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Sample records for cha21 inhibits growth

  1. Effects of an Engineered Anti-HER2 Antibody chA21 on Invasion of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Qiang Wu; Zheng-sheng Wu; Gui-hong Zhang; An-Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: HER-2 plays an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. A number of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and engineered antibody fragments (such as scFvs) against the subdomain Ⅱ or Ⅳ of HER-2 extracellular domain (ECD) have been developed. We investigated the effect of chA21, an engineered anti-HER-2 antibody that bind primarily to subdomain I, on ovarian carcinoma cell invasion in vitro, and explored its possible mechanisms. Methods: Growth inhibition of SK-OV-3 cells was assessed using a Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The invasion ability of SK-OV-3 was determined by a Transwell invasion assay. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its tissue inhibitors (TIMP-2) was detected by immunocytochemical staining, and the expression of p38 and the phosphorylation of p38 were assayed by both immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Results: After treatment with chA21, the invasion of human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells was inhibited in doseand time-dependent manners. Simultaneously the expression of p38, phospho-p38, MMP-2 and the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio decreased, while TIMP-2 expression increased. Additionally, the decrease in phospho-p38 was much greater than that of p38. Conclusion: chA21 may inhibit SK-OV-3 cell invasion via the signal transduction pathway involving MMP-2,TIMP-2, p38 and the activation of p38MAPK.

  2. Targeted inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two main strategies have been pursued for the development of an effective and targeted anti-cancer treatment. The first strategy comprised the generation of a targeted nanomedicine for the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation by blocking growth factor receptor pathways. The epidermal growth factor

  3. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Recently, high-quality data were published on the algal growth inhibition caused by 50 non-polar narcotic compounds, of which 39 were liquid compounds with defined water solubility. In the present study, the toxicity data for these liquids were applied to challenge the chemical activity range for...

  4. Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Diane M.; Khan, Sheema; Nordquist, Jordan; Ebeling, Mara C.; Bauer, Nichole A.; Kopel, Lucas; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi; Bell, Maria C.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25306892

  5. Brain hyaluronan binding protein inhibits tumor growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 曹曼林; 王蕾

    2004-01-01

    Background Great efforts have been made to search for the angiogenic inhibitors in avascular tissues. Several proteins isolated from cartilage have been proved to have anti-angiogenic or anti-tumour effects. Because cartilage contains a great amount of hyaluronic acid (HA) oligosaccharides and abundant HA binding proteins (HABP), therefore, we speculated that HABP might be one of the factors regulating vascularization in cartilage or anti-angiogenesis in tumours. The purpose of this research was to evaluale the effects of hyaluronan binding protein on inhibiting tumour growth both in vivo and vitro. Methods A unique protein termed human brain hyaluronan (HA) binding protein (b-HABP) was cloned from human brain cDNA library. MDA-435 human breast cancer cell line was chosen as a transfectant. The in vitro underlying mechanisms were investigated by determining the possibilities of MDA-435/b-HABP colony formation on soft agar, the effects of the transfectant on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the expression levels of caspase 3 and FasL from MDA-435/b-HABP. The in vivo study included tumour growth on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos and nude mice. Results Colony formation assay revealed that the colonies formed by MDA-435/b-HABP were greatly reduced compared to mock transfectants. The conditioned media from MDA-435/b-HABP inhibited the growth of endothelial cells in culture. Caspase 3 and FasL expressions were induced by MDA-435/b-HABP. The size of tumours of MDA-435/b-HABP in both CAM and nude mice was much smaller than that of MDA-435 alone. Conclusions Human brain hyaluronan binding protein (b-HABP) may represent a new kind of naturally existing anti-tumour substance. This brain-derived glycoprotein may block tumour growth by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells or by decreasing angiogenesis in tumour tissue via inhibiting proliferation of endothelial cells.

  6. Epidermal growth factor inhibits cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine on secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's gland pouches was studied in the rat. Total output of immunoreactive epidermal growth factor was reduced to approximately 55%, compared with controls, 5 h after administration of cysteamine (300...... was studied. Luminal epidermal growth factor significantly inhibited the formation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer, compared with controls receiving saline. The effect was not due to inhibition of gastric acid secretion or stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion since the dose of epidermal...... growth factor used, when tested on chronic fistula rats, had no effect on acid secretion and did not influence bicarbonate secretion from Brunner's gland pouches. These results demonstrate that epidermal growth factor has a cytoprotective effect on the duodenal mucosa, and it is suggested that inhibition...

  7. Endocannabinoids inhibit the growth of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Rafik; Pernin, Pierre; Bodennec, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    The cannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits the growth of some pathogenic amoebae in vitro and exacerbates amoebic encephalitis in animal models. However, the effects of endogenous cannabinoids on amoebae remain unknown. Therefore, we tested several endocannabinoids (N-acyl ethanolamines and 2-O-acyl glycerol) on different genera of amoebae. The results showed that all of the endocannabinoids tested inhibit amoebic growth at subpharmacological doses, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 15 to 20 microM. A nonhydrolyzable endocannabinoid had similar effects, showing that the inhibition seen results from endocannabinoids per se rather than from a catabolic product.

  8. Cinnamic Acid Increases Lignin Production and Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Hugo Salvador; Rogério Barbosa Lima; Wanderley Dantas dos Santos; Anderson Ricardo Soares; Paulo Alfredo Feitoza Böhm; Rogério Marchiosi; Maria de Lourdes Lucio Ferrarese; Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean ( Glycine max ) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical in...

  9. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits human gastric cancer tumor growth in nude mice via the inhibition of glycolysis

    OpenAIRE

    XIAN, SHU-LIN; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cells primarily depend upon glycolysis in order to gain energy. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro. However, the ability of 3-BrPA to suppress tumor growth in vivo, and its underlying mechanism, have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA in an animal model of gastric cancer. It wa...

  10. Inhibition of Bacillus subtilis growth and sporulation by threonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, D H; Bott, K F

    1979-01-01

    A 1-mg/ml amount of threonine (8.4 mM) inhibited growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis 168. Inhibition of sporulation was efficiently reversed by valine and less efficiently by pyruvate, arginine, glutamine, and isoleucine. Inhibition of vegetative growth was reversed by asparate and glutamate as well as by valine, arginine, or glutamine. Cells in minimal growth medium were inhibited only transiently by very high concentrations of threonine, whereas inhibition of sporulation was permanent. Addition of threonine prevented the normal increase in alkaline phosphatase and reduced the production of extracellular protease by about 50%, suggesting that threonine blocked the sporulation process relatively early. 2-Ketobutyrate was able to mimic the effect of threonine on sporulation. Sporulation in a strain selected for resistance to azaleucine was partially resistant. Seventy-five percent of the mutants selected for the ability to grow vegetatively in the presence of high threonine concentrations were found to be simultaneously isoleucine auxotrophs. In at least one of these mutants, the threonine resistance phenotpye could not be dissociated from the isoleucine requirement by transformation. This mutation was closely linked to a known ilvA mutation (recombination index, 0.16). This strain also had reduced intracellular threonine deaminase activity. These results suggest that threonine inhibits B. subtilis by causing valine starvation.

  11. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Cheng-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri [Division of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Pan, Pin-Ho [Department of Pediatrics, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 435, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ying [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsuan-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: cjchen@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  12. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK

  13. Inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis enhances lymphoma growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaber, Gergely; Yakimchuk, Konstantin; Guan, Jiyu; Inzunza, Jose; Okret, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Most lymphomas show higher incidence and poorer prognosis in males compared to females. However, the endocrine contribution to this gender difference is not entirely known. Here we show that castration accelerates lymphoma growth in C57BL6 male mice grafted with murine EG7 T cell lymphoma cells. However, the androgen receptor antagonist Bicalutamide did not affect lymphoma growth, suggesting no impact of androgen receptor signaling on lymphoma progression. In contrast, inhibition of androgen-to-estrogen conversion by the aromatase inhibitor (AI) Letrozole induced faster lymphoma growth in mice, suggesting that androgens impact lymphoma growth through its conversion to estrogens. This was supported by the inability of dihydrotestosterone, which is not converted to estrogens by aromatase, to influence lymphoma growth in castrated male mice. Lymphoma growth was also stimulated in immunocompromised mice grafted with human B cell lymphoma (Granta-519) and treated with either reversible or irreversible AIs, showing that the blockage of estrogen synthesis caused enhanced growth of both murine T and human B cell lymphomas and with different AIs. Additionally, AI-treated EG7 lymphomas showed accelerated growth not only in male but also in intact female mice. Altogether, our results demonstrate that aromatase inhibition accelerates lymphoma growth but not androgens per se, highlighting a protective role of estrogens in lymphoma pathogenesis. These results also raise concern that the use of AIs in women with breast cancer might enhance lymphoma progression. PMID:26943574

  14. GROWTH INHIBITION OF FUSARIUM SP. IN LIVESTOCK FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Kanižai Šarić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with phytopathogenic forms of Fusarium, besides field crops, may also occur in stored products. Addition of antifungal substances to stored livestock feed is therefore common. This paper examined the effectiveness of a mixture of synthetic and natural antioxidants against the growth of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides in a concentrate mixture. The most effective inhibition of growth was achieved with a mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole, propyl paraben and thymol.

  15. Growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by a nonbacteriocinogenic Carnobacterium piscicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Bech Hansen, T.; Garrido, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This study elucidates the mechanisms by which a nonbacteriocinogenic Carnobacterium piscicola inhibits growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Methods and Results: Listeria monocytogenes was exposed to live cultures of a bacteriocin-negative variant of C. piscicola A9b in co-culture, in a diffusion...

  16. Inhibition of placenta growth factor with TB-403

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    targeting angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: The data are obtained by searching in the PubMed database. The search terms used included antiangiogenic therapy, TB-403 (RO5323441), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1). We review preclinical data concerning the function and inhibition of Pl...

  17. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  18. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth

  19. Gymnemic acids inhibit hyphal growth and virulence in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindsamy Vediyappan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine.

  20. Green tea inhibits Helicobacter growth in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Stoicov, Calin; Saffari, Reza; Houghton, JeanMarie

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter infection, one of the most common bacterial infections in man worldwide, is a type 1 carcinogen and the most important risk factor for gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori bacterial factors, components of the host genetics and immune response, dietary cofactors and decreased acid secretion resulting in bacterial overgrowth are all considered important factors for induction of gastric cancer. Components found in green tea have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth, including the g...

  1. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-03-15

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26876617

  2. Growth of Streptococcus mutans protoplasts is not inhibited by penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, L C; Shockman, G D; Higgins, M L

    1980-01-01

    A method is described in which cells of Streptococcus mutans BHT can be converted to spherical, osmotically fragile protoplasts. Exponential-phase cells were suspended in a solution containing 0.5 M melezitose, and their cell walls were hydrolyzed with mutanolysin (M-1 enzyme). When the resultant protoplasts were incubated in a chemically defined growth medium containing 0.5 M NH4Cl, the protoplast suspensions increased in turbidity, protein, ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribonucleic acid in a balanced fashion. In the presence of benzylpenicillin (5 microgram/ml), balanced growth of protoplasts was indistinguishable from untreated controls. This absence of inhibition of protoplast growth in the presence of benzylpenicillin was apparently not due to inactivation of the antibiotic. When exponential-phase cells of S. mutans BHT were first exposed to 5 microgram of benzyl-penicillin per ml for 1 h and then converted to protoplasts, these protoplasts were also able to grow in chemically defined, osmotically stabilized medium. The ability of wall-free protoplasts to grow and to synthesize ribonucleic acid and protein in the presence of a relatively high concentration of benzylpenicillin contrasts with the previously reported rapid inhibition of ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis in intact streptococci. These data suggest that this secondary inhibition of ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis in whole cells is due to factors involved with the continued assembly of an intact, insoluble cell wall rather than with earlier stages of peptidoglycan synthesis. Images PMID:6997274

  3. Dihydroartiminisin inhibits the growth and metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Buchu; Hu, Ke; Li, Shu; Zhu, Jing; Gu, Liying; Shen, Haoran; Hambly, Brett D; Bao, Shisan; Di, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Dihydroartiminisin (DHA), the active component of a Chinese herb (Artemisia annua), has been utilised as an anti-malarial drug since ancient China. DHA has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer in vitro. However, the capacity of DHA to inhibit the development of ovarian cancer is still unclear. The adhesion, invasion, and migration of human ovarian cancer cell line (HO8910PM) was determined following DHA treatment in vitro, using Matrigel coated plate, transwell membrane chamber, and wound healing models, respectively. A mouse ovarian cancer model was established by orthotopic inoculation of HO8910PM cell line in nude mice. The growth and metastasis in vivo was determined 8 weeks post-implantation in response to DHA treatment. The expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was evaluated using Western blotting. The expression of Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and infiltration of macrophages were determined, using immunohistochemistry. DHA inhibits ovarian cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with decreased expression of pFAK and MMP-2, but not MMP-9. DHA inhibited metastasis significantly in vivo, associated with reduced vWF expression and macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, DHA inhibits the development of ovarian cancer, in part via down-regulating pFAK, MMP-2, vWF and macrophage infiltration. PMID:22025319

  4. Growth inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in mesothelioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Joyce E; O'Toole, Kieran; Gonzalez, David; Lunec, John

    2009-06-01

    Clinical outcome following chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma is poor and improvements are needed. This preclinical study investigates the effect of five tyrosine kinase inhibitors (PTK787, ZD6474, ZD1839, SU6668 and SU11248) on the growth of three mesothelioma cell lines (NCI H226, NCI H28 and MSTO 211H), the presence of growth factor receptors and inhibition of their downstream signalling pathways. GI50 values were determined: ZD6474 and SU11248, mainly VEGFR2 inhibitors, gave the lowest GI50 across all cell lines (3.5-6.9 microM) whereas ZD1839 gave a GI50 in this range only in H28 cells. All cell lines were positive for EGFR, but only H226 cells were positive for VEGFR2 by Western blotting. ZD6474 and ZD1839 inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK, whereas VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 was completely inhibited with 0.1 microM SU11248. VEGFR2 was detected in tumour samples by immunohistochemistry. VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors warrant further investigation in mesothelioma. PMID:19318229

  5. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells.

  6. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:26601320

  7. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  8. Meloxicam inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A P; Williams, C S; Sheng, H; Lamps, L W; Williams, V P; Pairet, M; Morrow, J D; DuBois, R N

    1998-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 has been reported to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. The effects of meloxicam (a COX-2 inhibitor) on the growth of two colon cancer cell lines that express COX-2 (HCA-7 and Moser-S) and a COX-2 negative cell line (HCT-116) were evaluated. The growth rate of these cells was measured following treatment with meloxicam. HCA-7 and Moser-S colony size were significantly reduced following treatment with meloxicam; however, there was no significant change in HCT-116 colony size with treatment. In vivo studies were performed to evaluate the effect of meloxicam on the growth of HCA-7 cells when xenografted into nude mice. We observed a 51% reduction in tumor size after 4 weeks of treatment. Analysis of COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels in HCA-7 tumor lysates revealed a slight decrease in COX-2 expression levels in tumors taken from mice treated with meloxicam and no detectable COX-1 expression. Here we report that meloxicam significantly inhibited HCA-7 colony and tumor growth but had no effect on the growth of the COX-2 negative HCT-116 cells. PMID:9886578

  9. Piperlongumine inhibits lung tumor growth via inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Son, Dong Ju; Gu, Sun Mi; Woo, Ju Rang; Ham, Young Wan; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Wun Jae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Piperlongumine has anti-cancer activity in numerous cancer cell lines via various signaling pathways. But there has been no study regarding the mechanisms of PL on the lung cancer yet. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of PL on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showed that PL induced apoptotic cell death and suppressed the DNA binding activity of NF-κB in a concentration dependent manner (0-15 μM) in NSCLC cells. Docking model and pull down assay showed that PL directly binds to the DNA binding site of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p50 subunit, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that PL binds to p50 concentration-dependently. Moreover, co-treatment of PL with NF-κB inhibitor phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or p50 siRNA (100 nM) augmented PL-induced inhibitory effect on cell growth and activation of Fas and DR4. Notably, co-treatment of PL with p50 mutant plasmid (C62S) partially abolished PL-induced cell growth inhibition and decreased the enhanced expression of Fas and DR4. In xenograft mice model, PL (2.5-5 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth of NSCLC dose-dependently. Therefore, these results indicated that PL could inhibit lung cancer cell growth via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27198178

  10. Inhibition of somatotroph growth and growth hormone biosynthesis by activin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; González-Manchón, C; Potter, E;

    1990-01-01

    the effect of activin on FSH secretion, did not reverse the effect of activin on GH biosynthesis. Treatment of somatotrophs with activin for 3 days completely inhibited the growth-promoting effect of GRF on somatotrophs. However, no effect of activin on GRF-stimulated expression of the c-fos protooncogene...

  11. N and P addition inhibits growth of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    2016-01-01

    vernicosus and paludella squarrosa) rich fen bryophytes were grown in mixed culture and subjected to rainwater or groundwater and three levels of N (0, 1 and 3 mg N L-1) and P (0, 0.05 and 0.1 mg P NL-1). All species responded negatively to higher N-levels and three of four species responded negatively...... to rainwater and higher P-levels. C. cuspidata had highest relative growth rate in all treatments, and the infrequently occurringrare species had lower relative growth rate and were more negatively affected by high levels of N than the frequently occurringcommon species. A negative effect of rainwater seemed...... to be caused by higher background levels of N in rainwater compared to groundwater rather than a pH-effect per se. We found a negative effect of high initial bryophyte density in three of four species indicating density dependent inhibition between species.We suggest that maintenance of oligotrophic conditions...

  12. Constitutive SOCS-3 expression protects T-cell lymphoma against growth inhibition by IFNalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, C; Lovato, P; Sommer, V H;

    2005-01-01

    expression in tumour cells is equal to or higher than in cytokine-stimulated nonmalignant T cells, (ii) SOCS-3 is not mutated in CTCL, (iii) overexpression of SOCS-3 blocks IFNalpha-mediated growth inhibition without affecting Stat3 activation, growth, and apoptosis, and (iv) inhibition of SOCS-3...... by a dominant negative Stat3 (Stat3D) increases the IFNalpha-mediated growth inhibition. Taken together, these data show that SOCS-3 does not inhibit Stat3 activation, growth, and survival in CTCL. In contrast, SOCS3 protects tumour cells against growth inhibition by IFNalpha. Unlike SOCS-1, SOCS-3 is therefore...

  13. Hypernegative Supercoiling Inhibits Growth by Causing RNA Degradation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, Imad; Usongo, Valentine; Nolent, Flora; Sanscartier, Patrick; Hraiky, Chadi; Drlica, Karl; Drolet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Transcription-induced hypernegative supercoiling is a hallmark of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (topA) mutants. However, its physiological significance has remained unclear. Temperature downshift of a mutant yielded transient growth arrest and a parallel increase in hypernegative supercoiling that was more severe with lower temperature. Both properties were alleviated by overexpression of RNase HI. While ribosomes in extracts showed normal activity when obtained during growth arrest, mRNA on ribosomes was reduced for fis and shorter for crp, polysomes were much less abundant relative to monosomes, and protein synthesis rate dropped, as did the ratio of large to small proteins. Altered processing and degradation of lacA and fis mRNA was also observed. These data are consistent with truncation of mRNA during growth arrest. These effects were not affected by a mutation in the gene encoding RNase E, indicating that this endonuclease is not involved in the abnormal mRNA processing. They were also unaffected by spectinomycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, which argued against induction of RNase activity. In vitro transcription revealed that R-loop formation is more extensive on hypernegatively supercoiled templates. These results allow us, for the first time, to present a model by which hypernegative supercoiling inhibits growth. In this model, the introduction of hypernegative supercoiling by gyrase facilitates degradation of nascent RNA; overproduction of RNase HI limits the accumulation of hypernegative supercoiling, thereby preventing extensive RNA degradation. PMID:18790862

  14. Hypernegative supercoiling inhibits growth by causing RNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, Imad; Usongo, Valentine; Nolent, Flora; Sanscartier, Patrick; Hraiky, Chadi; Drlica, Karl; Drolet, Marc

    2008-11-01

    Transcription-induced hypernegative supercoiling is a hallmark of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (topA) mutants. However, its physiological significance has remained unclear. Temperature downshift of a mutant yielded transient growth arrest and a parallel increase in hypernegative supercoiling that was more severe with lower temperature. Both properties were alleviated by overexpression of RNase HI. While ribosomes in extracts showed normal activity when obtained during growth arrest, mRNA on ribosomes was reduced for fis and shorter for crp, polysomes were much less abundant relative to monosomes, and protein synthesis rate dropped, as did the ratio of large to small proteins. Altered processing and degradation of lacA and fis mRNA was also observed. These data are consistent with truncation of mRNA during growth arrest. These effects were not affected by a mutation in the gene encoding RNase E, indicating that this endonuclease is not involved in the abnormal mRNA processing. They were also unaffected by spectinomycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, which argued against induction of RNase activity. In vitro transcription revealed that R-loop formation is more extensive on hypernegatively supercoiled templates. These results allow us, for the first time, to present a model by which hypernegative supercoiling inhibits growth. In this model, the introduction of hypernegative supercoiling by gyrase facilitates degradation of nascent RNA; overproduction of RNase HI limits the accumulation of hypernegative supercoiling, thereby preventing extensive RNA degradation. PMID:18790862

  15. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Salvador

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G, and syringyl (S lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth.

  16. Erlotinib Inhibits Growth of a Patient-Derived Chordoma Xenograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, I-Mei; Ruzevick, Jacob; Zhao, Qi; Connis, Nick; Jiao, Yuchen; Bettegowda, Chetan; Xia, Xuewei; Burger, Peter C.; Hann, Christine L.; Gallia, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Chordomas are rare primary bone tumors that occur along the neuraxis. Primary treatment is surgery, often followed by radiotherapy. Treatment options for patients with recurrence are limited and, notably, there are no FDA approved therapeutic agents. Development of therapeutic options has been limited by the paucity of preclinical model systems. We have established and previously reported the initial characterization of the first patient-derived chordoma xenograft model. In this study, we further characterize this model and demonstrate that it continues to resemble the original patient tumor histologically and immunohistochemically, maintains nuclear expression of brachyury, and is highly concordant with the original patient tumor by whole genome genotyping. Pathway analysis of this xenograft demonstrates activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In vitro studies demonstrate that two small molecule inhibitors of EGFR, erlotinib and gefitinib, inhibit proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH 1. We further demonstrate that erlotinib significantly inhibits chordoma growth in vivo. Evaluation of tumors post-treatment reveals that erlotinib reduces phosphorylation of EGFR. This is the first demonstration of antitumor activity in a patient-derived chordoma xenograft model and these findings support further evaluation of EGFR inhibitors in this disease. PMID:24260133

  17. Erlotinib inhibits growth of a patient-derived chordoma xenograft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Mei Siu

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare primary bone tumors that occur along the neuraxis. Primary treatment is surgery, often followed by radiotherapy. Treatment options for patients with recurrence are limited and, notably, there are no FDA approved therapeutic agents. Development of therapeutic options has been limited by the paucity of preclinical model systems. We have established and previously reported the initial characterization of the first patient-derived chordoma xenograft model. In this study, we further characterize this model and demonstrate that it continues to resemble the original patient tumor histologically and immunohistochemically, maintains nuclear expression of brachyury, and is highly concordant with the original patient tumor by whole genome genotyping. Pathway analysis of this xenograft demonstrates activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. In vitro studies demonstrate that two small molecule inhibitors of EGFR, erlotinib and gefitinib, inhibit proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH 1. We further demonstrate that erlotinib significantly inhibits chordoma growth in vivo. Evaluation of tumors post-treatment reveals that erlotinib reduces phosphorylation of EGFR. This is the first demonstration of antitumor activity in a patient-derived chordoma xenograft model and these findings support further evaluation of EGFR inhibitors in this disease.

  18. Mirtazapine inhibits tumor growth via immune response and serotonergic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kai Fang

    Full Text Available To study the tumor inhibition effect of mirtazapine, a drug for patients with depression, CT26/luc colon carcinoma-bearing animal model was used. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: two groups without tumors, i.e. wild-type (no drug and drug (mirtazapine, and four groups with tumors, i.e. never (no drug, always (pre-drug, i.e. drug treatment before tumor inoculation and throughout the experiment, concurrent (simultaneously tumor inoculation and drug treatment throughout the experiment, and after (post-drug, i.e. drug treatment after tumor inoculation and throughout the experiment. The "psychiatric" conditions of mice were observed from the immobility time with tail suspension and spontaneous motor activity post tumor inoculation. Significant increase of serum interleukin-12 (sIL-12 and the inhibition of tumor growth were found in mirtazapine-treated mice (always, concurrent, and after as compared with that of never. In addition, interferon-γ level and immunocompetent infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T cells in the tumors of mirtazapine-treated, tumor-bearing mice were significantly higher as compared with that of never. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α expressions, on the contrary, are decreased in the mirtazapine-treated, tumor-bearing mice as compared with that of never. Ex vivo autoradiography with [(123I]ADAM, a radiopharmaceutical for serotonin transporter, also confirms the similar results. Notably, better survival rates and intervals were also found in mirtazapine-treated mice. These findings, however, were not observed in the immunodeficient mice. Our results suggest that tumor growth inhibition by mirtazapine in CT26/luc colon carcinoma-bearing mice may be due to the alteration of the tumor microenvironment, which involves the activation of the immune response and the recovery of serotonin level.

  19. Liver acid sphingomyelinase inhibits growth of metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Yasuda, Ichiro; Saibara, Toshiji; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Seishima, Mitsuru; Kozawa, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) regulates the homeostasis of sphingolipids, including ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). These sphingolipids regulate carcinogenesis and proliferation, survival, and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the role of ASM in host defense against liver metastasis remains unclear. In this study, the involvement of ASM in liver metastasis of colon cancer was examined using Asm-/- and Asm+/+ mice that were inoculated with SL4 colon cancer cells to produce metastatic liver tumors. Asm-/- mice demonstrated enhanced tumor growth and reduced macrophage accumulation in the tumor, accompanied by decreased numbers of hepatic myofibroblasts (hMFs), which express tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), around the tumor margin. Tumor growth was increased by macrophage depletion or by Timp1 deficiency, but was decreased by hepatocyte-specific ASM overexpression, which was associated with increased S1P production. S1P stimulated macrophage migration and TIMP1 expression in hMFs in vitro. These findings indicate that ASM in the liver inhibits tumor growth through cytotoxic macrophage accumulation and TIMP1 production by hMFs in response to S1P. Targeting ASM may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treating liver metastasis of colon cancer.

  20. Inhibition of glioblastoma growth by the thiadiazolidinone compound TDZD-8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aguilar-Morante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thiadiazolidinones (TDZD are small heterocyclic compounds first described as non-ATP competitive inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β. In this study, we analyzed the effects of 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8, on murine GL261 cells growth in vitro and on the growth of established intracerebral murine gliomas in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our data show that TDZD-8 decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis of GL261 glioblastoma cells in vitro, delayed tumor growth in vivo, and augmented animal survival. These effects were associated with an early activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway and increased expression of EGR-1 and p21 genes. Also, we observed a sustained activation of the ERK pathway, a concomitant phosphorylation and activation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK and an inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at Ser 9. Finally, treatment of glioblastoma stem cells with TDZD-8 resulted in an inhibition of proliferation and self-renewal of these cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that TDZD-8 uses a novel mechanism to target glioblastoma cells, and that malignant progenitor population could be a target of this compound.

  1. Hedyotis diffusa Willd inhibits colorectal cancer growth in vivo via inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiaoyan; Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lili; Zhan, Youzhi; Zeng, Jianwei; Xu, Wei; Shen, Aling; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Hedyotis diffusa Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in the present study we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (EEHDW) on tumor growth in vivo and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that EEHDW can inhibit CRC growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. In addition, EEHDW treatment suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Moreover, EEHDW treatment altered the expression pattern of several important target genes of the STAT3 signaling pathway, i.e., decreased expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulated p21 and Bax. These results suggest that suppression of the STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW treats colorectal cancer. PMID:22754353

  2. Bacterial growth inhibition potential of annatto plant parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akshatha Venugopalan; Parvatam Giridhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antibacterial efficacy of Bixa orellana leaves and deseeded fruit capsule extracts against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Methods: The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic, methanolic, acetone and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of B. orellana were tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus cereus and Staphylococus aureus by disc diffusion method. Results: The antibacterial activity of leaf was more pronounced even at low concentrations and fruit extracts exhibited the same at relatively higher concentrations. Only DMSO extract of seeds showed growth inhibition of S. aureus, B. subtilis, B. cereus, and P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: The present study suggested that the leaves and deseeded capsule extracts of B. orellana possess significant antibacterial activity thereby providing substantial support for the ethanobotanical applications of this plant.

  3. Self-inhibiting growth of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, Peter Lang; Solgaard, Anne Munck; Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2012-01-01

    The build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from ice-free conditions is studied in an ice sheet model (ISM) driven by fields from an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to demonstrate the importance of coupling between the two components. Experiments where the two are coupled off......-line are augmented by one where an intermediate ice sheet configuration is coupled back to the GCM. Forcing the ISM with GCM fields corresponding to the ice-free state leads to extensive regrowth which, however, is halted when the intermediate recoupling step is included. This inhibition of further growth is due...... to a Föhn effect of moist air parcels being lifted over the intermediate ice sheet and arriving in the low-lying Greenland interior with high temperatures. This demonstrates that two-way coupling between the atmosphere and the ice sheet is essential for understanding the dynamics and that large scale...

  4. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Q

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Qingli Li,1,2 Mark J Lambrechts,1 Qiuyang Zhang,1 Sen Liu,1 Dongxia Ge,1 Rutie Yin,2 Mingrong Xi,2 Zongbing You1 1Departments of Structural and Cellular Biology and Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane Cancer Center and Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium, Tulane Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, and Tulane Center for Aging, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy. Keywords: serine hydroxymethyltransferase, prostate cancer, apoptosis

  5. Aurapten, a coumarin with growth inhibition against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several natural compounds have been identified for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Among them are some alkaloids, chalcones, lactones, tetralones, and saponins. The new compound reported here, 7-geranyloxycoumarin, called aurapten, belongs to the chemical class of the coumarins and has a molecular weight of 298.37. The compund was extracted from the Rutaceae species Esenbeckia febrifuga and was purified from a hexane extract starting from 407.7 g of dried leaves and followed by four silica gel chromatographic fractionation steps using different solvents as the mobile phase. The resulting compound (47 mg of shows significant growth inhibition with an LD50 of 30 µM against the tropical parasite Leishmania major, which causes severe clinical manifestations in humans and is endemic in the tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, we investigated the atomic structure of aurapten in order to determine the existence of common structural motifs that might be related to other coumarins and potentially to other identified inhibitors of Leishmania growth and viability. This compound has a comparable inhibitory activity of other isolated molecules. The aurapten is a planar molecule constituted of an aromatic system with electron delocalization. A hydrophobic side chain consisting of ten carbon atoms with two double bonds and negative density has been identified and may be relevant for further compound synthesis.

  6. Kaempferol inhibits Entamoeba histolytica growth by altering cytoskeletal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Verónica; Díaz-Martínez, Alfredo; Soto, Jacqueline; Marchat, Laurence A; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2015-11-01

    The flavonoid kaempferol obtained from Helianthemum glomeratum, an endemic Mexican medicinal herb used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, has been shown to inhibit growth of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro; however, the mechanisms associated with this activity have not been documented. Several works reported that kaempferol affects cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. In order to gain insights into the action mechanisms involved in the anti-amoebic effect of kaempferol, here we evaluated the effect of this compound on the pathogenic events driven by the cytoskeleton during E. histolytica infection. We also carried out a two dimensional gel-based proteomic analysis to evidence modulated proteins that could explain the phenotypical changes observed in trophozoites. Our results showed that kaempferol produces a dose-dependent effect on trophozoites growth and viability with optimal concentration being 27.7 μM. Kaempferol also decreased adhesion, it increased migration and phagocytic activity, but it did not affect erythrocyte binding nor cytolytic capacity of E. histolytica. Congruently, proteomic analysis revealed that the cytoskeleton proteins actin, myosin II heavy chain and cortexillin II were up-regulated in response to kaempferol treatment. In conclusion, kaempferol anti-amoebic effects were associated with deregulation of proteins related with cytoskeleton, which altered invasion mechanisms.

  7. Positional Isomers of Aspirin Are Equally Potent in Inhibiting Colon Cancer Cell Growth: Differences in Mode of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Goswami, Satindra; Gan, Zong Yuan; Rao, Praveen P.N.; Nia, Kamran V.; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    We compared the differential effects of positional isomers of acetylsalicylic acid (o-ASA, m-ASA, and p-ASA) on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition, gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cell growth inhibition, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell-cycle progression. We also evaluated the gastric toxicity exerted by ASA isomers. All ASA isomers inhibit COX enzymes, but ...

  8. Substrate inhibition in Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1 : a kinetic study of growth inhibition by oxalate and formate using extended cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Harder, W.

    1975-01-01

    Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1 has been grown in a mineral salts medium with oxalate or formate as the sole source of carbon and energy. At concentrations of these substrates above 50 mM inhibition of growth was indicated by a long and variable lag phase in batch culture. This inhibition was further stu

  9. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by cellular extracts of human intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, K; Miyakawa, H; Hasegawa, A.; Takazoe, I; Kawai, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans was completely inhibited by water-soluble extracts from cells of various intestinal lactic acid bacteria identified as Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus equinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The growth inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of the extracts. In contrast, the extracts did not inhibit the growth of the major indigenous intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolated from humans. These lactic acid bacteria ...

  10. Combined MET inhibition and topoisomerase I inhibition block cell growth of small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Cleo E; Kanteti, Rajani; Surati, Mosmi; Nandi, Suvobroto; Dhanasingh, Immanuel; Yala, Soheil; Tretiakova, Maria; Arif, Qudsia; Hembrough, Todd; Brand, Toni M; Wheeler, Deric L; Husain, Aliya N; Vokes, Everett E; Bharti, Ajit; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease, and current therapies have not greatly improved the 5-year survival rates. Topoisomerase (Top) inhibition is a treatment modality for SCLC; however, the response is short lived. Consequently, our research has focused on improving SCLC therapeutics through the identification of novel targets. Previously, we identified MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) to be overexpressed and functional in SCLC. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic potential of combinatorial targeting of MET using SU11274 and Top1 using 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38). MET and TOP1 gene copy numbers and protein expression were determined in 29 patients with limited (n = 11) and extensive (n = 18) disease. MET gene copy number was significantly increased (>6 copies) in extensive disease compared with limited disease (P = 0.015). Similar TOP1 gene copy numbers were detected in limited and extensive disease. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a significantly higher Top1 nuclear expression in extensive (0.93) versus limited (0.15) disease (P = 0.04). Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was detected between MET gene copy number and Top1 nuclear expression (r = 0.5). In vitro stimulation of H82 cells revealed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced nuclear colocalization of p-MET and Top1. Furthermore, activation of the HGF/MET axis enhanced Top1 activity, which was abrogated by SU11274. Combination of SN-38 with SU11274 dramatically decreased SCLC growth as compared with either drug alone. Collectively, these findings suggest that the combinatorial inhibition of MET and Top1 is a potentially efficacious treatment strategy for SCLC. PMID:24327519

  11. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  12. MK615 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth by dual inhibition of Aurora A and B kinases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshie Okada; Tokihiko Sawada; Tatsushi Osawa; Masakazu Adachi; Keiichi Kubota

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the anti-neoplastic effect of MK615,an anti-neoplastic compound isolated from Japanese apricot,against human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.METHODS:Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1,PK-1,and PK45H were cultured with MK615 at concentrations of 600,300,150,and O μg/mL.Growth inhibition was evaluated by cell proliferation assay,and killing activity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay.Expression of Aurora A and B kinases was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting.Cell cycle stages were evaluated by flow cytometry.RESULTS:The growth inhibitory rates of MK615 at 150,300,and 600 μg/mL were 2.3% ± 0.9%,8.9% ±3.2% and 67.1% ± 8.1% on PANC1 cells,1.3% ± 0.3%,8.7% ± 4.1% and 45.7 ± 7.6% on PK1 cells,and 1.2 ±0.8%,9.1% ± 2.1% and 52.1% ± 5.5% on PK45H cells,respectively (P<0.05).The percentage cytotoxicities of MK615 at 0,150,300,and 600 μg/mL were 19.6% ±1.3%,26.7% ± 1.8%,25.5% ± 0.9% and 26.4% ± 0.9%in PANC1 cells,19.7% ± 1.3%,24.7% ± 0.8%,25.9% ±0.9% and 29.9% ± 1.1% in PK1 cells,and 28.0% ± 0.9%,31.2% ± 0.9%,30.4% ± 1.1% and 35.3 ± 1.0% in PK45H cells,respectively (P<0.05).Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that MK615 dually inhibited the expression of Aurora A and B kinases.Cell cycle analysis revealed that MK615 increased the population of cells in G2/M phase.CONCLUSION:MK615 exerts an anti-neoplastic effect on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro by dual inhibition of Aurora A and B kinases.

  13. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  14. Muricholic acids inhibit Clostridium difficile spore germination and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Francis

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. One such advance is the generation of a mouse-model of C. difficile infection. The development of this system is a major step forward in analyzing the genetic requirements for colonization and infection. While important, it is equally as important in understanding what differences exist between mice and humans. One of these differences is the natural bile acid composition. Bile acid-mediated spore germination is an important step in C. difficile colonization. Mice produce several different bile acids that are not found in humans. These muricholic acids have the potential to impact C. difficile spore germination. Here we find that the three muricholic acids (α-muricholic acid, β-muricholic acid and ω-muricholic acid inhibit C. difficile spore germination and can impact the growth of vegetative cells. These results highlight an important difference between humans and mice and may have an impact on C. difficile virulence in the mouse-model of C. difficile infection.

  15. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Michael B.; Arena, Christopher B.; Bittleman, Katelyn R.; Dewitt, Matthew R.; Cho, Hyung J.; Szot, Christopher S.; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M.; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2015-10-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250 ns and 100 μs and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100 μs, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5 μs in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models.

  16. Amylase inhibits Neisseria gonorrhoeae by degrading starch in the growth medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, M R; Gregory, W W; Bruns, D.E.; Zakowski, J J

    1983-01-01

    Highly purified salivary alpha-amylase inhibited the growth of fresh isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on GC agar base medium supplemented with 2% IsoVitaleX (BBL Microbiology Systems). Hydrolysis of starch in the medium by amylase resulted in a negative starch-iodine test. However, purified amylase did not inhibit gonococcal growth on agar plates that contained hemoglobin (chocolate agar). This effect was not caused by inhibition of amylase, since amylase activity was the same in the presenc...

  17. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  18. Inhibition of growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured fibroblasts by human recombinant gamma interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E R; Guyre, P M

    1984-01-01

    The growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts was inhibited by recombinant human gamma interferon at concentrations of 8 to 16 U/ml. The interferon was titrated by observing a total inhibition of parasite plaque formation 7 days after infection. Inhibition of the growth of T. gondii in the early days after infection was measured by marked reductions in the incorporation of radioactive uracil, a precursor that can only be used by the parasites. This assay showed that when cells were pretreated with gamma interferon for 1 day and then infected, inhibition of T. gondii growth could be readily detected 1 or 2 days after infection. When the pretreatment was omitted and parasites and gamma interferon were added at the same time, no inhibition of parasite growth could be detected 1 day later, although it was apparent after 2 days. Cultures from which the gamma interferon had been removed by washing after a 1-day treatment showed inhibition of T. gondii growth. Gamma interferon had no effect on the viability of extracellular parasites, but it did inhibit the synthesis of host cell RNA and protein by ca. 50% 3 days after treatment. This degree of inhibition is unlikely, of itself, to compromise the growth of T. gondii. Recombinant alpha and beta interferons had no effect on the growth of T. gondii. Images PMID:6425215

  19. Inhibition of nitrification in municipal wastewater-treating photobioreactors: Effect on algal growth and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustok, I; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Nehrenheim, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of inhibiting nitrification on algal growth and nutrient uptake was studied in photobioreactors treating municipal wastewater. As previous studies have indicated that algae prefer certain nitrogen species to others, and because nitrifying bacteria are inhibited by microalgae, it is important to shed more light on these interactions. In this study allylthiourea (ATU) was used to inhibit nitrification in wastewater-treating photobioreactors. The nitrification-inhibited reactors were compared to control reactors with no ATU added. Microalgae had higher growth in the inhibited reactors, resulting in a higher chlorophyll a concentration. The species mix also differed, with Chlorella and Scenedesmus being the dominant genera in the control reactors and Cryptomonas and Chlorella dominating in the inhibited reactors. The nitrogen speciation in the reactors after 8 days incubation was also different in the two setups, with N existing mostly as NH4-N in the inhibited reactors and as NO3-N in the control reactors. PMID:26716890

  20. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  1. Retinoic acid. Inhibition of the clonal growth of human myeloid leukemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Douer, D; Koeffler, H P

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin A and its analogues (retinoids) affect normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. We examined the effect of retinoids on the clonal growth in vitro of myeloid leukemia cells. Retinoic acid inhibited the clonal growth of the KG-1, acute myeloblastic leukemia, and the HL-60, acute promyelocytic leukemia, human cell lines. The KG-1 cells were extremely sensitive to retinoic acid, with 50% of the colonies inhibited by 2.4-nM concentrations of the drug. A 50% growth inhibition of HL-60 was ...

  2. Polymer film deposition on agar using a dielectric barrier discharge jet and its bacterial growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T.-C.; Cho, J.; Mcintyre, K.; Jo, Y.-K.; Staack, D.

    2012-08-01

    Polymer film deposition on agar in ambient air was achieved using the helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet) fed with polymer precursors, and the bacterial growth inhibition due to the deposited film was observed. The DBD jet with precursor addition was more efficient at sterilization than a helium-only DBD jet. On the areas where polymer films cover the agar the bacterial growth was significantly inhibited. The inhibition efficacy showed dependence on the film thickness. The DBD jet without precursor also created a modified agar layer, which may slow the growth of some bacterial strains.

  3. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  4. Inhibition of human gastric carcinoma cell growth by atofluding derivative N3-o-toluyl-fluorouracil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Liu; Wei Tang; Xian-Jun Qu; Wen-Fang Xu; Shu-Xiang Cui; Yong Zhou; Yun-Xia Yuan; Ming-Hui Chen; Ruo-Han Wang; Ruo-Yan Gai; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the growth inhibition efficacy of atofluding derivative N3-o-toluyl-fluorouracil (TFU)on human gastric carcinoma cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45.METHODS:Cell growth inhibition by TFU was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays without or with liver microsomal enzymes. Xenografts of cancer cells in nude mice were employed to study the anti-proliferative effects of TFU in vivo,RESULTS:TFU inhibited the growth of SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells. However, the inhibitory effects of TFU on cell growth were not significant. The inhibition rates were enhanced in the presence of liver microsomal enzymes, ranging 4.73%-48.57% in SGC-7901 cells and 9.0%-62.02% in MKN-45 cells. In vivo, TFU delayed the growth of SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells in nude mice. The inhibition rates were 40.49%, 63.24%, and 75.98% in SGC-7901 cells and 40.76%, 61.41%, and 82.07% in MKN-45 cells when the oral doses were 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. TFU treatment was generally well tolerated by mice with less than 20% reduction in body weight.CONCLUSION:TFU inhibits the growth of human gastric carcinoma cells. The inhibition rates are increased in the presence of liver microsomal enzymes. The efficacy of TFU may be associated with the sustaining release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) mediated by the enzymes.

  5. Growth Inhibition of Breast Cancer in Rat by AAV Mediated Angiostatin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ran; CHEN Hong; REN Chang-shan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe growth inhibition effect of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) mediated angiostatin (ANG) gene on implanted breast cancer in rat and its mechanism. Methods: Gene transfer technique was used to transfer AAV-ANG to the tumor. Growth curves were drawn to observe the growth of breast cancer implanted in rat, and immunohistochemical method was used to detect the effects of angiostatin on microvesel density (MVD) of breast cancer implanted in rat. Results: Angiostatin inhibited the growth of breast cancer implanted in rat and decreased the microvessel density of tumor. Conclusion: Expression of an angiostatin transgene can suppress the growth of breast cancer implanted in rat through the inhibition of the growth of microvessels, surggesting that angiostatin gene transfer technique may be effective against breast cancer.

  6. A chemical pollen suppressant inhibits auxin-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesper, M.J. (Univ. of Dayton, OH (USA)); Cross, J.W. (Sogetal, Inc., Hayward, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Chemical inhibitors of pollen development having a phenylcinnoline carboxylate structure were found to inhibit IAA- and 1-NAA-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections. The inhibitor (100 {mu}M) used in these experiments caused approx. 35% reduction in auxin-induced growth over the auxin concentration range of 0.3 to 100 {mu}M. Growth inhibition was noted as a lengthening of the latent period and a decrease in the rate of an auxin-induced growth response. An acid growth response to pH 5 buffer in abraded sections was not impaired. The velocity of basipetal transport of ({sup 3}H)IAA through the coleoptile sections also was not inhibited by the compound, nor was uptake of ({sup 3}H)IAA. Similarly, the inhibitor does not appear to alter auxin-induced H{sup +} secretion. We suggest that the agent targets some other process necessary for auxin-dependent growth.

  7. Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induces Oxidative Stress and Inhibits Growth of Mouse Ovarian Antral Follicles1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Craig, Zelieann R.; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Hafner, Katlyn S.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of the most commonly used plasticizer, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and is considered to be a reproductive toxicant. However, little is known about the effects of MEHP on ovarian antral follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that MEHP inhibits follicle growth via oxidative stress pathways. The data indicate that MEHP increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inhibits follicle growth in antral follicles, w...

  8. The FGF-2-derived peptide FREG inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; D'Arcangelo, Daniela; De Marchis, Francesco; Toietta, Gabriele; Ribatti, Domenico; Parazzoli, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Previous data report that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-derived peptide FREG potently inhibits FGF-2-dependent angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that FREG inhibits up to 70% in vitro growth and invasion/migration of smooth muscle and melanoma cells. Such inhibition is mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-α (PDGF-Rα); in fact, proliferation and migration were restored upon PDGF-Rα neutralization. Further experiments demonstrated that FREG interacts with PDGF-Rα both in vitro and in vivo and stimulates its phosphorylation. We have previously shown that overexpressing PDGF-Rα strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vivo; we, therefore, hypothesized that PDGF-Rα agonists may represent a novel tool to inhibit melanoma growth in vivo. To support this hypothesis, FREG was inoculated intravenously (i.v.) in a mouse melanoma model and markedly inhibited pulmonary metastases formation. Immunohistochemical analyses showed less proliferation, less angiogenesis, and more apoptosis in metastasized lungs upon FREG treatment, as compared to untreated controls. Finally, in preliminary acute toxicity studies, FREG showed no toxicity signs in healthy animals, and neither microscopic nor macroscopic toxicity at the liver, kidney, and lungs level. Altogether, these data indicate that FREG systemic treatment strongly inhibits melanoma metastases development and indicate for the first time that agonists of PDGF-Rα may control melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20924364

  9. Achieving optimal growth through product feedback inhibition in metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha Goyal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the metabolism of some organisms, such as Escherichia coli, is remarkably efficient, producing close to the maximum amount of biomass per unit of nutrient consumed. This observation raises the question of what regulatory mechanisms enable such efficiency. Here, we propose that simple product-feedback inhibition by itself is capable of leading to such optimality. We analyze several representative metabolic modules--starting from a linear pathway and advancing to a bidirectional pathway and metabolic cycle, and finally to integration of two different nutrient inputs. In each case, our mathematical analysis shows that product-feedback inhibition is not only homeostatic but also, with appropriate feedback connections, can minimize futile cycling and optimize fluxes. However, the effectiveness of simple product-feedback inhibition comes at the cost of high levels of some metabolite pools, potentially associated with toxicity and osmotic imbalance. These large metabolite pool sizes can be restricted if feedback inhibition is ultrasensitive. Indeed, the multi-layer regulation of metabolism by control of enzyme expression, enzyme covalent modification, and allostery is expected to result in such ultrasensitive feedbacks. To experimentally test whether the qualitative predictions from our analysis of feedback inhibition apply to metabolic modules beyond linear pathways, we examine the case of nitrogen assimilation in E. coli, which involves both nutrient integration and a metabolic cycle. We find that the feedback regulation scheme suggested by our mathematical analysis closely aligns with the actual regulation of the network and is sufficient to explain much of the dynamical behavior of relevant metabolite pool sizes in nutrient-switching experiments.

  10. Hypernegative Supercoiling Inhibits Growth by Causing RNA Degradation▿

    OpenAIRE

    Baaklini, Imad; Usongo, Valentine; Nolent, Flora; Sanscartier, Patrick; Hraiky, Chadi; Drlica, Karl; Drolet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Transcription-induced hypernegative supercoiling is a hallmark of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (topA) mutants. However, its physiological significance has remained unclear. Temperature downshift of a mutant yielded transient growth arrest and a parallel increase in hypernegative supercoiling that was more severe with lower temperature. Both properties were alleviated by overexpression of RNase HI. While ribosomes in extracts showed normal activity when obtained during growth arrest, mRNA ...

  11. Hypergravity inhibits elongation growth of azuki bean epicotyls independently of the direction of stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Kamisaka, S.; Hoson, T.

    We examined the effects of basipetal, horizontal, and acropetal hypergravity stimulation on growth and cell wall properties of azuki bean seedlings. Horizontal and acropetal hypergravity inhibited elongation growth of epicotyls by decreasing the cell wall extensibility, as did basipetal hypergravity. Hypergravity stimulation increased the thickness of cell walls and suppressed xyloglucan breakdown regardless of direction. All hypergravity treatments increased the pH in the apoplastic fluid, which is involved in the processes of the suppression of xyloglucan breakdown. Gadolinium and lanthanum, both blockers of mechanoreceptors, nullified the growth-inhibiting effects of hypergravity. These results show that growth inhibition by hypergravity is independent of its direction in azuki bean epicotyls. The findings also suggest that mechanoreceptors on the plasma membrane perceive the gravity signal independently of its direction, and affect growth of azuki bean epicotyls.

  12. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Pettengill

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia.

  13. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Matthew A; Lam, Verissa W; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  14. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON INHIBITION OF MCF-7 CELL GROWTH BY TAMOXIFEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON INHIBITION OF MCF-7 CELL GROWTH BY TAMOXIFEN.Harland and Liburdy (1) reported that 1.2-uT, 60-Hz magnetic fields could significantly block the inhibitory action of pharmacological levels of tamoxifen (10-7 M) on the growth of MCF-7 human br...

  16. Growth Inhibition Effect of DL-Lysine Acetylalicylate on sw480 Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu; TIAN Xiao-feng; WANG Li-ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of DL-lysine acetylsalicylate on proliferation of colon carcinoma cells line sw480. Methods: After treatment of DL-lysine acetylsalicylate, the study was performed by observing sw480 colorectal cancer cells with phase contrast microscope, making growth curve, and examining the inhibition rate of sw480 cells with MTT assay. Results: The morphology of sw480 cells showed characteristics of apoptosis, the cell growth curve showed inhibited proliferation of sw480 cells when treated with DL-lysine acetylsalicylate (P<0.05). The rate of inhibition was upward when the drug concentration increased. Conclusion: DL-lysine acetylsalicylate for injection can inhibit the growth of sw480 colorectal cancer cells obviously in a dose dependent manner.

  17. l-Methionine inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Maximo A.; Bosland, Maarten C.; da Silva, Cássio P.; Sares, Claudia T. Gomes; de Oliveira, Alana M. Cerqueira; Kemp, Rafael; dos Reis, Rodolfo B.; VILMA R. MARTINS; Sampaio, Suely V; Bland, Kirby I; Grizzle, William E.; dos Santos, José S.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that l-methionine inhibits proliferation of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells. This study extends these findings to BXPC-3 (mutated p53) and HPAC (wild-type p53) pancreatic cancer cells and explores the reversibility of these effects. Cells were exposed to l-methionine (5 mg/ml) for 7 days or for 3 days, followed by 4 days of culture without l-methionine (recovery). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle effects were assessed by flow cytometry after stai...

