the first of many that will enable us to work together to help combat this dreadful disease and provide quality of life to our fellow human beings,' said Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. 'Cancer is a disease that is spreading very fast in the developing world and we have come to realise that we have to do much more to combat it in this part of the world.' In Latin America, there are an estimated 450,000 cancer deaths annually. The most commonly occurring cancers in men are prostate, stomach, lung, and colorectal and in women the most commonly occurring cancers are breast, cervix, stomach and colorectal. Breast and cervical cancer can be prevented through screening and early detection and can be cured in the early stages with effective treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that cancer will soon reach epidemic proportions, causing up to 10 million deaths a year by 2020. Yet at least one third of all cancers are preventable. A further one third of cases can be effectively treated if detected early. PACT was established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer Society (ACS); Eduardo Cazap, President, Sociedad Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Oncologia Me dica (SLACOM), International Union Against Cancer (UICC)/ International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR). Sessions will focus on comprehensive cancer control, evidence-based radiation oncology emerging techniques in radiotherapy planning and delivery. All sessions of the five-day meeting are open to journalists. Please note that only the first two days will be conducted in English and Spanish while days 3-5 will be conducted only in Spanish. (IAEA) [Spanish] El Organismo Internacional de Energia Atomica (OIEA) reunira a mas de 60 de los principales expertos mundiales sobre el cancer en Buenos Aires, del 23 al 27 de abril, para evaluar la creciente carga que representa esta enfermedad en America Latina. Los deficientes servicios medicos y la falta de personal cualificado y de financiacion estan limitando la capacidad de los paises para ampliar sus servicios de atencion oncologica y ofrecer tratamiento a los pacientes, en tanto se preve una duplicacion de las tasas de cancer para 2020. Mas del 70% de todas las muertes por cancer se producen en paises con ingresos bajos y medianos, y a escala mundial el cancer provoca mas muertes que el SIDA, la malaria y la tuberculosis en conjunto. A traves de su Programa de accion para la terapia contra el cancer (PACT) el OIEA esta utilizando fondos de la dotacion del Premio Nobel de la Paz, que recibio en 2005, para patrocinar talleres, como el de Buenos Aires, que senalen a encargados de formular politicas y expertos en salud la apremiante necesidad de contar con planes y programas nacionales de lucha contra el cancer. 'Confio en que este evento en America Latina sea el primero de muchos que nos permitan trabajar de consuno para ayudar a combatir esa terrible enfermedad y ofrecer calidad de vida a nuestros congeneres', indico el Director General del OIEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. 'El cancer es una enfermedad que se esta propagando muy rapidamente en el mundo en desarrollo y nos hemos dado cuenta de que en esta parte del mundo son mucho mayores los esfuerzos que se requieren para combatirla.' Se estima que cada ano mueren en America Latina 450 000 personas victimas del cancer. Los canceres mas comunes en el hombre son el cancer de prostata, estomago, pulmon y coy recto, mientras que en la mujer son el cancer de mama, cuello del utero, estomago y colon y recto. Los canceres de mama y de cuello del utero pueden prevenirse mediante revisiones medicas y la deteccion precoz y es posible curarlos si se tratan eficazmente en sus fases iniciales. La Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) advierte que el cancer adquirira pronto proporciones epidemicas y que para 2020 provocara hasta 10 millones de muertes anuales. Sin embargo, al menos una tercera parte de todos los canceres son prevenibles. En otra tercera parte de los casos el tratamiento puede resultar eficaz si la enfermedad se detecta en su fase inicial. El PACT se creo en 2004 para ayudar a los paises en desarrollo a combatir la creciente crisis del cancer. Tomando como base los conocimientos especializados adquiridos por el OIEA en los 30 anos de promocion de la radioterapia, el objetivo del PACT es contribuir al desarrollo de un mayor numero de instalaciones de tratamiento oncologico y suministrar el personal cualificado capaz de explotarlas en las regiones en desarrollo y garantizar su integracion en amplios programas de lucha contra el cancer. 'El PACT esta forjando alianzas con la OMS y otras organizaciones internacionales de lucha contra el cancer para lograr que la batalla contra esta enfermedad pueda librarse en los paises', dice Massoud Samiei, Jefe de la Oficina del PACT. 'A estos efectos, es necesario aplicar un amplio enfoque multidisciplinario que incluya la prevencion del cancer, la deteccion temprana, el diagnostico, el tratamiento, los cuidados paliativos y, lo que es mas importante, la ensenanza y capacitacion de profesionales'. La parte del Premio Nobel de la Paz 2005 correspondiente al OIEA esta siendo destinada tambien a la capacitacion de personal de paises en desarrollo para la lucha contra el cancer y la malnutricion. Segun estimaciones actuales, a fin de contener de manera eficaz la crisis del cancer en los paises con ingresos bajos y medianos se precisan varios miles de millones de dolares os Estados Unidos. La financiacion inicial del PACT proviene del OIEA y de varios donantes no tradicionales. El PACT trata de sensibilizar a los donantes acerca del problema del cancer a fin de movilizar recursos y brindar a los paises en desarrollo la posibilidad de esta blecer, ampliar o mejorar su capacidad de planificacion y programacion de la lucha contra el cancer para prestar servicios de manera sostenible. La reunion comenzara el lunes 23 de abril de 2007, a las 09.00 horas en el Hospital Roffo. A las 10.45 horas se celebrara una conferencia de prensa/mesa redonda con oradores que participaran en la sesion de apertura: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Director de la Division para America Latina, Departamento de Cooperacion Tecnica, OIEA; Massoud Samiei, Jefe de la Oficina del Programa de accion para la terapia contra el cancer (PACT), OIEA; Jose Antonio Pages, Representante de la Argentina ante la OPS/OMS; R. Sankaranarayanan, Jefe del Grupo de Deteccion, Centro Internacional de Investigaciones sobre el Cancer (CIIC); Elmer Huerta, Presidente electo de la Sociedad Americana del Cancer (ACS); Eduardo Cazap, Presidente de la Sociedad Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Oncologia Medica (SLACOM), Union Internacional contra el Cancer (UICC)/ Red Internacional para el tratamiento y la investigacion del cancer (INCTR). Las sesiones se centraran en la lucha global contra el cancer, la radiooncologia basada en pruebas y las nuevas tecnicas de planificacion y tratamiento respecto de la radioterapia. Todas las sesiones de la reunion, que tendra cinco dias de duracion, estaran abiertas a los medios de comunicacion. Sirvase tomar nota de que solo en los dos primeros dias la reunion se celebrara en ingles y espanol, los tres dias restantes se celebrara en espanol unicamente. (IAEA)

  4. INDICADORES DA VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA A MULHER PROVENIENTES DAS NOTIFICAÇÕES DOS SERVIÇOS DE SAÚDE DE MINAS GERAIS-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia de Oliveira Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los casos notificados de violencia contra la mujer adulta en Minas Gerais a través del Sistema de Información de Agravios de Notificación, con el fin de caracterizar las víctimas y las situaciones abusivas, calcular indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad y evaluar la calidad de la información. El estudio es descriptivo, retrospectivo y periodo 2011-2012. La mayoría de las mujeres era blanca, 20-29 años, casadas, agredidas físicamente en su residencia, por medio de fuerza corporal en la cabeza. Hubo un aumento del 41% en las notificaciones entre los años analizados. La mortalidad se destacó en las víctimas con 30-39 años, la letalidad arriba de 80 años, y la mayor incidencia en la violencia física, entre 20-29 años. Muchas fichas de investigación quedaron incompletas. Es necesario optimizar y concientizar sobre completar la ficha de investigación, debido a la importancia de esa notific ación en el contexto de atención integral a las mujeres víctima s de violencia.

  5. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos en biopelículas provenientes del Castillo de Chapultepec, Ciudad de México.

    OpenAIRE

    E de la Cruz; J. Narváez Zapata; Leandro Páramo Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Today microbiology is based on pure cultures and separate microorganisms, pure cultures really do not exist in nature, because that microorganism are combined into large colonies slimy (biofilms) in which the various individuals establish relationships and dependencies. Only in the United State of America is estimated that biofilms cause billions of dollars in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. This paper presents the results of the isolation of mic...

  6. Comparación de la reglamentación para el manejo de lodos provenientes de agua residual en Argentina, Chile y Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Andrés Ospina López; Alejandra Rodríguez González; Juan Manuel González Guzmán

    2017-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta resultados de una revisión sobre el manejo y disposición final de lodos generados en las plantas de tratamiento de agua residual, los cuales deben ser sometidos a diferentes tratamientos para ser transformados en biosólidos y lograr determinar su uso sujeto a la clasificación que se presenta en Argentina, Chile y Colombia. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los diferentes parámetros que se tienen en cuenta en los reglamentos de cada uno de estos países, eviden...

  7. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ESTUDO DA LIXIVIAÇÃO DE METAIS DE ESCÓRIAS PROVENIENTES DA RECICLAGEM DE BATERIAS DE CHUMBO-ÁCIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Barbosa de Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o chumbo metálico é obtido principalmente a partir da reciclagem de baterias de chumbo-ácido utilizando o processo pirometalúrgico, que é acompanhado da geração de uma escória que apresenta elementos como Fe, Si, S, Al, Ca, Zn, Pb. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a escória gerada no processo através da fluorescência e difração de raios X e de extrações utilizando o método de Tessier seguida da determinação das concentrações dos metais nos extratos por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Com os resultados da fluorescência de raios X, observou-se que a somatória das porcentagens dos elementos citados se aproxima a 97 %. Pela difração de raios X, detectou-se fases como: Pirrotita (Fe1-xS, Maghemita (Fe2O3, Fayalita (Fe2+2SiO4, Óxido de chumbo e alumínio (Pb2Al2O5, Hercinita (Fe2+Al2O4 e Óxido de chumbo (Pb2O3 e que nos extratos, estão presentes vários metais em concentrações variáveis, sendo que chumbo e ferro são encontrados geralmente em maior concentração.

  8. Determinación de la actividad celulolítica del suelo proveniente de cultivos de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez R Viviana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el presente estudio se determinó la actividad celulolítica en suelo mediante el uso de una técnica fluorogénica que utiliza 4-metilumbeliferil B-glucosa (MUF como sustrato, y se comparó con la técnica de Somogyi Nelson (SN. Se manejó sedimento como control positivo del método MUF, ya que esta técnica se estandarizó previamente en esta matriz, y suelo como matriz a evaluar. El muestreo de suelo se realizó en Puerto López, Meta, en cultivos de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple. El sedimento se recolectó en el humedal La Conejera, localidad de Suba, Bogotá. Se realizaron tres tratamientos para ambas matrices: T1: matriz (control; T2: matriz+extracto crudo enzimático (2,34 UC; T3: matriz+Streptomyces sp. (59x103 conidios/mL. Para la obtención del extracto crudo enzimático utilizado en el T2 se realizó el aislamiento del microorganismo celulolítico con mayor actividad en agar CMC 1% m/v a partir de muestras de suelo, para su posterior fermentación y obtención de extracto enzimático. La incubación de las matrices en los tres tratamientos se realizó a temperatura ambiente, humedad mantenida a 4,6% durante 60 días, con muestreos periódicos cada 15 días para determinar actividad enzimática por métodos planteados (MUF y SN. No se evidenciaron efectos diferenciales en la actividad enzimática con ninguno de los tratamientos planteados, como tampoco se obtuvo correlación estadística entre los métodos (<16%. Es así que se propone la técnica fluorogénica como una metodología viable y fiable de la actividad celulolítica, en virtud de su alta especificidad, mayor rapidez en el montaje, así como por su facilidad de ejecución y apreciable precisión en términos de repetibilidad; sin embargo la técnica de SN no se descarta para futuros estudios.

  9. USO DE LODOS PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PAPELERA EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE PANELES PREFABRICADOS PARA LA CONSTRUCCIÒN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Quinchía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consistió en la elaboración de paneles prefabricados como elementos no estructurales para la construcción, a partir del aprovechamiento de los lodos residuales del tratamiento de las aguas servidas de la industria papelera. Se definieron las mezclas adecuadas, los materiales y las etapas del proceso de elaboración de los paneles para desarrollar piezas que cumplen con los estándares de resistencia requeridos y la normativa asociada a este tipo de productos. De esta forma no solo se ofrecen nuevas opciones de materiales en el medio, sino que se brinda un enorme beneficio ambiental con la valorización de un residuo industrial generado en grandes cantidades.This work was based on the fabrication of drywalls as nonstructural elements for the construction industry, from the beneficial of the residual sludge from the treatment of waters served as the paper industry. The optimal mixtures, the suitable materials, and the stages of the process of fabrication of the panels to develop pieces were defined that fulfill the standards of resistance required and the technical norms associated to this kind of products. In this form not only new options of materials in the region are offered, but also offers an enormous environmental benefit from the assessment of an industrial waste assessment generated in great quantities.

  10. Evaluation of ionizing radiation applied to quarantine control of the false grape mite; Evaluacion de la radiacion ionizante como tratamiento de control cuarentenario de la falsa aranita de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadue D, Yael; Vargas O, Claudio Andres

    1994-12-31

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effect of three dosages of ionizing radiation in combination with cold storage (0-2{sup 0} C), and the effect of cold storage without irradiation, establishing time curves for eclosion of eggs and mortality of juvenile and adult stages, and adult oviposture. An experimental Cs-137 Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development Irradiator (BPCDI N. 3) at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, located in the La Reina Commune of Santiago, Chile, was used at dosages of 0.500, 1.000, and 1,500 Gy (with a dosage rate of 28.95 Gy/min), combined with pretreatment cold (0-2{sup 0} C) during 24 h, and 15 days of cold storage postirradiation, to simulate the duration of a grape shipment to the U.S., onto 1-4 and 1-4 and {>=} 4 day-old eggs, juveniles and adult stages. The initial stages of development were more susceptible to radiation when combined with cold storage. The mortality of both egg development stages, juveniles and adults, with dosages from 500-1.500; 1.000-1.500; and 1500 Gy, respectively, satisfied the probity 9 (99.9968%) quarantine security level requirement. The few survivors from treated juveniles and adults were unable to continue their cycle, and did not present quarantine risk. All dosages used produced 100% mortality. Apparently, cold storage has a synergic effect when used in combination with radiation. Cold storage of stages not irradiated somewhat the population dynamics. (author). 58 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs.

  11. Detecção e quantificação de Entrerovirus em lodo de esgoto proveniente de estações de tratamento de esgotos com potencial uso na agricultura do Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Maria Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Lodos de esgoto são resíduos do tratamento do esgoto doméstico, considerados ricos em macronutrientes e matéria orgânica, podendo também apresentar contaminação por substâncias químicas e patógenos. Sua utilização na agricultura é uma das alternativas interessantes para sua disposição final. Entretanto, a presença de contaminantes, dentre eles microrganismos patogênicos podem limitar e orientar sua aplicação. Os vírus entéricos, dentre os quais se inclui o gênero Enterovirus, são potenciais ...

  12. CRESCIMENTO DE TILÁPIA-DO-NILO ALIMENTADA COM PEIXES MARINHOS PROVENIENTES DA PESCA DO CAMARÃO GROWTH IN NILE TILAPIA FED WITH MARINE FISH FROM SHRIMP FISHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyermes Araújo Lourenço

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de peixes marinhos no crescimento de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (ração para peixes com 28% de PB, Pellona harroweri e Pomadasys croco, três repetições cada. Utilizaram-se 63 peixes, com peso médio inicial de 3,059±0,846 g e 44,1±4,0 mm para o tratamento com ração, 3,015±0,892 g e 44,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. harroweri e 2,736±0,803 g e 43,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. croco, distribuídos homogeneamente em nove tanques de alvenaria de 2 m3 cada, contendo sete peixes por tanque. Após 91 dias, os resultados indicaram que as dietas com ração resultaram em melhores ganhos em peso e crescimento específico (P < 0,05. A tilápia-do-Nilo, mesmo sendo uma espécie omnívora, aceitou bem as dietas compostas pelas espécies de peixes marinhos utilizadas neste trabalho. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentação de peixes, aqüicultura alternativa, Oreochromis niloticus. The objective of this work was to verify the use of marine fish on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, growth performance. Sixty three Nile tilapia juveniles, with an average weight and length of 3.059±0.846 g and 44.1±4.0 mm to treatment with ration, 3.015±0.892 g and 44.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pellona harroweri and 2.736±0.803 g and 43.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pomadasys croco, were stocked into nine floating cages with 2 m3 (seven fish per cage, in a complete randomized design with three treatments (ration to fish with 28% PB, P. harroweri and P. croco, in three replicates each. After ninety one days, results showed that diet with ration produced a better weight gain, specific growth rate (P < 0.05. The Nile tilapia is an omnivorous species, but fed on marine fish used in this work. KEY- WORDS: Alternatives aquaculture, feeding of fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

  13. Sustainable alternative for use of waste from pruning deriving from power distribution networks maintenance; Alternativa sustentavel para utilizacao de residuos de poda provenientes da manutencao das redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Cristiane Lima; Grisoli, Renata; Gavioli, Fabio; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: cenbio@iee.usp.br; Carmelo, Silma [AES Eletropaulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the environmental issue, the increasing production of solid residues seems to be a problem due to scarcity of methods and solutions for the management. This article presents a project that has as objective to make a survey of the impacts caused by urban pruning residues generated by the electric energy concessionaire AES Eletropaulo, besides developing a method to standardize this residues composting. The obtained results refer to the observation that 50% of the cities that participated on the survey discard the residues in dumps or sanitary landfills, while only 8% perform composting. In the experimental composting plant built, the organic compound obtained reached satisfactory levels of quality with related to the specifications of minimum quality, but showed that humidity should be better controlled. The feasibility of implementing a composting plant was established, with the exception that the higher the production, the better the return on initial investment. Based in the concepts of environmental and social responsibility, we expect that the conclusion of this work can assist the civil, public and private sectors to contribute with the sustainable development. (author)

  14. Extração de espécies metálicas de resíduo sólido proveniente da pirólise de borra de petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Graziela da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Nas refinarias e unidades de extração de petróleo, grandes quantidades de borras oleosas são geradas dos processos de extração do petróleo, refinamento do óleo cru e limpeza de equipamentos e dutos em geral. Atualmente, são produzidas cerca de 500 m3/mês deste resíduo na Petrobras (UNSEAL) as quais são acumuladas em diques de contenção. A disposição das borras é um problema para as indústrias petrolíferas, devido ao alto teor de compostos perigosos na sua composição, como as espécies ...

  15. Caracterização do resíduo sólido proveniente do processo galvânico para valoração econômica ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Lucas Campaner; Seo,Emília Satoshi Miyamaru

    2014-01-01

    O processo galvânico consiste na deposição de uma camada fina de metal sobre uma superfície metálica ou plástica. Este processo gera grande volume de efluentes que devem ser tratados para atender as legislações ambientais. O sistema de tratamento de efluentes é responsável pela geração do resíduo sólido galvânico, também chamado de lodo galvânico. As análises químicas e físico-químicas realizadas demonstram que o sistema de tratamento da empresa em estudo opera incorretamente, produzindo lodo...

  16. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada fruto foi pesado e teve o diâmetro e volume medidos. Para análise anatômica foram retiradas amostras do pericarpo de dez frutos, que foram embebidas em glicol metacrilato, seccionadas com 6 mm de espessura, coradas com azul de toluidina e montadas em lâminas permanentes. A análise anatômica e as ilustrações foram feitas em microscópio fotônico Olympus e Zeiss com câmara fotográfica acoplada. As amostras obtidas pelo sistema de cultivo orgânico apresentaram maior massa, diâmetro, volume e densidade. O pericarpo, dos frutos do cultivo convencional, apresentou células maiores e em menor número em relação ao pericarpo dos frutos hidropônicos e orgânicos.

  17. Destinação de águas residuárias provenientes do processo de dessalinização por osmose reversa Disposal of wastewater from desalination process by reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales M. Soares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, inúmeros aparelhos de dessalinização por osmose reversa foram instalados no Brasil, sobretudo na Região Nordeste, onde se têm, historicamente, graves problemas econômicos e sociais devido à escassez de água. A dessalinização das águas pode constituir-se em uma ferramenta concreta de desenvolvimento regional no semi-árido do Nordeste brasileiro; entretanto, é necessário que se considerem os riscos ambientais decorrentes, isto porque, na dessalinização se gera, além da água potável, uma água residuária (rejeito, altamente salina e de poder poluente elevado. No presente texto são revisados trabalhos conduzidos no Brasil e em outros paises, os quais utilizam diversas alternativas para a destinação e o uso deste rejeito.During the last years, many desalination equipments by reverse osmosis were installed in Brazil, especially in Northeast Region, where, historically, serious socioeconomic problems exist due to water scarcity. Despite water desalinization be able to constitute a concrete tool for the development of Northeast Region, it is necessary to consider the consequent environmental risks, because in desalination process, besides the potable water a wastewater (reject, highly salty and pollutant is also generared. In the present article, studies conducted in Brazil and in other countries are revised which present alternatives for disposal and use of this reject.

  18. Endophytic fungi of the Genus Penicillium isolated of Platypodium elegans from environments of high dose rate of ionizing radiation; Fungos endofiticos do genero Penicillium isolados de Platypodium elegans provenientes de locais de alta taxa de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Victor da

    1999-07-01

    The present work had as objective to isolate and to identify endophytic microorganisms and were exposed to stress situations, using for this ionizing radiations, these highly mutagen and in high doses, lethal to all the alive organisms. The endophytic microorganisms were obtained the starting from the species arboreal Platypodium elegans Vog., one of them developed in radioactive land in the area of Ipora/Go and other, developed in land Background in the city of Abadia de Goias/GO. The rates of dose of environmental radiation were shown sharply different, being in Ipora (Anomaly 2) with a value of approximately 140 {mu}R/h and in Abadia de Goias with approximately 20 {mu}R/H, both measured the area of root of the tree close to. Tests through PCR-RAPD were accomplished with the isolated ones, for verification of the similarity of its genetic characteristics and possible polymorphism among its DNA's . The isolated ones were studied with relationship to the effects of the gamma radiation, being used as source {sup 60} Co, with doses of 25 to 2131 Gy. These lineages had the same behavior practically with relationship to the resistance of the gamma radiation, declining strongly at levels of approximately 700 Gy. The isolated ones tested were identified at microscope for morphology, being of the Genus Penicillium, with the same genetic characteristics in agreement with PCR/RAPD, being just observed a polymorphism area in its DNA's. In spite of a lineage to have been isolated of a tree developed in radioactive land, any difference was observed among its resistance to the gamma radiation in comparison to the isolated lineage of tree developed in land radiometric background. (author)

  19. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results; Concentracao de Rn-222 e filhos em aguas provenientes de pocos e emergencias de agua da regiao de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Quimica e Biologia; Aguiar, Claudinei Rodrigues de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  20. Deslocamento miscível de nitrato e fosfato proveniente de água residuária da suinocultura em colunas de solo Miscible displacement of nitrate and phosphate from swine wastewater in soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo H. Anami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fertirrigação com águas residuárias da suinocultura vem sendo muito difundida no País, principalmente na região sul do Brasil, entretanto, o alto potencial poluidor dos dejetos pode tornar-se uma ameaça de contaminação de solos e águas superficiais e subterrâneas se utilizados em quantidades excessivas. Neste trabalho o objetivo principal foi avaliar o processo de lixiviação de íons nitrato e fosfato em colunas de solo, obtendo-se os coeficientes de dispersão hidrodinâmico e o fator de retardamento para a determinação do potencial de contaminação dos lençóis de água subterrâneos. Verificou-se, ainda, o efeito da aplicação de águas residuárias da suinocultura tratada com reatores anaeróbios sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do solo, cujos resultados indicaram que o potencial de contaminação dos lençóis de água subterrâneos pelo íon nitrato é elevado, ao contrário do que ocorre com o íon fosfato, que apresentou baixo potencial de contaminação em função da sua alta reatividade.Fertigation with wastewater from swine is very much used, mainly in the southern region of Brazil. However, the high polluting potential of these wastewaters represents a threat of soil contamination of surface and underground waters if used in excessive amounts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the leaching process of nitrate and phosphate ions in soil columns, getting the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient and factor of retardation and potential of contamination of underground water. The effect of wastewater application on physical and chemical properties of the soil was verified. The results showed that the potential for contamination of underground water by nitrate ions is high, in contrast to what occurs with phosphate ions that presented low potential of contamination due to their high reactivity.

  1. Diseño e implementación de una base de datos para recogida y análisis de datos de actividad física provenientes de dispositivos wearables

    OpenAIRE

    López Ramírez, Mari Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en diseñar e implementar un sistema de información alojado en una base de datos Oracle, con el fin de dar respuesta al proyecto Big Data, cuyo objetivo es cruzar los datos de salud y los datos de actividad física de los ciudadanos europeos. Aquest projecte consisteix en dissenyar i implementar un sistema d'informació allotjat en una base de dades Oracle, per tal de donar resposta al projecte Big Data, l'objectiu és creuar les dades de salut i les dades d'activitat fí...

  2. El decomiso tras la reforma efectuada por la LO 1/2015 en relacion con los delitos provenientes de la criminalidad organizada: especialmente en el tráfico de drogas y el blanqueo de capitales

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Ruiz, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de Grado. Grado en Derecho. Curso académico 2016-2017 [ES] En el presente trabajo se aborda el tema del decomiso analizado a la luz de las reformas efectuadas por el legislador nacional, como ocurre con la LO 1/2015 que amplía el decomiso sin sentencia, el decomiso ampliado y el decomiso de bienes de terceros, así como la legislación supranacional que entiende que esta figura es un medio eficaz para la lucha contra la delincuencia organizada, porque garantiza que el delito n...

  3. Considerations on the dispatch out of economic merit order regarding to energy from thermal plants; Consideracoes sobre o despacho fora da ordem de merito economico referente a energia proveniente de usinas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makaron, Paula [Service Energy, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: paula@servicegroup.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper present a brief overview of the methodology of centralized order carried by the National System Operator (NSO) and analyze the theoretical and political questions involved: (a) orders out of merit, triggered by exceeding the Risk Curve Aversion (RCA), and (b) in other orders authorized by the Monitoring Committee of the Electricity Sector (MCES). In this context, we discuss the consequences of those orders outside the order of merit of thermoelectric plants with an average cost of generating considerably superior to optimized cost calculated by computer models Newave / Decomp. This analysis is based on the comparison of historical data made available by the ONS, National Energy Agency (ANEEL) and Board of Electric Energy Commercialization (CCEE) in the years 2007 to 2009. (author)

  4. Reuse of sludge from galvanotechnik industrial activity in the manufacture of concrete blocks for paving (PAVERS); Reutilizacao de lodo proveniente de atividade galvanotecnica industrial na fabricacao de blocos de concreto para pavimentacao (PAVERS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, J.M; Almeida, P.H.S.; Tavares, C.R.G., E-mail: phsoal@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Sgorlon, J.G. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Apucarana, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study was to evaluate the interface replacing the cement by galvanic sludge (5-25%) in the production of concrete block paving analyzing the mechanical and microstructural effects of substitution. The results of the blocks produced with 5% of slude had values of compressive strength greater than 35 MPa and lower compared to the reference blocks with 28 days, the interface in cement paste by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of empty capillary arrays of crystalline ettringite (C6AS3H32) and calcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) responsible for the compressive strength and decrease the intensity of the peaks of quartz with respect to the reference blocks, revealing the promising applicability and feasibility of using waste electroplating in the construction industry. (author)

  5. Avaliação da estabilidade da emulsão óleo/água proveniente dos resíduos de uma indústria beneficiadora de gemas frente ao uso de diferentes surfactantes

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Stülp; Max Alan Ritter; Fernanda Cristina Wiedusch Sindelar

    2013-01-01

    A reutilização dos resíduos gerados pelos diversos setores industriais é uma prática que cada dia é mais utilizado, devido ao comprometimento das indústrias com sua responsabilidade social (proteção ao ambiente) ou a exigências dos órgãos de proteção ambiental, já que muitos resíduos não possuem o devido descarte. Na indústria de beneficiamento de gemas a busca pelo reaproveitamento dos resíduos também tem se tornado uma realidade. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o reaproveitame...

  6. Avaliação das contribuições de água de chuva provenientes de ligações domiciliares em sistema de esgotamento sanitário separador absoluto

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolino, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os sistemas de esgotamento sanitário do tipo separador absoluto são concebidos de maneira que não devam sofrer com a interferência das águas pluviais, sendo que estas devem ser direcionadas aos sistemas de drenagem pública. No entanto, a água de chuva é comum na operação deste tipo de sistema. A interferência da água de chuva se dá por meio de infiltrações no sistema ou por afluxo direto ou indireto. A infiltração pode ser definida como sendo a água pluvial ou de lençol freático que p...

  7. Diagnóstico y caracterización molecular de aislamientos de Mycosphaerella sp. Provenientes de plantaciones de banano y plátano de diferentes regiones de Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea Arango Irene

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, agente causal de la Sigatoka negra, afecta dramáticamente la producción comercial de banano y plátano en la mayoría de las regiones productoras del mundo. En Colombia, la sigatoka negra se observó por primera vez en 1981 en la zona bananera del Urabá y desde entonces se disemino a todas las regiones, Atlantico, Pacifico, Centro y Oriente del país. En el 2000 la enfermedad fue encontrada en el Choco, zona del Pacifico Colombiano cubierta completamente por selva y que presenta cultivos de plátano en pequeñas parcelas al borde del rio Atrato, la única vía de acceso a la región. En este trabajo se realizó una prueba molecular de diagnóstico a 21 cepas de Mycosphaerella spp. Aisladas de diferentes zonas y se estudió la diversidad genética del patógeno en algunas regiones de Colombia utilizando marcadores RAPD’s. En total se obtuvieron 26 bandas polimórficas con los cebadores OPM01, OPM5 Y OPM20. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere que las cepas del Choco provienen de la zona del Urabá antioqueño y que en la zona de Santa Marta se presenta una subpoblación del patógeno diferente de las cepas del resto del país.

  8. COMPORTAMENTO DE ADESÃO DA MADEIRA DE UM HÍBRIDO CLONAL DE EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA × EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS PROVENIENTE DE TRÊS CONDIÇÕES DE MANEJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-01-01

    treatments on the adhesive used. We evaluated the shear strength by compression tests and the percentage of wood failure in the glue line. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the adhesion had satisfactory performance with all the resins used, and the average values of shear strength of the glue line were shown to be equivalent to the shear strength of solid wood only for the samples which adhered with 'Wonderbond' adhesive and also provide higher values for wood failure (97.64%. The highest density present in the wood of the second stratum (E2 influenced only sticking with the resorcinol formaldehyde resin. For polyvinyl acetate (Cascorez 2590, shear values decreased in the third management condition (E3.

  9. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DO CIRCOVÍRUS SUÍNO TIPO 2 E DO PARVOVÍRUS SUÍNO EM FETOS SUÍNOS NATIMORTOS E MUMIFICADOS PROVENIENTES DE GRANJAS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Leal Rocha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of genome sequences of the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV in 147 porcine stillbirths and mummified fetuses. These samples, originated from 39 farms located in eight Brazilian states, were collected between 2006 and 2008. Heart and lung fragments were used for extraction of total DNA and later amplification of correspondent fragments of the virus pathogens through polymerasechain reaction (PCR technique. Out of 147 samples, 74 (50.3% were positive for PCV2 while nine samples (6.2% were positive for PCV2 and PPV. None of the samples were positive just for PPV. Out of 39 investigated farms, 21 (53.8% had fetuses positive for PCV2 while co-infection with PCV2 and PPV was detected in 3 farms (7.7%. These results indicate that PCV2 could be an important infection agent in cases of porcine stillbirths and mummified fetuses in Brazil and must be included at differential diagnostic list.KEY WORDS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV, reproductive failure, swine.

  10. EVALUACIÓN Y REGULACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS EN UN EQUIPO DISEÑADO PARA LA DISMINUCIÓN DE CROMO(VI), PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS GALVÁNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Niño, Gema Eunice; Bourdón García, Alejandro; Coy Barrera, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN Con el fin de generar los medios necesarios para poder llevar a cabo las pruebas de remoción de cromo(VI) en aguas residuales de la industria galvánica, se realizó la captura de datos a partir de prototipo de equipo inicial a escala de laboratorio para conseguir el objetivo principal, disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales contaminadas con diferentes metales. Es así que con los datos obtenidos en el presente estudio se plantearon algunas modificaciones necesarias para me...

  11. EVALUACIÓN Y REGULACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS EN UN EQUIPO DISEÑADO PARA LA DISMINUCIÓN DE CROMO(VI), PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS GALVÁNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gema Eunice Acosta Niño; Alejandro Bourdón García; Carlos Andrés Coy Barrera

    2013-01-01

    Con el fin de generar los medios necesarios para poder llevar a cabo las pruebas de remoción de cromo(VI) en aguas residuales de la industria galvánica, se realizó la captura de datos a partir de prototipo de equipo inicial a escala de laboratorio para conseguir el objetivo principal, disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales contaminadas con diferentes metales. Es así que con los datos obtenidos en el presente estudio se plantearon algunas modificaciones necesarias para mejorar la...

  12. Enraizamento de estacas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. provenientes de brotações rejuvenescidas Rooting of "erva-mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. cuttings from rejuvenated sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitencourt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. é espécie nativa da América do Sul, de grande importância econômica devido a seu consumo na forma de chás e também vem sendo amplamente estudada nas áreas de farmacologia e biotecnologia. No entanto, tem baixo capacidade de propagação, seja ela sexuada ou assexuada. Um dos principais efeitos da maturação é a perda da capacidade de enraizamento, desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos observar a influência do rejuvenescimento e aplicação de ácido indol butírico (IBA no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de erva-mate. Foram confeccionadas estacas a partir de brotações do ano de árvores de 13 anos, assim como de brotos rejuvenescidos, obtidos da decepa de árvores com 17 anos. As estacas foram tratadas com IBA em solução nas seguintes concentrações: 0, 1500, 3000, 4500 e 6000 mg L-1, resultando em 5 tratamentos para cada tipo de estaca. O plantio foi realizado em caixas plásticas preenchidas com vermiculita e casca-de-arroz carbonizada na proporção de 1:1 e após 90 dias em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes/estaca, comprimento das 3 maiores raízes/estaca, porcentagem de estacas vivas, com calos e mortas. A análise estatística mostrou que o material rejuvenescido apresentou os melhores resultados quanto à porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, assim como de número e comprimento de raízes. Já a aplicação da auxina sintética não influenciou no enraizamento das estacas de nenhum dos dois tipos, de modo que os tratamentos com IBA não diferiram entre si estatisticamente."Erva-mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. is native to South America and has great economic importance due to its consumption as tea; it has also been studied in pharmacology and biotechnology. However, this species has low propagation ability, either sexually or not. One of the main effects of maturation is the loss of rooting ability; thus, this paper aimed to verify the influence of rejuvenation and application of indolebutyric acid (IBA on the rooting of stem cuttings from "erva-mate". Cuttings were obtained using sprouts of the year from 13-year-old trees and rejuvenated sprouts from stump regrowth of 17-year-old trees. Cuttings were treated with IBA solution at the following concentrations: 0, 1500, 300, 4500 and 6000 mg L-1, resulting in 5 treatments for each cutting type. Planting was done in plastic containers filled with vermiculite and carbonized rice bark at 1:1 proportion. After 90 days in greenhouse, cuttings were evaluated for the following variables: percentage of cuttings with roots, number of roots/cutting, length of the three largest roots/cutting, and percentage of live cuttings, those with callus and dead ones. Statistical analysis indicated that the rejuvenated material had the best results concerning percentage of cuttings with root, and number and length of roots. The application of synthetic auxin did not influence the rooting of cuttings from neither type, so that IBA treatments did not differ statistically.

  13. Avaliação do desempenho do sistema UV/H2O2 no tratamento de efluentes provenientes do processo de tratamento térmico de emulsões de água e óleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented the results of bench scale tests using Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP in a UV/H2O2 system, for the treatment of an industrial effluent with a high concentration of dissolved organic matter, resulted from thermal treatment of oil-water emulsions. Treatability tests were carried out in a batch photochemical system with recycle, and the raw effluent was characterized by the analysis of pH, turbidity, color, COD and TOC. Results from these assays shown that UV/H2O2 process is technically feasible resulting in TOC removal above 90%. However, for one log TOC removal from this effluent the energy required was about 455.5 kw.h.m-3, for an alpha relation of 10 mg H2O2/mg COT, resulting in a higher operational cost, considering the evaluated conditions.

  14. USO DE PALHA DE AÇO COMERCIAL PARA O TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTES CONTENDO CROMO HEXAVALENTE PROVENIENTES DE PROCESSOS DE ELETROCOLORAÇÃO DE AÇOS INOXIDÁVEIS

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    Kallyni Irikura

    Full Text Available Residual solutions containing Cr(VI ions can be harmful to the environment as well as to human health. Hence, practical and efficient methods for the treatment of such solutions are welcome. In this note, the treatment with commercial steel wool pads of a Cr(VI residual solution from electrochemical coloration processes of stainless steel is described in detail. Successful treatment was achieved when an amount of steel wool equivalent to 20% in excess in relation to the theoretical stoichiometric amount was used, followed by chemical precipitation with sodium hydroxide up to pH 10-11 and separation by filtration under reduced pressure. The treatment yielded a final solution with concentrations of Cr(III and Cr(VI ions of only 0.29 ± 0.02 mg L-1 and < 0.01 mg L-1, respectively. These concentration values are significantly lower than the maximum limits established by CONAMA for industrial wastewaters, attesting the efficiency of the treatment.

  15. Fotocatálisis con TiO2/ultravioleta y TiO2 CuSO4/visible como sistemas de desinfección para inactivar E. coli proveniente de agua residual doméstica

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva Jaramillo, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    El proceso de interés fue la fotocatálisis heterogénea con TiO2. Se elaboraron películas con el TiO2, sinterizadas a diferentes temperaturas, por la técnica sol-gel/sedimentación. Se realizó una caracterización física mediante: XRD, SEM, barrido UV-Vis y EDS. Por XRD se encontró para películas sol-gel la fase cristalina anatasa con planos (101), (004), (200), (105) y (211) el control TiO2 USP presentó las fases anatasa y rutilo. La mayor formación de agregados se observó en películas control ...

  16. Caracterización molecular de 297 genotipos de trigo (triticum aestivum l.) provenientes del centro internacional de mejoramiento de maíz y trigo e inferencia de su estructura genética.

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Carrillo, Miguel Eduardo; Falconí, Esteban; Morillo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Proyecto PIC-12-INIAP-001: Desarrollo e innovación biotecnológica para la potenciación de rubros agrícolas de importancia en seguridad alimentaria, competitividad exportable y adaptación al cambio En la actualidad el cultivo de trigo se ve afectado por la roya amarilla y fusariosis de la espiga, razón por la cual es necesario contar con información genotípica para mantener e incrementar el acervo genético de las variedades disponibles. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracteri...

  17. Análise epidemiológica de isolados clínicos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes de hospital universitário Epidemiologic analysis of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from an university hospital

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    Eduardo José Valença Cordeiro Pires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno oportunista que tem se destacado quanto à prevalência em casos de infecções hospitalares. Sua ampla resistência aos diversos grupos de antimicrobianos garante a este microrganismo um papel de destaque entre as bactérias mais prevalentes associadas à infecção nosocomial. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento epidemiológico da P. aeruginosa, bem como do seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo baseado no livro de registro de secreções diversas do laboratório de bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas no período compreendido entre janeiro a junho de 2008. Entre os registros, identificamos aqueles que foram positivos para a P. aeruginosa, analisando sua origem e perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizados na rotina daquele laboratório. RESULTADOS: As bactérias mais freqüentes, isoladas das secreções diversas, foram P. aeruginosa (26% e S. aureus (25%. Quanto à origem, a P. aeruginosa foi isolada principalmente de infecções respiratórias, pois 33% das amostras positivas para esta bactéria foram provinientes de secreções traqueais e 21% nasais. Os antimicrobianos mais eficazes contra a P. aeruginosa foram: amicacina, imipenem, meropenem e aztreonam. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados mostram uma alta prevalência de P. aeruginosa, no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Apesar de apresentar grande resistência a antimicrobianos mais antigos como as cefalosporinas de primeira e segunda geração, assim como cloranfenicol, em geral, este patógeno demonstrou boa sensibilidade às drogas utilizadas na rotina deste hospital.OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an increasingly prevalent opportunistic pathogen in hospital infection cases. Its high resistance rates to many antimicrobials has given this microorganism a relevant role among other highly prevalent bacteria involved in nosocomial infections. This study aimed to analyze epidemiologic characteristics of P. aeruginosa and to evaluate its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents at Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco METHODS: A retrospective study was performed based on the registry book of miscellaneous secretions from the bacteriology laboratory of the Hospital das Clínicas involving the period between January and June 2008. Among the secretions registered, were identified the positives samples for P. aeruginosa, whose origin was analyzed, as well as its susceptibility profile to routinely used in our laboratory antimicrobials. RESULTS: The bacteria most frequently isolated from miscellaneous secretions bacteria were P. aeruginosa (26% and S. aureus (25%. P. aeruginosa was mainly isolated from respiratory infections, with 33% of positive samples for this organism from tracheal secretions and 21% from nasal. The most effective antimicrobials against P. aeruginosa were: amikacin, imipenem, meropenem and aztreonam. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high prevalence of P. aeruginosa in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Despite featuring high resistance rates to older antimicrobials, as cephalosporins first and second generations and chloramphenicol, this pathogen showed good susceptibility to agents routinely used in this hospital.

  18. Vitrification of nanotoxic waste (Ru) from the production of nano-catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells; Vitrificacao de nano-residuos toxicos (Ru) provenientes da producao de nano-catalisadores para celulas a combustivel de etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C.; Julio-Junior, O.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nanostructured catalysts have been developed for ethanol directly use in fuel cells, which due to the economic advantages that should have widespread use in the near future. The catalysts for these devices using nano-structured metal are based, where the toxic nature and environmental risks presented by these metals are largely enhanced by nano-dispersion. Thus, the production of nano-catalysts are potentially generating highly hazardous waste for public health and the environment. This study presents the treatment and inertization of ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles waste containing by the vitrification technique and consequent attainment of silicate glasses for potential commercial use. Compositions were prepared containing up to about 20 wt % of nano-waste by changing the basic composition of glass soda-lime-borosilicate. After the fusion, at a temperature of 1100 deg C, the glasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infra-red in the Fourier transform (FT-IR) techniques. The chemical stability was evaluated by hydrolytic attack test. The glass containing 20 wt % of nano-residue showed a high chemical stability, similar to a usual soda-lime glass. (author)

  19. Comparison of the microstructure and composition of aboriginal ceramics, from indigenous site Caninhas, with the obtained ones in the region; Comparacao da microestrutura e da composicao de ceramicas indigenas provenientes do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, com as obtidas atualmente na regiao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, C.C.; Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Camargo-Vernilli, D., E-mail: cristhian@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J. L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2009-07-01

    The archaeological site of Caninhas is made of funeral and combustion structures and various objects of aboriginal daily use. These parts and fragments were safe and inventoried, constituting approximately 4000 units. The objective of this project was to analyze the microstructure and composition of archaeological ceramics, and ceramics made of argil current of the zone. The crystalline phases were identified by X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), elementary composition was obtained by X-Rays Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and the microstructure was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Composition and microstructure of archaeological ceramics are different of current ceramics, indicating the effect of lixiviation in function of the time and the microstructural evolution due different ceramic processing. These results are valuable for the archaeological area studies, mainly for the cultural denoting which represents. The relation between some studies is basic to add knowledge: use of the ceramic materials engineering for archaeology application. (author)

  20. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: marvinchp@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2011-07-01

    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  1. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  2. Determinación de la presencia de nitratos/nitritos y manganeso en el agua proveniente del pozo que alimenta la zona baja del cantón Huaquillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Samaniego , Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the levels of nitrates, nitrites and manganese in thewaterfromthe "Parador Turístico" well; in additionthe presence of pathogens and its influence on the health of theinhabitants of the La Primavera, Miraflores, 24 de Mayo, Milton Reyes, and 9 de Octubre citadelsfromthelowerpart of theHuaquillascanton. Five points of water samples from the study area were taken, as well as 379 inhabitants were surveyed. From the obtained analysis, the levels of nitrate and manganesepresent in the “Parador Turístico” wellwater and the water sampling points citadels were verified and assessed; these results are below and above the allowable limits for human consumption, respectively, therefore it affects the quality of water, in addition there is a high presence of pathogens in the sector water. Accordingly, it was concluded that this represents potential problems to the health of the population which makes use of it. 50% of the people surveyed considered that the water quality from the public network is regular, and 64% of the population considers that it is not suitable for consumption

  3. Clonación y micropropagación de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey a partir de embriones somáticos provenientes de hojas | Cloning and micropropagation of banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey from leaf somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Pilar Acosta-Zambrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey is a fruit from the Andean region and is used as raw material for the preparation of various food products. Tests were carried out for its in vitro multiplication using somatic embryos obtained from its leaves. A disinfection using sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes and Murashige and Skoog (MS growth medium protocols with 1 mg/L of gibberellins was designed in order to induce germination. Vitro explants were selected for the multiplication in the MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine and 1 mg/L of naphthenic acid. The stronger leaves were selected and inoculated in the MS medium and Woody Plant (WPM. The formation of embryos was observed since the third week. The formed plants were inoculated in a WPM medium with 1 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine. A 2-ip WPM 1 mg/L medium was used for the rooting period. Finally, they were acclimatized in peat with earth or pearlite, and then planted in pots with earth for further studies. Seed disinfection using sodium hypochlorite presented 20% contamination and 80% of plants germination, proving to be the best disinfectant (p < 0.05. From this last procedure, somatic embryos of leaves in a 2-ip WPM with 1 mg/L were obtained. The ideal acclimatization occurred in the medium with peat and earth, in which case the survival level obtained was 100% by comparison with earth and pearlite, in which no plant growth was observed. Micropropagation represents an economic and effective technique in the breeding of pathogen-free plants.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade da água proveniente de estações de tratamento de água salobra na zona rural do município de Mossoró, RN

    OpenAIRE

    Cosme, Christiano Rebouças

    2011-01-01

    No Brasil, principalmente na região semiárida, um grande desafio é promover o abastecimento de água às famílias residentes nas áreas rurais. As águas subterrâneas são apontadas como uma alternativa viável para garantir o acesso das comunidades rurais do nordeste à água, a partir de investimentos públicos na perfuração de poços tubulares. Entretanto, essas fontes hídricas apresentam na maioria dos casos restrições de uso para dessedentamento humano, por apresentarem problemas de...

  5. Caracterización por cromatografía de gases y evaluación de la actividad citotóxica del aceite esencial de Salvia occidentalis Sw. (Lamiaceae proveniente del estado Monagas, Venezuela

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    José G. Lanza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Salvia occidentalis Sw. (Lamiaceae, collected in Venezuela, Monagas state, an essential oil was obtained by steam distillation. It is a yellow oil with an agreeable odor, and its toxic activity was determined by the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linn. assay. The essential oil had a LC50 value of 2.60μg/mL-1 which indicate cytotoxicity. CG/MS analysis showed that the oil is a mixture of some terpenes, where β-elemene (20,348% is the major constituent. The identification of compounds was determined by comparing the experimental retention index with those reported in the literature. This is the first report of chemical compounds for this essential oil.