  18. L-Methionine inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Maximo A; Bosland, Maarten C; da Silva, Cássio P; Gomes Sares, Claudia T; de Oliveira, Alana M Cerqueira; Kemp, Rafael; dos Reis, Rodolfo B; Martins, Vilma R; Sampaio, Suely V; Bland, Kirby I; Grizzle, William E; dos Santos, José S

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that L-methionine inhibits proliferation of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells. This study extends these findings to BXPC-3 (mutated p53) and HPAC (wild-type p53) pancreatic cancer cells and explores the reversibility of these effects. Cells were exposed to L-methionine (5 mg/ml) for 7 days or for 3 days, followed by 4 days of culture without L-methionine (recovery). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle effects were assessed by flow cytometry after staining for Ki-67 or annexin V/propidium iodide. Cell proliferation was reduced by 31-35% after 7 days of methionine exposure; the effect persisted in BXPC-3 and HPAC cells after 4 days of recovery. Methionine increased apoptosis by 40-75% in HPAC cells, but not in BXPC-3 cells. Continuous exposure to methionine caused accumulation of BXPC-3 cells in the S phase and HPAC cells in both the G0/G1 and S phases; however, after 4 days of recovery, these effects disappeared. In conclusion, L-methionine inhibits proliferation and interferes with the cell cycle of BXPC-3 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cells; the effects on apoptosis remarkably persisted after methionine withdrawal. Apoptosis was induced only in BXPC-3 cells. Some of the differences in the effects of methionine between cell lines may be related to disparate p53 status. These findings warrant further studies on the potential therapeutic benefit of L-methionine against pancreatic cancer.

  19. Inhibition of Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Growth by Cruciferous Vegetable Constituent Benzyl Isothiocyanate

    OpenAIRE

    Warin, Renaud; Xiao, Dong; Arlotti, Julie A.; Bommareddy, Ajay; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-01-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as gardencress, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture. The present study was undertaken to determine in vivo efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The BITC administration retarded growth of MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously implanted in female nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The BITC-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth c...

  20. CH5137291, an androgen receptor nuclear translocation-inhibiting compound, inhibits the growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Nobuyuki; Kawata, Hiromitsu; Nishimoto, Ayako; Nakamura, Ryo; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Miho; Tachibana, Kazutaka; Shiraishi, Takuya; Yoshino, Hitoshi; Honma, Akie; Emura, Takashi; Ohta, Masateru; Nakagawa, Toshito; Houjo, Takao; Corey, Eva; Vessella, Robert L; Aoki, Yuko; Sato, Haruhiko

    2015-04-01

    Resistance of prostate cancer to castration is currently an unavoidable problem. The major mechanisms underlying such resistance are androgen receptor (AR) overexpression, androgen-independent activation of AR, and AR mutation. To address this problem, we developed an AR pure antagonist, CH5137291, with AR nuclear translocation-inhibiting activity, and compared its activity and characteristics with that of bicalutamide. Cell lines corresponding to the mechanisms of castration resistance were used: LNCaP-BC2 having AR overexpression and LNCaP-CS10 having androgen-independent AR activation. VCaP and LNCaP were used as hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cells. In vitro functional assay clearly showed that CH5137291 inhibited the nuclear translocation of wild-type ARs as well as W741C- and T877A-mutant ARs. In addition, it acted as a pure antagonist on the transcriptional activity of these types of ARs. In contrast, bicalutamide did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of these ARs, and showed a partial/full agonistic effect on the transcriptional activity. CH5137291 inhibited cell growth more strongly than bicalutamide in VCaP and LNCaP cells as well as in LNCaP-BC2 and LNCaP-CS10 cells in vitro. In xenograft models, CH5137291 strongly inhibited the tumor growth of LNCaP, LNCaP-BC2, and LNCaP-CS10, whereas bicalutamide showed a weaker effect in LNCaP and almost no effect in LNCaP-BC2 and LNCaP-CS10 xenografts. Levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in plasma correlated well with the antitumor effect of both agents. CH5137291 inhibited the growth of LNCaP tumors that had become resistant to bicalutamide treatment. A docking model suggested that CH5137291 intensively collided with the M895 residue of helix 12, and therefore strongly inhibited the folding of helix 12, a cause of AR agonist activity, in wild-type and W741C-mutant ARs. In cynomolgus monkeys, the serum concentration of CH5137291 increased dose-dependently and PSA level decreased 80% at 100 mg/kg. CH

  1. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A.; Cerise, Jane E.; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C.; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transc...

  2. Inhibition of fungal growth with extreme low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1998-01-01

    contaminants of a wide range of products, and to determine the limit of growthFungi isolated from a wide range of products were incubated for up to three weeks at 25oC , 90% relative humidity at 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1, and 0.05% oxygen respectively in a custom made incubator with an interlock system...

  3. Dual effect of metformin on growth inhibition and oestradiol production in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, S; Pellat, L; Ahmetaga, A; Bano, G; Mason, H D; Whitehead, S A

    2015-04-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for a role for metformin in reducing breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women. It inhibits growth of breast cancer cells via several mechanisms, primarily the AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway. Another possible protective mechanism may be the ability of metformin to inhibit aromatase activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on the basal growth of MCF-7 cells, after oestradiol (E2) stimulation and after the inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin. Secondly, we investigated the effects of metformin on the activity of a number of steroidogenic enzymes and the mRNA expression of aromatase and steroid sulphatase (STS). High doses of metformin significantly inhibited both basal and oestrogen-stimulated cell division. Low-dose rapamycin (10-10 M) did not inhibit growth, but the addition of metformin induced a significant reduction in growth. High-dose rapamycin (10-8 M) inhibited growth, and this was further attenuated by the addition of metformin. Exposure to low (10-7 M) and high (10-4 M) doses of metformin for 7-10 days significantly reduced the conversion of androstenedione (ANDRO) and testosterone (TESTO) (both requiring aromatase), but not the conversion of oestrone or oestrone sulphate (ES) via 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/sulphatase to E2. This attenuation was via a downregulation in the expression of total aromatase mRNA and promoter II, whilst the expression of sulphatase was unaffected by metformin. In conclusion, plasma levels of metformin have a dual therapeutic action, first by directly inhibiting cell proliferation which can be augmented by rapamycin analogues, and secondly, by inhibiting aromatase activity and reducing the local conversion of androgens to E2.

  4. Role of calcium in growth inhibition induced by a novel cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, N. A.; Westhoff, B. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Our laboratory has purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells. Evidence presented here demonstrates that sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition in BALB-c 3T3 cells is influenced by calcium, such that a decrease in the calcium concentration in the growth medium results in an increase in sensitivity to CeReS-18. Calcium did not alter CeReS-18 binding to its cell surface receptor and CeReS-18 does not bind calcium directly. Addition of calcium, but not magnesium, to CeReS-18-inhibited 3T3 cells results in reentry into the cell cycle. A greater than 3-hour exposure to increased calcium is required for escape from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. The calcium ionophore ionomycin could partially mimic the effect of increasing extracellular calcium, but thapsigargin was ineffective in inducing escape from growth inhibition. Increasing extracellular calcium 10-fold resulted in an approximately 7-fold increase in total cell-associated 45Ca+2, while free intracellular calcium only increased approximately 30%. However, addition of CeReS-18 did not affect total cell-associated calcium or the increase in total cell-associated calcium observed with an increase in extracellular calcium. Serum addition induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and influx across the plasma membrane in 3T3 cells, and pretreatment of 3T3 cells with CeReS-18 appeared to inhibit these calcium mobilization events. These results suggest that a calcium-sensitive step exists in the recovery from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. CeReS-18 may inhibit cell proliferation through a novel mechanism involving altering the intracellular calcium mobilization/regulation necessary for cell cycle progression.

  5. Inhibition of growth and patulin synthesis in Penicillium expansum by potassium sorbate and sodium propionate in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Lennox, J E; McElroy, L J

    1984-01-01

    Potassium sorbate and sodium propionate brought about a marked inhibition in the growth of Penicillium expansum and a proportionally greater inhibition in the synthesis of patulin by the mold. At inhibitor concentrations used commercially in bakery products, propionate inhibited growth less efficiently than sorbate did but was a more effective inhibitor of patulin synthesis.

  6. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate.

  7. Somatostatin receptor-1 induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaochi; Li, Wei; Li, Fei; Yang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Brunicardi, F Charles; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Fisher, William E

    2008-11-01

    Functional somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are lost in human pancreatic cancer. Transfection of SSTR-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. We hypothesize that stable transfection of SSTR-1 may inhibit pancreatic cancer growth in vivo possibly through cell cycle arrest. In this study, we examined the expression of SSTR-1 mRNA in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens, and investigated the effect of SSTR-1 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth in a subcutaneous nude mouse model. We found that SSTR-1 mRNA was downregulated in the majority of pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. Transfection of SSTR-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) growth phase, with a corresponding decline of cells in the S (mitotic) phase. The overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumor size by 71% and 43% (n = 5, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), and inhibited tumor weight by 69% and 47% (n = 5, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), in Panc-SSTR-1 and MIA-SSTR-1 groups, respectively, indicating the potent inhibitory effect of SSTR-1 on pancreatic cancer growth. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibits pancreatic cancer growth possibly through cell cycle arrest. This study suggests that gene therapy with SSTR-1 may be a potential adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:18823376

  8. Neuronal growth inhibitory factor inhibits pheochromo-cytoma PC12 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal growth inhibitory factor (GIF),named Metaliothioneins-Ⅲ (MT-Ⅲ), is the first protein validated to be capable of inhibiting the growth of neurons in nervous system. We have detected the effects of recombinant GIF on the growth of neuroblastoma SY5Y and pheochromocytoma PC12 by the MTT (Thiazolyl blue) reduction assay. Recombinant GIF inhibited PC12 in vitro; the inhibitory rate was about 25% when GIF was at 100 mg/L; and the inhibitory rate was about 50% when GIF was at 300 mg/L. It is shown that PC12 could serve as a proper model for detecting neuronal growth inhibitory activity of GIF. Recombinant GIF did not inhibit neuroblastoma SY5Y in vitro, a common model of neuroma; it is also shown that GIF could not inhibit neuromata extensively. The reason for GIF inhibiting PC12 may be that PC12 have some properties of cholinergic neuron. It must play an important role in discovering the mechanism of GIF's neuronal growth inhibitory activity.``

  9. Somatostatin receptor-1 induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaochi; Li, Wei; Li, Fei; Yang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Brunicardi, F Charles; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Fisher, William E

    2008-11-01

    Functional somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are lost in human pancreatic cancer. Transfection of SSTR-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. We hypothesize that stable transfection of SSTR-1 may inhibit pancreatic cancer growth in vivo possibly through cell cycle arrest. In this study, we examined the expression of SSTR-1 mRNA in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens, and investigated the effect of SSTR-1 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth in a subcutaneous nude mouse model. We found that SSTR-1 mRNA was downregulated in the majority of pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. Transfection of SSTR-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) growth phase, with a corresponding decline of cells in the S (mitotic) phase. The overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumor size by 71% and 43% (n = 5, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), and inhibited tumor weight by 69% and 47% (n = 5, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), in Panc-SSTR-1 and MIA-SSTR-1 groups, respectively, indicating the potent inhibitory effect of SSTR-1 on pancreatic cancer growth. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibits pancreatic cancer growth possibly through cell cycle arrest. This study suggests that gene therapy with SSTR-1 may be a potential adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer.

  10. Molecular modifiers reveal a mechanism of pathological crystal growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jihae; Granja, Ignacio; Taylor, Michael G.; Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Asplin, John R.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-08-01

    Crystalline materials are crucial to the function of living organisms, in the shells of molluscs, the matrix of bone, the teeth of sea urchins, and the exoskeletons of coccoliths. However, pathological biomineralization can be an undesirable crystallization process associated with human diseases. The crystal growth of biogenic, natural and synthetic materials may be regulated by the action of modifiers, most commonly inhibitors, which range from small ions and molecules to large macromolecules. Inhibitors adsorb on crystal surfaces and impede the addition of solute, thereby reducing the rate of growth. Complex inhibitor-crystal interactions in biomineralization are often not well elucidated. Here we show that two molecular inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization—citrate and hydroxycitrate—exhibit a mechanism that differs from classical theory in that inhibitor adsorption on crystal surfaces induces dissolution of the crystal under specific conditions rather than a reduced rate of crystal growth. This phenomenon occurs even in supersaturated solutions where inhibitor concentration is three orders of magnitude less than that of the solute. The results of bulk crystallization, in situ atomic force microscopy, and density functional theory studies are qualitatively consistent with a hypothesis that inhibitor-crystal interactions impart localized strain to the crystal lattice and that oxalate and calcium ions are released into solution to alleviate this strain. Calcium oxalate monohydrate is the principal component of human kidney stones and citrate is an often-used therapy, but hydroxycitrate is not. For hydroxycitrate to function as a kidney stone treatment, it must be excreted in urine. We report that hydroxycitrate ingested by non-stone-forming humans at an often-recommended dose leads to substantial urinary excretion. In vitro assays using human urine reveal that the molecular modifier hydroxycitrate is as effective an inhibitor of nucleation

  11. Molecular modifiers reveal a mechanism of pathological crystal growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jihae; Granja, Ignacio; Taylor, Michael G.; Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Asplin, John R.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-08-01

    Crystalline materials are crucial to the function of living organisms, in the shells of molluscs, the matrix of bone, the teeth of sea urchins, and the exoskeletons of coccoliths. However, pathological biomineralization can be an undesirable crystallization process associated with human diseases. The crystal growth of biogenic, natural and synthetic materials may be regulated by the action of modifiers, most commonly inhibitors, which range from small ions and molecules to large macromolecules. Inhibitors adsorb on crystal surfaces and impede the addition of solute, thereby reducing the rate of growth. Complex inhibitor–crystal interactions in biomineralization are often not well elucidated. Here we show that two molecular inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization—citrate and hydroxycitrate—exhibit a mechanism that differs from classical theory in that inhibitor adsorption on crystal surfaces induces dissolution of the crystal under specific conditions rather than a reduced rate of crystal growth. This phenomenon occurs even in supersaturated solutions where inhibitor concentration is three orders of magnitude less than that of the solute. The results of bulk crystallization, in situ atomic force microscopy, and density functional theory studies are qualitatively consistent with a hypothesis that inhibitor–crystal interactions impart localized strain to the crystal lattice and that oxalate and calcium ions are released into solution to alleviate this strain. Calcium oxalate monohydrate is the principal component of human kidney stones and citrate is an often-used therapy, but hydroxycitrate is not. For hydroxycitrate to function as a kidney stone treatment, it must be excreted in urine. We report that hydroxycitrate ingested by non-stone-forming humans at an often-recommended dose leads to substantial urinary excretion. In vitro assays using human urine reveal that the molecular modifier hydroxycitrate is as effective an inhibitor of

  12. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA); Song, Jie (Shrewsbury, MA); Lee, Seung-Wuk (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  13. Specific Bifidobacterium strains isolated from elderly subjects inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jalonen, Lotta; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Salminen, Seppo J

    2007-06-10

    Cell-free, pH-controlled supernatants of thirty-eight Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy elderly subjects were subjected to antimicrobial activity assay. Bioluminescent indicator strains Staphylococcus aureus RN4220, Escherichia coli K-12, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were used as targets of antimicrobial activity. The effect of nutrient depletion on the inhibition was eliminated with spent-culture controls. Three out of thirty-eight Bifidobacterium strains were capable of inhibiting the growth of S. aureus. The inhibition was equal to 23.2+/-19.1% to 50.4+/-26.7% of the inhibition caused by 50 IU/ml nisin. Reuterin-producing positive strain Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112 was capable of 86.0+/-24.6% inhibition, but Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12, a known probiotic strain, showed no inhibition. None of the strains was capable of inhibiting the growth of E. coli or S. enterica. The observed inhibition by bifidobacteria was related to hydrogen peroxide formation and possible production of heat-stable proteinaceous compounds. The results suggest that production of antimicrobial substances other than organic acids is not common among Bifidobacterium strains typical of elderly subjects. However, specific strains were identified which showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. aureus. PMID:17462772

  14. Prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition-induced growth arrest of human gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kanayo [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Minoru, E-mail: sakaguti@gly.oups.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Tanaka, Satoshi [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Tadashi [Department of Life Science, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikeda-Nakamachi, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8508 (Japan); Takaoka, Masanori [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We examined the effects of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibition on p53 null gastric cancer cell growth. •POP inhibition-induced cell growth suppression was associated with an increase in a quiescent G{sub 0} state. •POP might regulate the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We recently reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of human neuroblastoma cells. The growth suppression was associated with pronounced G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest and increased levels of the CDK inhibitor p27{sup kip1} and the tumor suppressor p53. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of POP inhibition-induced cell growth arrest using a human gastric cancer cell line, KATO III cells, which had a p53 gene deletion. POP specific inhibitors, 3-((4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl)-L-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolyl-thioprolinal, or RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the growth of KATO III cells irrespective of their p53 status. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was associated with G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle phase arrest and increased levels of p27{sup kip1} in the nuclei and the pRb2/p130 protein expression. Moreover, SUAM-14746-mediated cell cycle arrest of KATO III cells was associated with an increase in the quiescent G{sub 0} state, defined by low level staining for the proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results indicate that POP may be a positive regulator of cell cycle progression by regulating the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle by KATO III cells.

  15. Matrine inhibits proliferation of mouse skin fibroblasts induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-an; GAO Chun-fang; WANG Hao; HUANG Chao; KONG Xian-tao

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of matrine on proliferation of mouse skin fibroblasts induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Methods: Mouse skin fibroblasts were obtained from newborn ⅠCR mice and propagated in vitro. Proliferation of cell was analyzed by mitochondrial reduction of tetrazolium salt MTT and actual cell count. Results: Matrine (50 to 500 μg/ml) caused dose-dependent reduction of serum-stimulated cell growth. Growth inhibition was totally reversed after removal of the drug. Matrine also inhibited PDGF-BB induced cell growth dose-dependently. Conclusion: Matrine exhibits potent anti-proliferation effect on mouse skin fibroblast. This effect appears to be mediated by decrease of PDGF-induced growth. These results suggest that matrine might have preventive and therapeutic implication in skin fibrosis.

  16. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK signaling prevents growth of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nicholas J.; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Dykema, Karl J.; Boguslawski, Elissa A.; Krivochenitser, Roman I.; Froman, Roe E.; Dawes, Michelle J.; Baker, Laurence H.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Kamstock, Debra A.; Kitchell, Barbara E.; Furge, Kyle A.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. As a model for human AS, we studied primary cells and tumorgrafts derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), which is also an endothelial malignancy with similar presentation and histology. Primary cells isolated from HSA showed constitutive ERK activation. The MEK inhibitor CI-1040 reduced ERK activation and the viability of primary cells derived from visceral, cutaneous, and cardiac HSA in vitro. HSA-derived primary cells were also sensitive to sorafenib, an inhibitor of B-Raf and multi-receptor tyrosine kinases. In vivo, CI-1040 or PD0325901 decreased the growth of cutaneous cell-derived xenografts and cardiac-derived tumorgrafts. Sorafenib decreased tumor size in both in vivo models, although cardiac tumorgrafts were more sensitive. In human AS, we noted that 50% of tumors stained positively for phosphorylated ERK1/2 and that the expression of several MEK-responsive transcription factors was up-regulated. Our data showed that MEK signaling is essential for the growth of HSA in vitro and in vivo and provided evidence that the same pathways are activated in human AS. This indicates that MEK inhibitors may form part of an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of canine HSA or human AS, and it highlights the utility of spontaneous canine cancers as a model of human disease. PMID:23804705

  17. Methoxychlor and its metabolites inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Aberdeen, Graham; Babus, Janice K; Albrecht, Eugene D; Flaws, Jodi A

    2007-08-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles in rodents. MXC metabolites, mono-OH MXC (mono-OH) and bis-OH MXC (HPTE), are thought to be more toxic than the parent compound. Although studies have examined effects of MXC in rodents, few studies have evaluated the effects of MXC in primates. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that MXC, mono-OH, and HPTE inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from adult baboon ovaries and cultured with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide; DMSO), MXC (1-100 micro g/ml), mono-OH (0.1-10 micro g/ml), or HPTE (0.1-10 micro g/ml) for 96 hr. Growth was monitored at 24 hr intervals. After culture, follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. MXC, mono-OH, and HPTE significantly inhibited follicular growth and increased atresia compared to DMSO. Moreover, the adverse effects of MXC and its metabolites on growth and atresia in baboon antral follicles were observed at lower (100-fold) doses than those causing similar effects in rodents. These data suggest that MXC and its metabolites inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles, and that primate follicles are more sensitive to MXC than rodent follicles.

  18. The effect of polyamine biosynthesis inhibition on growth and differentiation of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieckenstain, F L; Gárriz, A; Chornomaz, E M; Sánchez, D H; Ruiz, O A

    2001-12-01

    We studied the effects of several polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on growth, differentiation, free polyamine levels and in vivo and in vitro activity of polyamine biosynthesis enzymes in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) were potent inhibitors of mycelial growth. The effect of DFMO was due to inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). No evidence for the existence of an arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway was found. The effect of DFMA was partly due to inhibition of ODC, presumably after its conversion into DFMO by mycelial arginase, as suggested by the high activity of this enzyme detected both in intact mycelium and mycelial extracts. In addition, toxic effects of DFMA on cellular processes other than polyamine metabolism might have occurred. Cyclohexylamine (CHA) slightly inhibited mycelial growth and caused an important decrease of free spermidine associated with a drastic increase of free putrescine concentration. Methylglyoxal bis-[guanyl hydrazone] (MGBG) had no effect on mycelial growth. Excepting MGBG, all the inhibitors strongly decreased sclerotial formation. Results demonstrate that sclerotial development is much more sensitive to polyamine biosynthesis inhibition than mycelial growth. Our results suggest that mycelial growth can be supported either by spermidine or putrescine, while spermidine (or the putrescine/spermidine ratio) is important for sclerotial formation to occur. Ascospore germination was completely insensitive to the inhibitors.

  19. Study of coloration, microbe inhibition during the growth of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aidong; Xu, Chongquan; Li, Aibin; Ming, Naiben

    2000-12-01

    During the growth of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) single crystals, the problems of coloration and microbial contamination of the solution were investigated. It was found that the solution coloration can be prevented by conducting crystal growth at temperatures lower than 40°C and by inhibiting microbial growth. Compared to the known microbe inhibitors H 2O 2 and n-hexane, liquid paraffin shows advantages of long durability and convenience of usage for the growth of high-quality LAP single crystals.

  20. Cytochalasin D, a tropical fungal metabolite, inhibits CT26 tumor growth and angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Ying Huang; Yue-Nan Li; Wen-Li Mei; Hao-Fu Dai; Peng Zhou; Guang-Hong Tan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate whether cytochalasin D can induce antitumor activities in a tumor model.Methods: Murine CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells were culturedin vitro and cytochalasin D was used as a cytotoxic agent to detect its capabilities of inhibitingCT26 cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis by MTT and aTUNEL-based apoptosis assay. MurineCT26 tumor model was established to observe the tumor growth and survival time. Tumor tissues were used to detect the microvessel density by immunohistochemistry. In addition, alginate encapsulated tumor cell assay was used to quantify the tumor angiogenesis in vivo.Results: Cytochalasin D inhibited CT26 tumor cell proliferation in time and dose dependent manner and induced significantCT26 cell apoptosis, which almost reached the level induced by the positive control nuclease. The optimum effective dose of cytochalasinD for in vivo therapy was about50 mg/kg. CytochalasinD in vivotreatment significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival times inCT26 tumor-bearing mice. The results of immunohistochemistry analysis and alginate encapsulation assay indicated that the cytochalasinD could effectively inhibited tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions:Cytochalasin D inhibitsCT26 tumor growth potentially through inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis and suppression of tumor angiogenesis.

  1. Platycodin D inhibits tumor growth by antiangiogenic activity via blocking VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Xin; Gao, Yun-Ge; Guan, Ying-Yun; Xu, Jian-Rong; Lu, Qin [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhao, Mei [Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences and Health School Attached to SJTU-SM, 279 Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai 201318 (China); Liu, Ya-Rong; Liu, Hai-Jun [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Fang, Chao, E-mail: fangchao100@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Hong-Zhuan, E-mail: hongzhuan_chen@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Platycodin D (PD) is an active component mainly isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum. Recent studies proved that PD exhibited inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion and xenograft growth of diverse cancer cell lines. However, whether PD is suppressive for angiogenesis, an important hallmark in cancer development, remains unknown. Here, we found that PD could dose-dependently inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. PD also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Moreover, the antiangiogenic activity of PD contributed to its in vivo anticancer potency shown in the decreased microvessel density and delayed growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice with no overt toxicity. Western blot analysis indicated that PD inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream protein kinase including PLCγ1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt in endothelial cells. Molecular docking simulation showed that PD formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain. The present study firstly revealed the high antiangiogenic activity and the underlying molecular basis of PD, suggesting that PD may be a potential antiangiogenic agent for angiogenesis-related diseases. - Highlights: • Platycodin D inhibits HUVEC proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. • Platycodin D inhibits the angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. • Platycodin D suppresses the angiogenesis and growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice. • Platycodin D inhibits the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and downstream kinases in HUVEC.

  2. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  3. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in lung cancer: status 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Fred R; Jänne, Pasi A; Eberhardt, Wilfried E; Cappuzzo, Federico; Thatcher, Nick; Pirker, Robert; Choy, Hak; Kim, Edward S; Paz-Ares, Luis; Gandara, David R; Wu, Yi-Long; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Shepherd, Frances A; Mok, Tony S

    2013-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths. Most patients present with advanced-stage disease, and the prognosis is generally poor. However, with the understanding of lung cancer biology, and development of molecular targeted agents, there have been improvements in treatment outcomes for selected subsets of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have demonstrated significantly improved tumor responses and progression-free survival in subsets of patients with advanced NSCLC, particularly those with tumors harboring activating EGFR mutations. Testing for EGFR mutations is a standard procedure for identification of patients who will benefit from first-line EGFR TKIs. For patients with advanced NSCLC and no activating EGFR mutations (EGFR wild-type) or no other driving oncogenes such as ALK-gene rearrangement, chemotherapy is still the standard of care. A new generation of EGFR TKIs, targeting multiple receptors and with irreversible bindings to the receptors, are in clinical trials and have shown encouraging effects. Research on primary and acquired resistant mechanisms to EGFR TKIs are ongoing. Monoclonal antibodies (e.g. cetuximab), in combination with chemotherapy, have demonstrated improved outcomes, particularly for subsets of NSCLC patients, but further validations are needed. Novel monoclonal antibodies are combined with chemotherapy, and randomized comparative studies are ongoing. This review summarizes the current status of EGFR inhibitors in NSCLC in 2012 and some of the major challenges we are facing. PMID:23370315

  5. Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through iron chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Steven; O'Donnell, Allyson F; Ballew, Anna; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2011-11-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, is an ancient therapeutic used in India for centuries to treat a wide array of ailments. Interest in curcumin has increased recently, with ongoing clinical trials exploring curcumin as an anticancer therapy and as a protectant against neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro, curcumin chelates metal ions. However, although diverse physiological effects have been documented for this compound, curcumin's mechanism of action on mammalian cells remains unclear. This study uses yeast as a model eukaryotic system to dissect the biological activity of curcumin. We found that yeast mutants lacking genes required for iron and copper homeostasis are hypersensitive to curcumin and that iron supplementation rescues this sensitivity. Curcumin penetrates yeast cells, concentrates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and reduces the intracellular iron pool. Curcumin-treated, iron-starved cultures are enriched in unbudded cells, suggesting that the G(1) phase of the cell cycle is lengthened. A delay in cell cycle progression could, in part, explain the antitumorigenic properties associated with curcumin. We also demonstrate that curcumin causes a growth lag in cultured human cells that is remediated by the addition of exogenous iron. These findings suggest that curcumin-induced iron starvation is conserved from yeast to humans and underlies curcumin's medicinal properties.

  6. Calcium influences sensitivity to growth inhibition induced by a cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, N. A.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While studies concerning mitogenic factors have been an important area of research for many years, much less is understood about the mechanisms of action of cell surface growth inhibitors. We have purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) which can reversibly inhibit the proliferation of diverse cell types. The studies discussed in this article show that three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibit sixty-fold greater sensitivity than other fibroblasts and epithelial-like cells to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. Growth inhibition induced by CeReS-18 treatment is a reversible process, and the three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibited either single or multiple cell cycle arrest points, although a predominantly G0/G1 cell cycle arrest point was exhibited in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The sensitivity of the mouse keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition was not affected by the degree of tumorigenic progression in the cell lines and was not due to differences in CeReS-18 binding affinity or number of cell surface receptors per cell. However, the sensitivity of both murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes could be altered by changing the extracellular calcium concentration, such that increased extracellular calcium concentrations resulted in decreased sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced proliferation inhibition. Thus the increased sensitivity of the murine keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18 could be ascribed to the low calcium concentration used in their propagation. Studies are currently under way investigating the role of calcium in CeReS-18-induced growth arrest. The CeReS-18 may serve as a very useful tool to study negative growth control and the signal transduction events associated with cell cycling.

  7. A functional connection between pRB and transforming growth factor beta in growth inhibition and mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah M; Bergsied, Jacqueline; Isaac, Christian E; Coschi, Courtney H; Martens, Alison L; Hojilla, Carlo V; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Dimattia, Gabriel E; Khoka, Rama; Wang, Jean Y J; Dick, Frederick A

    2009-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a crucial mediator of breast development, and loss of TGF-beta-induced growth arrest is a hallmark of breast cancer. TGF-beta has been shown to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, which leads to the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRB. However, unlike other components of TGF-beta cytostatic signaling, pRB is thought to be dispensable for mammary development. Using gene-targeted mice carrying subtle missense changes in pRB (Rb1(DeltaL) and Rb1(NF)), we have discovered that pRB plays a critical role in mammary gland development. In particular, Rb1 mutant female mice have hyperplastic mammary epithelium and defects in nursing due to insensitivity to TGF-beta growth inhibition. In contrast with previous studies that highlighted the inhibition of cyclin/CDK activity by TGF-beta signaling, our experiments revealed that active transcriptional repression of E2F target genes by pRB downstream of CDKs is also a key component of TGF-beta cytostatic signaling. Taken together, our work demonstrates a unique functional connection between pRB and TGF-beta in growth control and mammary gland development.

  8. Disrupting the oncogenic synergism between nucleolin and Ras results in cell growth inhibition and cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Schokoroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ErbB receptors, Ras proteins and nucleolin are major contributors to malignant transformation. The pleiotropic protein nucleolin can bind to both Ras protein and ErbB receptors. Previously, we have demonstrated a crosstalk between Ras, nucleolin and the ErbB1 receptor. Activated Ras facilitates nucleolin interaction with ErbB1 and stabilizes ErbB1 levels. The three oncogenes synergistically facilitate anchorage independent growth and tumor growth in nude mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we used several cancer cell lines. The effect of Ras and nucleolin inhibition was determined using cell growth, cell death and cell motility assays. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. We found that inhibition of Ras and nucleolin reduces tumor cell growth, enhances cell death and inhibits anchorage independent growth. Our results reveal that the combined treatment affects Ras and nucleolin levels and localization. Our study also indicates that Salirasib (FTS, Ras inhibitor reduces cell motility, which is not affected by the nucleolin inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that targeting both nucleolin and Ras may represent an additional avenue for inhibiting cancers driven by these oncogenes.

  9. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs

  10. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, A. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]|[Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs.

  11. The rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis produces dimethylhexadecylamine, a compound that inhibits growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; López-Bucio, José; Flores-Cortez, Idolina; Santoyo, Gustavo; Hernández-Soberano, Christian; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi affect agricultural production worldwide. Control of these pests can be done by the use of fungicides such as captan, which may have deleterious effects on human health. This study demonstrates that the rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 produces volatile organic compounds that inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro. A single compound from the volatile blends, namely dimethylhexadecylamine (DMHDA), could inhibit the growth of both B. cinerea and P. cinnamomi when supplied to the growth medium in low concentrations. DMHDA also inhibited the growth of beneficial fungi Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride but at much higher concentrations. DMHDA-related aminolipids containing 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 carbons in the alkyl chain were tested for their inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogens. The results show that the most active compound from those tested was dimethyldodecylamine. This effect correlates with a decrease in the number of membrane lipids present in the mycelium of the pathogen including eicosanoic acid, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester. Strawberry leaflets treated with DMHDA were not injured by the compound. These data indicate that DMHDA and related compounds, which can be produced by microorganisms may effectively inhibit the proliferation of certain plant pathogens. PMID:23674267

  12. Bee Venom Promotes Hair Growth in Association with Inhibiting 5α-Reductase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seeun; Erdogan, Sedef; Hwang, Dahyun; Hwang, Seonwook; Han, Eun Hye; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia is an important issue that can occur in people of all ages. Recent studies show that bee venom can be used to treat certain diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, and multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of bee venom on alopecia, which was measured by applying bee venom (0.001, 0.005, 0.01%) or minoxidil (2%) as a positive control to the dorsal skin of female C57BL/6 mice for 19 d. Growth factors responsible for hair growth were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis using mice skins and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Bee venom promoted hair growth and inhibited transition from the anagen to catagen phase. In both anagen phase mice and dexamethasone-induced catagen phase mice, hair growth was increased dose dependently compared with controls. Bee venom inhibited the expression of SRD5A2, which encodes a type II 5α-reductase that plays a major role in the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, bee venom stimulated proliferation of hDPCs and several growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and 7) in bee venom-treated hDPCs dose dependently compared with the control group. In conclusion, bee venom is a potentially potent 5α-reductase inhibitor and hair growth promoter. PMID:27040904

  13. Tgf-Beta inhibition restores terminal osteoblast differentiation to suppress myeloma growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Takeuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM expands almost exclusively in the bone marrow and generates devastating bone lesions, in which bone formation is impaired and osteoclastic bone resorption is enhanced. TGF-beta, a potent inhibitor of terminal osteoblast (OB differentiation, is abundantly deposited in the bone matrix, and released and activated by the enhanced bone resorption in MM. The present study was therefore undertaken to clarify the role of TGF-beta and its inhibition in bone formation and tumor growth in MM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TGF-beta suppressed OB differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells, and also inhibited adipogenesis from C3H10T1/2 immature mesenchymal cells, suggesting differentiation arrest by TGF-beta. Inhibitors for a TGF-beta type I receptor kinase, SB431542 and Ki26894, potently enhanced OB differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells as well as MC3T3-E1 cells. The TGF-beta inhibition was able to restore OB differentiation suppressed by MM cell conditioned medium as well as bone marrow plasma from MM patients. Interestingly, TGF-beta inhibition expedited OB differentiation in parallel with suppression of MM cell growth. The anti-MM activity was elaborated exclusively by terminally differentiated OBs, which potentiated the cytotoxic effects of melphalan and dexamethasone on MM cells. Furthermore, TGF-beta inhibition was able to suppress MM cell growth within the bone marrow while preventing bone destruction in MM-bearing animal models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrates that TGF-beta inhibition releases stromal cells from their differentiation arrest by MM and facilitates the formation of terminally differentiated OBs, and that terminally differentiated OBs inhibit MM cell growth and survival and enhance the susceptibility of MM cells to anti-MM agents to overcome the drug resistance mediated by stromal cells. Therefore, TGF-beta appears to be an

  14. Dickkopf3 overexpression inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Mei Gu; Yi-Hui Ma; Wu-Gan Zhao; Jie Chen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the role of dickkopf3 (Dkk3) in human pancreatic cancer cell growth.METHODS: Dkk3 mRNA and protein expression in human pancreatic cancer cell lines were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Methylation of the Dkk3 promoter sequence was examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and Dkk3 mRNA expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. The effects of Dkk3 on cancer cell proliferation and in vitro sensitivity to gemcitabine were investigated by CellTiter 96. AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) after transfecting the Dkk3 expression plasmid into human pancreatic cancer cells. The expression of β-catenin, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (pERK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) was also examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting after upregulating Dkk3 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells.RESULTS: The results show that the expression levels of both Dkk3 mRNA and protein were low in all pancreatic cancer cell lines tested. The Dkk3 promoter sequence was methylated in the MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cell lines, which showed reduced Dkk3 expression. These two cell lines, which initially had a methylated Dkk3 promoter, showed increased Dkk3 mRNA expression that was dependent upon the dosage and timing of the DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-dC, treatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). When Dkk3 expression was upregulated following the transfection of a Dkk3 expression plasmid into MIA PaCa-2 cells, the ability of cells to proliferate decreased (P < 0.01), and the expression of β-catenin and pERK was downregulated (P < 0.01). Sensitivity to gemcitabine was enhanced in Dkk3 expression plasmid-transfected cells.CONCLUSION: Our findings, for the first time, implicate Dkk3 as a tumor suppressor in human pancreatic cancer

  15. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Nuccitelli

    Full Text Available We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF. We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth.

  16. Phytochemical potential of Eruca sativa for inhibition of melanoma tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobchandani, M; Ganesh, N; Gabbanini, S; Valgimigli, L; Srivastava, M M

    2011-06-01

    Solvent extracts from the aerial and root parts and seed oil from E. sativa (rocket salad) were assayed for anticancer activity against melanoma cells. The seed oil (isothiocyanates rich) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the tumor growth comparable to the control. Remarkably, the seed oil inhibited melanoma growth and angiogenesis in mice without any major toxicity. The findings qualify seed oil for further investigations in the real of cancer prevention and treatment.

  17. Development of a Murine Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition Assay for Evaluating Vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Marcela; Yang, Amy L.; Lim, Jaehyun; Kolibab, Kristopher; Derrick, Steven; Cadieux, Nathalie; Perera, Liyanage P.; Jacobs, William R.; Brennan, Michael; Morris, Sheldon L.

    2009-01-01

    The development and characterization of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has been impeded by the lack of reproducible and reliable in vitro assays for measuring vaccine activity. In this study, we developed a murine in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assay for evaluating TB vaccines that directly assesses the capacity of immune splenocytes to control the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within infected macrophages. Using this in vitro assay, protective immune responses induced by immu...

  18. Sorafenib inhibits growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking STAT3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Ming Gu; Quan-Lin Li; Qiang Gao; Jia-Hao Jiang; Xiao-Yong Huang; Jin-Feng Pan; Jia Fan; Jian Zhou

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory role and the underlying mechanisms of sorafenib on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Human and rat HCC cell lines were treated with sorafenib. Proliferation and STAT3 dephosphorylation were assessed. Potential molecular mechanisms of STAT3 pathway inhibition by sorafenib were evaluated. In vivo antitumor action and STAT3 inhibition were investigated in an immunocompetent orthotopic rat HCC model. RESULTS: Sorafenib decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at the tyrosine and serine residues (Y705 and S727), but did not affect Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and phospha-tase shatterproof 2 (SHP2), which is associated with growth inhibition in HCC cells. Dephosphorylation of S727 was associated with attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, similar to the effects of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, suggesting that sorafenib induced S727 dephosphorylation by inhibiting MEK/ERK signaling. Meanwhile, sorafenib could also inhibit Akt phosphorylation, and both the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and Akt knockdown resulted in Y705 dephosphorylation, indicating that Y705 dephosphorylation by sorafenib was mediated by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Finally, in the rat HCC model, sorafenib significantly inhibited STAT3 activity, reducing tumor growth and metastasis. CONCLUSION: Sorafenib inhibits growth and metastasis of HCC in part by blocking the MEK/ERK/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt/STAT3 signaling pathways, but independent of JAK2 and SHP2 activation.

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 suppresses epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Finetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blockade of Prostaglandin (PG E(2 production via deletion of microsomal Prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1 gene reduces tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo on xenograft tumors. So far the therapeutic potential of the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 has not been elucidated. PGE(2 promotes epithelial tumor progression via multiple signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we evaluated the antitumor activity of AF3485, a compound of a novel family of human mPGES-1 inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo, in mice bearing human A431 xenografts overexpressing EGFR. Treatment of the human cell line A431 with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β increased mPGES-1 expression, PGE(2 production and induced EGFR phosphorylation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 expression. AF3485 reduced PGE(2 production, both in quiescent and in cells stimulated by IL-1β. AF3485 abolished IL-1β-induced activation of the EGFR, decreasing VEGF and FGF-2 expression, and tumor-mediated endothelial tube formation. In vivo, in A431 xenograft, AF3485, administered sub-chronically, decreased tumor growth, an effect related to inhibition of EGFR signalling, and to tumor microvessel rarefaction. In fact, we observed a decrease of EGFR phosphorylation, and VEGF and FGF-2 expression in tumours explanted from treated mice. CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrates that the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 reduces squamous carcinoma growth by suppressing PGE(2 mediated-EGFR signalling and by impairing tumor associated angiogenesis. These results underscore the potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors as agents capable of controlling tumor growth.

  20. In vivo inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in tobacco ovary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R D; Galston, A W

    1985-01-01

    Post fertilization growth of tobacco ovary tissues treated with inhibitors of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis was examined in relation to endogenous PA titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17). DL-alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), specific, irreversible ("suicide") inhibitors of ODC and ADC in vitro, were used to modulate PA biosynthesis in excised flowers. ODC represented >99% of the total decarboxylase activity in tobacco ovaries. In vivo inhibition of ODC with DFMO resulted in a significant decrease in PA titers, ovary fresh weight and protein content. Simultaneous inhibition of both decarboxylases by DFMO and DFMA produced only a marginally greater depression in growth and PA titers, indicating that ODC activity is rate-limiting for PA biosynthesis in these tissues. Paradoxically, DFMA alone inhibited PA biosynthesis, not as a result of a specific inhibition of ADC, but primarily through the inactivation of ODC. In vivo inhibition of ODC by DFMA appears to result from arginase-mediated hydrolysis of this inhibitor to urea and DFMO, the suicide substrate for ODC. Putrescine conjugates in tobacco appear to function as a storage form of this amine which, upon hydrolysis, may contribute to Put homeostasis during growth.

  1. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  2. Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin

  3. ANALYTICAL EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR CALCULATIONS CONCERNING PRODUCT-INHIBITED FERMENTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIOFILM GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANEDE, CJ; BOLLEN, AM; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    An analytical reaction engineering model, recently presented by van Ede et al. (1992), which describes formation of inhibiting products associated with the growth of immobilized biofilms, is extended to describe simultaneous production associated with biofilm maintenance. The model accounts for both

  4. Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Yeong; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Jung, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Syng-Ook; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Although the expression of LDH-A was not changed by MF, both lactate production and LDH activity were decreased in MF-treated cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, intracellular ATP levels were also decreased by MF treatment, and the uptake of glucose was also reduced by MF treatment. Furthermore, the experiment on tumor growth in the in vivo mice model revealed that MF effectively reduced the growth of allotransplanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MF effectively inhibits cancer growth and metabolism by inhibiting the activity of LDH, a major enzyme responsible for regulating cancer metabolism. These results implicate MF as a potential candidate for development into a novel drug against cancer through inhibition of LDH activity. PMID:27430914

  5. The biofilm inhibitor Carolacton inhibits planktonic growth of virulent pneumococci via a conserved target

    OpenAIRE

    Jannik Donner; Michael Reck; Simone Bergmann; Andreas Kirschning; Rolf Müller; Irene Wagner-Döbler

    2016-01-01

    New antibacterial compounds, preferentially exploiting novel cellular targets, are urgently needed to fight the increasing resistance of pathogens against conventional antibiotics. Here we demonstrate that Carolacton, a myxobacterial secondary metabolite previously shown to damage Streptococcus mutans biofilms, inhibits planktonic growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of serotype 19A at nanomolar concentrations. A Carolacton diastereomer is inactiv...

  6. RNA interference inhibits expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chun-mei; SUN Bao-chen; LIU Xu-yang; WANG Jin-jin; LI Jun-fa; HAN Song; WANG Ning-li; LU Qing-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a major cause of vision loss, is the result of the increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. It is important to inhibit the expression of VEGF protein in RPE cells.

  7. Metabolism of stem tissue during growth and its inhibition. II. Respiration and ether-soluble material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, G.S.; Thimann, K.V.

    1950-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and ether soluble metabolites were made on etiolated pea steams grown in auxin solution to which iodoacetate, arsenite, or fluoride had been added. The role of respiration and metabolism in the increased sugar consumption of growth inhibited tissues is discussed in terms of the results from the experiment.

  8. Inhibition of Tumor Growth in Mice by Endostatin Derived from Abdominal Transplanted Encapsulated Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaining TENG; Ying ZHANG; Wei WANG; Xiaojun MA; Jian FEI

    2007-01-01

    Endostatin, a C-terminal fragment of collagen 18a, inhibits the growth of established tumors and metastases in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis. However, the purification procedures required for largescale production and the attendant cost of these processes, together with the low effectiveness in clinical tests, suggest that alternative delivery methods might be required for efficient therapeutic use of endostatin.In the present study, we transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with a human endostatin gene expression vector and encapsulated the CHO cells in alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules. The release of biologically active endostatin was confirmed using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. The encapsulated endostatin-expressing CHO cells can inhibit the growth of primary tumors in a subcutaneous B16 tumor model when injected into the abdominal cavity of mouse. These results widen the clinical application of the microencapsulated cell endostatin delivery system in cancer treatment.

  9. NK4, an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), inhibits growth of multiple myeloma cells: molecular targeting of angiogenic growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenlin; Hattori, Yutaka; Yamada, Taketo; Matsumoto, Kunio; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Sagawa, Morihiko; Otsuki, Takemi; Niikura, Takako; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes cell growth and motility and also increases neovascularization. Multiple myeloma (MM) cells produce HGF, and the plasma concentration of HGF is significantly elevated in patients with clinically active MM, suggesting that HGF might play a role in the pathogenesis of MM. NK4, an antagonist of HGF, is structurally homologous to angiostatin, and our previous report showed that NK4 inhibited the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells induced by HGF stimulation. The purposes of this study were to elucidate the contribution of HGF to the growth of MM cells as well as to investigate the possibility of the therapeutic use of NK4. In vitro study showed that NK4 protein stabilized the growth of MM cell lines and regulated the activation of c-MET, ERK1/2, STAT3, and AKT-1. Recombinant adenovirus containing NK4 cDNA (AdCMV.NK4) was injected intramuscularly into Icr/scid mice bearing tumors derived from HGF-producing MM cells. AdCMV.NK4 significantly inhibited the growth of these tumors in vivo. Histologic examination revealed that AdCMV.NK4 induced apoptosis of MM cells, accompanied by a reduction in neovascularization in the tumors. Thus, NK4 inhibited the growth of MM cells via antiangiogenic as well as direct antitumor mechanisms. The molecular targeting of HGF by NK4 could be applied as a novel therapeutic approach to MM. PMID:17179234

  10. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Receptor α Strongly Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Faraone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Rα may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Rα inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Rα mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Rα was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Bα and a marked increase of p38γ, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein α1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Rα reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001 and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Rα strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control.

  11. Platelet-derived growth factor-receptor alpha strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Debora; Aguzzi, Maria Simona; Toietta, Gabriele; Facchiano, Angelo M; Facchiano, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Martelli, Fabio; Truffa, Silvia; Cesareo, Eleonora; Ribatti, Domenico; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs) is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Ralpha may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Ralpha inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Ralpha mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Ralpha was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Balpha and a marked increase of p38gamma, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein alpha1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001) and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Ralpha strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control. PMID:19649203

  12. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Receptor α Strongly Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Debora; Aguzzi, Maria Simona; Toietta, Gabriele; Facchiano, Angelo M; Facchiano, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Martelli, Fabio; Truffa, Silvia; Cesareo, Eleonora; Ribatti, Domenico; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs) is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Rα may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Rα inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Rα mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Rα was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Bα and a marked increase of p38γ, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein α1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Rα reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001) and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Rα strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control. PMID:19649203

  13. The role of acidification in the inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by vaginal lactobacilli during anaerobic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeremy J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal lactobacilli protect the female genital tract by producing lactic acid, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide or a local immune response. In bacterial vaginosis, normal lactobacilli are replaced by an anaerobic flora and this may increase susceptibility to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a facultative anaerobe. Bacterial interference between vaginal lactobacilli and N. gonorrhoeae has not been studied in liquid medium under anaerobic conditions. By co-cultivating N. gonorrhoeae in the presence of lactobacilli we sought to identify the relative contributions of acidification and hydrogen peroxide production to any growth inhibition of N. gonorrhoeae. Methods Three strains of N. gonorrhoeae distinguishable by auxotyping were grown in the presence of high concentrations (107-108 cfu/mL of three vaginal lactobacilli (L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii in an anerobic liquid medium with and without 2-(N-morpholino-ethanesulfonic (MES buffer. Fusobacterium nucleatum was used as an indicator of anaerobiosis. Bacterial counts were performed at 15, 20 and 25 h; at 25 h pH and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were measured. Results Growth of F. nucleatum to >108 cfu/mL at 25 h confirmed anaerobiosis. All bacteria grew in the anaerobic liquid medium and the addition of MES buffer had negligible effect on growth. L. crispatus and L. gasseri produced significant acidification and a corresponding reduction in growth of N. gonorrhoeae. This inhibition was abrogated by the addition of MES. L. jensenii produced less acidification and did not inhibit N. gonorrhoeae. Hydrogen peroxide was not detected in any experiment. Conclusions During anaerobic growth, inhibition of N. gonorrhoeae by the vaginal lactobacilli tested was primarily due to acidification and abrogated by the presence of a buffer. There was no evidence of a specific mechanism of inhibition other than acid production under these conditions and, in particular, hydrogen peroxide was

  14. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. PMID:26976217

  15. Growth Inhibition by Bupivacaine Is Associated with Inactivation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad Beigh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bupivacaine is an amide type long acting local anesthetic used for epidural anesthesia and nerve blockade in patients. Use of bupivacaine is associated with severe cytotoxicity and apoptosis along with inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. Although inhibition of Erk, Akt, and AMPK seemingly appears to mediate some of the bupivacaine effects, potential downstream targets that mediate its effect remain unknown. S6 kinase 1 is a common downstream effector of several growth regulatory pathways involved in cell growth and proliferation known to be affected by bupivacaine. We have accordingly attempted to relate the growth inhibitory effects of bupivacaine with the status of S6K1 activity and we present evidence that decrease in cell growth and proliferation by bupivacaine is mediated through inactivation of S6 kinase 1 in a concentration and time dependent manner. We also show that ectopic expression of constitutively active S6 kinase 1 imparts substantial protection from bupivacaine induced cytotoxicity. Inactivation of S6K1 though associated with loss of putative mTOR mediated phosphorylation did not correspond with loss of similar phosphorylations in 4EBP1 indicating that S6K1 inhibition was not mediated through inactivation of mTORC1 signaling pathway or its down regulation.

  16. Growth inhibition to three red tide microalgae by extracts of Ulva pertusa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Growth inhibition effect of different concentration of distilled water extract and four polar organic solvent (methanol, acetone, ether and chloroform) extracts of Ulva pertusa on three typical red tide microalgae (Heterosigma akashiwo, Alexandrium tamarense and Prorocentrum micans) were investigated. Liquid-liquid fractionation and HPLC analysis for methanol extract of U. pertusa were carried out.Growth of the three microalgae was significantly inhibited by the distilled water extract of U. pertusa at relatively higher concentration. However, the cells of the three microalgae did not die completely even at high concentration. Methanol extract of U. pertusa showed the highest growth inhibition on the three microalgae, and all the cells of the three microalgae were killed at relatively high concentration. The other three organic solvent extracts of U. pertusa had no apparent effect on the three microalgae. The results of bioassays and HPLC analysis suggested that the inhibitory substances in U. pertusa to the microalgal growth had relatively high polarities. H. akashiwo was the most sensitive one while A. tamarense was the most tolerant one to the growth inhibitory substances.

  17. AtOPR3 specifically inhibits primary root growth in Arabidopsis under phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongyan; Pan, Xiaoying; Deng, Yuxia; Wu, Huamao; Liu, Pei; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    The primary root plays essential roles in root development, nutrient absorption, and root architectural establishment. Primary root growth is generally suppressed by phosphate (P) deficiency in A. thaliana; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely elusive to date. We found that AtOPR3 specifically inhibited primary root growth under P deficiency via suppressing root tip growth at the transcriptional level, revealing an important novel function of AtOPR3 in regulating primary root response to the nutrient stress. Importantly, AtOPR3 functioned to down-regulate primary root growth under P limitation mostly by its own, rather than depending on the Jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Further, AtOPR3 interacted with ethylene and gibberellin signaling pathways to regulate primary root growth upon P deficiency. In addition, the AtOPR3's function in inhibiting primary root growth upon P limitation was also partially dependent on auxin polar transport. Together, our studies provide new insights into how AtOPR3, together with hormone signaling interactions, modulates primary root growth in coping with the environmental stress in Arabidopsis.

  18. Growth inhibition and differences in protein profiles in azadirachtin-treated Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lai, Duo; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-04-01

    Azadirachtin A is a very effective biopesticide widely used in insect pest control. It has strong antifeeding and growth inhibitory activity against most insects, however, its mode of action is still unclear. Proteomic experiments using 2DE indicate significant effects of Azadirachtin A on the amount of proteins related to growth inhibition in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Twenty-one spots with different intensity in azadirachtin-treated larvae were identified. These proteins are involved in cytoskeletal organization, transcription and translation, hormonal regulation, and energy metabolism. Protein network analysis reveals heat shock protein 23 to be a potential target of azadirachtin. These results provide new insights into understanding the mechanism of growth inhibition in insects in response to azadirachtin. PMID:24458307

  19. Cellular Adhesion Tripeptide RGD Inhibits Growth of Human Ileocecal Adenocarcinoma Cells HCT-8 and Induces Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; ZENG Hong-bin; YANG Shao-juan; GAO Shen; HUANG Yi-bing; HOU Rui-zhen; ZHAO Mi-feng; XU Li; ZHANG Xue-zhong

    2007-01-01

    The tripeptide, Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD) motif is an integrin-recognition site found in adhesive proteins present in extracellular matrices(ECM) and in the blood. HCT-8 cells were treated with cellular adhesion tripeptide RGD at various concentrations. MTT assay was performed to examine the growth and proliferation of HCT-8 cells after treatment with RGD for 48 h. Haematoxylin and Eosin(HE) staining and electromicroscope were used to observe the morphology of apoptotic cells. Survivin and flow cytometry were also used to analyze the HCT-8 apoptosis. Cellular adhesion tripeptide RGD significantly inhibits the growth and proliferation of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induces apoptosis of HCT-8. These results indicate that cellular adhesion tripeptide RGD inhibits the growth and proliferation of tumor HCT-8 cell, probably by the aid of inducing apoptosis of HCT-8 cell.

  20. Hormone activities and the cell cycle machinery in immunity-triggered growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M U; Gifford, M L; Schäfer, P

    2015-04-01

    Biotic stress and diseases caused by pathogen attack pose threats in crop production and significantly reduce crop yields. Enhancing immunity against pathogens is therefore of outstanding importance in crop breeding. However, this must be balanced, as immune activation inhibits plant growth. This immunity-coupled growth trade-off does not support resistance but is postulated to reflect the reallocation of resources to drive immunity. There is, however, increasing evidence that growth-immunity trade-offs are based on the reconfiguration of hormone pathways, shared by growth and immunity signalling. Studies in roots revealed the role of hormones in orchestrating growth across different cell types, with some hormones showing a defined cell type-specific activity. This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. Since plants are constantly exposed to Immuno-activating microbes under agricultural conditions, the transition from a growth to an immunity operating mode can significantly reduce crop yield and can conflict our efforts to generate next-generation crops with improved yield under climate change conditions. By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. By referring to abiotic stress studies, we further introduce how root cell type-specific hormone activities might contribute to growth under immunity and discuss the feasibility of uncoupling the growth-immunity cross-talk.

  1. Cystone, a well-known herbal formulation, inhibits struvite crystal growth formation in single diffusion gel growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralhad S. Patki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of Cystone® against struvite crystal growth in in vitro conditions. Methods: Various concentrations of Cystone® was prepared in 1 M magnesium acetate solution and evaluated for crystal growth inhibition assay by a well-known method called single diffusion gel growth technique in vitro. Results: Cystone®, a well-known polyherbal formulation, at 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations showed significant and dose-dependent inhibition of struvite crystal growth formation in in vitro by reducing number, total mass and total volume of the struvite crystals formed and also caused fragmentation of grown struvite crystals in the gel matrix. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate, Cystone® significantly retards the formation of struvite stones and also brings about its fragmentation. This could be one of the probable mechanisms behind the beneficial effect offered by Cystone® in the clinical management of urolithiasis and urinary tract infections. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 51-55

  2. Role of bicarbonate/CO2 in the inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by cyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, E I; Fuchs, J A; Guilloton, M B; Anderson, P M

    1995-06-01

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give two CO2 molecules. The gene for cyanase is part of the cyn operon, which includes cynT and cynS, encoding carbonic anhydrase and cyanase, respectively. Carbonic anhydrase functions to prevent depletion of cellular bicarbonate during cyanate decomposition (the product CO2 can diffuse out of the cell faster than noncatalyzed hydration back to bicarbonate). Addition of cyanate to the culture medium of a delta cynT mutant strain of E. coli (having a nonfunctional carbonic anhydrase) results in depletion of cellular bicarbonate, which leads to inhibition of growth and an inability to catalyze cyanate degradation. These effects can be overcome by aeration with a higher partial CO2 pressure (M. B. Guilloton, A. F. Lamblin, E. I. Kozliak, M. Gerami-Nejad, C. Tu, D. Silverman, P. M. Anderson, and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 175:1443-1451, 1993). The question considered here is why depletion of bicarbonate/CO2 due to the action of cyanase on cyanate in a delta cynT strain has such an inhibitory effect. Growth of wild-type E. coli in minimal medium under conditions of limited CO2 was severely inhibited, and this inhibition could be overcome by adding certain Krebs cycle intermediates, indicating that one consequence of limiting CO2 is inhibition of carboxylation reactions. However, supplementation of the growth medium with metabolites whose syntheses are known to depend on a carboxylation reaction was not effective in overcoming inhibition related to the bicarbonate deficiency induced in the delta cynT strain by addition of cyanate. Similar results were obtained with a deltacyn strain (since cyanase is absent, this strain does not develop a bicarbonate deficiency when cyanate is added); however, as with the deltacynT strain, a higher partial CO(2) pressure in the aerating gas or expression of carbonic anhydrase activity (which contributes to a higher intercellular

  3. Methoxychlor inhibits growth of antral follicles by altering cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Meachum, Sharon; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Peretz, Jackye; Yao, Humphrey H; Flaws, Jodi A

    2009-10-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) reduces fertility in female rodents, decreases antral follicle numbers, and increases atresia through oxidative stress pathways. MXC also inhibits antral follicle growth in vitro. The mechanism by which MXC inhibits growth of follicles is unknown. The growth of follicles is controlled, in part, by cell cycle regulators. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that MXC inhibits follicle growth by reducing the levels of selected cell cycle regulators. Further, we tested whether co-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), prevents the MXC-induced reduction in cell cycle regulators. For in vivo studies, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with MXC or vehicle for 20 days. Treated ovaries were subjected to immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining. For in vitro studies, antral follicles isolated from adult cycling CD-1 mouse ovaries were cultured with vehicle, MXC, and/or NAC for 48, 72 and 96 h. Levels of cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) and cyclin dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) were measured using in vivo and in vitro samples. The results indicate that MXC decreased PCNA staining, and Ccnd2 and Cdk4 levels compared to controls. NAC co-treatment restored follicle growth and expression of Ccnd2 and Cdk4. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC exposure reduces the levels of Ccnd2 and Cdk4 in follicles, and that protection from oxidative stress restores Ccnd2 and Cdk4 levels. Therefore, MXC-induced oxidative stress may decrease the levels of cell cycle regulators, which in turn, results in inhibition of the growth of antral follicles.

  4. Angiostatin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and growth in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Zhong Yang; Jing He; Ji-Cheng Zhang; Zhuo-Ren Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the biologic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the potential value of angiostatin gene therapy for pancreatic cancer.METHODS: The recombinant vector pcDNA3.1(+)-angiostatin was transfected into human pancreatic cancer cells PC-3 with Lipofectamine 2000, and paralleled with the vector and mock control. Angiostatin transcription and protein expression were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The stable cell line was selected by G418. The supernatant was collected to treat endothelial cells. Cell proliferation and growth in vitro were observed under microscope. Cell growth curves were plotted.The troms-fected or untroms-fected cells overexpressing angiostatin vector were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The size of tumors was measured, and microvessel density count (MVD) in tumor tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry with primary anti-CD34antibody.RESULTS: After transfected into PC-3 with Lipofectamine 2000 and selected by G418, macroscopic resistant cell clones were formed in the experimental group transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)-angiostatin and vector control. But untreated cells died in the mock control. Angiostatin protein expression was detected in the experimental group by immunofluorescence and Western-blot. Cell proliferation and growth in vitro in the three groups were observed respectively under microscope. After treatment with supernatant, significant differences were observed in endothelial cell (ECV-304) growth in vitro. The cell proliferation and growth were inhibited. In nude mice model, markedly inhibited tumorigenesis and slowed tumor expansion were observed in the experimental group as compared to controls, which was parallel to the decreased microvessel density in and around tumor tissue.CONCLUSION: Angiostatin does not directly inhibit human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and growth in vitro,but it inhibits endothelial cell growthin vitro. It exerts the anti

  5. SOX7 is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhou; Shu-Yan Huang; Jing-Xin Feng; Yan-Yan Gao; Li Zhao; Jun Lu; Bai-Qu Huang; Yu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To confirm the role of sex-determining region Y-box 7 (Sox7) in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of COX-independent human colorectal cancer cells.METHODS: The cell survival percentage was examined by MTT (Moto-nuclear cell direc cytotoxicity) assay.SOX7 expression was assessed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SB203580 was used to inhibit the p38MAPK signal pathway. SOX7 promoter activity was detected by Luciferase reporter assay.RESULTS: SOX7 was upregulated by aspirin and was involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. The p38MAPK pathway played a role in aspirin-induced SOX7 expression, during which the AP1 transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos upregulated SOX7 promoter activities.RESULTS: SOX7 is upregulated by aspirin and is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer SW480 cells.

  6. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition of probiotic lactobacilli and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hassl F, Pamela; Stecks N-Blicks, Christina;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition abilities of probiotic bacteria may play a key role in their interference with the oral biofilm. The aim was to investigate the in vitro ability of selected commercial probiotic lactobacilli to co-aggregate and inhibit growth of oral mutans......-derived probiotic therapy might vary between individuals and depend on the specific strain used....

  7. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forbes

    Full Text Available Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD; sodium fluoride (FD; stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1; or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC, a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  8. In vitro growth inhibition of human cancer cells by novel honokiol analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh Ming; Prakasha Gowda, A S; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu

    2012-05-15

    Honokiol possesses many pharmacological activities including anti-cancer properties. Here in, we designed and synthesized honokiol analogs that block major honokiol metabolic pathway which may enhance their effectiveness. We studied their cytotoxicity in human cancer cells and evaluated possible mechanism of cell cycle arrest. Two analogs, namely 2 and 4, showed much higher growth inhibitory activity in A549 human lung cancer cells and significant increase of cell population in the G0-G1 phase. Further elucidation of the inhibition mechanism on cell cycle showed that analogs 2 and 4 inhibit both CDK1 and cyclin B1 protien levels in A549 cells.

  9. Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jennifer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc is a natural dietary component with antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. The ginger component [6]-gingerol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through mediation of NF-κB. NF-κB can be constitutively activated in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and may contribute towards increased transcription and translation of angiogenic factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginger on tumor cell growth and modulation of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Methods The effect of ginger and the major ginger components on cell growth was determined in a panel of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. Activation of NF-κB and and production of VEGF and IL-8 was determined in the presence or absence of ginger. Results Ginger treatment of cultured ovarian cancer cells induced profound growth inhibition in all cell lines tested. We found that in vitro, 6-shogaol is the most active of the individual ginger components tested. Ginger treatment resulted in inhibition of NF-kB activation as well as diminished secretion of VEGF and IL-8. Conclusion Ginger inhibits growth and modulates secretion of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. The use of dietary agents such as ginger may have potential in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer.

  10. STAT6 Mediates Interleukin-4 Growth Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Gooch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to acting as a hematopoietic growth factor, interleukin-4 (IL-4 inhibits growth of some transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1, IRS-2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6 are phosphorylated following IL-4 treatment in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. STAT6 DNA binding is enhanced by IL-4 treatment. STAT6 activation occurs even after IRS-1 depletion, suggesting the two pathways are independent. To examine the role of STAT6 in IL-4-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, a fulllength STAT6 cDNA was transfected into MCF-7 cells. Transient overexpression of STAT6 resulted in both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of the protein, increased DNA binding in response to IL-4, and increased transactivation of an IL-4 responsive promoter. In STAT6-transfected cells, basal proliferation was reduced whereas apoptosis was increased. Finally, stable expression of STAT6 resulted in reduced foci formation compared to vector-transfected cells alone. These results suggest STAT6 is required for IL-4mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  11. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany))

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  12. Mechanism of Growth Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Xenografts by Valproic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Sidana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic Acid (VPA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been demonstrated to cause a marked decrease in proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa cells in vitro and a significant reduction in tumor volume in vivo. The goal of this study is to better understand the VPA-induced growth inhibition in vivo, by studying expression of various markers in PCa xenografts. Methods. For in vitro experiments, PCa cells were treated with 0, 0.6, and 1.2 mM VPA for 14 days. For in vivo models, experimental animals received 0.4% VPA in drinking water for 35 days. Tissue microarray was generated using cell pellets and excised xenografts. Results. VPA treatment causes cell cycle arrest in PCa cells in vivo, as determined by increase in p21 and p27 and decrease in cyclin D1 expression. Increased expression of cytokeratin18 was also seen in xenografts. LNCaP xenografts in treated animals had reduced androgen receptor (AR expression. While decreased proliferation was found in vitro, increase in apoptosis was found to be the reason for decreased tumor growth in vivo. Also, an anti-angiogenic effect was observed after VPA treatment. Conclusion. VPA inhibits tumor growth by multiple mechanisms including cell cycle arrest, induction of differentiation, and inhibition of growth of tumor vasculature.

  13. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Inducing Mechanisms of Curcumin on Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Li-duan; TONG Qiang-song; WU Cui-huan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the growth inhibition effects and apoptosis inducing mechanisms of curcumin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Methods: After treatment with 10-50 μmol/L curcumin for 6-24 h, the growth activity of A2780 cancer cells were studied by [ 4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyItetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Cellular apoptosis was inspected by flow cytometery and acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining methods. The fragmentation of cellular chromosome DNA was detected by DNA ladder, the ultrastructural change was observed under a transmission electron microscope,and the protein levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, P65) and cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) in ovarian cancer cells were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: After treatment with various concentrations of curcumin, the growth inhibition rates of cancer cells reached 62.05%- 89.24%,with sub-G1 peaks appearing on histogram. Part of the cancer cells showed characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence and electron microscopes, and the rate of apoptosis was 21.5 % -33.5%. The protein expression of NF-κB was decreased, while that of Caspase-3 was increased in a timedependent manner. Conclusion: Curcumin could significantly inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer cells;inducing apoptosis through up-regulating Caspase-3 and down-regulating gene expression of NF-κB is probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  14. MicroRNA-375 inhibits colorectal cancer growth by targeting PIK3CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yihui [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 150 Haping Road, 150081 Harbin (China); Tang, Qingchao [Cancer Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, 150086 Harbin (China); Li, Mingqi; Jiang, Shixiong [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 150 Haping Road, 150081 Harbin (China); Wang, Xishan, E-mail: wxshan12081@163.com [Cancer Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, 150086 Harbin (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • miR-375 is downregulated in colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues. • miR-375 inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth by targeting PIK3CA. • miR-375 inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth in xenograft nude mice model. - Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by triggering RNA degradation or interfering with translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is involved in human disease including cancer. Herein, we showed that miR-375 was frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues when compared to normal human colon tissues. PIK3CA was identified as a potential miR-375 target by bioinformatics. Overexpression of miR-375 in SW480 and HCT15 cells reduced PIK3CA protein expression. Subsequently, using reporter constructs, we showed that the PIK3CA untranslated region (3′-UTR) carries the directly binding site of miR-375. Additionally, miR-375 suppressed CRC cell proliferation and colony formation and led to cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, miR-375 overexpression resulted in inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. SiRNA-mediated silencing of PIK3CA blocked the inhibitory effect of miR-375 on CRC cell growth. Lastly, we found overexpressed miR-375 effectively repressed tumor growth in xenograft animal experiments. Taken together, we propose that overexpression of miR-375 may provide a selective growth inhibition for CRC cells by targeting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  15. Feeding inhibition explains effects of imidacloprid on the growth, maturation, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatz, Annika; Cole, Tabatha A; Preuss, Thomas G; Zimmer, Elke; Brown, Colin D

    2013-03-19

    Effects of some xenobiotics on aquatic organisms might not be caused directly by the compound but rather arise from acclimation of the organism to stress invoked by feeding inhibition during exposure. Experiments were conducted to identify effects of imidacloprid on individual performance (feeding, growth, maturation, reproduction, and survival) of Daphnia magna under surplus and reduced food availability. Concentrations inhibiting feeding by 5, 50, and 95% after one day of exposure were 0.19, 1.83, and 8.70 mg/L, respectively. Exposure with imidacloprid at ≥ 3.7 mg/L reduced growth by up to 53 ± 11% within one week. Surplus food availability after inhibition allowed recovery from this growth inhibition, whereas limited food supply eliminated the potential for recovery in growth even for exposure at 0.15 mg/L. A shift in the distribution of individual energy reserves toward reproduction rather than growth resulted in increased reproduction after exposure to concentrations ≤ 0.4 mg/L. Exposure to imidacloprid at ≥ 4.0 mg/L overwhelmed this adaptive response and reduced reproduction by up to 57%. We used the individual based Daphnia magna population model IDamP as a virtual laboratory to demonstrate that only feeding was affected by imidacloprid, and that in turn this caused the other impacts on individual performance. Consideration of end points individually would have led to a different interpretation of the effects. Thus, we demonstrate how multiple lines of evidence linked by understanding the ecology of the organism are necessary to elucidate xenobiotic impacts along the effect cascade. PMID:23425205

  16. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreya; Peretz, Jackye; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Helferich, William G; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-02-15

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36μM) for 18-96h. Every 24h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26792615

  17. MicroRNA-375 inhibits colorectal cancer growth by targeting PIK3CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • miR-375 is downregulated in colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues. • miR-375 inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth by targeting PIK3CA. • miR-375 inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth in xenograft nude mice model. - Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by triggering RNA degradation or interfering with translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is involved in human disease including cancer. Herein, we showed that miR-375 was frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues when compared to normal human colon tissues. PIK3CA was identified as a potential miR-375 target by bioinformatics. Overexpression of miR-375 in SW480 and HCT15 cells reduced PIK3CA protein expression. Subsequently, using reporter constructs, we showed that the PIK3CA untranslated region (3′-UTR) carries the directly binding site of miR-375. Additionally, miR-375 suppressed CRC cell proliferation and colony formation and led to cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, miR-375 overexpression resulted in inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. SiRNA-mediated silencing of PIK3CA blocked the inhibitory effect of miR-375 on CRC cell growth. Lastly, we found overexpressed miR-375 effectively repressed tumor growth in xenograft animal experiments. Taken together, we propose that overexpression of miR-375 may provide a selective growth inhibition for CRC cells by targeting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

  18. Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of Sulindac on Human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Lin Wu; Bo Sun; Xue-Jun Zhang; Sheng-Nian Wang; Heng-Yi He; Min-Min Qiao; Jie Zhong; Jia-Yu Xu

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of sulindac in inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells in comparison with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)cells. METHODS: The human gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and MKN28 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2and SMMC7721 were used for the study. Anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by Hoechst-33258 staining, electronography and DNA fragmentation. The protein of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX(2) and Bcl-2 were detected by Westem dot blotting. RESULTS: Sulindac could initiate growth inhibition and apoptosis of MKN45, MKN28, HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis were more sensitive in HepG2 cells than in SMMC7721 cells, MKN45 and MKN28 cells. After 24hours incubation with sulindac at 2mmol. L-1 and 4mmol.L-1, the level of COX-2 and Bcl-2 protein were lowered in MKN45, SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells but not in MKN28 cells. CONCLUSION: Sulindac could inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells and HCC cells effectively in vitro by apoptosis induction, which was associated with regression of COX-2and Bcl-2 expression. The growth inhibition and apoptosis of HCC cells were greater then that of human gastric cancer cells. The different effects of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells may be related to the differentiation of the cells.

  19. Growth inhibition and gene induction in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell exposed to sodium 4-phenylbutanoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-ting,; MENG Mei; ZHANG Ji-cheng; JIN Chang-jun; JIANG Jin-jiao; REN Hong-sheng; JIANG Jun-mei; QIN Cheng-yong; YU Dong-qing

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium 4-phenylbutanoate (NaPB) can induce cellular differentiation and cell cycle arrest.However,its potential anticancer properties in hepatocellular carcinoma and influence on normal liver cell are still unclear.We observed the effects of NaPB on growth inhibition,including differentiation and phase growth arrest in normal liver cell line L-02 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Bel-7402.Furthermore,we investigated its mechanism in Bel-7402.Methods Hepatocellular carcinoma cells Bel-7402 and normal liver cell line L-02 were treated with NaPB at different concentrations.Light microscopy was used to find morphological change in cells.Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry.Expression of acetylating histone H4 and of histones deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) were determined by Western blot.The expression of P21WAF1/CIP1 and E-cadherin were observed through immunocytochemistry.Results NaPB treatment led to time dependent growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells Bel-7402.NaPB treatment caused a significant decline in the fraction of S phase cells and a significant increase in G0/G1 cells.NaPB increased the expression of P21WAF1/CIP1 and E-cadherin in Bel-7402 and significantly decreased the level of HDAC4 in Bel-7402.NaPB significantly improved the level of acetylating histone H4.The normal liver cell line L-02 showed no distinct changes under treatment with NaPB.Conclusions NaPB inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells Bel-7402 and induced partial differentiation through enhancing the acetylating histones.In Bel-7402,the expressions of P21WAF1/CIP1 and E-cadherin may be related to level of acetylating histones and inhibition of cellular growth.NaPB showed no significant effect on normal liver cells.

  20. MiR-34a inhibits colon cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yulin; Lu, Shuming; Zhang, Zhuqing; Meng, Hua; Liang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The microRNA (miRNA), miR‑34a is significant in colon cancer progression. In the present study, the role of miR‑34a in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis was investigated. It was found that the expression of miR‑34a in colon cancer tissues and cell lines was lower when compared with that of normal tissues and cells. Further research demonstrated that miR‑34a inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, and suppressed metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Bioinformatic prediction indicated that platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) was a potential target gene of miR‑34a and a luciferase assay identified that PDGFRA was a novel direct target gene of miR‑34a. In addition, assays of western blot analyses and quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR‑34a decreased PDGFRA mRNA expression and protein levels in colon cancer cells. Assessment of cellular function indicated that miR‑34a inhibited colon cancer progression via PDGFRA. These findings demonstrate that miR‑34a may act as a negative regulator in colon cancer by targeting PDGFRA.

  1. miR-134 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Wei, Furong; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Xingwu; Li, Baosheng

    2016-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently activated in a wide range of solid tumours and represents an important therapeutic target. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been recognized as a rational and potential modality for anti-EGFR therapies. However, more EGFR-targeting miRNAs need to be explored. In this study, we identified a novel EGFR-targeting miRNA, miRNA-134 (miR-134), in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Luciferase assays confirmed that EGFR is a direct target of miR-134. In addition, the overexpression of miR-134 inhibited EGFR-related signaling and suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, suggesting that miR-134 functions as a tumour suppressor in NSCLC. Further mechanistic investigation including RNAi and rescue experiments suggested that the down-regulation of EGFR by miR-134 partially contributes to the antiproliferative role of miR-134. Last, in vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-134 suppressed tumour growth of A549 xenograft in nude mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-134 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by targeting the EGFR.

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 inhibition of prostate cancer growth involves suppression of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Lee, K-W; Anzo, M; Zhang, B; Zi, X; Tao, Y; Shiry, L; Pollak, M; Lin, S; Cohen, P

    2007-03-15

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a multifunctional protein that induces apoptosis utilizing both insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF)-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We investigated the effects of IGFBP-3 on tumor growth and angiogenesis utilizing a human CaP xenograft model in severe-combined immunodeficiency mice. A 16-day course of IGFBP-3 injections reduced tumor size and increased apoptosis and also led to a reduction in the number of vessels stained with CD31. In vitro, IGFBP-3 inhibited both vascular endothelial growth factor- and IGF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells vascular network formation in a matrigel assay. This action is primarily IGF independent as shown by studies utilizing the non-IGFBP-binding IGF-1 analog Long-R3. Additionally, we used a fibroblast growth factor-enriched matrigel-plug assay and chick allantoic membrane assays to show that IGFBP-3 has potent antiangiogenic actions in vivo. Finally, overexpression of IGFBP-3 or the non-IGF-binding GGG-IGFBP-3 mutant in Zebrafish embryos confirmed that both IGFBP-3 and the non-IGF-binding mutant inhibited vessel formation in vivo, indicating that the antiangiogenic effect of IGFBP-3 is an IGF-independent phenomenon. Together, these studies provide the first evidence that IGFBP-3 has direct, IGF-independent inhibitory effects on angiogenesis providing an additional mechanism by which it exerts its tumor suppressive effects and further supporting its development for clinical use in the therapy of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:16983336

  3. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor overexpression decreases growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-qin; CHENG Hai-qing; LI Hong; ZHU Yan; LI Yu-hua; FENG Zhen-qing; ZHANG Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously found that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly expressed in a rat model of liver cancer.Here,we examined expression of CTGFin human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and its effect on cell growth.Methods Real-time PCR was used to observe expression of CTGF in human HCC cell lines HepG2,SMMC-7721,MHCC-97H and LO2.siRNA for the CTGFgene was designed,synthesized and cloned into a Plk0.1-GFP-SP6 vector to construct a lentivirus-mediated shRNA/CTGF.CTGF mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells treated by CTGF-specific shRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting.3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to evaluate the growth effect,and a colony formation assay was used for observing clonogenic growth.In vivo,tumor cell proliferation was evaluated in a nude mouse model of xenotransplantation.Statistical significance was determined by t test for comparison between two groups,or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple groups.Results Immunohistochemical staining of CTGF was seen in 35 of 40 HCC samples (87.5%).CTGF was overexpressed 5-fold in 20 HCC tissues,compared with surrounding non-tumor liver tissue.CTGF mRNA level was 5-8-fold higher in HepG2,SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H than in LO2 cells.This indicated that the inhibition rate of cell growth was 43% after knockdown of CTGF expression (P <0.05).Soft agar colony formation assay showed that siRNA mediated knockdown of CTGF inhibited colony formation in soft agar of HepG2 cells (P <0.05).The volume of tumors from CTGF-shRNA-expressing cells only accounted for 35% of the tumors from the scrambled control-infected HepG2 cells (P <0.05).Conclusions CTGF was overexpressed in human HCC cells and downregulation of CTGF inhibited HCC growth in vitro and in vivo.Knockdown of CTGF may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of HCC.

  4. Cathepsin L knockdown enhances curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yao; Xiong, Yajie; Zhao, Yifan; Wang, Wenjuan; Han, Meilin; Wang, Long; Tan, Caihong; Liang, Zhongqin

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin can be used to prevent and treat cancer. However, its exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is overexpressed in several cancer types. This study aimed to determine the role of cathepsin L in curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. Results revealed that the activity of cathepsin L was enhanced in curcumin-treated glioma cells. Cathepsin L knockdown induced by RNA interference significantly promoted curcumin-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The knockdown also inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Our results suggested that the inhibition of cathepsin L can enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to curcumin. Therefore, cathepsin L may be a new target to enhance the efficacy of curcumin against cancers. PMID:27373979

  5. Cationic Pillararenes Potently Inhibit Biofilm Formation without Affecting Bacterial Growth and Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Roymon; Naugolny, Alissa; Feldman, Mark; Herzog, Ido M; Fridman, Micha; Cohen, Yoram

    2016-01-27

    It is estimated that up to 80% of bacterial infections are accompanied by biofilm formation. Since bacteria in biofilms are less susceptible to antibiotics than are bacteria in the planktonic state, biofilm-associated infections pose a major health threat, and there is a pressing need for antibiofilm agents. Here we report that water-soluble cationic pillararenes differing in the quaternary ammonium groups efficiently inhibited the formation of biofilms by clinically important Gram-positive pathogens. Biofilm inhibition did not result from antimicrobial activity; thus, the compounds should not inhibit growth of natural bacterial flora. Moreover, none of the cationic pillararenes caused detectable membrane damage to red blood cells or toxicity to human cells in culture. The results indicate that cationic pillararenes have potential for use in medical applications in which biofilm formation is a problem. PMID:26745311

  6. Effect of mineral nutrients on the growth inhibition of rice seedlings by technetium-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns to the characteristic behaviors of technetium-99 (99Tc) for the plant growth under different nutritional conditions. Under a rich condition 2.0 ppm of element technetium inhibits hardly the growth of rice seedlings. However, its absorption by plant increased steadily with the increase of technetium concentration and contact time with technetium. As the element technetium is selectively retained by the thyroid glands, salivary gland, and stomach, from the viewpoint of health physics the release of this nuclide to the environment must be controlled. (author)

  7. Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: a primary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barh, D; Viswanathan, G

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women in the Indian subcontinent and the incidences and death rates are gradually increasing over the years. Several dietary phytochemicals have been reported to have growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect on HeLa and other cervical cell lines. In this study, using Hoechst 33342 staining, MTT, Annexin V-FLUOS/PI and TUNEL assays we demonstrated that Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phytochemical, its mode of action and safety issues are yet to be determined. PMID:22275971

  8. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.;

    2000-01-01

    Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well as to the......Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well...... as to the test container. A simple filled closed bottle test with low algal densities and bicarbonate enrichment is described here as an approach to minimize the loss of test material from solution. The algal medium was enriched with 300 mg NaHCO3/L, the pH was adjusted to 7.0 by addition of HCl...

  9. Growth inhibiting effects of terazosin on androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许克新; 王向红; 凌明达; 王云川

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, terazosin on the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU145.Methods Two androgen independent cell lines, PC-3 and DU145, were used to determine cell viability, colony-forming ability, as well as cell cycle distribution, after exposure to terazosin. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of p21WAF1 and p27KIP1.Results This study shows that terazosin inhibits not only prostate cancer cell growth but also its colony forming ability, both of which are main targets of clinical treatment. In addition, terazosin is shown to inhibit cell growth through G1 phase cell cycle arrest and the up-regulation of p27KIP1.Conclusion This study provides evidence that the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist terazosin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  10. Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B): Monoclonal antibody inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlin, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Angiogenesis, a well-recognized characteristic of malignancy, has been exploited more than any other pathway targeted by biologic anti-neoplastic therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is the critical receptor involved in malignant angiogenesis with its activation inducing a number of other cellular modifications resulting in tumor growth and metastases. Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B; ImClone Systems Corporation, Branchburg, NJ) is a fully human monoclonal antibody developed to specifically inhibit VEGFR-2. Ramucirumab is currently being investigated in multiple clinical trials across a variety of tumor types. Herein, angiogenesis inhibition in cancer is reviewed and up-to-date information on the clinical development of ramucirumab is presented.

  11. A RNA antagonist of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, EZN-2968, inhibits tumor cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberger, Lee M; Horak, Ivan D; Filpula, David;

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in angiogenesis, survival, metastasis, drug resistance, and glucose metabolism. Elevated expression of the alpha-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1alpha), which occurs in response to hypoxia or activation of growth factor...... pathways, is associated with poor prognosis in many types of cancer. Therefore, down-regulation of HIF-1alpha protein by RNA antagonists may control cancer growth. EZN-2968 is a RNA antagonist composed of third-generation oligonucleotide, locked nucleic acid, technology that specifically binds and inhibits...... the expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA. In vitro, in human prostate (15PC3, PC3, and DU145) and glioblastoma (U373) cells, EZN-2968 induced a potent, selective, and durable antagonism of HIF-1 mRNA and protein expression (IC(50), 1-5 nmol/L) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions associated with inhibition of tumor...

  12. Inhibition effect of phosphate on the crystal grain growth of nanosized titania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiaohui; LIE Jingze; LI Ping; ZHANG Yanfeng; WEI Yu

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate on the crystal grain growth of nanosized titania during high temperature calcination was investigated. Nanosized titanium dioxide powders prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride were soaked in phosphate solutions with different con-centrations. The obtained powders calcined at various temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). The grain size of the samples without phosphate treatment in-creased quickly when calcined at high temperatures, while the grain size of the samples with phosphate modification increased slowly when calcined at the same temperature. This phenomenon implies that phosphate treatment plays an important role in inhibiting the crystal grain growth of titania. The possible mechanism of the inhibition effect of phosphate on titania is discussed.

  13. Luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 signaling pathway and tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chian, Song; Thapa, Ruby; Chi, Zhexu [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Xiu Jun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tang, Xiuwen, E-mail: xiuwentang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 pathway in mouse liver and in xenografted tumors. • Luteolin markedly inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. • Luteolin enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin in mice in vivo. • Luteolin could serve as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of NSCLC. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is over-expressed in many types of tumor, promotes tumor growth, and confers resistance to anticancer therapy. Hence, Nrf2 is regarded as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. Previously, we reported that luteolin is a strong inhibitor of Nrf2 in vitro. Here, we showed that luteolin reduced the constitutive expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in mouse liver in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, luteolin inhibited the expression of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione transferases, decreasing the reduced glutathione in the liver of wild-type mice under both constitutive and butylated hydroxyanisole-induced conditions. In contrast, such distinct responses were not detected in Nrf2{sup −/−} mice. In addition, oral administration of luteolin, either alone or combined with intraperitoneal injection of the cytotoxic drug cisplatin, greatly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 cells grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Cell proliferation, the expression of Nrf2, and antioxidant enzymes were all reduced in tumor xenograft tissues. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin. Together, our findings demonstrated that luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and can serve as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of NSCLC.

  14. Transactivation of the TIEG1 confers growth inhibition of transforming growth factor-β-susceptible hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jiang; Yiu-Kay Lai; Jin-Fang Zhang; Chu-Yan Chan; Gang Lu; Marie CM Lin; Ming-Liang He; Ji-Cheng Li; Hsiang-Fu Kung

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1) in TGF-β-induced growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.METHODS:Human hepatocyte and HCC cell lines with varied susceptibilities to TGF-β1 were tested by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay.The expression changes of Smad2,Smad3,Smad4,Smad7,TIEG1 and TIEG2 gene following treatment with TGF-β1 in a TGF-β-sensitive hepatocyte cell line (MIHA),a TGF-β-sensitive hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) and two TGF-β-insensitive hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Bel7404)were examined.SiRNA targeting TIEG1 was transfected into Hep3B cells and the sensitivity of cells to TGF-β1 was examined.Overexpression of TIEG1 was induced by lentiviral-mediated transduction in TGF-β1-resistant hepatoma cell lines (Bel7404 and HepG2).MTT assay and 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used to identify cell viability and apoptosis,respectively.The expression level of stathmin was measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western-blotting analysis,and stathmin promoter activity by TIEG1 was monitored by a luciferase reporter gene system.RESULTS:TIEG1 was significantly upregulated by TGF-β1 in the TGF-β1-sensitive HCC cell line,Hep3B,but not in the resistant cell lines.The suppression of TIEG1 by siRNAs decreased the sensitivity of Hep3B cells to TGF-β1,whereas the overexpression of TIEG1 mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in TGF-β1-resistant HCC cell lines,which resembled those of TGF-β1-sensitive HCC cells treated with TGF-β1.Our data further suggested that stathmin was a direct target of TIEG1,as stathmin was significantly downregulated by TIEG1 overexpression,and stathmin promoter activity was inhibited by TIEG1 in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that transactivation of TIEG1 conferred growth inhibition of TGF-β-susceptible human HCC cells.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits growth of orthotopic pancreatic tumors through activation of FOXO transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit K Roy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FOXO play a direct role in cellular proliferation, oxidative stress response, and tumorigenesis. The objectives of this study were to examine whether FOXOs regulate antitumor activities of resveratrol in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with resveratrol. Cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis and cell cycle were measured by XTT, soft agar, TUNEL and flow cytometry assays, respectively. FOXO nuclear translocation, DNA binding and transcriptional activities were measured by fluorescence technique, gelshift and luciferase assay, respectively. Mice were orthotopically implanted with PANC1 cells and orally gavaged with resveratrol. The components of PI3K and ERK pathways, FOXOs and their target gene expressions were measured by the Western blot analysis. Resveratrol inhibited cell viability and colony formations, and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in four pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, Hs766T, and AsPC-1. Resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest by up-regulating the expression of p21/CIP1, p27/KIP1 and inhibiting the expression of cyclin D1. Resveratrol induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bim and activating caspase-3. Resveratrol inhibited phosphorylation of FOXOs, and enhanced their nuclear translocation, FOXO-DNA binding and transcriptional activities. The inhibition of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways induced FOXO transcriptional activity and apoptosis. Furthermore, deletion of FOXO genes abrogated resveratrol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Finally, resveratrol-treated mice showed significant inhibition in tumor growth which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK, PI3K, AKT, FOXO1 and FOXO3a, and induction of apoptosis and FOXO target genes. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that inhibition of ERK and AKT pathways act together to activate FOXO

  16. Downregulation of survivin by RNAi inhibits growth of human gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ying Miao; Qi-Ming Lu; Xiu-Lan Zhang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of a specific small survivin interfering RNA (siRNA) on cell proliferation and the expression of survivin in human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901.METHODS: To knockdown survivin expression, a small interfering RNA targeting against survivin was synthesized and transfected into SGC-7901 cells with lipofectamineTM2000. The downregulation of survivin expression at both mRNA and protein levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation inhibition rates were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The effect of survivin siRNA on cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM).RESULTS: RNA interference could efficiently suppress the survivin expression in SGC-7901 cells. At 48 h after transfection, the expression inhibition rate was 44.52% at mRNA level detected by RT-PCR and 40.17% at protein level by Western blot analysis. Downregulation of survivin resulted in significant inhibition of tumor cell growth in vitro. The cell proliferation inhibition rates at 24, 48 and 72 h after survivin siRNA and non-siliencing siRNA transfection, were 34.06%, 47.61% and 40.36%,respectively. The apoptosis rate was 3.56% and the number of cells was increased in G0/G1 phase from 38.2% to 88.6%, and decreased in S and G2/M phase at 48 h after transfection.CONCLUSION: Downregulation of survivin results in significant inhibition of tumor growth in vitro. The inhibition of survivin expression can induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells. The use of survivin siRNA deserves further investigation as a novel approach to cancer therapy.

  17. Growth Inhibition and Membrane Permeabilization of Candida lusitaniae Using Varied Pulse Shape Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Novickij, V; Grainys, A.; E. Lastauskienė; R. Kananavičiūtė; Pamedytytė, D.; Zinkevičienė, A.; L. Kalėdienė; Novickij, J.; Paškevičius, A.; Švedienė, J.

    2015-01-01

    Candida lusitaniae is an opportunistic yeast pathogen, which can readily develop resistance to antifungal compounds and result in a complex long-term treatment. The efficient treatment is difficult since structure and metabolic properties of the fungal cells are similar to those of eukaryotic host. One of the potential methods to improve the inhibition rate or the cell permeability to inhibitors is the application of electroporation. In this work we investigated the dynamics of the growth inh...

  18. Blockade of Wnt signaling inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hu; Dong, A.; Fernandez-Ruiz, V. (Verónica); Shan, J.; Kawa, M. (Milosz); Martinez-Anso, E. (Eduardo); J. Prieto; Qian, C

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition to direct effects on tumor cells, Wnt signaling might be involved in the organization of tumor microenvironment. In this study, we have explored whether Wnt signaling blockade by exogenous expression of Wnt antagonists could inhibit tumor angiogenesis and control tumor growth. Human Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) and secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) were each fused with Fc fragment of ...

  19. Genetically engineered endostatin-lidamycin fusion proteins effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wen-guo; Lu, Xin-an; Shang, Bo-yang; Fu, Yan; ZHANG, SHENG-HUA; Zhou, Daifu; Liang LI; Li, Yi; Luo, Yongzhang; ZHEN, YONG-SU

    2013-01-01

    Background Endostatin (ES) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. It also shows antiangiogenesis and antitumor activities in several animal models. Endostatin specifically targets tumor vasculature to block tumor growth. Lidamycin (LDM), which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a non-covalently bound apo-protein (LDP), is a member of chromoprotein family of antitumor antibiotics with extremely potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. The...

  20. Curcumin-induced HDAC inhibition and attenuation of medulloblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Olson James M; Fawcett Paul T; Maduskuie Victoria; Krauthauser Candice; Lee Seung; Rajasekaran Sigrid A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children, and its prognosis is worse than for many other common pediatric cancers. Survivors undergoing treatment suffer from serious therapy-related side effects. Thus, it is imperative to identify safer, effective treatments for medulloblastoma. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer potential of curcumin in medulloblastoma by testing its ability to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in vitro and in vivo using ...

  1. Furfural Inhibits Growth by Limiting Sulfur Assimilation in Ethanologenic Escherichia coli Strain LY180▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elliot N.; Jarboe, Laura R.; Turner, Peter C.; Pharkya, Priti; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Nunn, David; Shanmugam, K. T.; Lonnie O. Ingram

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of commercial products can be potentially made from monomeric sugars produced by the dilute acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. However, this process is accompanied by side products such as furfural that hinder microbial growth and fermentation. To investigate the mechanism of furfural inhibition, mRNA microarrays of an ethanologenic strain of Escherichia coli (LY180) were compared immediately prior to and 15 min after a moderate furfural challenge. Expression of genes ...

  2. A rho GDP dissociation inhibitor produced by apoptotic T-cells inhibits growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Dhiman, Rohan; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana S; Tripathi, Deepak; Welch, Elwyn; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Jones, Brenda; Theodorescu, Dan; Barnes, Peter F; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we found that a subpopulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) (85% Foxp3(+)) cells from persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis (M. tb) in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). A soluble factor, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (D4GDI), produced by apoptotic CD4(+)CD25(+) (85% Foxp3(+)) cells is responsible for this inhibition of M. tb growth in human macrophages and in mice. M. tb-expanded CD4(+C)D25(+)Foxp3(+)D4GDI(+) cells do not produce IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ. D4GDI inhibited growth of M. tb in MDMs by enhancing production of IL-1β, TNF-α and ROS, and by increasing apoptosis of M. tb-infected MDMs. D4GDI was concentrated at the site of disease in tuberculosis patients, with higher levels detected in pleural fluid than in serum. However, in response to M. tb, PBMC from tuberculosis patients produced less D4GDI than PBMC from persons with LTBI. M. tb-expanded CD4+CD25+ (85% Foxp3(+)) cells and D4GDI induced intracellular M. tb to express the dormancy survival regulator DosR and DosR-dependent genes, suggesting that D4GDI induces a non-replicating state in the pathogen. Our study provides the first evidence that a subpopulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) (85% Foxp3+) cells enhances immunity to M. tb, and that production of D4GDI by this subpopulation inhibits M. tb growth.

  3. Tumor growth inhibition through targeting liposomally bound curcumin to tumor vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Goutam; Barui, Sugata; Saha, Soumen; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2013-12-28

    Increasing number of Phase I/II clinical studies have demonstrated clinical potential of curcumin for treatment of various types of human cancers. Despite significant anti-tumor efficacies and bio-safety profiles of curcumin, poor systemic bioavailability is retarding its clinical success. Efforts are now being directed toward developing stable formulations of curcumin using various drug delivery systems. To this end, herein we report on the development of a new tumor vasculature targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin containing a lipopeptide with RGDK-head group and two stearyl tails, di-oleyolphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cholesterol. We show that essentially water insoluble curcumin can be solubilized in fairly high concentrations (~500 μg/mL) in such formulation. Findings in the Annexin V/Propidium iodide (PI) binding based flow cytometric assays showed significant apoptosis inducing properties of the present curcumin formulation in both endothelial (HUVEC) and tumor (B16F10) cells. Using syngeneic mouse tumor model, we show that growth of solid melanoma tumor can be inhibited by targeting such liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculature. Results in immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cryosections are consistent with tumor growth inhibition being mediated by apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells. Findings in both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies are consistent with the supposition that the presently described liposomal formulation of curcumin inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor endothelium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on inhibiting tumor growth through targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculatures.

  4. Methylthioadenosine (MTA inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer without effective treatment. Methylthioadenosine (MTA is a naturally occurring nucleoside with differential effects on normal and transformed cells. MTA has been widely demonstrated to promote anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses in different cell types. In this study we have assessed the therapeutic potential of MTA in melanoma treatment. Methods To investigate the therapeutic potential of MTA we performed in vitro proliferation and viability assays using six different mouse and human melanoma cell lines wild type for RAS and BRAF or harboring different mutations in RAS pathway. We also have tested its therapeutic capabilities in vivo in a xenograft mouse melanoma model and using variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture we investigated its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Results In vitro experiments showed that MTA treatment inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and viability in a dose dependent manner, where BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines appear to be more sensitive. Importantly, MTA was effective inhibiting in vivo tumor growth. The molecular analysis of tumor samples and in vitro experiments indicated that MTA induces cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein and inducing the down-regulation of cyclin D1. Conclusions MTA inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth particularly in BRAF mutant melanoma cells. These data reveal a naturally occurring drug potentially useful for melanoma treatment.

  5. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer without effective treatment. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a naturally occurring nucleoside with differential effects on normal and transformed cells. MTA has been widely demonstrated to promote anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses in different cell types. In this study we have assessed the therapeutic potential of MTA in melanoma treatment. To investigate the therapeutic potential of MTA we performed in vitro proliferation and viability assays using six different mouse and human melanoma cell lines wild type for RAS and BRAF or harboring different mutations in RAS pathway. We also have tested its therapeutic capabilities in vivo in a xenograft mouse melanoma model and using variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture we investigated its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. In vitro experiments showed that MTA treatment inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and viability in a dose dependent manner, where BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines appear to be more sensitive. Importantly, MTA was effective inhibiting in vivo tumor growth. The molecular analysis of tumor samples and in vitro experiments indicated that MTA induces cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein and inducing the down-regulation of cyclin D1. MTA inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth particularly in BRAF mutant melanoma cells. These data reveal a naturally occurring drug potentially useful for melanoma treatment

  6. Survivin inhibits anti-growth effect of p53 activated by aurora B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic instability and apoptosis evasion are hallmarks of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms governing these processes remain elusive. Here, we found that survivin, a member of the apoptosis-inhibiting gene family, and aurora B kinase, a chromosomal passenger protein, were co-overexpressed in the various glioblastoma cell lines and tumors. Notably, exogenous introduction of the aurora B in human BJ cells was shown to decrease cell growth and increase the senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity by activation of p53 tumor suppressor. However, aurora B overexpression failed to inhibit cell proliferation in BJ and U87MG cells transduced with dominant-negative p53 as well as in p53-/- mouse astrocytes. Aurora B was shown to increase centrosome amplification in the p53-/- astrocytes. Survivin was shown to induce anchorage-independent growth and inhibit anti-proliferation and drug-sensitive apoptosis caused by aurora B. Overexpression of both survivin and aurora B further accelerated the proliferation of BJ cells. Taken together, the present study indicates that survivin should accelerate tumorigenesis by inhibiting the anti-proliferative effect of p53 tumor suppressor that is activated by aurora B in normal and glioblastoma cells containing intact p53

  7. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 regulates microvascular endothelial growth induced by inflammatory cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasawa, Wataru [Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ohnuma, Kei [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Hatano, Ryo; Endo, Yuko [Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Dang, Nam H. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, Box 100278, Room MSB M410A, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta} induces EC proliferation with reduction of CD26 expression. {yields} CD26 siRNA or DPP-4 inhibition enhances TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta}-induced EC proliferation. {yields} Loss of CD26/DPP-4 enhances aortic sprouting induced by TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta}. {yields} Capillary formation induced by TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta} is enahced in the CD26{sup -/-} mice. -- Abstract: CD26/DPP-4 is abundantly expressed on capillary of inflamed lesion as well as effector T cells. Recently, CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been used as a novel oral therapeutic approach for patients with type 2 diabetes. While accumulating data indicate that vascular inflammation is a key feature of both micro- and macro-vascular complications in diabetes, the direct role of CD26/DPP-4 in endothelial biology is to be elucidated. We herein showed that proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-1 reduce expression of CD26 on microvascular endothelial cells, and that genetical or pharmacological inhibition of CD26/DPP-4 enhances endothelial growth both in vitro and in vivo. With DPP-4 inhibitors being used widely in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, our data strongly suggest that DPP-4 inhibition plays a pivotal role in endothelial growth and may have a potential role in the recovery of local circulation following diabetic vascular complications.

  8. INHIBITION OF ANGIOSTATIN TO THE GROWTH AND METASTASIS OF GASTRIC CANCER IN NUDE MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳亚; 陈雪华; 朱正纲; 林言箴; 卢伟新; 郭礼和; 朱丽华

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibition effect on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis of angiostatin, which generated from human plasminogen. Methods Plasminogen was isolated from human plasma by Sepharose chromatography and then catalyzed by elastase. Angiostatin was isolated by Sepharose 4B-Lysine chromatography. Nude mice model of metastatic gastric cancer was set up by intact tumor tissue implantation orthotopically. From the day of operation, mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of human angiostatin ,intact plasminogen, or saline, respectively. 24μg(1.2mg/kg) of angiostatin or plasminogen was given on the day of operation, followed by a daily dose of 12μg (O. 6mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection for three weeks.Ten weeks after implantation, mice were sacrificed and autopsied. Microvascular density was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results Molecular weight of plasminogen isolated from plasma was 94KD. Plasminogen was catalyzed into two fragment peptides by elastase, which were 41 ~ 43KD and 51 ~ 53KD in molecular weight. Growth of the orthotopieally implanted tumor was significantly reduced in size in the mice treated with angiostastin with an inhibition rate of 54.0%. Tumor metastasis to the liver and peritoneum was also significantly inhibited by angiostatin with inhibition rate of 61.9% and 55.6% respectively. The microvaseular density was also decreased significantly in the angiostatin treated mice. Conclusion Angiostatin may be generated from plasma, and has inhibitory effect both on tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice model of human gastric cancer.

  9. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  10. Inhibition of autophagy attenuates pancreatic cancer growth independent of TP53/TRP53 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Annan; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2014-09-01

    Basal levels of autophagy are elevated in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Suppressing autophagy pharmacologically using chloroquine (CQ) or genetically with RNAi to essential autophagy genes inhibits human pancreatic cancer growth in vitro and in vivo, which presents possible treatment opportunities for PDAC patients using the CQ-derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Indeed, such clinical trials are ongoing. However, autophagy is a complex cellular mechanism to maintain cell homeostasis under stress. Based on its biological role, a dual role of autophagy in tumorigenesis has been proposed: at tumor initiation, autophagy helps maintain genomic stability and prevent tumor initiation; while in advanced disease, autophagy degrades and recycles cellular components to meet the metabolic needs for rapid growth. This model was proven to be the case in mouse lung tumor models. However, in contrast to prior work in various PDAC model systems, loss of autophagy in PDAC mouse models with embryonic homozygous Trp53 deletion does not inhibit tumor growth and paradoxically increases progression. This raised concerns whether there may be a genotype-dependent reliance of PDAC on autophagy. In a recent study, our group used a Trp53 heterozygous mouse PDAC model and human PDX xenografts to address the question. Our results demonstrate that autophagy inhibition was effective against PDAC tumors irrespective of TP53/TRP53 status.

  11. Growth inhibition by exogenous proline and its metabolism in saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M M; Heyser, J W

    1988-08-01

    The growth of Distichlis spicata suspension cultures in LS medium without NaCl was inhibited 54% by 2 mM proline. In medium containing 260 mM NaCl, 10 mM proline inhibited growth by only 22%. The uptake and metabolism of 10 mM L-[1-(13)C] proline was followed by (13)C NMR and ninhydrin analyses of suspensions cultured in the presence of 0 or 260 mM NaCl. Uptake of 85 to 92% of the exogenous proline occurred within 72 h in all media. In 10 mM proline and no NaCl, cellular proline reached a maximm of 51.5 μmoles/g FW compared to 1.9 μmoles/g FW in suspensions not grown on proline. In medium containing 260 mM NaCl and proline, cellular proline reached 59-65 μmoles/g FW compared to 30-40 μmoles/g FW in controls grown without proline. The (13)C-label in the proline-C1 was either retained in proline or disappeared, presumably released as carbon dioxide, by catabolism through the TCA cycle. Since no metabolite of (13)C-proline was detected by NMR, proline was considered to be the molecule which inhibited the suspension culture growth.