  6. Argamassa com areia proveniente da britagem de resíduo de construção civil – Avaliação de características físicas e mecânicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Lia Lorena; Pissolato Junior, Osvaldo; Jacintho, Ana Elisabete Paganelli Guimarães de A.; Martins, Heline Laura de Sousa

    2018-01-01

    RESUMO A preocupação com o meio ambiente, devido a grande quantidade de resíduos da construção civil que são descartados de forma inadequada, incentivou o processamento destes com o intuito de retorná-los ao sistema produtivo. Os estudos com o objetivo de intensificar o reaproveitamento dos resíduos da construção civil se intensificaram recentemente, desenvolvendo normas para produção, avaliação e utilização dos agregados reciclados, para os quais o consumo ainda é incipiente. Para o desenvol...

  7. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar state –Venezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma así como el perfil de ácidos grasos. Se seleccionaron aleatoriamente tres muestras de harina de caribe en locales comerciales ubicados en Caicara del Orinoco, estado Bolívar-Venezuela y se les determinó los contenidos de: humedad (6,00 ± 0,45 %, proteína cruda (N x 6,25: 52,78 ± 2,36 %, grasa cruda (22,47 ± 1,08 % y ceniza total (24,58 ± 3,12 %. El contenido de materia grasa fue extraído con n-hexano y se le determinó: Acidez libre (5,66 ± 0,15 % p/p como ácido oleico, índice de peróxidos (23,50 ± 1,02 meq O2/kg, índice de yodo (152,2 ± 0,5 cg I2/g, índice de saponificación (186,5 ± 0,3 mg KOH/g y materia insaponificable (2,3 ± 0,4 g/kg. El perfil de ácidos grasos, obtenido por cromatografía de gas, mostró una relación de ácidos grasos insaturados / ácidos grasos saturados de 5,62, donde el 59,9 % de los ácidos fueron de monoinsaturados y el 25,0 % poliinsaturados. La harina de caribe evaluada es una importante fuente de nutrientes de potencial utilidad como materia prima en alimentación animal.

  8. UTILIZAÇÃO DE MISTURAS DE CAVACOS INDUSTRIAIS COM RESÍDUOS DE SERRARIA PROVENIENTES DE MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis DE DIFERENTES IDADES PARA PRODUÇÃO DE PASTA KRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Maron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade técnica do uso conjunto de resíduos de serraria (costaneiras dentre outros e topos de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis com 15 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de madeira sólida, com madeira de árvores de plantio industrial, com 7 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de pasta kraft. São apresentados modelos úteis à realização de estimativas de alturas total e comercial e de volumes de madeira comercial e adequadas para serraria, todos baseados no DAP. São fornecidos dados anatômicos, de densidade básica e de composição química de misturas desses tipos de materiais. Mostra-se que é tecnicamente viável realizar deslignificações kraft com misturas contendo madeira comercial de Eucalyptus grandis 7 anos com resíduo de serraria ou topos de árvores. A deslignificação kraft de resíduos de serraria resulta em perda rápida de rendimento, mas a pasta produzida sob as mesmas condições apresenta número Kappa menor que a de Eucalyptus grandis com 7 anos. A deslignificação de topos de árvores resulta em perda de rendimento bruto, mas o consumo específico de madeira é menor. Conforme aumenta a madeira de topo nas misturas, ocorre um aumento na densidade básica, o comprimento médio das fibras fica praticamente o mesmo e um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina; há diminuição nos extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1%. Diminui um pouco o rendimento bruto em pasta, mas praticamente não afeta o número Kappa, caindo sensivelmente o consumo específico de madeira. Com o aumento de madeira de resíduo de serraria das árvores nas misturas, praticamente não há efeito sobre a densidade básica, mas o comprimento médio das fibras aumenta, ocorrendo também um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina. Os extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1% diminuem. O rendimento bruto em pasta cai um pouco, mas com uma queda sensível no número Kappa, sem afetar praticamente o consumo específico de madeira. Em suma, para um mesmo número Kappa, as condições de cozimento podem ser menos drásticas para se obter um mesmo resultado final, podendo significar uma redução no consumo de reagentes durante seu processamento. E como o comprimento médio das fibras sofreu um pequeno acréscimo, a pasta resultante certamente apresentará maior resistência mecânica e, conseqüentemente, um papel de melhor qualidade.

  9. Estudio tafonómico y tecnológico de un útil doble “cincel/retocador”, proveniente del nivel C (Musteriense de Axlor –Dima, Bizkaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán MOZOTA HOLGUERAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La industria en hueso del Paleolítico medio es una realidad compleja, que requiere de un enfoque distinto al aplicado hasta el momento, heredero de los estudios del Paleolítico superior. La existencia de esta clase de utillaje en hueso, a menudo llamado “poco elaborado”, es una realidad constatada en numerosos yacimientos de Paleolítico medio. Debido a inercias investigadoras, dicho utillaje no ha recibido la atención debida, para comprender su dimensión económica y social, en las actividades cotidianas de los grupos neandertales. El yacimiento de Paleolítico medio de Axlor (Dima, Bizkaia ha proporcionado un conjunto de útiles en hueso, en el marco de las excavaciones en curso. Este trabajo presenta el estudio de un útil óseo de doble función, hallado en el nivel C –Musteriense– de Axlor. Dicho útil se utilizó a modo de “cincel”, en tareas que implican movimientos de percusión y flexión, y –asimismo– como retocador, para trabajar la industria lítica. El análisis realizado combina aspectos tafonómicos, morfométricos y traceológicos (huellas de uso, para ofrecer una visión tecnológica de la obtención y utilización del soporte. Se ha establecido un desarrollo diacrónico para los trabajos que fueron realizados con el útil (una esquirla alargada y plana de húmero de Bos/Bison. La utilización como “cincel” se interrumpe con la fractura del extremo proximal del soporte, y el uso como retocador es posterior.ABSTRACT: Middle Palaeolithic bone tools are a complex reality. The most usual approach derives from the studies of Upper Palaeolithic bone industries, and there is a need for a different one. Those bone tools, often called “sparsely elaborated”, actually appear in many Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites. Due to research biases, those asemblages haven’t received the propper attention, wich makes imposible to understand its true economic and social relevance (within the context of the subsistence activities of the Neanderthals. During recent excavations in Axlor (Middle Palaeolithic site in Dima, Bizkaia an ensemble of bone tools has been found. This article presents the study of a double-function bone tool, found in Level “C” –Mousterian– in Axlor. This tool was used as a “chisel”, in jobs wich implied percussion and flexion movements, and –also– as a retouching tool to work the lithic asemblages. My analysis combines tafonomic, morphometric and microwear (traceology approaches, to produce a technological view of the production and use of the bone tool. A diachronic development of the different tasks done with the tool (an ellongated and flat Bos/Bison humerus splinter has been established. The use as a “chisel” is interrupted with the fracture shown in the proximal edge of the tool, and the retouching tasks came after that.

  10. Comportamiento productivo y características de la canal en corderos provenientes de la cruza de ovejas Katahdin con machos de cuatro razas cárnicas especializadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Tatiana Vázquez Soria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño productivo y las características de la canal en corderos procedentes de la cruza de borregas Katahdin (K con sementales Suffolk (S, Texel (T, Charollais (Ch y Dorper (D. Se emplearon 200 borregas que se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cuatro lotes de 50, las cuales fueron inseminadas por laparoscopía con semenfresco. Las crías se pesaron al nacimiento, destete y cada 30 días hasta la matanza. Todos los animales recibieron una dieta integral con 14 % de proteína cruda (PC y 2.9 Mcal EM/kg MS. A los 137±3 días de edad, se sacrificaron 10 corderos de cada tratamiento para valorar en la canal la morfométría, la clasificación, el rendimiento, el pH 24 h, el color en músculo y grasa perirrenal, así como el índice de compacidad de la canal y las dimensiones del músculo L. dorsi. Además, se determinó la composición tisular de la espaldilla. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron como un diseño completamente al azar. Los animales KCh lograron el mayor peso de matanza (46.61±8.50 kg a los 137 días de edad, seguidos por la cruza KD, KS y KT en orden descendente. No se presentaron diferencias (P>0.05 entre KCh, KD y KS en la clasificación, conformación, rendimiento, área del ojo de chuleta e índice de compacidad de la canal, pero todos ellos superaron (P<0.05 a KT en esas mismas variables. Las cruzas KD, KS y KT presentaron mayor porcentaje de músculo (64.72±1.77 % y menor cantidad de grasa (13.83±2.80 % en promedio (P<0.05 que KCh (61.07±2.60 y 18.10±3.30 %, respectivamente.

  11. Evaluación preliminar de depósitos de estériles y sedimentos provenientes de la actividad carbonífera en Río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de décadas de actividad carbonífera en la cuenca de Río Turbio ubicada al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz en la República Argentina, se ha generado una serie de pasivos ambientales entre los cuales se encuentran los depósitos de material estéril denominados escombreras, las piletas de lodos y los sedimentos del curso de agua receptor de efluentes, el arroyo San José. La presencia de estos pasivos, ha ocasionado en distintas partes del mundo complicaciones debido a la naturaleza ácida de las escorrentías que afectan directamente fuentes de agua, superficiales y subterráneas, localizadas en la vecindad de dichos depósitos. El problema se produce cuando dicha acidez no puede ser neutralizada, lo cual ocasiona la generación de lixiviados de metales pesados en las escombreras o redisolución de los que se encuentran depositados como sedimentos en los cursos superficiales. Por tal motivo en este trabajo se realiza una evaluación preliminar del contenido metálico de los depósitos de estériles y de los sedimentos del arroyo San José y de la capacidad de generación ácida de los primeros. Se pretende con ello obtener una información básica que permita un diseño experimental científico para caracterizar dichos depósitos y evaluar el impacto que están produciendo. Como conclusión se pudo corroborar la hipótesis inicial de existencia de contenido metálico en escombreras y sedimentos y un potencial neto de generación ácida de las primeras. Además se determinó la necesidad de investigar el origen de altos contenidos metálicos en sedimentos de zonas alejadas de la producción.

  12. Energetic reuse: the use of energy from organic material from urban waste for plastics recycling; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso de energia proveniente de material organico dos residuos urbanos para reciclar plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Rocha, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    The population growth and the elevation of the purchasing status due to economic development impel the gradual increase of residues produced a year. The discarding of these residues represents a great economic and environmental challenge, mainly because of discarded plastic concentration with no energetic and economic use, a also because of the organic material that, after decomposing, produces methane, one of the most responsible for global heating when in contact with atmosphere with no control. The recycling of plastic residues is a solution to minimize its discard and to guarantee an environmental improvement for saving raw matter, however the high consumption of energy endears the process, making it difficult its economic viability. This takes the search of new alternatives for attainment of low cost energy. In the problem of discard of the organic matter it can be the solution for the recycling of these residues. The decomposition of the organic matter produces fuel (biogas) useful as power plant for the generation of necessary electricity to the recycling process. The present study analyses an alternative to recycle plastic residues, after being consumed, in some places for discarding and using energy from biogas produced in landfills or biodigestors. Initially it was carried through a data-collecting and analysis of the physical composition of the residues, indispensable to the development of the study, which allowed to daily find the average percentage of plastics (12,9%) and organic matter (41,9%) made use by the involved population. On the basis of the data of organic matter the determination in such a way of the potential of generation of the biogas as of the electric power 'recycled' was possible to leave of that they would be discarded without any use. Data-collecting on equipment used in the plastic recycling had been essential for attainment of the necessary average energy demand to the process in such a way not only for soft plastic and PET (2,12 GJ/t) but also for hard plastic (0.11 GJ/t). According to the percentage of plastics to be recycled and the amount of necessary electric power to that end it was verified recycling possibility using 'the recycled' energy of the residues in the city. The electric power generated by the use of biogas, when applying a study of case in the city of Itajuba-MG, possible of obtaining in the landfill (11,5 GJ/day) and will have used biodigestors (14,5 GJ/day) is enough to supply the necessary energy demand for recycling of the hard plastics (0,17 GJ/day), as well as soft plastics and PET (11,2 GJ/day) discarded daily in this city. The recycling of residues plastic powder-consumption using recycled energy of the discarded residues in a municipal district besides carting social and environmental earnings for using less the natural resources, it comes to contribute for the solution of problems related to the final destination of the residues and consequently for the use of the electric power generated with the use of the biogas that has your price reduced to half of the regular one, besides not having tax taking the smaller economical viability when being sold to the c place than your use, what motivates the installation of units of located recycling in the sanitary embankments or in your proximities guaranteeing a larger supporting to the municipal district in what the project intends to be implanted. (author)

  13. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  14. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant; Desenvolvimento de tijolos com incorporacao de cinzas de carvao e lodo provenientes de estacao de tratamento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-07-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  15. Obtention and characterization of ceramic products with addition of the mineral coal bottom ashes from thermoelectric power plants; Obtencao e caracterizacao de produtos ceramicos com a adicao de cinzas pesadas de carvao mineral provenientes de usinas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Brys, M.; Martins, G.J.; Riella, H.G., E-mail: kniesscl@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil); Bernardin, A. [Universidade do Extremo Sul de Santa Catarina (UNESC), SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mineral coal bottom ash derived from thermoelectric power plants are compatible with various raw materials used in ceramic industries, which indicates a possibility of partial or fully substitution of raw materials by this residue. This work intends to obtain and characterize ceramic products with additions of different percentages of bottom ash coal. For this, was used a commercial ceramic body (CI) made by an industry in the state of Santa Catarina. The formulations of the ceramics products were obtained by the mixture design (planning network Simplex). The byproduct of coal bottom ash was found to be an attractive raw material source of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to obtain ceramic materials. Was demonstrated the possibility of developing a ceramic materials classified as semi-porous (6 10) with additions of up to 20% of coal bottom ash in the composition of the ceramic body. (author)

  16. Gestión de los residuos y suelos contaminados provenientes de la minería metálica: aspectos técnicos, problemas ambientales y marco normativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosique López, María Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    [ESP] La minería es una parte vital de la economía global, pero la extracción de metales, metaloides y otros productos minerales genera grandes cantidades de residuos líquidos y sólidos. Actualmente el volumen de residuos se estima en varios miles de millones de toneladas por año, pero está aumentando exponencialmente a medida que la demanda y la explotación de los depósitos de menor calidad siguen incrementándose. Las altas concentraciones de elementos potencialmente tóxicos en estos desecho...

  17. Utilização de técnicas hidrometalúrgicas e eletrometalúrgicas na recuperação de ouro proveniente de sucatas de telefones celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cristina Kasper

    2016-01-01

    A cada ano as reservas naturais de metais preciosos, entre eles o ouro, têm diminuído em todo o mundo. Uma forma de atenuar este problema poderia ser a recuperação dos metais contidos nas sucatas de produtos elétricos e eletrônicos, cujo consumo e descarte aumentam consideravelmente a cada ano. Desta forma, este trabalho teve por objetivo testar alternativas de agentes lixiviantes para a extração do ouro contido nas placas de circuito impresso (PCI) de telefones celulares, e posterior recuper...

  18. Bactérias promotoras de crescimento e adubação nitrogenada no crescimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar proveniente de mudas pré-brotadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Augusto da Silva Gírio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento sobre a formação de mudas pré-brotadas de cana-de-açúcar, oriundas de gemas individualizadas, e quantificar o crescimento inicial dessas mudas, em associação à aplicação de nitrogênio, em solo de baixa fertilidade. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um em casa de vegetação, com duração de 50 dias, e o outro, em vasos no campo, com duração de 180 dias. Em ambos os experimentos, utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x3, no primeiro experimento - com ou sem inoculante, e com três quantidades de reserva nas gemas -, e 2x2x4, no segundo - com ou sem inoculante, com ou sem nitrogênio, avaliados em quatro épocas: aos 45, 90, 135 e 180 dias. O inoculante produziu efeito na fase inicial de crescimento das mudas pré-brotadas, com aumento na velocidade de brotação e no acúmulo da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea, independentemente da quantidade de reserva da gema. No segundo experimento, o inoculante promoveu ganhos no crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, até os 180 dias após o transplantio, com aumento em altura, perfilhamento, diâmetro do colmo, produção da matéria seca de colmos e de palha e do comprimento radicular, independentemente da aplicação de nitrogênio. O inoculante tem efeito fisiológico positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas.

  19. Aplicaciones al análisis automático del contenido provenientes de la teoría matemática de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflexión sintética para revisar las propuestas más relevantes que, siguiendo la teoría matemática de la comunicación de Shannon y Weaver, hayan afectado a los procedimientos del análisis automático del contenido documental. Partiendo del empleo de la teoría matemática en Ciencia de la Información se explican sus aplicaciones metodológicas en nuestra especialidad, en especial respecto a las técnicas de recuperación de la información. Para después describir los modelos matemáticos aplicados al análisis automático del contenido: leyes de Zipf y Goffman, antidiccionarios para índices permutados, Indización Estadística de Términos por Frecuencias, algoritmos n-grams y de stemming, así como los referidos a los métodos de agrupación y clasificación como clusters por valor de discriminación y por relevancia de los términos como son los métodos de agrupación basados en Grafos Teóricos, los basados en Centros de masas, el algoritmo K-vecinos o Kmedias, el K-vecinos axial o incremental, y el algoritmo ISODATA. Para luego exponer los clasificadores cienciométricos como el método de Chen y finalmente los métodos con sistemas de aprendizaje

  20. Obtenção de cermet por tecnologia do pó a partir da utilização da cinza leve proveniente da queima do carvão mineral em termoelétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Brogni

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho busca produzir cermet (Cinza-Fe) pela tecnologia do pó utilizando cinza leve produzida com a queima do carvão mineral em termoelétrica para uma possível utilização e aplicação na usinagem. Esse estudo tem como objetivo específico caracterizar e analisar as propriedades mecânicas e metalúrgicas das amostras obtidas a partir das misturas. Utilizouse o ferro como componente da mistura em função do baixo custo e vasta disponibilidade. Após a obtenção da cinza leve, determinou-se o t...

  1. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident; Recuperacion de hojuelas de Iridio-192 provenientes de una fuente radiactivas de uso industrial despues de un incidente radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: lzapata@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    The Iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m{sup 2}, some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  2. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  3. Logic models from an evaluability assessment of pharmaceutical services for people living with HIV/AIDS Modelos lógicos provenientes de estudo de avaliabilidade da assistência farmacêutica para pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Esher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA with comprehensive, universal, free access to antiretroviral medicines (ARV. Pharmaceutical services are considered a strategic action that has the goal of providing access to rational use of quality medicines while also promoting user satisfaction. User satisfaction is a complex concept, and evaluation models for pharmaceutical services for PLWA were not found in the literature. Therefore, an evaluation approach to help assess this issue had to be developed. This article seeks to describe a theoretical evaluation model of user satisfaction with the dispensing of ARV, developed as part of an Evaluability Assessment (EA. It presents a brief review of the EA and user satisfaction and describes the development of models created during the EA. The lessons learned in the process are presented as a conclusion.O Brasil foi o primeiro país em desenvolvimento a fornecer medicamentos antiretrovirais (ARV de forma integral, universal e gratuita às pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA. A Assistência Farmacêutica é considerada uma ação estratégica e busca prover acesso a medicamentos de qualidade, com uso racional, promovendo a satisfação dos usuários. Satisfação do usuá-rio é um conceito complexo e modelos para avaliarem serviços farmacêuticos para PVHA não são encontrados na literatura. Este artigo objetiva descrever o desenvolvimento de três modelos criados em um Estudo de Avaliabilidade (EA. É apresentada uma breve revisão dos conceitos de EA e de Satisfação do Usuário. As lições apreendidas no processo são apresentadas como conclusão.

  4. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia de cada reaccion y considerando el reactor de gasificacion como adiabatico, se puede predecir la composicion de la corriente de productos y el potencial de generacion de vapor de alta presion por el proceso.

  5. Transformaciones en la producción simbólica en la clínica con niños con problemas de aprendizaje provenientes de contextos de pobreza

    OpenAIRE

    Grunberg, Débora; Yapura, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo surge a partir de interrogantes formulados al interior de la Cátedra de Psicopedagogía Clínica (Facultad de Psicología, UBA), especialmente en espacios clínicos e investigativos. Su objetivo central es atender una temática latente en la clínica psicopedagógica de niños con problemas de aprendizaje que tiene lugar en el Servicio de Asistencia de la Cátedra: el despliegue y las restricciones de los procesos imaginativos de niños con dificultades de simbolización, en tanto pr...

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of in vitro bacterial cultures from pressure ulcers Inativação fotodinâmica de culturas de bactérias in vitro provenientes de úlceras de pressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of diode laser light of wavelength 650 nm, in association with the photosensitive substance toluidine blue, on the bacteria in infected skin ulcers. METHODS: Samples were collected by means of swabs containing a medium for transporting infected material from skin ulcers. The material was inoculated into culturing medium containing azide blood agar for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, and MacConkey agar for Gram-negative bacteria, and incubated for 48 hours. The results obtained from counting the colony-forming units were correlated and subjected to statistical analysis, adopting the significance level of p > or = 0.05. RESULTS: From analysis of variance (ANOVA, the result for the general mean was p = 0.0215. Using the t test with post-hoc test, the result for TBO vs. Control was p = 0.0186, and for TBO + Laser vs. Control it was p = 0.0039. CONCLUSION: There was a significant reduction in colony-forming units when the cultures were subjected to photodynamic therapy.OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro o efeito antibacteriano do laser diodo com comprimento de onda de 650nn, associado a substancia fotossensível azul de toluidina sobre as bactérias de ulceras cutâneas infectadas. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras através de um swab com meio de transporte, de material infectado de úlceras cutâneas. Os materiais foram inoculadas em meios de cultura contendo ágar sangue azida para o crescimento de bactérias gram-positivas e agar Mac Conkey para as gram-negativas, e incubadas por 48 horas. Os resultados obtidos da contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias foram relacionados e submetidos a analise estatística adotando como nível de significância p > ou = 0.05. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise de variância ANOVA para a media geral foi p= 0,0215 e para o post hoc test teste t. TBO x Controle p=0,0186, TBO + Laser x Controle p=0,0039. CONCLUSÃO: Houve redução, significativa das unidades formadoras de colônias quando submetidas à terapia fotodinâmica.

  7. Use of residues proceeding from marbles and granites finishing and manufacturing processes as raw material for structural ceramic; Utilizacao do residuo proveniente do acabamento e manufatura de marmores e granitos como materia-prima em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Roberta Monteiro de

    2006-07-01

    In order to decrease environmental impact, caused by mud discarding and clay extraction in the ceramic industry, it was used residual mud from marble and granite companies for structural ceramic. Samples were collected in twelve different marble companies located at the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. However, only four samples were selected, based on its different characteristics. Clay stone was the raw material chosen to prepare the structural ceramic, considering its high use in this segment. Samples and clay stone were both analysed by the following procedures: granulometric analysis, x-rays fluorescent chemical analysis and x-rays diffraction mineralogical analysis, besides, tests in the samples were conducted following NBR 10004 standards. Once raw materials were characterized, the plasticity test was conducted. Test specimen were molded with different levels of mud, then burned and submitted to technological tests, such as: mechanical resistance, water absorption, porosity, specific gravity and retraction, material dilation before burning process and scanning electron microscopy. The final results have shown the viability of using this kind of mud, and pointed some advantages on its usage, but taking in consideration some previous conditions to be adopted. (author)

  8. Use of ultrasound radiation for extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Current events and perspectives; Empleo de la radiacion ultrasonica para la extraccion de compuestos bioactivos provenientes de fuentes naturales. Estado actual y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Riera, Zalua [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Robaina Mesa, Malvis [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Medicamentos, La Habana (Cuba); Jauregui Haza, Ulises, E-mail: zalua@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, clean technologies have been developed for high efficiency extracting of isolation of biologically active compounds from natural sources, without the loss of biological activity, with good yield and high purity. Ultrasound-assisted extraction has low instrumental requirements and their implementation is very appropriate where the stability of the active component to be removed is affected by the high temperatures of conventional processes. In this paper it is evaluated the state of the art of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from various natural sources, its mechanism, the parameters governing its use and research perspectives in this field. Ultrasonic cavitation phenomenon promotes cell wall rupture, reduction of particle size and tissue permeability, which facilitates the diffusion of the solvent into the inert part of the plant material and increasing the mass transferred through membranes. This mechanism explains the high efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction as it allows to reduce the time, temperature and amounts of solvent extraction process with high yields and high purity of the extracted product. Currently there is a great demand for the use of ultrasound to industrial and current research lead to the development of larger scale reactors and the theoretical modeling of the parameters that determine efficient extraction.