  12. Ultrasound-mediated interferon β gene transfection inhibits growth of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Successful ultrasound-mediated transfection of melanoma (C32) cells with IFN-β genes both in vitro and in vivo. → Ultrasound-mediated IFN-β transfection inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. → Ultrasound-mediated IFN-β transfection inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of ultrasound-mediated transfection (sonotransfection) of interferon β (IFN-β) gene on melanoma (C32) both in vitro and in vivo. C32 cells were sonotransfected with IFN-β in vitro. Subcutaneous C32 tumors in mice were sonicated weekly immediately after intra-tumor injection with IFN-β genes mixed with microbubbles. Successful sonotransfection with IFN-β gene in vitro was confirmed by ELISA, which resulted in C32 growth inhibition. In vivo, the growth ratio of tumors transfected with IFN-β gene was significantly lower than the other experimental groups. These results may lead to a new method of treatment against melanoma and other hard-to-treat cancers.

  13. Methoxychlor inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Miller, Kimberly P; Babus, Janice K; Flaws, Jodi A

    2006-10-01

    The mammalian ovary contains antral follicles, which are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of hormones that regulate estrous cyclicity and fertility. The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) causes atresia (follicle death via apoptosis) of antral follicles, but little is known about the mechanisms by which MXC does so. Oxidative stress is known to cause apoptosis in nonreproductive and reproductive tissues. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that MXC inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from 39-day-old CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MXC (1-100 microg/ml), or MXC + the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.1-10 mM). During culture, growth was monitored daily. At the end of culture, follicles were processed for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) mRNA expression or for histological evaluation of atresia. The results indicate that exposure to MXC (1-100 microg/ml) inhibited growth of follicles compared to DMSO controls and that NAC (1-10 mM) blocked the ability of MXC to inhibit growth. MXC induced follicular atresia, whereas NAC (1-10 mM) blocked the ability of MXC to induce atresia. In addition, MXC reduced the expression of SOD1, GPX, and CAT, whereas NAC reduced the effects of MXC on their expression. Collectively, these data indicate MXC causes slow growth and increased atresia by inducing oxidative stress.

  14. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Wen-Bao, E-mail: wbli92128@yahoo.com [Sanlugen PharmaTech, Rm 506, No. 2766 Yingxiu Road, Jinan 250101 (China); Qu, Xian-Jun, E-mail: qxj@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine.

  15. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine

  16. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery.

  17. Zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and layer-by-layer coatings inhibit staphylococcal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffie, Matthew J; Hong, Jin; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Kotov, Nicholas A; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decade of engineering and process improvements, bacterial infection remains the primary threat to implanted medical devices. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Their microbial selectivity, stability, ease of production, and low cost make them attractive alternatives to silver NPs or antimicrobial peptides. Here we sought to (1) determine the relative efficacy of ZnO-NPs on planktonic growth of medically relevant pathogens; (2) establish the role of bacterial surface chemistry on ZnO-NP effectiveness; (3) evaluate NP shape as a factor in the dose-response; and (4) evaluate layer-by-layer (LBL) ZnO-NP surface coatings on biofilm growth. ZnO-NPs inhibited bacterial growth in a shape-dependent manner not previously seen or predicted. Pyramid shaped particles were the most effective and contrary to previous work, larger particles were more effective than smaller particles. Differential susceptibility of pathogens may be related to their surface hydrophobicity. LBL ZnO-NO coatings reduced staphylococcal biofilm burden by >95%. From the Clinical Editor: The use of medical implants is widespread. However, bacterial colonization remains a major concern. In this article, the authors investigated the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to prevent bacterial infection. They showed in their experiments that ZnO-NPs significantly inhibited bacterial growth. This work may present a new alternative in using ZnO-NPs in medical devices. PMID:26515755

  18. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABIG1 relays ABA signaled growth inhibition and drought induced senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Longhurst, Adam D; Talavera-Rauh, Franklin; Hokin, Samuel A; Barton, M Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Drought inhibits plant growth and can also induce premature senescence. Here we identify a transcription factor, ABA INSENSITIVE GROWTH 1 (ABIG1) required for abscisic acid (ABA) mediated growth inhibition, but not for stomatal closure. ABIG1 mRNA levels are increased both in response to drought and in response to ABA treatment. When treated with ABA, abig1 mutants remain greener and produce more leaves than comparable wild-type plants. When challenged with drought, abig1 mutants have fewer yellow, senesced leaves than wild-type. Induction of ABIG1 transcription mimics ABA treatment and regulates a set of genes implicated in stress responses. We propose a model in which drought acts through ABA to increase ABIG1 transcription which in turn restricts new shoot growth and promotes leaf senescence. The results have implications for plant breeding: the existence of a mutant that is both ABA resistant and drought resistant points to new strategies for isolating drought resistant genetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13768.001 PMID:27697148

  19. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in plant pathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajam, B; Rajam, M V

    1996-02-01

    Polyamine (PA) biosynthesis inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) and bis-(cyclohexylammonium) sulphate (BCHA) have been tested for their effects on colony diameters at different intervals after inoculation of four plant pathogenic fungi (Helminthosporium oryzae, Curvularia lunata, Pythium aphanidermatum and Colletotrichum capsici). All these inhibitors, except DFMA had strongly retarded the growth of four fungi in a dose- and species-dependent fashion, and H. oryzae and C. lunata were found to be most sensitive to the effects of PA inhibitors. P. aphanidermatum and C. capsici were relatively insensitive and required rather high concentrations of inhibitors to get greater inhibition of mycelial growth, except DFMA which had stimulatory effect on the growth of these two fungi. However DFMA had greatly suppressed the growth of H. oryzae and C. lunata. The effect was generally more pronounced with MGBG than with DFMO and BCHA, and 1 mM Put completely prevented the inhibitory effects of 1 and 5 mM DFMO. Analysis of free and conjugated PAs in two sensitive fungi (H. oryzae and C. lunata) revealed that Put was present in highest concentrations followed by Spd and Spm and their levels were greatly reduced by DFMO application, and such inhibitions were totally reversed by exogenously supplied Put; in fact, PA titers were considerably increased by 1 mM Put alone and in combination with 1 mM DFMO. These results suggest that PA inhibitors, particularly DFMO and MGBG may be useful as target-specific fungicides in plants.

  20. Anthocyanin Induces Apoptosis of DU-145 Cells In Vitro and Inhibits Xenograft Growth of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, U-Syn; Bae, Woong Jin; Kim, Su Jin; Yoon, Byung Il; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Wang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean, which have antioxidant activity, on apoptosis in vitro (in hormone refractory prostate cancer cells) and on tumor growth in vivo (in athymic nude mouse xenograft model). Materials and Methods The growth and viability of DU-145 cells treated with anthocyanins were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis was assessed by DNA laddering. Immunoblotting was conducted to evaluate differences in the expressions of p53, Bax, Bcl, androgen receptor (AR), and prostate specific antigen (PSA). To study the inhibitory effects of anthocyanins on tumor growth in vivo, DU-145 tumor xenografts were established in athymic nude mice. The anthocyanin group was treated with daily oral anthocyanin (8 mg/kg) for 14 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, DU-145 cells (2×106) were inoculated subcutaneously into the right flank to establish tumor xenografts. Tumor dimensions were measured twice a week using calipers and volumes were calculated. Results Anthocyanin treatment of DU-145 cells resulted in 1) significant increase in apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, 2) significant decrease in p53 and Bcl-2 expressions (with increased Bax expression), and 3) significant decrease in PSA and AR expressions. In the xenograft model, anthocyanin treatment significantly inhibit tumor growth. Conclusion This study suggests that anthocyanins from black soybean inhibit the progression of prostate cancer in vitro and in a xenograft model. PMID:25510742

  1. Plasmid-encoding vasostatin inhibited the growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing-Chen; Wang, Ming; Chen, Xu-Xia; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Gui-Hua; Liao, Hong-Li

    2014-10-01

    The growth and metastasis of solid tumors depends on angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenesis therapy may represent a promising therapeutic option. Vasostatin, the N-terminal domain of calreticulin, is a very potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether plasmid-encoding vasostatin complexed with cationic liposome could suppress the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo and discover its possible mechanism of action. Apoptosis induction of pSecTag2B-vasostatin plasmid on murine endothelial cells (MS1) was examined by flow cytometric analysis in vitro. Nude mice bearing HCCLM3 tumor received pSecTag2B-vasostatin, pSecTag2B-Null, and 0.9 % NaCl solution, respectively. Tumor net weight was measured and survival time was observed. Microvessel density within tumor tissues was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. H&E staining of lungs and TUNEL assay of primary tumor tissues were also conducted. The results displayed that pSecTag2B-vasostatin could inhibit the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts and prolong survival time compared with the controls in vivo. Moreover, histologic analysis revealed that pSecTag2B-vasostatin treatment increased apoptosis and inhibited angiogenesis. The present data may be of importance to the further exploration of this new anti-angiogenesis approach in the treatment of hepatocellular cancer. PMID:24997628

  2. Low temperature inhibits root growth by reducing auxin accumulation via ARR1/12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Kun-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Shu; Gong, Wen; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Guo; Xu, Heng-Hao; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-04-01

    Plants exhibit reduced root growth when exposed to low temperature; however, how low temperature modulates root growth remains to be understood. Our study demonstrated that low temperature reduces both meristem size and cell number, repressing the division potential of meristematic cells by reducing auxin accumulation, possibly through the repressed expression of PIN1/3/7 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes, although the experiments with exogenous auxin application also suggest the involvement of other factor(s). In addition, we verified that ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (ARR1) and ARR12 are involved in low temperature-mediated inhibition of root growth by showing that the roots of arr1-3 arr12-1 seedlings were less sensitive than wild-type roots to low temperature, in terms of changes in root length and meristem cell number. Furthermore, low temperature reduced the levels of PIN1/3 transcripts and the auxin level to a lesser extent in arr1-3 arr12-1 roots than in wild-type roots, suggesting that cytokinin signaling is involved in the low-temperature-mediated reduction of auxin accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that low temperature inhibits root growth by reducing auxin accumulation via ARR1/12.

  3. Fetal calf serum-mediated inhibition of neurite growth from ciliary ganglion neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G E; Skaper, S D; Manthorpe, M; Moonen, G; Varon, S

    1984-01-01

    Embryonic chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons cultured in fetal calf serum-containing medium have been previously reported to extend neurites on polyornithine (PORN) substrata precoated with a neurite-promoting factor (PNPF) from rat schwannoma-conditioned medium. On PORN substrata alone, however, no neuritic growth occurred. This was interpreted as evidence that PORN was an incompetent substratum for ciliary neuritic growth. In this study, we now find that an untreated PORN substratum allows neuritic growth in serum-free defined medium. When PNPF was added to PORN, a more rapid and extensive neuritic response occurred. After 5 hr of culture, a 60% neuritic response occurred on PNPF/PORN, whereas no neurons initiated neurites until 10-12 hr on PORN. The inhibitory effect of fetal calf serum noted above on PORN could be obtained in part by pretreating the substratum with serum for 1 hr. Maximal inhibitory effects in the PORN pretreatment were achieved after 30 min and were not further improved by treatments up to 4 hr. Bovine serum albumin was also found to inhibit neurite growth on PORN to about 60% of the inhibition obtained by an equivalent amount of serum protein. Fetal calf serum was shown to cause a 15% reduction in the percentage of neurons bearing neurites after its addition to 18-hr serum-free PORN cultures and to cause statistically significant reductions in neurite lengths measured 2 hr later.

  4. Delphinidin Inhibits Tumor Growth by Acting on VEGF Signalling in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Keravis

    Full Text Available The vasculoprotective properties of delphinidin are driven mainly by its action on endothelial cells. Moreover, delphinidin displays anti-angiogenic properties in both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis models and thereby might prevent the development of tumors associated with excessive vascularization. This study was aimed to test the effect of delphinidin on melanoma-induced tumor growth with emphasis on its molecular mechanism on endothelial cells. Delphinidin treatment significantly decreased in vivo tumor growth induced by B16-F10 melanoma cell xenograft in mice. In vitro, delphinidin was not able to inhibit VEGFR2-mediated B16-F10 melanoma cell proliferation but it specifically reduced basal and VEGFR2-mediated endothelial cell proliferation. The anti-proliferative effect of delphinidin was reversed either by the MEK1/2 MAP kinase inhibitor, U-0126, or the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002. VEGF-induced proliferation was reduced either by U-0126 or LY-294002. Under these conditions, delphinidin failed to decrease further endothelial cell proliferation. Delphinidin prevented VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and decreased the expression of the transcription factors, CREB and ATF1. Finally, delphinidin was more potent in inhibiting in vitro cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs, PDE1 and PDE2, compared to PDE3-PDE5. Altogether delphinidin reduced tumor growth of melanoma cell in vivo by acting specifically on endothelial cell proliferation. The mechanism implies an association between inhibition of VEGF-induced proliferation via VEGFR2 signalling, MAPK, PI3K and at transcription level on CREB/ATF1 factors, and the inhibition of PDE2. In conjunction with our previous studies, we demonstrate that delphinidin is a promising compound to prevent pathologies associated with generation of vascular network in tumorigenesis.

  5. Exogenous growth hormone inhibits growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in normal men.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, S M; Hulse, J A; Kaplan, S L; Grumbach, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory and by others in rats, monkeys, and humans support the concept that growth hormone (GH) can regulate its own secretion through an autofeedback mechanism. With the availability of human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), the possible existence of such a mechanism was reexplored by examining the effect of exogenous GH on the GH response induced by GRF-44-NH2 in six normal men (mean age, 32.4 yr). In all subjects the plasma GH response evoked by GRF-44-N...

  6. Growth inhibition by tungsten in the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Atsunori; Muraoka, Tadashi; Maeda, Terunobu; Takeuchi, Fumiaki; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo; Sugio, Tsuyoshi

    2005-11-01

    Growth of five strains of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, including strain NB1-3, was inhibited completely by 50 microM of sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)). When the cells of NB1-3 were incubated in 0.1 M beta-alanine-SO(4)(2-) buffer (pH 3.0) with 100 microM Na(2)WO(4) for 1 h, the amount of tungsten bound to the cells was 33 microg/mg protein. Approximately 10 times more tungsten was bound to the cells at pH 3.0 than at pH 7.0. The tungsten binding to NB1-3 cells was inhibited by oxyanions such as sodium molybdenum and ammonium vanadate. The activities of enzymes involved in elemental sulfur oxidation of NB1-3 cells such as sulfur oxidase, sulfur dioxygenase, and sulfite oxidase were strongly inhibited by Na(2)WO(4). These results indicate that tungsten binds to NB1-3 cells and inhibits the sulfur oxidation enzyme system of the cells, and as a result, inhibits cell growth. When portland cement bars supplemented with 0.075% metal nickel and with 0.075% metal nickel and 0.075% calcium tungstate were exposed to the atmosphere of a sewage treatment plant containing 28 ppm of H(2)S for 2 years, the weight loss of the portland cement bar with metal nickel and calcium tungstate was much lower than the cement bar containing 0.075% metal nickel.

  7. Atrial natriuretic factor inhibits mitogen-induced growth in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, P M; De Vito, P; Fraziano, M; Mattioli, P; Luly, P; Di Nardo, P

    2002-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a polypeptide able to affect cardiovascular homeostasis exhibiting diuretic, natriuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. ANF shows antimitogenic effects in different cell types acting through R(2) receptor. Excessive proliferation of smooth muscle cells is a common phenomenon in diseases such as atherosclerosis, but the role of growth factors in the mechanism which modulate this process has yet to be clarified. The potential antimitogenic role of ANF on the cell growth induced by growth factors appears very intriguing. Aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of ANF on rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells proliferation induced by known mitogens and the mechanism involved. Our data show that ANF, at physiological concentration range, inhibits RASM cell proliferation induced by known mitogens such as PDGF and insulin, and the effect seems to be elicited through the modulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) production and MAP kinases involvement.

  8. The RARgamma selective agonist CD437 inhibits gastric cell growth through the mechanism of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Y; Lin, D Y; Shyu, R Y; Reichert, U; Yeh, M Y

    1999-04-01

    Retinoids are differentiation-inducing agents that exhibit multiple functions. Their activities are mediated through interaction with nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). We have investigated the activities of synthetic retinoids on the growth of five gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of agonists selective for RARalpha, RARbeta and RARgamma (AM580, CD2019 and CD437, respectively) on cell growth were determined, in comparison to all-trans retinoic acid, by measuring total cellular DNA. AM580 and CD2019 had little or no effect on the growth of all five cell lines. In contrast, the RARgamma agonist CD437 inhibited cell growth up to 90-99% in both retinoic acid sensitive and resistant gastric cancer cells at a concentration of 1 microM. The growth suppression caused by CD437 was accompanied by the induction of apoptosis as judged by morphological criteria and DNA ladder formation. However, the extent of CD437-induced growth suppression was not correlated with RARgamma mRNA levels, which indicates that CD437 induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via an RARgamma independent pathway.

  9. Inhibition of tomato shoot growth by over-irrigation is linked to nitrogen deficiency and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Antje; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Although physiological effects of acute flooding have been well studied, chronic effects of suboptimal soil aeration caused by over-irrigation of containerized plants have not, despite its likely commercial significance. By automatically scheduling irrigation according to soil moisture thresholds, effects of over-irrigation on soil properties (oxygen concentration, temperature and moisture), leaf growth, gas exchange, phytohormone [abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene] relations and nutrient status of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig) were studied. Over-irrigation slowly increased soil moisture and decreased soil oxygen concentration by 4%. Soil temperature was approximately 1°C lower in the over-irrigated substrate. Over-irrigating tomato plants for 2 weeks significantly reduced shoot height (by 25%) and fresh weight and total leaf area (by 60-70%) compared with well-drained plants. Over-irrigation did not alter stomatal conductance, leaf water potential or foliar ABA concentrations, suggesting that growth inhibition was not hydraulically regulated or dependent on stomatal closure or changes in ABA. However, over-irrigation significantly increased foliar ethylene emission. Ethylene seemed to inhibit growth, as the partially ethylene-insensitive genotype Never ripe (Nr) was much less sensitive to over-irrigation than the wild type. Over-irrigation induced significant foliar nitrogen deficiency and daily supplementation of small volumes of 10 mM Ca(NO3 )2 to over-irrigated soil restored foliar nitrogen concentrations, ethylene emission and shoot fresh weight of over-irrigated plants to control levels. Thus reduced nitrogen uptake plays an important role in inhibiting growth of over-irrigated plants, in part by stimulating foliar ethylene emission. PMID:25950248

  10. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 μW cm-2; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at ≥2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (≥1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H2O2 accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Growth Inhibition of Struvite Crystals in the Presence of Herbal Extract Boerhaavia diffusa Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Chauhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The formation of a urinary stone, known as nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, renal calculi or kidney stone is a serious, debilitating problem in all societies throughout the world. Struvite or Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (AMPH is one of the components of urinary stone (calculi. Struvite stones are commonly found in women. Struvites form in humans as a result of urinary tract infection with ureolithic urea splitting micro organisms. These stones can grow rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", which is more painful urological disorder. Therefore, it is of prime importance to study the growth and inhibition of Struvite crystals. Approach: This in vitro study had been carried out in the presence of herbal extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, equal amount of supernatant solution of 1.0 M magnesium acetate prepared with 0.5 and 1% concentrations of the herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. were gently poured on the set gels in the respective test tubes in the aseptic medium. Results: The growth of crystals without and with herbal extracts was monitored at regular time intervals. As the concentration of B. diffusa Linn. increased, the inhibition of crystals also increased in the gel media as well as the dissolution of crystals at the gel-liquid interface increases. The de-fragmentation of some grown crystals was also noticed. Conclusion: The herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. inhibited the growth of struvite crystals in vitro. This study incorporated multidisciplinary interests and may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of urinary stones.

  13. Metformin inhibits growth and decreases resistance to anoikis in medullary thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Jensen, Kirk; Costello, John; Patel, Aneeta; Hoperia, Victoria; Bauer, Andrew; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard; Vasko, Vasyl

    2012-06-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the antidiabetic agent metformin decreases proliferation of cancer cells through 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent inhibition of mTOR. In the current study, we assessed the effect of metformin on MTC cells. For this purpose, we determined growth, viability, migration, and resistance to anoikis assays using two MTC-derived cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1). Expressions of molecular targets of metformin were examined in MTC cell lines and in 14 human MTC tissue samples. We found that metformin inhibited growth and decreased expression of cyclin D1 in MTC cells. Treatment with metformin was associated with inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling and downregulation of pERK in both TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells. Metformin had no significant effects on pAKT in the cell lines examined. Metformin-inducible AMPK activation was noted only in TT cells. Treatment with AMPK inhibitor (compound C) or AMPK silencing did not prevent growth inhibitory effects of metformin in TT cells. Metformin had no effect on MTC cell migration but reduced the ability of cells to form multicellular spheroids in nonadherent conditions. Immunostaining of human MTC showed over-expression of cyclin D1 in all tumors compared with corresponding normal tissue. Activation of mTOR/p70S6K was detected in 8/14 (57.1%) examined tumors. Together, these findings indicate that growth inhibitory effects in MTC cells are associated with downregulation of both mTOR/6SK and pERK signaling pathways. Expression of metformin's molecular targets in human MTC cells suggests its potential utility for the treatment of MTC in patients.

  14. Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shu-Cheng [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tao, Ze-Zhang, E-mail: zezhangtao@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ⩽1 μM at 24 h after treatment and ⩽0.5 μM at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

  15. Inhibition of melanocortin 1 receptor slows melanoma growth, reduces tumor heterogeneity and increases survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Rita G; McCravy, Matthew S; Basham, Jacob H; Earl, Joshua A; McMurray, Stacy L; Starner, Chelsey J; Whitt, Michael A; Albritton, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma risk is increased in patients with mutations of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) yet the basis for the increased risk remains unknown. Here we report in vivo evidence supporting a critical role for MC1R in regulating melanoma tumor growth and determining overall survival time. Inhibition of MC1R by its physiologically relevant competitive inhibitor, agouti signaling protein (ASIP), reduced melanin synthesis and morphological heterogeneity in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells. In the lungs of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, mCherry-marked, ASIP-secreting lung tumors inhibited MC1R on neighboring tumors lacking ASIP in a dose dependent manner as evidenced by a proportional loss of pigment in tumors from mice injected with 1:1, 3:1 and 4:1 mixtures of parental B16-F10 to ASIP-expressing tumor cells. ASIP-expressing B16-F10 cells formed poorly pigmented tumors in vivo that correlated with a 20% longer median survival than those bearing parental B16-F10 tumors (p=0.0005). Mice injected with 1:1 mixtures also showed survival benefit (p=0.0054), whereas injection of a 4:1 mixture showed no significant difference in survival. The longer survival time of mice bearing ASIP-expressing tumors correlated with a significantly slower growth rate than parental B16-F10 tumors as judged by quantification of numbers of tumors and total tumor load (p=0.0325), as well as a more homogeneous size and morphology of ASIP-expressing lung tumors. We conclude that MC1R plays an important role in regulating melanoma growth and morphology. Persistent inhibition of MC1R provided a significant survival advantage resulting in part from slower tumor growth, establishing MC1R as a compelling new molecular target for metastatic melanoma. PMID:27028866

  16. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Maximum Inhibition of Breast Cancer/Stem Cell Growth by Concomitant Blockage of Key Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossa Gardaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blockage of cancer cell growth and division is the prime objective in clinical cancer therapy both at early stages and for inhibition of minimal residual disease and relapse. The failure of conventional therapies in treating breast cancer (BC has prompted dissection of signalling pathways involved in BC cell growth and characterisation of cellular receptors. Specific sets of membrane-bound receptors promote disarrayed self-renewal of BC stem cells and deregulated BC cell proliferation. Individual blockage of each receptor promotes only incomplete inhibition of BC cell growth and partial regression of metastasis. Such monotherapies are based on either chemotherapy or monoclonal antibodies. However, they do not provide long-lasting benefits and are further compromised by increasing resistance the cancer cells acquire against therapeutic agents, by their evasion of receptor blockage and by adoption of alternative growth routes that are induced by cross-talks between key receptors. On the other hand, dual targeting approaches, including receptor blockage combined with chemotherapy, produce prolonged overall survival but, nevertheless, complicate treatment by inducing side effects. Based on the complex nature of BC, combined targeted strategies that potentially confer maximum coverage for treatment cannot be effective without overcoming drug resistance initiated and further induced by inter-receptor communications. This implies that a comprehensive strategy based on concomitant inhibition of key receptors could provide an ultimate solution for effective treatment of aggressive types of BC. Such a strategy would likely be capable of targeting breast tumour cells and BC stem cells alike eventually forcing the cancer to regress.

  18. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  19. Effective inhibition of bacterial respiration and growth by CuO microspheres composed of thin nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of copper oxide micro-spheres composed of thin sheets (CuOMSs-Ths). Microscopic observations of synthesized CuOMSs-Ths revealed the clusters of thin sheets arranged in small flower like micro-spheres. Diameter of each micro-sphere was determined in the range of 2-3 μm, whereas the size of each sheet was ∼ 80 nm. These micro-flowers like nanostructures were synthesized using copper nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide via solution process. The CuOMSs-Ths exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity involving significant growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The IC50 values of these engineered NPs against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and M. luteus were determined to be 195, 200, 131 and 184 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the respiration of Gram+ ve organisms (M. luteus and S. aureus) was inhibited significantly (p value < 0.005) at relatively lower concentrations of 12.5 and 50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the Gram- ve bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), where the growth inhibition occurred at a much greater concentration of 100 μg/ml. The results explicitly demonstrated anti-microbial activity of CuOMSs-Ths with a higher level of toxicity against the Gram+ ve vis-a-vis Gram- ve bacteria. PMID:23816782

  20. Growth Inhibition Occurs Independently of Cell Mortality in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Exposed to High Cadmium Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Delpérée; Stanley Lutts

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the adaptation potential of tomato shoots to a sudden increase in Cd concentration, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Ailsa Craig) were exposed under controlled environmental conditions to a high dose of this heavy metal (250 μM CdCl2>) in nutrient solution for 7 and 14 d. Both root and shoot growth was completely inhibited but all plants remained alive until the end of the treatment. Cell viability remained unaffected but the activity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway was stimulated by Cd stress at the expense of the cytochrome pathway. Cadmium concentration was higher in roots than in shoots and a decrease In the rate of net Cd translocation was noticed during the second week of stress. Cadmium decreased both leaf conductance (g1>) and chlorophyll concentration. However, the effect on net CO2 assimilation remained limited and soluble sugars accumulated in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of PSll (FvlFm) was not affected despite a decrease in the number of reaction centers and an inhibition of electron transfer to acceptors of PSII. It is concluded that tomato shoot may sustain short term exposure to high doses of cadmium despite growth inhibition. This property implies several physiological strategies linked to both avoidance and tolerance mechanisms.

  1. Suppression of pancreatic carcinoma growth by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ involves angiogenesis inhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Wei Dong; Xing-Peng Wang; Kai Wu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the possible actions and mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a ligand-activated transcription factor, in pancreatic carcinogenesis,especially in angiogenesis.METHODS: Expressions of PPARγ and retinoid acid receptor (RXRα) were examined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with immunocytochemical staining. Pancreatic carcinoma cells, PANC-1,were treated either with 9-cis-RA, a ligand of RXRα,or with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 prostaglandin J2(15d-PGJ2), a ligand of PPARγ, or both. Antiproliferative effect was evaluated by cell viability using methyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. A pancreatic carcinoma xenograft tumor model of nude mice was established by inoculating PANC-1 cells subcutaneously. Rosiglitazone, a specific ligand of PPARγ, was administered via water drinking in experimental group of nude mice. After 75 d, all mice were sacrificed. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in tumor tissue was examined with immunohistochemical staining. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in PANC-1 cells, which were treated with 15d-PGJ2 or 9-cis-RA at variousconcentrations or different duration, was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Effects of Rosiglitazone on changes of microvascular density (MVD) and VEGF expression were investigated in xenograft tumor tissue. Neovasculature was detected with immunohistochemistry staining labeled with anti-Ⅳ collagen antibody, and indicated by MVD.RESULTS: RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining showed that PPARγ and RXRα were expressed in PANC-1 cells at both transcription level and translation level. MTT assay demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2, 9-cis-RA and their combination inhibited the growth of PANC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. 9-cis-RA had a combined inhibiting action with 15d-PGJ2 on the growth of pancreatic carcinoma. In vivo studies revealed that Rosiglitazone significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic carcinoma

  2. CytoregR inhibits growth and proliferation of human adenocarcinoma cells via induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanhi M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is one of the devastating neovascular diseases that incapacitate so many people the world over. Recent reports from the National Cancer Institute indicate some significant gain therapy and cancer management as seen in the increase in the 5-year survival rate over the past two decades. Although near-perfect cure rate have been reported in the early-stage disease, these data reveal high recurrence rate and serious side effects including second malignancies and fatalities. Most of the currently used anticancer agents are only effective against proliferating cancer cells. Thus attention has been focused on potential anti-cancer agents capable of killing cancer cells independent of the cell cycle state, to ensure effective elimination of most cancer cells. The objective of this study was to test the chemosensitivity and potential mechanism of action of a novel cancer drug, CytoregR, in a panel of human cancer cells. Methods the study was performed using a series of bioassays including Trypan blue exclusion, MTS Growth inhibition, LDH-cytotoxicity, TUNEL-Terminal DNA fragmentation Apoptosis Assay, and the Caspase protease CPP32 activity assays. Results CytoregR induced significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth in all the cells; with significant differences in chemosensitivity (P < 0.05 between the target cells becoming more apparent at 48 hr exposure. CytoregR showed no significant effect on normal cells relative to the tumor cells. Growth inhibition in all the cells was due to induction of apoptosis at lower concentrations of cytoregR (> 1:300. CytoregR-induced caspase protease-3 (CPP32 activation significantly and positively correlated with apoptosis induction and growth inhibition; thus implicating CPP32 as the principal death pathway in cytoregR-induced apoptosis. Conclusion CytoregR exerted a dose-and time-dependent growth inhibitory effect in all the target cells through induction of apoptosis via the

  3. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. PMID:26820528

  4. Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pathi

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin is highly effective for treating colon cancer patients postdiagnosis; however, the mechanisms of action of aspirin in colon cancer are not well defined. Aspirin and its major metabolite sodium salicylate induced apoptosis and decreased colon cancer cell growth and the sodium salt of aspirin also inhibited tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. Colon cancer cell growth inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and decreased expression of Sp-regulated gene products including bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, VEGFR1, cyclin D1, c-MET and p65 (NFκB. Moreover, we also showed by RNA interference that β-catenin, an important target of aspirin in some studies, is an Sp-regulated gene. Aspirin induced nuclear caspase-dependent cleavage of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and this response was related to sequestration of zinc ions since addition of zinc sulfate blocked aspirin-mediated apoptosis and repression of Sp proteins. The results demonstrate an important underlying mechanism of action of aspirin as an anticancer agent and, based on the rapid metabolism of aspirin to salicylate in humans and the high salicylate/aspirin ratios in serum, it is likely that the anticancer activity of aspirin is also due to the salicylate metabolite.

  5. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Grace Ho-Yuet; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-02-01

    Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ(5) integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmental vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis.

  6. FBXW7 Acts as an Independent Prognostic Marker and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Human Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7 is a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expressions of FBXW7 protein and mRNA levels in osteosarcoma (OS cases were significantly lower than those in normal bone tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that FBXW7 was expressed at lower levels in OS patients with advanced clinical stage, high T classification and poor histological differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high expression of FBXW7 was correlated with a better 5-year survival of OS patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that FBXW7 was an independent prognostic marker in OS. Our in vitro studies showed that FBXW7 overexpression inhibited cell cycle transition and cell proliferation, and promoted apoptosis in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model, FBXW7 overexpression slowed down tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest. Mechanistically, FBXW7 inversely regulated oncoprotein c-Myc and cyclin E levels in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. Together these findings suggest that FBXW7 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and inhibit tumor progression by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest in OS.

  7. Sinefungin, a Natural Nucleoside Analogue of S-Adenosylmethionine, Inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal colonization and disease is often associated with biofilm formation, in which the bacteria exhibit elevated resistance both to antibiotics and to host defense systems, often resulting in infections that are persistent and difficult to treat. We evaluated the effect of sinefungin, a nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, on pneumococcal in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization. Sinefungin is bacteriostatic to pneumococci and significantly decreased biofilm growth and inhibited proliferation and structure of actively growing biofilms but did not alter growth or the matrix structure of established biofilms. Sinefungin significantly reduced pneumococcal colonization in rat middle ear. The quorum sensing molecule (autoinducer-2 production was significantly reduced by 92% in sinefungin treated samples. The luxS, pfs, and speE genes were downregulated in biofilms grown in the presence of sinefungin. This study shows that sinefungin inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro and colonization in vivo, decreases AI-2 production, and downregulates luxS, pfs, and speE gene expressions. Therefore, the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM inhibitors could be used as lead compounds for the development of novel antibiofilm agents against pneumococci.

  8. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth inhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Alvim; F T Ramos; D C Oliveira; R M S Isaias; M G C França

    2012-12-01

    We correlated root growth inhibition with aluminium (Al3+) localization and toxicity symptoms in rice roots using seedlings of two genotypes (tolerant and sensitive) that were exposed to different AlCl3 concentrations. Al3+ localization was evaluated by hematoxylin in primary roots and by morin in cross-sections of the root tips. Neutral invertase enzyme activity and callose (1$\\to$3, -D-glucan) accumulation were observed and compared with Al3+ accumulation sites. Root growth was inhibited by Al3+ in a concentration-specific manner and proportional to the increase of hematoxylin staining, being more pronounced in the sensitive genotype. Morin staining showed the presence of Al3+ deep within the roots of the sensitive genotype, indicating that the metal was able to penetrate beyond the first few cell layers. In the tolerant genotype, Al3+ penetration was restricted to the first two cell layers. Ruptures in exodermis and epidermis layers by lateral root protrusions in both genotypes allowed Al3+ to enter into the roots. More intense activity of invertase in roots of the tolerant genotype was also observed, which could be related to greater root growth of this cultivar when submitted to Al3+ stress. Moreover, Al3+-induced callose accumulation was a late response occurring in the same areas where Al3+ was present.

  9. Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, has also been documented. In this study, we have examined the effects of berberine on tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and their relationship to STAT3 signaling using both in vivo and in vitro models. Berberine effectively inhibited the tumorigenicity and growth of an EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in athymic nude mice. Inhibition of tumorigenic growth of NPC cells in vivo was correlated with effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells inside the tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. In vitro, berberine inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by berberine induced growth inhibition and apoptotic response in NPC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts were found to secret IL-6 and the conditioned medium harvested from the fibroblasts also induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by conditioned medium of tumor-associated fibroblasts could be blocked by berberine or antibodies against IL-6 and IL-6R. Our observation that berberine effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 induced by tumor-associated fibroblasts suggests a role of berberine in modulating the effects of tumor stroma on the growth of NPC cells. The effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells by berberine supports its potential use in the treatment of NPC

  10. Inhibition of microbial growth by spice extracts and their effect of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Meixu, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of black pepper, rosemary and red pepper has been tested against 12 microorganisms. Alcoholic extracts of these spices were not exhibited strong activity against gram-negative bacteria in laboratory media. The growth of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium botulinum type A was inhibited by 1% of black pepper, 0.5% rosemary and 0.03% red pepper. A little reduction of antimicrobial activity to B. subtilis was observed on extracts of gamma-irradiated black pepper or rosemary at 10 and 50 kGy. In the case of red pepper, irradiation of 10 or 50 kGy enhanced a little of antimicrobial activity to B. subtilis. Similar effect of irradiation was also observed on the inhibition of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus in SL broth. (author).

  11. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengfu, He; Hu, Zhang; Huiwen, Miao; Zhijun, Li [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Jiaojie, Zhou [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xiaoyi, Yan, E-mail: xiaoyiyan163@163.com [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xiujun, Cai, E-mail: xiujuncaomaj@163.com [Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-08-21

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice.

  12. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice

  13. Growth inhibition of a Fusarium verticillioides GUS strain in corn kernels of aflatoxin-resistant genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R L; Cleveland, T E; Woloshuk, C P; Payne, G A; Bhatnagar, D

    2001-12-01

    Two corn genotypes, GT-MAS:gk and MI82, resistant to Aspergillus flavus infection/aflatoxin contamination, were tested for their ability to limit growth of Fusarium verticillioides. An F. verticillioides strain was transformed with a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) construct to facilitate fungal growth quantification and then inoculated onto endosperm-wounded and non-wounded kernels of the above-corn lines. To serve as a control, an A. flavus strain containing the same reporter gene construct was inoculated onto non-wounded kernels of GT-MAS:gk. Results showed that, as in a previous study, non-wounded GT-MAS:gk kernels supported less growth (six- to ten-fold) of A. flavus than did kernels of a susceptible control. Also, non-wounded kernels of GT-MAS:gk and M182 supported less growth (two- to four-fold) of F. verticillioides than did susceptible kernels. Wounding, however, increased F. verticillioides infection of MI82, but not that of GT-MAS:gk. This is in contrast to a previous study of A. flavus, where wounding increased infection of GT-MAS:gk rather than M182 kernels. Further study is needed to explain genotypic variation in the kernel response to A. flavus and F. verticillioides kernel infections. Also, the potential for aflatoxin-resistant corn lines to likewise inhibit growth of F. verticillioides needs to be confirmed in the field. PMID:11778882

  14. Minocycline inhibits the production of the precursor form of nerve growth factor by retinal microglial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochun Yang; Xuanchu Duan

    2013-01-01

    A rat model of acute ocular hypertension was established by enhancing the perfusion of balanced salt solution in the anterior chamber of the right eye. Minocycline (90 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally into rats immediately after the operation for 3 consecutive days. Immunofluorescence, western blot assay and PCR detection revealed that the expression of the precursor form of nerve growth factor, nerve growth factor and the p75 neurotrophin receptor, and the mRNA expression of nerve growth factor and the p75 neurotrophin receptor, increased after acute ocular hypertension. The number of double-labeled CD11B- and precursor form of nerve growth factor-positive cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein- and p75 neurotrophin receptor-positive cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein- and caspase-3-positive cells in the retina markedly increased after acute ocular hypertension. The above-described expression decreased after minocycline treatment. These results suggested that minocycline inhibited the increased expression of the precursor form of nerve growth factor in microglia, the p75 neurotrophin receptor in astroglia, and protected cells from apoptosis.

  15. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

  16. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortal Mizrahy

    Full Text Available The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs, present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH, on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

  17. Effect of tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 on growth inhibition of MG63 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qin; Yang Lin; Wenjian Chen; Wentao Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the osteosarcoma cell sublines which stably expressing tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) gene and evaluate its effect on growth inhibition of human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pCI-TSLC1 was stably transfected into MG63 cells with Lipofectamine 2000. The positive clones were developed by selection by G418. Biological characteristics of one of the 6 cell lines which highly expressing TSLC1, namely, the M8T were studied. Cell growth was analyzed with MTT assay. 2 × 107 cells suspended in 0.2 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were injected into the two flanks of 5-6-week-old female BALB/C nu/nu athymic nude mice. The volumes of subcutaneous of tumor growth were evaluated and calculated by the formula V= Length × Width × Height × 0.5 once a week. Results: The M8T cell subline which stably expressing TSLC1 was characterized by Western blot. The genetic stability and purity of M8T cells were stable. TSLC1 significantly suppressed the growth of M8T cells in vitro. Moreover, the tumorigenicity of M8T cells was suppressed in vivo. Conclusion: The osteosarcoma cell sublines M8T which stably expressing TSLC1 had been successfully established. The ability of growth and metastasis of M8T was significantly suppressed both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Expression of Smad7 inhibits fibrogenic responses of keratocytes to transforming growth factor β2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ti; ZHOU Xing-tao; YU Yan; DAI Jin-hui; QU Xiao-mei; LE Qi-hua; CHU Ren-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is one of the most important growth factors in the development of fibrosis and scarring on cornea. Smad7, an inhibitory Smad, can inhibit TGFβ signal transaction. In recent years, effects of lentiviral-mediated Smad7 on inhibition of fibrosis on some organs have been studied, while little is known about the effects on cornea. This study aimed to determine the effects of lentiviral-mediated Smad7 gene expression on keratocyte proliferation and fibrosis induced by TGF β2 in vitro.Methods Keratocytes were cultured from comeal tissue isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and transfected with Smad7 expressing lentiviral vector (Lv-Smad7) or non-functioning control vector (Lv-blank). Following the exposure to TGFβ2, keratocytes were processed for immunoblotting to assess the phosphorylation of Smad2 as down-stream event of TGFβ/Smad signaling. Expression of fibrotic markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type Ⅲ collagen (collagen Ⅲ) were measured by Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dipheny1tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the expression of cell cycle-related marker Ki67 at both mRNA and protein levels.Results The Smad7 gene transfer suppressed TGFβ/Smad signaling in keratocytes by down-regulating phosphorylation of Smad2. Markers of cell proliferation and fibrosis including Ki67, α-SMA, collagen Ⅲ were inhibited by introduction of Smad 7 into TGFβ exposed keratocytes. Consequently, the rate of cell proliferation was attenuated.Conclusion Smad7 gene transfer inhibited fibrogenic responses of keratocytes to TGFβ2.

  19. Aspirin delays mesothelioma growth by inhibiting HMGB1-mediated tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Pellegrini, L; Napolitano, A; Giorgi, C; Jube, S; Preti, A; Jennings, C J; De Marchis, F; Flores, E G; Larson, D; Pagano, I; Tanji, M; Powers, A; Kanodia, S; Gaudino, G; Pastorino, S; Pass, H I; Pinton, P; Bianchi, M E; Carbone, M

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory molecule that has a critical role in the initiation and progression of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the incidence, metastatic potential and mortality of many inflammation-induced cancers. We hypothesized that ASA may exert anticancer properties in MM by abrogating the carcinogenic effects of HMGB1. Using HMGB1-secreting and -non-secreting human MM cell lines, we determined whether aspirin inhibited the hallmarks of HMGB1-induced MM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), inhibit motility, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony formation of MM cells via a novel HMGB1-mediated mechanism. ASA/SA, at serum concentrations comparable to those achieved in humans taking therapeutic doses of aspirin, and BoxA, a specific inhibitor of HMGB1, markedly reduced MM growth in xenograft mice and significantly improved survival of treated animals. The effects of ASA and BoxA were cyclooxygenase-2 independent and were not additive, consistent with both acting via inhibition of HMGB1 activity. Our findings provide a rationale for the well documented, yet poorly understood antitumorigenic activity of aspirin, which we show proceeds via HMGB1 inhibition. Moreover, the use of BoxA appears to allow a more efficient HMGB1 targeting while eluding the known gastrointestinal side effects of ASA. Our findings are directly relevant to MM. Given the emerging importance of HMGB1 and its tumor-promoting functions in many cancer types, and of aspirin in cancer prevention and therapy, our investigation is poised to provide broadly applicable information. PMID:26068794

  20. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ji [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Feng [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Lin, Yanting [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei [Department of Interventional Therapy, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Jiaji, E-mail: jiang_jjcn@yahoo.com.cn [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 directly targets {beta}-catenin 3 Prime -UTR in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 regulates {beta}-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) of {beta}-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, {beta}-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the {beta}-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of {beta}-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of {beta}-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  1. Isolation of bacteria producing chitinase and inhibiting growth of Rhizoctonia solani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Five bacteria strains with higher chitinase activity were isolated by using a technique of enriched cell wall of R. solani. All of them showed inhibiting effect on the growth of R. solani. Being cultured 3 d, strain CH-1 showed higher chitinase activity on the chitin plate. The diameter of the transparent circle reached 8.7 mm (4 replications) . In the antagonistic test to R. solani in PDA plate, the circle was 18.1 mm. It was also observed that the antagonistic ability of some strains was not consistent with the chitinase activity (Table 1). It may be connected with the secretion of chitinase at different culture situations.

  2. Partial characterisation of peptides inhibiting Listeria growth in two Alpine cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi, Phuong; Dupas, Coralie; Adt, Isabelle; Degraeve, Pascal; Ragon, Mélanie; Missaoui, May-Farah; Novelli, Enrico; Segato, Severino; Phan The, Dong; Oulahal, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    International audience Listeria monocytogenes, agent of food-borne listeriosis, is a major concern in dairy industry. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of peptides inhibiting Listeria spp. growth in two traditional Alpine pressed-curd cheeses: Emmental de Savoie and Asiago d’Allevo, and to get further insights regarding the characteristics of these peptides. Water-soluble extracts of these two cheeses were ultrafiltered onto 10,000-g.mol−1 cut-off filters to remove protein...

  3. Fusarium Graminearum Growth Inhibition Due to Glucose Starvation Caused by Osthol

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjian Fan; Fei Wang; Wei Zhou; Shouguo Shen; Zhiqi Shi

    2008-01-01

    The effects of osthol, a plant coumarin, on morphology, sugar uptake and cell wall components of Fusarium graminearum were examined in vitro by electron microscopy, 14C-labelling and enzyme activity detection. The results revealed that osthol could inhibit the hypha growth of F. graminearum by decreasing hyphal absorption to reducing sugar. After treatment with 100 μg·mL-1 osthol for 24 h, many hyphal fragments of F. graminearum appeared. Microscopy observation showed that the cell wall...

  4. Recombinant interleukin-6 inhibits the growth of rat mesangial cells in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, M; Ikeda, U; Ohara, T; Kusano, E; Kano, S

    1992-01-01

    Murine recombinant interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake by cultured rat mesangial cells in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The inhibitory effect of IL-6 on the growth of mesangial cells was also confirmed by a change in cell numbers. In the presence of increased concentrations of FBS (5% or 10%), the effect of IL-6 was not prominent. IL-6 showed no effects on intracellular Ca2+ levels of mesangial cells. IL-6 gene expression was rapidly...

  5. Optimizing cyanobacteria growth conditions in a sealed environment to enable chemical inhibition tests with volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J; Zahler, Jacob D; Baldwin, Emily L; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2016-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to photosynthetically produce next-generation biofuels and high-value chemicals. Many of these chemicals are highly toxic to cyanobacteria, thus strains with increased tolerance need to be developed. The volatility of these chemicals may necessitate that experiments be conducted in a sealed environment to maintain chemical concentrations. Therefore, carbon sources such as NaHCO3 must be used for supporting cyanobacterial growth instead of CO2 sparging. The primary goal of this study was to determine the optimal initial concentration of NaHCO3 for use in growth trials, as well as if daily supplementation of NaHCO3 would allow for increased growth. The secondary goal was to determine the most accurate method to assess growth of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in a sealed environment with low biomass titers and small sample volumes. An initial concentration of 0.5g/L NaHCO3 was found to be optimal for cyanobacteria growth, and fed-batch additions of NaHCO3 marginally improved growth. A separate study determined that a sealed test tube environment is necessary to maintain stable titers of volatile chemicals in solution. This study also showed that a SYTO® 9 fluorescence-based assay for cell viability was superior for monitoring filamentous cyanobacterial growth compared to absorbance, chlorophyll α (chl a) content, and biomass content due to its accuracy, small sampling size (100μL), and high throughput capabilities. Therefore, in future chemical inhibition trials, it is recommended that 0.5g/L NaHCO3 is used as the carbon source, and that culture viability is monitored via the SYTO® 9 fluorescence-based assay that requires minimum sample size. PMID:27196637

  6. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26755662

  7. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97) levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. The VCP inhibitor(s) (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface) were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells) proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (passay) and migration (passay), and increased apoptosis (passay) as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ) treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting) of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion) as compared to the control-DDN treatment (passay) and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (pclonogenic-assay that DDNDBeQ treatment significantly (p<0.001) inhibits H1299 colony-formation as compared to control/DDN. Overall, encapsulation of potent VCP-inhibitor DBeQ into a dendrimer allows selective VCP-mediated proteostasis-inhibition for controlling NSCLC-tumor growth and progression to allow tumor-targeted sustained drug delivery. PMID:27434122

  8. Knockdown of the Placental Growth Factor Gene Inhibits Laser Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Nourinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Methods: Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. Results: No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Conclusion: Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  9. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  10. Squalamine inhibits angiogenesis and solid tumor growth in vivo and perturbs embryonic vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, A K; Williams, J I; Tyler, B M; Epstein, D S; Sipos, E P; Davis, J D; McLane, M P; Pitchford, S; Cheshire, K; Gannon, F H; Kinney, W A; Chao, T L; Donowitz, M; Laterra, J; Zasloff, M; Brem, H

    1998-07-01

    The novel aminosterol, squalamine, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in multiple animal models. This effect is mediated, at least in part, by blocking mitogen-induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, thus preventing neovascularization of the tumor. Squalamine has no observable effect on unstimulated endothelial cells, is not directly cytotoxic to tumor cells, does not alter mitogen production by tumor cells, and has no obvious effects on the growth of newborn vertebrates. Squalamine was also found to have remarkable effects on the primitive vascular bed of the chick chorioallantoic membrane, which has striking similarities to tumor capillaries. Squalamine may thus be well suited for treatment of tumors and other diseases characterized by neovascularization in humans. PMID:9661892

  11. New class of additives to inhibit tree growth in solid extruded cable insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devins, J C; Rzad, S J; Reed, C W; Bartosh, D K; Stines, T W

    1976-03-01

    There is now substantial evidence that in many dielectric failures of solid polyolefinic and other polymeric materials the final disruption may be preceded by the long-time progressive development of a three-dimensional pattern of irregular, sometimes (though not always) carbonized hollow channels diverging from a central stem, and that the ultimate failure follows one of these channels. These minute channels are referred to as ''trees'' and the phenomenon as ''treeing.'' Research conducted from May to Sept. 1975 on techniques for evaluating tree growth and on the development of additives to inhibit tree growth in solid extruded polymeric insulation for electric cables is reported. (LCL)

  12. Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecki, Katrin; Gernold, Marina; Wensing, Annette; Geider, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are used to preserve food and could be a tool for control of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on apple, pear and related rosaceous plants. Neutralized acids were added to buffered growth media at 0.5–75 mM and tested at pHs ranging from 6.8 to 5.5. Particularly at low pH, SCFAs with a chain length exceeding that of acetic acid such as propionic acid were effective growth inhibitors of E. amylovora possibly due to uptake of free acid and its intracellular accumulation. We also observed high inhibition with monochloroacetic acid. An E. billingiae strain was as sensitive to the acids as E. amylovora or E. tasmaniensis. Fire blight symptoms on pear slices were reduced when the slices were pretreated with neutralized propionic acid. Propionic acid is well water soluble and could be applied in orchards as a control agent for fire blight.

  13. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10−4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10−4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  14. Inhibition of tubulointerstitial fibrosis by pentoxifylline is associated with improvement of vascular endothelial growth factor expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-gen ZHOU; Fa-lei ZHENG; Fan-fan HOU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Recent information indicates that pentoxifylline (PTX) has the ability to suppress inflammation and profibrotic cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the effect of PTX on tubulointerstitial fibrosis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy. Methods: Wistar rats with left ureteral ligation were divided into control and PTX-treated groups. The histopathologic degree of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was scored with PAS and Masson-stained sections. The protein and mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were semiquantitatively measured with immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The pro-tein for transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) was determined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the control group, PTX treatment reduced fibrosis scores at d 7 and d 14 (P<0.05). The reduction was accompanied by inhibited expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1), a key cytokine in tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis (P<0.01). Meanwhile, VEGF protein and mRNA in the kidney were increased in the PTX-treated group com-pared with the control group (P<0.01). PTX up-regulated expression of VEGF mRNA in a dose- and time-dependent man-ner in cultured HK-2 cells (P<0.01). However, expression of HIF-1α (a key transcription factor for VEGF gene expression) was unchanged by PTX treatment. PTX prolonged the half-life of VEGF mRNA by a 1.07-fold increase. Conclusions: PTX inhibited tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy while preventing loss of VEGF. PTX up-regulated expression of VEGF mRNA through stabilization of its mRNA in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells.

  15. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles inhibit the growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu SH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Hua Chu,1 Dong-Fu Feng,1 Yan-Bin Ma,1 Zhi-Qiang Li21Department of Neurosurgery, No 3 People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, ChinaAbstract: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects on various human cancers, but the effects of nano-HAPs on human glioma cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAPs on the growth of human glioma U251 and SHG44 cells in vitro and in vivo. Nano-HAPs could inhibit the growth of U251 and SHG44 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, according to methyl thiazoletetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. Treated with 120 mg/L and 240 mg/L nano-HAPs for 48 hours, typical apoptotic morphological changes were noted under Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The tumor growth of cells was inhibited after the injection in vivo, and the related side effects significantly decreased in the nano-HAP-and-drug combination group. Because of the function of nano-HAPs, the expression of c-Met, SATB1, Ki-67, and bcl-2 protein decreased, and the expression of SLC22A18 and caspase-3 protein decreased noticeably. The findings indicate that nano-HAPs have an evident inhibitory action and induce apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In a drug combination, they can significantly reduce the adverse reaction related to the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU.Keywords: glioma, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, growth mechanism

  16. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nigel V; Sackett, Tara E; Thomas, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction), and in the water leachates (through direct injection). Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species-specific patterns of plant

  17. beta-Sitosterol inhibits HT-29 human colon cancer cell growth and alters membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A B; Chen, Y C; Fink, C S; Hennessey, T

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-sitosterol, the main dietary phytosterol on the growth of HT-29 cells, a human colon cancer cell line. In addition, the incorporation of this phytosterol into cellular membranes and how this might influence the lipid composition of the membranes were investigated. Tumor cells were grown in DMEM containing 10% FBS and supplemented with sterols (cholesterol or beta-sitosterol) at final concentrations up to 16 microM. The sterols were supplied to the media in the form of sterol cyclodextrin complexes. The cyclodextrin used was 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The sterol to cyclodextrin molar ratio was maintained at 1:300. The study indicated that 8 and 16 microM beta-sitosterol were effective at cel growth inhibition as compared to cholesterol or to the control (no sterol supplementation). After supplementation with 16 microM beta-sitosterol for 9 days, cell growth was only one-third that of cells supplemented with equimolar concentration of cholesterol. No effect was observed on total membrane phospholipid concentration. At 16 microM beta-sitosterol supplementation, membrane cholesterol was reduced by 26%. Cholesterol supplementation resulted in a significant increase in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio compared to either beta-sitosterol supplemented cells or controls. There was a 50% reduction in membrane sphingomyelin (SM) of cells grown in 16 microM beta-sitosterol. Additional changes were observed in the fatty acid composition of minor phospholipids of beta-sitosterol supplemented cells, such as SM, phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Only in the case of PI, was there an effect of these fatty acid changes on the unsaturation index, beta-sitosterol incorporation resulted in an increase in the U.I. It is possible that the observed growth inhibition by beta-sitosterol may be mediated through the influence of signal transduction pathways that involve membrane phospholipids.

  18. GROWTH INHIBITION OF HUMAN LARYNGEAL CANCER CELL WITH THE ADENOVIRUS-MEDIATED p53 GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HAN De-min; WANG Wen-ge; WU Zu-ze; ZHANG Wei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: In most laryngeal cancers, the function of p53 gene is down regulated. To explore the potential use of p53 in gene therapy of laryngeal cancer, by introducing wild-type p53 into laryngeal cancer cell line via a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad5CMV-p53 and analyzing its effects on cell and tumor growth. Methods: A human laryngeal cancer cell line Hep-2 was used.Recombinant cytomegalovirus-promoted adenoviruses containing human wild-type p53 cDNA was transiently introduced into Hep-2 line. The growth suppression of the Hep-2 cells and established s.c. squamous carcinoma model was examined. The p53 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The transduction efficiencies of Hep-2 cell line were 100% at a multiplicity of 100 or greater. The p53 protein expression peaked on day 2 after infection and lasted far 5 days. In vitro growth assays revealed cell death following Ad5CMV-p53 infected. In vivo studies, Ad5CMV-p53 inhibited the tumorigenicity of Hep-2 cell, and in nude mice with established s.c. squamous carcinoma nodules showed that tumor volumes were significantly reduced in mice that received peritumoral infiltration of Ad5CMV-p53. Conclusion: Adenovirus-mediated antitumor therapy carrying the p53 gene is an efficient method to inhibit laryngeal cancer growth. Transfection of laryngeal cancer cells with the wild-type p53 gene via Ad5CMV-p53 is a potential novel approach to the therapy of laryngeal cancer.

  19. Enhanced mitochondrial glutamine anaplerosis suppresses pancreatic cancer growth through autophagy inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Park, Kyungsoo; Yang, Seungyeon; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells use precursors derived from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support their unlimited growth. However, continuous export of TCA cycle intermediates results in the defect of mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria glutamine metabolism plays an essential role for the maintenance of mitochondrial functions and its biosynthetic roles by refilling the mitochondrial carbon pool. Here we report that human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells have a distinct dependence on mitochondrial glutamine metabolism. Whereas glutamine flux into mitochondria contributes to proliferation of most cancer cells, enhanced glutamine anaplerosis results in a pronounced suppression of PDAC growth. A cell membrane permeable α-ketoglutarate analog or overexpression of glutamate dehydrogenase lead to decreased proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death in PDAC cells but not other cancer cells. We found that enhanced glutamine anaplerosis inhibits autophagy, required for tumorigenic growth of PDAC, by activating mammalian TORC1. Together, our results reveal that glutamine anaplerosis is a crucial regulator of growth and survival of PDAC cells, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat these cancers. PMID:27477484

  20. Enhanced mitochondrial glutamine anaplerosis suppresses pancreatic cancer growth through autophagy inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Park, Kyungsoo; Yang, Seungyeon; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells use precursors derived from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support their unlimited growth. However, continuous export of TCA cycle intermediates results in the defect of mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria glutamine metabolism plays an essential role for the maintenance of mitochondrial functions and its biosynthetic roles by refilling the mitochondrial carbon pool. Here we report that human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells have a distinct dependence on mitochondrial glutamine metabolism. Whereas glutamine flux into mitochondria contributes to proliferation of most cancer cells, enhanced glutamine anaplerosis results in a pronounced suppression of PDAC growth. A cell membrane permeable α-ketoglutarate analog or overexpression of glutamate dehydrogenase lead to decreased proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death in PDAC cells but not other cancer cells. We found that enhanced glutamine anaplerosis inhibits autophagy, required for tumorigenic growth of PDAC, by activating mammalian TORC1. Together, our results reveal that glutamine anaplerosis is a crucial regulator of growth and survival of PDAC cells, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat these cancers. PMID:27477484

  1. Teroxirone inhibited growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Lin, Kai-Han; Liu, Chun-Yen; Yu, Ya-Chu; Wu, Pei-Tsun [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Chien-Chih [Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Su, Chun-Li [Department of Human Development and Family Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kwun-Min [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, Kang, E-mail: kangfang@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrated that the growth of human non-small-cell-lung-cancer cells H460 and A549 cells can be inhibited by low concentrations of an epoxide derivative, teroxirone, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxicity was mediated by apoptotic cell death through DNA damage. The onset of ultimate apoptosis is dependent on the status of p53. Teroxirone caused transient elevation of p53 that activates downstream p21 and procaspase-3 cleavage. The presence of caspase-3 inhibitor reverted apoptotic phenotype. Furthermore, we showed the cytotoxicity of teroxirone in H1299 cells with stable ectopic expression of p53, but not those of mutant p53. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 expression attenuated drug sensitivity. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that teroxirone suppressed growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Being a potential therapeutic agent by restraining cell growth through apoptotic death at low concentrations, teroxirone provides a feasible perspective in reversing tumorigenic phenotype of human lung cancer cells. - Highlights: • Teroxirone repressed tumor cell growth in nude mice of human lung cancer cells. • The apoptotic cell death reverted by caspase-3 inhibitor is related to p53 status. • Teroxirone provides a good candidate for lung cancer treatment.

  2. Inhibition of Cell Growth and Telomerase Activity in Osteosarcoma Cells by DN-hTERT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; RAO Yaojian; ZHU Wentao; GUO Fengjin

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the effects of dominant negative human telomerase reverse transcriptase (DN-hTERT) on cell growth and telomerase activity in osteosarcoma cell line MG63, MG63 cells were transfected with DN-hTERT-IRES2-EGFP9 (DN) or IRES2-EGF (I, blank vector) with lipofectamine 2000. The stably transfected cells were selected with G-418. Cell growth properties were examined under a fluorescence microscope. The hTERT mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Telomerase activities were measured by TRAP-ELISE. The tumorigenicity was studied with tumor xenografts by subcutaneous injection of cancer cells into nude mice. The results showed that cell growth was suppressed in MG63 cells transfected with DN-hTERT. The hTERT mRNA was increased in N-hTERT transfected-MG63 cells (MG63/DN). The telomerase activity was 2.45±0.11 in MG63/DN cells, while 3.40±0.12 in the cells transfected with blank vector (MG63/I), (P<0.05); DN-hTERT-expressing clones did not form tumors in 2 weeks, but the ratio of tumorigenesis was 30 % in nude mice bearing MG63/I (P<0.01). It was concluded that DN-hTERT could specifically inhibit the cell growth and telomerase activity in MG63 cells.

  3. Development of a murine mycobacterial growth inhibition assay for evaluating vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Marcela; Yang, Amy L; Lim, JaeHyun; Kolibab, Kristopher; Derrick, Steven; Cadieux, Nathalie; Perera, Liyanage P; Jacobs, William R; Brennan, Michael; Morris, Sheldon L

    2009-07-01

    The development and characterization of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has been impeded by the lack of reproducible and reliable in vitro assays for measuring vaccine activity. In this study, we developed a murine in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assay for evaluating TB vaccines that directly assesses the capacity of immune splenocytes to control the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within infected macrophages. Using this in vitro assay, protective immune responses induced by immunization with five different types of TB vaccine preparations (Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an attenuated M. tuberculosis mutant strain, a DNA vaccine, a modified vaccinia virus strain Ankara [MVA] construct expressing four TB antigens, and a TB fusion protein formulated in adjuvant) can be detected. Importantly, the levels of vaccine-induced mycobacterial growth-inhibitory responses seen in vitro after 1 week of coculture correlated with the protective immune responses detected in vivo at 28 days postchallenge in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, similar patterns of cytokine expression were evoked at day 7 of the in vitro culture by immune splenocytes taken from animals immunized with the different TB vaccines. Among the consistently upregulated cytokines detected in the immune cocultures are gamma interferon, growth differentiation factor 15, interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-27, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Overall, we have developed an in vitro functional assay that may be useful for screening and comparing new TB vaccine preparations, investigating vaccine-induced protective mechanisms, and assessing manufacturing issues, including product potency and stability. PMID:19458207

  4. Blockade of S100A3 activity inhibits murine hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W; Deng, Q; Yu, X L; Yuan, Y S; Gao, J; Li, J J; Zhou, L; Xia, P; Han, G Y Q; Han, W; Yu, Y

    2015-10-28

    Using mouse gene expression microarray analysis, we obtained dynamic expression profiles of the whole genome in a depilation-induced hair growth mouse model. S100A3 expression increased during the anagen phase and returned to normal during the telogen phase. The effects of S100A3 blockade on the hair growth cycle were examined in mice after subcutaneous injection of an anti-mouse S100A3 antibody. Protein localization of S100A3 was confined to the hair shafts during the anagen phase and the sebaceous glands during the telogen phase. S100A3 blockade delayed hair follicle entry into the anagen phase, decreased hair elongation, and reduced the number of hair follicles in the subcutis, which correlated with the downregulated expression of hair growth induction-related genes in vivo. The present study demonstrates that anti-S100A3 antibody inhibits mouse hair growth, suggesting that S100A3 can be used as a target for hair loss treatment.

  5. Growth Inhibition and Membrane Permeabilization of Candida lusitaniae Using Varied Pulse Shape Electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novickij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lusitaniae is an opportunistic yeast pathogen, which can readily develop resistance to antifungal compounds and result in a complex long-term treatment. The efficient treatment is difficult since structure and metabolic properties of the fungal cells are similar to those of eukaryotic host. One of the potential methods to improve the inhibition rate or the cell permeability to inhibitors is the application of electroporation. In this work we investigated the dynamics of the growth inhibition and membrane permeabilization of C. lusitaniae by utilizing the various pulse shape and duration electric field pulses. Our results indicated that single electroporation procedure using 8 kV/cm electric field may result in up to 51±5% inhibition rate. Also it has been experimentally shown that the electroporation pulse shape may influence the inhibitory effect; however, the amplitude of the electric field and the pulse energy remain the most important parameters for definition of the treatment outcome. The dynamics of the cell membrane permeabilization in the 2–8 kV/cm electric field were overviewed.

  6. The selective inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 results in mitotic catastrophe and impaired tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Claudia; De Munter, Sofie; Van Dessel, Nele; Lesage, Bart; Heroes, Ewald; Boens, Shannah; Beullens, Monique; Van Eynde, Aleyde; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-12-15

    The serine/threonine protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) complex is a key regulator of the cell cycle. However, the redundancy of PP1 isoforms and the lack of specific inhibitors have hampered studies on the global role of PP1 in cell cycle progression in vertebrates. Here, we show that the overexpression of nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1; also known as PPP1R8) in HeLa cells culminated in a prometaphase arrest, associated with severe spindle-formation and chromosome-congression defects. In addition, the spindle assembly checkpoint was activated and checkpoint silencing was hampered. Eventually, most cells either died by apoptosis or formed binucleated cells. The NIPP1-induced mitotic arrest could be explained by the inhibition of PP1 that was titrated away from other mitotic PP1 interactors. Consistent with this notion, the mitotic-arrest phenotype could be rescued by the overexpression of PP1 or the inhibition of the Aurora B kinase, which acts antagonistically to PP1. Finally, we demonstrate that the overexpression of NIPP1 also hampered colony formation and tumor growth in xenograft assays in a PP1-dependent manner. Our data show that the selective inhibition of PP1 can be used to induce cancer cell death through mitotic catastrophe. PMID:26542020

  7. SNS-032 Prevents Tumor Cell-Induced Angiogenesis By Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aktar Ali

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation, migration, and capillary network formation of endothelial cells are the fundamental steps for angiogenesis, which involves the formation of new blood vessels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a novel aminothiazole SNS-032 on these critical steps for in vitro angiogenesis using a coculture system consisting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human glioblastoma cells (U87MG. SNS-032 is a potent selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 7, and 9, and inhibits both transcription and cell cycle. In this study, we examined the proliferation and viability of HUVECs and U87MG cells in the presence of SNS-032 and observed a dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation in both cell lines. SNS-032 inhibited threedimensional capillary network formations of endothelial cells. In a coculture study, SNS-032 completely prevented U87MG cell-mediated capillary formation of HUVECs. This inhibitor also prevented the migration of HUVECs when cultured alone or cocultured with U87MG cells. In addition, SNS-032 significantly prevented the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in both cell lines, whereas SNS-032 was less effective in preventing capillary network formation and migration of endothelial cells when an active recombinant VEGF was added to the medium. In conclusion, SNS-032 prevents in vitro angiogenesis, and this action is attributable to blocking of VEGF.

  8. Nexrutine Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth as a Consequence of Mitochondrial Damage and Mitophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nexrutine is an herbal extract of Phellodendron amurense and has been used as nutrient supplement in China as well as America. Potential protection effect of Nexrutine has been reported. Methods: To investigate the mechanism of Nexrutine, we used the HeLa, U2OS and HCT116 as a model. Based on the acidification of cell culture media, we examined the lactate, mitochondria damage as well as mitophagy status by corresponding assay. Results: Our data suggest that Nexrutine alters the cellular glucose metabolism to promote lactate production. This effect is caused by mitochondrial damage, not an alteration to lactate dehydrogenase activity. As a result of the mitochondrial damage, cell proliferation was inhibited and was associated with an elevation in p21/p27 proteins, which are both important cell cycle inhibitors. As another consequence of the mitochondrial damage, mitophagy was highly activated in Nexrutine-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. When the autophagy pathway was blocked by siRNAs against BECN1 or ATG7, the growth inhibition caused by Nexrutine was reversed. Conclusion: Our study revealed that autophagy plays an important role in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by Nexrutine.

  9. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor expression by RNA interference in A549 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinZHANG; XinZHANG; Chun-xueBAI; JieCHEN; MinQWEI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological features of A549 cells in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors expression were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi). METHODS: A549 cells were transfected using short small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) formulated with Lipofectamine 2000. The EGF receptor numbers were determined by Western blotting and flowcytometry. The antiproliferative effects of sequence specific double stranded RNA (dsRNA) were assessed using cell count, colony assay and scratch assay. The chemosensitivity of transfected cells to cisplatin was measured by MTT. RESULTS: Sequence specific dsRNA-EGFR down-regulated EGF receptor expression dramatically. Compared with the control group, dsRNA-EGFR reduced the cell number by 85.0 %, decreased the colonies by 63.3 %, inhibited the migration by 87.2 %, and increased the sensitivity of A549 to cisplatin by four-fold. CONCLUSION: Sequence specific dsRNA-EGFR were capable of suppressing EGF receptor expression, hence significantly inhibiting cellular proliferation and motility, and enhancing chemosensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin. The successful application of dsRNA-EGFR for inhibition of proliferation in EGF receptor overexpressing cells can help extend the list of available therapeutic modalities in the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).

  10. The effect of Mn(II) on the autoinducing growth inhibition factor in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Yu; Wong, Tit-Yee; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2014-10-01

    Decreases in cell division at the stationary phase in bacterial cultures are often due to the depletion of nutrients and/or accumulation of toxic waste products. Yet, during the stationary phase, the highly radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans undergoes new rounds of cell division when Mn(II) is added to the medium in a phenomenon known as manganese-induced cell division (MnCD). When cells were cultured in medium without Mn(II)-enrichment, a heat-resistant, proteinase K-resistant factor (or factors) with a molecular mass less than 10 kD accumulated in the spent medium. Inclusion of the concentrated spent medium in fresh medium could inhibit the growth of D. radiodurans significantly, and the degree of inhibition was dose dependent. However, the relative stimulatory effect of MnCD was also dose dependent-the higher the inhibition, the stronger was the MnCD response. Previous studies have shown that nutrients were not limiting and deinococcal cells would continue metabolizing its nutrients at stationary phase. Cells became more sensitive to radiation when nutrients in the medium eventually became depleted. We speculated that D. radiodurans might produce this factor in the medium to control its population density. The reduction in cell population would conserve the nutrients that in turn might enhance the survival of the species.

  11. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of Phytomonas serpens by the alkaloids tomatine and tomatidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mansur Medina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytomonas serpens are flagellates in the family Trypanosomatidae that parasitise the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L., which results in fruits with low commercial value. The tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine inhibit the growth of P. serpens in axenic cultures. Tomatine, like many other saponins, induces permeabilisation of the cell membrane and a loss of cell content, including the cytosolic enzyme pyruvate kinase. In contrast, tomatidine does not cause permeabilisation of membranes, but instead provokes morphological changes, including vacuolisation. Phytomonas treated with tomatidine show an increased accumulation of labelled neutral lipids (BODYPY-palmitic, a notable decrease in the amount of C24-alkylated sterols and an increase in zymosterol content. These results are consistent with the inhibition of 24-sterol methyltransferase (SMT, which is an important enzyme that is responsible for the methylation of sterols at the 24 position. We propose that the main target of tomatidine is the sterols biosynthetic pathway, specifically, inhibition of the 24-SMT. Altogether, the results obtained in the present paper suggest a more general effect of alkaloids in trypanosomatids, which opens potential therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of the diseases caused by these pathogens.

  12. Interbacterial signaling via Burkholderia contact-dependent growth inhibition system proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Erin C; Perault, Andrew I; Marlatt, Sara A; Cotter, Peggy A

    2016-07-19

    In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cell-cell communication and recognition of self are critical to coordinate multicellular functions. Although kin and kind discrimination are increasingly appreciated to shape naturally occurring microbe populations, the underlying mechanisms that govern these interbacterial interactions are insufficiently understood. Here, we identify a mechanism of interbacterial signal transduction that is mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) system proteins. CDI systems have been characterized by their ability to deliver a polymorphic protein toxin into the cytoplasm of a neighboring bacterium, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless the recipient bacterium produces a corresponding immunity protein. Using the model organism Burkholderia thailandensis, we show that delivery of a catalytically active CDI system toxin to immune (self) bacteria results in gene expression and phenotypic changes within the recipient cells. Termed contact-dependent signaling (CDS), this response promotes biofilm formation and other community-associated behaviors. Engineered strains that are isogenic with B. thailandensis, except the DNA region encoding the toxin and immunity proteins, did not display CDS, whereas a strain of Burkholderia dolosa producing a nearly identical toxin-immunity pair induced signaling in B. thailandensis Our data indicate that bcpAIOB loci confer dual benefits; they direct antagonism toward non-self bacteria and promote cooperation between self bacteria, with self being defined by the bcpAIOB allele and not by genealogic relatedness. PMID:27335458

  13. Retroviral endostatin gene transfer inhibits human colon cancer cell growth in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫昌; 傅建新; 刘强; 阮长耿; 萧树东

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of retroviral endostatin gene transfer on the human colon cancer cell line, LoVo.Methods A retroviral vector pLESSN expressing secretable endostatin was constructed and packaged with a titer of 8.2×105 CFU/ml. A LoVo cell line was subjected to retrovirus-mediated endostatin gene transfer. The proviral integration of endostatin was analyzed with PCR. The function of endostatin was tested by MTT assay in vitro and a mouse xenograft model in vivo.Results After transfection and superinfection, amphotropic retrovirus was collected, and transduction with amphotropic retroviruses resulted in endostatin proviral integration. The endostatin secreted by transduced LoVo cells markedly inhibited endothelial cell growth up to 67% (P<0.001), compared with the control cells. The gene expression of endostatin in LoVo colon tumor cells significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. There was an 86% reduction in tumor size in the endostatin-transduced group, accompanied by a reduction in vessels, compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Retroviruses can allow functional expression of the endostatin gene in human colon tumors, showing promise for an antitumor strategy using antiangiogenesis.

  14. Photodynamic effect of light-emitting diode light on cell growth inhibition induced by methylene blue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lílian S Peloi; Rafael R S Soares; Carlos E G Biondo; Vagner R Souza; Noboru Hioka; Elza Kimura

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to propose the use of red light-emitting diode (LED) as an alternative light source for methylene blue (MB) photosensitizing effect in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Its effectiveness was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 26923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 26922), Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) and Artemia salina. The maximum absorption of the LED lamps was at a wavelength of 663 nm, at intensities of 2, 4, 6 and 12 J.cm–2 for 10, 20, 30 and 60 min of exposure, respectively. Assays with and without LED exposure were carried out in plates containing MB at concentrations of 7 to 140.8 M for microorganisms and 13.35 to 668.5 M for microorganisms or microcrustaceans. The LED exposure induced more than 93.05%, 93.7% and 93.33% of growth inhibition for concentrations of 42.2 M for S. aureus (D-value=12.05 min) and 35.2 M for E. coli (D-value=11.51 min) and C. albicans (D-value=12.18 min), respectively after 20 min of exposure. LED exposure for 1 h increased the cytotoxic effect of MB against A. salina from 27% to 75%. Red LED is a promising light device for PDT that can effectively inhibit bacteria, yeast and microcrustacean growth.

  15. Halofuginone Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth in Implanted Metastatic Rat Brain Tumor Model-an MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Abramovitch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF is a potent inhibitor of collagen type α1(I. In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001. Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001. In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05. Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03. Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  16. Production of lipopeptides among Bacillus strains showing growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, R V; Medina, L F C; Segalin, J; Brandelli, A

    2011-07-01

    The biological activity and the presence of genes sfp and ituD (surfactin and iturin A) among Bacillus strains isolated from the Amazon basin were determined. Bacillus spp. were tested for hemolytic activity and inhibition of fungal growth by agar plate assays in parallel with PCR for identification of sfp and ituD genes. All strains tested produced surface-active compounds, giving evidence by lysis of erythrocytes and emulsifying activity on mineral oil and soybean oil. These strains of Bacillus caused growth inhibition of several phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Bipolaris sorokiniana. The presence of genes ituD and sfp was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. The only exception was Bacillus sp. P34 that lacks sfp gene. Lipopeptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Characteristic m/z peaks for surfactin and iturin were observed, and some strains also produced fengycin and bacillomycin. The remarkable antifungal activity showed by the strains could be associated with the co-production of three or more lipopeptide antibiotics. Screening for novel bacteria producing useful biosurfactants or biocontrol agents for agriculture is a topic of greatest importance to eliminate chemical pollutants.

  17. Inhibition of human lung adenocarcinoma growth using survivint34a by low-dose systematic administration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Shan; Chunting Wang; Li Yang; Li Juan Chen; Hong Xin Deng; Han Shuo Yang; Zhimian Li; Zhiyong Li; Li Pan; Fei Leng; Yuquan Wei

    2010-06-01

    Anti-apoptosis plays an important role in tumour formation and development. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, which is a target for anti-cancer drug exploitation was replaced as development. We investigated the role of the homo dominant-negative mutant Survivin-T34A in suppressing human lung adenocarcinomas (A549). The anti-tumour activity of HSurvivinT34A plasmid was evaluated in the A549 cell line and nude mice bearing A549 subcutaneous tumours. Low-dose systemic administration was continuously used. The HSurvivinT34A plasmid (5 g/one) complexed with a cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol) significantly inhibited tumour growth in our model. We observed microvessel density degradation by CD31 immunohistochemistry and apoptotic cell increase by TUNEL assay, PI staining and flow cytometric analysis in the treated group. The present findings suggest that the HSurvivinT34A plasmid complexed with a cationic liposome may provide an effective approach to inhibit the growth of human lung adenocarcinomas in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by dextran- and polyacrylic acid-coated ceria nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Qi Wang,1 J Manuel Perez,2 Thomas J Webster1,3 1Bioengineering Program, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Ceria (CeO2 nanoparticles have been widely studied for numerous applications, but only a few recent studies have investigated their potential applications in medicine. Moreover, there have been almost no studies focusing on their possible antibacterial properties, despite the fact that such nanoparticles may reduce reactive oxygen species. In this study, we coated CeO2 nanoparticles with dextran or polyacrylic acid (PAA because of their enhanced biocompatibility properties, minimized toxicity, and reduced clearance by the immune system. For the first time, the coated CeO2 nanoparticles were tested in bacterial assays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most significant bacteria responsible for infecting numerous medical devices. The results showed that CeO2 nanoparticles with either coating significantly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by up to 55.14%, after 24 hours compared with controls (no particles. The inhibition of bacterial growth was concentration dependent. In summary, this study revealed, for the first time, that the characterized dextran- and PAA-coated CeO2 nanoparticles could be potential novel materials for numerous antibacterial applications. Keywords: antibacterial, biomedical applications

  19. Growth inhibition of BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells by expression of mutant telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rugang; Wang, Xingwang; Guo, Lixia; Xie, Hong

    2002-01-10

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia and Africa. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is expressed in HCC but absent in normal human liver cells, which is consistent with the expression pattern of telomerase. In the present study, expression of a dominant-negative form of hTERT (DN-hTERT) resulted in inhibition of telomerase activity and decreased mean telomeric length of BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells, whereas expression of wild-type hTERT (WT-hTERT) and control vector had no such effects. Cell growth was inhibited by this mutant (DN-hTERT), which was consistent with the changes in telomerase level. Flattened large cells were found in late generations with the DN-hTERT treatment. When mean telomeric length of DN-hTERT-transfected cells reached a critical length (about 1.7 kb), apoptosis was induced. Tumorigenicity of DN-hTERT-expressing cells was eliminated in vivo. These data indicated that hTERT was essential for the growth of hepatoma cells. hTERT can also be used as an important target for anti-HCC drug screening. PMID:11774261

  20. Dominant-negative inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase suppresses brain tumor cell growth and invasion and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Knyazev, Pjotr; Kunkel, Andrea; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Behrndt, Sandra; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Kiessling, Fabian; Eichelsbacher, Uta; Essig, Marco; Read, Tracy-Ann; Erber, Ralf; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Malignant gliomas remain incurable brain tumors because of their diffuse-invasive growth. So far, the genetic and molecular events underlying gliomagenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a mediator of glioma growth and invasion. We demonstrate that Axl and its ligand Gas6 are overexpressed in human glioma cell lines and that Axl is activated under baseline conditions. Furthermore, Axl is expressed at high levels in human malignant glioma. Inhibition of Axl signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative receptor mutant (AXL-DN) suppressed experimental gliomagenesis (growth inhibition >85%, P 72 days). A detailed analysis of the distinct hallmarks of glioma pathology, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and tumor angiogenesis, revealed that inhibition of Axl signaling interfered with cell proliferation (inhibition 30% versus AXL-WT), glioma cell migration (inhibition 90% versus mock and AXL-WT, P < 0.05), and invasion (inhibition 62% and 79% versus mock and AXL-WT, respectively; P < 0.05). This study describes the identification, functional manipulation, in vitro and in vivo validation, and preclinical therapeutic inhibition of a target receptor tyrosine kinase mediating glioma growth and invasion. Our findings implicate Axl in gliomagenesis and validate it as a promising target for the development of approaches toward a therapy of these highly aggressive but, as yet, therapy-refractory, tumors. PMID:16585512

  1. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Andy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression

  2. CEP-701 and CEP-751 inhibit constitutively activated RET tyrosine kinase activity and block medullary thyroid carcinoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Christopher J; Park, Jong-In; Rosen, Mark; Dionne, Craig; Ruggeri, Bruce; Jones-Bolin, Susan; Denmeade, Samuel R; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2003-09-01

    All of the cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) express the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. In essentially all of the hereditary cases and approximately 40% of the sporadic cases of MTC, the RET kinase is constitutively activated by mutation. This suggests that RET may be an effective therapeutic target for treatment of MTC. We show that the indolocarbazole derivatives, CEP-701 and CEP-751, inhibit RET in MTC cells. These compounds effectively inhibit RET phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations <100 nM in 0.5% serum and at somewhat higher concentrations in the presence of 16% serum. They also blocked the growth of these MTC cells in culture. CEP-751 and its prodrug, CEP-2563, also inhibited tumor growth in MTC cell xenografts. These results show that inhibiting RET can block the growth of MTC cells and may have a therapeutic benefit in MTC.

  3. Multi-targeted inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastasis by redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles loading disulfiram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

    2014-03-01

    Metastasis, the main cause of cancer related deaths, remains the greatest challenge in cancer treatment. Disulfiram (DSF), which has multi-targeted anti-tumor activity, was encapsulated into redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles to achieve intracellular targeted delivery and finally inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The crosslinked micelles demonstrated good stability in circulation and specifically released DSF under a reductive environment that mimicked the intracellular conditions of tumor cells. As a result, the DSF-loaded redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles (DCMs) dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion, as well as impairing tube formation of HMEC-1 cells. In addition, the DCMs could accumulate in tumor tissue and stay there for a long time, thereby causing significant inhibition of 4T1 tumor growth and marked prevention in lung metastasis of 4T1 tumors. These results suggested that DCMs could be a promising delivery system in inhibiting the growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  4. Selective inhibition of crystal growth on octacalcium phosphate and nonstoichiometric hydroxyapatite by pyrophosphate at physiological concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, N.; Brown, W. E.; Meyer, J. L.

    1991-09-01

    Octacalcium phosphate, Ca 8H 2(PO 4) 6·5H 2O (OCP), appears to be a precursor in biomineral formation. The formation of OCP as the precursor is supported by the observation that stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3OH (OHAp), cannot form directly because of the presence of its growth inhibitors in serum. Therefore, the effects of the physiological concentration of pyrophosphate (P 2O 4-7), one of the most important calcium phosphate growth inhibitors in blood, on calcium phosphate growth rates on OCP and nonstoichiometric OHAp (apatite) seeds were measured. The amounts of seed crystals used to initiate the growth were adjusted by trial and error so that the control growth rates (in the absence of P 2O 4-7) were the same on both OCP and apatite seeds at a given supersaturation. The crystal growth on both kinds of seed crystals from supersaturated solutions in the presence of 1μM P 2O 4-7 added once ("one-time" addition) at constant pH (7.4) and 25°C was determined by KOH titration and decreases in Ca and PO 4 concentrations in the solutions. Crystal growth on OCP seed crystals in the presence of a constant concentration of 1μM P 2O 4-7 was also measured. The growing phases were characterized by ‡Ca/‡PO 4 ratios, chemical potential plots, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The results of this study show that: (1) P 2O 4-7 ions inhibited the growth on the apatite seeds more than on the OCP seeds; (2) apparently OCP precipitated on both types of seeds, followed by its hydrolysis to a more apatite-like phase; (3) slower crystal growth was observed on OCP seeds in the presence of a constant physiological concentration of P 2O 4-7 (1μM) than in the "one-time" addition of P 2O 4-7.

  5. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  6. Quinacrine inhibits Candida albicans growth and filamentation at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarny, Vibhati V; Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Rane, Hallie S; Jahng, Maximillian; Bernardo, Stella M; Parra, Karlett J; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is a common cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), in part due to its strong propensity to form biofilms. Drug repurposing is an approach that might identify agents that are able to overcome antifungal drug resistance within biofilms. Quinacrine (QNC) is clinically active against the eukaryotic protozoan parasites Plasmodium and Giardia. We sought to investigate the antifungal activity of QNC against C. albicans biofilms. C. albicans biofilms were incubated with QNC at serially increasing concentrations (4 to 2,048 μg/ml) and assessed using a 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay in a static microplate model. Combinations of QNC and standard antifungals were assayed using biofilm checkerboard analyses. To define a mechanism of action, QNC was assessed for the inhibition of filamentation, effects on endocytosis, and pH-dependent activity. High-dose QNC was effective for the prevention and treatment of C. albicans biofilms in vitro. QNC with fluconazole had no interaction, while the combination of QNC and either caspofungin or amphotericin B demonstrated synergy. QNC was most active against planktonic growth at alkaline pH. QNC dramatically inhibited filamentation. QNC accumulated within vacuoles as expected and caused defects in endocytosis. A tetracycline-regulated VMA3 mutant lacking vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) function demonstrated increased susceptibility to QNC. These experiments indicate that QNC is active against C. albicans growth in a pH-dependent manner. Although QNC activity is not biofilm specific, QNC is effective in the prevention and treatment of biofilms. QNC antibiofilm activity likely occurs via several independent mechanisms: vacuolar alkalinization, inhibition of endocytosis, and impaired filamentation. Further investigation of QNC for the treatment and prevention of biofilm-related Candida CR-BSI is warranted. PMID:25288082

  7. Inhibition of Rho-Associated Kinase 1/2 Attenuates Tumor Growth in Murine Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Hinsenkamp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC remains a malignant disease with high mortality. Patients are frequently diagnosed in advanced stages where survival prognosis is poor. Thus, there is high medical need to find novel drug targets and treatment strategies. Recently, the comprehensive molecular characterization of GC subtypes revealed mutations in the small GTPase RHOA as a hallmark of diffuse-type GC. RHOA activates RHO-associated protein kinases (ROCK1/2 which regulate cell contractility, migration and growth and thus may play a role in cancer. However, therapeutic benefit of RHO-pathway inhibition in GC has not been shown so far. The ROCK1/2 inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl-homopiperazine (HA-1077, fasudil is approved for cerebrovascular bleeding in patients. We therefore investigated whether fasudil (i.p., 10 mg/kg per day, 4 times per week, 4 weeks inhibits tumor growth in a preclinical model of GC. Fasudil evoked cell death in human GC cells and reduced the tumor size in the stomach of CEA424-SV40 TAg transgenic mice. Small animal PET/CT confirmed preclinical efficacy. Mass spectrometry imaging identified a translatable biomarker for mouse GC and suggested rapid but incomplete in situ distribution of the drug to gastric tumor tissue. RHOA expression was increased in the neoplastic murine stomach compared with normal non-malignant gastric tissue, and fasudil reduced (auto phosphorylation of ROCK2 at THR249 in vivo and in human GC cells in vitro. In sum, our data suggest that RHO-pathway inhibition may constitute a novel strategy for treatment of GC and that enhanced distribution of future ROCK inhibitors into tumor tissue may further improve efficacy.

  8. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency.

  9. Potassium inhibits dietary salt-induced transforming growth factor-beta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal; Wang, Pei-Xuan; Sanders, Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular function and life span. The endothelium in particular augments the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a fibrogenic growth factor, in response to excess dietary salt intake. This study explored the initiating mechanism that regulates salt-induced endothelial cell production of TGF-beta. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing different amounts of NaCl and potassium for 4 days. A bioassay for TGF-beta demonstrated increased (35.2%) amounts of active TGF-beta in the medium of aortic ring segments from rats on the high-salt diet compared with rats maintained on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel inhibited dietary salt-induced vascular production of TGF-beta but did not affect production of TGF-beta by ring segments from rats on the low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical and Western analyses demonstrated the alpha subunit of the calcium-activated potassium channel in endothelial cells. Increasing medium [K+] inhibited production of dietary salt-induced vascular production levels of total and active TGF-beta but did not alter TGF-beta production by aortic rings from rats on the 0.3% NaCl diet. Increasing dietary potassium content decreased urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the high-salt diet but did not change urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the low-salt diet. The findings demonstrated an interesting interaction between the dietary intake of potassium and excess NaCl and further showed the fundamental role of the endothelial calcium-activated potassium channel in the vascular response to excess salt intake.

  10. Methoxychlor inhibits growth and induces atresia through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in mouse ovarian antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-08-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide used against pests that attack crops, vegetables, and livestock. MXC inhibits growth and induces atresia (death) of mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro. Since several studies indicate that many chemicals act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, the current study tested the hypothesis that MXC binds to the AHR to inhibit growth and induce atresia of antral follicles. The data indicate that MXC binds to AHR. Further, a relatively high dose of MXC (100μg/ml) inhibits growth and induces atresia in both wild-type (WT) and AHR null (AHRKO) follicles, whereas a lower dose of MXC (10μg/ml) inhibits growth and induces atresia in WT, but not in AHRKO follicles. These data indicate that AHR deletion partially protects antral follicles from MXC induced slow growth and atresia. Collectively, these data show that MXC may act through the AHR pathway to inhibit follicle growth and induce atresia in antral follicles of the ovary.

  11. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Sylvie, E-mail: lamy.sylvie@uqam.ca; Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  12. The isoflavone metabolite 6-methoxyequol inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellou Sofia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased consumption of plant-based diets has been linked to the presence of certain phytochemicals, including polyphenols such as flavonoids. Several of these compounds exert their protective effect via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Identification of additional phytochemicals with potential antiangiogenic activity is important not only for understanding the mechanism of the preventive effect, but also for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Results In an attempt to identify phytochemicals contributing to the well-documented preventive effect of plant-based diets on cancer incidence and mortality, we have screened a set of hitherto untested phytoestrogen metabolites concerning their anti-angiogenic effect, using endothelial cell proliferation as an end point. Here, we show that a novel phytoestrogen, 6-methoxyequol (6-ME, inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVE cells, whereas VEGF-induced migration and survival of HUVE cells remained unaffected. In addition, 6-ME inhibited FGF-2-induced proliferation of bovine brain capillary endothelial (BBCE cells. In line with its role in cell proliferation, 6-ME inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the key cascade responsible for VEGF-induced proliferation of endothelial cells. In this context, 6-ME inhibited in a dose dependent manner the phosphorylation of MEK1/2, the only known upstream activator of ERK1/2. 6-ME did not alter VEGF-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK or AKT, compatible with the lack of effect on VEGF-induced migration and survival of endothelial cells. Peri-tumor injection of 6-ME in A-431 xenograft tumors resulted in reduced tumor growth with suppressed neovasularization compared to vehicle controls (P  Conclusions 6-ME inhibits VEGF- and FGF2-induced proliferation of ECs by targeting the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and it downstream substrate ERK1/2, both key components of the mitogenic MAPK

  13. Inhibition of growth and alteration of host cell interactions of Pasteurella multocida with natural byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, S; Almario, J A; Biswas, D

    2014-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of fowl cholera in both free-range pasture and conventional/commercially raised poultry. Its infection is a serious threat to poultry health and overall flock viability. Organic poultry is comparatively more vulnerable to this pathogen. It is a significant cause of production loss and price increase of poultry products, specifically organic poultry products. Some plant products are well documented as sources of natural antimicrobials such as polyphenols found in different berry pomaces and citrus oil. Pomace, a byproduct (primarily of seeds and skins) of fruits used for juice and wine production, and citrus oil, the byproduct of citrus juice production, show promising antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. Here, we showed for the first time that blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts and citrus oil inhibited P. multocida growth. Minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined as 0.3 and 0.4 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent for blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts, respectively. Similarly, only 0.05% citrus oil (vol/vol) completely inhibited P. multocida growth. Under shaking conditions, the antimicrobial activity of both pomace extracts and citrus oil was more intensive. Even citrus oil vapor also significantly reduced the growth of P. multocida. In addition, cell surface hydrophobicity of P. multocida was increased by 2- to 3-fold and its adherence to chicken fibroblast (DF1) and bovine mammary gland (MacT) cells was reduced significantly in the presence of pomace extracts only. This study indicates that these natural products might be good alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents, and hence, may be used as feed or water supplements to control fowl cholera and reduce production loss caused by P. multocida. PMID:24879687

  14. Small interference RNA targeting tissue factor inhibits human lung adenocarcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human coagulation trigger tissue factor (TF is overexpressed in several types of cancer and involved in tumor growth, vascularization, and metastasis. To explore the role of TF in biological processes of lung adenocarcinoma, we used RNA interference (RNAi technology to silence TF in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 with high-level expression of TF and evaluate its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Methods The specific small interfering RNA (siRNA designed for targeting human TF was transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TF was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The metastatic potential of A549 cells was determined by wound healing, the mobility and Matrigel invasion assays. Expressions of PI3K/Akt, Erk1/2, VEGF and MMP-2/-9 in transfected cells were detected by Western blot. In vivo, the effect of TF-siRNA on the growth of A549 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice was investigated. Results TF -siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TF in the mRNA and protein levels. The down-regulation of TF in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as VEGF and MMP-2/-9 expressions were inhibited in TF-siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, intratumoral injection of siRNA targeting TF suppressed the tumor growth of A549 cells in vivo model of lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions Down-regulation of TF using siRNA could provide a potential approach for gene therapy against lung adenocarcinoma, and the antitumor effects may be associated with inhibition of Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt pathways.

  15. Slit2 Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Fibrosarcoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyung Kim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Slits are a group of secreted glycoproteins that play a role in the regulation of cell migration. Previous studies suggested that Slit2 might be a tumor-suppressor gene. However, it remained to be determined whether Slit2 suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in animal models. We showed that Slit2 expression was decreased or abolished in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs compared to normal tissues by in situ hybridization. Stable transfection of human SCC A431 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with Slit2 gene suppressed tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Apoptosis in Slit2-transfected tumors was increased, whereas proliferating cells were decreased, suggesting a mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression. This was supported by further analysis indicating that antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and cell cycle molecules Cdk6 and Cyclin D1 were down-regulated in Slit2-transfected tumors. Furthermore, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays showed that the transfection with Slit2 inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Slit2-transfected tumors showed a high level of keratin 8/18 and a low level of N-cadherin expression compared to empty vector-transfected tumors. More importantly, Slit2 transfection suppressed the metastasis of HT1080 tumor cells in lungs after intravenous inoculation. Collectively, our study has demonstrated that Slit2 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and SCC and that its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis signal pathways is an important mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression.

  16. Slit2 inhibits growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zhang, Hong; Li, Hui; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Swisher, Stephen; He, Donggou; Wu, Lizhi; Xu, Jianmin; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Xu, Xìao-chun; Xu, Hui

    2008-12-01

    Slits are a group of secreted glycoproteins that play a role in the regulation of cell migration. Previous studies suggested that Slit2 might be a tumor-suppressor gene. However, it remained to be determined whether Slit2 suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in animal models. We showed that Slit2 expression was decreased or abolished in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) compared to normal tissues by in situ hybridization. Stable transfection of human SCC A431 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with Slit2 gene suppressed tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Apoptosis in Slit2-transfected tumors was increased, whereas proliferating cells were decreased, suggesting a mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression. This was supported by further analysis indicating that antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and cell cycle molecules Cdk6 and Cyclin D1 were down-regulated in Slit2-transfected tumors. Furthermore, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays showed that the transfection with Slit2 inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Slit2-transfected tumors showed a high level of keratin 8/18 and a low level of N-cadherin expression compared to empty vector-transfected tumors. More importantly, Slit2 transfection suppressed the metastasis of HT1080 tumor cells in lungs after intravenous inoculation. Collectively, our study has demonstrated that Slit2 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and SCC and that its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis signal pathways is an important mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression.

  17. Inhibition of growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by the lactoperoxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-09-01

    Neonatal bacteremia and meningitis caused by the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii have been associated with the consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. Lactoperoxidase (LPO), present in mammalian milk, is known to inhibit the growth of enteric pathogens. We undertook a study to determine if the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) will inhibit the growth of E. sakazakii in a milk-based powdered infant formula reconstituted with water. Initially at 0.04 CFU/ml, E. sakazakii grew to 2.40 to 2.74 log CFU/ml in reconstituted infant formula held at 30 or 37 degrees C for 8 h and to 0.6 log CFU/ ml in formula held for 12 h at 21 degrees C. The pathogen was not detected (less than 1 CFU/227 ml) by enrichment of formula treated with 10 to 30 microg/ml LPO and stored for 24 h at 37 degrees C or 30 microg/ml LPO and stored for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Populations of E. sakazakii, initially at 4.40 log CFU/ml of reconstituted infant formula containing 5 microg/ml LPO, did not increase significantly (P > 0.05) for up to 12 h at 21 and 30 degrees C. Populations either decreased significantly or were unchanged in formula supplemented with 10 microg/ml LPO and stored at 21, 30, or 37 degrees C for up to 24, 8, and 8 h, respectively. Results indicate that LPOS can be used to control the growth of E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula, thereby potentially reducing the risk of neonatal infections resulting from consumption of formula that may be contaminated with the pathogen.

  18. Lidamycin shows highly potent cytotoxic to myeloma cells and inhibits tumor growth in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhan ZHEN; Ya-jun LIN; Yi LI; Yong-su ZHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of lidamycin (LDM) on a mouse myeloma cell line (SP2/O) and human multiple myeloma cell lines (U266 and SKO-007),and provide the basis for the use of LDM in cancer therapy.Methods:A 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]5-[3-carboxymethoxypheny1]-2-[4-sulfopheny1]2H-tetrazolium inner salt (MTS) assay was used to determine the degree of growth inhibition by the drugs analyzed in this study.Cell cycle distribution and analysis were measured by flow cytometry combined with propidium iodide (PI) staining.The effects on apoptosis were measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and by flow cytometry combined with fluorescein-isothiocyanate-Annexin V/propidium iodide (FITC-Annexin V/PI) staining.Protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis.In vivo antitumor activity was measured using a murine myeloma model in BALB/c mice.Results:There was a significant reduction in cell proliferation after treatment with LDM.The overall growth inhibition correlated with increased apoptotic cell death.LDM-induced cell apoptosis was associated with the activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK),and cleavage of caspase-3/7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).LDM markedly suppressed tumor growth in a murine myeloma model.Conclusion:LDM induces apoptosis in murine myeloma SP2/O cells as well as in human myeloma U266 and SKO-O07 cell lines.The sustained activation of JNK might play a critical role in LDM-induced apoptosis in the SP2/O cell line.LDM demonstrates significant antitumor efficacy against myeloma SP2/O cells in mice.Taken together,our data provide some clues for further research of the effects of LDM on human multiple myeloma.

  19. Tumstatin transfected into human glioma cell line U251 represses tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong-xing; YAO Yu; JIANG Xin-jun; YUAN Xian-rui

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor growth and plays an important role in rapidly growing tumors,such as malignant gliomas.A variety of factors controlling the angiogenic balance have been described,and among these,the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis,tumstatin,has drawn considerable attention.The current study investigated whether expression of tumstatin by glioma cells could alter this balance and prevent tumor formation.Methods We engineered stable transfectants from human glioma cell line U251 to constitutively secrete a human tumstatin protein with c-myc and polyhistidine tags.Production and secretion of the tumstatin-c-myc-His fusion protein by tumstatin-transfected cells were confirmed by Western blotting analysis.In the present study,we identify the anti-angiogenic capacity of tumstatin using several in vitro and in vivo assays.Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used to determine the statistical significance in this study.Results The tumstatin transfectants and control transfectants (stably transfected with a control plasmid) had similar in vitro growth rates compared to their parental cell lines.However,the conditioned medium from the tumstatin transfected tumor cells significantly inhibits proliferation and causes apoptosis of endothelial cells.It also inhibits tube formation of endothelial cells on Matrigel.Examination of armpit tumors arising from cells overexpressing tumstatin repress the growth of tumor,accompanying the decreased density of CD31 positive vessels in tumors ((5.62±1.32)/HP),compared to the control-transfectants group ((23.84+1.71)/HP) and wild type U251 glioma cells group ((29.33+4.45)/HP).Conclusion Anti-angiogenic gene therapy using human tumstatin gene may be an effective strategy for the treatment of glioma.

  20. Adenovirus-mediated expression of SSAT inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui SUN; Bin LIU; Ya-pei YANG; Chun-xiao XU; Yun-fei YAN; Wei WANG; Xian-xi LIU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To construct a recombinant adenovirus that can express human spermidine/ spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and detect its inhibitory effect on colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro. Methods: A 516 bp eDNA of SSAT was amplified and cloned into a pGL3-hTERT plasmid. The pGL3-hTERT-SSAT recombinant was digested, and the small fragment was cloned into the shuttle vector pAdTrack. The pAdTrack-hTERT-SSAT plasmids were recombined with pAdEasy-1 vectors in AdEasy-1 cells. Positive clones were selected and transfected into the HEK293 packaging cells (transformed human embryonic kidney cells) after they were lin-earized by PacI. The process of adenovirus packaging and amplification was monitored by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The SSAT protein levels were determined by Western blotting, and the intracellular polyamine con-tent was detected by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The MTS (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiaol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(-4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) and colony-forming assays were used to analyze the gene transduction efficiency and effect on the growth of HT-29 and LoVo cells. A viable cell count was used to determine the cell growth with or without exogenous polyamines. Results: The GFP expression in 293 cells during virus packing and amplification was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Western blotting results demonstrated that Ad-hTERT-SSAT could increase the expres-sion of SSAT, and consequently, spermidine and spermine were reduced to low levels. The MTS and colony-forming assay results showed that HT-29 and LoVo cell growth were significantly inhibited, and the inhibitory effect could be partially reversed by exogenous spermidine and spermine. Conclusion: The successfully constructed recombinant adenovirus Ad-hTERT-SSAT could accelerate polyamine catabolism and inhibit the colorectal cell growth in vitro. It also has therapeutic potential in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  1. Dexamethasone and zinc in combination inhibit the anchorage-independent growth of S-91 Cloudman murine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc inhibited the colony formation of Cloudman S-91 murine melanoma cells in a dose dependent manner with an ID50 of 3.4 μg/ml. Total inhibition of the melanoma colony-forming units occurred at a zinc concentration of 4.42 μg/ml. In the presence of dexamethasone the ID50 for zinc inhibition was reduced by 49% and total inhibition of anchorage-independent growth occurred at the achievable in vivo zinc concentration of 3.0 μg/ml. Dexamethasone and zinc in combination effected a greater than additive inhibition of the murine melanoma colony-forming units. Statistical evaluation of these results showed that zinc and dexamethasone interacted synergistically to inhibit the formation of murine melanoma colonies. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  2. Celecoxib-erlotinib combination delays growth and inhibits angiogenesis in EGFR-mutated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Xiao; Wang, Jia Le; Gao, Meng; Tang, Hao; Gui, Rong; Fu, Yun Feng

    2016-01-01

    Combination treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is becoming more popular due to the anticipation that it may be more effective than single drug treatment. In addition, there are efforts to genetically screen patients for specific mutations in light of attempting to administer specific anticancer agents that are most effective. In this study, we evaluate the anticancer and anti-angiogenic effects of low dose celecoxib-erlotinib combination in NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. In NSCLC cells harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, combination celecoxib-erlotinib treatment led to synergistic cell death, but there was minimal efficacy in NSCLC cells with wild-type EGFR. In xenograft models, combination treatment also demonstrated greater inhibition of tumor growth compared to individual treatment. The anti-tumor effect observed was secondary to the targeting of angiogenesis, evidenced by decreased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) levels and decreased levels of CD31 and microvessel density. Combination treatment targets angiogenesis through the modulation of of the PI3K/AKT and ERK/Raf1-1 pathway in NSCLC with EGFR exon 19 deletions. These findings may have significant clinical implications in patients with tumors harboring EGFR exon 19 deletions as they may be particularly sensitive to this regimen. PMID:27508092

  3. Gene expression profile change and growth inhibition in Drosophila larvae treated with azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Duo; Jin, Xiaoyong; Wang, Hao; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-09-20

    Azadirachtin is a botanical insecticide that affects various biological processes. The effects of azadirachtin on the digital gene expression profile and growth inhibition in Drosophila larvae have not been investigated. In this study, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the differentially expressed genes of Drosophila larvae regulated by azadirachtin. A total of 15,322 genes were detected, and 28 genes were found to be significantly regulated by azadirachtin. Biological process and pathway analysis showed that azadirachtin affected starch and sucrose metabolism, defense response, signal transduction, instar larval or pupal development, and chemosensory behavior processes. The genes regulated by azadirachtin were mainly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism. This study provided a general digital gene expression profile of dysregulated genes in response to azadirachtin and showed that azadirachtin provoked potent growth inhibitory effects in Drosophila larvae by regulating the genes of cuticular protein, amylase, and odorant-binding protein. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism underlying the dysregulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway by azadirachtin. PMID:24956222

  4. TSC22D2 interacts with PKM2 and inhibits cell growth in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Li, Qiao; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Gong, Zhaojian; Deng, Hao; Xiang, Bo; Zhou, Ming; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Xiong, Wei

    2016-09-01

    We previously identified TSC22D2 (transforming growth factor β-stimulated clone 22 domain family, member 2) as a novel cancer-associated gene in a rare multi-cancer family. However, its role in tumor development remains completely unknown. In this study, we found that TSC22D2 was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) and that TSC22D2 overexpression inhibited cell growth. Using a co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay combined with mass spectrometry analysis to identify TSC22D2-interacting proteins, we demonstrated that TSC22D2 interacts with pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2). These findings were confirmed by the results of immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, overexpression of TSC22D2 reduced the level of nuclear PKM2 and suppressed cyclin D1 expression. Collectively, our study reveals a growth suppressor function of TSC22D2 that is at least partially dependent on the TSC22D2-PKM2-cyclinD1 regulatory axis. In addition, our data provide important clues that might contribute to future studies evaluating the role of TSC22D2. PMID:27573352

  5. Fermented wheat aleurone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicki, Anke; Stein, Katrin; Scharlau, Daniel; Scheu, Kerstin; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Obst, Ursula; Hollmann, Jürgen; Lindhauer, Meinolf; Wachter, Norbert; Glei, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microflora may enhance levels of SCFA, which are potentially chemoprotective against colon cancer. Functional food containing wheat aleurone may prevent cancer by influencing cell cycle and cell death. We investigated effects of fermented wheat aleurone on growth and apoptosis of HT29 cells. Wheat aleurone, flour and bran were digested and fermented in vitro. The resulting fermentation supernatants (fs) were analysed for their major metabolites (SCFA, bile acids and ammonia). HT29 cells were treated for 24-72 h with the fs or synthetic mixtures mimicking the fs in SCFA, butyrate or deoxycholic acid (DCA) contents, and the influence on cell growth was determined. Fs aleurone was used to investigate the modulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. The fermented wheat samples contained two- to threefold higher amounts of SCFA than the faeces control (blank), but reduced levels of bile acids and increased concentrations of ammonia. Fs aleurone and flour equally reduced cell growth of HT29 more effectively than the corresponding blank and the SCFA mixtures. The EC(50) (48 h) ranged from 10 % (flour) to 19 % (blank). Markedly after 48 h, fs aleurone (10 %) significantly induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, fermentation of wheat aleurone results in a reduced level of tumour-promoting DCA, but higher levels of potentially chemopreventive SCFA. Fermented wheat aleurone is able to induce apoptosis and to block cell cycle - two essential markers of secondary chemoprevention.