  9. Avaliação do nível de chumbo, em solo de várzea, proveniente da reciclagem de baterias Evaluation of the lead level, in low land soil, originated from a recycling of batteries

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    Gisele I. T. H. Wowk

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando caracterizar e quantificar os minerais da fração argila e avaliar a contaminação por chumbo (Pb ocasionada por efluentes de uma empresa recicladora de sucatas de baterias no município de Paula Freitas, PR, coletaram-se amostras de solo de várzea em cinco perfis. Além dos teores totais, as amostras de solo foram submetidas a análises químicas seqüenciais para determinação de diferentes formas de Pb: solúvel, trocável, ligado à matéria orgânica, ligado aos óxidos de alumínio e ferro e residual. A fração argila, estudada por difratometria de raios-X e análise termogravimétrica diferencial, apresentou altos teores de caulinita e menores de gibbsita, material amorfo e goethita. Todos os solos da várzea apresentaram teores de Pb superiores aos encontrados no solo sob mata (testemunha, evidenciando a contaminação ambiental. O perfil P2 indicou o maior potencial de contaminação do nível freático, pois continha maior teor de Pb total (2.399,6 µg cm-3 associado ao elevado teor do metal, na forma trocável (adsorção não específica. A alta superfície específica dos óxidos de Fe e Al de baixa cristalinidade promoveram maior retenção de Pb nos solos contaminados.In order to characterize and to quantify the minerals of the clay fraction and to evaluate the contamination by lead (Pb caused by effluents from a recycling company of waste batteries in Paula Freitas, Paraná state, Brazil , samples of low land soil were collected from five profiles. Besides the total levels, the soil samples were submitted to sequential chemical analyses for the determination of different Pb forms: soluble, exchangeable, linked to organic matter, linked to alluminiun and iron oxides and residual. The clay fraction, studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermogravimetric analysis, presented high levels of kaolinite and small amounts of gibbsite, amorphous material and goethite. All samples of low land soil presented Pb levels superior to the ones found in the soil under forest (control, showing clearly the environmental contamination. The P2 profile showed the greatest potential of contamination of the freatic level because it had the highest level of total Pb (2,399.6 µg cm-3 associated with the high level of metal in the exchangeable form (non-specific adsorption. The high specific surface of Al and Fe oxides of low crystalinity was responsible for a higher retention of Pb in the contaminated soils.

  10. Actividades enzimáticas antioxidativas em Cistus Ladanifer L. provenientes de áreas não contaminadas em elementos vestigiais Antioxidant enzymes activity of Cistus Ladanifer L. from areas non contaminated in trace elements

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    Erika Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a actividade das enzimas antioxidativas (catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase e as concentrações em As, Cu, Pb e Zn nas folhas de duas populações de Cistus ladanifer L. colhidas, na Primavera e no Verão, em solos não contaminados em elementos vestigiais (Caldeirão e Pomarão e com condições climáticas diferentes. Nos solos das duas áreas, as concentrações totais e disponíveis (extracção com DTPA em elementos vestigiais foram baixas. A distribuição dos elementos pelas folhas novas e maduras foi semelhante entre áreas e estações do ano. As actividades enzimáticas variaram consoante a população. As folhas colhidas nas duas estações do ano, excepto as folhas novas de Verão do Pomarão, apresentaram actividade enzimática na fracção solúvel e iónica. Comparando as estações do ano e áreas de amostragem, constatou-se que as actividades enzimáticas representam um mecanismo de tolerância a vários factores de stresse (radiação UV, temperatura do ar elevada no verão, défice hídrico no verão, baixa-média fertilidade do solo e conteúdo de elementos vestigiais no solo, o que confere uma elevada plasticidade à espécie.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in leaves from two populations of Cistus ladanifer growing on soils non-contaminated with trace elements (Caldeirco and Pomarco, but with different climatic conditions and in two different seasons (spring and summer. In both areas, total and available concentrations (DTPA extraction of trace elements in soils were low. The distribution of elements for young and mature leaves was similar between areas and seasons. The enzyme activities varied with the plant population. Leaves collected in the two seasons, except young leaves from Pomarco collected in summer, showed enzymatic activity in the soluble and ionic fractions. Comparing the seasons and sampling areas, C. ladanifer enzymatic activities represent a tolerance mechanism to different stress factors (UV radiation, high air temperature in summer, drought, low-medium fertility in soils, trace element concentrations in soil, giving it a high plasticity.

  11. EVALUACIÓN Y REGULACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS EN UN EQUIPO DISEÑADO PARA LA DISMINUCIÓN DE CROMO(VI, PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS GALVÁNICOS

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    Gema Eunice Acosta Niño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de generar los medios necesarios para poder llevar a cabo las pruebas de remoción de cromo(VI en aguas residuales de la industria galvánica, se realizó la captura de datos a partir de prototipo de equipo inicial a escala de laboratorio para conseguir el objetivo principal, disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales contaminadas con diferentes metales. Es así que con los datos obtenidos en el presente estudio se plantearon algunas modificaciones necesarias para mejorar las condiciones y eficiencia del equipo y aumentar las posibilidades de uso mediante la determinación de los parámetros de trabajo usando la técnica de electrocoagulación. Los parámetros analizados fueron: voltaje, intensidad de corriente, conductividad, pH y temperatura durante una hora de funcionamiento del reactor. A lo largo del texto se pueden observar los cambios realizados sobre el prototipo inicial, cuyo concepto principal es el manejo de la electrocoagulación, para disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales. Un resultado final de interés a analizar entre otros, es el consumo de energía, pues basándose en este consumo se calculó el valor final del gasto energético versus el costo ambiental, lo que sin duda resulta ser un aporte importante para su uso en la remoción de metales pesados y abre la posibilidad de continuar con estudios posteriores de este tipo para la elaboración de nuevos reactores mucho más eficientes y útiles en la industria en general, y como respuesta, ayudará bastante en la disminución de la contaminación ambiental.

  12. Avaliação da estabilidade da emulsão óleo/água proveniente dos resíduos de uma indústria beneficiadora de gemas frente ao uso de diferentes surfactantes

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    Simone Stülp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reutilização dos resíduos gerados pelos diversos setores industriais é uma prática que cada dia é mais utilizado, devido ao comprometimento das indústrias com sua responsabilidade social (proteção ao ambiente ou a exigências dos órgãos de proteção ambiental, já que muitos resíduos não possuem o devido descarte. Na indústria de beneficiamento de gemas a busca pelo reaproveitamento dos resíduos também tem se tornado uma realidade. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o reaproveitamento do óleo utilizado como lubrificante na indústria de beneficiamento de gemas, juntamente com água, surfactantes e anticorrosivos. Para preparo das emulsões foram utilizadas amostras de óleo diesel utilizado como lubrificante no setor de corte deste tipo de indústria, mais os seguintes surfactantes: Tween 20, Tween 80, Lauril Éter Sulfato de Sódio (SLES e Cetiol HE. Depois de realizadas análises de pH, viscosidade, densidade e separação de fases nestas emulsões, chegou-se a conclusão que o surfactante Lauril Éter Sulfato de Sódio proporcionava a melhor formulação. Utilizando-se deste resultado, foram preparadas novas emulsões com o surfactante Lauril Éter Sulfato de Sódio e um anticorrosivo, neste caso, o molibdato de sódio. Nestas soluções contendo molibdato de sódio mais óleo e surfactante foram realizadas análises de resistência à corrosão deste sistema, utilizando-se de placas de aço SAE 1020, pela análise de perda de massa. Após estas análises, verificou-se que a adição de um anticorrosivo pode reduzir ou inibir a oxidação, mas em outros casos, como neste estudo, pode promover uma oxidação ainda maiorAbstract The reuse of waste generated by various industrial sectors is a practice that has been increasingly used due to impairment of industries with their social responsibility (environmental protection or the requirements of the protection of the environment, since many residues do not have proper disposal. In the processing industry in the reuse of stones is no different. This study aims to evaluate the reuse of the oil used as a lubricant in the stone processing industry, along with water, surfactants and corrosion. To prepare the emulsions samples were used of diesel oil as a lubricant used in the cutting industry this type of industry, plus the following surfactants: Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium lauryl ether sulphate and Cetiol HE. After completing the pH, viscosity, density and phase separation in these emulsions, the conclusion was reached that the surfactant Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate provided the best formulation. Using this result, new emulsions prepared with the surfactant Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate and an anticorrosive, in this case, sodium molybdate. In such solutions containing sodium molybdate were analyzed power anticorrosive this substance, using the SAE 1020 steel plates. After these analyzes, it was found that the addition of an anticorrosive may reduce or inhibit oxidation, but in other cases, as in this study, can promote oxidation even greater.

  13. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines comerciales. La zona alrededor de los pozos H-4, H-16 y H-29 del sector norte del campo de Los Humeros, Pue., conocido como el Colapso Central, presento en el pasado indicios de fluidos acidos agresivos, motivo por el cual varios pozos de esa zona debieron ser reparados cementando y aislando sus zonas productoras mas profundas. El pozo H-43 se perforo hace dos anos en la zona norte del campo, y aunque no esta localizado en la zona con fluidos agresivos, hay caracteristicas mineralogicas que podrian indicar la presencia de fluidos acidos. Por tanto, para la operacion comercial de este pozo se contempla la instalacion de un sistema de neutralizacion, cuyas caracteristicas generales se describen en este trabajo. Esto permitiria prevenir la corrosion que hasta el momento ha impedido la explotacion de la parte profunda del Colapso Central y coadyuvaria a un desarrollo mas rentable en este campo.

  14. Estudo da influência de resíduos catalíticos na degradação de plásticos reciclados (Blenda HDPE/PP e PET provenientes de lixo urbano

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    Santos Amélia S. F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação derivada do processamento, uso, descarte, lavagem e reprocessamento foram caracterizados neste estudo. Para o HDPE/PP pós-consumo, a degradação foi estudada em função da presença de garrafas de HDPE/LDPE reprocessadas (recicladas e da presença de tampas e rótulos de LDPE e PP. Esses materiais mostraram uma influência significativa na degradação total de HDPE/PP apenas quando presentes em conjunto. Os resíduos que apresentaram menor estabilidade termo-oxidativa foram os rótulos e tampas de LDPE e PP. As análises usadas na caracterização da influência destes resíduos foram espectroscopia do Infra-vermelho (IR e Calorimetria Diferencial Exploratória (tempo de indução oxidativa - OIT. Além disso, a degradação do PET foi estudada em função das condições de lavagem e da presença de resíduos de soda cáustica e adesivo. Foram usadas medidas de viscosidade intrínseca e de titulação para caracterizar estas variáveis. Foi observado que apesar do uso de altas temperaturas (80 ºC durante a lavagem, a extensão de tempo desta etapa (5 ou 15 min não afetou a degradação do PET, pelo menos não em níveis detectáveis pelas análises. No entanto, a remoção do resíduo de adesivo mostrou uma influência significativa na degradação catalítica do PET.

  15. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs Caracterização da diversidade bacteriana em amostras de petróleo provenientes de reservatórios brasileiros

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    Valéria Maia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments.Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as comunidades bacterianas de amostras de água de formação e de óleo de reservatórios de petróleo brasileiros com diferentes graus de biodegradação usando a técnica de PCR-DGGE. O DNA ambiental foi isolado e empregado em reações de PCR com primers bacterianos, com subseqüente separação dos fragmentos de DNAr 16S em DGGE. Os produtos de PCR foram também clonados e seqüenciados, visando à afiliação taxonômica dos membros da comunidade. Os fingerprints obtidos permitiram a comparação direta entre as comunidades bacterianas das amostras de óleo com diferentes graus de biodegradação, assim como entre as comunidades da água de formação e do óleo do reservatório não biodegradado. Perfis de DGGE muito similares foram observados para todas as amostras, e a diversidade dos filotipos bacterianos predominantes mostrou-se baixa. Os resultados de clonagem e seqüenciamento revelaram diferenças mais significativas entre as amostras de água de formação e de óleo do reservatório não biodegradado. Bacillus sp. e Halanaerobium sp. mostraram-se os componentes predominantes da comunidade bacteriana da presente na amostra de água de formação, ao passo que a amostra de óleo incluiu também Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. e Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A técnica de PCR-DGGE, combinada com clonagem e seqüenciamento dos produtos de PCR, revelou a presença de grupos taxonômicos não encontrados anteriormente nestas amostras quando métodos baseados em cultivo e na construção de bibliotecas de genes RNAr 16S foram utilizados, evidenciando a necessidade de um estudo polifásico a fim de contribuir para o conhecimento da diversidade microbiana em ambientes extremos como reservatórios de petróleo.

  16. Avaliação do perfil hematológico de portadores de talassemia alfa provenientes das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of alpha thalassemia carriers hematologic profile from Southeast and Northeast Brazilian regions

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    Gislane L. V. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A talassemia alfa é uma anemia hereditária resultante da síntese deficiente de cadeias alfa, provocando um excesso relativo de cadeias beta, que vão formar tetrâmeros identificados como hemoglobina H (Hb H no indivíduo adulto. Para direcionar o diagnóstico laboratorial desta anemia, a análise dos índices eritrocitários, a eletroforese em acetato de celulose em pH neutro e a pesquisa de corpos de inclusão de Hb H são essenciais. O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil hematológico, por meio dos índices eritrocitários, dos portadores de talassemia alfa das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 1.010 amostras de sangue periférico após consentimento informado. Os índices eritrocitários como contagem de glóbulos vermelhos (RBC, dosagem de hemoglobina (HGB, hematócrito (HCT, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM foram fornecidos por aparelhos automatizados com controle de qualidade interno e externo. Para o diagnóstico de talassemia alfa foram utilizados testes de triagem e complementares para talassemias, como eletroforese em pH neutro e pesquisa de corpos de inclusão de Hb H com coloração de azul cresil brilhante. Comparando-se os valores hematológicos observados nos dois grupos, notou-se que, em ambas as regiões, os índices com valores discrepantes foram os níveis de HGB e HCT, sendo a maior freqüência de variação observada entre as mulheres. Nos portadores do fenótipo alfa talassêmico da região Nordeste, todos os índices eritrocitários estavam abaixo dos valores de normalidade. Estes resultados evidenciam a necessidade de melhor avaliação do perfil hematológico de talassemia alfa em diferentes regiões, considerando-se os interferentes ambientais para um diagnóstico mais preciso.Alpha thalassemia is a hereditary anaemia resulting from deficient synthesis of the alpha chains, causing a relative excess of beta chains which form tetramers identified as hemoglobin H (Hb H in adults. To diagnose this type of anaemia it is essential to analyze the erythrocytic values, electrophoresis in neutral pH and to study the Hb H inclusion bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the hematologic profile of alpha thalassemia carriers from the southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil. Peripheral blood samples from 1010 patients were analyzed. The erythrogram values, including the red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin level (HGB, hematocrit (HCT, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were supplied by automatic devices. To diagnose alpha thalassemia, screening and complementary tests were performed, including electrophoresis in neutral pH and a study of the Hb H inclusion bodies with brilliant blue cresil staining. Comparing hematologic values obtained in both groups, the indices with discrepant values were related to HGB and HCT and the greatest variations in both regions were observed among women. In alpha thalassemic phenotypic carriers from the northeastern region, all the erythrocytic values were lower than normal. These results show the necessity of better evaluation of alpha thalassemia in different regions, considering the environmental factors in order to give an adequate diagnosis.

  17. Study of modification of fibers from pineapple crown for the formation of polymeric composites;Estudo da modificacao da fibra proveniente da coroa de abacaxi para a formacao de compositos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Juliana S.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H.; Voorwald, Herman J.C., E-mail: mat07103@feg.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Study of modification of fibers from pineapple crown for the formation of polymeric composites An important aspect to make fiber and matrix work together in a given application is the interface between them. For an efficient adherence fiber/matrix an appropriate interfacial contact is required. For this purpose, it was made a modification in the fiber surface using sodium hydroxide solution. And the effect of fibers modification was analyzed by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that occurred an effective increase in the crystallinity of modified fibers compared to natural fibers and that was occurred the formation of pores or holes across the rough surface of the fiber showing that will can occur an increase in effective superficial area for contact with polymeric matrix. (author)

  18. Mineralização de carbono e de nitrogênio provenientes de composto de lixo urbano em argissolo Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost

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    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos da mineralização do C e do N em solos que receberam aplicação de composto de lixo urbano são importantes para avaliar o comportamento desse resíduo no solo e dar subsídios para definir as doses adequadas às culturas, com vistas em atender à necessidade de N das plantas. Foram realizados dois experimentos em condições de laboratório com o objetivo de avaliar a mineralização de C e de N em um Argissolo textura média adubado com composto de lixo urbano. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com os tratamentos constituídos de cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano, equivalentes a 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 t ha-1. No segundo experimento, empregou-se esquema fatorial, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso e três repetições, combinando as mesmas cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano utilizadas no primeiro experimento e 11 tempos de incubação (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 e 126 dias. Os maiores aumentos de N-NO3- no solo foram obtidos até os 42 dias de incubação, independentemente da dose de composto de lixo aplicada, percebendo-se, a partir dos 70 dias, tendência de estabilização. A fração de mineralização de C-orgânico em C-CO2 menor do que 2 % em 168 dias indica que o composto de lixo urbano é material que contribui para aumentar os estoques de matéria orgânica do solo. Na ausência de adubação nitrogenada complementar, a fração de mineralização de N-orgânico de 12 % em 126 dias evidencia que o composto de lixo urbano apresenta potencial fertilizante de liberação lenta de N para as plantas.Studies about nitrogen and carbon mineralization in soils amended with urban waste compost are important to evaluate the reactions of this waste in soil and to define the best rates for crops. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an Ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost. The Ultisol first experiment had a completely randomized design, with five urban waste compost rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha-1 and three replicates. In the second experiment, N mineralization was evaluated at the same waste compost rates along eleven incubation periods (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112, and 126 days, in three replicates. The following results were obtained for a medium texture Ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost: regardless of urban waste compost dose the greatest increase in N-NO3- in the soil was found up to 42 days, stabilizing afterwards; the mineralization rate of organic carbon of less than 2 % in 168 days indicates that urban waste compost contributes to increase soil organic matter. In the absence of other N fertilizers, urban waste compost releases N to plants slowly at a rate of 12 % in 126 days, demonstrating its potential as slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

  19. IMPLICACIONES BIOÉTICAS DERIVADAS DEL ACCESO DE LAS PAREJAS DEL MISMO SEXO A LAS TECNOLOGÍAS PROVENIENTES DE LA BIOMEDICINA Y LA BIOTECNOLOGÍA, PARA LA CONFORMACIÓN DE FAMILIAS HOMOPARENTALES

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate-Cuello, Amparo de Jesús; Celis, Luis Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se realiza una reflexión y una revisión, desde el ámbito de las ciencias básicas y del bioderecho, sobre los aspectos biológicos y genéticos de la homosexualidad, y sobre el impacto que tiene en la familia el acceso a las técnicas de reproducción asistida por parte de las parejas del mismo sexo. Lo anterior nos lleva al desarrollo de conceptos como la "violencia prenatal", el derecho de los niños a crecer en el seno de una familia con una imagen paterna y materna, al igual qu...

  20. Influências dos modos de operação nas emissões de poluentes provenientes de veículos flex em região urbana

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    Julie Anne Holanda Azevedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes to verify the influence of operating modes on pollutants emissions of flex - fuel vehicles. For this, a real driving cycle was developed for the flex light vehicle in an urban street of the Fortaleza city. For data collection was used a method of instant collection of kinematic parameters from engine, road and vehicle emissions. Due to the local characteristics of the traffic, a greater representatively of the idle operating modes was observed. In general, there was a greater influence of the acceleration mode on pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. The highest average CO2 emission rate was observed during acceleration mode (6.38 mg/s, followed by the idle mode (4.70 mg/s. For the CO pollutant, the highest average emission rate was also observed during the acceleration mode (55.60 μg/s, followed by the idle mode (35.01 μg/s. For the NOx pollutant, higher emission rates were observed in the acceleration mode, 5.08 μg/km and 1.98 μg/km for the idle mode. The average fuel consumption in the acceleration mode was 6.61 L/100 km during the tests, followed by idle and deceleration modes, with 4.84 and 3.39 L/100 km, respectively.

  1. Patrones de adherencia de cepas de Escherichia coli Difusamente adherente (DAEC provenientes de niños con y sin diarrea Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC strains isolated from children With and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Riveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli de adherencia difusa (DAEC son el sexto grupo de E. coli diarrogénicas reconocidas. Su asociación con diarrea es controversial. No se conoce la variabilidad en los patrones de adherencia de cepas clínicas. Objetivos. Comparar los patrones de adherencia entre cepas aisladas de niños con y sin diarrea. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 31 cepas DAEC, 25 de diarrea y 6 de niños asintomáticos (control aislados de un estudio de cohorte de niños menores de 12 meses en el cono sur de Lima. Las DAEC fueron identificadas por PCR (gen daaD. Se evaluó el patrón y grado de adherencia en cultivos de células HEp-2; la polimerización de actina se evaluó por la prueba de coloración de fluorescencia de actina (FAS; y la motilidad se evaluó por métodos convencionales microbiológicos. Resultados. El patrón de adherencia difusa se encontró en el 88% de muestras de diarrea y en el 100% de muestras control. La cantidad de bacterias adheridas por célula fue significativamente menor en las muestras de diarrea (pIntroduction. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown. Objectives. To compare the adherence patterns between strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 31 DAEC strains were analyzed, 25 from children with diarrhea and 6 from asymptomatic (control children, isolated from a cohort study of children under one year of age in the southern districts of Lima. DAEC were identified by PCR (daaD gene. The pattern and adherence score in HEp-2 cell culture were evaluated, Actin polimerization was determined by fluorescence actin staining (FAS and motility was evaluated by conventional microbiology methods. Results. Diffuse adherence pattern was found in 88% of diarrhea samples and in the total of control strains. The number of bacteria adhered per cell was significantly lower in diarrhea samples (p<0.05. However, actin polymerization was greater in diarrhea samples (60% vs. 17%. Motility test was positive in 60% of the diarrhea samples and in all control samples. Conclusions. Our findings suggest a difference between adherence patterns, actin polymerization and motility between DAEC strains corresponding to diarrhea and control groups. The significance of these results must be confirmed with a bigger number of strains and determining the presence of virulence genes in the strains.

  2. Discharge of treated wastewater from drilling exploratory wells by infiltration of hydrocarbons in the ground; Vertido de aguas residuales tratadas provenientes de pozos de perforacion exploratoria de hidrocarburos mediante la infiltracion en el terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The discharge of treated waste water from a well drilling exploratory oil, such as the consideration ser out to determine the minimum area needed to saturate the ground is not where he planned the infiltration of the dumping in special conditions of soil type and permeability, limited space, water quality and influence of underground aquifers in the study area. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. Concentração de Rn-222 e filhos em águas provenientes de poços e emergências de água da região de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

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    Ana Maria Araya Osório

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from poTabelale water. For the etermination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples.