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum B7 inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth and attenuates gastric inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chompoonut Sunanliganon; Duangporn Thong-Ngam; Somying Tumwasorn; Naruemon Klaikeaw

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the anti-Helicobacter property of Lactobacillus plantarum B7 (L.plantarum) B7 supernatants in vitro and the protective effects of L.plantarum B7 on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) level,apoptosis,and histopathology in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylorl)-induced gastric inflammation in rats.METHODS:In vitro,the inhibition of H,pylori growth was examined using L.plantarum B7 supernatants at pH 4 and pH 7 and at the concentration of 1×,5× and 10× on plates inoculated with H.pylori.The inhibitory effect of H.pylori was interpreted by the size of the inhibition zone.In vitro,male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups including group 1 (control group),group 2 (H.pylori infected group),group 3 (H.pylori infected with L.plantarum B7 10é CFUs/mL treated group) and group 4 (H.pylori infected with L.plantarum B7 1010 CFUs/mL treated group).One week after H.pylori inoculation,L.plantarum B7 106 CFUs/mL or 1010 CFUs/mL were fed once daily to group 3 and group 4,respectively,for one week.Blood and gastric samples were collected at the end of the study.RESULTS:In vitro,at intact pH 4,mean inhibitory zone diameters of 8.5 mm and 13 mm were noted at concentrations of 5× and 10× of L.plantarum B7supernatant disks,respectively.At adjusted pH 7,L.plantarum B7 supernatants at concentrations of 5 × and 10× yielded mean inhibitory zone diameters of 6.5 mm and 11 mm,respectively.In the in vitro study,in group 2,stomach histopathology revealed mild to moderate H.pylori colonization and inflammation.The level of gastric MDA and epithelial cell apoptosis were significantly increased compared with group 1.The serum TNF-α level was significant decreased in group 3compared with group 2 (P < 0.05).In addition,L.plantarum B7 treatments resulted in a significant improvement in stomach pathology,and decreased gastric MDA level and apoptotic epithelial cells.CONCLUSION:L.plantarum B7 supernatant inhibits H

  7. Proanthocyanidins inhibit in vitro and in vivo growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting the prostaglandin E(2) and prostaglandin E(2) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Som D; Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-03-01

    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandins (PG) is linked to a wide variety of human cancers. Here, we assessed whether the chemotherapeutic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells is mediated through the inhibition of COX-2 and PGE(2)/PGE(2) receptor expression. The effects of GSPs on human NSCLC cell lines in terms of proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of COX-2, PGE(2), and PGE(2) receptors were determined using Western blotting, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR. In vitro treatment of NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H460, H226, and H157) with GSPs resulted in significant growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis, which were associated with the inhibitory effects of GSPs on the overexpression of COX-2, PGE(2), and PGE(2) receptors (EP1 and EP4) in these cells. Treatment of cells with indomethacin, a pan-COX inhibitor, or transient transfection of cells with COX-2 small interfering RNA, also inhibited cell growth and induced cell death. The effects of a GSP-supplemented AIN76A control diet fed to nude mice bearing tumor xenografts on the expression of COX-2, PGE(2), and PGE(2) receptors in the xenografts were also evaluated. The growth-inhibitory effect of dietary GSPs (0.5%, w/w) on the NSCLC xenograft tumors was associated with the inhibition of COX-2, PGE(2), and PGE(2) receptors (EP1, EP3, and EP4) in tumors. This preclinical study provides evidence that the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs on lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo is mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of COX-2 expression and subsequently the inhibition of PGE(2) and PGE(2) receptors. PMID:20145019

  8. Red and infrared laser therapy inhibits in vitro growth of major bacterial species that commonly colonize skin ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves; Gomes, Rosana Caetano; Santos, Marcos Ferracioli; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Martinez, Roberto; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is used in chronic wounds due to its healing effects. However, bacterial species may colonize these wounds and the optimal parameters for effective bacterial inhibition are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of LLLT on bacterial growth in vitro. Bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were suspended in saline solution at a concentration of 10(3) cells/ml and exposed to laser irradiation at wavelengths of 660, 830, and 904 nm at fluences of 0 (control), 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 J/cm(2). An aliquot of the irradiated suspension was spread on the surface of petri plates and incubated at 37 °C for quantification of colony-forming unit after 24, 48, and 72 h. Laser irradiation inhibited the growth of S. aureus at all wavelengths and fluences higher than 12 J/cm(2), showing a strong correlation between increase in fluence and bacterial inhibition. However, for P. aeruginosa, LLLT inhibited growth at all wavelengths only at a fluence of 24 J/cm(2). E. coli had similar growth inhibition at a wavelength of 830 nm at fluences of 3, 6, 12, and 24 J/cm(2). At wavelengths of 660 and 904 nm, growth inhibition was only observed at fluences of 12 and 18 J/cm(2), respectively. LLLT inhibited bacterial growth at all wavelengths, for a maximum of 72 h after irradiation, indicating a correlation between bacterial species, fluence, and wavelength. PMID:26886585

  9. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    , we confirmed by clonogenic-assay that DDNDBeQ treatment significantly (p<0.001) inhibits H1299 colony-formation as compared to control/DDN. Overall, encapsulation of potent VCP-inhibitor DBeQ into a dendrimer allows selective VCP-mediated proteostasis-inhibition for controlling NSCLC-tumor growth and progression to allow tumor-targeted sustained drug delivery. PMID:27434122

  10. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Walworth

    -DDN. Moreover, we confirmed by clonogenic-assay that DDNDBeQ treatment significantly (p<0.001 inhibits H1299 colony-formation as compared to control/DDN. Overall, encapsulation of potent VCP-inhibitor DBeQ into a dendrimer allows selective VCP-mediated proteostasis-inhibition for controlling NSCLC-tumor growth and progression to allow tumor-targeted sustained drug delivery.

  11. Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Qingyi [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Qing, Yong, E-mail: qingyongxy@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Pharmacology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wu, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Hu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Lei [Department of Pharmacology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wu, Xiaohua, E-mail: wuxh@scu.edu.cn [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways. - Highlights: • Dioscin inhibits tumor growth in vivo and does not exhibit any toxicity. • Dioscin inhibits angiogenesis within solid tumors. • Dioscin inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs. • Dioscin inhibits VEGF–induced blood vessel formation in vivo. • Dioscin inhibits VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathway.

  12. Inhibition of fibroblast growth by Notch1 signaling is mediated by induction of Wnt11-dependent WISP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Liu

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are an integral component of stroma and important source of growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM. They play a prominent role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and in wound healing and tumor growth. Notch signaling regulates biological function in a variety of cells. To elucidate the physiological function of Notch signaling in fibroblasts, we ablated Notch1 in mouse (Notch1(Flox/Flox embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. Notch1-deficient (Notch1(-/- MEFs displayed faster growth and motility rate compared to Notch1(Flox/Flox MEFs. Such phenotypic changes, however, were reversible by reconstitution of Notch1 activation via overexpression of the intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD1 in Notch1-deficient MEFs. In contrast, constitutive activation of Notch1 signaling by introducing NICD1 into primary human dermal fibroblasts (FF2441, which caused pan-Notch activation, inhibited cell growth and motility, whereas cellular inhibition was relievable when the Notch activation was countered with dominant-negative mutant of Master-mind like 1 (DN-MAML-1. Functionally, "Notch-activated" stromal fibroblasts could inhibit tumor cell growth/invasion. Moreover, Notch activation induced expression of Wnt-induced secreted proteins-1 (WISP-1/CCN4 in FF2441 cells while deletion of Notch1 in MEFs resulted in an opposite effect. Notably, WISP-1 suppressed fibroblast proliferation, and was responsible for mediating Notch1's inhibitory effect since siRNA-mediated blockade of WISP-1 expression could relieve cell growth inhibition. Notch1-induced WISP-1 expression appeared to be Wnt11-dependent, but Wnt1-independent. Blockade of Wnt11 expression resulted in decreased WISP-1 expression and liberated Notch-induced cell growth inhibition. These findings indicated that inhibition of fibroblast proliferation by Notch pathway activation is mediated, at least in part, through regulating Wnt1-independent, but Wnt11-dependent WISP-1 expression.

  13. Biodegradable polymeric micelles encapsulated JK184 suppress tumor growth through inhibiting Hedgehog signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Ning; Deng, Senyi; Song, Linjiang; Wu, Qinjie; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Xie, Yongmei; Gong, Changyang

    2015-01-01

    JK184 can specially inhibit Gli in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, which showed great promise for cancer therapeutics. For developing aqueous formulation and improving anti-tumor activity of JK184, we prepared JK184 encapsulated MPEG-PCL micelles by the solid dispersion method without using surfactants or toxic organic solvents. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of JK184 micelles were both increased compared with the free drug. JK184 micelles induced more apoptosis and blocked proliferation of Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor cells. In addition, JK184 micelles exerted a sustained in vitro release behavior and had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs than free JK184. Furthermore, JK184 micelles had stronger tumor growth inhibiting effects in subcutaneous Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor models. Histological analysis showed that JK184 micelles improved anti-tumor activity by inducing more apoptosis, decreasing microvessel density and reducing expression of CD31, Ki67, and VEGF in tumor tissues. JK184 micelles showed a stronger inhibition of Gli expression in Hh signaling, which played an important role in pancreatic carcinoma. Furthermore, circulation time of JK184 in blood was prolonged after entrapment in polymeric micelles. Our results suggested that JK184 micelles are a promising drug candidate for treating pancreatic tumors with a highly inhibitory effect on Hh activity.JK184 can specially inhibit Gli in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, which showed great promise for cancer therapeutics. For developing aqueous formulation and improving anti-tumor activity of JK184, we prepared JK184 encapsulated MPEG-PCL micelles by the solid dispersion method without using surfactants or toxic organic solvents. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of JK184 micelles were both increased compared with the free drug. JK184 micelles induced more apoptosis and blocked proliferation of Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor cells. In addition, JK184 micelles exerted a sustained in

  14. Indomethacin suppresses growth of colon cancer via inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Wang; Gui-Ying Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: It has been reported that regular consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like indomethacin decreases the incidence and mortality rate of a number of gastrointestinal cancers. We aimed to explore the efficacy and possible mechanisms of indomethacin on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice,METHODS: MTT (thiazolyl blue) assay was used to assess the effect of indomethacin on cultured human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. HCT116 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c-nu/nu mice. After oral administration of indomethacin, 3 mg/kg·d for 4 wk, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to determine the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)expression in tumor tissues.RESULTS: Indomethacin, a non-selective COX inhibitor,significantly decreased the viability of HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) with 50% inhibition at approximately 318.2±12.7 μmol/L. Growth of HCT116 cell tumor was significantly suppressed by indomethacin. The tumor volume was significantly decreased in the treated group (458.89±32.07 mm3) compared to the control group (828.21±31.59 mm3) (P<0.05). The MVD of the treated group (19.50±5.32) was markedly decreased compared to the control group (37.40±4.93) (P<0.001). The VEGF expression of the treated group (1.19±0.17) was obviously reduced as compared to the control group (1.90±0.48)(P<0.01). The decrease in MVD was positively correlated with the decrease of VEGF expression (rs = 0.714, P<0.05).We did not see gastrointestinal complications in the treated group and no differences were noted in the body weight of the mice between the two groups throughout the study (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Indomethacin can significantly decrease the viability of cultured HCT116 cells and retard human colorectal HCT116 cell tumor growth via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, which might be through

  15. Resveratrol inhibits myeloma cell growth, prevents osteoclast formation, and promotes osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, Patrice; Andersen, Thomas L; Abdallah, Basem M;

    2005-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by the accumulation of clonal malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, which stimulates bone destruction by osteoclasts and reduces bone formation by osteoblasts. In turn, the changed bone microenvironment sustains survival of myeloma cells. Therefore......, a challenge for treating multiple myeloma is discovering drugs targeting not only myeloma cells but also osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Because resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is reported to display antitumor activities on a variety of human cancer cells, we investigated the effects...... of this natural compound on myeloma and bone cells. We found that resveratrol reduces dose-dependently the growth of myeloma cell lines (RPMI 8226 and OPM-2) by a mechanism involving cell apoptosis. In cultures of human primary monocytes, resveratrol inhibits dose-dependently receptor activator of nuclear factor...

  16. Enhanced non-vitreous cryopreservation of immortalized and primary cells by ice-growth inhibiting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Robert C; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Vatish, Manu; Mitchell, Daniel A; Gibson, Matthew I

    2016-07-21

    Cell cryopreservation is an essential tool in modern biotechnology and medicine. The ability to freeze, store and distribute materials underpins basic cell biology and enables storage of donor cells needed for transplantation and regenerative medicine. However, many cell types do not survive freezing and the current state-of-the-art involves the addition of significant amounts of organic solvents as cryoprotectants, which themselves can be cytotoxic, or simply interfere with assays. A key cause of cell death in cryopreservation is ice recrystallization (growth), which primarily occurs during thawing. Here it is demonstrated that the addition of ice recrystalization inhibiting polymers to solutions containing low (non vitrifying) concentrations of DMSO enhance cell recovery rates by up to 75%. Cell functionality is also demonstrated using a placental cell line, and enhanced cryopreservation of primary rat hepatocytes is additionally shown. The crucial role of the polymers architecture (chain length) is shown, with shorter polymers being more effective than longer ones. PMID:27152370

  17. The combinational effect of vincristine and berberine on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wei, Dandan; Han, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Chengzhong; Zhang, Jie; Mo, Chunfen; Yang, Ming; Li, Junhong; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Qin; Xiao, Hengyi

    2014-04-01

    The use of vincristine, a known antitumor agent, in hepatoma therapy is limited particularly because of its toxic effect. Meanwhile, berberine has drawn increasing attention to its antineoplastic effect in recent years. In view of the advantages of combinational drug treatment reported in anti-cancer chemotherapy, we evaluated the effects of co-treatment of vincristine and berberine on hepatic carcinoma cell lines in this study. We find that combinational usage of these two drugs can significantly induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis even under a concentration of vincristine barely showing cytotoxicity in the same cells when used alone. The underlying mechanism about this combinational effect was addressed in this study by monitoring the signals related to mitochondrial function, apoptotic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our results suggest a new value of berberine as a potential adjuvant agent in cancer chemotherapy and provide a hopeful approach for developing hepatoma therapy by utilizing the combinational effect of vincristine and berberine.

  18. Bleomycin in octaarginine-modified fusogenic liposomes results in improved tumor growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkaryev, Alexander; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-07-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is an example of an anticancer drug that should be delivered into cytosol for its efficient therapeutic action. With this in mind, we developed octaarginine (R8)-modified fusogenic DOPE-liposomes (R8-DOPE-BLM). R8-modification dramatically increased (up to 50-fold) the cell-liposome interaction. R8-DOPE-liposomes were internalized via macropinocytosis and did not end up in the lysosomes. R8-DOPE-BLM led to a significantly stronger cell death and DNA damage in vitro relative to all controls. R8-DOPE-BLM demonstrated a prominent anticancer effect in the BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumors. Thus, R8-DOPE-BLM provided efficient intracellular delivery of BLM leading to strong tumor growth inhibition in vivo. PMID:22743614

  19. Exercise-induced muscle-derived cytokines inhibit mammary cancer cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity protects against the development of breast and colon cancer, since it reduces the risk of developing these by 25-30%. During exercise, humoral factors are released from the working muscles for endocrinal signaling to other organs. We hypothesized that these myokines...... in caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7...... that one or more myokines secreted from working muscles may be mediating this effect and that OSM is a possible candidate. These findings emphasize that role of physical activity in cancer treatment, showing a direct link between exercise-induced humoral factors and decreased tumor cell growth....

  20. OER and RBE of high energy neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiobiologic characteristics of 15 MeV neutrons produced by the d+T reaction at the TNO of Rijswijk and of neutrons produced by the d(50)+Be and p(75)+Be reactions at the cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la-Neuve were compared. Growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots was used as biologic system. An OER value of 1.5+-0.1 was obtained for the neutron beams compared. The RBE of 15 MeV, d(50)+Be and p(75)+Be neutrons was found equal to 3.4 +- 0.2, 3.2 +- 0.2 and 2.9 +- 0.3, respectively, relative to gamma rays, for a total (n+γ) absorbed dose of 0.6 Gy. (Auth.)

  1. RBE and OER values of negative pion beams from growth inhibition of Vicia Faba roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pion beams of different momentum width have been used to expose meristems of Vicia Faba roots under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The measurements of the resulting 10 days growth inhibition after exposures at various locations on the pion beam axes have been made and RBE and OER values evaluated for 50% effects compared to 60Co γ-rays. The results have been related to the fractional doses from star products defined by telescope measurements of stopped pions along the same beams. It has been found that the RBE value increases with the fractional 'star dose' up to a maximum after which the RBE decreases. The OER values, however, were found to decrease with increasing 'star dose' fraction rather rapidly after which it was found to be independent of the 'star dose' contribution. (orig.)

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products inhibit staphylococcal growth, and disrupt established biofilms produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liang; Qu, Di;

    2009-01-01

    Multiple bacterial species often coexist as communities, and compete for environmental resources. Here, we describe how an opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses extracellular products to interact with the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. epidermidis biofilms...... and planktonic cultures were challenged with P. aeruginosa supernatant cultures overnight. Results indicated that quorum-sensing-controlled factors from P. aeruginosa supernatant inhibited S. epidermidis growth in planktonic cultures. We also found that P. aeruginosa extracellular products, mainly...... polysaccharides, disrupted established S. epidermidis biofilms. Cellulase-treated P. aeruginosa supernatant, and supernatant from pelA, ps/F and pe/Aps/BCD mutants, which are deficient in polysaccharide biosynthesis, diminished the disruption of S. epidermidis biofilms. In contrast, S. epidermidis supernatant...

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth inhibition on medical plastic materials by immobilized esterases and acylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Johannes Martin; Utpatel, Christian; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Streit, Wolfgang R; Liese, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Biofilms are matrix-encapsulated cell aggregates that cause problems in technical and health-related areas; for example, 65 % of all human infections are biofilm associated. This is mainly due to their ameliorated resistance against antimicrobials and immune systems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a biofilm-forming organism, is commonly responsible for nosocomial infections. Biofilm development is partly mediated by signal molecules, such as acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in Gram-negative bacteria. We applied horse liver esterase, porcine kidney acylase, and porcine liver esterase; these can hydrolyze AHLs, thereby inhibiting biofilm formation. As biofilm infections are often related to foreign material introduced into the human body, we immobilized the enzymes on medical plastic materials. Biofilm formation was quantified by Crystal Violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy, revealing up to 97 % (on silicone), 54 % (on polyvinyl chloride), and 77 % (on polyurethane) reduced biomass after 68 h growth.

  4. Inhibition of Model Compound of Purple Acid Phosphatases on Growth of Aerobacter aerogenes Investigated by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊; 刘义; 刘建本; 周琴; 秦霞; 刘鹏; 董家新; 屈松生; 喻子牛

    2003-01-01

    Microcalorimetry was used to study the inhibitory or antibiotic action of six kinds of the model compounds of purple acid phosphatases on a strain of Aerobacter aerogenes.Difference in theircapacities to inhibit the metabolism of this bacterium was observed.The extent and duration of the inhibitory effect on the metabolism as judged from the growth rate constant,k,and the half-inhibitory concentration,IC50,varied with the different drugs.The rate constank k of A.aerogenes(in the log phase) in the presence of the compounds decreased with the increasing of concentrations.The experimental results reveal that the order of the antibiotic activity of the compounds is :LD-1>LD-2>LD-3>XF-1>LD-4>LD-5.

  5. Changes in glycosidase activities during galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide inhibition of auxin induced growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilisics, Ladislav; Vojtassák, Jozef; Capek, Peter; Kollárová, Karin; Lisková, Desana

    2004-07-01

    The inhibition of 2,4-D-induced elongation growth by galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) in pea stem segments (Pisum sativum L. cv. Tyrkys) after 18 h of incubation results in changes of extracellular, intracellular and cell wall glycosidase activities (beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-mannosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-D-xylosidase, alpha-D-galactosidase, and alpha-L-arabinosidase). GGMOs lowered the glycosidase activities in the extracellular fraction, while in the cell wall fractions their activities were markedly increased. The intracellular enzyme alpha-d-galactosidase increased while the beta-d-galactosidase decreased in activity in response to the GGMO treatment. Extracellular enzymes showed low values of activities in comparison with intracellular and cell wall glycosidases. It is evident that GGMOs can alter auxin induced elongation and glycosidase activities in different compartments of the cell, however, the mode and site of their action remains unclear. PMID:15279996

  6. Effects of biocidal treatments to inhibit the growth of legionellae and other microorganisms in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Ezaki, T; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1991-01-01

    The effects of biocidal treatments for cooling towers were examined through the use of chemicals and ultraviolet irradiation to inhibit the growth of legionellae and other microorganisms. In the water of cooling towers without continuous biocidal treatments, heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoan first appeared, and then legionellae increased up to 10(4) CFU/100 ml. When a UV sterilizer was connected to the cooling tower, the legionellae count was 1/10 or 1/100 of that in the nontreated tower water. In the water of towers supplemented continuously with the biocidal chemicals, legionellae were not found during a 4-month period. The biocidal treatments tested were proved to suppress the increase of legionellae in cooling-tower water, and thus are useful in preventing the outbreak of legionellosis due to inhalation of contaminated aerosol from the cooling tower system.

  7. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 7 inhibits cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase gene expression in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhichao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yu, Xuemei [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wu, Weibin; Jia, Dongwei; Chen, Yinle; Ji, Lingling; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Yintao [Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Lili [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ren, Shifang, E-mail: renshifang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Songwen, E-mail: songwenzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 strongly and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP7A1 in hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 suppresses the expression of CYP7A1 via FGFR2 and downstream JNK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blocking FGF7 abrogates HSC-induced inhibition of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes. -- Abstract: Cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Transcription of the CYP7A1 gene is regulated by bile acids, nuclear receptors and cytokines. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) secreted from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during chronic liver fibrosis regulates hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrotic mouse liver, we demonstrated that the expression of CYP7A1 was largely decreased while the expression of FGF7 was significantly increased. We further demonstrated that FGF7 inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown study by short interfering RNA, kinase inhibition and phosphorylation assays revealed that the suppression of CYP7A1 expression by FGF7 was mediated by FGFR2 and its downstream JNK signaling cascade. The FGF7 neutralizing antibody restored CYP7A1 expression in Hep3B cells treated with conditioned medium from HSC. In summary, the data suggest that FGF7 is a novel regulator of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes and may prevent hepatocytes from accumulating toxic bile acids during liver injury and fibrosis.

  9. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic

  10. Impact of APE1/Ref-1 redox inhibition on pancreatic tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Jiang, Yanlin; Rajeshkumar, N V; Scandura, Glenda; Sinn, Anthony L; He, Ying; Shen, Changyu; Jones, David R; Pollok, Karen E; Ivan, Mircea; Maitra, Anirban; Kelley, Mark R

    2011-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is especially a deadly form of cancer with a survival rate less than 2%. Pancreatic cancers respond poorly to existing chemotherapeutic agents and radiation, and progress for the treatment of pancreatic cancer remains elusive. To address this unmet medical need, a better understanding of critical pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic tumor development, progression, and resistance to traditional therapy is therefore critical. Reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling systems are emerging as important targets in pancreatic cancer. AP endonuclease1/Redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is upregulated in human pancreatic cancer cells and modulation of its redox activity blocks the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic cancer-associated endothelial cells in vitro. Modulation of APE1/Ref-1 using a specific inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1's redox function, E3330, leads to a decrease in transcription factor activity for NFκB, AP-1, and HIF1α in vitro. This study aims to further establish the redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 as a molecular target in pancreatic cancer. Here, we show that inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 via E3330 results in tumor growth inhibition in cell lines and pancreatic cancer xenograft models in mice. Pharmacokinetic studies also show that E3330 attains more than10 μmol/L blood concentrations and is detectable in tumor xenografts. Through inhibition of APE1/Ref-1, the activity of NFκB, AP-1, and HIF1α that are key transcriptional regulators involved in survival, invasion, and metastasis is blocked. These data indicate that E3330, inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1, has potential in pancreatic cancer and clinical investigation of APE1/Ref-1 molecular target is warranted.

  11. Capric acid secreted by S. boulardii inhibits C. albicans filamentous growth, adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Murzyn

    Full Text Available Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and

  12. Retinoic acid inhibits endometrial cancer cell growth via multiple genomic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, You-Hong; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Yin, Ping; Bulun, Serdar E

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that retinoic acid (RA) may be therapeutic for endometrial cancer. However, the downstream target genes and pathways triggered by ligand-activated RA receptor α (RARα) in endometrial cancer cells are largely unknown. In this study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting assays were used to assess the roles of RA and the RA agonist (AM580) in the growth of endometrial cancer cells. Illumina-based microarray expression profiling of endometrial Ishikawa cells incubated with and without AM580 for 1, 3, and 6 h was performed. We found that both RA and AM580 markedly inhibited endometrial cancer cell proliferation, while knockdown of RARα could block AM580 inhibition. Knockdown of RARα significantly increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen and BCL2 protein levels. Incubation of Ishikawa cells with or without AM580 followed by microarray expression profiling showed that 12 768 genes out of 47 296 gene probes were differentially expressed with significant P values. We found that 90 genes were the most regulated genes with the most significant P value (PAM580 highly regulated these genes, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assay demonstrated that ligand-activated RARα interacted with the promoter of these genes in intact endometrial cancer cells. AM580 also significantly altered 18 pathways including those related to cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, AM580 treatment of Ishikawa cells causes the differential expression of a number of RARα target genes and activation of signaling pathways. These pathways could, therefore, mediate the carcinogenesis of human endometrial cancer.

  13. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (Pcolon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells.

  14. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. Results SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. Conclusion SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis.

  15. Growth Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur ‘Aini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides is  a  disease  which  can  cause  significant yield  loss  of  cocoa.  The  objective  of  this  research  is  to  investigate  the  abilityof  antagonist  microbes,  Trichoderma  harzianum,  Trichoderma  koningii,  Bacillus subtilis  and Pseudomonas  fluorescens  in  controlling  gloeosporioides  biologically  in  laboratorium  condition.  The  experiment  was  carried  out  in  Crop  Protection  Laboratory,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa  Research  Institute.  Results of  this  research  showed  that  antagonist  fungi,  T.  harzianum,  T.  koningii,  had  a stronger  ability  in  inhibiting  growth  of  C.  gloeosporioides about  83%  compared  to  the  ability  of  antagonist  bacteria,  B.  subtilis  and P.  fluorescens,  only about  49%. Key words: Growth  inhibition,  Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides,  Trichoderma  harzianum, Trichoderma koningii,  Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  16. The c-Met Inhibitor MSC2156119J Effectively Inhibits Tumor Growth in Liver Cancer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, Friedhelm, E-mail: Friedhelm.Bladt@merckgroup.com; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Ihling, Christian; Wilm, Claudia; Blaukat, Andree [EMD Serono, and Merck Serono Research and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt 64293 (Germany)

    2014-08-19

    The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as its only high-affinity ligand. Aberrant activation of c-Met is associated with many human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of the c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063) in patient-derived tumor explants. BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with MHCC97H cells or with tumor fragments of 10 patient-derived primary liver cancer explants selected according to c-Met/HGF expression levels. MSC2156119J (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and sorafenib (50 mg/kg) were administered orally as single-agent treatment or in combination, with vehicle as control. Tumor response, metastases formation, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured. MSC2156119J inhibited tumor growth and induced complete regression in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MHCC97H tumors. AFP levels were undetectable after 5 weeks of MSC2156119J treatment, and the number of metastatic lung foci was reduced. Primary liver explant models with strong c-Met/HGF activation showed increased responsiveness to MSC2156119J, with MSC2156119J showing similar or superior activity to sorafenib. Tumors characterized by low c-Met expression were less sensitive to MSC2156119J. MSC2156119J was better tolerated than sorafenib, and combination therapy did not improve efficacy. These findings indicate that selective c-Met/HGF inhibition with MSC2156119J is associated with marked regression of c-Met high-expressing tumors, supporting its clinical development as an antitumor treatment for HCC patients with active c-Met signaling.

  17. Genistein inhibits prostate cancer cell growth by targeting miR-34a and oncogenic HOTAIR.

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    Takeshi Chiyomaru

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genistein is a soy isoflavone that has antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. It has been shown that genistein inhibits many type of cancers including prostate cancer (PCa by regulating several cell signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs. Recent studies suggest that the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are also involved in many cellular processes. At present there are no reports about the relationship between gensitein, miRNAs and lncRNAs. In this study, we focused on miRNAs, lncRNA that are regulated by genistein and investigated their functional role in PCa. METHOD: Microarray (SurePrint G3 Human GE 8×60K was used for expression profiling of genistein treated and control PCa cells (PC3 and DU145. Functional assay (cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed with the PCa cell lines, PC3 and DU145. Both in vitro and in vivo (nude mouse models were used for growth assays. Luciferase reporter assays were used for binding of miR-34a to HOTAIR. RESULTS: LncRNA profiling showed that HOTAIR was highly regulated by genistein and its expression was higher in castration-resistant PCa cell lines than in normal prostate cells. Knockdown (siRNA of HOTAIR decreased PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. miR-34a was also up-regulated by genistein and may directly target HOTAIR in both PC3 and DU145 PCa cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that genistein inhibited PCa cell growth through down-regulation of oncogenic HOTAIR that is also targeted by tumor suppressor miR-34a. These findings enhance understanding of how genistein regulates lncRNA HOTAIR and miR-34a in PCa.

  18. Drug Repurposing Screening Identifies Novel Compounds That Effectively Inhibit Toxoplasma gondii Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Ashley J; Drozda, Allison A; Blader, Ira J

    2016-01-01

    The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of drug impacted both parasite invasion and replication but did so independently of inhibition of dopamine or other neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Tamoxifen, which is an established inhibitor of the estrogen receptor, also reduced parasite invasion and replication. Even though Toxoplasma can activate the estrogen receptor, tamoxifen inhibits parasite growth independently of this transcription factor. Tamoxifen is also a potent inducer of autophagy, and we find that the drug stimulates recruitment of the autophagy marker light chain 3-green fluorescent protein onto the membrane of the vacuolar compartment in which the parasite resides and replicates. In contrast to other antiparasitic drugs, including pimozide, tamoxifen treatment of infected cells leads to a time-dependent elimination of intracellular parasites. Taken together, these data suggest that tamoxifen restricts Toxoplasma growth by inducing xenophagy or autophagic destruction of this obligate intracellular parasite. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop new therapies to treat microbial infections, and the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as one approach to achieving this goal. Using the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a library of 1,120 compounds and identified several compounds with significant antiparasitic activities. Among these were pimozide and tamoxifen, which are well-characterized drugs prescribed to treat patients with psychiatric disorders and breast cancer

  19. Growth-arrest-specific protein 2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos.

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    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth-arrest-specific 2 gene was originally identified in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, serum stimulation of quiescent, non-dividing cells leads to the down-regulation of gas2 and results in re-entry into the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are critical for cell cycle progression and cell division and the Gas2 protein has been shown to co-localize with actin and microtubules in interphase mammalian cells. Despite these findings, direct evidence supporting a role for Gas2 in the mechanism of cell division has not been reported. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether the Gas2 protein plays a role in cell division, we over-expressed the full-length Gas2 protein and Gas2 truncations containing either the actin-binding CH domain or the tubulin-binding Gas2 domain in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that both the full-length Gas2 protein and the Gas2 domain, but not the CH domain, inhibited cell division and resulted in multinucleated cells. The observation that Gas2 domain alone can arrest cell division suggests that Gas2 function is mediated by microtubule binding. Gas2 co-localized with microtubules at the cell cortex of Gas2-injected Xenopus embryos using cryo-confocal microscopy and co-sedimented with microtubules in cytoskeleton co-sedimentation assays. To investigate the mechanism of Gas2-induced cell division arrest, we showed, using a wound-induced contractile array assay, that Gas2 stabilized microtubules. Finally, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Gas2 bundled microtubules into higher-order structures. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our experiments show that Gas2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos. We propose that Gas2 function is mediated by binding and bundling microtubules, leading to cell division arrest.

  20. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

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    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo,1 Donaji Velasco-Arias,3 Juan Jose Martinez-Sanmiguel,2 David Diaz,3 Inti Zumeta-Dube,3 Katiushka Arevalo-Niño,1 Claudio Cabral-Romero2 1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Mexico; 2Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, México; 3Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Distrito Federal, México Abstract: Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85% and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized

  1. Efficacy of antimicrobials extracted from organic pecan shell for inhibiting the growth of Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Dinesh; Crandall, Philip G; Johnson, Casey L; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-12-01

    Growers and processors of USDA certified organic foods are in need of suitable organic antimicrobials. The purpose of the research reported here was to develop and test natural antimicrobials derived from an all-natural by-product, organic pecan shells. Unroasted and roasted organic pecan shells were subjected to solvent free extraction to produce antimicrobials that were tested against Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes serotypes to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials. The effectiveness of pecan shell extracts were further tested using a poultry skin model system and the growth inhibition of the Listeria cells adhered onto the skin model were quantified. The solvent free extracts of pecan shells inhibited Listeria strains at MICs as low as 0.38%. The antimicrobial effectiveness tests on a poultry skin model exhibited nearly a 2 log reduction of the inoculated cocktail mix of Listeria strains when extracts of pecan shell powder were used. The extracts also produced greater than a 4 log reduction of the indigenous spoilage bacteria on the chicken skin. Thus, the pecan shell extracts may prove to be very effective alternative antimicrobials against food pathogens and supplement the demand for effective natural antimicrobials for use in organic meat processing.

  2. Influence of some growth regulators and cations on inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis by lead in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.K. (Council of Science Technology, Lucknow (India)); Srivastava, H.S. (Rohilkhand Univ., Bareilly (India)); Tripathi, R.D. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

    1993-08-01

    Phytotoxic effects of Pb pollution are well established. In order to analyse the physiological basis of toxic symptoms and of reduced plant productivity, its effect on chlorophyll content has been examined in some plants. Thus, a decrease in total chlorophyll content during Pb supply has been observed in oats, mung beam, pea, etc. The activity of delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of heme pigments, is inhibited by Pb in mung bean and several other species. This observation may perhaps indicate that a reduction in chlorophyll content in the presence of lead is due to an inhibition of pigment synthesis. The effect of Pb on greening maize leaf segments in the presence of various precursors of chlorophyll has been studied in the present investigation to evaluate this hypothesis. The effect of some growth regulators and cations, which could otherwise modify chlorophyll biosynthesis, has been examined to see whether the toxic effects of Pb on photosynthetic pigments could also be modified by these effectors. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Downregulation of Akt1 Inhibits Anchorage-Independent Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

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    Xuesong Liu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The serine/threonine kinases, Akti/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ, play a critical role in preventing cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. However, the function of individual Akt isoforms in the tumorigenicity of cancer cells is still not well defined. In the current study, we used an AM antisense oligonucleotide (AS to specifically downregulate Akti protein in both cancer and normal cells. Our data indicate that AM AS treatment inhibits the ability of MiaPaCa-2, H460, HCT-15, and HT1080 cells to grow in soft agar. The treatment also induces apoptosis in these cancer cells as demonstrated by FRCS analysis and a caspase activity assay. Conversely, Akti AS treatment has little effect on the cell growth and survival of normal human cells including normal human fibroblast (NHF, fibroblast from muscle (FBM, and mammary gland epithelial 184135 cells. In addition, AM AS specifically sensitizes cancer cells to typical chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, Akti is indispensable for maintaining the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. Inhibition of AM may provide a powerful sensitization agent for chemotherapy specifically in cancer cells.

  4. Melatonin inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Lv; Pei-Lin Cui; Shi-Wei Yao; You-Qing Xu; Zhao-Xu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of melatonin on cellular proliferation and endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1).Methods:PANC-1 cells were cultured for this study.The secreted VEGF concentration in the culture medium was determined using ELISA method,VEGF production in the tumor cells was detected by immunocytochemistry,and VEGF mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR.Results:Higher melatonin concentrations significantly inhibited cellular proliferation,with 1 mmol/L concentration exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect (P<0.01).VEGF concentrations in the cell culture supernatants and intra-cellules were all significantly reduced after melatonin (1 mmol/L) incubation (P<0.05).VEGF mRNA expression decreased markedly in a time-dependent manner during the observation period (P<0.05).Conclusions:High melatonin concentrations markedly inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma cells.The endogenous VEGF expression was also suppressed by melatonin incubation.

  5. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages. PMID:26883518

  6. Metformin inhibits cell growth by upregulating microRNA-26a in renal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Qiang; Wang, Ji-Jiao; Yan, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Jian-Hua; Li, Wei; Che, Jian-Ping; Wang, Guang-Chun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties and may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis. However, the mechanism by which metformin affects various cancers, including renal cancer still unknown. MiR-26a induces cell growth, cell cycle and cell apoptosis progression via direct targeting of Bcl-2, clyclin D1 and PTEN in cancer cells. In the present study, we used 786-O human renal cancer cell lines to study the effects and mechanisms of metformin. Metformin treatment inhibited RCC cells proliferation by increasing expression of miR-26a in 786-O cells (P metformin. Also over-expression of miR-26a can inhibited cell proliferation by down-regulating Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and up-regulating PTEN expression. Therefore, these data for the first time provide novel evidence for a mechanism that the anticancer activities of metformin are due to upregulation of miR-26a and affect its downstream target gene. PMID:25419360

  7. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

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    Y.K. Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.

  8. Andrographolide suppress tumor growth by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling activation in insulinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ding, Yi; Lei, Yan; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiang-Chao; Gong, Ping; Yang, Xuesong; Geng, Jian-Guo; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are rare tumors, and approximately 10% of insulinomas are malignant. Accumulating evidence has implicated that we still lack effective therapy to treat the patients who are diagnosed with rare malignant insulinoma. Previous studies have reported that Andrographolide (Andro) could inhibit cell cycle progression, reduce cell invasion and induce cell apoptosis in many common cancer cells. However, the effects of andro are cell type-dependent. So we emplored the β-TC-6 cells and the RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mouse model of endogenously growing insulinoma model to elucidate the possible anti-cancer effect of Andro on insulinoma, an uncommon type of malignant cancers in this study. Our experiments revealed that Andro significantly inhibited tumor growth at both the early-stage and the advanced-stage of insulinoma through targeting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. This work initially provides the evidence that the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway might be vital as a potential therapeutic target, and also indispensable in Andro-mediated anti-cancer effect in insulinoma. PMID:24719558

  9. Oridonin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis through anti-angiogenesis by blocking the Notch signaling.

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    Yanmin Dong

    Full Text Available While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases.

  10. Type-1-cytokines synergize with oncogene inhibition to induce tumor growth arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, Nicolas; Clever, David; Yu, Zhiya; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Palmer, Douglas C.; Xi, Liqiang; Pflicke, Holger; Ji, Yun; Gros, Alena; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Goldlust, Ian S.; Mehta, Gautam U.; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Crompton, Joseph G.; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Morrow, James J.; Franco, Zulmarie; Gattinoni, Luca; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco; Stroncek, David F.; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Raffeld, Mark; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Both targeted inhibition of oncogenic driver mutations and immune-based therapies show efficacy in treatment of patients with metastatic cancer but responses can be either short-lived or incompletely effective. Oncogene inhibition can augment the efficacy of immune-based therapy but mechanisms by which these two interventions might cooperate are incompletely resolved. Using a novel transplantable BRAFV600E-mutant murine melanoma model (SB-3123), we explore potential mechanisms of synergy between the selective BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib and adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. We found that vemurafenib cooperated with ACT to delay melanoma progression without significantly affecting tumor infiltration or effector function of endogenous or adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells as previously observed. Instead, we found that the T-cell cytokines IFNγ and TNFα synergized with vemurafenib to induce cell-cycle arrest of tumor cells in vitro. This combinatorial effect was recapitulated in human melanoma-derived cell lines and was restricted to cancers bearing a BRAFV600E-mutation. Molecular profiling of treated SB-3123 indicated that the provision of vemurafenib promoted the sensitization of SB-3123 to the anti-proliferative effects of T-cell effector cytokines. The unexpected finding that immune cytokines synergize with oncogene inhibitors to induce growth arrest have major implications for understanding cancer biology at the intersection of oncogenic and immune signaling and provides a basis for design of combinatorial therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic cancer. PMID:25358764

  11. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in U937 foam cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGPeng-Yuan; RUIYao-Cheng; JINYou-Xin; LITie-Jun; QIUYan; ZHANGLi; WANGJie-Song

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by oxidized low density liprotein (ox-LDL) and the inhibitory effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (asODN) on the levels of VEGF protein and mRNA in the U937 foam cells. METHODS: U937 cells were incubated with ox-LDL 80 mg/L for 48h, then ,the foam cells were treated with asODN (0,5,10, and 20μmol/L). The VEGF concentration in the media was determined by ELISA. The VEGF protein expression level in cells was measured by immuohistochemistry; the positive ratio detected by a morphometrical analysis system was used as the amount of the VEGF expression level. The VEGF mRNA level was examined by Northern blotting. RESULTS: After U937 cells were incubated with ox-LDL, VEGF expression level increased greatly both in the cells and in the media. asODN markeldy inhibited the increase of VEGF. After treatment with asODN 20μmol/L, the VEGF protein concentration in the media decreased by 45.0%, the VEGF positive ratio detected by immuohistochemistry in cells decreased by 64.9%, and the VEGF mRNA level decreased by 47.1%. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF in U937 foam cells was strong. asODN inhibited VEGF expression significantly in U937 foam cells in vitro.

  12. Delphinidin, a dietary anthocyanidin, inhibits platelet-derived growth factor ligand/receptor (PDGF/PDGFR) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sylvie; Beaulieu, Edith; Labbé, David; Bédard, Valérie; Moghrabi, Albert; Barrette, Stéphane; Gingras, Denis; Béliveau, Richard

    2008-05-01

    Most cancers are dependent on the growth of tumor blood vessels and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis may thus provide an efficient strategy to retard or block tumor growth. Recently, tumor vascular targeting has expanded to include not only endothelial cells (ECs) but also smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which contribute to a mature and functional vasculature. We have reported previously that delphinidin, a major biologically active constituent of berries, inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor-induced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and blocks angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we show that delphinidin also inhibits activation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB receptor-beta [platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta)] in SMC and that this inhibition may contribute to its antitumor effect. The inhibitory effect of delphinidin on PDGFR-beta was very rapid and led to the inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 signaling and of the chemotactic motility of SMC, as well as the differentiation and stabilization of EC and SMC into capillary-like tubular structures in a three-dimensional coculture system. Using an anthocyan-rich extract of berries, we show that berry extracts were able to suppress the synergistic induction of vessel formation by basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and PDGF-BB in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. Oral administration of the berry extract also significantly retarded tumor growth in a lung carcinoma xenograft model. Taken together, these results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic activity of delphinidin that will be helpful for the development of dietary-based chemopreventive strategies. PMID:18339683

  13. IL-35 promotes pancreas cancer growth through enhancement of proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis: evidence for a role as an autocrine growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Michael B; Ledgewood, Chelsea L; Chen, Xuhui; Bai, Qian; Qin, Chenglu; Cook, Kathryn M; Herrick, Elizabeth J; Diaz-Arias, Alberto; Moore, Bradley J; Fang, Yujiang

    2014-12-01

    Interleukin-35 (IL-35), an IL-12 cytokine family member, mediates the immune inhibitory function of regulatory T cells (Treg). We assayed the presence of IL-35 in paraffin-embedded human pancreas cancer (PCAN) and unexpectedly found IL-35 was expressed mainly by epithelial derived PCAN cells, but not by Treg. We further examined the expression and effect of exogenous IL-35 in human PCAN cell lines and found IL-35 promoted growth and inhibited apoptosis in PCAN cell lines. IL-35 induced proliferation correlated with an increase in cyclin B, cyclin D, cdk2, and cdk4 and a decrease in p27 expression, while inhibition of apoptosis was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 and a decrease in TRAILR1. We conclude IL-35 is produced by PCAN in vivo and promotes PCAN cell line growth in vitro. These results might indicate an important new role for IL-35 as an autocrine growth factor in PCAN growth.

  14. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth

    OpenAIRE

    Zindel, S.; Kaman, W.E.; Frols, S.; Pfeifer, F; Peters, A.; Hays, J.P.; Fuchsbauer, H.-L.

    2013-01-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacte...

  15. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-κB and COX-2 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhuang

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-κB to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-κB-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-κB/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-κB and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  16. Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Chi Man; Cheung, Yuk Chun; Lui, Vivian Wai-Yan; Yip, Yim Ling; Zhang, Guitao; Lin, Victor Weitao; Cheung, Kenneth Chat-Pan; Feng, Yibin; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activati...

  17. Inhibition of COP9-signalosome (CSN) deneddylating activity and tumor growth of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas by doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    Pulvino, Mary; Chen, Luojing; Oleksyn, David; Li, Jing; Compitello, George; Rossi, Randy; Spence, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Vijaya; Jordan, Craig; Poligone, Brian; Casulo, Carla; Burack, Richard; Shapiro, Joel L.; Bernstein, Steven; Friedberg, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    In searching for small-molecule compounds that inhibit proliferation and survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells and may, therefore, be exploited as potential therapeutic agents for this disease, we identified the commonly used and well-tolerated antibiotic doxycycline as a strong candidate. Here, we demonstrate that doxycycline inhibits the growth of DLBCL cells both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models. In addition, we show that doxycycline accumulates in DLBCL cells to hi...

  18. Curcumin synergistically augments bcr/abl phosphorethieate antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit growth of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-zhong ZHANG; Jian-hua XU; Xiu-wang HUANG; Li-xian WU; Yu SU; Yuan-zhong CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the growth inhibition effect of the combination of bcr/abl phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (PS-ASODN) and curcumin (cur), and the possible mechanisms of cur on the chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. Methods: The K562 cell line was used as a P210bcr/abl-positive cell model in vitro and was exposed to different concentrations of PS-ASODN (0-20 μmol/L), cur (0-20 μmol/L), or a combination of both. Growth inhibition and apoptosis of K562 cells were assessed by MTT assay and AO/EB fluorescent staining, respec-tively. The expression levels of P210bct/abl, NF-κB and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were assessed by Western blot. Results: Exposure to cur (5-20 μmol/L) and PS-ASODN (5-20 μmol/L) resulted in a synergistic inhibitory effect on cell growth.Growth inhibition was associated with the inhibition of the proliferation and in-duction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that the drugs synergisti-cally downregulated the level of P210bcr/abl and NF-κB. Cur downregulated Hsp90,whereas no synergism was observed when cur was combined with PS-ASODN.Conclusion: PS-ASODN and cur exhibited a synergistic inhibitory effect on the cell growth of K562. The synergistic growth inhibition was mediated through different mechanisms that involved the inhibition of P210bcr/abl.

  19. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Huang

    Full Text Available α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer.

  20. EF24 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis via suppressing NF-kappaB dependent pathways in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Da-Long; Liang, Ying-Jian; Zheng, Tong-Sen; Song, Rui-Peng; Wang, Jia-Bei; Sun, Bo-Shi; Pan, Shang-Ha; Qu, Lian-Dong; Liu, Jia-Ren; Jiang, Hong-Chi; Liu, Lian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A synthetic monoketone analog of curcumin, termed 3, 5-bis (2-flurobenzylidene) piperidin-4-one (EF24), has been reported to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, whether EF24 has anticancer effects on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells and the mechanisms remain to be investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of EF24 on CCA tumor growth and metastasis. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, tumorigenesis and metastasis were examined. EF24 exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on HuCCT-1, TFK-1 and HuH28 human CCA cell lines. EF24 inhibited CCA cell proliferation, migration, and induced G2/M phase arrest. EF24 induced cell apoptosis along with negative regulation of NF-κB- X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) signaling pathway. XIAP inhibition by lentivirus mediated RNA interference enhanced EF24-induced apoptosis, while XIAP overexpression reduced it in CCA cells. In vivo, EF24 significantly suppressed the growth of CCA tumor xenografts and tumor metastasis while displaying low toxicity levels. Our findings indicate that EF24 is a potent antitumor agent that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting NF-κB dependent signaling pathways. EF24 may represent a novel approach for CCA treatment. PMID:27571770

  1. Growth inhibition of thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers by the opioid growth factor (OGF - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donahue Renee N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system. Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cell. Follicular carcinoma (FTC is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most lethal human cancers. Opioid Growth Factor (OGF; chemical term - [Met5]-enkephalin and its receptor, OGFr, form an inhibitory axis regulating cell proliferation. Both the peptide and receptor have been detected in a wide variety of cancers, and OGF is currently used clinically as a biotherapy for some non-thyroid neoplasias. This study addressed the question of whether the OGF-OGFr axis is present and functional in human thyroid follicular cell - derived cancer. Methods Utilizing human ATC (KAT-18, PTC (KTC-1, and FTC (WRO 82-1 cell lines, immunohistochemistry was employed to ascertain the presence and location of OGF and OGFr. The growth characteristics in the presence of OGF or the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX, and the specificity of opioid peptides for proliferation of ATC, were established in KAT-18 cells. Dependence on peptide and receptor were investigated using neutralization studies with antibodies and siRNA experiments, respectively. The mechanism of peptide action on DNA synthesis and cell survival was ascertained. The ubiquity of the OGF-OGFr axis in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancer was assessed in KTC-1 (PTC and WRO 82-1 (FTC tumor cells. Results OGF and OGFr were present in KAT-18 cells. Concentrations of 10-6 M OGF inhibited cell replication up to 30%, whereas NTX increased cell growth up to 35% relative to cultures treated with sterile water. OGF treatment reduced cell number by as much as 38% in KAT-18 ATC in a dose-dependent and receptor-mediated manner. OGF antibodies neutralized the inhibitory effects of OGF, and siRNA knockdown of OGFr negated growth inhibition by OGF. Cell survival

  2. Decreased Warburg effect induced by ATP citrate lyase suppression inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Haifeng; Zhang, Yang; You, Yong; Cai, Tiantian; Wang, Yehuang

    2015-03-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is responsible for the conversion of cytosolic citrate into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, and the first rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of elevated ACLY results in growth arrest and apoptosis in a subset of cancers; however, the expression pattern and underlying biological function of ACLY in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In the current study, overexpressed ACLY was more commonly observed in PDAC compared to normal pancreatic tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high expression level of ACLY resulted in a poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Silencing of endogenous ACLY expression by siRNA in PANC-1 cells led to reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, significant decrease in glucose uptake and lactate production was observed after ACLY was knocked down, and this effect was blocked by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, indicating that ACLY functions in the Warburg effect affect PDAC cell growth. Collectively, this study reveals that suppression of ACLY plays an anti-tumor role through decreased Warburg effect, and ACLY-related inhibitors might be potential therapeutic approaches for PDAC. PMID:25701462

  3. Cerium relieving the inhibition of photosynthesis and growth of spinach caused by lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Min; ZE Yuguan; LI Na; DUAN Yanmei; CHEN Ting; LIU Chao; HONG Fashui

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach cultured in lead chloride-present, Ce~(3+)-administered, cerium chloride-administered lead chloride-present Hoagland's media or that of Hoagland's media. The experimental study demonstrated the effects of cerium (Ce) on distribu-tion of light energy and photochemical activities of spinach chloroplast grown in lead (Pb)-present media. It was observed that Pb~(2+) signifi-cantly inhibited photosynthesis in spinach, including light absorption, energy transfer from LHCII to photosystem II, excitation energy dis-tribution from photosystem I to photosystem II, and transformation from light energy to electron energy and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts,and decreased spinach growth. However, Ce~(3+) treatment to pb~(2+)-present chloroplasts could obviously improve light absorption and excitation energy distribution in both photosystems and increase activity of photochemical reaction and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts. The results suggested that Ce~(3+) under Pb~(2+) stress could maintain the stability of chloroplast membrane, and improve photosynthesis of spinach chloro-plast, thus promote spinach growth.

  4. Cerium relieving the inhibition of photosynthesis and growth of spinach caused by lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Min

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach cultured in lead chloride-present, Ce3+-administered, cerium chloride-administered lead chloride-present Hoagland's media or that of Hoagland's media. The experimental study demonstrated the effects of cerium (Ce) on distribu-tion of light energy and photochemical activities of spinach chloroplast grown in lead (Pb)-present media. It was observed that Pb2+ signifi-cantly inhibited photosynthesis in spinach, including light absorption, energy transfer from LHCII to photosystem II, excitation energy dis-tribution from photosystem I to photosystem II, and transformation from light energy to electron energy and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts,and decreased spinach growth. However, Ce3+ treatment to pb2+-present chloroplasts could obviously improve light absorption and excitation energy distribution in both photosystems and increase activity of photochemical reaction and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts. The results suggested that Ce3+ under Pb2+ stress could maintain the stability of chloroplast membrane, and improve photosynthesis of spinach chloro-plast, thus promote spinach growth.

  5. The biofilm inhibitor Carolacton inhibits planktonic growth of virulent pneumococci via a conserved target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Jannik; Reck, Michael; Bergmann, Simone; Kirschning, Andreas; Müller, Rolf; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    New antibacterial compounds, preferentially exploiting novel cellular targets, are urgently needed to fight the increasing resistance of pathogens against conventional antibiotics. Here we demonstrate that Carolacton, a myxobacterial secondary metabolite previously shown to damage Streptococcus mutans biofilms, inhibits planktonic growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of serotype 19A at nanomolar concentrations. A Carolacton diastereomer is inactive in both streptococci, indicating a highly specific interaction with a conserved cellular target. S. mutans requires the eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase PknB and the cysteine metabolism regulator CysR for susceptibility to Carolacton, whereas their homologues are not needed in S. pneumoniae, suggesting a specific function for S. mutans biofilms only. A bactericidal effect of Carolacton was observed for S. pneumoniae TIGR4, with a reduction of cell numbers by 3 log units. The clinical pneumonia isolate Sp49 showed immediate growth arrest and cell lysis, suggesting a bacteriolytic effect of Carolacton. Carolacton treatment caused a reduction in membrane potential, but not membrane integrity, and transcriptome analysis revealed compensatory reactions of the cell. Our data show that Carolacton might have potential for treating pneumococcal infections. PMID:27404808

  6. Inhibition of bacterial growth by different mixtures of propofol and thiopentone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is, as a result of its formulation, an ideal bacterial and yeast culture medium. An outbreak of sepsis in humans and an increase in wound infections in dogs has been ascribed to the use of propofol. It has been previously reported that a 1:1 mixture of propofol and thiopentone has bactericidal properties. This study was undertaken to determine if further serial mixtures of propofol and thiopentone maintained the bactericidal properties. Mixtures of 1:1 (solution A, 5:1 (solution B, 10:1 (solution C, 50:1 (solution D and 100:1 (solution E of 1 % propofol to 2.5 % thiopentone, 2.5 % thiopentone (solution T, 1 % propofol (solution P and saline (solution S were prepared and inoculated with between 105 and 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. A sample was withdrawn from each solution at 0, 1, 6, 12, 48 and 120 hours after inoculation and a bacterial count was performed. This study showed that thiopentone and solution A behaved in similar fashion by inhibiting bacterial growth and was bactericidal after 48 hours. Solution B was not bactericidal against S. aureus and C. albicans. Propofol and solutions D and E all supported growth of all the organisms tested. These data indicate that mixtures of propofol and thiopentone at a ratio less than 1:1 do not maintain the bactericidal properties.

  7. Curcumin-induced HDAC inhibition and attenuation of medulloblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson James M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children, and its prognosis is worse than for many other common pediatric cancers. Survivors undergoing treatment suffer from serious therapy-related side effects. Thus, it is imperative to identify safer, effective treatments for medulloblastoma. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer potential of curcumin in medulloblastoma by testing its ability to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in vitro and in vivo using established medulloblastoma models. Methods Using cultured medulloblastoma cells, tumor xenografts, and the Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mouse model, the antitumor effects of curcumin were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results Curcumin induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in medulloblastoma cells. These effects were accompanied by reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC 4 expression and activity and increased tubulin acetylation, ultimately leading to mitotic catastrophe. In in vivo medulloblastoma xenografts, curcumin reduced tumor growth and significantly increased survival in the Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mouse model. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that curcumin has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for medulloblastoma.

  8. Hypoestoxide inhibits tumor growth in the mouse CT26 colon tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel A Ojo-Amaize; Howard B Cottam; Olusola A Oyemade; Joseph I Okogun; Emeka J Nchekwube

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of the natural diterpenoid,hypoestoxide (HE) on the growth of established colon cancer in mice.METHODS: The CT26.WT mouse colon carcinoma cell line was grown and expanded in vitro. Following the expansion, BALB/c mice were inoculated s.c. with viable tumor cells. After the tumors had established and developed to about 80-90 mm3, the mice were started on chemotherapy by oral administration of HE, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or combination.RESULTS: The antiangiogenic HE has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of melanoma in the B16F1tumor model in C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrate that mean volume of tumors in mice treated with oral HE as a single agent or in combination with 5-FU, were significantly smaller (> 60%) than those in vehicle control mice (471.2 mm3 vs 1542.8 mm3, P < 0.01).The significant reductions in tumor burden resulted in pronounced mean survival times (MST) and increased life spans (ILS) in the treated mice.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that HE is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer in mice and that HE may be used alone or in combination with 5-FU.

  9. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Basha, Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes. PMID:23803693

  10. A monoclonal antibody against KCNK9 K+ channel extracellular domain inhibits tumour growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Luo, Liqun; Lal, Bachchu; Ma, Xinrong; Chen, Lieping; Hann, Christine L.; Fulton, Amy M.; Leahy, Daniel J.; Laterra, John

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels act to maintain cell resting membrane potential—a prerequisite for many biological processes. KCNK9, a member of K2P family, is implicated in cancer, owing to its overexpression in human tumours and its ability to promote neoplastic cell survival and growth. However, KCNK9's underlying contributions to malignancy remain elusive due to the absence of specific modulators. Here we describe the development of monoclonal antibodies against the KCNK9 extracellular domain and their functional effects. We show that one antibody (Y4) with the highest affinity binding induces channel internalization. The addition of Y4 to KCNK9-expressing carcinoma cells reduces cell viability and increases cell death. Systemic administration of Y4 effectively inhibits growth of human lung cancer xenografts and murine breast cancer metastasis in mice. Evidence for Y4-mediated carcinoma cell autonomous and immune-dependent cytotoxicity is presented. Our study reveals that antibody-based KCNK9 targeting is a promising therapeutic strategy in KCNK9-expressing malignancies. PMID:26842342

  11. Curcumin-induced HDAC inhibition and attenuation of medulloblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children, and its prognosis is worse than for many other common pediatric cancers. Survivors undergoing treatment suffer from serious therapy-related side effects. Thus, it is imperative to identify safer, effective treatments for medulloblastoma. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer potential of curcumin in medulloblastoma by testing its ability to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in vitro and in vivo using established medulloblastoma models. Using cultured medulloblastoma cells, tumor xenografts, and the Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mouse model, the antitumor effects of curcumin were tested in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in medulloblastoma cells. These effects were accompanied by reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 expression and activity and increased tubulin acetylation, ultimately leading to mitotic catastrophe. In in vivo medulloblastoma xenografts, curcumin reduced tumor growth and significantly increased survival in the Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mouse model. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that curcumin has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for medulloblastoma

  12. Experimental study on He- Ne laser irradiation to inhibit scar fibroblast growth in culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 吴宗耀; 郝林林; 曾登芬; 冯光锐; 林永辉

    2002-01-01

    To explore the inhibitory effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on fibroblast growth of hypertrophic scars in culture. Methods: He-Ne laser with wavelength of 632.8 nm,power density of 50 mW/cm2 and doses of 3 J/cm2,30 J/cm2, 90 J/cm2 and 180 J/cm2 was used to irradiate human scar fibroblasts in culture 1, 3 and 5 times respectively, and then the cell count and cell cycle analysis were done. Results: Repeated irradiation with He-Ne laser at dose of 180 J/cm2 three and five times led to an evident decrease in total cell number compared with that of the control group and there was a significant difference ( P <0.05). The cell cycle analysis showed after three and five times of irradiation with 180 J/cm2 He-Ne laser the cell number in S-phase decreased from 51% to 20% and 14% respectively, the cell number in G0/G1 phase increased from 28% to 55% and 60% respectively, and the cell percentage in Sub-G1 phase was 6.7% and 9.8% respectively. Conclusions: Repeated irradiation with 180 J/cm2 He-Ne laser can inhibit scar fibroblasts growth in culture.It may be that He-Ne laser irradiation causes cell stagnation in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis.

  13. Bithionol inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth In Vitro - studies on mechanism(s) of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug resistance is a cause of ovarian cancer recurrence and low overall survival rates. There is a need for more effective treatment approaches because the development of new drug is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, the concept of ‘drug repurposing’ is promising. We focused on Bithionol (BT), a clinically approved anti-parasitic drug as an anti-ovarian cancer drug. BT has previously been shown to inhibit solid tumor growth in several preclinical cancer models. A better understanding of the anti-tumor effects and mechanism(s) of action of BT in ovarian cancer cells is essential for further exploring its therapeutic potential against ovarian cancer. The cytotoxic effects of BT against a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines were determined by Presto Blue cell viability assay. Markers of apoptosis such as caspases 3/7, cPARP induction, nuclear condensation and mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization were assessed using microscopic, FACS and immunoblotting methods. Mechanism(s) of action of BT such as cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, autotaxin (ATX) inhibition and effects on MAPK and NF-kB signalling were determined by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and colorimetric methods. BT caused dose dependent cytotoxicity against all ovarian cancer cell lines tested with IC50 values ranging from 19 μM – 60 μM. Cisplatin-resistant variants of A2780 and IGROV-1 have shown almost similar IC50 values compared to their sensitive counterparts. Apoptotic cell death was shown by expression of caspases 3/7, cPARP, loss of mitochondrial potential, nuclear condensation, and up-regulation of p38 and reduced expression of pAkt, pNF-κB, pIκBα, XIAP, bcl-2 and bcl-xl. BT treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1/M phase and increased ROS generation. Treatment with ascorbic acid resulted in partial restoration of cell viability. In addition, dose and time dependent inhibition of ATX was observed. BT exhibits cytotoxic effects on various

  14. Transforming growth factor-β1 short hairpin RNA inhibits renal allograft fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhi-kang; WU Xiao-hou; XIA Yu-guo; LUO Chun-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is known to be a key fibrogenic cytokine in a number of chronic fibrotic diseases, including chronic allograft nephropathy. We examined the effects of inhibition of TGF-β1 expression by RNA interference on renal allograft fibrosis, and explored the mechanisms responsible for these effects.Methods A Sprague-Dawley-to-Wistar rat model of accelerated kidney transplant fibrosis was used. Sixty recipient adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: group T (sham-operated group), group T (plasmid-transfected group), group H (control plasmid group), and group Y (transplant only group). Rats in group T were transfected with 200μg of TGF-β1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of TGF-β1, Smad3/7, E-cadherin, and type I collagen. The distribution of type I collagen was measured by immunohistochemistry. The pathologic changes and extent of fibrosis were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining. E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemical staining were used to label tubular epithelial cells and fibroblasts, respectively.Results Plasmid transfection significantly inhibited the expression of TGF-β1, as well as that of its target gene, type I collagen (P <0.05 and P <0.01, respectively). In addition, the degree of fibrosis was mild, and its development was delayed in plasmid-transfected rats. In contrast, TGF-β1-shRNA transfection maintained the expression of E-cadherin in tubular epithelial cells while it inhibited the transformation from epithelial cells to fibroblasts. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were lower in the plasmid group than in the control groups (P <0.05 and P<0.01, respectively).Conclusions This study suggests that transfection of a TGF-β1-shRNA plasmid could inhibit the fibrosis of renal allografts. The mechanism may be associated with the downregulation

  15. Bile acids activate fibroblast growth factor 19 signaling in human hepatocytes to inhibit cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kwang-Hoon; Li, Tiangang; Owsley, Erika; Strom, Stephen; Chiang, John Y. L.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and human ortholog FGF19 have been identified as the bile acid-induced intestinal factors that mediate bile acid feedback inhibition of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene transcription in mouse liver. The mechanism underlying FGF15/FGF19 inhibition of bile acid synthesis in hepatocytes remains unclear. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and a farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-specific agonist GW4064 strongly induced FGF19 but inhibited CYP7A1 mRNA levels in primary h...

  16. Inhibition of oxidative stress-elicited AKT activation facilitates PPARγ agonist-mediated inhibition of stem cell character and tumor growth of liver cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Liu

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs are the most malignant cell subpopulation in tumors because of their resistance to chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Targeting TICs may be a key innovation for cancer treatment. In this study, we found that PPARγ agonists inhibited the cancer stem cell-like phenotype and attenuated tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS initiated by NOX2 upregulation were partially responsible for the inhibitory effects mediated by PPARγ agonists. However, PPARγ agonist-mediated ROS production significantly activated AKT, which in turn promoted TIC survival by limiting ROS generation. Inhibition of AKT, by either pharmacological inhibitors or AKT siRNA, significantly enhanced PPARγ agonist-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and stem cell-like properties in HCC cells. Importantly, in nude mice inoculated with HCC Huh7 cells, we demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and the AKT inhibitor triciribine on tumor growth. In conclusion, we observed a negative feedback loop between oxidative stress and AKT hyperactivation in PPARγ agonist-mediated suppressive effects on HCCs. Combinatory application of an AKT inhibitor and a PPARγ agonist may provide a new strategy for inhibition of stem cell-like properties in HCCs and treatment of liver cancer.

  17. A novel nanoparticle containing neuritin peptide with grp170 induces a CTL response to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bangqing; Shen, Hanchao; Su, Tonggang; Lin, Li; Chen, Ting; Yang, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Malignant glioma is among the most challenging of all cancers to treat successfully. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have only a marginal impact on patient survival. In this study, we constructed a novel nanoparticle containing neuritin peptide with grp170. The nanoparticle could elicit a neuritin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to lyse glioma cells in vitro. In addition, the nanoparticle could inhibit tumor growth and improve the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the nanoparticle can inhibit tumor growth and represents a promising therapy for glioma. PMID:26290143

  18. Lactobacillus brevis-based bioingredient inhibits Aspergillus niger growth on pan bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Di Biase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bread shelf life is generally compromised by fungi mainly belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, which colonise the surface of the product within few days from the production. The aim of this study was to select a Lactobacillus brevis-based bioingredient (LbBio able to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger ITEM5132 on pan bread in order to prolong its shelf life. Four LbBio formulations, obtained by growing a selected L. brevis strain in a flour-based medium containing different carbon sources or acid precursors (fructose, LbBio1; fructose and maltose, LbBio2; α-chetoglutaric acid, LbBio3; short-chain fructooligosaccharides, LbBio4, were evaluated for their content of organic acids (lactic, acetic, propionic, phenyllactic, 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic, valeric, isovaleric acids. The LbBio formulations were applied in yeast-leavened bread during bread-making trials and the resulting products were inoculated after baking with A. niger spore’s suspension and the fungal growth was monitored during storage (25°C for 6 days. The formulation showing the highest inhibitory activity was separated by ultra-filtration method, and whole and fractions obtained were evaluated for their in vitro activity. The fraction showing the highest activity was further separated by gel-filtration and the resulting products were investigated for their protein content and in vitro inhibition. The results from the bread-making trials performed using different formulations of LbBio showed a delay in fungal growth (1 day respect to the bread not containing the bioingredient (control or including calcium propionate (0.3% w/w. The formulation LbBio2, prepared with fructose and maltose 1% (w/vol, contained the highest amount of total organic acids, including phenyllactic and hydroxyl-phenyllactic acids, and reduced the visual spoilage of bread. This formulation was separated by ultra-filtration and fractions containing metabolites with molecular weight higher than 30 k

  19. The involvement of nitric oxide in ultraviolet-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-Min He; Xiao-Ling Bai; Rui-Bin Wang; Bing Cao; Xiao-Ping She [School of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2007-10-15

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B)-induced reduction of in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa Steud. was studied. Results showed that exposure of the pollen to 0.4 and 0.8 W m{sup -2} UV-B radiation for 2 h resulted in not only the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth but also the enhancement of NO synthase (NOS, EC 1.14.13.39) activity and NO production in pollen grain and tube. Also, exogenous NO donors sodium nitroprusside and S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited both pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependence manner. NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME) and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) not only largely prevented the NO generation but also partly reversed the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. These results indicate that UV-B radiation inhibits pollen germination and tube growth partly via promoting NO production in pollen grain and tube by a NOS-like enzyme. Additionally, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 6-anilino-5, 8-quinolinequinone (LY-83583) prevented both the UV-B- and NO donors-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth, suggesting that the NO function is mediated by cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. However, the effects of c-PTIO, L-NAME and LY-83583 on the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth were only partial, suggesting that there are NO-independent pathways in UV-B signal networks. (au)

  20. The involvement of nitric oxide in ultraviolet-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Min; Bai, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Rui-Bin; Cao, Bing; She, Xiao-Ping

    2007-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B)-induced reduction of in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa Steud. was studied. Results showed that exposure of the pollen to 0.4 and 0.8 W m(-2) UV-B radiation for 2 h resulted in not only the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth but also the enhancement of NO synthase (NOS, EC 1.14.13.39) activity and NO production in pollen grain and tube. Also, exogenous NO donors sodium nitroprusside and S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited both pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependence manner. NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-Arg-methyl eater (l-NAME) and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) not only largely prevented the NO generation but also partly reversed the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. These results indicate that UV-B radiation inhibits pollen germination and tube growth partly via promoting NO production in pollen grain and tube by a NOS-like enzyme. Additionally, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY-83583) prevented both the UV-B- and NO donors-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth, suggesting that the NO function is mediated by cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. However, the effects of c-PTIO, l-NAME and LY-83583 on the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth were only partial, suggesting that there are NO-independent pathways in UV-B signal networks. PMID:18251898

  1. SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, inhibited human cancer growth more potently than gemcitabine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carbonyl at the N4-position on the cytidine ring of gemcitabine. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on the growth of human cancers with gemcitabine as control. Experiments were performed on human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 and colon cancer HCT-116 both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays, SL-01 significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells as determined by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Further studies indicated that SL-01 induced the cancer cells to apoptosis showing chromatin condensation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the efficacy of SL-01 in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts. SL-01 effectively delayed the growth of NCI-H460 and HCT-116 without significant loss of body weight. Molecular analysis indicated that the high efficacy of SL-01 was associated with its ability to induce apoptosis as evidenced by increase of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining cells, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in tumor tissues. SL-01 also increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cancer cells. These biological activities of SL-01 were more potential than that of gemcitabine. Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, SL-01 is proposed as a potent oral anticancer agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine in the clinic. -- Highlights: ► An oral gemcitabine derivative SL-01 was synthesized. ► The effects of SL-01 were evaluated and its efficacy was compared with gemcitabine. ► The biological activities of SL-01 were more potent than that of gemcitabine. ► SL-01 could replace gemcitabine for clinical use.

  2. Covalent Targeting of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wells S; Tan, Li; Smith, Andrew; Gray, Nathanael S; Wendt, Michael K

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic targeting of late-stage breast cancer is limited by an inadequate understanding of how tumor cell signaling evolves during metastatic progression and by the currently available small molecule inhibitors capable of targeting these processes. Herein, we demonstrate that both β3 integrin and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) are part of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that is required to facilitate metastatic outgrowth in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). Mechanistically, β3 integrin physically disrupts an interaction between FGFR1 and E-cadherin, leading to a dramatic redistribution of FGFR1 subcellular localization, enhanced FGF2 signaling and increased three-dimensional (3D) outgrowth of metastatic breast cancer cells. This ability of β3 integrin to drive FGFR signaling requires the enzymatic activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Consistent with these mechanistic data, we demonstrate that FGFR, β3 integrin, and FAK constitute a molecular signature capable of predicting decreased survival of patients with the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Importantly, covalent targeting of a conserved cysteine in the P-loop of FGFR1-4 with our newly developed small molecule, FIIN-4, more effectively blocks 3D metastatic outgrowth as compared with currently available FGFR inhibitors. In vivo application of FIIN-4 potently inhibited the growth of metastatic, patient-derived breast cancer xenografts and murine-derived metastases growing within the pulmonary microenvironment. Overall, the current studies demonstrate that FGFR1 works in concert with other EMT effector molecules to drive aberrant downstream signaling, and that these events can be effectively targeted using our novel therapeutics for the treatment of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2096-106. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27371729

  3. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  4. Inhibition of system L (LAT1/CD98hc) reduces the growth of cultured human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, David B; Thomson, Jean

    2008-10-01

    It has been suggested that system L (LAT1/CD98hc) is up-regulated in cancer cells, including breast tumour cells, and is therefore a promising molecular target to inhibit or limit tumour cell growth. In view of this, we have examined the effect of BCH and other inhibitors of system L on the growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Treating cells with BCH markedly inhibited the metabolism of WST-1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Similarly, melphalan and D-leucine inhibited the growth of cultured breast cancer cells whereas MeAIB, an inhibitor of system A, was without effect. The effects of BCH and melphalan on cell growth were non-additive suggesting that both compounds were acting at a single locus. The results indicate that system L is required to maintain MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231 cell growth and support the notion that LAT1/CD98hc may be a suitable target to inhibit breast cancer progression. PMID:18813831

  5. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10μg/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4μg/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated

  6. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 mediates the inhibition of DNA synthesis by transforming growth factor-beta in mink lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Wu, Hai-Bin; Hong, Jiang; Rechler, Matthew M

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been proposed to mediate the growth inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in breast and prostate cancer cells. Both TGF-beta and exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibit DNA synthesis in Mv1 mink lung epithelial cells (CCL64). The present study asks whether IGFBPs synthesized by CCL64 cells mediate growth inhibition by TGF-beta. CCL64 cells synthesize and secrete a single 34-kDa IGFBP that was identified as IGFBP-2 by immunoprecipitation and immunodepletion. Recombinant bovine IGFBP-2 inhibited CCL64 DNA synthesis in serum-free media in an IGF-independent manner. Coincubation with Leu(60)-IGF-I, an IGF-I analog that binds to IGFBPs with higher affinity than to IGF-I receptors, decreased the inhibition by bIGFBP-2. Leu(60)-IGF-I also decreased the inhibition of CCL64 DNA synthesis by TGF-beta by up to 70%, whereas Long-R3-IGF-I, an IGF-I analog with higher affinity for IGF-I receptors than for IGFBPs, did not decrease inhibition, suggesting that the effect of Leu(60)-IGF-I resulted from its forming complexes with endogenous IGFBPs. Leu(60)-IGF-I did not decrease TGF-beta stimulation of a Smad3-dependent reporter gene. Following incubation of intact CCL64 cells with bIGFBP-2 at 0 degrees C, bIGFBP-2 was recovered in membrane fractions; membrane association was abolished by coincubation with Leu(60)-IGF-I. If exogenous and secreted IGFBP-2 must bind to CCL64 cells to inhibit DNA synthesis, Leu(60)-IGF-I might reduce the inhibition of DNA synthesis by bIGFBP-2 or TGF-beta by inhibiting the association of IGFBP-2 in the media with CCL64 cells. Since TGF-beta does not increase IGFBP-2 abundance, we propose that TGF-beta sensitizes CCL64 cells to the latent growth inhibitory activity of endogenous IGFBP-2 by potentiating an intracellular IGFBP-2 signaling pathway or by promoting the association of secreted IGFBP-2 with the plasma membrane. PMID:11807812

  7. Total Saponin from Root of Actinidia valvata Dunn Inhibits Hepatoma 22 Growth and Metastasis In Vivo by Suppression Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The root of Actinidia valvata dunn has been widely used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, proved to be beneficial for a longer and better life in China. In present work, total saponin from root of Actinidia valvata Dunn (TSAVD was extracted, and its effects on hepatoma H22-based mouse in vivo were observed. Primarily transplanted hypodermal hepatoma H22-based mice were used to observe TSAVD effect on tumor growth. The microvessel density (MVD, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF are characterized factors of angiogenesis, which were compared between TSAVD-treated and control groups. Antimetastasis effect on experimental pulmonary metastasis hepatoma mice was also observed in the study. The results demonstrated that TSAVD can effectively inhibit HCC growth and metastasis in vivo, inhibit the formation of microvessel, downregulate expressions of VEGF and bFGF, and retrain angiogenesis of hepatoma 22 which could be one of the reasons.

  8. The inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth by denbinobin is associated with the blocking of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, An-Chi; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Lai, Chin-Yu; Wang, Chih-Ya; Chen, Chien-Chih; Shen, Chien-Chang; Teng, Che-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Denbinobin, which is a phenanthraquinone derivative present in the stems of Ephemerantha lonchophylla, has been demonstrated to display antitumor activity. Recent reports suggest that the enhanced activity of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is closely associated with tumor angiogenesis and growth. This study aims at investigating the roles of denbinobin in suppressing these effects and at further elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we used an in vivo xenograft model antitumor and the Matrigel implant assays to show that denbinobin suppresses lung adenocarcinoma A549 growth and microvessel formation. Additionally, crystal violet and capillary-like tube formation assays indicated that denbinobin selectively inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced proliferation (GI50=1.3×10⁻⁸ M) and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) without influencing the effect of epidermal growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Furthermore, denbinobin inhibited the IGF-1-induced migration of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent fashion. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that denbinobin causes more efficient inhibition of IGF-1-induced activation of IGF-1R and its downstream signaling targets, including , extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, 4EBP and cyclin D1. All of our results provide evidences that denbinobin suppresses the activation of IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathway, which leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Our findings suggest that denbinobin may be a novel IGF-1R kinase inhibitor and has potential therapeutic abilities for angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer. PMID:20951021

  9. Novel Role for Albumin in Innate Immunity: Serum Albumin Inhibits the Growth of Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Form In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Steven; Czuprynski, Charles

    2003-01-01

    In this study we found that serum inhibitory activity against Blastomyces dermatitidis was principally mediated by albumin. This was confirmed in experiments using albumin from several mammalian species. Analbuminemic rat serum did not inhibit B. dermatitidis growth in vivo; however, the addition of albumin restored inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity does not require albumin domain III and appears to involve binding of a low-molecular-weight yeast-derived growth factor.

  10. Inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens by commercial and potential probiotic strains and their in-vitro growth characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Schoster, A; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, A.; Dedenroth, D.; Guardabassi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics have gained importance in human and veterinary medicine to prevent and treat clostridial associated enteric disease. Little information is available on commercially produced potential probiotic bacterial strains regarding their inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens and their growth characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of commercial and potential probiotic on C. difficile and C. perfringens and assess their growth characteristic...

  11. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab inhibits EGFR/HER-2 heterodimerization and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipa; Bassi, Rajiv; Hooper, Andrea; Prewett, Marie; Hicklin, Daniel J; Kang, Xiaoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Human carcinomas frequently express one or more members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Two family members, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erbB2/neu (HER2), homodimerize or heterodimerize upon activation with ligand and trigger potent mechanisms of cellular proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this study, we examined the effect of the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody Erbitux (cetuximab) on human tumor cells expressing both EGFR and HER2. Investigation of the effect of cetuximab on the activation of EGFR-EGFR, EGFR-HER2 and HER2-HER2 homodimers and heterodimers was conducted using the NCI-N87 human gastric carcinoma cell line. Treatment of NCI-N87 cells with cetuximab completely inhibited formation of EGFR-EGFR homodimers and EGFR-HER2 heterodimers. Activation of HER2-HER2 homodimers was not appreciably stimulated by exogenous ligand and was not inhibited by cetuximab treatment. Furthermore, cetuximab inhibited EGF-induced EGFR and HER2 phosphorylation in CAL27, NCI-H226 and NCI-N87 cells. The activation of downstream signaling molecules such as AKT, MAPK and STAT-3 were also inhibited by cetuximab in these cells. To examine the effect of cetuximab on the growth of tumors in vivo, athymic mice bearing established NCI-N87 or CAL27 xenografts were treated with cetuximab (1 mg, i.p., q3d). The growth of NCI-N87 and CAL27 tumors was significantly inhibited with cetuximab therapy compared to the control groups (p<0.0001 in both cases). In the CAL27 xenograft model, tumor growth inhibition by cetuximab treatment was similar to that by cetuximab and trastuzumab combination treatment. Immunohistological analysis of cetuximab-treated tumors showed a decrease in EGFR-HER2 signaling and reduced tumor cell proliferation. These results suggest that cetuximab may be useful in the treatment of carcinomas co-expressing EGFR and HER2. PMID:19082474

  12. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  13. Emodin Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth by Blocking the Tumor-Promoting Feedforward Loop between Cancer Cells and Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowycz, Stephen; Wang, Junfeng; Hodge, Johnie; Wang, Yuzhen; Yu, Fang; Fan, Daping

    2016-08-01

    Macrophage infiltration correlates with severity in many types of cancer. Tumor cells recruit macrophages and educate them to adopt an M2-like phenotype through the secretion of chemokines and growth factors, such as MCP1 and CSF1. Macrophages in turn promote tumor growth through supporting angiogenesis, suppressing antitumor immunity, modulating extracellular matrix remodeling, and promoting tumor cell migration. Thus, tumor cells and macrophages interact to create a feedforward loop supporting tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, we tested the ability of emodin, a Chinese herb-derived compound, to inhibit breast cancer growth in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Emodin was used to treat mice bearing EO771 or 4T1 breast tumors. It was shown that emodin attenuated tumor growth by inhibiting macrophage infiltration and M2-like polarization, accompanied by increased T-cell activation and reduced angiogenesis in tumors. The tumor inhibitory effects of emodin were lost in tumor-bearing mice with macrophage depletion. Emodin inhibited IRF4, STAT6, and C/EBPβ signaling and increased inhibitory histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27m3) on the promoters of M2-related genes in tumor-associated macrophages. In addition, emodin inhibited tumor cell secretion of MCP1 and CSF1, as well as expression of surface anchoring molecule Thy-1, thus suppressing macrophage migration toward and adhesion to tumor cells. These results suggest that emodin acts on both breast cancer cells and macrophages and effectively blocks the tumor-promoting feedforward loop between the two cell types, thereby inhibiting breast cancer growth and metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1931-42. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196773

  14. Signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor by erlotinib in hepatocellular cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Huether; Michael H(o)pfner; Andreas P Sutter; Viola Baradari; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the underlying mechanisms of erlotinib-induced growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Erlotinib-induced alterations in gene expression were evaluated using cDNA array technology;changes in protein expression and/or protein activation due to erlotinib treatment as well as IGF-1-induced EGFR transactivation were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS: Erlotinib treatment inhibited the mitogen activated protein (MAP)-kinase pathway and signal transducer of activation and transcription (STAT)mediated signaling which led to an altered expression of apoptosis and cell cycle regulating genes as demonstrated by cDNA array technology. Overexpression of proapoptotic factors like caspases and gadds associated with a down-regulation of antiapoptoticfactors like Bcl-2, Bcl-XL or jun D accounted for erlotinib's potency to induce apoptosis. Downregulation of cell cycle regulators promoting the G1/S-transition and overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and gadds contributed to the induction of a G1/Go-arrest in response to erlotinib. Furthermore, we displayed the transactivation of EGFR-mediated signaling by the IGF-1-receptor and showed erlotinib's inhibitory effects on the receptor-receptor cross talk. CONCLUSION: Our study sheds light on the understanding of the mechanisms of action of EGFR-TKinhibition in HCC-cells and thus might facilitate the design of combination therapies that act additively or synergistically. Moreover, our data on the pathways responding to erlotinib treatment could be helpful in predicting the responsiveness of tumors to EGFR-TKIs in the future.

  15. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth via intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen Jiang; Xin-Mei Chen; Xin-Hua Chen; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor function of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo, and its mechanism. METHODS: Hep1-6 and HepG2 cells were treated by Rg3 in different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 μg/Ml) in vitro. After incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, cell viability was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated Dutp-biotin nick end labeling. Caspase-3 activity was measured by chromophore p-nitroanilide and flow cytometry. Bcl-2 family proteins were ascertained by Western-blotting. Mitochondria membrane potential was detected by 5, 5', 6' 6' - tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3' - tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide. Forty liver tumor-bearing C57Bl6 mice were divided randomly into 4 groups for intra-tumor injection of saline, ginsenoside Rg3, cyclophosphamide (CTX) and ginsenoside Rg3 + CTX combination. RESULTS: The survival time was followed up to 102 d. The mice in the Rg3 + CTX group showed significant increased survival time compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Rg3 could inhibit HCC cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in vitro in the concentration and time dependent manner. It also induced mitochondria membrane potential to decrease. Caspase-3 activation can be blocked by the inhibitor z-DEVD-FMK. Bax was up-regulated while Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated after Rg3 treatment. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that Rg3 alone or combined with CTX inhibited tumor growth in vivo and prolonged mouse survival time by inducing HCC cell apoptosis via intrinsic pathway by expression alterations of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  16. Inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro and cell growth by anthracycline antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzian, K; Wasowska, M; Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Wilmańska, D; Szmigiero, L; Oszczapowicz, I; Gniazdowski, M

    2001-01-01

    New derivatives of doxorubicin and daunorubicin with amidine group bonded to daunosamine at C-3' atom and bearing the morpholine ring attached to the amidine group have been recently synthesized. Their cytotoxic activities and effects on RNA synthesis in vitro were assayed. The drug concentrations inhibiting mouse leukaemia L1210 cell growth to 50% were about two- and three fold higher for the derivatives compared to doxorubicin and daunorubicin respectively. Inhibition of phage T7 RNA polymerase by the non-covalently interacting derivatives was also slightly lower than that by the parent compounds. As doxorubicin and daunorubicin, their amidine derivatives in the presence of dithiothreitol and Fe(III) ions are activated and covalently bind to DNA. The adducts formed affect RNA polymerase activity. Several bands corresponding to prematurely terminated RNA chains are observed by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The patterns of bands are virtually identical for all the anthracyclines studied here and are similar to the terminations induced by actinomycin D. This observation is consistent with a notion that the adducts are formed at guanine in GpC sequences which are also binding sites of actinomycin D. A substantial difference between daunorubicin and its amidine derivative is shown by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The derivative undergoes rapid rearrangements in the presence of dithiothreitol and Fe(III) ions, while daunorubicin is stable for several hours under these conditions. The results presented here indicate that the amidine derivatives despite bulky morpholine substitution exhibit biological activity in the systems used here. PMID:11845988

  17. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland M H Merks

    Full Text Available Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis, or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis. Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities.

  18. Cis-hydroxyproline-induced inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Mueller; Joerg Emmrich; Robert Jaster; Dagmar Braun; Stefan Liebe; Gisela Sparmann

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological effects of cishydroxyproline (CHP) on the rat pancreatic carcinoma cell line DSL6A, and to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms.METHODS: The effect of CHP on DSL6A cell proliferation was assessed by using BrdU incorporation. The expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was characterized by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was investigated by using RT-PCR and Western blotting for the glucose-related protein-78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA inducible gene (GADD153). Cell viability was determined through measuring the metabolic activity based on the reduction potential of DSL6A cells. Apoptosis was analyzed by detection of caspase-3 activation and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as well as DNA laddering.RESULTS: In addition to inhibition of proliferation,incubation with CHP induced proteolytic cleavage of FAK and a delocalisation of the enzyme from focal adhesions,followed by a loss of cell adherence. Simultaneously,we could show an increased expression of GRP78 and GADD153, indicating a CHP-mediated activation of the ER stress cascade in the DSL6A cell line. Prolonged incubation of DSL6A cells with CHP finally resulted in apoptotic cell death. Beside L-proline, the inhibition of intracellular proteolysis by addition of a broad spectrum protease inhibitor could abolish the effects of CHP on cellular functions and the molecular processes. In contrast, impeding the activity of apoptosis-executing caspases had no influence on CHP-mediated cell damage.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the initiation of ER stress machinery by CHP leads to an activation of intracellular proteolytic processes, including caspaseindependent FAK degradation, resulting in damaging pancreatic carcinoma cells.

  19. ST13, a proliferation regulator, inhibits growth and migration of colorectal cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui BAI; Zhong SHI; Jia-wei ZHANG; Dan LI; Yong-liang ZHU; Shu ZHENG

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective:ST13,is the gene encoding the HSP70 interacting protein (HIP).Previous research has shown that ST13 mRNA and protein levels are down-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues.This study aims at the role of ST13 in the proliferation and migration of CRC cells.Methods:The transcript level of ST13 in different CRC cell lines was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).ST13-overexpressed and ST13-knockdown CRC cells were constructed respectively by lentiviral transduction,followed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay,plate colony formation,cell-cycle analysis,and migration assays to evaluate the influence of ST13 on proliferation and migration in vitro.Moreover,a mouse xenograft study was performed to test in vivo tumorigenicity of ST13-knockdown CRC cells.Results:Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ST13 in CRC cells inhibited cell proliferation,colony formation,and cell migration in vitro.In contrast,down-regulation of ST13 by lentiviralbased short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference in CRC cells significantly increased cell proliferation and cloning efficiency in vitro.In addition,down-regulation of ST13 expression significantly increased the tumorigenicity of CRC cells in vivo.Conclusions:ST13 gene is a proliferation regulator that inhibits tumor growth in CRC and may affect cell migration.

  20. Selenium nanoparticles incorporated into titania nanotubes inhibit bacterial growth and macrophage proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Golshan, Negar H; Deng, Xuliang; Hickey, Daniel J; Zeimer, Katherine; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-08-25

    Since implants often fail due to infection and uncontrolled inflammatory responses, we designed an in vitro study to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) incorporated with selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Selenium incorporation was achieved by the reaction of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) with glutathione (GSH) under a vacuum in the presence of TNTs. Two types of bacteria and macrophages were cultured on the samples to determine their respective antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The results showed that the TNT samples incorporating SeNPs (TNT-Se) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus compared to unmodified TNTs, albeit the SeNP concentration still needs to be optimized for maximal effect. At their maximum effect, the TNT-Se samples reduced the density of E. coli by 94.6% and of S. aureus by 89.6% compared to titanium controls. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this effect, the expression of six E. coli genes were tracked using qRT-PCR. Results indicated that SeNPs weakened E. coli membranes (ompA and ompF were down-regulated), decreased the function of adhesion-mediating proteins (csgA and csgG were progressively down-regulated with increasing SeNP content), and induced the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ahpF was up-regulated). Moreover, TNT-Se samples inhibited the proliferation of macrophages, indicating that they can be used to control the inflammatory response and even prevent chronic inflammation, a condition that often leads to implant failure. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SeNP-TNTs display antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that are promising for improving the performance of titanium-based implants for numerous orthopedic and dental applications.

  1. Growth-inhibiting effects of taxol on human liver cancer in vitro and in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui Yuan; Ru Ping Zhang; Ru Gang Zhang; Li Xia Guo; Xing Wang Wang; Hong Xie; Dan Luo; Yong Xie

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of taxol on SMMC-7721 human hepatoma and its mechanisms. MLETHODS In vitro cell growth was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method. Experimental hepatoma model was established by seeding SMMC-7721 cells subcutaneously into Balb/c (nu/nu) nude mice. In vivo tumor growth was determined by measurement of tumor diameter with Vernier calipers. The syntheses of DNA,RNA and protein were analyzed by incorporation of 3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine and 3H-leucine respectively. Using light and electron microscopes to observe the morphological changes of cells including mitosis and apoptosis. RESULTS Taxol was effective against SMMC 7721 human hepetoma cell growth in the ranges of 2.5 nmol/L - 10 nmol/L with mitotic arrest and apoptosis in vitro. DNA, RNA and protein syntheses in cells were also obviously suppressed by in vitro treatment of taxol for 72 h. Taxol at 2.5 nmol/L reduced 3H-thymidine uptake to about 34% of the control value (P<0.05). Increasing the dose of taxol to 20 nmol/L resulted in a greater decrease in 3Hthymidine incorporation to 60% of the control value (P<0.01). At a concentration of 20 nmol/L, the 3H-uridine and 3H-leucine uptakes were reduced to 52% (P<0.05) and 63%(P<0.01), respectively. In vivo, taxol significantly inhibited SMMC-7721 tumor growth at 10 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for 10 d. A more than 90% decrease in tumor volume was observed by day 11 (P<0.01) similarly with mitotic arrest and cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION Taxol has a marked anticancer activity in SMMC-7721 human hepatoma both in vitro and in nude mice. Its mechanisms might be associated with mitotic arrest, subsequently,apoptosis of the hepatoma cells. No obvious toxicity was observed with in vivo administration of taxol.

  2. Growth Inhibition and Stimulation of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by Surfactants and Calcium Polysulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Kathryn L.; Tilton, Fred A.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Ergas, Sarina J.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Miracle, Ann L.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2012-06-14

    Foam delivery technology (FDT) uses surfactant based foam to immobilize subsurface contaminants in situ. Where traditional approaches are impractical, FDT has the potential to overcome many of the technical challenges facing the remediation of contaminated deep vadose zone environments. However, little is known about the effects these reactive chemicals may have on microorganisms inhabiting the contaminated subsurface. In addition, there are currently no standard assays to assess microbial responses to subsurface remedial treatments while these agents are under development. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid laboratory assay to assess the potential growth inhibition and/or stimulation of microorganisms following exposure to candidate FDT components. Calcium polysulfide (CPS) and several surfactants (i.e. sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and NINOL40-CO) have diverse chemistries and are candidate components of FDT. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of these chemicals to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the growth and viability potential of these components. Concentrations of SDS higher than 700 {micro}M were toxic to S. oneidensis MR-1 growth over the course of four days of exposure. The relative acute toxicity order for these compounds was SDS>>CPS>>NINOL40-CO>SLES-CAPB. Dose dependent growth decreases (20 to 100 mM) were observed in the CAPB and SLES treated cultures and both CPS and NINOL 40-CO were toxic at all concentrations tested (1.45 to 7.25 mM CPS). Both SLES (20 to 100 mM) and SDS at lower concentrations (20 to 500 {micro}M) were stimulatory to S. oneidensis MR-1 indicating a capacity to be used as a carbon source. These studies also identified potentially key component characteristics, such as precipitate formation and oxygen availability, which may prove valuable in assessing the response of subsurface

  3. Growth inhibition of high-intensity focused ultrasound on hepatic cancer in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Jie Wang; Shu-Lan Yuan; Yan-Rong Lu; Jie Zhang; Bo-Tao Liu; Wen-Fu Zeng; Yue-Ming He; Yu-Rui Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the damaging effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on cancer cells and the inhibitory effect on tumor growth.METHODS: Murine H22 hepatic cancer cells were treated with HIFU at the same intensity for different lengths of time and at different intensities for the same length of timein vitro, the dead cancer cells were determined by trypan blue staining. Two groups of cancer cells treated with HIFU at the lowest and highest intensity were inoculated into mice. Tumor masses were removed and weighed after 2 wk, tumor growth in each group was confirmed pathologically.RESULTS: The death rate of cancer cells treated with HIFU at 1 000 W/cm2 for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 s was 3.11±1.21%, 13.37±2.56%, 38.84±3.68%, 47.22±5.76%,87.55±7.32%, and 94.33±8.11%, respectively. A positive relationship between the death rates of cancer ceils and the length of HIFU treatment time was found (r = 0.96,P<0.01). The death rate of cancer cells treated with HIFU at the intensity of 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1 000 W/cm2 for 8 s was 26.31±3.26%, 31.00±3.87%, 41.97±5.86%,72.23±8.12%, 94.90±8.67%, and 99.30±9.18%,respectively. A positive relationship between the death rates of cancer cells and the intensities of HIFU treatment was confirmed (r = 0.98, P<0.01). The cancer cells treated with HIFU at 1 000 W/cm2 for 8 s were inoculated into mice ex vivo. The tumor inhibitory rate was 90.35%compared to the control (P<0.01). In the experimental group inoculated with the cancer cells treated with HIFU at 1 000 W/cm2 for 0.5 s, the tumor inhibitory rate was 22.9% (P<0.01). By pathological examination, tumor growth was confirmed in 8 out of 14 mice (57.14%, 8/14)inoculated with the cancer cells treated with HIFU at 1 000 W/cm2 for 8 s, which was significantly lower than that in the control (100%, 15/15, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: HIFU is effective on killing or damage of H22 hepatic cancer cellsin vitro and on inhibiting tumor growth in mice ex vivo.

  4. Genetically engineered endostatin-lidamycin fusion proteins effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endostatin (ES) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. It also shows antiangiogenesis and antitumor activities in several animal models. Endostatin specifically targets tumor vasculature to block tumor growth. Lidamycin (LDM), which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a non-covalently bound apo-protein (LDP), is a member of chromoprotein family of antitumor antibiotics with extremely potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that endostatin-lidamycin (ES-LDM) fusion proteins upon energizing with enediyne chromophore may obtain the combined capability targeting tumor vasculature and tumor cell by respective ES and LDM moiety. In this study, we designed and obtained two new endostatin-based fusion proteins, endostatin-LDP (ES-LDP) and LDP-endostatin (LDP-ES). In vitro, the antiangiogenic effect of fusion proteins was determined by the wound healing assay and tube formation assay and the cytotoxicity of their enediyne-energized analogs was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. Tissue microarray was used to analyze the binding affinity of LDP, ES or ES-LDP with specimens of human lung tissue and lung tumor. The in vivo efficacy of the fusion proteins was evaluated with human lung carcinoma PG-BE1 xenograft and the experimental metastasis model of 4T1-luc breast cancer. ES-LDP and LDP-ES disrupted the formation of endothelial tube structures and inhibited endothelial cell migration. Evidently, ES-LDP accumulated in the tumor and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. ES-LDP and ES show higher binding capability than LDP to lung carcinoma; in addition, ES-LDP and ES share similar binding capability. Furthermore, the enediyne-energized fusion protein ES-LDP-AE demonstrated significant efficacy against lung carcinoma xenograft in athymic mice. The ES-based fusion protein therapy provides some fundamental information for further drug development. Targeting both tumor vasculature and tumor cells by endostatin

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Rici Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. Results We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p

  6. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth using doxorubicin assisted by ultrasound-targeted nanobubble destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaozhou; Wang, Luofu; Guo, Yanli; Xiong, Xingyu; Zhu, Lianhua; Fang, Kejing

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-targeted microbubble destruction has been widely used as an effective drug-delivery system. However, nanobubbles (NBs) have better stability and stronger penetration than microbubbles, and drug delivery assisted by US-targeted NB destruction (UTND) still needs to be investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the inhibition of prostate cancer growth under UTND. Contrast-enhanced US imaging of transplanted PC3 prostate cancer in mice showed that under a combination of 1 W/cm(2) US power and a 100 Hz intermittent pulse with a "5 seconds on, 5 seconds off" mode, NBs with an average size of (485.7±33) nm were effectively destroyed within 15 minutes in the tumor location. PC3 cells and 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into four groups: a DOX group, a DOX + NB group, a DOX + US group, and a DOX + NB + US group. The cell growth-inhibition rate and DOX concentration of xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group were highest. Based on another control group and these four groups, another 25 tumor-bearing mice were used to observe the treatment effect of nine DOX injections under UTND. The xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group decreased more obviously and had more cellular apoptosis than other groups. Finally, electron microscopy was used to estimate the cavitation effect of NBs under US irradiation in the control group, NB group, US group, and NB + US group. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that PC3 cells in the DOX + NB + US group had more holes and significantly increased cell-surface folds. Meanwhile, transmission electric microscopy confirmed that more lanthanum nitrate particles entered the parenchymal cells in xenografts in the NB + US group compared with the other groups. This study suggested that UTND technology could be an effective method to promote drugs to function in US-irradiated sites, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with a cavitation effect. PMID:27536100

  7. Treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinomas by systemic inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Schmitz; Miroslaw Kornek; Tobias Hilbert; Christian Dzienisowicz; Esther Raskopf; Christian Rabe; Tilman Sauerbruch; Cheng Qian; Wolfgang H Caselmann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Tumor angiogenesis has been shown to be promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and survival.Blockade of VEGF signaling by different means has been demonstrated to result in reduced tumor growth and suppression of tumor angiogenesis in distinct tumor entities.Here, we tested a recombinant adenovirus, AdsFlt1-3,that encodes an antagonistically acting fragment of the VEGF receptor 1 (Flt-1), for systemic antitumor effects in pre-established subcutaneous CRC tumors in mice.METHODS: Murine colorectal carcinoma cells (CT26) were inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice forin vivo studies. Tumor size and survival were determined. 293cell line was used for propagation of the adenoviral vectors.Human lung cancer line 4549 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transfected forin vitro experiments.RESULTS: Infection of tumor cells with AdsFlt1-3 resulted in protein secretion into cell supernatant, demonstrating correct vector function. As expected, the secreted sFlt1-3 protein had no direct effect on CT26 tumor cell proliferation in vitro, but endothelial cell function was inhibited by about 46% as compared to the AdLacZ control in a tube formation assay. When AdsFlt1-3 (5×109 PFU/animal) was applied to tumor bearing mice, we found a tumor inhibition by 72% at d 12 after treatment initiation. In spite of these antitumoral effects, the survival time was not improved.According to reduced intratumoral microvessel density in AdsFlt1-3-treated mice, the antitumor mechanism can be attributed to angiostatic vector effects. We did not detect increased systemic VEGF levels after AdsFlt1-3 treatment and liver toxicity was low as judged by serum alanine aminotransferase determination.CONCLUSION: In this study we confirmed the value of a systemic administration of AdsFlt1-3 to block VEGF signaling as antitumor therapy in an experimental metastatic colorectal carcinoma model in mice.