  4. ¿Policentrismo o ampliación de la centralidad histórica en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago?: Evidencia novedosa proveniente de la encuesta Casen 2009

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    Jorge Rodríguez V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se usan los módulos de "movilidad cotidiana para trabajar" del censo de población de 2002 y de la Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional (Casen de 2009, de Chile, para verificar las hipótesis del avance del policentrismo y de la "difusión del empleo" en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago (AMGS, Chile, planteadas por estudios recientes. Ambas hipótesis se ajustan tanto a las predicciones de las teorías del cambio metropolitano predominantes, como a la experiencia de numerosas ciudades de los países desarrollados y de América Latina. Sin embargo, en ellas se tiende a desconocer el efecto que la segregación residencial socioeconómica a gran escala del AMGS tiene sobre la localización del empleo. La evidencia sistematizada en este trabajo sugiere un proceso mixto en el AMGS: nuevas sub-centralidades aparecen, pero no contrapesan aún el predominio económico de la centralidad histórica ampliada.Questions on commuting from the 2002 Population Census and the 2009 Casen (National Socioeconomic Characterization survey of Chile are used for assessing two hypotheses raised in some recent articles about the Metropolitan Area of Greater Santiago (MAGS: i the advancement of polycentrism, and ii territorial diffusion of employment across the MAGS. Both hypotheses are based on mainstream theories of metropolitan change, and have been supported by evidence from several cities, mostly in developed countries. However, these hypotheses do not take the effects of Santiago's high levels of residential segregation into account. According to results obtained in this study, the MAGS is experiencing a mixed process: new centralities indeed are arising but they do not overshadow yet the concentration of employment in the wider historic centrality.

  5. Descripción de la nocividad del cromo proveniente de la industria curtiembre y de las posibles formas de removerlo Description of chrome toxicity from the tannery industry and possible ways of removing it

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    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los diversos compuestos de cromo (Cr representan una gran amenaza al ambiente y al hombre debido a sus efectos nocivos. Las intoxicaciones se manifiestan en lesiones renales, gastrointestinales, del hígado, del riñón, de la glándula tiroides y la médula ósea, y la velocidad corporal de eliminación es muy lenta. Las industrias de curtiduría de pieles utilizan sales de Cr en sus procesos, que generan cantidades de efluentes líquidos con alto contenido de este metal, el cual, debe ser removido a fin de cumplir con la legislación ambiental. En esta revisión se presenta una descripción de algunas de las técnicas de remoción como la electrolítica o electrodeposición; el intercambio iónico; la precipitación y los sistemas biológicos. Cada una de ellas ofrece una solución práctica y viable en términos económicos, ambientales y de mejoramiento continuo de los procesos, permitiendo pensaren una producción sostenible y responsable.The various chromium (Cr compounds represent a major threat to both environment and human beings, due to its harmful effects. Toxicity is shown in kidney, gastrointestinal tract, liver, thyroid glands, and in the marrow; and body elimination speed is very slow. Tannery industries use Cr salts in their processes, generating large amounts of liquid effluents with high content of this metal; which should be removed in order to comply with existing environmental legislation. This study provides a description of techniques such as electrolytic removal or electroplating, ion exchange process; process of precipitation; and biological systems. Each one of them offers a practical and feasible solution in terms of economy, environment, and continuous improvement of processes, which allows thinking of a sustainable and responsible production.

  6. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

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    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  7. Qualidade de méis produzidos por apicultores e méis provenientes de entrepostos registrados no Serviço de Inspeção Federal

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    M.B.L. Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the physiochemical quality of honeys from beekeepers in northern Zona da Mata, MG, and honeys from warehouses registered at the Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF in the State of Minas Gerais. Physiochemical analysis involving 39 samples were done, with three samples from each of the 13 beekeepers and 18 samples from warehouses registered at SIF-MG. Differences in quality from the two origins occurred in: free acidity, ashes, hydroxymethylfurfural, apparent sucrose and insoluble solids, where honeys from warehouses were of better quality. In addition, for free acidity and insoluble solids, two samples from northern Zona da Mata showed values above the established by the Instrução Normativa n°11 relative to the year 2000, whereas the values for insoluble solids in 11 samples from northern Zona da Mata and 2 samples from warehouses were in disagreement with this legislation.

  8. National inventory of anhyd ric carbonic emissions providing of fuels consumption as energy source; Inventario nacional de las emisiones de anhidrido carbonico proveniente del consumo de combustibles como fuente de Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Convention of the United Nations about Climatic Change, carried out in 1992, and whose ratification this being considerate d at level Parliament in the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, it has as objective to achieve the stabilization of the concentrations of gases of effect hot house in the atmosphere at a level that impedes interferences dangerous antropogenias. The National Direction of environment has carried out and Inventory of the Emissions of gas carbonic anhydride in the execution of the arisen commitments of the mentioned Convention. It being this the first step for the realization of a national inventory, which will not include the rest of the gases of effect hothouse controlled by the Protocols of Montreal. The inventory of the emissions carried out by the Division of Global and Regional Matters, it has been carried out for each one of the years understood in the period from 1987 to 1992 being studied the contribution of each sector of the national activity in the Emissions of carbonic anhydride.The results show that the total emissions estimated for Uruguay reach only the 6655 gigagrames of annual for the year 1992, being a light increase of the emission values among the years 1989 at 1992.

  9. Expresión y actividad de posibles polimorfismos provenientes de individuos normales en la proteína de 67 kd del sistema NADPH oxidasa utilizando el sistema COSphox.

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    Andrés Augusto Arias

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El sistema NADPH oxidasa de las células fagocíticas cumple una función importante durante la respuesta antimicrobiana del organismo. La activación de este sistema está precedida por la translocación de las proteínas citosólicas p67phox, p47phox y p40phox hacia la membrana para ponerse en contacto con el flavocitocromo b558, lo que induce la generación del anión superóxido, un precursor de agentes microbicidas oxidantes. El presente trabajo presenta un análisis funcional del sistema NADPH oxidasa basado en los hallazgos de polimorfismos encontrados en el gen de p67phox de individuos sanos. Para esto se generaron mutaciones en el cADN que codifica la p67phox y se expresaron en el sistema de células COSphox. Los datos obtenidos en el presente trabajo indican que los cambios Val166?Ile, Pro329?Ser y His389?Gln no generan alteraciones en el funcionamiento de la p67phox cuando su función se analizó en el sistema transgénico basado en células COS-7. Por lo tanto, estos polimorfismos no generan ningún riesgo genético de producir deficiencias en la activación del sistema NADPH oxidasa. Además, se demuestra que el modelo de células COSphox representa un nuevo sistema celular, fácilmente transfectable que permite estudiar la función del sistema NADPH oxidasa de las células fagocíticas y sus particularidades genéticas. Finalmente, los hallazgos con estos polimorfismos nos permiten avanzar en el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos moleculares involucrados en la activación del sistema NADPH oxidasa células fagocíticas.

  10. Caracterización genética del virus de la fiebre amarilla proveniente de un brote icterohemorrágico en una comunidad nativa del distrito de Imaza, Amazonas, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Yábar, Carlos; Mamani, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    La fiebre amarilla (FA) sigue siendo una enfermedad de importancia en salud pública en el mundo a pesar de la existencia de una vacuna eficaz (WHO, 2005). En Sudamérica, el Perú fue uno de los países que registró el mayor número de casos de FA durante el 2004 (WHO, 2005), contando con zonas endémicas que se extienden desde la selva norte hacia la selva central. Recientemente, en diciembre de 2005 la Dirección de Salud (DISA) de Bagua tomó conocimiento de un brote icterohemorrágico en la co...

  11. Metodologias para reutilização do resíduo de terra diatomácea, proveniente da filtração e clarificação da cerveja

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    Marcos Roberto Goulart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The earth diatomite is a material used by the industries in the filtration process and clarification of the beer. This material presents a reduced useful life due to the blockages of their pores during the filtration process. The objective of this work was to reactivate the properties of filtration of the earth diatomite, saturated with organic matter during the filtration stage, starting from a controlled thermal treatment. The obtained results demonstrated that the earth diatomite saturated with organic matter submitted to a controlled thermal treatment has their filtration properties reactivated, could be reused in the beer production process.

  12. Trading of the electric power originated at biomass - regulatory incentives in the new electric sector model; Comercializacao de energia eletrica proveniente de biomassa. Incentivos regulatorios no novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energeticos e Sistemas Eletricos]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Agapito, Cassiano Augusto; Lima, Rodrigo Alves [AES Tiete S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cassiano.agapito@aes.com; rodrigoa.lima@aes.com

    2006-07-01

    Brazil offers excellent conditions to produce and use biomass as fuel in large scale. The electric energy generation from biomass presents a huge potential, however it is poorly explored up to this moment. Among the prime reasons by the lack of investments in that sector are the institutional obstacles and the risk aversion of investors who have a different focus in business and have difficulty to understand the complex market rules. The Brazilian government shows interest in increase the share of that source in the national installed capacity, since various social and environmental advantages, besides supplementary between the hydraulic and biomass inventory. The regulation changes since the law 10,848/04 and the decree 5,163/04 modify the structure of the electrical energy market and brought some incentives to the sells of the energy deriving from biomass. The possibility of trade your capacity, the annual Physical Guarantee definition and the reduction on transmission and distribution costs will be the center of our discussion. (author)

  13. Valorização de landoltia punctata proveniente de tratamento de esgoto doméstico através de hidrólise enzimática visando a produção de etanol

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Flávia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos, Florianópolis, 2014. A necessidade de se explorar novas fontes de energia renovável e limpa vem exigindo o desenvolvimento de biocombustíveis, por serem considerados uma alternativa promissora aos combustíveis tradicionais. Nesse contexto, as lemnas vêm ganhando interesse em pesquisas, por não competirem com culturas alimentícias e terras produtivas par...

  14. BENEFÍCIOS AMBIENTAIS E ECONOMICOS PROVENIENTES DA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO MAIS LIMPA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE MÓVEIS DE MUNICIPIO DE NATAL-RN

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Paulo Silva Leite; Handson Cláudio Dias Pimenta

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral analisar os benefícios ambientais e econômicos obtidos através da implementação da Produção mais Limpa (P+L) em uma indústria de móveis localizada em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um estudo de caso que contou com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o setor e a P+L e uma pesquisa de campo que contemplou as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico ambiental e operacional da empresa (estudo de arranjo físico, levantamento de métodos, fluxograma especifico do processo produt...

  15. Evaluación del efecto de las artemisininas provenientes del extracto etanólico de Artemisia cina sobre L3 de Haemonchus contortus en una técnica de explantes abomasales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo enfoque de control integrado de parásitos obliga a buscar alternativas que consideren el medioambiente, es decir, sostenibles y sustentables. El objetivo de este trabajo fue fraccionar el extracto etanólico de la planta Artemisia cina, obtener artemisininas y conocer el efecto de estas sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de Haemonchus contortus en explantes abomasales. El extracto etanólico se fraccionó por medio de la metodología establecida para Artemisia japónica, y se identificaron las artemisininas por medio de cromatografía en capa fina, teniendo como referencia artemisininas comerciales. Las artemisininas se utilizaron sobre L3 desenvainada, se realizó la técnica de explantes abomasales por triplicado y se compararon así: levamisol (7.5 mg/ml, artemisinina comercial (1 mg/ml, agua y seis diferentes fracciones de A. cina a dosis de 1 mg/ml: Ac3k, Ac3b, Ac3a, Ac3h, Ac3i, Ac4b. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre las fracciones de A. cina y artemisinina comercial (p>0.05. Se concluye que no existió efecto de las artemisininas obtenidas del extracto etanólico de A. cina sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de H. contortus al tejido abomasal. Es importante continuar con más estudios de la artemisinina para determinar sobre qué fase del parásito afecta su viabilidad.

  16. Evaluation of the quality of hot air dehydrated onion coming from gamma radiated bulbs; Evaluacion de la calidad de cebolla deshidratada por aire caliente proveniente de bulbos tratados con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elman, L; Pezzutti, A; Croci, C A [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Laboratorio de Radioisotopos

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of hot air dehydrated onion, as regards physical and chemical characteristics, coming from the regional product that was gamma irradiated for sprout inhibition. We worked with the onion variety Valenciana Sintetica 14. Radio inhibition was made 30 days post harvest with gamma radiation from a {sup 60}Co source at the Centro Atomico Ezeiza-CNEA, using a dose of 60 Gy. The skin of the bulbs was manually removed and the bulbs were cut in pieces 3 mm thick and between 1 and 3 cm long. The material was dehydrated in a rotating dryer with forced air circulation at 60 C degrees, between 0.8 and 1.7 m/s air speed and at ambient relative humidity. Dehydration was made 80 days after post-irradiation. The quality of the dehydrated onion was evaluated by the following physical- chemical analysis: total solids content, pungency (indirectly measured by pyruvic acid content assessment), color, pH, carbon hydrates and sensorial analysis. All analytical determinations were made in triplicate. The results obtained showed there are no significant changes between the averages of the physical-chemical properties of the control dehydrated samples and those coming from the radio-inhibited raw matter. According to the sensorial analysis, only the color of dehydrated onion was affected by the radio inhibition process. However, and according to the panel members comment, the greatest browning degree observed in ionizing radiation treated onion seemed to result more attractive to them. It may be concluded that radio inhibited regional onion can be useful as raw matter for hot air dehydrated product. It must be remarked that its use would extend the product use by dehydration plants, thus implying an increase of their processing capacity with the corresponding financial benefit. (author)

  17. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: a remarkable histopathological picture of one asymptomatic animal reported from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Leishmaniose visceral canina: um caso inusitado de um animal assintomático proveniente de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Xavier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable histopathological picture of one asymptomatic dog naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi has been presented. Intracellular parasites were ease found in macrophages of all exanimated organs, especially in skin. Embedded paraffin tissues of liver, spleen, axillary and popliteal lymph nodes, and skin (ear, muzzle and abdomen were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and by immunocytochemical reaction (streptoavidin-peroxidase method to detect parasites. All organs showed an intense parasitism associated to severe pathological changes. All lymph nodes had conspicuous histological architecture alterations. Lymphocytes were replaced by macrophages stuffed with an intense number of amastigotes forms of Leishmania. The lymphoid nodules (without germinal centers and the mantle zones in the cortex that surround the follicles were markedly attenuated. Livers showed small intralobular granulomas composed by macrophages loaded with amastigotes. Spleens had an intense depression of the white pulp whereas the lymphocytes were replaced by parasitized macrophages. All fragments of different anatomical region of skin (ear, muzzle and abdomen showed a diffuse chronic inflammation. The cellular exudate was composed by macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes. Macrophages loaded with amastigotes were ease found in all tissue fragments, but more intense in ear and muzzle. Thus, this fact enhances the importance of asymptomatic dogs in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.Relata-se um quadro histológico caracterizado por lesões acentuadas em tecidos de um cão assintomático naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum (sin. chagasi. Cortes parafinados de fígado, baço, linfonodos (cervical, axilar e poplíteo e pele (orelha, espelho nasal e abdome foram corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina e pela técnica imunoistoquímica de estreptoavidina-peroxidase para detecção de formas amastigotas de Leishmania. Os linfonodos apresentaram profundas alterações estruturais. Em todos observou-se depleção linfocitária, principalmente da córtex, com substituição dos linfócitos por macrófagos abarrotados de formas amastigotas de Leishmania. No fígado, observou-se a presença de pequenos granulomas intralobulares compostos por macrófagos intensamente parasitados, plasmócitos e raros linfócitos. No baço, a alteração marcante foi a depressão da polpa branca. Os folículos linfóides foram substituídos por macrófagos intensamente parasitados com as formas amastigotas de Leishmania. Fragmentos de pele de orelha, espelho nasal e abdome apresentaram reação inflamatória crônica e difusa com exsudato celular composto por macrófagos, plasmócitos e linfócitos. Parasitos foram detectados em todos os tecidos estudados e mais numerosos na pele da orelha e focinho. Os achados mostram a importância de cães assintomáticos na epidemiologia da leishmaniose visceral.

  18. Contribuição para o estudo do tratamento de águas residuais provenientes da indústria de extração de petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Shari Liliana Machado

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia do Ambiente – Perfil Engenharia Sanitária O petróleo é um fator preponderante na tecnologia e no progresso. A sua principal utilização é na produção de energia, onde o seu consumo é líder relativamente às outras fontes de energia. Além da referida utilização, é também usado como produto primário na indústria química, nomeadamente na criação de produtos farmacêuticos, de plásticos e de lubrificantes. Para além do petróleo, o pr...

  19. PERSPECTIVAS DE APLICACIÓN DEL COMPOSTAJE DE BIORRESIDUOS PROVENIENTES DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS MUNICIPALES. UN ENFOQUE DESDE LO GLOBAL A LO LOCAL PERSPECTIVE OF APPLICATION OF BIOWASTE COMPOSTING FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES: AN APPROACH FROM GLOBAL TO LOCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available De los residuos sólidos municipales (RSM, los biorresiduos son la fracción más alta y de mayor potencial de contaminación; el compostaje permite disminuir el impacto ocasionado por su manejo y contribuye con la sostenibilidad de la producción agrícola. Aspectos como el alto grado de contaminación de la materia prima, el uso de tecnologías inadecuadas, mínimas actividades operativas y de control del proceso, baja calidad del producto y la poca comercialización y mercadeo del mismo, han limitado la implementación del compostaje en mayor escala en países en desarrollo como Colombia. En este artículo se plantea una reflexión sobre las perspectivas de aplicación del compostaje en Colombia y se proponen estrategias como la separación en la fuente y recolección selectiva, el posicionamiento del aprovechamiento de biorresiduos en el marco político y normativo, la investigación aplicada sobre ciencia e ingeniería del compostaje, la capacitación profesional, técnica y operativa, y el establecimiento de alternativas para impulsar el producto.Biowaste represents the highest proportion from municipal solid wastes (MSW and its major pollution potential. Composting allows to reduce the impact of MSW management and contributes to sustainability in agricultural production. In developing countries such as Colombia, aspects such as the high pollution levels in raw materials, the use of inappropriate technologies, the minimum operational and process control activities, the low product quality and the scarce commercialization and marketing have represented limited possibilities for scaling up composting implementation. This paper provides a reflection on application perspectives for biowaste composting in Colombia. Strategies like: 1 source separation and selective collection, 2 inclusion of biowaste recovery within political and legal frameworks, 3 applied research about science and engineering of composting, 4 professional, technical and operational capacity development, and 5 setting options to product promotion, are also formulated.

  20. Caracterização, em escala de laboratório, do produto proveniente da calcinação do lodo de esgoto resultante do tratamento de águas residuárias.

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Cardoso de Morais

    2006-01-01

    O tratamento de efluentes de indústrias e efluentes domésticos é realizado em Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto as chamadas (ETE\\'s), onde se tem como produtos finais, uma corrente de água tratada e um resíduo sólido, o lodo de esgoto. A presente Tese tem como objetivo o estudo do processamento térmico do lodo de esgoto seco da ETE de Barueri, São Paulo, visando avaliar seu uso como fonte de energia e obter, por queima, um material cerâmico. Este trabalho foi proposto como uma alternativa para...

  1. PRODUÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DE BRIQUETES DE FINOS DE CARVÃO VEGETAL COMPACTADOS COM RESÍDUO CELULÓSICO PROVENIENTE DA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE1

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    Mariana Provedel Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar briquetes produzidos a partir de finos de carvão vegetal compactados com resíduo celulósico gerado na decantação dos efluentes da indústria de papel e celulose. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: briquetes produzidos com fino de carvão vegetal e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 25% (T1, 30% (T2, 35% (T3, 40% (T4 e 45% (T5 e briquetes produzidos com finos de carvão vegetal com 10% de amido e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 0% (T6, 5% (T7, 10% (T8, 15% (T9, 20% (T10 e 25% (T11. A caracterização dos briquetes foi realizada por meio de ensaios de análise química imediata, determinação do poder calorífico superior, densidade aparente e avaliação da resistência mecânica após a secagem dos briquetes em estufa ou ao ar livre. Observou-se que os briquetes com resíduo celulósico e amido em sua composição apresentaram maior densidade e resistência mecânica à compressão, concluindo-se, assim, que a presença do amido favoreceu a compactação e estabilidade dos briquetes. Observou-se, também, que o processo de secagem em estufa prejudicou a qualidade dos briquetes, de modo que a secagem ao ar livre forneceu briquetes mais resistentes e estáveis.

  2. BENEFÍCIOS AMBIENTAIS E ECONOMICOS PROVENIENTES DA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO MAIS LIMPA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE MÓVEIS DE MUNICIPIO DE NATAL-RN

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    Pedro Paulo Silva Leite

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral analisar os benefícios ambientais e econômicos obtidos através da implementação da Produção mais Limpa (P+L em uma indústria de móveis localizada em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um estudo de caso que contou com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o setor e a P+L e uma pesquisa de campo que contemplou as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico ambiental e operacional da empresa (estudo de arranjo físico, levantamento de métodos, fluxograma especifico do processo produtivo, levantamento de aspectos e impactos; levantamento de desperdícios; estudo de oportunidades de melhorias; implementação e monitoramento. Os resultados do diagnostico mostram desperdícios representativos de insumos (MDF, cola, lixa, etc, além da desorganização do espaço físico da empresa, insalubridade do galpão de produção. Assim, foram implementadas algumas medidas de otimização do uso de MDF, cola, lixa, além da implementação de um sistema de coleta de serragem e sistematização da produção, além do reaproveitamento de aparas de MDF para fabricação de chapas recicladas. Nesse contexto, as oportunidades de melhoria ambiental contemplaram os níveis 1 (redução na fonte e nível 2 (reciclagem interna acarretando na otimização do uso de recursos e a diminuição da poluição gerada, trazendo um alavancar uma receita anual para empresa aproximadamente em R$ 3.600 a partir de um investimento de R$ 4311, tendo um período de retorno não superior à 2 anos em cada estudo. Por fim, verifica-se que com a implementação das atividades vislumbradas é possível alcançar uma economia significativa nos gastos da empresa além dos benefícios operacionais como melhoria do ambiente de trabalho e mudanças benéficas no quesito meio ambiente através da diminuição do consumo de matéria prima e da geração de resíduos.

  3. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives Viscosidade da clara de ovo proveniente de poedeiras de diferentes espécies com aditivos comerciais e naturais

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    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.A coloração da gema, transparência e viscosidade da clara (albúmen são parâmetros importantes que os consumidores consideram na avaliação dos ovos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar as trocas que ocorrem na armazenagem por 36 dias em relação à viscosidade da clara de ovos produzidos por poedeiras de duas diferentes linhagens (Carijo Barbada eIsa Brown , as quais receberam dietas contendo urucum (1,5 e 2,0% ou aditivo sintético. Foram realizadas as análises de umidade, altura do albúmen, pH, viscosidade, formação e estabilidade da espuma. A linhagem Carijó Barbada apresentou menor quantidade de albúmen, menor umidade e maior viscosidade que a linhagem Isa Brown, entretanto, com a estocagem, a viscosidade diminuiu significativamente para ambas as linhagens. Inicialmente, a adição de 2,0% de urucum ou aditivo sintético foi suficiente para aumentar a viscosidade em ovos obtidos de ambas as linhagens, mas com a estocagem, somente o controle manteve maior viscosidade. A baixa viscosidade não interferiu na densidade e estabilidade da espuma.