  8. Bile salts inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of culture human normal esophageal mucosal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Zhang; Jun Gong; Hui Wang; Li Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of six bile salts:glycocholate (GC), glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC),glycodeoxycholate (GDC), taurocholate (TC),taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), taurodeoxycholate (TDC), and their mixture on cultured human normal esophageal mucosal epithelial cells.METHODS: Human normal esophageal mucosal epithelial cells were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte medium. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay was applied to the detection of cell proliferation. Apoptotic morphology was observed by phase-contrast video microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Sub-G1 DNA fragmentations and early apoptotic cells were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM) with propidium iodide (PI) staining and annexin V-FITC conjugated with PI staining.Apoptotic DNA ladders on agarose gel electrophoresis were observed.RESULTS: Except for GC, GCDC, GDC, TC, TCDC, TDC and their mixture could initiate growth inhibition of esophageal mucosal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TUNEL and FCM assays demonstrated that the bile salts at 500 μmol/L and their mixture at 1 500 μmol/L induced apoptosis except for GC. The percentage of sub-G1 detected by FCM with PI staining was 83.5% in cells treated with 500μmol/L TC for 2 h, and 19.8%, 20.4%, 25.6%, 13.5%, and 75.8% in cells treated with 500 μmol/L GCDC, TCDC, GDC,TDC, and 1 500 μmol/L mixture for 24 h, respectively,which were higher than that of the control (1.5%). The percentage was 1.4% in cells with 500 μmol/L GC for 24 h.DNA ladders on agarose gel electrophoresis were seen in cells treated with 500 μmol/L TC for 2 h and 1 500 μmol/Lmixture for 24 h.CONCLUSION: All GCDC, GDC, TC, TCDC, TDC and their mixture can inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of cultured human normal esophageal mucosal epithelial cells, but GC is well tolerated by the cells.

  9. Bile salts inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Zhang; Jun Gong; Hui Wang; Li Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of six bile salts, including glycocholate (GC), glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), glycodeoxycholate (GDC), taurocholate (TC), taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), taurodeoxycholate (TDC), and two bile acids including cholic acid (CA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on esophageal cancer Eca109 cell line.METHODS: Eca109 cells were exposed to six bile salts, two bile acids and the mixed bile salts at different concentrations for 24-72 h. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the cell proliferation. Apoptotic morphology was observed by phase-contrast video microscopy and deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)assay. Sub-G1 DNA fragmentations and early apoptosis cells were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM) with propidium iodide (PI) staining and annexin V-FITC conjugated with PI staining. Apoptosis DNA ladders on agarose were observed. Activation of caspase-3 was assayed by FCM with FITC-conjugated monoclonal rabbit anti-active caspase3 antibody and expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were examined immunocytochemically in 500 μmol/L-TC-induced apoptosis cells.RESULTS: Five bile salts except for GC, and two bile acids and the mixed bile salts could initiate growth inhibition of Eca109 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.TUNEL, FCM, and DNA ladder assays all demonstrated apoptosis induced by bile salts and bile acids at 500 μmol/L,except for GC. Early apoptosis cell percentages in Eca109 cells treated with GCDC, GDC, TC, TCDC, TDC,CA at 500 μmol/L for 12 h, DCA at 500 μmol/L for 6 h,and mixed bile salts at 1 000 μmol/L for 12 h were 7.5%,8.7%, 14.8%, 8.9%, 7.8%, 9.3%, 22.6% and 12.5%,respectively, all were significantly higher than that in control (1.9%). About 22% of the cell population treated with TC at 500 μmol/L for 24 h had detectable active caspase-3, and were higher than that in the control (1%). Immunocytochemical assay suggested that TC down-regulated Bcl

  10. Isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually has a dismal prognosis because of its limited response to current pharmacotherapy and high metastatic rate. Sulfated oligosaccharide has been confirmed as having potent antitumor activities against solid tumors. Here, we explored the preclinical effects and molecular mechanisms of isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate (IMOS), another novel sulfated oligosaccharide, in HCC cell lines and a xenograft model. The effects of IMOS on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by cell counting, flow cytometry, adhesion, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. The roles of IMOS on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of AKT, ERK, and JNK as well as total levels of c-MET were detected by Western blotting. IMOS-regulated genes were screened by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) array in HCCLM3-red fluorescent protein (RFP) xenograft tissues and then confirmed by qRT-PCR in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. IMOS markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis of HCCLM3, HepG2, and Bel-7402 cells and also significantly suppressed cell adhesion, migration, and invasion of HCCLM3 in vitro. At doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg/d, IMOS displayed robust inhibitory effects on HCC growth and metastasis without obvious side effects in vivo. The levels of pERK, tERK, and pJNK as well as c-MET were significantly down-regulated after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. No obvious changes were found in the levels of pAkt, tAkt, and tJNK. Ten differentially expressed genes were screened from HCCLM3-RFP xenograft tissues after treatment with IMOS at a dose of 90 mg/kg/d. Similar gene expression profiles were confirmed in HepG2 and Hep3B cells after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. IMOS is a potential anti-HCC candidate through inhibition of ERK and JNK signaling independent of p53 and worth

  11. Dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibition of androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell tumor growth correlates with decreased angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), found in certain cruciferous vegetables, has antitumor activity in several cancer models, including prostate cancer. In our xenograft model, dietary administration of PEITC (100-150 mg/kg/d) inhibited androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell tumor growth...

  12. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5500 Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  13. The weak acid preservative sorbic acid inhibits conidial germination and mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger through intracellular acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plumridge, A.; Hesse, S.J.A.; Watson, A.J.; Lowe, K.C.; Stratford, M.; Archer, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, a common food spoilage organism, is inhibited by the weak acid preservative sorbic acid (trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid). Conidia inoculated at 105/ml of medium showed a sorbic acid MIC of 4.5 mM at pH 4.0, whereas the MIC for the amount of m

  14. Growth inhibiting effects of antisense eukaryotic expression vector of proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene on human bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童强松; 曾甫清; 林晨; 赵军; 鲁功成

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the growth inhibiting effects on human bladder cancer by antisense RNA targeting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector for antisense PCNA cDNA was constructed and transferred into a bladder cancer EJ cell line. The PCNA expression in the cancer cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. The in vitro proliferation activities of the transferred cells were observed by growth curve, tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry, tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR)incorporation, flow cytometry and clone formation testing, while its in vivo anti-tumor effects were detected on nude mice allograft models.Results After the antisense vector, pLAPSN, was transferred, cellular PCNA expression was inhibited at both protein and mRNA levels. The growth rates of EJ cells were reduced from 27.91% to 62.07% (P<0.01), with an inhibition of DNA synthesis rate by 52.31% (P<0.01). Transferred cells were blocked at G0/G1 phases in cell-cycle assay, with the clone formation ability decreased by 50.81% (P<0.01). The in vivo carcinogenic abilities of the transferred cancer cells were decreased by 54.23% (P<0.05). Conclusions Antisense PCNA gene transfer could inhibit the growth of bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which provided an ideal strategy for gene therapy of human cancers.

  15. PTK787/ZK 222584 inhibits tumor growth promoting mesenchymal stem cells Kinase activity profiling as powerful tool in functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berber D.; Ter Elst, Arja; Diks, Sander H.; Meeuwsen-de Boer, Tiny G. J.; Kamps, Willem A.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to favor tumor growth, suggesting the relevance of pharmaceutical inhibition of MSCs for the treatment of malignancies. We tested the effect of PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK) on the outgrowth of MSCs from human bone marrow-derived mononu

  16. Inhibition of CCL2 Signaling in Combination with Docetaxel Treatment Has Profound Inhibitory Effects on Prostate Cancer Growth in Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Corey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 stimulates migration, proliferation, and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa cells, and its signaling also plays a role in the activation of osteoclasts. Therefore targeting CCL2 signaling in regulation of tumor progression in bone metastases is an area of intense research. The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CCL2 blockade by neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the growth of PCa in bone. We used a preclinical model of cancer growth in the bone in which PCa C4-2B cells were injected directly into murine tibiae. Animals were treated for ten weeks with neutralizing anti-CCL2 antibodies, docetaxel, or a combination of both, and then followed an additional nine weeks. CCL2 blockade inhibited the growth of PCa in bone, with even more pronounced inhibition in combination with docetaxel. CCL2 blockade also resulted in increases in bone mineral density. Furthermore, our results showed that the tumor inhibition lasted even after discontinuation of the treatment. Our data provide compelling evidence that CCL2 blockade slows PCa growth in bone, both alone and in combination with docetaxel. These results support the continued investigations of CCL2 blockade as a treatment for advanced metastatic PCa.

  17. Silencing of ghrelin receptor expression inhibits endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Jenny N T; Jeffery, Penny L; Lee, John D; Seim, Inge; Roche, Deborah; Obermair, Andreas; Chopin, Lisa K; Chen, Chen

    2013-07-15

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide hormone produced predominantly in the stomach but also in a range of normal cell types and tumors, where it has endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine roles. Previously, we have demonstrated that ghrelin has proliferative and antiapoptotic effects in endometrial cancer cell lines, suggesting a potential role in promoting tumor growth. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ghrelin receptor, GHSR, and gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and characterized ghrelin and GHSR1a protein expression in human endometrial tumors. GHSR gene silencing was achieved in the Ishikawa and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines, using a lentiviral short-hairpin RNA targeting GHSR. The effects of GHSR1a knockdown were further analyzed in vivo using the Ishikawa cell line in a NOD/SCID xenograft model. Cell proliferation was reduced in cultured GHSR1a knockdown Ishikawa and KLE cells compared with scrambled controls in the absence of exogenously applied ghrelin and in response to exogenous ghrelin (1,000 nM). The tumor volumes were reduced significantly in GHSR1a knockdown Ishikawa mouse xenograft tumors compared with scrambled control tumours. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that ghrelin and GHSR1a are expressed in benign and cancerous glands in human endometrial tissue specimens, although there was no correlation between the intensity of staining and cancer grade. These data indicate that downregulation of GHSR expression significantly inhibits endometrial cancer cell line and mouse xenograft tumour growth. This is the first preclinical evidence that downregulation of GHSR may be therapeutic in endometrial cancer.

  18. Cinacalcet inhibits neuroblastoma tumor growth and upregulates cancer-testis antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalà, Carla; Briansó, Ferran; Castrejón, Nerea; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Carcaboso, Angel M.; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; de Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The calcium–sensing receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that exerts cell-type specific functions in numerous tissues and some cancers. We have previously reported that this receptor exhibits tumor suppressor properties in neuroblastoma. We have now assessed cinacalcet, an allosteric activator of the CaSR approved for clinical use, as targeted therapy for this developmental tumor using neuroblastoma cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) with different MYCN and TP53 status. In vitro, acute exposure to cinacalcet induced endoplasmic reticulum stress coupled to apoptosis via ATF4-CHOP-TRB3 in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells. Both phenotypes were partially abrogated by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Prolonged in vitro treatment also promoted dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells and, irrespective of MYCN status, differentiation in surviving cells. Cinacalcet significantly inhibited tumor growth in MYCN-amplified xenografts and reduced that of MYCN-non amplified PDX. Morphology assessment showed fibrosis in MYCN-amplified xenografts exposed to the drug. Microarrays analyses revealed up-regulation of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in cinacalcet-treated MYCN-amplified tumors. These were predominantly CTAs encoded by genes mapping on chromosome X, which are the most immunogenic. Other modulated genes upon prolonged exposure to cinacalcet were involved in differentiation, cell cycle exit, microenvironment remodeling and calcium signaling pathways. CTAs were up-regulated in PDX and in vitro models as well. Moreover, progressive increase of CaSR expression upon cinacalcet treatment was seen both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, cinacalcet reduces neuroblastoma tumor growth and up-regulates CTAs. This effect represents a therapeutic opportunity and provides surrogate circulating markers of neuroblastoma response to this treatment. PMID:26893368

  19. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signaling by the cardiac glycoside ouabain in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolle, Daniel; Lee, Seung Joon; Li, Zhiqin; Litan, Alisa; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling regulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Upon receptor binding, EGF triggers cascades of downstream signaling, including the MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. Aberrant expression/activation of EGFR is found in multiple human cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most prevalent pediatric brain cancer, and often has been associated with metastasis, poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Na,K-ATPase is an ion pump well known for its role in intracellular ion homeostasis. Recent studies showed that Na,K-ATPase also functions as a signaling platform and revealed a role in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling. While both EGFR and Na,K-ATPase seem to modulate similar signaling pathways, cardiac glycosides that are steroid-like inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in cancer cells. Thus, we sought to better understand the relationship between EGF and cardiac glycoside signaling. Here, we show that in medulloblastoma cells, both EGF and ouabain activate Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Nevertheless, in medulloblastoma cells ouabain did not transactivate EGFR as has been reported in various other cell lines. Indeed, ouabain inhibited EGF-induced Erk1/2 and Akt activation and, moreover, prevented EGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and cell motility, probably by activating a stress signaling response. Na,K-ATPase has been proposed to act as a signaling scaffold and our studies suggest that in medulloblastoma cells Na,K-ATPase might act as a check point to integrate EGF-associated signaling pathways. Thus, Na,K-ATPase might serve as a valid target to develop novel therapeutic approaches in tumors with aberrant activation of the EGFR signaling cascades. PMID:25052069

  20. Mechanical Stimulus Inhibits the Growth of a Bone Tissue Model Cultured In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-ming Wan; Lu Liu; Jian-yu Li; Rui-xin Li; Yong Guo; Hao Li; Jian-ming Zhang; Xi-zheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To construct the cancellous bone explant model and a method of culturing these bone tissues in vitro, and to investigate the effect of mechanical load on growth of cancellous bone tissue in vitro. Methods Cancellous bone were extracted from rabbit femoral head and cut into 1-mm-thick and 8-mm-diameter slices under sterile conditions. HE staining and scanning electron microscopy were employed to identify the histomorphology of the model after being cultured with a new dynamic load and circulating perfusion bioreactor system for 0, 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. We built a three-dimensional model using microCT and analyzed the loading effects using finite element analysis. The model was subjected to mechanical load of 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000μεrespectively for 30 minutes per day. After 5 days of continuous stimuli, the activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected. Apoptosis was analyzed by DNA ladder detection and caspase-3/8/9 activity detection. Results After being cultured for 3, 5, and 7 days, the bone explant model grew well. HE staining showed the apparent nucleus in cells at the each indicated time, and electron microscope revealed the living cells in the bone tissue. The activities of AKP and TRAP in the bone explant model under mechanical load of 3000 and 4000μεwere significantly lower than those in the unstressed bone tissues (all P Conclusions The cancellous bone explant model extracted from the rabbit femoral head could be alive at least for 7 days in the dynamic load and circulating perfusion bioreactor system, however, pathological mechanical load could affect the bone tissue growth by apoptosis in vitro. The differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts might be inhibited after the model is stimulated by mechanical load of 3000 and 4000με.

  1. Transfection of promyelocytic leukemia in retrovirus vector inhibits growth of human bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei LI; Da-lin HE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To construct a recombinant retrovirus vector carrying human promyelocytic leukemia (PML) cDNA and identify its expression and biology role in bladder cancer UM-UC-2 cells for future gene therapy. Methods: PML full-length cDNA was inserted into the EcoR I and BamHI site of pLXSN vector containing the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. The vector was identified by restriction enzyme digestion and then transfected into PA317 packaging cell line by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. PML cDNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the protein was identified by laser confocal microscopy and Western blot in bladder cancer cells, respectively. The morphology was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope, and MTT assay determined growth curve of the bladder cancer cells. Results: Restriction enzyme digestion proved that a 2.1kb PML cDNA was inserted into the pLXSN vector. PCR assay demonstrated that 304 bp fragments were found in UM-UC-2/pLPMLSN transfects. Laser confocal microscopy showed speck dots fluorescence in the UM-UC-2/pLPMLSN nucleus.A 90 kD specific brand was found by Western blot. MTT assay demonstrated the UM-UC-2/pLPMLSN bladder cancer growth inhibition. Conclusion: The retrovirus pLPMLSN vector was successfully constructed and could generate high effective expression of human PML in bladder cancer cell UM-UC-2, suggesting that PML recombinant retrovirus have potential utility in the gene therapy for bladder cancer.

  2. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  3. Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by (+-Cyanidan-3-ol in hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Jitender Monga

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of (+-cyanidan-3-ol (CD-3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 and chemopreventive potential against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Balb/c mice. The HepG2 cell line was treated with CD-3 at various concentrations and the proliferation of the HepG2 cells was measure by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT, sulforhodamine B (SRB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 (HO, Acridine orange/ethylene dibromide (AO/EB staining, DNA fragmentation analysis and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. The HCC tumor model was established in mice by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine/carbon tetrachloride (NDEA/CCl4 and the effect of CD-3 on tumor growth in-vivo was studied. The levels of liver injury markers, tumor markers, and oxidative stress were measured. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in in-vitro and in vivo models were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The CD-3 induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic by observing the typical apoptotic morphological changes under fluorescent microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis. Annexin V/PI assay demonstrated that apoptosis increased with increase in the concentration of CD-3. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes that belong to bcl-2 and caspase family were increased and AP-1 and NF-κB activities were significantly suppressed by CD-3. Immunohistochemistry data revealed less localization of p53, p65 and c-jun in CD-3 treated tumors as compared to localization in NDEA/CCl4 treated tumors. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CD-3 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in-vitro and suppress HCC tumor growth in-vivo by apoptosis induction.

  4. Steviol reduces MDCK Cyst formation and growth by inhibiting CFTR channel activity and promoting proteasome-mediated CFTR degradation.

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    Chaowalit Yuajit

    Full Text Available Cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD involves cAMP-activated proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells and transepithelial fluid secretion into the cyst lumen via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride channel. This study aimed to investigate an inhibitory effect and detailed mechanisms of steviol and its derivatives on cyst growth using a cyst model in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. Among 4 steviol-related compounds tested, steviol was found to be the most potent at inhibiting MDCK cyst growth. Steviol inhibition of cyst growth was dose-dependent; steviol (100 microM reversibly inhibited cyst formation and cyst growth by 72.53.6% and 38.2±8.5%, respectively. Steviol at doses up to 200 microM had no effect on MDCK cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. However, steviol acutely inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current in MDCK epithelia, measured with the Ussing chamber technique, in a dose-dependent manner. Prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM also strongly inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current, in part by reducing CFTR protein expression in MDCK cells. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, abolished the effect of steviol on CFTR protein expression. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM markedly reduced CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that steviol retards MDCK cyst progression in two ways: first by directly inhibiting CFTR chloride channel activity and second by reducing CFTR expression, in part, by promoting proteasomal degradation of CFTR. Steviol and related compounds therefore represent drug candidates for treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

  5. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1β secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1–1 μM). ► EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1β suppression. ► Inflammasomes and IL-1β could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1–1 μM). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-κB was inhibited, and that reduced NF-κB activity was associated with decreased IL-1β secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1β secretion, we investigated whether IL-1β suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation → decreased IL-1β secretion → decreased NF-κB activities → decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1β could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  6. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1{beta} secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Lixia Z.; Liu, Weimin; Luo, Yuchun; Okamoto, Miyako; Qu, Dovina; Dunn, Jeffrey H. [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Fujita, Mayumi, E-mail: mayumi.fujita@ucdenver.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} suppression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-{kappa}B was inhibited, and that reduced NF-{kappa}B activity was associated with decreased IL-1{beta} secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1{beta} secretion, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation {yields} decreased IL-1{beta} secretion {yields} decreased NF-{kappa}B activities {yields} decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  7. Picropodophyllin inhibits the growth of Ewing's sarcoma cells through the insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Tao; Wang, Bao-Jun; Miao, Sheng-Wu; Gao, Jian-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of pediatric bone tumor, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Picropodophyllin (PPP), a novel selective inhibitor of insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R), is able to strongly inhibit various types of cancers. However, the effect of IGF‑1R on ES remains unclear. Following treatment with various concentrations of PPP for various times, cell viability was determined using an MTT assay. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis was investigated separately by bromodeoxyuridine staining and flow cytometry, respectively. The PPP‑associated signaling pathway was also investigated. The results of the present study suggested that PPP inhibited cell proliferation and viability of A673 and SK‑ES‑1 human Ewing's sarcoma cells in a dose- and time‑dependent manner. In addition, cell apoptosis rates were increased following treatment with PPP. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PPP inhibited Akt phosphorylation. Fumonisin B1, an Akt‑specific activator, reversed the inhibitory effects of PPP on cell growth. Furthermore, the results suggested that PPP decreased the expression levels of IGF‑1R, a common activator of Akt signaling. PPP inhibited the growth of human Ewing's sarcoma cells by targeting the IGF‑1R/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, PPP may prove useful in the development of an effective strategy for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma.

  8. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Khong Bee, E-mail: dmskkb@nccs.com.sg [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are

  9. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–Akt-DNA–dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, γ-H2AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, γ-H2AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G2/M arrest and increased γ-H2AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased γ-H2AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are resistant to irradiation-induced cytotoxicity, G2/M

  10. Growth Inhibition of Cocoa Pod Rot Fungus Phytophthora palmivora byPseudomonas fluorescence and Bacillus subtilis bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Widyanta Pratama

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivorafungus is one of the important diseases on cocoa crop. Pod rot is the most important disease because it may cause loss of cocoa pod. Until now, the fungal pathogen of cocoa black pod disease is still a crucial problem and there is no fungicide that is really effective against the disease. One alternative to control the cocoa black pod disease is by using biological agents as biofungicide, including utilizing Pseudomonas fluorescenceand Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The research was done by isolation of P. palmivora from infected pods of Kaliwining Experimental Station to obtain pure cultures of fungus and by multiplication of P. fluorescence and B. subtilis. Antagonist test was performed by inoculating P. palmivora into a petri dish in a distance of 3 cm from the edge. P. fluorescenceand B. Subtilis were inoculated into petridishes in three days after the fungal treatment. Control was inoculated with isolate of P. palmivora only. Fungal growth was measured everyday by measuring radius of fungal colonies first time 24 hours after inoculation. Growth of Phytophthora palmivora in the two treatmens were used to calculate the percentage of inhibition. The results of this study indicated that P. fluorescence and B. subtiliswere able to inhibit fungal growth of P. palmivora. Both bacterial antagonists had the same effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of P. palmivora fungus based on the percentage of inhibition and effectiveness criteria. Based on the results of translucent zones indicated that B. subtiliswas more powerfull in inhibiting growth of P. Palmivora compared to P. fluorescence. Key words: Black pod disease of cocoa, biological control, Phytophthora palmivora, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis

  11. Resinous perforation-repair materials inhibit the growth, attachment, and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Tai, Kuo-Wei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2002-04-01

    The choice of repair material is one of the important factors in the prognosis of the endodontically treated tooth with a perforation defect. The cytotoxicity of perforation-repair materials must be investigated to ensure a safe biological response. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of resin-modified, glass-ionomer cement, compomer, and resin on human-gingival fibroblasts. Human gingival fibroblasts from crown lengthening surgery were cultured by using an explant technique with the consent of the patient. Cytotoxicity was judged by using an assay of tetrazolium bromide reduction. The results showed that resin-modified, glass-ionomer cement Fuji II LC, compomer Compoglass, and resin SpectrumTPH (TPH) were cytotoxic to primary human gingival fibroblast cultures by inhibiting cell growth and proliferation. TPH alone had an effect on cell attachment. It was found that TPH was the most cytotoxic repair material among those tested in all cultures. The toxicity decreased in the order of TPH>FLC>CG.

  12. JAK Kinase Inhibition Abrogates STAT3 Activation and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Sen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 has been implicated in cell proliferation and survival of many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. AZD1480, an orally active pharmacologic inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2, has been tested in several cancer models. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of AZD1480 were evaluated in HNSCC preclinical models to test the potential use of JAK kinase inhibition for HNSCC therapy. AZD1480 treatment decreased HNSCC proliferation in HNSCC cell lines with half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4 μM in conjunction with reduction of pSTAT3Tyr705 expression. In vivo antitumor efficacy of AZD1480 was demonstrated in patient-derived xenograft (PDX models derived from two independent HNSCC tumors. Oral administration of AZD1480 reduced tumor growth in conjunction with decreased pSTAT3Tyr705 expression that was observed in both PDX models. These findings suggest that the JAK1/2 inhibitors abrogate STAT3 signaling and may be effective in HNSCC treatment approaches.

  13. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.

  14. Short communication: Lactic acid bacteria from the honeybee inhibit the in vitro growth of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccart, K; Vásquez, A; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Olofsson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of prevention and control strategies, bovine mastitis remains one of the most challenging diseases in the dairy industry. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from the honey crop of the honeybee, on several mastitis pathogens. The viable LAB were first reintroduced into a sterilized heather honey matrix. More than 20 different bovine mastitis isolates were tested against the mixture of the 13 LAB species in the honey medium using a dual-culture overlay assay. The mastitis isolates were identified through bacteriological culturing, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Additionally, the mastitis isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing through disk diffusion. Growth of all tested mastitis pathogens, including the ones displaying antimicrobial resistance to one or more antimicrobial compounds, were inhibited to some extent by the honey and LAB combination. The antibacterial effect of these LAB opens up new perspectives on alternative treatment and prevention of bovine mastitis.

  15. Flavonoid glycosides from Hosta longipes, their inhibition on NO production, and nerve growth factor inductive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Lee, Kang Ro, E-mail: krlee@skku.edu [Natural Products Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Wook [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University Global Campus (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Yeou [College of Pharmacy, Gachon University (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An extended phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Hosta longipes identified the new flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)- [6{sup '}-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and five known flavonoid derivatives. The structures of two compounds were revealed by extensive NMR methods ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H COSY, HMQC and HMBC) and chemical hydrolysis. NMR data of one of them are published for the first time. Bioactivities of six compounds revealed that five strongly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) with IC{sub 50} values of 11.56-15.97 μm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells without cell toxicity. Two compounds showed moderate induction of secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) in C6 glioma cells (124.70 ± 7.71% and 117.02 ± 3.60%, respectively). (author)

  16. Selective growth inhibition of a human malignant melanoma cell line by sesame oil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Salerno, J W

    1992-06-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient and comprehensive system of natural medicine, recommends regular topical application to the skin of sesame oil, above all other oils, as a health-promoting procedure. We examined the effect of sesame oil and several other vegetable oils and their major component fatty acids on the proliferation rate of human normal and malignant melanocytes growing at similar rates in serum-free media. We found that sesame and safflower oils, both of which contain large amounts of linoleate in triglyceride form, selectively inhibited malignant melanoma growth over normal melanocytes whereas coconut, olive and mineral oils, which contain little or no linoleate as triglyceride, did not. These oils were tested at a range of 10-300 micrograms/ml. We found that of the fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid was selectively inhibitory while palmitic and oleic were not. These fatty acids were tested in the range of 3-100 micrograms/ml. These results suggest that certain vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid, such as the sesame oil, recommended for topical use by Ayurveda, may contain selective antineoplastic properties which are similar to those demonstrated for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites. This suggests that whole vegetable oils may have potential clinical usefulness.

  17. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  18. MicroRNA-29a Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Tristetraprolin

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    Xian-Jun Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The microRNA (miR 29 family has been studied extensively for its involvement in several diseases, and aberrant expression of its members is associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Here, we examined the role of miR-29a in pancreatic cancer and the involvement of tristetraprolin (TTP. Methods: We monitored miR-29a and TTP expression in pancreatic cancer by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The effect of miR-29a on pancreatic cancer was determined through MTT assay and migration assay. The results were validated in the tumorigenesis model. Results: We found that miR-29a was up regulated in pancreatic tumor tissues and cell lines and positively correlated with metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-29a increased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers, through down regulating TTP. TTP was down regulated in tumor tissues, and its ectopic expression decreased cell viability and migration in vitro, inhibited tumor growth and the EMT phenotype in vivo, and reversed the effect of miR-29a on tumor cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Our results suggest that miR-29a acts as an oncogene by down regulating TTP and provide the basis for further studies exploring the potential of miR-29a and TTP as biomarkers and targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibition protects from noise-induced hearing loss

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    Silvia eMurillo-Cuesta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-ß as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss, we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-ß1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-ß1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-ß1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

  20. Chronic restraint stress inhibits hair growth via substance P mediated by reactive oxygen species in mice.

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    Nan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Solid evidence has demonstrated that psychoemotional stress induced alteration of hair cycle through neuropeptide substance P (SP mediated immune response, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brain-skin-axis regulation system remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to investigate possible mechanisms of ROS in regulation of SP-mast cell signal pathway in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a model of chronic psychoemotional stress which induced abnormal of hair cycle. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our results have demonstrated that CRS actually altered hair cycle by inhibiting hair follicle growth in vivo, prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. Up-regulation of SP protein expression in cutaneous peripheral nerve fibers and activation of mast cell were observed accompanied with increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in CRS mice skin. In addition, SP receptor antagonist (RP67580 reduced mast cell activations and lipid peroxidation levels as well as increased GSH-Px activity and normalized hair cycle. Furthermore, antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger also restored hair cycle, reduced SP protein expression and mast cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first solid evidence for how ROS play a role in regulation of psychoemotional stress induced SP-Mast cell pathway which may provide a convincing rationale for antioxidant application in clinical treatment with psychological stress induced hair loss.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 21 as a possible endogenous factor inhibits apoptosis in cardiac endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yun; ZHANG Ying-chuan; LIU Jing-hua; ZHANG Li-ke; DU Jie; ZENG Xiang-jun; HAO Gang; HUANG Ji; ZHAO Dong-hui; WANG Guo-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a new member of FGF super family that is an important endogenous regulator for systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. This study aimed to explore whether FGF21 reduces atherosclerotic injury and prevents endothelial dysfunction as an independent protection factor.Methods The present study was designed to investigate the changes of FGF21 levels induced by oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), and the changes of apoptosis affected by regulating FGF21 expression. The FGF21 mRNA levels of cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were determined by real time-PCR and the protein concentration in culture media was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed the different expression levels of untreated controls and CMFCs incubated with ox-LDL, and the changes of CMECs apoptosis initiated by the enhancement or suppression of FGF21 levels.Results The secretion levels of FGF21 mRNA and protein were significantly upregulated in CMECs incubated with ox-LDL. Furthermore, FGF21 levels increased by 200 μmol/L bezafibrate could reduce CMECs apoptosis, and inhibit FGF21 expression by shRNA induced apoptosis (P <0.05).Conclusions FGF21 may be a signal of injured target tissue, and may play physiological roles in improving the endothelial function at an early stage of atherosclerosis and in stopping the development of coronary heart disease.

  2. Flavonoids from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sha-Sha; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Jin, Bo; Lu, Jin-Jian; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The total flavonoids (TFs) were isolated from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. (LCC), a well-known Chinese medicinal herb commercially cultivated in Tianmu Mountain district, a cross area of Zhejiang and Anhui provinces in China. Five flavonoids, i.e. cardamonin, pinostrobin chalcone (PC), wogonin, chrysin, and pinocembrin were the main components of the TFs. The TFs and these pure compounds suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis as detected in the mouse aortic ring assay, and cardamonin showed the best effect among them. To further elucidate the mechanisms for suppressing angiogenesis of these flavonoids, assays of VEGF-induced proliferation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed. The TFs, cardamonin, pinocembrin, and chrysin obviously suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. However, PC and wogonin not only slightly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation but also remarkably suppressed those of migration in HUVECs. Our further study showed that cardamonin decreased the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT induced by VEGF with a dose-dependent manner in HUVECs. Our findings indicate that the TFs and these pure flavonoids may become potential preventive and/or therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:24096161

  3. Indole-3-carbinol inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth through cell cycle arrest in vivo and in vitro.

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    Zhe Chen

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the head and neck. Because of frequent recurrence and distant metastasis which are the main causes of death, better treatment is needed. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C, a natural phytochemical found in the vegetables of the cruciferous family, shows anticancer effect through various signal pathways. I3C induces G1 arrest in NPC cell line with downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins, such as CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and pRb. In vivo, nude mice receiving I3C protectively or therapeutically exhibited smaller tumors than control group after they were inoculated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The expression of CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and pRb in preventive treatment group and drug treatment group both decreased compared with the control group. We conclude that I3C can inhibit the growth of NPC in vitro and in vivo by suppressing the expression of CDK and cyclin families. The drug was safe and had no toxic effects on normal tissues and organs.

  4. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  5. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition due to glucose starvation caused by osthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiqi; Shen, Shouguo; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Fei; Fan, Yongjian

    2008-03-01

    The effects of osthol, a plant coumarin, on morphology, sugar uptake and cell wall components of Fusarium graminearum were examined in vitro by electron microscopy,(14)C-labelling and enzyme activity detection. The results revealed that osthol could inhibit the hypha growth of F. graminearum by decreasing hyphal absorption to reducing sugar. After treatment with 100 microg.mL(-1) osthol for 24 h, many hyphal fragments of F. graminearum appeared. Microscopy observation showed that the cell walls of hyphal fragments blurred and the organelles of the cells degraded with the increasing vacuoles. The N-acetyl-D-glucosamine contents and chitinase activity both increased when hypha were treated with 100 microg.mL(-1) osthol, whereas the activity of beta-1,6-glucanase remained unchanged. When F. graminearum fed with (14)C glucose was treated with 100 microg.mL(-1)osthol, glucose contents decreased to the lowest level, while the contents in non-osthol treated controls remained unchanged. These results suggested that chitinase activity might be related to glucose starvation under osthol treatment, and that the appearance of hyphae fragments maybe the results of the promoted chitinase activity which itself triggered chitin degradation. PMID:19325755

  6. Fusarium Graminearum Growth Inhibition Due to Glucose Starvation Caused by Osthol

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    Yongjian Fan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of osthol, a plant coumarin, on morphology, sugar uptake and cell wall components of Fusarium graminearum were examined in vitro by electron microscopy, 14C-labelling and enzyme activity detection. The results revealed that osthol could inhibit the hypha growth of F. graminearum by decreasing hyphal absorption to reducing sugar. After treatment with 100 μg·mL-1 osthol for 24 h, many hyphal fragments of F. graminearum appeared. Microscopy observation showed that the cell walls of hyphal fragments blurred and the organelles of the cells degraded with the increasing vacuoles. The N-acetyl-D-glucosamine contents and chitinase activity both increased when hypha were treated with 100 μg·mL-1 osthol, whereas the activity of β-1,6-glucanase remained unchanged. When F. graminearum fed with 14C glucose was treated with 100 μg·mL-1osthol, glucose contents decreased to the lowest level, while the contents in non-osthol treated controls remained unchanged. These results suggested that chitinase activity might be related to glucose starvation under osthol treatment, and that the appearance of hyphae fragments maybe the results of the promoted chitinase activity which itself triggered chitin degradation.

  7. Alphavirus replicon particles containing the gene for HER2/neu inhibit breast cancer growth and tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer is associated with an increased incidence of metastatic disease and with a poor prognosis. Although passive immunotherapy with the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) has shown some effect, a vaccine capable of inducing T-cell and humoral immunity could be more effective. Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus containing the gene for HER2/neu (VRP-neu) were tested by an active immunotherapeutic approach in tumor prevention models and in a metastasis prevention model. VRP-neu prevented or significantly inhibited the growth of HER2/neu-expressing murine breast cancer cells injected either into mammary tissue or intravenously. Vaccination with VRP-neu completely prevented tumor formation in and death of MMTV-c-neu transgenic mice, and resulted in high levels of neu-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and serum IgG. On the basis of these findings, clinical testing of this vaccine in patients with HER2/neu+ breast cancer is warranted

  8. Structural effects of ionic liquids on microalgal growth inhibition and microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Cho, Chul-Woong; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated structural effects of various ionic liquids (ILs) on microalgal growth inhibition and microbial biodegradability. For this, we tested pyridinium- and pyrrolidinium-based ILs with various alkyl chain lengths and bromide anion, and compared the toxicological effects with log EC50 values of imidazolium-based IL with the same alkyl chains and anion from literature. Comparing determined EC50 values of cationic moieties with the same alkyl chain length, pyridinium-based ILs were found to be slightly more toxic towards the freshwater green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, than a series of pyrrolidinium and imidazolium except to 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide. Concerning the biodegradation study of 12 ILs using the activated sludge microorganisms, the results showed that the pyridinium derivatives except to 1-propyl-3-methylpyridinium cation were degraded. Whereas in case of imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based compounds, only n-hexyl and n-octyl substituted cations were fully degraded but no significant biodegradation was observed for the short chains (three and four alkyl chains).

  9. 5-FU-hydrogel inhibits colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis and tumor growth in mice

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    Shi Huashan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC is a common form of systemic metastasis of intra-abdominal cancers. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a preferable option for colorectal cancer. Here we reported that a new system, 5-FU-loaded hydrogel system, can improve the therapeutic effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Methods A biodegradable PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE triblock copolymer was successfully synthesized. The biodegradable and temperature sensitive hydrogel was developed to load 5-FU. Methylene blue-loaded hydrogel were also developed for visible observation of the drug release. The effects and toxicity of the 5-FU-hydrogel system were evaluated in a murine CRPC model. Results The hydrogel system is an injectable flowing solution at ambient temperature and forms a non-flowing gel depot at physiological temperature. 5-FU-hydrogel was subsequently injected into abdominal cavity in mice with CT26 cancer cells peritoneal dissemination. The results showed that the hydrogel delivery system prolonged the release of methylene blue; the 5-FU-hydrogel significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination and growth of CT26 cells. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of the 5-FU-hydrogel was well tolerated and showed less hematologic toxicity. Conclusions Our data indicate that the 5-FU-hydrogel system can be considered as a new strategy for peritoneal carcinomatosis, and the hydrogel may provide a potential delivery system to load different chemotherapeutic drugs for peritoneal carcinomatosis of cancers.

  10. Tocotrienol-adjuvanted dendritic cells inhibit tumor growth and metastasis: a murine model of breast cancer.

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    Sitti Rahma Abdul Hafid

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF from palm oil is reported to possess anti-cancer and immune-enhancing effects. In this study, TRF supplementation was used as an adjuvant to enhance the anti-cancer effects of dendritic cells (DC-based cancer vaccine in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in mammary pad to induce tumor. When the tumor was palpable, the mice in the experimental groups were injected subcutaneously with DC-pulsed with tumor lysate (TL from 4T1 cells (DC+TL once a week for three weeks and fed daily with 1 mg TRF or vehicle. Control mice received unpulsed DC and were fed with vehicle. The combined therapy of using DC+TL injections and TRF supplementation (DC+TL+TRF inhibited (p<0.05 tumor growth and metastasis. Splenocytes from the DC+TL+TRF group cultured with mitomycin-C (MMC-treated 4T1 cells produced higher (p<0.05 levels of IFN-γ and IL-12. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL assay also showed enhanced tumor-specific killing (p<0.05 by CD8(+ T-lymphocytes isolated from mice in the DC+TL+TRF group. This study shows that TRF has the potential to be used as an adjuvant to enhance effectiveness of DC-based vaccines.

  11. Irradiation effects for the growth inhibition of weed seeds invaded from foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeds of foreign origin have been invaded through imported maize or dried grass which using for animal feeds, and causing serious damages to agricultural crops and farm animals in Japan. These weeds are spreading mainly through animal feeds to feces. For the purpose to decrease the damage from these weeds, we investigated the gamma-irradiation effect on 7 species of the weed seed to suppress the germination or elongation of stem and root. After the irradiation of the weed seeds, all species kept the ability of germination even at 4 kGy in petri dish cultivation, whereas decreased the germination ratio in some species. However, many species of weed decreased the ability on elongation of stem or root below l kGy irradiation. Furthermore, all of species lost the ability on the development of root hair and appearance of first leaf after germination of seeds below 1 kGy irradiation. From this study, necessary dose for growth inhibition was estimated to be 1 kGy which should be able to apply with combination treatment of the animal feeds for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as salmonellae at 3 to 5 kGy irradiation. (author)

  12. Irradiation effects for the growth inhibition of weed seeds invaded from foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatani, Yasuyuki; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1999-09-01

    Weeds of foreign origin have been invaded through imported maize or dried grass which using for animal feeds, and causing serious damages to agricultural crops and farm animals in Japan. These weeds are spreading mainly through animal feeds to feces. For the purpose to decrease the damage from these weeds, we investigated the gamma-irradiation effect on 7 species of the weed seed to suppress the germination or elongation of stem and root. After the irradiation of the weed seeds, all species kept the ability of germination even at 4 kGy in petri dish cultivation, whereas decreased the germination ratio in some species. However, many species of weed decreased the ability on elongation of stem or root below l kGy irradiation. Furthermore, all of species lost the ability on the development of root hair and appearance of first leaf after germination of seeds below 1 kGy irradiation. From this study, necessary dose for growth inhibition was estimated to be 1 kGy which should be able to apply with combination treatment of the animal feeds for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as salmonellae at 3 to 5 kGy irradiation. (author)

  13. Quantitative real time PCR detection of Clostridium difficile growth inhibition by probiotic organisms

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    Bryan L Folkers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Probiotic microorganisms are potential treatments for Clostridium difficile diarrheal disease (CDD but better methods are needed to determine the relative potency of probiotic microorganisms against pathogenic organisms in mixed cultures. Aim: Quantify C. difficile in the presence of putative probiotic organisms using molecular methods to determine relative probiotic potency. Materials and Methods: C. difficile strains were cultivated anaerobically. Serial dilutions of Lactobacillus cultures or microbial mixtures from kefir were co-cultured with C. difficile for 48 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and qPCR was used to measure C. difficile toxin A gene, on the basis of cycle threshold (Ct number. Results: Strains of Lactobacillus (human and ATCC derived, and mixed cultures from commercial kefir were co-cultured with C. difficile. Lactobacillus and the microbial mixture from kefir were ranked in order of their potency in C. difficile growth inhibition. Conclusions: PCR allows facile quantification of C. difficle in the presence of other. The technique measures relative potency of over-the-counter probiotics and may predict human strains meriting probiotic status.

  14. Quantitative real time PCR detection of Clostridium difficile growth inhibition by probiotic organisms

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    Michael Essmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic microorganisms are potential treatments for Clostridium difficile diarrheal disease (CDD but better methods are needed to determine the relative potency of probiotic microorganisms against pathogenic organisms in mixed cultures. Aim: Quantify C. difficile in the presence of putative probiotic organisms using molecular methods to determine relative probiotic potency. Materials and Methods: C. difficile strains were cultivated anaerobically. Serial dilutions of Lactobacillus cultures or microbial mixtures from kefir were co-cultured with C. difficile for 48 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and qPCR was used to measure C. difficile toxin A gene, on the basis of cycle threshold (Ct number. Results: Strains of Lactobacillus (human and ATCC derived, and mixed cultures from commercial kefir were co-cultured with C. difficile. Lactobacillus and the microbial mixture from kefir were ranked in order of their potency in C. difficile growth inhibition. Conclusions: PCR allows facile quantification of C. difficle in the presence of other. The technique measures relative potency of over-the-counter probiotics and may predict human strains meriting probiotic status.

  15. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and intracellular growth inhibition of Portuguese Thymus essential oils

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    Susana A. Dandlen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyme essential oils are well recognized by their excellent biological activities and the antimicrobial activity of Portuguese thyme essential oils has been investigated with promising results, particularly against food borne pathogens. In this study the potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of five species of Thymus (Lamiaceae, namely Th. caespititius Brot., Th. camphoratus Hoffmanns. & Link, Th. capitellatus Hoffmanns. & Link., Th. carnosus Boiss. and Th. zygis L. was evaluated against Candida albicans, Haemophilus influenza, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Streptococcus pneumoniae. H. pylori strains were the most susceptible bacteria, particularly to the essential oils of Th. caespititius (Planalto Central, Th. zygis (Rebordãos and Th. caespititius (Pico which minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 mg.mL-1. Th. caespititius essential oil from Planalto Central or its main component, carvacrol significantly (p<0.05 inhibited the intracellular growth of H. pylori, and showed no citotoxicity to the gastric cell line. Our results suggest the potential of this essential oil and its main component as a promising tool as anti-Helicobacter agent potentiating the eradication of this important gastroduodenal pathogen.

  16. Curcumin inhibits cell growth and invasion and induces apoptosis through down-regulation of Skp2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingna; Zhou, Xiuxia; Wang, Lixia; Yin, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Natural polyphenol compound curcumin has been found to exhibit its anticancer activity in a variety of human malignancies including pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Skp2 (S-phase kinase associated protein 2) plays an oncogenic role in the development and progression of human cancers. In this study, we aim to explore the molecular basis of curcumin-induced cell growth inhibition in PC cells.Multiple methods such as CTG assay, Flow cytometry, clonogenic assay, wound healing assay, Transwell invasion assay, Western blotting, and transfection were performed to validate the oncogenic role of curcumin in PC cells. We found that curcumin suppressed cell growth, clonogenic potential, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we observed thatover-expression of Skp2 significantly promoted cell growth, whereas down-regulation of Skp2 with siRNAs inhibited cell growth. The molecular basis of curcumin-mediated cell growth inhibition we identified is that curcumin significantly suppressed Skp2 expression and subsequently induced p21 expression. These findings suggested thattargeting Skp2 by curcumin could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PC patients.

  17. IPA-3 inhibits the growth of liver cancer cells by suppressing PAK1 and NF-κB activation.

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    Leo Lap-Yan Wong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the major malignancies worldwide and is associated with poor prognosis due to the high incidences of metastasis and tumor recurrence. Our previous study showed that overexpression of p21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1 is frequently observed in HCC and is associated with a more aggressive tumor behavior, suggesting that PAK1 is a potential therapeutic target in HCC. In the current study, an allosteric small molecule PAK1 inhibitor, IPA-3, was evaluated for the potential in suppressing hepatocarcinogenesis. Consistent with other reports, inhibition of PAK1 activity was observed in several human HCC cell lines treated with various dosages of IPA-3. Using cell proliferation, colony formation and BrdU incorporation assays, we demonstrated that IPA-3 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of HCC cells. The mechanisms through which IPA-3 treatment suppresses HCC cell growth are enhancement of apoptosis and blockage of activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, our data suggested that IPA-3 not only inhibits the HCC cell growth, but also suppresses the metastatic potential of HCC cells. Nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that IPA-3 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth rate and decreased tumor volume, indicating that IPA-3 can suppress the in vivo tumor growth of HCC cells. Taken together, our demonstration of the potential preclinical efficacy of IPA-3 in HCC provides the rationale for cancer therapy.

  18. Cell Density Effects of Frog Skin Bacteria on Their Capacity to Inhibit Growth of the Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Bell, Sara; Alford, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts on frog skin can reduce the growth of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) through production of inhibitory metabolites. Bacteria can be effective at increasing the resistance of amphibians to chytridiomycosis when added to amphibian skin, and isolates can be screened for production of metabolites that inhibit Bd growth in vitro. However, some bacteria use density-dependent mechanism such as quorum sensing to regulate metabolite production. It is therefore important to consider cell density effects when evaluating bacteria as possible candidates for bioaugmentation. The aim of our study was to evaluate how the density of cutaneous bacteria affects their inhibition of Bd growth in vitro. We sampled cutaneous bacteria isolated from three frog species in the tropical rainforests of northern Queensland, Australia, and selected ten isolates that were inhibitory to Bd in standardised pilot trials. We grew each isolate in liquid culture at a range of initial dilutions, sub-sampled each dilution at a series of times during the first 48 h of growth and measured spectrophotometric absorbance values, cell counts and Bd-inhibitory activity of cell-free supernatants at each time point. The challenge assay results clearly demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of most isolates were density dependent, with relatively low variation among isolates in the minimum cell density needed to inhibit Bd growth. We suggest the use of minimum cell densities and fast-growing candidate isolates to maximise bioaugmentation efforts.

  19. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Retinoic Acid Combined with Interferon Alpha-2a on Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANLi-xin; LIUXun-liang; ZHOUJian-wei; MonicaLiebert; ZOUChang-chun; ZOUChang-ping

    2004-01-01

    To identify new favorable agents and develop novel approaches for the chemoprevention and treatment of superficial bladder cancer and invesligate the effects of combination of relinoids and interferon α-2a on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in bladder cancer cell lines. Methods: Four bladder cancer cell lines, grade 1 to 3,and two retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid(ATRA) ,9.cis retinoic acid(9cRA) ,combined with inteferon α-2a(INF),were used in the study.We compared the competence of these agents to inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, affect the exptession of nuclear retinoid receptors, and modulate STAT1 protein. Resu/ts: Most of the bladder cancer cell lines were resistant to the effect of ATRA and 9cRA on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, even at higher concentration (10-5M).The effects of ATRA and 9c RA on cell growth and apoptosis were enhanced by INF α-2a.Combination of ATRA and IFNa-2a induced ~ and Slat 1 expression in three bladder cancer cell lines, ~: The results demonstrated that INFw2a synergize with the inhibitory effect of ATRA and 9c RA on the growth intn'bition and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells in vitro, which suggested that it has a potenlJal intexest for the trealment of transitimml cell carcinmna of bladder.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of action and potential biomarkers of growth inhibition of dasatinib (BMS-354825) on hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular targeted therapy has emerged as a promising treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One potential target is the Src family Kinase (SFK). C-Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase is a critical link of multiple signal pathways that regulate proliferation, invasion, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a novel SFK inhibitor, dasatinib (BMS-354825), on SFK/FAK/p130CAS, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK and Stats pathways in 9 HCC cell lines. Growth inhibition was assessed by MTS assay. EGFR, Src and downstream proteins FAK, Akt, MAPK42/44, Stat3 expressions were measured by western blot. Cell adhesion, migration and invasion were performed with and without dasatinib treatment. The IC50 of 9 cell lines ranged from 0.7 μM ~ 14.2 μM. In general the growth inhibition by dasatinib was related to total Src (t-Src) and the ratio of activated Src (p-Src) to t-Src. There was good correlation of the sensitivity to dasatinib and the inhibition level of p-Src, p-FAK576/577 and p-Akt. No inhibition was found on Stat3 and MAPK42/44 in all cell lines. The inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion were correlated with p-FAK inhibition. Dasatinib inhibits the proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro via inhibiting of Src tyrosine kinase and affecting SFK/FAK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt, but not Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and JAK/Stat pathways. T-Src and p-Src/t-Src may be useful biomarkers to select HCC patients for dasatinib treatment

  1. Naringenin inhibits the growth and stimulates the lignification of soybean root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene de Souza Bido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavanone naringenin, an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis, was tested for its effect on root growth, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and peroxidase (POD activities, as well as phenolic compounds and lignin contents in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seedlings. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0, with or without 0.1 to 0.4 mM naringenin in a growth chamber (25°C, 12-h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 µmol m-2 s-1 for 24 h. Inhibitory effects on root growth (length, weight, cell viability, PAL and soluble POD activities were detected after naringenin treatments. These effects were associated with stimulatory activity of the cell wall-bound POD followed by an increase in the lignin contents, suggesting that naringenin-induced inhibition in soybean roots could be due to the lignification process.Os efeitos de naringenina, um intermediário da biossíntese de flavonóides, foram avaliados sobre o crescimento das raízes, as atividades da fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL e peroxidases, bem como sobre os teores de compostos fenólicos e de lignina em plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, meia-força (pH 6,0, contendo ou não, naringenina 0,1 a 0,4 mM, em uma câmara de germinação (25°C, fotoperíodo de 12 h, 280 µmol m-2 s-1 durante 24 h. Efeitos inibitórios no crescimento das raízes (comprimento, massa e viabilidade celular e nas atividades da PAL e POD solúvel foram constatados após os tratamentos com naringenina. Estes efeitos foram associados com atividade estimulatória da POD ligada à parede celular, seguido por aumento nos teores de lignina, sugerindo que a inibição do crescimento das raízes pode ser devido ao processo de lignificação.

  2. Growth inhibition and effect on photosystem by three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids in rice seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huijun, E-mail: lhj@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Shuxian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The three ILs have phytotoxic on rice growth. • The antioxidant enzyme activities increased first and then declined with ILs concentration increased. • The Hill reaction activity decreased and the PS II of leaves was damaged by ILs. • The toxicity of ILs increased as the alkyl chain length increased as the order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. - Abstract: The effects of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([OMIM]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([DMIM]Cl) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([C{sub 12}MIM]Cl) were studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. The growth inhibition rate increased and the Hill reaction activity of isolated rice chloroplasts decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The IC{sub 50,5d} for stem length was 0.70 mg/L of [OMIM]Cl, 0.15 mg/L of [DMIM]Cl, and 0.055 mg/L of [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl, respectively. The SOD, POD and CAT activities of chloroplast exhibited initial increases followed by decreases in activity with increasing ILs concentrations. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub m}), the potential activity of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub 0}), the yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the relative electron transport ratio (rETR) were affected, showing that ILs will damage the PSII. The results demonstrated that imidazolium chloride ILs are phytotoxic to rice growth and their photosystem, the toxicity increased as the alkyl chain length increased with the following order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. The results will help to better understand the possible role of the defense mechanism in rice caused by ILs exposure.