  4. Electric power generation from biogas coming from sewer treatment using a 18 kW generator group; Geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas proveniente do tratamento de esgoto utilizando um grupo gerador de 18 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.usp.br; gbntumbo@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of the effluent treatment is to correct its undesirable characteristics, however, during this process, residues like sludge and biogas are generated, and those residues can be used as raw materials. The PUREFA (Program of Rational Energy Use and Alternative Sources), compound by 14 purposes, is about a project of the USP - University of Sao Paulo, financial backer FINEP - Financier of Studies and Projects. This project had three main objectives: to implant measures of management and action of energy efficiency, to increase the distributed generation in the USP from the renewable resource and not conventional energy and to introduce incentive permanent politics to the efficient and rational use of energy. In the context, the Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass was responsible for two purposes, related to the biogas use for electricity generation. The first purpose had main objective to implant the generation system, to capture and to stock the biogas, produced by biodigestor in the Technological Hydraulically Center (CTH - USP). The biodigestor is a UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket), whose outflow of the biogas produce is near 4 m{sup 3}/day, opera rates 24 hours per day and utilize the sewer from the residential buildings located in Sao Paulo University, inside the campus. For the biogas utilization, was made its outflow, chemical composition and heat value identifications, parameters that allowed to determinate the real potential for generation and to shown the necessity of the previous treatment, as H2S removal. Finished this stage, was started the next purpose, regarding biogas used as fuel for electricity generation using a generator group Otto cycle. Nowadays this project is a demonstrative project. In this article the technical and environmental project results obtained will be presented. (author)

  5. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at candidate genes involved in abiotic stress in two Prosopis species of hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Pomponio; Susana Marcucci Poltri; Diego Lopez Lauenstein; Susana Torales

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: Identify and compare SNPs on candidate genes related to abiotic stress in Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis flexuosa and interspecific hybridsArea of the study: Chaco árido, Argentina. Material and Methods: Fragments from 6 candidate genes were sequenced in 60 genotypes. DNA polymorphisms were analyzed.Main Results: The analysis revealed that the hybrids had the highest rate of polymorphism, followed by P. flexuosa and P. chilensis, the values found are comparable to other forest...

  6. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

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    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  7. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  8. Heat-shock responses in two leguminous plants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C; Cardemil, L

    2001-08-01

    Relative growth rates, basal and acclimated thermotolerance, membrane damage, fluorescence emission, and relative levels of free and conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 were compared after 2 h of treatment at different temperatures between Prosopis chilensis and Glycine max (soybean), cv. McCall, to evaluate if the thermotolerance of these two plants was related to levels of accumulation of heat shock proteins. Seedlings of P. chilensis germinated at 25 degrees C and at 35 degrees C and grown at temperatures above germination temperature showed higher relative growth than soybean seedlings treated under the same conditions. The lethal temperature of both species was 50 degrees C after germination at 25 degrees C. However, they were able to grow at 50 degrees C after germination at 35 degrees C. Membrane damage determinations in leaves showed that P. chilensis has an LT(50) 6 degrees C higher than that of soybean. There were no differences in the quantum yield of photosynthesis (F(v)/F(m)), between both plants when the temperatures were raised. P. chilensis showed higher relative levels of free ubiquitin, conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 than soybean seedlings when the temperatures were raised. Time-course studies of accumulation of these proteins performed at 40 degrees C showed that the relative accumulation rates of ubiquitin, conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 were higher in P. chilensis than in soybean. In both plants, free ubiquitin decreased during the first 5 min and increased after 30 min of heat shock, conjugated ubiquitin increased after 30 min and HSP70 began to increase dramatically after 20 min of heat shock. From these data it is concluded that P. chilensis is more tolerant to acute heat stress than soybean.

  9. Ophiuroidea das regiões antártica e subantártica: 1. sobre três espécies de Gorgonocephalidae e Ophiacanthidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 1. on three species of Gorgonocephalidae and Ophiacanthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available É estudada a distribuição geográfica e a variação de caracteres morfológicos de três espécies de ofiuroides (OpiLacantha antartica, Astrotoma agassizzi e Gorgonecephalus chilensis das regiões Antártica e Subantãrtica. São também apresentadas observações sobre biologia reprodutiva.The geographical distribution and the variation of morphological characters of three (Gorgonecephalus chilensis, Astroma agassizii, Ophiacantha antartica from the Antarctic and Subantarctic regions are studied. Observations on reproductive biology are presented.

  10. Renegotiating property rights in the Florida golden crab fishery

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    Scott Crosson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The golden crab (Chaceon fenneri supports a small, economically healthy fishery in south Florida. Crabbers in the fishery have successfully protected themselves against larger outside fishing interests in the past, and management has been stable for over fifteen years.  Why, then, did a portion of the fleet propose shifting to individual transferable quotas (ITQs?  Our findings suggest that proponents sought ITQ management because they believed it would further limit the ability of other crabbers to enter the fishery and act as a mechanism to legally preserve the informal and formal property rights that they have previously negotiated among themselves. Opponents believed that a shift to an ITQ regime would destroy those same property rights.  We explore the implications of these findings to a broader understanding of property rights and natural resource management institutions, noting that the currently existing system closely resembles a territorial use rights fishery (TURF.

  11. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of deep-water fisheries off Brazil is reviewed from biological, eco-nomic, and political perspectives. This process has been centered in the southeastem and southern sectors of the Brazilian coast (19°-34°S and was motivated by the overfishing of the main coastal resources and a government-induced vessel-chartering program. Shelf break (100-250 m operations by national hook-and-line and trawl vessels intensified in the 1990s. Around 2000-2001, however, foreign-chartered longliners, gillnetters, potters, and trawlers started to operate in Brazilian waters, leading the occupation of the upper slope (250-500 m, mostly targeting monkfish (Lophyus gastrophysus, the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi, the Brazilian codling (Urophycis mystacea, the wreckfish (Polyprion americanus, the Argentine short-fin squid (Illex argentinus, the red crab (Chaceon notialis, and the royal crab (Chaceon ramosae. Between 2004 and 2007, chartered trawlers established a valuable fishery on deep-water shrimps (family Aristeidae, heavily exploiting the lower slope (500-1000 m. Total catches of deep-water resources varied annually from 5,756 ton in 2000 to a maximum of 19,923 ton in 2002, decreasing to nearly 11,000 ton in 2006. Despite intensive data collection, the availability of timely stock assessments, and a formal participatory process for the discussion of management plans, deep-water stocks are already considered to be overexploited due to limitations of governance. .El reciente desarrollo de la pesca profunda en Brasil fue revisado desde perspectivas biológicas, econômicas y políticas. Este proceso se ha centrado en los sectores sureste y sur de la costa de Brasil (19°-34°S y fue motivado por la sobrepesca de los principales recursos costeros en conjunto con una política gubernamental de arriendo de buques pesqueros. Las operaciones de pesca sobre el borde de la plataforma (100-250 m por buques palangreros y arrastreros se

  12. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique; Extraccion de metales toxicos y valiosos de los desechos de lodos y cenizas provenientes de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales RECICLAGUA aplicando la tecnica de lixiviado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J J

    2004-07-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in concentrations greater to 0.5% in weight, as long as the spectroscopy analysis of emission for plasma very low concentrations are identified already that this method causes the destruction of the sample achieving the identification of all the present elements. With the obtained results we are able to compare the concentrations of the metals before and after the leaching. We calculate by this way the percentage of efficiency for each one of the variables that we managed in the development of the study, achieving the extraction of those toxic and valuable metals, present in the sludge and ashes until of 100%. Based on the results we can mention that the workers who are exposed to aerosols and powders of these toxic residuals those which they contain heavy metals. (Author)

  13. Microbiological water quality and gill histopathology of fish from fish farming in Itapecuru-Mirim County, Maranhão State=Qualidade microbiológica da água e histopatologia de brânquias de peixes provenientes de pisciculturas do município de Itapecuru-Mirim, Estado do Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the microbiological water quality and tissue lesions in gills from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum female x Piaractus mesopotamicus male. For this, water and gills were collected from fish farming at six locations in Itapecuru-Mirim County, Maranhão State. Microbiological water analyses revealed contamination by total coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria. In the gills, we observed a diversity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The tissue lesions were: lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, sub-epithelial edema and telangiectasia. Inflammatory lesions were not observed. Significant statistical difference (p > 0.05 was not detected when comparing different gills lesions during rainy and dry season. The correlation between lesion and pond type was statistically different (p Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água e as alterações teciduais em brânquias de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e do híbrido tambacu (Colossoma macropomum fêmea x Piaractus mesopotamicus macho, coletou-se água de pisciculturas e brânquias de peixes de seis localidades do município de Itapecuru-Mirim, Estado do Maranhão. O exame microbiológico da água revelou poluição por coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e bactérias heterotróficas. Nas brânquias, observou-se uma variedade de bactérias Gram-positivas e negativas. As alterações teciduais observadas foram fusão de lamelas, hiperplasia interlamelar, edema subepitelial e telangiectasia, não sendo observadas lesões inflamatórias. Não houve diferença estatística (p > 0,05 quando se comparou diferentes tipos de lesões branquiais com os períodos de chuva ou de seca. A correlação de lesões e tipos de tanque demonstrou diferença estatística (p < 0,05 para fusão de lamelas e hiperplasia interlamelar que ocorreram com maior frequência em viveiro de terra. Quanto à frequência de lesões nas diferentes espécies de peixe, houve diferença estatística (p < 0,05, sendo o tambacu mais sensível para fusão de lamelas, enquanto que na tilápia as demais lesões foram mais frequentes. Em relação aos pontos de coleta, houve diferença estatística para todas as alterações branquiais. As alterações teciduais encontradas são inespecíficas e agem como mecanismo de defesa frente ao ambiente aquático poluído, mas sem demonstrar caráter infeccioso.

  14. Study and conservation of wood objects saturated of water originating of a pre-Columbian archaeological site: The Gran Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan; Estudio y conservacion de objetos de madera saturada provenientes de un sitio arqueologico precolombino: el Gran Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso O, A. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, INAH, Subdireccion de Conservacion Arqueologica y Acabados Arquitectonicos. Xicotencatl y General Anaya s/n, San Diego Churubusco, 04010 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Tzompantzi R, T. [Universidad de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Tecnologia e Ingenieria de la Madera, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morgos, A. [Hungarian National Museum, Conservation Department, 1370 Budapest, Pf.: 364. (Hungary); Imazu, S. [Archaeological Conservation of the Kashihara Archaeological Institute, Unebishi, Nara 634-0065 (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Few studies have been practiced on deterioration processes suffered by objects made of ancient tropical and coniferous woods. The reason is related to the fact that very few objects made of wood are usually found in archaeological excavations in our country. For this reason, applied studies of archaeological woods are, to us, fundamental to understand the preservation processes which have allowed very few pre-Columbian objects to survive the extreme conditions or submerged in streams and oceans. Some preliminary results were obtained in the studies practiced on the Mexican wooden miniature from the Offering number 102 of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Light and electron microscopy as well as physical tests have proven to be suitable examination techniques to obtain information about the preservation level of wooden structures. The results obtained were important to understand the influence of the context in the preservation of the buried materials, furthermore they have allowed us to evaluate and ascertain new conservation procedures. (Author) 24 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  15. Susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria from the alcohol industry to several antimicrobial compounds Susceptibilidade de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e bactérias láticas provenientes de indústrias alcooleiras a vários compostos antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Oliva-Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial effect of several products including commercial formulations currently used in sugar and alcohol factories was determined by adapted MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration test on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on natural contaminants Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The MIC test by macrodilution broth method was adapted by formulating of the culture medium with cane juice closely simulating industrial alcoholic fermentation must. Acid penicillin V (MIC 0.10-0.20 µg/ml and clindamycin (MIC 0.05-0.40 µg/ml were most effective against bacterial growth in 24 h. Among the chemicals, sulphite (MIC 10-40 µg/ml, nitrite (MIC 50 µg/ml. Methyldithiocarbamate was efficient only on L. fermentum (MIC 2.5 µg/ml and S. cerevisiae (MIC 5.0 µg/ml. Thiocianate (MIC 1.2-5.0 µg/ml, bromophenate (MIC 9-18 µg/ml and n- alkyldimethylbenzylammonium cloride (MIC 1-8 µg/ml affected S. cerevisiae at similar inhibitory concentration for L. mesenteroides or L. fermentum. Formaldehyde was more effective on bacteria (MIC 11.5 - 23 µg/ml in both pH (4.5 and 6.5 than yeast (MIC 46-92 µg/ml. Several tested formulated biocides seriously affect S. cerevisiae growth in the similar dosages of the bacterial inhibition, so these products should be avoided or used only in special conditions for the bacterium control of fermentation process. For this step, the control of these contaminants by antibiotics are more suitable and effective.O efeito antimicrobiano de vários produtos incluindo formulações comerciais usualmente utilizadas em usinas de açúcar e álcool foi determinado pelo teste da Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI adaptada para Saccharomyces cerevisiae e os contaminantes naturais Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. O teste da CMI foi feito pela adaptação do método da Macrodiluição em caldo pela formulação de um meio de cultivo com caldo de cana em condições similares ao mosto da fermentação alcoólica. Penicilina V Ácida (CMI= 0,10-0,20 µg/ml e clindamicina (CMI = 0,05-0,40 µg/ml foram os mais efetivos contra o crescimento bacteriano em 24 horas. Entre os produtos químicos, sulfito (CMI = 10-40 µg/ml, nitrito (CMI 50 µg/ml. Metilditiocarbamato foi eficiente apenas para L. fermentum (CMI= 2,5 µg/ml e S. cerevisiae (CMI= 5,0 µg/ml. Tiocianato (CMI= 1,2-5,0 µg/ml, bromofenato (CMI= 9-18 µg/ml e n-alquildimetilbenzil cloreto de amônio (CMI= 1-8 µg/ml afetaram o crescimento de S. cerevisiae em concentrações inibitórias similares à L. mesenteroides ou L. fermentum. Formaldeido foi mais efetivo contra as bactérias (CMI= 11,5-23 µg/ml em ambos pHs (4,5 e 6,5 em relação à levedura (CMI= 46-92 µg/ml. Vários biocidas testados afetam seriamente o crescimento de S. cerevisiae, nas dosagens similares àquelas que inibem as bactérias, portanto estes produtos deveriam ser evitados, ou usados somente em condições especiais, para o controle bacteriano do processo de fermentação. Para esta etapa, o controle destes contaminantes por antibióticos é mais apropriado e efetivo.

  16. Incorporation of limestone residue from marble processing plant in the city of Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espirito Santo, Brazil, in the production of mortars; Incorporacao de residuo proveniente de usina de beneficiamento de marmore do municipio de Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, ES, Brasil, na confeccao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, G.P.; Alexandre, J.; Dias, D.P.; Dias Junior, N.S.; Anderson, R.B., E-mail: gabrielkgbs@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LECIV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Cachoeiro do Itapemirim city (ES), located 136 km from Vitoria, the state's capital, is the largest ornamental stones producer in Brazil, whose beneficiation produces a large amount of waste that, even today, is responsible for major damages done to the environment. This article aims the experimental study of hydrated lime use (product marketed to be used in mortar) by a residue from marble beneficiation from an industry located in that city. Two mixes were made with cement:sand:hydrated lime and cement:sand:residue. The mortars were evaluated by their properties comparisons in fresh and hardened states, namely: consistency index, mass density and incorporated air content, compressive strength, tensile and bending grip for traction. Chemical and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction were also made. The obtained results met the requirements prescribed by ABNT NBR 13 281 (2005). (author)

  17. Caracterização físico-química e avaliação de compostos bioativos de manga (Mangífera indica L.) provenientes de cultivo biodinâmico, orgânico e convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Leonardo Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    151 f. A manga(Mangífera indica L.) amplamente encontrada em regiões tropicais e subtropicais, é uma fruta mundialmente conhecida, e tem grande aceitação no Brasil. Além de ser saborosa e aromática, possui ainda elevado valor nutritivo quando comparada com outras frutas, assim como alto valor comercial em muitas regiões do mundo, em especial nas regiões tropicais. Esta fruta é amplamente produzida no Brasil, sendo a Bahia o maior produtor nacional. Neste trabalho, foram analisadas mangas p...

  18. Variação da cor e propriedades cerâmicas com o aumento da temperatura de queima de uma argila proveniente da formação Corumbataí, região de Piracicaba, SP Variation of color and ceramic properties with the increase of temperature of clay's firing from the Corumbataí formation, region of Piracicaba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Roveri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando compreender a influência do ferro contido na illita, presente na formação Corumbataí, na cor de queima de produtos cerâmicos selecionou-se uma amostra de cor cinza esverdeado claro, dominantemente illítica e com porcentagem de óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro relativamente baixo, com base em estudos petrográficos, mineralógicos e químicos. Para os testes cerâmicos, os corpos de prova foram queimados em forno de queima rápida de laboratório nas temperaturas de 900 ºC, 950 ºC, 1000 ºC, 1050 ºC, 1075 ºC e 1100 ºC, com taxa de aquecimento de 40 ºC/min, sendo um conjunto de corpos de prova queimado a 950 ºC, porém com taxa de aquecimento de 20 ºC/min, com o intuito de verificar a influência do tempo de queima na coloração das peças cerâmicas. O tempo de queima mostrou não interferir significativamente na alteração da cor e os corpos de prova apenas apresentaram alterações significativas a partir da temperatura de 1000 ºC, adquirindo, respectivamente os matizes: laranja, vermelho e marrom escuro. A mudança de cor foi acompanhada em intensidade equivalente pela retração linear de queima, pela absorção de água e módulo de ruptura por flexão.The objective of this paper is to understand the influence of the iron contained in the illite, present in the Corumbataí formation, in the color of firing of ceramic products. A sample was selected, with a gray color clearly, with illite domination, hydroxide and oxide percentage and relatively low iron, with basis of petrographics, mineralogical and chemical studies. For the ceramic essays, the test bodies were fired in a fast firing kiln of laboratory in the temperatures of 900 ºC, 950 ºC, 1000 ºC, 1050 ºC, 1075 ºC and 1100 ºC, with heating rate of 40 ºC/min, a set of bodies test was fired at 950 ºC, however with heating rate of 20 ºC/min, for the checking of the influence of the time of firing range in the coloration of the ceramic plates. The time of firing range showed not to intervene significantly in the alteration of the color and the test bodies produced significant alterations in the temperature of 1000 ºC, acquiring, respectively the shades: orange, red and dark brown. The color change was followed in intensity equivalent for the linear retraction of firing, for the water's absorption and mechanical strength.

  19. Síntesis, caracterización y evaluación antimicrobiana de AgNPs, TiO2NPs, y Ag/TiO2NPs utilizando como soporte Al2O3 proveniente de brackets cerámicos

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Luckie, Raul Alberto

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad uno de los tratamientos más solicitados en la práctica odontológica sin duda es la ortodoncia, que se encarga de mantener la relación funcional, armónica y estética del complejo dentocraneal, mediante el uso de aparatología fija y removible. El control de la placa dentobacteriana es especialmente importante durante el tratamiento ortodóntico, debido a que las áreas de los dientes que se encuentran cerca de los brackets y alambres son difíciles de limpiar con el cepillo dental...

  20. INFLUENCIA DE LA SALINIDAD Y LA IRRADIANCIA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN BIOQUÍMICA DE UNA NUEVA CEPA DE Dunaliella salina, PROVENIENTE DE LAS SALINAS DE ARAYA, VENEZUELA | INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND IRRADIANCE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A NEW STRAIN of Dunaliella salina FROM THE ARAYA

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    Miguel Guevara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina is a microalga used for the production of metabolites of high industrial and pharmaceutical value. The combined effect of irradiance and salinity on growth, pigment production and biochemical composition of this strain were evaluated in order to contribute to the knowledge of the physiological responses of this new isolate of D. salina from Araya saltworks, to changes in the conditions of its environment. It was aslo intendend to increase the variety of native microalgae species which can serve as sources of bioproduction for bioactive compounds, biomass and metabolites of application in pharmaceuticals and biomedical industries. Batch cultures of the strain of D. salina were conducted for 22 d at f/2 medium Guillard (0.88 mmol.L-1 of nitrogen at 27 ± 2°C, pH 7.8; photoperiod 12 h light: 12 h darkness, continuous aeration (150 mL.L-1 in two salinities (40 and 250 UPS and irradiances (195 and 295 µmolphotons.m-2.s-1. Population growth was evaluated daily and at the end of the trial the contents of biomass, pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and cell size were determined. The growth rate of the new strain of D. salina decreased with increasing salinity and irradiance. However, cell size, biomass, content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, total carotenoids and β-carotene increased with increasing irradiance and salinity. In addition, the potential of this strain for the production of β-carotene was shown.

  1. Contabilidade pública: a evidenciação em notas explicativas das informações contábeis provenientes do reconhecimento dos bens de uso comum nos municípios da região metropolitana de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Seraphim, Paulo Rogerio

    2011-01-01

    A Contabilidade Pública Brasileira está a caminho da convergência as Normas Internacionais de Contabilidade. Este trabalho abordou o estudo da evidenciação das informações contábeis oriundas do reconhecimento dos bens de uso comum como pontes, ruas, estradas, viadutos e praças pela Administração Pública através das notas explicativas. O objetivo geral foi validar uma proposta de estrutura de nota explicativa que promova a evidenciação das informações contábeis a seus usuários, em apoio ao pro...

  2. Caracterização físico-química e microestrutural de conchas de moluscos bivalves provenientes de cultivos da região litorânea da ilha de Santa Catarina Physical chemistry and micro structural characterization of shells of bivalve mollusks from sea farmer around the Santa Catarina island

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    Denyo Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of shells of oysters and mussels from sea farm around the Santa Catarina Island in south Brazil were collected and analyzed by DRX, FRX, SEM, CHN-S, FTIR, TG, AAS/Flame and AAS /GF. The results showed that the crystalline structure of mussel's shells is mainly formed by aragonite and the oyster's shells by calcite. The calcium percentage in both shells species was in the range of 33 to 35% and also 850 and 1200 mg/kg of strontium was detected in the shells of oysters and mussels, respectively. The content of organic matter was larger in the mussel's shells and the thermal degradation of both shells species occurred by three events at different temperatures from 250 to 830 ºC.

  3. Study of {sup 137} Cs contamination in Rochedo Reservoir, Meia Ponte river (Goias State) from the radiologic accident in Goiania; Estudo da contaminacao por {sup 137} Cs na Represa do Rochedo, Rio Meia Ponte (GO), proveniente do acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, Marcia Emilia M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica; Godoy, Jose Marcos O. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Through {sup 137} Cs concentration profiles in sediments from Rochedo Reservoir, it was possible to estimate the amount of this radionuclide (94 GBq) which has reached the Meia Ponte River system, as a consequence of the Goiania radiological accident in 1987. Based on in-situ measurements as well as on laboratory studies, the influence of N H{sub 4}{sup +} concentration on the K{sub d} value was also investigated. The results have shown that for high N H{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations there is a clear correlation between both parameters. It was also observed the influence on the aging effect on the {sup 137} Cs release from the sediment, as well as of the illite content in it. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Estudo morfoanatômico comparativo entre a poaia (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes - Rubiaceae obtida da região Amazônica (habitat original e proveniente de processo biotecnológico submetida a diferentes tratamentos de interceptação da radiação solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanzio Diniz Lacerda Gomes

    Full Text Available A poaia ou ipeca (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes.-Rubiaceae apesar de seu valor farmacológico e sócio-econômico é cada vez menos freqüente no seu habitat. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo comparativo dos aspectos morfoanatômicos entre a espécie originária da Amazônia Brasileira e a obtida in vitro submetidas a diferentes tratamentos de interceptação de radiação solar, visando, desta forma, dar suporte a estudos com fins de preservação, cultivo, validação farmacognóstica/farmacopéica e ampliar o conhecimento biotecnológico desta espécie. A espécie nativa foi obtida de fragmento de mata (fase vegetativa e empregada para micropropagação através do cultivo in vitro de fragmentos de segmentos internodais sobre meio de cultivo Murashige & Skoog com o regulador de crescimento BAP (2,0 mg/l de meio. Obtiveram-se plântulas que foram transferidas para casa de vegetação por 2 anos sob dois tipos de ambiente e três diferentes tratamentos de interceptação da radiação solar. Foi feito o estudo morfoanatômico, analisado estatisticamente. Verifica-se que as plantas originadas por processo biotecnológico e submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos apresentam morfologia semelhante à planta nativa, no entanto constatou-se um maior número de raízes secundárias, não há diferença significativa entre larguras e comprimentos de folhas, comprimento de raízes, estípulas, peso de raízes e rizomas. Mas, observou-se diferença estatística no comprimento do caule em relação à nativa.

  5. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

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    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a ciprofloxacina, seguida pelo meropenem. A necessidade de um mecanismo efetivo para reduzir a contaminação bacteriana dentro dos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos foi enfatizada, e o risco da exposição ocupacional e infecção cruzada na prática odontológica, em especial quando causada por patógenos oportunistas como a P. aeruginosa foi realçado.

  6. Conocimientos sobre diferentes formas de expresión de la sexualidad que manifiestan jóvenes y docentes de noveno año provenientes de un colegio público del cantón de Alajuela, Costa Rica

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    Élida Vargas Barrantes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENObjetivo: Comparar el conocimiento en sexualidad humana que muestran estudiantes de noveno año y docentes de un colegio público del cantón Central de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Método: La recolección de la información se hizo por medio de un cuestionario. Se seleccionó una muestra simple aleatoria de 33 estudiantes de un total de 181 activos hasta noviembre de 2011. Un total de 12 docentes encargados de impartir diferentes materias a nivel de noveno conformaron la muestra de profesores. El análisis de los datos cuantitativos se realizó mediante el programa SPSS 20.0 y Excel. Resultados: La comparación entre estudiantes y docentes en los cuatro subtemas evaluados (vínculos emocionales, papeles sexuales, reproducción humana y respuesta sexual y erotismo indica que ninguno de los grupos logró alcanzar una nota de 7,0 (escala de 1 a 10. Una nota de 6,0 solo es superada por los docentes en aspectos relacionados con “papeles sexuales”, mientras que los estudiantes apenas alcanzan esta nota en el contenido “vínculos emocionales”, aspecto en el cual curiosamente superan a los docentes en cuanto a la calificación final promedio. Conclusiones: La deficiente formación que muestran los estudiantes se asocia de manera directa a los conocimientos tan limitados de los docentes en los temas evaluados. En su preparación académica para la Educación General Básica en Costa Rica, los estudiantes no reciben cursos específicos del tema. Se requiere una verdadera coordinación entre el Ministerio de Educación Pública y las universidades, en cuanto a la formación esencial, insustituible e impostergable, que deben recibir los futuros docentes.ABSTRACTObjective: To compare the knowledge on human sexuality showing ninth year students and teachers of different subjects from a public school of the Canton Central de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Method: the collection of information is made by means of a questionnaire validated prior to ninth grade and young teachers from a public school. We selected a simple random sample of 33 students from a total of 181 active until November 2011. A total of 12 teachers responsible for teaching different subjects (science, social studies and civics, and castilian literature, foreign language, physical education, arts and orientation ninth level up the sample of teachers. The quantitative data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 and Excel. Results: The comparison between students and teachers on four themes assessed (emotional ties, gender roles, human reproduction and sexual response and eroticism indicates that none of the groups failed to reach a score of 7.0 (scale of 1-10. 6.0 A note is only surpassed by teachers on issues related to "sex roles", while students barely this note in content "emotional ties", interestingly respect in which teachers outperform in terms of average final grade. Conclusions: The poor formation showing the students directly associated to such limited knowledge of teachers. In their academic preparation for general education in Costa Rica, and students do not receive specific training on the subject. It requires real coordination between the Ministry of Education and the universities, in terms of training essential that irreplaceable and should receive urgent and future teachers.

  7. Conocimientos sobre diferentes formas de expresión de la sexualidad que manifiestan jóvenes y docentes de noveno año provenientes de un colegio público del cantón de Alajuela, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Vargas-Barrantes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparar el conocimiento en sexualidad humana que muestran estudiantes de noveno año y docentes de un colegio público del cantón Central de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Método: La recolección de la información se hizo por medio de un cuestionario. Se seleccionó una muestra simple aleatoria de 33 estudiantes de un total de 181 activos hasta noviembre de 2011. Un total de 12 docentes encargados de impartir diferentes materias a nivel de noveno conformaron la muestra de profesores. El análisis de los datos cuantitativos se realizó mediante el programa SPSS 20.0 y Excel. Resultados: La comparación entre estudiantes y docentes en los cuatro subtemas evaluados (vínculos emocionales, papeles sexuales, reproducción humana y respuesta sexual y erotismo indica que ninguno de los grupos logró alcanzar una nota de 7,0 (escala de 1 a 10. Una nota de 6,0 solo es superada por los docentes en aspectos relacionados con “papeles sexuales”, mientras que los estudiantes apenas alcanzan esta nota en el contenido “vínculos emocionales”, aspecto en el cual curiosamente superan a los docentes en cuanto a la calificación final promedio. Conclusiones: La deficiente formación que muestran los estudiantes se asocia de manera directa a los conocimientos tan limitados de los docentes en los temas evaluados. En su preparación académica para la Educación General Básica en Costa Rica, los estudiantes no reciben cursos específicos del tema. Se requiere una verdadera coordinación entre el Ministerio de Educación Pública y las universidades, en cuanto a la formación esencial, insustituible e impostergable, que deben recibir los futuros docentes.

  8. Development of globular embryos from the hybridization between 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange and 'Poncã' mandarin Desenvolvimento de embriões globulares de citros provenientes de hibridação entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'Poncã'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to study the influence of different concentrations of the MT medium, sucrose, vitamins, activated charcoal and gibberellic acid (GA3 on the culture of immature embryos from the crossing between 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange and 'PONCÃ' mandarin. The embryos were excised under aseptic conditions and inoculated in 15 mL of the MT medium according to the following experiments: 1 MT concentrations (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 90 g.L-1 of sucrose; 2 vitamins concentrations of the MT (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 90 g.L-1 of sucrose; 3 activated charcoal concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g.L-1 supplemented with GA3 (0, 0.01, 0.1; 1 and 10 mg.L-1. After the inoculation, the embryos were kept in a growth room for 90 days at 27 ± 1ºC, in a 16-hour photoperiod with 32 µmol.m-2.s-1 of irradiance. The best development of embryos at the globular stage was achieved using 50% and 100% of the MT medium plus 60 g.L-1 and 90 g.L-1 of sucrose, respectively, supplemented with 0.01 mg.L-1 of GA3. The addition of activated charcoal or vitamins in the MT medium has shown to be unnecessary to the development of globular embryos.Objetivou-se estudar a influência de diversas concentrações do meio MT, sacarose, vitaminas, carvão ativado e ácido giberélico no cultivo de embriões imaturos oriundos do cruzamento entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'PONCÃ' . Os embriões foram excisados sob condições assépticas e inoculados em 15 mL do meio de cultura MT, de acordo com cada experimento a seguir: 1 concentrações do meio de cultura MT (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% e 200% combinados com 0, 30, 60 e 90 g.L-1 de sacarose; 2 concentrações de vitaminas do meio MT (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% e 200% combinados com 0, 30, 60 e 90 g.L-1 de sacarose e; 3 concentrações de carvão ativado (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5 e 2 g.L-1 combinados com GA3 (0; 0.01; 0.1; 1 e 10 mg.L-1. Após a inoculação, os embriões foram mantidos por 90 dias em sala de crescimento à temperatura de 27±1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 µmol.m-2.s-1. A utilização de 50% e 100% do meio MT associado a 60 e 90 g.L-1 de sacarose, respectivamente, acrescido de 0.01 mg.L-1 de GA3, proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento de embriões globulares. Não houve necessidade da adição de carvão ativado e vitaminas no meio MT para o cultivo de embriões globulares.

  9. TAFONOMÍA DE RESTOS ÓSEOS PROVENIENTES DE EGAGRÓPILAS DE CORAGYPS ATRATUS (JOTE DE CABEZA NEGRA EN EL NOROESTE DE LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA/Taphonomy of bones remains from pellets of Coragyps Atratus (black vulture in the northwest of the argentinian Patag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ballejo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Existen diversos estudios actualísticos en tafonomía sobre restos de presas de diferentes especies de aves raptoras. Sin embargo, este tipo de trabajos en aves carroñeras ha sido escasamente considerado hasta el momento en Argentina, a pesar que ellas cumplen un papel fundamental en la alteración y transporte de cadáveres. Coragyps atratus (jote de cabeza negra tiene la particularidad de formar posaderos comunales cercanos a áreas de actividades humanas y de alimentarse de animales de todos los tamaños, por lo que pueden interferir en la formación de sitios arqueológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis tafonómico sobre los restos óseos recuperados de egagrópilas de C. atratus en el Noroeste patagónico, con el fin de generar herramientas que permitan identificar a estas aves como posibles agentes acumuladores. Se recolectaron 469 egagrópilas distribuidas en tres posaderos del Noroeste patagónico. Se identificaron los elementos recuperados y se evaluaron los grados de alteraciones por ácidos gástricos. Lepus europaeus y Ovis aries dominaron las muestras. Los elementos más representativos pertenecen al autopodio, principalmente falanges. Todos ellos muestran signos de digestión, que van desde porosidades superficiales, perforaciones y fracturas, con la desaparición de la médula en el caso de varias falanges; denotando diferencias en relación al tamaño de la presa consumida. Abstract There are several actualistic taphonomic studies regarding different species of birds of prey. However, the studies focus on scavenger birds have been scarcely considered in Argentina, despite the fact that they play a fundamental role in the alteration and transportation of carcasses. A peculiar characteristic of Coragyps atratus (black vulture is that it builds communal roosts near places where human activities are developed and it feeds on animals of varying size, which may interfere with the formation of archaeological sites. The aim of this study is to perform a taphonomic analysis of the bones remains retrieved from pellets of C. atratus in the Northwest of Patagonia, with the purpose of creating tools that allow the identification of these birds as possible accumulator agents. 469 pellets, distributed in the three roosts of the patagonic norhtwest, were gathered. The elements retrieved were identified and the degrees of alterations caused by gastric acids were evaluated. Lepus europaeus and Ovis aries predominate in the samples. The main elements belong to the articular bones, mainly phalanges. They all show signs of digestion, from surface porosities to perforations and fractures, and in the case of several phalanges, the disappearance of marrow, denoting differences regarding the size of the ingested prey.

  10. Incorporation of limestone residue from marble processing plant in the city of Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espirito Santo, Brazil, in the production of mortars; Incorporacao de residuo proveniente de usina de beneficiamento de marmore do municipio de Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, ES, Brasil, na confeccao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, G P; Alexandre, J; Dias, D P; Dias, Junior, N S; Anderson, R.B., E-mail: gabrielkgbs@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LECIV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Cachoeiro do Itapemirim city (ES), located 136 km from Vitoria, the state's capital, is the largest ornamental stones producer in Brazil, whose beneficiation produces a large amount of waste that, even today, is responsible for major damages done to the environment. This article aims the experimental study of hydrated lime use (product marketed to be used in mortar) by a residue from marble beneficiation from an industry located in that city. Two mixes were made with cement:sand:hydrated lime and cement:sand:residue. The mortars were evaluated by their properties comparisons in fresh and hardened states, namely: consistency index, mass density and incorporated air content, compressive strength, tensile and bending grip for traction. Chemical and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction were also made. The obtained results met the requirements prescribed by ABNT NBR 13 281 (2005). (author)

  11. Prevalência, avaliação clínica e imunológica de cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) naturalmente infectados por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937) provenientes do município de Tamandaré, região litoral Sul do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antônio Granja Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a prevalência, analisar a correlação espacial entre a Leishmaniose Visceral Canina e fatores ambientais, avaliar e comparar os níveis de citocinas (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2 e IL-4) expressões por PCR em tempo real em diferentes tecidos/órgãos, determinar os padrões bio-químicos e hematológicos em cães naturalmente infectados p...

  12. Estandarización de la TR-PCR para la detección de las fusiones génicas BCR-ABL en pacientes con leucemia Mieloide Crónica (LMC y Linfoide Aguda (LLA provenientes de HUSVP y Clíncia León XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzálo Vásquez Palacio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La translocación recíproca t(9:22(q34;q11 involucra el proto-oncogen ABL y el gen BCR, originando un gen de fusión BCR-ABL, que codifica una proteína con elevada actividad tirosina quinasa, implicada en la leucemogénesis.

  13. Estudios de actividad antioxidante en fracciones provenientes de dos plantas medicinales ecuatorianas: extractos hidroalcohólicos de mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum (Ruíz Y Pavón) tropaeolacea) y aceite esencial de congona (Peperomia inaequalifolia (Ruíz Y Pavón) Piperaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Aillón Rojas, Cristina Lorena

    2014-01-01

    They investigated two medicinal plants native to the Ecuadorian highlands, these plants are congona Peperomia inaequalifolia. Piperaceae (Ruíz & Pavón) and Mashua Tropaeolum tuberosum.tropaeolaceae (Ruíz & Pavón). The essential oil obtained from the species hidrodestilation Peperomia inaequalifolia (Congona) antioxidant activity resulted IC50 DPPH of 2.22 mg/mL e IC50 ABTS of 0.006mg/mL compared with Thymus vulgaris (tomillo) like positive control. During the study investigated taxonomic and ...

  14. Análisis Comparativo entre Microextracción en Fase Sólida y Espacio Libre Estático de Productos de Oxidación Provenientes del LÚpulo (Humulus lupus) en Cerveza Mexicana Tipo Lager

    OpenAIRE

    López Hernández, Arnoldo

    1999-01-01

    El sabor de la cerveza es una combinación de impresiones olfatoria y gustativas que tiene una importancia crucial en la aceptación de este producto por el consumidor. Las características distintivas del sabor de una cerveza están determinadas por la composición del lÚpulo usado en su elaboración. La vida Útil de la cerveza está ligada a la estabilidad del sabor amargo característico del producto, el cual es conferido en mayor medida por los aceites esenciales del lÚpulo. El B-cariofileno es u...

  15. Study and selection of structured packing material: metallic, polymeric or ceramic to operate a column of absorption polluting gases coming from brick kilns efficiently; Estudio y seleccion de material empaque estructurado: metalico, polimerico o ceramico, para operar eficientemente una columna de absorcion de gases contaminantes provenientes de hornos tabiqueros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar P, A.

    2012-07-01

    In this research three structured packing materials were characterized: a metallic, polymeric and ceramic. The study of the physical properties of structured packing materials, and their behavior within the absorption column allowed to suggest a gas-liquid contactor material with higher mechanical and chemical resistance, which is more efficient for the treatment of sour gases from brick kilns. To study the mechanical properties (hardness, tension and elastic modulus) were used procedures of the American Society for Testing Materials, as well as resistance to corrosion. The geometric characteristics, the density, the melting temperature and the weight were tested with procedures of the measuring equipment. The structure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to a sound of dispersive energy of X-ray, to quantify elemental chemical composition. The interaction of gas-liquid contactors materials in presence of CO{sub 2}, was evaluated in three absorption columns built of Pyrex glass, with a diameter of 0.1016 m, of 1.5 m in height, 0.0081m{sup 2} cross-sectional area, packed with every kind of material: metallic, polymeric and ceramic, processing a gas flow of 20m{sup 3} / h at 9% CO{sub 2}, in air and a liquid flow to 30% of Mea 5 L/min. The results of the properties studied were by the metallic material: more density, higher roughness, the greater tensile strength, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (Mea) to 30% by weight, improvement more efficient absorption of CO{sub 2}, and higher modulus of elasticity. The polymeric material was characterized to have lower hardness, lower roughness, lower density, lower melting temperature, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of 1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution, and allowed an absorption efficiency of CO{sub 2}, 2% lower than that presented by the material metallic. The ceramic material found to be the hardest of the three materials studied, the higher density, lower modulus of elasticity, the lower corrosion resistance in the presence of 1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The study of material properties, revealed that the metallic material is more resistant to abrasive wear, the more tenacious, more chemically resistant in the presence of Mea aqueous solution of 30% by weight, as well as the most efficient, improvement an absorption of 95% CO{sub 2}, followed by the polymeric material, which is the most ductile, the more elastic, and its low hardness is susceptible to scratching and abrasion, its hydrophobicity, it takes longer to form the liquid film in the absorption process, improved a 93% absorption, was the most chemically resistant in the presence of 1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The ceramic allowed 84% absorption, was the most rigid fragile, susceptible to wear and its porosity reduce the contact area between the liquid and gas, resulting be the contactor that improves minus efficiency in the absorption process. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region; Avaliacao da concentracao de atividade de Ra-226, Ra-228 e Pb-210 em sedimentos provenientes da Antartica na regiao da baia do Almirantado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Tamires de Araujo

    2015-07-01

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and {sup 210}Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO{sub 4}. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were used to estimate the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported {sup 210}Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  17. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife -PE, Brazil Perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de isolados de Staphylococcus aureus provenientes de infecções de pele e tecidos moles de pacientes ambulatoriais de um hospital universitário em Recife - PE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Beserra Caraciolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS: From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63% had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA.FUNDAMENTOS: O Staphylococcus aureus possui uma notável habilidade de adquirir resistência antimicrobiana, sendo a resistência à meticilina um problema de saúde pública crescente. O S. aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA vem se tornando importante também fora do ambiente hospitalar, particularmente nos Estados Unidos. No Brasil, desde 2005, têm sido relatados casos de infecções cutâneas comunitárias causadas por MRSA, porém estudos de resistência envolvendo pacientes ambulatoriais são escassos. OBJETIVO: Conhecer o perfil de resistência de S. aureus envolvidos em infecções de pele e partes moles de pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de Dermatologia de um hospital universitário de Recife, Pernambuco. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo envolvendo 30 pacientes com infecções de pele e tecidos moles atendidos no ambulatório de Dermatologia de maio a novembro de 2011. Para avaliação da suscetibilidade dos S. aureus aos antibióticos foram utilizados teste de disco-difusão e placa de screening de oxacilina. RESULTADOS: Das 30 amostras analisadas, 19 (63% tiveram cultura positiva para S. aureus. Os seguintes padrões de resistência dos S. aureus foram observados: penicilina, 95%; tetraciclina, 32%; eritromicina, 21%; gentamicina, 16%; cefoxitina, 11%; oxacilina, 11%; sulfametoxazol-trimetoprima, 11%; clorafenicol, 11%; clindamicina, 5%; e ciprofloxacina, 0%. Um dos MRSA identificados foi obtido de paciente sem fatores de risco para sua aquisição, e além de aos betalactâmicos, mostrou-se resistente apenas à tetraciclina. CONCLUSÕES: Em relação aos padrões de resistência dos S. aureus, destacaram-se as resistências à tetraciclina, eritromicina e gentamicina. Documentou-se, pela primeira vez em Pernambuco, um caso de infecção cutânea causada por MRSA associado à comunidade.

  18. Study of immobilization of waste from treatment of acid waters of a uranium mining facility; Estudo de imobilização de resíduo proveniente de tratamento de águas ácidas de uma instalação de mineração de urânio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, R.T.; Oliveira, A.P. de; Silva, N.C. da; Villegas, R.A.S., E-mail: ricardogoda@gmail.com [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Ferreira, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (ICT/UNIFAL), Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to produce scientific and technical knowledge aiming at the development of techniques to immobilize the waste generated in the treatment of acid waters in the UTM-INB Caldas uranium mining and processing facility using Portland cement. This residue (calcium diuranate - DUCA) contains uranium compounds and metal hydroxides in a matrix of calcium sulfate. It is observed that this material, in contact with the lake of acid waters of the mine's own pit, undergoes resolubilization and, therefore, changes the quality of the acidic water contained therein, changing the treatment parameters. For the study of immobilization of this residue, the mass of water contained in both the residue deposited in the pit of the mine and in the pulp resulting from the treatment of the acid waters was determined. In addition, different DUCA / CEMENT / WATER ratios were used for immobilization and subsequent mechanical strength and leaching tests. The results showed that in the immobilized samples with 50% cement mass condition, no uranium was detected in the leaching tests, and the mechanical strength at compression was 9.4 MPa, which indicates that more studies are needed, but indicate a good capacity to immobilize uranium in cement.

  19. Characterization of sediment from the dredging of storm water channels in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil aiming to use in structural ceramics; Caracterizacao de sedimento proveniente de dragagem de canais pluviais do municipio de Salvador-BA visando sua utilizacao em ceramica estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, O.C.; Breitenbach, S.B.; Coelho, R.E., E-mail: engcruz@ig.com.br, E-mail: silviabb@ifba.edu.br, E-mail: rodrigoecoelho@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador (Brazil); Andrade, J.C.S.; Sales Junior, J.C.C., E-mail: jean.engmateriais@gmail.com, E-mail: jccalado@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Paskocimas, C.A.; Martinelli, A.E.; Nascimento, R.M., E-mail: paskocimas@uol.com.br, E-mail: aemart@uol.com.br, E-mail: rubensmaribondo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize sediment from the dredging of storm water channels (Scp) in the city of Salvador, Bahia, aiming its maximum replacement by clay in structural ceramics, since this binary mixture is part of the pilot project of the standard mass, in the research of interlocked block ceramic formulation. Initially, the sediment was submitted to the following tests: plasticity index; chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence; mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction; thermal and particle size analyses. The morphology of the material was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Then, sediment (Scp) was added to clay from the municipality of Candelas, Bahia, in the proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%. Specimens were prepared by uniaxial pressing in dimensions of 60 mm x 20 mm, with compacting pressure of 25 MPa, and the material was humidified with 8% of water. Firing was conducted in resistive furnace at temperatures of 850, 950 and 1050 deg C, with 5 deg C / min heating rate. The properties evaluated were: linear shrinkage; water absorption and modulus of rupture. The results indicated the possibility of using SCP in structural ceramics by the prerequisites required in standards, in the manufacture of tiles, sealing blocks and bricks. (author)

  20. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products; Uso do residuo solido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia na industria de revestimentos ceramicos e sua influencia nas propriedades fisicas dos produtos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biff, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.biff@sc.senai.br [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da, E-mail: mrsilva@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  1. Characterization of Anatomical, Chemical, and Biodegradable Properties of Fibers from Corn, Wheat, and Rice Residues Caracterización de Propiedades Anatómicas, Químicas y de Biodegradación de Fibras Provenientes de Residuos de Maíz, Trigo y Arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Garay M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical, chemical, and biodegradation properties of fibers from wheat (Triticum aestivum L., rice (Oryza sativa L., and corn (Zea mays L. plant residues and from rice hull were characterized to generate scientific and technical knowledge to support decision making regarding their use. The anatomical and chemical properties were determined following standard procedures. The degree of biodeterioration was analyzed from growth of white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (Jaq. Quél. in 30 d under favorable conditions. Afterwards, weight loss was evaluated for each residue. Three replicates were used, plus a control of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don woodchips. The greatest proportion of a-cellulose was found in residues of rice plants (45.1%, with a high amount of extractable (non-structural components, that confer organoleptic characteristics, followed by rice hull (22.78%, which is explained by the presence of silica in their cells. Ash content was higher in wheat residues, reaching up to 18.34%. Anatomical characteristics were studied to corroborate potential use in industrial processes. Fiber length and wall thickness were similar to those of latifoliate wood fibers, although possibly less resistant because of lower lignification. The largest weight loss was from rice plant (32%, followed by rice hull (27%, and corn plants (26.6%. The most resistant was wheat plant (15.8%. All these materials had greater weight losses than the control sample (3.8%. Thus, given their anatomical and chemical properties, the use of plant residue fibers in industrial processes is technically possible, though with concern about their biodegradability.Se caracterizaron las propiedades anatómicas, químicas y biodegradación de fibras de residuos de plantas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., plantas de arroz (Oryza sativa L., plantas de maíz (Zea mays L., y cáscara de arroz, con el objetivo de generar información y tomar decisiones de uso con bases científicas y tecnológicas. Las propiedades anatómicas y químicas se determinaron utilizando procedimientos estándares. El biodeterioro se estudió analizando el crecimiento del hongo de pudrición blanca Pleurotus ostreatus (Jaq. Quél. durante 30 días bajo condiciones favorables; y la consiguiente pérdida de peso de cada residuo. Con tres repeticiones, más testigo de viruta de Pinus radiata D. Don. Mayor proporción de α-celulosa se encontró en arroz (45,1%, con alta cantidad de extraíbles (compuestos no estructurales que aportan características organolépticas seguido por cáscara de arroz (22,78%, que posee sílice en sus células; el contenido de cenizas fue mayor en trigo (18,34%. Las características anatómicas corroboran las posibilidades de uso en procesos industriales, pues poseen longitud y espesor de pared similar a las fibras de maderas latifoliadas, aunque posiblemente menos resistentes por su menor lignificación. Las plantas de arroz presentaron mayor pérdida de peso (32%, seguida de cáscara de arroz (27% y plantas de maíz (26,6%; las más resistentes fueron las plantas de trigo (15,8%. Todos los materiales tuvieron pérdidas de peso mayores que la madera (3,8%. Entonces, dada sus propiedades anatómicas y químicas, es técnicamente posible su empleo en procesos industriales, aunque se debe cautelar la biodegradación.

  2. Study of the potential of carbon credits to SHP CDM projects based on evolution of installed capacity (2010 - 2019); Estudo do potencial de receitas decorrentes de creditos de carbono provenientes de projetos de MDL para PCHs com base na evolucao da potencia instalada (2010 - 2019)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieroni, Marcela Fernandes [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH/UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Barros, Regina Mambeli; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (IRN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais

    2011-01-15

    This study aims to assess the generation of carbon credits from projects under the clean development mechanism of small hydropower (SHP), based on studies of the evolution of installed capacity for these new developments over the next nine years. For this reason, two hypotheses and two scenarios were considered in order to better represent the reality of revenue generation over the years. The first hypothesis considers the development of small hydro power installed according to the Ten Year Plan for Expansion of Energy 2019. The second hypothesis considers the study of Tiago Filho, Barros e Silva (2009) about growth of installed capacity based on the gross national product (GNP). The simulation of revenues from carbon credits was done using the spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel for Michellis Jr (2010). The results showed that the forecast of growth of SHP performed based on GNP (hypothesis 1) is more conservative, thus leading to a lower potential of carbon credits, about 4.113.957 tCO{sub 2} avoided. Already the results of hypothesis 2 showed a total of 3.247.717 tCO{sub 2} avoided. (author)

  3. Ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co and electron accelerator in reducing the population of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs: evaluation of acceptance by consumer;Radiacoes ionizantes provenientes de {sup 60}CO e acelerador de eletrons na reducao da populacao de Salmonella sp. inoculada em almondegas de frango: avaliacao da aceitacao do produto pelo consumidor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Juliana

    2003-07-01

    Salmonella sp. is one of the main microorganisms that causes outbreaks of food borne diseases associated to poultry, and among its derivatives, the chicken meatballs are getting the favorites of the consumer. In the attempt to improve microbiological food safety, a method that has been hardly studied is the irradiation. To study the viability of the use o ionizing radiation originated from {sup 60} Co and electrons accelerator in the reduction of Salmonella sp., frozen chickens meatballs were inoculated with 10{sup 4} CFU/g of Salmonella sp., with needle and syringe. Subsequently they were exposure to doses of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy and Salmonella sp. was enumerated. Chicken meatballs were exposed to doses 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and submitted to sensory analysis. The gamma radiation from {sup 60}CO was effective in the reduction of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs. The ionizing radiation originated from electron beam was not effective in the conditions applied in this research. The commercial chicken meatballs prepared with chicken meat, mixed up with soy protein, seasoning and anti-oxidants additives did not loose their sensorial quality when exposure to doses of 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and, in a general way, the consumers showed to be disposed to buy the irradiation product (author)

  4. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  5. Condição hepática de cordeiros mantidos com dietas contendo torta de dendê proveniente da produção de biodiesel Hepatic condition of lambs fed diets with palm kernel cake from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Silva Nunes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de verificar o melhor nível de torta de dendê na dieta de cordeiros por meio da avaliação da condição hepática. Foram utilizados 32 cordeiros Santa Inês não-castrados distribuídos em quatro dietas com 0,0; 6,5; 13,0 e 19,5% de torta de dendê na matéria seca (MS. A cada 15 dias, foram coletadas amostras de sangue dos animais, totalizando cinco coletas em todo o período experimental. Foram determinados os teores de triglicérides, colesterol, proteínas totais, albumina e globulina; as atividades das enzimas alanina aminotransferase (ALT, aspartatoaminotransferase (AST e gama glutamiltransferase (GGT; e as concentrações séricas de bilirrubina total, direta e indireta. O aumento do percentual de torta de dendê na dieta não influenciou a concentração de triglicérides, cujo valor médio foi de 40,57 mg/dL, mas elevou as concentrações de colesterol. Também não ocasionou diferença no conteúdo de proteínas totais, mas teve efeito quadrático crescente nos níveis de albumina e ureia e efeito linear decrescente nos níveis de globulinas. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas nas atividades das enzimas alanina-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase e gama-glutamiltransferase, que foram de 6,40; 37,59 e 62,38 UI/L, respectivamente. Igualmente, não foi detectada influência sobre a bilirrubina total, direta e indireta, cujas médias foram de 0,50; 0,11; e 0,38 mg/dL, respectivamente. O uso de torta de dendê em níveis de até 19,5% da dieta não causa transtornos metabólicos hepáticos em cordeiros.This study was conducted in order to verify the best level of palm kernel cake in the diet for lambs through evaluation of hepatic condition. It was used 32 non-castrated Santa Inês lambs distributed into four diets with palm kernel cake levels of 0.0; 6.5; 13.0 and 19.5% in the dry matter (DM. Every 15 days, blood samples were collected, totalizing five collects for the whole experimental period. It was determined levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin, activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotrasferase, and gama-glutamiltransferase enzymes, and serum concentrations of total, direct and indirect bilirrubine. The increase of palm kernel cake percentage in the diet did not affect concentration of triglycerides whose mean value was 40.57 mg/dL. However, cholesterol levels increased as the palm kernel cake was increased in the diets. There was no difference in the total proteins either, but there was an increasing quadratic effect in the levels of albumine and urea and a decreasing linear effect in the levels of globuline. Statistical differences were not observed for activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotrasferase, and gamaglutamiltransferase enzymes, which showed mean values of 6.40; 37.59 and 62.38 UI/L respectively. Similarly, it was not detected influence on the total, direct, and indirect bilirrubine, whose mean values were 0.50; 0.11; and 0.38 mg/dL, respectively. The use of palm kernel cake at levels up to 19.5% does not cause metabolic disorders in lambs.

  6. Influence of contamination indicative components of the residual water coming from a treatment plant of Toluca Valley on the microbial activity of conditioned clinoptilolite with silver against E. Coli; Influencia de componentes indicadores de contaminacion del agua residual proveniente de una planta tratadora del Valle de Toluca sobre la actividad microbicida de la clinoptilolita acondicionada con plata frente a E. Coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossainz C, L. G.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study we used zeolite from the state of Chihuahua which was subjected to a conditioning process with silver to verify the effect as microbicidal agent against Escherichia coli in the presence of different ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}), found in the effluent of a Valle de Toluca treatment plant. The zeolite material was conditioned with a solution of sodium chloride and then with a solution of silver nitrate and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ion concentration was determined in the treatment plant effluent by standards methods specific, for each ion. A solution containing E. coli cells in batch type process was used to investigate four important aspects: a) the bactericidal effect that presents the zeolitic material conditioned against E. coli, b) the influence of ions NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} on the bactericidal effect of the conditioned zeolitic material, c) the effect of the ions NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} for the desorption of silver ions from the conditioned zeolite material and d) the kinetics of disinfection processes. The amount of bacteria was determined using APHA method and silver contained in water was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Chick model was considered to describe the kinetic behavior of the disinfection process. According with the results was found, that the conditioned zeolite silver from the state of Chihuahua is useful bactericide agent for water disinfection and that the desorbed amount of silver as well as the chemical species present in water at the time of disinfection process are factors that influence the process efficiency. (Author)

  7. Caracterização e estudo do comportamento térmico de resíduo (lodo) proveniente de estações de tratamento de água e de esgoto do município de Araraquara-SP

    OpenAIRE

    Capana, Alex Silas [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Tendo em vista a grande preocupação com a preservação do meio ambiente e com a qualidade da água utilizada pela sociedade, a cada dia cresce mais o número de cidades que utilizam de estações de tratamento de água e de esgoto, a fim de sanar estas preocupações e oferecer mais tranqüilidade a população. Entretanto, estas estações de tratamento, atualmente, vêm trazendo outro problema: as enormes quantidades de resíduo gerado na forma de lodo. Devido às implicações deste resíduo no meio ambiente...

  8. Gestión de envases de agroquímicos. Descontaminación de efluentes provenientes de plantas de reciclado de envases que contienen glifosato con la tecnología avanzada de oxidación que empleaUV/H2O2

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Eduardo Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda la problemática ambiental que genera la disposición de los envases vacíos de glifosato. En este sentido, se analiza una experiencia regional que promueve un sistema de gestión de envases de agroquímicos. Para el análisis, se tuvieron en cuenta acuerdos y sugerencias de distintas agencias internacionales, plasmadas en documentos relevantes que abordan la problemática ambiental. Además, se estudia una de las tecnologías que puede ser aplicada para tratar agua...

  9. Comparação entre exames coproparasitológicos e necroscópicos para diagnóstico da infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758 errantes provenientes da Região Metropolitana do Recife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Maria de Lima

    2011-05-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de comparar os exames coproparasitológicos e necroscópico para diagnóstico da infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais, avaliando a freqüência de parasitismo em cães errantes capturados pelo Centro de Vigilância Ambiental da Cidade de Recife – PE. Um total de 96 cães de ambos os sexos, idade e raça variadas foi utilizado. Os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e necropsiados para coleta de helmintos adultos. Em paralelo foram coletadas amostras de fezes diretamente da ampola retal dos animais e processadas pela técnica de Willis e sedimentação espontânea. Os resultados obtidos na necropsia apontaram positividade de 96,8% (93 ∕ 96, sendo 83,3%, 34,4%, 30,2%, 28,1%, 14,6%, 6,3% e 2,1%, respectivamente para Ancylostoma caninum, Dypilidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma braziliense, Toxascaris leonina e Spirocerca lupi. Os métodos de Willis, sedimentação e necropsia foram significativamente diferentes entre si (p < 0,05 apenas na detecção de infecção por Ancylostoma spp. Willis e sedimentação não apresentaram diferenças entre si para os demais helmintos gastrintestinais.

  10. Avaliação econômico-financeira da microgeração de energia elétrica proveniente de biogás da suinocultura Economic evaluation of microgeneration of electricity from biogas of swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B. Avaci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das maiores fontes de energia disponíveis nas áreas rurais e agroindustriais é a biomassa, que aparece na forma de resíduos vegetais e animais, tais como resto de colheita, esterco animal, plantações energéticas e efluentes agroindustriais. Esses resíduos podem ser utilizados pelo produtor rural ou na agroindústria para a queima direta, visando à produção de calor ou à produção de biogás em biodigestores. A produção de suínos gera grande quantidade de dejetos causando problemas ao meio ambiente, que quando não tratados possuem quantidade relevante de metano. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar, economicamente, a produção de energia elétrica via biogás da suinocultura. Constatou-se que a melhor opção para o produtor é a venda de crédito carbono quando o custo de produção de energia elétrica é viável quando vendido à concessionária de energia. A melhor condição encontrada foi a de geração de 20 h d-1, caso o tempo de retorno do investimento seja de 8 anos e o valor de produção de energia elétrica, de R$ 120,11 kWh.One of the biggest sources of energy available in rural areas is biomass and agribusiness. The same appears in the form of plant and animal residues such as crop residues, animal manure, energy crops and agro-industrial effluents. These residues can be used by the farmer or agribusiness for direct burning in order to produce heat or production of biogas. Swine production generates large amounts of wastes causing environmental problems if left untreated. The same has lot of methane. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production cost of electricity through biogas from swine manure. It was found that the best option for the producer is selling carbon credit when the production cost of electricity is viable when sold to utility power. The best condition was found to generate 20 h d-1, when the time for return on investment is 8 years and the production of electricity is R$ 120.11 kWh.

  11. Detecção molecular de herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5 em amostras de encéfalo conservadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina provenientes de bovinos com doença neurológica Molecular detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from cattle with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P. Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por herpesvírus bovino (BoHV é uma das principais causas de doença neurológica em bovinos na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. O uso de técnicas moleculares de diagnóstico representa uma contribuição importante para o estudo dessa doença. Este trabalho descreve o uso de uma técnica específica de PCR multiplex para identificar BoHV-5 e BoHV-1 em 76 amostras de encéfalo de bovinos fixadas em formol e incluídas em parafina. Com base nas alterações histológicas, as amostras foram separadas em 2 grupos: o Grupo 1 era composto de 40 amostras de bovinos com meningoencefalite necrosante característica da infecção por BoHV; no Grupo 2 estavam 36 amostras de casos com encefalite não-supurativa inespecífica. Identificação de BoHV-5 foi constatada em 40% das amostras do grupo 1 e em 33% das amostras do grupo 2. Não houve amplificação de DNA de BoHV-1 em nenhuma amostra.Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV is an important cause of neurological disease in cattle in the Midwest Brazil. The application of molecular diagnostic techniques represents an important contribution for the study of BoHV. This paper describes the detection of BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 by a specific multiplex PCR assay in 76 paraffin-embedded samples from central nervous system (CNS of cattle with neurological disorders. The samples were divided into 2 groups according to the histological features: Group 1 was composed of 40 cases of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (characteristic of BoHV infection, and Group 2 was composed of 36 cases of nonspecific nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. Positive results for BoHV-5 accounted for 40% of the samples in the group 1 and 33% in the group 2. No detection of BoHV-1 was recorded.

  12. Critical analysis of the management of waste system originated at the uranium mining and processing. A case study of the Concentrated Unit of Uranium - INB; Analise critica do sistema de gerenciamento de rejeitos provenientes de mineracao e beneficiamento de uranio. Um estudo de caso da Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Valeska Peres de

    2005-07-01

    The uranium world market faced a depreciation of this commodity during the last decades. Recently, decreases in the secondary supply (represented by highly enriched uranium - HEU - stocks detained by the former Soviet Union) turned out the market dependent upon primary supply again. In order to cope with this changing demands and market conditions, new uranium mining/milling projects must start operation, or at least, former uranium production plants must be improved. Environmental questions have been and certainly will continue to be a determinant factor concerning the operational feasibility of these facilities. Mining/milling activities have the potential to cause risks to the human health and to the environment. In case of uranium projects, radiological impacts shall also be taken into consideration. Amongst the most relevant environmental aspects associated with the operation of a uranium project, generated wastes are usually of major concern and deserve appropriate management strategies. As a result the objective of the present work was to examine the waste management system of the Brazilian uranium production unity located at the municipality of Caetite, northeast region of the country. An open pit mine and a milling facility compose this unit. The extraction method employed is acid heap leach (using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). It could be assessed that the overall conceptual management strategy is in agreement with the practices adopted worldwide. Atmospheric impacts, caused by the emissions of radon and aerosols must be investigated in more details. Mathematical simulation revealed that no significant impact in groundwater is expected due to mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the milling wastes. However, the impacts of drainage water, accumulated in the open pit, into groundwater cannot be discarded yet. Screening techniques were applied to assess the potential contribution of the leached ore piles as a {sup 226}Ra source of pollution. Our results did not allow to exclude these sources from further investigations. Optimization in the drainage water management strategy shall also be put in place and chemical treatment of these waters, prior to their release into the environment, shall be considered. Finally, it is advisable to introduce an Environmental Management System (EMS) for the whole facility in order to reach a better environmental performance. (author)

  13. Determination of the Antarctic region active margin basement by using integration of the information coming from the multichannel seismic analysis and the magnetometry; Determinacao do embasamento da margen ativa da regiao Antartica pela integracao de informacoes provenientes da sismica multicanal e da magnetometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos [Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegacao, XX (Brazil); Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Luiz Antonio P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Geophysical measurements were carried out in the Western Margin of the Antarctic Peninsula and Bransfield Strait by the Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continued seismic multi channel and magnetometry data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the interface sediment/basement and contribute to the understanding of the complex geology verified in the studying area. By this model, the main provinces of the are (Deep Ocean, South Shetland Trench, Accretionary Prism, Volcanic Arc South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Basin) could be determined. The seismic and magnetic measurements information when superposed can attribute more consistencies to the interpreted basement; although each method has its particular resolution. This way, when the seismic interpretation was not possible due to complex structures disposition, magnetic measurements could offer good estimation about basement depth. The fit between both methods (seismic and magnetic measurements) was reasonable both on the oceanic basin and in the region of Bransfield Strait. The magnetometry, as as well seismic, was sensible to the dip of Drake Plate at South Shetland Trench and the Intrusive occurrence at Bransfield Basin axis. (author)

  14. Deslocamento miscível de cátions básicos provenientes da água residuária de mandioca em colunas de solo Miscible displacement of basic cations from cassava processing wastewater in soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralini F. de Melo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, determinar os fatores de retardamento e os coeficientes de dispersão-difusão dos íons potássio, sódio, cálcio e magnésio, presentes na água residuária de fecularias ou manipueira, e simular as concentrações residentes em colunas de solos de 160 cm, pelo período de 5 h. Os ensaios foram realizados em laboratório utilizando-se colunas de percolação preenchidas com amostras de Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico espódico (RQo, Latossolo Amarelo distrófico típico (LAd e Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico típico (LVAd. A concentração dos íons no efluente foram analisados empregando-se a metodologia de deslocamento de fluidos miscíveis. Os valores mais elevados dos fatores de retardamento ocorreram no LVAd, indicando maior retenção dos íons potássio, sódio, cálcio e magnésio nesse solo. Os valores dos coeficientes dispersivos-difusivos decresceram no sentido do RQo para o LVAd, sendo que o maior valor ocorreu no RQo para o íon potássio, e o menor no LVAd, para o íon cálcio. A simulação para um período de aplicação da manipueira de 5 h, mostrou pequeno avanço dos íons na coluna do LVAd, em comparação com RQo e LAd alertando, assim, para os perigos de contaminação de águas subterrâneas ao se aplicar a manipueira nesses solos.This study aimed to determine the retardation factors and the diffusion-dispersion coefficients of the potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions found in the cassava wastewater, as well as to simulate the resident concentrations in soil columns with 160 cm over a five-hours period. The trials were accomplished under laboratory conditions, by using percolation columns fulfilled with materials from the spodic ortic Quartzarenic Neosol (RQo, typical distrophic Yellow Latosol (LAd and typical distrophic Yellow Red Latosol (LVAd. The data of the ion concentrations in effluent were analyzed, by using the miscible fluid displacement methodology. The highest values of the retardation factors occurred in the LVAd soil, relative to LAd and RQo soils, pointing out a higher retention of the potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions in the LVAd soil. The values of the diffusive-dispersive coefficients decreased from LVAd toward the RQo soil, whereas the highest value occurred in the RQo soil for the potassium ion and the lowest in the LVAd soil for calcium ion. The simulation of the cassava wastewater application over a five-hours period showed little advance of these ions in the LVAd soil column, comparative to the advance occurred in the RQo and LAd soils, therefore warning about the dangers of the underground water contamination, when applying the cassava wastewater on these two soils.

  15. Study of the treatment of oil-based muds from PEMEX's storage centres using thermal plasma in a deoxygenated atmosphere; Estudio del tratamiento de lodos aceitosos provenientes de los centros de acopio de PEMEX mediante plasma termico en ausencia de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In this project, evaluation of plasma thermal process applied for degradation of hazardous waste was performed when the process was operated without oxigen, for degradation of oily sludge. Such wastes are produced from petroleum refineries and represent a problem due to the fact that they hazardous and great amount of them are generated in Mexico and the world; moreover there are not current with high efficiency to treat them. In this study the degradation experiments were made using two different sludge samples, one them was free of sediments, the bigger portion was water and hydrocarbons and the other sample was characterized by to had a high amount of sediments. These samples were obtained from a storing center of PEMEX. Process was operated utilizing different characteristics of the by-product. The biggest decrease in volume obtained with the sample of high amount of sediments was 85%, and such by-product resulted inert. For the sludge free of sediment the highest decrease of volume obtained was 95.5% and this by-product contained high amount of carbon in the form of dust, almost 50% of carbon mixes with clay material. The degradation efficiency of organic material was higher than to 99.99%. The residual gases formed during the degradation had low molecular weight.

  16. Uso de ingredientes provenientes de OGM em rações e seu impacto na produção de alimentos de origem animal para humanos Use of ingredients from OGM in feed and its impact on the production of food of animal origin for human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal E. Vercesi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios o homem buscou selecionar as plantas alimentícias para maior produtividade. O conhecimento da estrutura do DNA permitiu que a engenharia genética se desenvolvesse consideravelmente fornecendo ferramentas para a realização de alterações específicas no genoma. Os produtos destas alterações são denominados transgênicos ou organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM e apresentam alto potencial de aplicação em diversas áreas da atividade humana como: agricultura, medicina, saúde, produção e processamento de alimentos, produção bioquímica, controle de doenças e biorremediação. Atualmente, as plantas transgênicas, oriundas da tecnologia do DNA recombinante, trouxeram novas variedades já cultivadas em mais de 100 milhões de hectares em 23 países, incluindo o Brasil, onde 8 variedades já foram aprovadas pela Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança (CTNBio. Esse método de melhoramento genético facilitou a introdução de características desejáveis em plantas, como resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos e otimização da composição de alguns nutrientes essenciais à saúde animal e humana. Enquanto estes avanços da biotecnologia abrem novas perspectivas para a solução de problemas em áreas como a agricultura, a liberação de transgênicos para uso na natureza traz preocupações quanto a possíveis problemas de natureza ecológica e para a saúde humana e animal. Estas preocupações deram origem à criação de agências governamentais para controlar o uso desta tecnologia e regulamentar a segurança dos alimentos transgênicos e seus derivados. Até o momento, os estudos científicos mostram que os transgênicos liberados comercialmente são tão seguros ou mais ao meio ambiente e a saúde animal e humana que os convencionais.From the origins the man has looked and selected vegetables with nutritive value for larger productivity. The knowledge of DNA structure allowed genetic engineering to develop and supplying tools for the accomplishment of specific alterations in the genome considerably. The products of these alterations are denominated transgenic or organisms genetically modified (OGM and they present high application potential in several areas of the human activity as: agriculture, medicine, health, production and processing of foods, biochemical production and control of diseases. Nowadays, transgenic plants, originating from technology of the DNA recombinant, brought new varieties cultivated already in more than 100 million hectares in 23 countries, including Brazil, where 8 varieties were already approved for the National Technical Commission of Biosafety (CTNBio. That method of genetic improvement facilitated the introduction of desirable characteristics in plants, such as, resistance to biotic and non-biotic stress and optimization of the composition of some essential nutrients to the animal and human health. While these progresses of the biotechnology open new perspectives for the solution of problems in areas as the agriculture, the transgenic liberation for use in the nature brings concerns as for possible problems of ecological nature and for the human and animal health. These concerns brought the creation of government agencies to control the use of this technology and to regulate the safety of transgenic foods and yours derived. Until the moment, the scientific studies show that the transgenic liberated commercially are so safe or more to the environment and the animal and human health that the conventional ones.

  17. Datalogger compacto, con tiempo real, para almacenaje de grandes cantidades de información provenientes de sensores externos en una memoria usb, con capacidad de comunicación serial. fuente de energía: 4 pilas recargables aa

    OpenAIRE

    Cercado, Cristhian; Touriz, Victor; Valdivieso, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This project consist in the design and construction of a compact datalogger, on real time and it is based on a PIC with a MEMORY STICK DATALOGGER. The main objective is to store big quantities of information from several external sensors by means of serial communication. Compact datalogger communicates with external sensors and USB memory by means of USART communication, this process is controlled by a PIC, Iits main program realizes the communication with the MEMORY STICK DATA ...

  18. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective we