WorldWideScience

Sample records for cgs nai systems

  1. Area specific stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the results from a NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research) project aiming at examining the possibilities for extracting stripping factors for Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) data and Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) data directly from the recorded set of data, i.e. without having to calibrate the detector systems on beforehand. The project 'NKS project ASSb' has been carried out between 1 August 2004 and 31 March 2005 by a research group composed of persons from Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA), Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The AGS and CGS data sets used for the project were recorded by SGU, DEMA, NGU (Geological Survey of Norway), and SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute). Most of the project effort has been directed towards analysing AGS and CGS data with point source signals recorded at the Barents Rescue 2001 LIVEX exercise at Boden in Sweden. Possibilities and limitations for the method have been identified. (au)

  2. Area Specific Stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Byström, Sören;

    By the Area Specific Stripping (ASS) method for NaI gamma detectors it is possible in a simple way obtain the parameters (stripping factors) that are needed for being able to discern between natural radioactivity signals and signals from manmade radioactivity and radiation anomalies in general. The...

  3. Area specific stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems[Airborne Gamma Spectrometry; Carbone Gamma Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsbech, U.; Aage, H.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bystroem, S.; Wedmark, M. [Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden); Thorshaug, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency (Norway); Bargholz, K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (Denmark)

    2005-05-01

    The report describes the results from a NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research) project aiming at examining the possibilities for extracting stripping factors for Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) data and Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) data directly from the recorded set of data, i.e. without having to calibrate the detector systems on beforehand. The project 'NKS project ASSb' has been carried out between 1 August 2004 and 31 March 2005 by a research group composed of persons from Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA), Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The AGS and CGS data sets used for the project were recorded by SGU, DEMA, NGU (Geological Survey of Norway), and SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute). Most of the project effort has been directed towards analysing AGS and CGS data with point source signals recorded at the Barents Rescue 2001 LIVEX exercise at Boden in Sweden. Possibilities and limitations for the method have been identified. (au)

  4. Managed and Supported Missions in the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Replacing the p.m. orbit & ground system (GS) of POES satellites, JPSS sensors will collect weather, ocean & climate data. JPSS's Common Ground System (CGS), made up of C3 & IDP parts and developed by Raytheon, now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers data between ground facilities, processes them into Environmental Data Records for NOAA's weather centers and evolves to support JPSS-1 in 2017. CGS processed S-NPP data creates many TBs/day across >2 dozen environmental data products (EDPs), doubling after JPSS launch. But CGS goes beyond this by providing data routing to other missions: GCOM-W1, Coriolis/Windsat, EOS, NSF's McMurdo Station, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and POES & MetOp satellites. Each system orbits 14 times/day, downlinking data 1-2 times/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/sec, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. CGS's flexible, multimission capabilities offer major chances for cost reduction & improved information integration across the missions. CGS gives a vital flexible-expandable-virtualized modern GS architecture. Using 5 global ground stations to receive S-NPP & JPSS-1 data, CGS links with high-bandwidth commercial fiber to rapidly move data to the IDP for EDP creation & delivery and leverages these networks to provide added support to more missions. CGS data latency will be < 80 minutes. JPSS CGS is a mature, tested solution for support to operational weather forecasting for civil, military and international partners and climate research. It features a flexible design handling order-of-magnitude increases in data over legacy systems and meets tough science accuracy needs. The Raytheon-built CGS gives the full GS capability, from design & development through operations & sustainment, facilitating future evolution to support more missions.

  5. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  6. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Block 3.0 Communications Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Ottinger, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The JPSS program is the follow-on for both space and ground systems to the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. In a highly successful international partnership between NOAA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the CGS currently provides data routing from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to the EUMETSAT processing center in Darmstadt, Germany. Continuing and building upon that partnership, NOAA and EUMETSAT are collaborating on the development of a new path forward for the 2020's. One approach being explored is a concept of operations where each organization shares satellite downlink resources with the other. This paper will describe that approach, as well as modeling results that demonstrate its feasibility and expected performance.

  7. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Architecture Overview and Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Johnson, B. R.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions. Originally designed to support S-NPP and JPSS, the CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate all of these other important missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture will be upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to satisfy several key objectives, including: "operationalizing" S-NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission; leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support; taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies; and satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 48 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 9 categories: Data Availability, Data Latency, Operational Availability, Margin, Scalability, Situational Awareness, Transition (between environments and sites), WAN Efficiency, and Data Recovery Processing. This

  8. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  9. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key

  10. An Overview and Parametric Evaluation of the CGS ShakeMap Automated System in CISN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, L. Z.; Haddadi, H. R.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    In the recent years, ShakeMap has been extensively used in California for earthquake rapid response. Serving as a backup to the Northern and Southern seismic regions of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN), the California Geological Survey (CGS) is running a ShakeMap system configured such that it effectively produces ShakeMaps for earthquakes occurring in both regions. In achieving this goal, CGS has worked to improve the robustness of its ShakeMap system and the quality of its products. Peak ground motion amplitude data are exchanged between the CISN data centers to provide robust generation of ShakeMap. Most exchanged ground motion packets come associated with an earthquake by the authoritative network. However, for ground motion packets that come unassociated, CGS employs an event association scheme to associate them with the corresponding earthquake. The generated ShakeMap products are published to the CGS server which can also be accessed through the CISN website. The backup function is designed to publish ShakeMap products to the USGS NEIC server without collision with the regional networks, only acting in cases where the authoritative region encounters a system failure. Depending on the size, location and significance of the earthquake, review of ShakeMap products by a seismologist may involve changes to ShakeMap parameters from the default. We present an overview of the CGS ShakeMap system and highlight some of the parameters a seismologist may adjust including parameters related to basin effects, directivity effects when finite fault models are available, site corrections, etc. We also analyze the sensitivity and dependence of the ShakeMap intensity and ground motion maps on the number of observed data included in the computation. In light of the available strong motion amplitude data, we attempt to address the question of what constitutes an adequate quality ShakeMap in the tradeoff between rapidity and completeness. We also present a brief

  11. JPSS CGS Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system. As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. It also replaces the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites, as well as components of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), which consists of a Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S is currently flying the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The CGS also employs its ground stations at Svalbard, Norway and McMurdo Station, Antarctica, along with a global fiber communications network, to provide data acquisition and routing for multiple additional missions. These include POES, DMSP, NASA

  12. Theoretical Studies on Formation Mechanism of Resonance States for Na+I2→Na++I-2 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-min; MA Wan-yong; CAI Zheng-ting; FENG Da-cheng

    2003-01-01

    An extended linear combination of arrangement channels-scattering wave-function(LCAC-SW) quantum scattering dynamic method combined with ab initio quantum chemical calculation was used to study the formation mechanism of the resonance states for the collinear Na+I2→Na++I-2 ion-pair formation process on Aten-Lanting-Los potential energy surface. The resonance energy and the resonance width or the lifetime for the first resonance peak were calculated. The resonance can be identified as the Feshbach type and the physical interpretation is given. The geometric structure of the resonance state for the title system has been optimized.

  13. Systemic administration of the adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 induces sedation at doses that suppress lever pressing and food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Mingote, Susana; Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M.; McLaughlin, Peter J.; Salamone, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are involved in the regulation of several behavioral functions. Adenosine A2A antagonists exert antiparkinsonian effects in animal models, and adenosine A2A agonists suppress locomotion and impair various aspects of motor control. The present experiments were conducted to study the effects of low doses of the adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 on lever pressing, specific parameters of food intake, and sedation. In the first experiment, the effects of CGS 21680 on fixed ra...

  14. An automated NaI 'well' counting system for the determination of radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past five years the number of sea and freshwater samples collected by the (DFR) for radiocaesium analysis has increased significantly due to the extended monitoring programme following the Chernobyl accident. Counting times have increased because of the general reduction in levels of radioactivity following the introduction of a new effluent-treatment plant at British Nuclear Fuels's reprocessing plant at Sellafield. The large number of samples and the low levels of radioactivity have resulted in the requirement for an additional, highly sensitive, gamma counting system. This paper describes the design and development of an improved automated gamma counting system suitable for the determination of low levels of radiocaesium activity in these samples. (author)

  15. CGS-MSFSS Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-27

    From January 2015 to July 2015, I was doing research at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, United States. My work there consisted of performing experimental measurements using Sandia’s unique silicon quantum computing platform. The project is about coupling donor spin quantum bits, or qubits, to quantum dots in a silicon nanostructure based on conventional microchip technology. During the project, I devised a new quantum state readout mechanism that allow better, longer lived measurement signals. The measurement (or readout) mechanism is key to any qubit architecture. Next, I was able to demonstrate a quantum manipulation of the two-electron spin states of the coupled donor and quantum dot system. This constitutes a breakthrough for donor spin qubits in silicon because it could enable larger systems consisting of many qubits. This project will lead to publications in scientific journals, presentations in international conferences, and generates exciting new opportunities for manipulating nature at the nanoscale.

  16. CGS and In Situ Measurements in Gävle 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Calibration of CGS-equipment.In situ measuremts with HPGe-detector (and dose rate meter)in Gävle Sweden as part of the Nordic exercise RESUME99.......Calibration of CGS-equipment.In situ measuremts with HPGe-detector (and dose rate meter)in Gävle Sweden as part of the Nordic exercise RESUME99....

  17. Understanding the ion dynamics and relaxation behavior from impedance spectroscopy of NaI doped Zwitterionic polymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion dynamics and relaxation behavior of a novel polymer electrolyte system is studied by presenting impedance spectroscopy data in a different formalism. The prepared system has conductivity of the order of 10−3 Scm−1 at 303 K, and the RH % = 55. Depressed Nyquist plots and broadened M″ curves (as a function of ω) indicated the distribution of the relaxation time, which is further confirmed by the fractional value of the Kohlrausch–William–Watts (KWW) function (β ∼ 0.75). The hopping and caged movement of the ions are observed in the experimental frequency range (∼MHz), which is confirmed by the conductivity and dielectric representations. The scaling of the conductivity data, with reference to salt concentration and temperature, are successfully observed by fitting the conductivity data exclusively in the Jonscher Power Law (JPL) region. An inverse relation between τcon and σ indicated a strong correlation between the ion and polymer segment motion. An additional high frequency relaxation phenomenon is observed at 50% of the salt concentration, which is correlated with the self-diffusion of the ion and proposed that such phenomenon is observed when ions have multiplet forming tendency. (paper)

  18. Performance Analysis of CGS, a k-Coverage Algorithm Based on One-Hop Neighboring Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Pocquet, Alexandre; Cousin, Bernard; Molnar, Miklos; Parraud, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    International audience Controlled Greedy Sleep (CGS) is a recent k-coverage algorithm based on one-hop neighboring knowledge. This paper presents the Controlled Greedy Sleep algorithm and highlights its best use cases thanks to performance analysis. Studies have been performed within a ring topology. This specific topology enables CGS validation and the design of an energetic model. They are used to compare CGS performance results with the maximal performances that could be expected. The r...

  19. The design of a Nai(Tl) crystal in a system optimised for high-throughput and emergency measurement of iodine 131 in the human thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of an accidental release of 131I, a system for large-scale monitoring of the population for the radionuclide intake is needed. A monitoring system is required to be capable of measuring adult as well as child subjects across a wide range of ages. Such system has been developed by the National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague (NRPI) and the Evinet company (member of the Nuvia Group). This paper describes the optimisation of the NaI(Tl) detector chosen for this system. The design of the crystal was based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and supported by literature. These simulations examined three different crystal shapes and several dimensions. Based on the MC study, two prototype detectors, with crystal diameters 80 and 73 mm, were manufactured and compared with the crystals having dimensions ∅45×40 mm used for thyroid measurement at NRPI and with a standard NaI(Tl) probe (∅76.2×76.2 mm). The detector with a crystal of 80 mm diameter gave the best results and was chosen for further production. - Highlights: • New shape of NaI(Tl) crystal optimised for thyroid measurement of I-131 activity. • Twice higher detection efficiency, better MDA and resolution then old system. • Only 30% less effective than three times larger cylindrical crystal with dimension 76.2×76.2 mm

  20. The calmodulin inhibitor CGS 9343B inhibits voltage-dependent K+ channels in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of the calmodulin inhibitor CGS 9343B on voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels using whole-cell patch clamp technique in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. CGS 9343B inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.81 μM. The decay rate of Kv channel inactivation was accelerated by CGS 9343B. The rate constants of association and dissociation for CGS 9343B were 2.77 ± 0.04 μM−1 s−1 and 2.55 ± 1.50 s−1, respectively. CGS 9343B did not affect the steady-state activation curve, but shifted the inactivation curve toward to a more negative potential. Train pulses (1 or 2 Hz) application progressively increased the CGS 9343B-induced Kv channel inhibition. In addition, the inactivation recovery time constant was increased in the presence of CGS 9343B, suggesting that CGS 9343B-induced inhibition of Kv channel was use-dependent. Another calmodulin inhibitor, W-13, did not affect Kv currents, and did not change the inhibitory effect of CGS 9343B on Kv current. Our results demonstrated that CGS 9343B inhibited Kv currents in a state-, time-, and use-dependent manner, independent of calmodulin inhibition. - Highlights: • We investigated the effects of CGS 9394B on Kv channels. • CGS 9394B inhibited Kv current in a state-, time-, and use-dependent manner. • Caution is required when using CGS 9394B in vascular function studies

  1. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  2. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3' NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3' NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of 137Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3' NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au)

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of GM probe and NaI detector efficiency for surface activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the direct measurement of total (fixed plus removable) surface activity in the presence of interfering radiation fields. Two methods based on Monte Carlo simulations are used: one for a Geiger–Muller (GM) ionisation probe and the other for sodium iodide (NaI) detector with lead collimators; equations for the most general case and the geometry models for Monte Carlo simulation of both (GM and NaI) detectors are employed. Finally, an example of application is discussed. - Highlights: • Two methods for direct measurements of beta/gamma surface activity are proposed. • Monte Carlo simulated efficiency of detectors was validated and tested. • The calculated and measured efficiencies of detection systems were very similar. • The comparison between two different methods shows good agreement. • Methods can be used for rapid and accurate direct measurements of surface activity

  4. Relative Study of CGS with ACO and BCO Swarm Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hashni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is the collective-level, problem-solving behavior of groups of relatively simple agents.Local interactions among agents, either direct or indirect through the environment, are fundamental for theemergence of swarm intelligence. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a swarm based meta-heuristic method that isinspired by the behavior of real ant colonies. Bee Colony Optimization (BCO meta-heuristic belongs to the groupof Swarm Intelligence techniques. Consultant Guided Search (CGS is a new hybrid meta heuristic, which combinesnew ideas with concepts found in Ant colony Optimization (ACO, Bee Colony Optimization (BCO technique. Thispaper presents comparative study of CGS, ACO, BCO techniques and the flexibility of CGS.

  5. Inhibition of cholesterol ester transfer protein CGS 25159 and changes in lipoproteins in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, H V; Poirier, K J; Lee, W H; Satoh, Y

    1997-01-01

    As a result of screening, several isoflavans were identified to be antagonists of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activity. The present study evaluates CGS 25159, a synthetic isoflavan, as a putative inhibitor of CETP activity of human and hamster plasma. Determined by [3]CE transfer from HDL to VLDL + LDL fraction or by fluorescent-CE transfer assay, CGS 25159 inhibited CETP in both human plasma bottom fraction (d = 1.21 g/ml) and in plasma from Golden Syrian Hamsters with an IC50 contention that pharmacological down regulation of CETP activity could result in favorable changes in lipoprotein profile. PMID:9051198

  6. Neutron detection by large NaI crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.

    2016-07-01

    In present days new neutron detection methods are under developed due to the global shortage of 3He and the toxicity of BF3. Neutrons can be indirectly detected by high-energy photons. The performance of a cylindrical NaI crystal, 4 in. diameter and 8 in. length as an indirect neutron detector has been investigated. Measurements were performed with 252Cf source with bare and shielded NaI detector. With a proper converter and moderator structure for the NaI detector, the detection efficiencies and the minimum detectable activities are improved, making the method very interesting for security applications. The indirect detection of neutrons by photons has several advantages. First, this method can in principle be suited by any gamma spectrometer with only slight modifications that do not compromise with its gamma spectrometry measurements. Second, fission neutron sources and neutron generators can be discriminated thanks to their different gamma energy spectra, a discrimination easily done by a NaI spectrometer.

  7. Late specialization: the key to success in centimeters, grams, or seconds (cgs) sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesch, Karin Silvia; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Hauge, Marie-Louise Trier;

    2011-01-01

    regime during late adolescence more than their near-elite peers. The involvement in other sports neither differs between the groups nor predicts success. It can be concluded that factors related to the organization of practice during the mid-teens seem to be crucial for international success within cgs...

  8. Area Specific Stripping of Nordic AGS and CGS data, Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe; Aage, Helle Karina; Byström, Sören;

    This report describes the results from a NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research) project aiming at examining the possibilities for extracting stripping factors for Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) data and Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) data directly from the recorded set of data, i.e. w...... by SGU (Geological Survey of Sweden), DEMA (Danish Emergency Management Agency), NGU (Geological Survey of Norway), and SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute)....

  9. Long-term trend of climate variables in the upper Dong Nai river basin in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Nguyen Cung Que; Nguyen, Hong Quan; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    Dong Nai river and Mekong delta downstream are located in and supplied the major water resources to the whole Southern of Vietnam. In the state of continuous changes in water resources due to climate changes, there are several controversy about the potential impact of sediment transport and river flows downstream due to either the cascade hydroelectric power plant system or dam construction in the upper of Mekong delta. Therefore, management and planning for efficient use of Dong Nai river water resource is very important. Furthermore, that it is necessary to consider the hydrological regime change by the effects of climate variable. On the other hand, solving the problems of water shortage in the dry season and flood control in rainy season are also important for issues of water management at Dong Nai river basin. In this study we evaluated changes in two main factors of the water balance equation (both rainfall and evapotranspiration) to assess long-term change in the hydrological regime in the upper area of Dong Nai river basin. This key theme was divided into the following two sub-goals. The first goal was to analyze long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends. The second goal was to analyze the long-term trend of meteorological factors determining evapotranspiration such as air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation and sunshine duration. The results were used to assess their impact to evapotranspiration. The meteorological and hydrological data of the basin for the last 20 years (from 1993 to 2012) were analyzed based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. The EMD method has been pioneered by Huang et al. (1998) for adaptively representing nonstationary time-series data as sum of zero-mean amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) components by iteratively conducting the sifting process. These components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) allow the calculation of a meaningful multi-component instantaneous frequency. The results

  10. A new method for evaluating weak leakage gamma-ray dose using a 3''φ x 3'' NaI (T1) scintillation spectrometer, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable measuring and processing system was designed, which facilitate speedy and precise outdoor monitoring. The system consists of a 3''φ x 3'' cylindrical or 3''φ spherical NaI (T1) scintillation detector, a portable pulse height analyzer, an audio tape recorder and a personal computer. The outline of the system and processing procedures are also mentioned. (author)

  11. Resolving Galactic Feedback and Gas Accretion in NaI Absorption with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kate; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Current models of galaxy formation require that the buildup of galactic stellar mass proceeds at a rate much slower than the rate at which gas is accreted onto dark matter halos. The implementation of winds in these models, however, has been primarily via ad hoc prescriptions, as the relationship between outflow morphology and kinematics and star formation activity is not well understood. In addition, empirical evidence for the inflow of gas onto star-forming galaxies has remained elusive. To address these issues, we analyze absorption line profiles for the NaI λλ5890, 5896 transition in spatially-resolved spectroscopy of nearby galaxies observed in the MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. We identify outflows of cool (T~102 K) gas via the blueshift of the absorption lines. Initial results suggest that in systems in which outflows are detected, the equivalent width of the flow varies significantly over the surface of the galaxy, revealing a changing flow covering fraction/velocity within individual objects. We also measure the incidence of redshifted NaI absorption in this sample for constraints on the frequency and cross section of cool gas accretion. This analysis offers unique insight into the morphology, surface density, and velocity of cool inflow and outflow around nearby galaxies. Accurate estimates of these quantities are fundamental to understanding the role of gas flows in regulating galaxy growth.

  12. The calmodulin inhibitor CGS 9343B inhibits voltage-dependent K{sup +} channels in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongliang; Hong, Da Hye; Kim, Han Sol; Kim, Hye Won [Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won-Kyo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Marine-Integrated Biomedical Technology (BK21 Plus), Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Sung Hun [Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min [Department of Immunology, Lab of Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Regulation, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan, E-mail: cihima@inje.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun, E-mail: parkws@kangwon.ac.kr [Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the effects of the calmodulin inhibitor CGS 9343B on voltage-dependent K{sup +} (Kv) channels using whole-cell patch clamp technique in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. CGS 9343B inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) value of 0.81 μM. The decay rate of Kv channel inactivation was accelerated by CGS 9343B. The rate constants of association and dissociation for CGS 9343B were 2.77 ± 0.04 μM{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 2.55 ± 1.50 s{sup −1}, respectively. CGS 9343B did not affect the steady-state activation curve, but shifted the inactivation curve toward to a more negative potential. Train pulses (1 or 2 Hz) application progressively increased the CGS 9343B-induced Kv channel inhibition. In addition, the inactivation recovery time constant was increased in the presence of CGS 9343B, suggesting that CGS 9343B-induced inhibition of Kv channel was use-dependent. Another calmodulin inhibitor, W-13, did not affect Kv currents, and did not change the inhibitory effect of CGS 9343B on Kv current. Our results demonstrated that CGS 9343B inhibited Kv currents in a state-, time-, and use-dependent manner, independent of calmodulin inhibition. - Highlights: • We investigated the effects of CGS 9394B on Kv channels. • CGS 9394B inhibited Kv current in a state-, time-, and use-dependent manner. • Caution is required when using CGS 9394B in vascular function studies.

  13. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner; El; Zheng; Hayden; Mayo

    2000-10-01

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes 128I and 24Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2" x 2", 5" x 5", 6" x 6", and 1" x 6" NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known. PMID:11003483

  14. NaI detector nonlinearity for PGNAA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Mayo, Charles W

    1999-08-01

    The nonlinearity of a 6''x6'' NaI detector used for PGNAA has been measured. The prompt {gamma}-rays from pure element samples mixed with graphite were used for this determination in the range from 1.712 to 10.829 MeV and {gamma}-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.356 to 1.333 MeV. A surprising result is that the pulse height per unit absorbed energy is slightly higher from single escape as opposed to full energy peaks. One explanation for this is that the light production efficiency for positrons may be different than that for electrons. By interpolation a value for the coincidence spectral full energy peak exhibited by NaI detectors that are neutron activated is obtained. The value reported is 6.885 MeV which is slightly higher than the cross section weighted value of 6.834 MeV. (The reported S{sub N} values for I and Na are 6.826 and 6.959 MeV, respectively.)

  15. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R.P. E-mail: gardner@ncsu.edu; Sayyed, El; Zheng Yuanshui; Hayden, Stephanie; Mayo, C.W

    2000-11-15

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes {sup 128}I and {sup 24}Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2x2, 5x5, 6x6, and 1x6 NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known.

  16. NaI detector nonlinearity for PGNAA applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, R P

    1999-01-01

    The nonlinearity of a 6''x6'' NaI detector used for PGNAA has been measured. The prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples mixed with graphite were used for this determination in the range from 1.712 to 10.829 MeV and gamma-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.356 to 1.333 MeV. A surprising result is that the pulse height per unit absorbed energy is slightly higher from single escape as opposed to full energy peaks. One explanation for this is that the light production efficiency for positrons may be different than that for electrons. By interpolation a value for the coincidence spectral full energy peak exhibited by NaI detectors that are neutron activated is obtained. The value reported is 6.885 MeV which is slightly higher than the cross section weighted value of 6.834 MeV. (The reported S sub N values for I and Na are 6.826 and 6.959 MeV, respectively.)

  17. Experimental investigation of impact induced delamination in thich composite plates using high speed photography and CGS interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosakis, A.J.; Lambros, J.; Karyeaclis, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this work we present some preliminary results of optical experiments performed on dynamically deforming thick polymeric composite laminate plates. The composites used for this study are graphite-epoxy fiber reinforced composite plates, consisting of 48 plies (1/4 inch thickness) in a quasi-isotropic arrangement. The plates are impact loaded in an out-of-plane and an in-plane configuration using a gas gun. Impact velocities are of the order of 1 m/s. The lateral shearing interferometer of Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS), in conjunction with high speed photography, is used to obtain real time interferograms of the out-of-plane deformation of the laminate. Both the elastic behavior of the laminate and the deformation following the onset of dynamic delamination are observed. Quantities such as the speed of delamination are measured and presented. It is planned to obtain a failure condition that will predict the initiation and growth of the delamination process in such composite systems. In addition, the effect of the application of a static pre-load, around the specimens, on the particular conditions for dynamic delamination is investigated.

  18. Spatially Extended NaI D Resonant Emission and Absorption in the Galactic Wind of the Nearby Infrared-Luminous Quasar F05189-2524

    CERN Document Server

    Rupke, David

    2014-01-01

    Emission from metal resonant lines has recently emerged as a potentially powerful probe of the structure of galactic winds at low and high redshift. In this work, we present only the second example of spatially resolved observations of NaI D emission from a galactic wind in a nearby galaxy (and the first 3D observations at any redshift). F05189-2524, a nearby (z=0.043) ultra luminous infrared galaxy powered by a quasar, was observed with the integral field unit on the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) at Gemini North. NaI D absorption in the system traces dusty filaments on the near side of an extended, AGN-driven galactic wind (with projected velocities up to 2000 km/s). These filaments (A_V < 4) and N(H) < 10^22 cm^-2) simultaneously obscure the stellar continuum and NaI D emission lines. The NaI D emission lines serve as a complementary probe of the wind; they are strongest in regions of low foreground obscuration and extend up to the limits of the field of view (galactocentric radii of 4 kpc)....

  19. Gamma ray energy loss spectra simulation in NaI detectors with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of studying and applying the Monte Carlo method, a computer code was developed to calculate the pulse height spectra and detector efficiencies for gamma rays incident on NaI (Tl) crystals. The basic detector processes in NaI (Tl) detectors are given together with an outline of Monte Carlo methods and a general review of relevant published works. A detailed description of the application of Monte Carlo methods to ν-ray detection in NaI (Tl) detectors is given. Comparisons are made with published, calculated and experimental, data. (Author)

  20. Fifteenth international symposium on capture gamma-ray spectroscopy and related topics. CGS15. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the fifteenth international symposium on capture gamma-ray spectroscopy and related topics - CGS15 - includes abstract concerning the following topics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, nuclear astrophysics, techniques/reactions, nuclear data/reactions, statistical properties, fundamental properties, nuclear reactions/data.

  1. Mapping of 137Cs in Ida-Virumaa, June 2005. CGS Area Specific Spectrum Stripping and ESC from soil sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    This report describes some results from a Baltic-Danish exercise with carborne gamma-ray spectrometry (CGS) measurements performed in Estonia in the summer of 2005. The goal was to measure the low level of contamination with 137Cs that still exists as part of the fall-out from the Chernobyl accid...

  2. Stabilization of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) spectra from NaI detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, W.A.; Gardner, R.P. E-mail: gardner@ncsu.edu

    2004-06-11

    NaI detectors are still used frequently in industrial Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis applications such as in bulk material analysis. They have the advantages of being efficient for high-energy gamma rays, being relatively rugged, and being able to be used without cooling. When using NaI detectors, and consequently photomultiplier tubes, the quality of the data can drastically deteriorate through gain and zero shifts that result in spectral smearing due to temperature and/or counting rate changes. A new offline approach is presented to stabilize the NaI spectral drift. The approach is not sensitive to the cause of the drift and takes into account the NaI and ADC non-linearities. Peak resolution is improved substantially when this approach is used in the presence of spectral drift.

  3. Stabilization of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) spectra from NaI detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, W. A.; Gardner, R. P.

    2004-06-01

    NaI detectors are still used frequently in industrial Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis applications such as in bulk material analysis. They have the advantages of being efficient for high-energy gamma rays, being relatively rugged, and being able to be used without cooling. When using NaI detectors, and consequently photomultiplier tubes, the quality of the data can drastically deteriorate through gain and zero shifts that result in spectral smearing due to temperature and/or counting rate changes. A new offline approach is presented to stabilize the NaI spectral drift. The approach is not sensitive to the cause of the drift and takes into account the NaI and ADC non-linearities. Peak resolution is improved substantially when this approach is used in the presence of spectral drift.

  4. ( sup 3 H)CGS 21680, a selective A2 adenosine receptor agonist directly labels A2 receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.F.; Schulz, R.; Hutchison, A.J.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A.; Williams, M. (CIBA-GEIGY Corporation, Summit, NJ (USA))

    1989-12-01

    In the present study, the binding of a highly A2-selective agonist radioligand, (3H)CGS 21680 (2-(p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino)-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) is described. (3H)CGS 21680 specific binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable, reversible and dependent upon protein concentration. Saturation studies revealed that (3H)CGS 21680 bound with high affinity (Kd = 15.5 nM) and limited capacity (apparent Bmax = 375 fmol/mg of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. Estimates of ligand affinity (16 nM) determined from association and dissociation kinetic experiments were in close agreement with the results from the saturation studies. (3H)CGS 21680 binding was greatest in striatal membranes with negligible specific binding obtained in rat cortical membranes. Adenosine agonists ligands competed for the binding of 5 nM (3H)CGS 21680 to striatal membranes with the following order of activity; CGS 21680 = 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV-1808) = 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine = 2-chloroadenosine greater than R-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than N6-cyclohexyladenosine greater than N6cyclopentyltheophylline greater than S-phenylisopropyladenosine. The nonxanthine adenosine antagonist, CGS 15943A, was the most active compound in inhibiting the binding of (3H)CGS 21680. Other adenosine antagonists inhibited binding in the following order; xanthine amine congener = 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 8-cyclopentyltheophylline = xanthine carboxylic acid congener greater than 8-parasulfophenyltheophylline greater than theophylline greater than caffeine.

  5. Characterization of Solid Building Structures with NaI Gamma Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an in-situ gamma spectroscopy measurement setup, which utilizes a NaI detector for clearance measurements of concrete building structures. As such an apparatus can be operated at room temperature, large and costly supporting accessories are not required. This is a major improvement in comparison to existing approaches that work with semiconductor technology, e.g., high pure germanium detectors. The method under discussion allows to create versatile and handy measurement systems, which lower cost and time efforts, required for characterization measurements during the disassembly of nuclear power plants, considerably. This novel characterization method has been developed jointly by E.ON and the University Rostock to foster the dismantling activities of E.ON nuclear power plants. The regulatory acceptance for this method has been granted for the facility Nuclear Power Plant Isar (KKI) in July 2013. This paper details the method under discussion and how an acceptance has been reached, according to applicable legislation. Furthermore, a comparison with state of the art characterization methods plus experiences from the practical application of the method will be shown. (authors)

  6. Characterisation of corona-generated ions used in a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, H. E.; A. Franchin; Schobesberger, S.; Hirsikko, A.; Hakala, J.; A. Skromulis; Kangasluoma, J.; M. Ehn; Junninen, H.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Sipilä, M.; T. Petäjä; Worsnop, D.R.; M. Kulmala

    2011-01-01

    We characterized size and chemical composition of ions generated by a corona-needle charger of a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) by using a high resolution differential mobility analyzer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Our study is crucial to verify the role of corona-generated ions in the particle size spectra measured with the NAIS, in which a corona charger is used to charge aerosol particles down to the size range overlapping with the size of generated ions. The si...

  7. Low temperature light yield measurements in NaI and NaI(Tl)

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, C; Strandhagen, C; Jochum, J

    2012-01-01

    The scintillation light output of a pure and a Thallium doped Sodium Iodide (NaI) crystal under irradiation with 5.486MeV \\alpha -particles has been measured over a temperature range from 1.7K to 300K. Estimates of the decay time constant at three selected temperatures are given. For pure NaI an increase in light yield towards low temperatures could be confirmed and measured at higher precision. For NaI(Tl) below 60K an increase in light output has been found.

  8. Diffusive transport of Na(I) and Cs(I) in compacted natural clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusive transport of Cs(I) and Na(I) has been studied in compacted natural clay. The clay was sourced from the western part of India and has been characterized to have smectite as the main clay component. Diffusion of Na(I) in clay was found faster compared to that of Cs(I). The diffusion profile of Cs(I) was analyzed using thin film solution of Fick's second law of Diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient of Cs(I) was found 3.1 x 10-12 m2/sec. (author)

  9. Pollution of the River Venta within the Territory of Kuršėnai Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Sitonytė

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The impact of Kuršėnai town on the pollution of the river Venta and the effect of biogenic substances on the mass of phytoplankton are dealt with in the paper. Samples were taken and registration of the indicatory aquatic plants was carried out in three places of the river, i.e. upstream Kuršėnai, in the centre of the town and downstream Kuršėnai. Concentrations of biogenic substances (compounds of total soluble phosphorus and non-organic nitrogen and organic substances were measured. Their effect on phytocenosis was estimated by measuring the concentration of chlorophyll a and by identifying indicator plants in the river. The research has shown that large amounts of phosphorus enter the river in this territory. The average concentration of total soluble phosphorus upstream Kuršėnai (0.069 mg l-1 does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration (MPC, whereas downstream Kuršėnai it is twice higher (0.135 mg l-1 and thus exceeds the permissible limits. The increased concentration of chlorophyll (10.49 µg l-1 downstream in comparison to 9.11 µg l-1 upstream Kuršėnai, plenty of water plants, their varietal diversity and indicatory features downstream Kuršėnai indicate more intensive water eutrophication in comparison

  10. How to reliably detect molecular clusters and nucleation mode particles with Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Mirme, Sander; Mirme, Aadu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-08-01

    To understand the very first steps of atmospheric particle formation and growth processes, information on the size where the atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation occurs, is crucially needed. The current understanding of the concentrations and dynamics of charged and neutral clusters and particles is based on theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This paper gives a standard operation procedure (SOP) for Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) measurements and data processing. With the NAIS data, we have improved the scientific understanding by (1) direct detection of freshly formed atmospheric clusters and particles, (2) linking experimental observations and theoretical framework to understand the formation and growth mechanisms of aerosol particles, and (3) parameterizing formation and growth mechanisms for atmospheric models. The SOP provides tools to harmonize the world-wide measurements of small clusters and nucleation mode particles and to verify consistent results measured by the NAIS users. The work is based on discussions and interactions between the NAIS users and the NAIS manufacturer.

  11. Cation-dependent anomalous compression of gallosilicate zeolites with CGS topology: A high-pressure synchrotron powder diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-pressure compression behaviour of 3 different cation forms of gallosilicate zeolite with CGS topology has been investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell technique. Under hydrostatic conditions mediated by a nominally penetrating pressure-transmitting medium, unit-cell lengths and volume compression is modulated by different degrees of pressure-induced hydration and accompanying channel distortion. In a Na-exchanged CGS (Na10Ga10Si22O64.16H2O), the unit-cell volume expands by ca. 0.6% upon applying hydrostatic pressure to 0.2 GPa, whereas, in an as-synthesized K-form (K10Ga10Si22O64.5H2O), this initial volume expansion is suppressed to ca. 0.1% at 0.16 GPa. In the early stage of hydrostatic compression below ∼1 GPa, relative decrease in the ellipticity of the non-planar 10-rings is observed, which is then reverted to a gradual increase in the ellipticity at higher pressures above ∼1 GPa, implying a change in the compression mechanism. In a Sr-exchanged sample (Sr5Ga10Si22O64.19H2O), on the other hand, no initial volume expansion is observed. Instead, a change in the slope of volume contraction is observed near 1.5 GPa, which leads to a 2-fold increase in the compressibility. This is interpreted as pressure-induced rearrangement of water molecules to facilitate further volume contraction at higher pressures. - Graphical abstract: Three different cation forms of gallosilicate CGS zeolites have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell. Under hydrostatic conditions, unit-cell lengths and volume show anomalous compression behaviours depending on the non-framework cation type and initial hydration level, which implies different modes of pressure-induced hydration and channel distortion

  12. Monitoring implementation of the RP-10 reactor by N-16 using an NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements with an NaI detector are carried out in order to: first, to locate the detector optimal position to measure the activity of N16; and second, to determine the energy and time spectrum for the activity observed. This will allow calibration of the march chamber 4 according to the activities of N16

  13. Regional water quality management for the Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayman, W M; Day, H J; Luken, R

    2003-01-01

    A three-year study that started solely as an industrial pollution reduction effort in Dong Nai Province of Vietnam expanded into an ongoing regional river basin water quality management effort. The project was a cooperative effort between the United Nations (UNDP and UNIDO) and the Federal and Provincial governments in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach was used to assess the impacts and strategies for reducing industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution to the water, air and land. The strategy was based upon use of knowledge in four subject areas, economics, ecology, technology and institutions, integrated within a framework for regional environmental quality management, sometimes called Areawide Environmental Quality Management (AEQM). Dong Nal Province encompasses a major developing area immediately north of Ho Chi Minh City. The land area chosen for the AEQM study is the 1,400 square kilometre region in and around Bien Hoa that drains into the Dong Nai River. The Dong Nai River serves many purposes including navigation, fisheries and a water supply for both the Province and Ho Chi Minh City. Extensive industrial and residential development was underway and was projected to increase in the coming decade. A strategy for the control of pollution from liquid, gaseous and solid wastes for the period 1998 to 2010 in Dong Nai Province was developed. PMID:15137148

  14. Dark matter searches with NaI scintillators in the Canfranc underground laboratory: ANAIS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large mass dark matter search experiment with NaI scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory is underway. A 10.7 kg prototype with improved light collection efficiency and special low-background improvements has been tested and started taking data underground in summer 2005. Preliminary results and prospects for the experiment are presented

  15. Analisis Risk Assessment Menggunakan Process Hazard Analysis (PHA dan Safety Objective Analysis (SOA pada Central Gathering Station (CGS di Onshore Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Jouhari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Keselamatan proses merupakan faktor utama yang sering dibahas oleh industri-industri kimia beberapa tahun terakhir ini. Salah satu metode semi-kuantitatif yang dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi, menganalisis, dan menetapkan tingkat risiko bahaya yaitu dengan Process Hazard Analysis (PHA dan Safety Objective Analysis (SOA. Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP dan What-If Analysis merupakan metode identifikasi bahaya kualitatif yang sering diterapkan secara simultan untuk PHA-SOA. Process Hazard Analysis (PHA ialah rangkaian aktivitas mengidentifikasi hazard, mengestimasi konsekuensi, mengestimasi likelihood suatu skenario proses disertai dengan safeguard, dan mendapatkan risk ranking yang dapat dilihat pada matrik PHA 6x6. Sedangkan Safety Objective Analysis (SOA merupakan rangkaian aktivitas yang bergantung pada penyebab skenario, dan konsekuensi dari PHA, menghasilkan kebutuhan IPL (Independent Protective Layer menggunakan matrik SOA 6x6. Risk ranking 6 pada penilaian PHA diketegorikan aman jika safeguard yang ada selalu siap mengurangi risiko yang timbul dari skenario tersebut. Namun tidak semua safeguard dapat selalu siap mengurangi risiko tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya analisis tambahan untuk memastikan risiko dari skenario dapat diperkecil. Analisis safety suatu skenario dengan SOA menghasilkan kebutuhan IPL yang dapat ditutup dengan mengkonfirmasi safeguard yang sesuai menjadi IPL. Hasil penilaian PHA-SOA CGS 1, CGS 3, CGS 4, dan CGS 5 menunjukkan bahwa ada penilaian severity dan PHA-SOA likelihood yang berbeda di tiap CGS padahal proses pada CGS tersebut identik, maka perlu adanya analisis konsistensi. Hasil analisis konsistensi ini dapat dijadikan pedoman untuk melakukan safety review pada risk assessment workshop kedepannya, yang biasanya diadakan setiap tiga hingga lima tahun sekali oleh industri.

  16. The COSINUS project - perspectives of a NaI scintillating calorimeter for dark matter search

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Gironi, L; Gotti, C; Pessina, G; Gütlein, A; Maino, M; Nagorny, S S; Pagnanini, L; Petricca, F; Pirro, S; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Seidel, W

    2016-01-01

    The R&D project COSINUS (Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnatures seen in Next-generation Underground Searches) aims to develop a cryogenic scintillating calorimeter using NaI as target crystal for direct darkmatter search. Dark matter particles interacting with the detector material generate both a phonon signal and scintillation light. While the phonon signal provides a precise determination of the deposited energy, the simultaneously measured scintillation light allows for a particle identification on an event-by-event basis, a powerful tool to study material-dependent interactions, and to suppress backgrounds. Using the same target material as the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration, the COSINUS technique may offer a unique possibility to investigate and contribute information to the presently controversial situation in the dark matter sector. We report on the dedicated design planned for the NaI proof-of-principle detector and the objectives of using this detection technique in the light of direct dark matter detec...

  17. Experiences With Area Specific Spectrum Stripping of Nai(Tl) Gamma Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim;

    2006-01-01

    laboratory or field measurements with known sources of natural radioactivity. Stripping parameters may, however, often be calculated from the actual survey data or from data from a similar area. Both post processing and real time processing is possible. The technique is useful for gamma source search, for......Abstract Processing of airborne and carborne gamma-ray spectra (AGS and CGS) often includes the stripping (elimination) of the signals from natural radioactivity. Hereby the net result becomes the signals from manmade radioactivity or other radiation anomalies. The parameters needed for spectrum...

  18. Radio-Isotope Identification Algorithms for NaI γ Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hamada; Tom Burr

    2009-01-01

    The performance of Radio-Isotope Identification (RIID) algorithms using NaI-based γ spectroscopy is increasingly important. For example, sensors at locations that screen for illicit nuclear material rely on isotope identification using NaI detectors to distinguish innocent nuisance alarms, arising from naturally occurring radioactive material, from alarms arising from threat isotopes. Recent data collections for RIID testing consist of repeat measurements for each of several measurement scena...

  19. A new measurement of the neutron detection efficiency for the NaI Crystal Ball detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball detector obtained from a study of single π0 photoproduction on deuterium using the tagged photon beam at the Mainz Microtron. The results were obtained up to a neutron energy of 400 MeV . They are compared to previous measurements made more than 15 years ago at the pion beam at the BNL AGS

  20. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia; Monciardini, Paolo; Arena, Simona; Faddetta, Teresa; Giardina, Anna; Alduina, Rosa; Weber, Tilmann; Sangiorgi, Fabio; Russo, Alessandro; Spinelli, Giovanni; Sosio, Margherita; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlled by a complex regulatory and metabolic network that may be elucidated by the integration of genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic tools. Accordingly, an extensive evaluation of the proteomi...

  1. Oscillatory rule in the energy spectrum of traps in KCl and NaI crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gumenyuk, A F; Stanovyi, O P; Pashchenko, V G; Tomylko, S V

    2010-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method is used for the investigation of the energy spectrum of traps in KCl and NaI crystals in the temperature range 80-500 K. It is shown that the thermal activation energies of traps in KCl and NaI form one oscillatory series E=hwn with vibrational quantum energies of 0.121 eV in KCl and 0.061 eV in NaI. In this case, the quantum number n assumes half-integer and integer values. Based on the generalized data on the investigated alkali-halide crystals (AHC), we confirmed the earlier proposed model of TL in AHCs. It is assumed that, in addition to the nonradiative H-F recombination, there exists the two-stage recombination of H-centers at anion vacancies resulting in the radiative recombination of a hole at an F-center. The energy of a quantum in the oscillatory rule corresponds to a local vibrational mode of an X2 halide molecule.

  2. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaja, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Backman, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manninen, H. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wimmer, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) was deployed to the T3 site for Intensive Operations Periods 1 and 2 (IOP1 and IOP2). The NAIS is an instrument that measures aerosol particle and ion number size distributions in the mobility diameter range of 0.8 to 42 nm, corresponding to electrical mobility range between 3.2 and 0.0013 cm2 V-1 s-1. New particle formation (NPF) events were detected using the NAIS at the T3 field site during IOP1 and IOP2. Secondary NPF is a globally important source of aerosol number. To fully explain atmospheric NPF and subsequent growth, we need to directly measure the initial steps of the formation processes in different environments, including rain forest. Particle formation characteristics, such as formation and growth rates, were used as indicators of the relevant processes and participating compounds in the initial formation. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we estimated the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation.

  3. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlle...

  4. In Vivo Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Lantibiotic NAI-107 in a Neutropenic Murine Thigh Infection Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lepak, Alexander J.; Marchillo, Karen; Craig, William A.; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    NAI-107 is a novel lantibiotic compound with potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The purpose of this study was to examine the activity of NAI-107 against S. aureus strains, including MRSA, in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. Serum pharmacokinetics were determined and time-kill studies were performed following administration of single subcutaneous doses of 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg body weight. The dose f...

  5. T-1020 NaI crystal test for DM-Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Reina; Heeger, Karsten; Pierpoint, Zachary; Pettus, Walter; Broerman, Benjamin; Hilgenberg, Chris; Webber, David; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-11-03

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experiments of the NaI Crystal Test for DM-Ice from the University of Wisconsin who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2011-2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The DM-Ice collaboration is designing a sodium-iodide (NaI) based detector for a direct dark matter search. The detectors should have low readout noise and background levels to carry out a sensitive search. A 17-kg version of the experiment is running at the South Pole, 2500 m deep in the Antarctic ice, and a large scale experiment is currently being designed. One of the keys to the success of the experiment is to have a good understanding of the background levels intrinsic in the NaI detectors. To measure the background level, the detectors have to be shielded against cosmic rays. The lead shielding used for DAMIC in the Minos Underground Areas is a well-suited location for this test since it offers enough overburden to shield against cosmic rays, lead shielding, and experimental infrastructure. The goal of the test is to assess the background levels in the detector and to assess the characteristics of phosphorescence induced by muons and 100 keV-3 MeV gamma rays.

  6. The temperature dependence of the phononic band gap of NaI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, M; Ondrejkovic, P; Bourges, P; Ollivier, J; Rols, S; Kulda, J; Margueron, S; Hlinka, J

    2013-02-01

    The position and size of the energy gap in the phonon density of states of NaI single crystal have been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering in a wide range of temperatures from 10 to 700 K. The results reveal a pronounced temperature effect which effectively leads to closure of the phonon gap at temperatures in the range of 700-800 K. The results are discussed in the context of studies of possible intrinsic localized modes in the phonon gap of alkali halides. PMID:23286923

  7. Real-time control of electronic motion: Application to NaI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1998-01-01

    We study theoretically the electronic and nuclear dynamics in NaI. After a femtosecond pulse has prepared a wave packet in the first excited state, we consider the adiabatic and the nonadiabatic electronic dynamics and demonstrate explicitly that a nonstationary electron is created in Na......+ + I- depends on the electron distribution (i.e., where the electron "sits") prior to the time where the bond is broken by a subpicosecond half-cycle unipolar electromagnetic pulse. Thus we control, in real time, which nucleus one of the valence electrons will follow after the bond is broken. (C) 1998...

  8. Approaches to contamination problems of agricultural land using Na(I) Tl spectrometer and gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant made a large area of agricultural land contaminated with radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and 137). Quantitative analysis for radioactivity (discriminating for Cs-134 and Cs-137) taken in vegetables from the land was carried out using NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer. Development of gamma camera for their imaging due to Cs 137 was performed. The shape of the peaks in the spectrum, baseline suppression, a solution of lines overlapping, enhancement of high-resolution were studied. Furthermore, the effect of water on cesium absorbing and transferring process from the root to the tissue was studied. (S. Ohno)

  9. NaI (Tl) calorimeter calibration and simulation for Coulomb sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xinhu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Lu, Hai-Jiang; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Oh, Yoomin; Sulkosky, Vince; Ye, Yunxiu; Yao, Huan

    2011-05-01

    A precision measurment of inclusive electron scattering cross sections is carried out at Jefferson Lab in the quasi-elastic region for 4He, 12C, 56Fe and 208Pb targets. The longitudinal (RL) and transverse (RT) response functions of the nucleon need to be extracted precisely in the momentum transfer range 0.55 GeV/c ≤ |q| ≤ 1.0 GeV/c. To achieve the above goal, a NaI (Tl) calorimeter is used to distinguish good electrons from background, including pions and low energy electrons rescattered from the walls of the spectrometer magnets. Due to a large set of kinematics and changes in HV settings, a number of calibrations are performed for the NaI (Tl) detector. Corrections for a few blocks of NaI (Tl) with bad or no signal are applied. The resolution of the NaI (Tl) detector after calibration reached ɤE/√E ≈ 3% at E = 1 GeV. The performance of the NaI (Tl) detector is compared with a simulation.

  10. Automated quantitative analysis of in-situ NaI measured spectra in the marine environment using a wavelet-based smoothing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm for automated analysis of in-situ NaI γ-ray spectra in the marine environment is presented. A standard wavelet denoising technique is implemented for obtaining a smoothed spectrum, while the stability of the energy spectrum is achieved by taking advantage of the permanent presence of two energy lines in the marine environment. The automated analysis provides peak detection, net area calculation, energy autocalibration, radionuclide identification and activity calculation. The results of the algorithm performance, presented for two different cases, show that analysis of short-term spectra with poor statistical information is considerably improved and that incorporation of further advancements could allow the use of the algorithm in early-warning marine radioactivity systems. - Highlights: → Algorithm for automated analysis of in-situ NaI γ-ray marine spectra. → Wavelet denoising technique provides smoothed spectra even at parts of the energy spectrum that exhibits strong statistical fluctuations. → Automated analysis provides peak detection, net area calculation, energy autocalibration, radionuclide identification and activity calculation. → Analysis of short-term spectra with poor statistical information is considerably improved.

  11. Thyroid screening of members of the public for iodine isotopes with portable NaI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of an accident in a nuclear power plant with radionuclide releases to the environment, members of the public with possible internal contamination with radioactive isotopes of iodine should be screened to identify cases where a more detailed evaluation and medical follow-up is necessary. Screening of large numbers of the public can be performed with a quick measuring protocol using hand held unshielded NaI based detectors giving results in cps. The screening geometry was simulated using the Monte Carlo code Visual Monte Carlo. The results show that for a geometry with the NaI detector near the skin in front of the thyroid, the interference of the gamma radiation coming from other radionuclides released in the accident either deposited in the lung or in the whole body is sufficiently low to allow thyroid screening criteria to be established. The screening criteria were developed using 5, 10 and 15 year old hybrid phantoms and for the adult male based on the ICRP reference voxel phantom. (author)

  12. Characteristics of NaI detector in positron imaging device HEADTOME employing circular ring array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In positron emission computed tomographs employing circular ring arrays of detectors, the performance of the imaging device has been specified ultimately by the characteristics of the detector. The responses of NaI detector were studied when detecting positron annihilation photon (511 keV). The study was mainly by using the NaI detector used in hybrid emission computed tomography (CT) ''HEADTOME'' we had developed. A series of measurements were carried out positioning two detectors with 40 cm distance and scanning 22Na point source in water. Both detectors was inclined from 00 through 300 to change incident angle of positron annihilation toward crystal face. Energy window was set from 100 to 700 keV. The results were presented as follows; 1 Shortening the crystal length from 7 to 5 cm made sensitivity decrease about 10% and resolution deteriorate about 1 mm (FWHM). 2 As the results of varying the width of the crystal, 20 mm width was optimal at any incident angle. 3 The lead septum between the detectors was the thickness of 4 mm enough to reject multiple detector interactions (crosstalk). 4 Beam mask which was made of lead in order to improve spatial resolution and placed on crystal face worked effectively for incident angles from 00 to 150 but degraded uniformity of spatial resolution from 00 to through 300. (author)

  13. Structural and ionic conductivity behavior in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films complexed with sodium iodide (NaI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, N. Sandhya; Sannappa, J.; Demappa, T.; Mahadevaiah

    2013-02-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) complexed with Sodium Iodide (NaI) were prepared using solution cast method. The dissolution of the salt into the polymer host and the micro structural properties of pure and NaI complexed HPMC polymer electrolyte films were confirmed by X - Ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The XRD results revealed that the amorphous domains of HPMC polymer matrix was increased with increase in the NaI salt concentration. The degree of crystallanity and crystallite size is high for pure HPMC samples. Direct current (dc) conductivity was measured in the temperature range of 313-383k. Temperature dependence of dc electrical conductivity and activation energy regions data indicated the dominance of ion type charge transport in these polymer electrolyte films.

  14. A Development of the Decision Support System for the Optimum Cogeneration Planning Under the Constraints of the Economic Efficiency and Partial Load Properties for the Commercial Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takeshi; Mori, Shunsuke; Douwaki, Kiyoshi

    It is said that the cogeneration system (CGS) is an effective countermeasure for energy saving and CO2 reduction in the commercial building. However, the economic, energy and environmental efficiency of CGS varies so much depending on the annual load factor and the demand patterns of heat and electric power. In this research, we develop a model to evaluate the optimum decision on the capacity and the operating pattern of CGS by nonlinear mixing integer programming in order to formulate the partial load properties of CGS in practical operation, since the existing optimization models without partial load properties could have generated too optimistic evaluation of CGS. The compatibility between the economy and the energy saving of the CGS implementation planning has been the problem. Our system proposes a new measure to develop an optimal energy saving system under the constraint of economic efficiency as the investment recovery years of CGS for the commercial building. Our system has been applied to the case of hotel building. The results show us that the optimum CGS capacity planning generated by our model provides more effective solution compared to the existing simulation tools used generally without optimization capability.

  15. Understanding and managing health and environmental risks of CIS, CGS, and CdTe photovoltaic module production and use: A workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.; DePhillips, M.P. [eds.

    1994-04-28

    Environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risks presented by CIS, CGS and CdTe photovoltaic module production, use and decommissioning have been reviewed and discussed by several authors. Several EH&S concerns exit. The estimated EH&S risks are based on extrapolations of toxicity, environmental mobility, and bioavailability data for other related inorganic compounds. Sparse data, however, are available for CIS, CGS or CdTe. In response to the increased interest in these materials, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been engaged in a cooperative research program with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Technology (IFT), the Institute of Ecotoxicity of the GSF Forschungszentrum fair Umwelt und Gesundheit, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to develop fundamental toxicological and environmental data for these three compounds. This workshop report describes the results of these studies and describes their potential implications with respect to the EH&S risks presented by CIS, CGS, and CdTe module production, use and decommissioning.

  16. Characterization of the binding of a novel nonxanthine adenosine antagonist radioligand, ( sup 3 H)CGS 15943, to multiple affinity states of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.F.; Williams, M.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A. (CIBA-GEIGY Corp., Summit, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The triazoloquinazoline CGS 15943 is the first reported nonxanthine adenosine antagonist that has high affinity for brain adenosine receptors. In the present study, the binding of (3H) CGS 15943 to recognition sites in rat cortical membranes was characterized. Saturation experiments revealed that (3H)CGS 15943 labeled a single class of recognition sites with high affinity and limited capacity. Competition studies revealed that the binding of (3H)CGS 15943 was consistent with the labeling of brain adenosine A1 receptors. Adenosine agonists inhibited 1 nM (3H)CGS 15943 binding with the following order of activity N6-cyclopentyladenosine (IC50 = 15 nM) greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than (R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 5'-N6-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than (S)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than CGS 21680 greater than CV 1808 (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). The potency order for adenosine antagonists was CGS 15943 (IC50 = 5 nM) greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-amino-2-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than theophylline = caffeine (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). Antagonist inhibition curves were steep and best described by a one-site binding model. In contrast, adenosine A1 agonist competition curves were shallow, as indicated by Hill coefficients less than unity. Computer analysis revealed that these inhibition curves were best described by a two-site binding model. Agonist competition curves generated in the presence of 1 mM GTP resulted in a rightward shift and steepening of the inhibition-concentration curves, whereas antagonist binding was not altered in the presence of GTP. The complex binding interactions found with adenosine agonists indicate that (3H)CGS 15943 labels both high and low affinity components of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex.

  17. Monitoring of garbage with a 5x5NaI (Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)

  18. Digestion of bacteria by Nais variabilis (Oligochaeta) as established by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serratia marcescens grown on different tritiated substrates was fed to Nais variabilis for 40 min, 4 h, and 17 h periods. The substrates were glucose, thymidine and glycerol which labelled mainly low molecular compounds, DNA, and lipids respectively. The worms incorporated radioactive label into their tissues within 40 min of feeding on the labelled bacteria. Incorporation of label where low molecular weight compounds were labelled could be due to absorption of dissolved bacterial secretions through the gut or body wall. However, DNA is a macromolecule not secreted by bacteria, consequently the label within this molecule could only accumulate in worm tissue after digestion, absorption and assimilation. No definite pattern of uptake or translocation along the worm was conclusively established but there was some indication that uptake was greatest in the anterior region of the intestine. Bacterial lipids were digested more slowly than the other materials labelled. (author)

  19. Lattice dynamics of NaI studied by inelastic neutron scattering: absence of thermally induced discrete breathers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kempa, Martin; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Bourges, P.; Márton, Pavel; Hlinka, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), "054308-1"-"054308-5". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/11/P404 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : NaI * alkali halides * inelastic neutron scattering * discrete breathers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  20. Fuel element rupture detection based on NaI detector and multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of fuel element rupture detection are introduced in this paper. By analyzing their limitations, the authors put forward a new method by detecting the characteristic nuclides of 131I and 137Cs with NaI detector and multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer. It can reduce and eliminate the affecting factors, enhance the efficiency and precision of detecting. (authors)

  1. Vera Poska-Grünthal - Eesti riigimehe tütar ja naisõiguslane / Kairi Ilison

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilison, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    Riigivanema ja poliitiku Jaan Poska tütrest Vera Poska-Grünthalist (1898-1986), kes oli tuntud ajakirjanik ja naisõiguslane. Põgenes Teise maailmasõja ajal Rootsi ja asutas seal 1952. aastal ajakirja "Triinu", mis lõpetas ilmumise Torontos 1995. aastal, olles Eesti naiste ühendaja vabas maailmas

  2. Role of [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i in nicotine-induced norepinephrine release from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, S H; Haunstetter, A; Krüger, C; Kaufmann, A; Nobiling, R; Haass, M

    1995-09-01

    Intracellular free sodium ([Na+]i) and calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentrations were determined by sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI) and fura 2 microfluorimetry, respectively, in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCC). Validation of SBFI microfluorimetry by in vitro and in vivo calibration revealed a reliable assessment of [Na+]i within a range of 1-30 mM in single BCC. Nicotine (0.1-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent increases of both [Na+]i (from 3.3 +/- 0.1 to 25.6 +/- 0.4 mM, n = 76, P < 0.001) and [Ca2+]i (from 64 +/- 1 to 467 +/- 16 nM, n = 87, P < 0.001), which were accompanied by an increase in [3H]norepinephrine (NE) release. Consistent with an exocytotic release mechanism, nicotine-induced increments of [Ca2+]i and [3H]NE release were reduced under calcium-free conditions and by gadolinium chloride (40 microM), whereas [Na+]i was not affected. In contrast, a parallel attenuation of nicotine-evoked changes in [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i, and [3H]NE release was observed during reduction of the extracellular sodium concentration. The nicotine-evoked responses were neutralized by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium (100 microM) but not by blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels (1 microM tetrodotoxin). In conclusion, the nicotine-induced exocytotic release of [3H]NE is triggered by an increase in [Ca2+]i, which is facilitated by sodium influx through the nicotinic receptor ionophore. PMID:7573386

  3. Derivation of specific conditions with Comprehensive Groebner Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeshima, Katsusuke; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Here we present an efficient calculation of comprehensive Groebner systems to derive specific conditions for neural circuits as well as electric circuits. Comprehensive Groebner systems (CGS) have been applied to problems with a small number of parameters such as the automatic geometric theorem proving and the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm. In CGS, however, a larger number of parameters make its calculation less tractable. Therefore, we take `not-equal' conditions into account dur...

  4. [Generation of response functions of a NaI detector by using an interpolation technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, S

    1983-03-01

    A computer method is developed for generating response functions of a NaI detector to monoenergetic gamma-rays. The method is based on an interpolation between measured response curves by a detector. The computer programs are constructed for Heath's response spectral library. The principle of the basic mathematics used for interpolation, which was reported previously by the author, et al., is that response curves can be decomposed into a linear combination of intrinsic-component patterns, and thereby the interpolation of curves is reduced to a simple interpolation of weighting coefficients needed to combine the component patterns. This technique has some advantages of data compression, reduction in computation time, and stability of the solution, in comparison with the usual functional fitting method. The processing method of segmentation of a spectrum is devised to generate useful and precise response curves. A spectral curve, obtained for each gamma-ray source, is divided into some regions defined by the physical processes, such as the photopeak area, the Compton continuum area, the backscatter peak area, and so on. Each segment curve then is processed separately for interpolation. Lastly the estimated curves to the respective areas are connected on one channel scale. The generation programs are explained briefly. It is shown that the generated curve represents the overall shape of a response spectrum including not only its photopeak but also the corresponding Compton area, with a sufficient accuracy. PMID:6688137

  5. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of MMP inhibitor radiotracers [11C]methyl-halo-CGS 27023A analogs, new potential PET breast cancer imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of [11C]methyl-halo-CGS 27023A analogs (2-F, 1a; 4-F, 1b; 2-Cl, 1c; 3-Cl, 1d; 4-Cl, 1e; 2-Br, 1f; 3-Br, 1g; 4-Br, 1h; 4-I, 1i), novel radiolabeled matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors, have been synthesized for evaluation as new potential positron emission tomography (PET) breast cancer imaging agents. The precursors halo-CGS 27023A analogs (2-F, 6a; 4-F, 6b; 2-Cl, 6c; 3-Cl, 6d; 4-Cl, 6e; 2-Br, 6f; 3-Br, 6g; 4-Br, 6h; 4-I, 6i) for radiolabeling were obtained in four steps from starting material amino acid D-valine with moderate to excellent chemical yields. Precursors were labeled by [11C]methyl triflate through 11C-O-methylation method at the aminohydroxyl position under basic conditions and isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification to produce pure target compounds in 40-60% radiochemical yields (decay corrected to end of bombardment), in 20-25 min synthesis time

  6. Evaluation the nonlinear response function of a 3x3 in NaI scintillation detector for PGNAA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response functions of the 3x3 in NaI detector, which is mainly used in PGNAA applications, have been calculated by using MCNP-4C code. Calculated results are compared with measured data by using standard γ-ray sources and prompt γ-rays from pure element samples to check their accuracy. Prompt γ-rays from pure element samples were used for this determination in the range from 1.942 to 10.829 MeV by use of 241Am-Be neutron source and γ-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.081 to 4.438 MeV. Through the precise modeling of the detector structure, the agreement between both results has been improved. A surprising result is that in the PGNAA method the agreement between the MCNP simulation and experiment will be better by using a suitable neutron shield for NaI detector in order to prevent the activation of NaI (Tl) and a proper γ-shield to attenuate the high-rate 4.438 MeV γ-ray, 241Am-Be γ-ray component

  7. Evaluation the nonlinear response function of a 3 x 3 in NaI scintillation detector for PGNAA applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Panjeh, Hamed; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

    2007-08-01

    Response functions of the 3 x 3 in NaI detector, which is mainly used in PGNAA applications, have been calculated by using MCNP-4C code. Calculated results are compared with measured data by using standard gamma-ray sources and prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples to check their accuracy. Prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples were used for this determination in the range from 1.942 to 10.829 MeV by use of (241)Am-Be neutron source and gamma-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.081 to 4.438 MeV. Through the precise modeling of the detector structure, the agreement between both results has been improved. A surprising result is that in the PGNAA method the agreement between the MCNP simulation and experiment will be better by using a suitable neutron shield for NaI detector in order to prevent the activation of NaI (Tl) and a proper gamma-shield to attenuate the high-rate 4.438 MeV gamma-ray, (241)Am-Be gamma-ray component. PMID:17485218

  8. Evaluation the nonlinear response function of a 3x3 in NaI scintillation detector for PGNAA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri Hakimabad, Hashem [Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panjeh, Hamed [Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: panjeh@gmail.com; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza [Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Response functions of the 3x3 in NaI detector, which is mainly used in PGNAA applications, have been calculated by using MCNP-4C code. Calculated results are compared with measured data by using standard {gamma}-ray sources and prompt {gamma}-rays from pure element samples to check their accuracy. Prompt {gamma}-rays from pure element samples were used for this determination in the range from 1.942 to 10.829 MeV by use of {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source and {gamma}-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.081 to 4.438 MeV. Through the precise modeling of the detector structure, the agreement between both results has been improved. A surprising result is that in the PGNAA method the agreement between the MCNP simulation and experiment will be better by using a suitable neutron shield for NaI detector in order to prevent the activation of NaI (Tl) and a proper {gamma}-shield to attenuate the high-rate 4.438 MeV {gamma}-ray, {sup 241}Am-Be {gamma}-ray component.

  9. Comparison of the response of a NaI scintillation crystal with a pressurized ionization chamber as a function of altitude, radiation level and Ra-226 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grand Junction Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action-Radiological Survey Activities Group (UMTRA-RASA) program employs a screening method in which external exposure rates are used to determine if a property contaminated with uranium mill tailings is eligible for remedial action. Portable NaI detectors are used by survey technicians to locate contaminated areas and determine exposure rates. The exposure rate is calculated using a regression equation derived from paired measurements made with a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC) and a NaI detector. During July of 1985 extensive measurements were taken using a PIC and a NaI scintillator with both analogue and digital readout for a wide range of exposure rates and at a variety of elevations. The surface soil was sampled at most of these locations and analyzed for 226Ra. The response of the NaI detectors was shown to be highly correlated to radiation level but not to 226Ra concentration or elevation

  10. Energy-saving effect of a residential polymer electrolyte fuel cell cogeneration system combined with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined use of PEFC-CGS and PHEV is focused on for energy savings. • Optimal operational planning considering daily start–stop operation is modeled. • Charging PHEV with PEFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of PEFC-CGS. • Combined use has higher energy-saving effect than their separate use. • Combined use synergistically saves energies in residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a residential polymer electrolyte fuel cell cogeneration system (PEFC-CGS) that adopts a daily start–stop operation with no reverse power flow, combined with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is analyzed by optimal operational planning model based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the PEFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the PEFC-CGS output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. First, the optimal operational planning model that incorporates the daily start–stop operation of the PEFC-CGS is developed. The energy-saving effect of the combined use of the PEFC-CGS and PHEV is then analyzed on the basis of observations of the optimal operation patterns for a 0.75-kWe PEFC-CGS, a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 5 min, and various daily running distances of the PHEV. The results show that the combined use of the PEFC-CGS and PHEV increases the electric capacity factor and hot water supply rate of the PEFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the PEFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only using purchased electric power. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the PEFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors

  11. The development of high sensitive NaI detector for dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dark matter problem is one of the most important topics of astrophysics and particles physics in several decades. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is one of the promising candidates of dark matter. A NaI (Tl) scintillator is suitable for the dark matter search, because both 127I and 22Na have the large cross section for WIMPs, and the 127I nucleus is expected to emit a 57.6 keV γ ray by inelastic scattering. To reach the goal of the sensitivity, the concentration of U-chain in the detector are required below a few ppt. The best way to determine the concentration of U-chain in the detector is a β - α delayed coincidence method. The β rays from 214Bi are observed as a prompt signal and the α rays from 214Po are observed as a delayed signal by performing the delayed coincidence method. The concentration of the 214Po and the 210Po in the detector were determined. The quantity of 214Po which was measured by the delayed coincidence methods was as small as 12.7 ± 3.4 μ Bq/kg. A simple pulse shaped discrimination (PSD) method are developed to determine the concentration of other alpha emitting nuclei. Since the α rays energy spectrum was consistent with single energy spectrum, it was concluded that the nuclei in the U-chain are not in secular equilibrium. The concentration of 210Po which corresponds to the peak of α rays was by a factor of one thousand larger than the concentration of 214Po. High purity and large volume scintillator crystal segment will be developed to study dark matter and neutrino properties. (M. Suetake)

  12. Development of environmental radiation monitoring system NaI (Tl) scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of environmental dose rate and the discrimination of radiation source can be achieved by the NaI(Tl) detector and circuits. The dose conversion factor evaluating the exposure rate of gamma radiation is obtained from the NaI(Tl) response function. The response function is simulated by Monte Carlo method and experimentally corrected for realistic energy resolution. For a 3 x 3 inch cylindrical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, the dose conversion factor was electronically recorded to the memory of the developed dose conversion unit (DCU). When the limit signals is emitted to a microprocessor-controlled single channel analyzer (SCA) as memorized, the number equivalent to total and specific energy level dose is counted. This process was confirmed by the standard dose measurement detector for several dose rates. The result is so good at environmental radiation dose level (<1%). The deviation in high dose rate is smaller than that of basic multi-channel analyzer (MCA) dose calculation. The 3 x 3 inch detector shows more sensitivity than the 2 x 2 inch one and the angular sensitivity of this detector is maximum at 45deg - 90deg and minimum at 135deg - 180deg. (author)

  13. A led system to control the gain stability of NAI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on line led pulser is proposed to control the overall gain (optical contacts, photomultipliers, cables and electric circuits) of a scintillator telescope. Corrections to long term gain fluctuations are discussed

  14. Molecular dynamics of polarizable point dipole models for molten NaI. Comparison with first principles simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trullàs J.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of molten NaI at 995 K have been carried out using polarizable ion models based on rigid ion pair potentials to which the anion induced dipole polarization is added. The polarization is added in such a way that point dipoles are induced on the anions by both local electric field and deformation short-range damping interactions that oppose the electrically induced dipole moments. The structure and self-diffusion results are compared with those obtained by Galamba and Costa Cabral using first principles Hellmann-Feynman molecular dynamics simulations and using classical molecular dynamics of a shell model which allows only the iodide polarization

  15. Standardization of gamma sources using NaI (Tl) and LaBr3 (Ce) detectors: measurements and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we made detailed studies on activity of a single gamma emitter 137Cs for different values of source-detector separation. The studies were made using NaI (Tl) and LaBr3 (Ce) detectors. Monte Carlo techniques were employed to estimate the intrinsic photo-peak efficiencies corresponding to 662 keV gamma rays. We have also made activity measurements on a double gamma emitter 60Co using sum-peak method. In both cases, calibrated sources were used and the measured results were compared with the activities certified by the manufacturer (Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Govt. of India)

  16. A composite step conjugate gradients squared algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tony; Szeto, Tedd

    1994-03-01

    We propose a new and more stable variant of the CGS method [27] for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. The method is based on squaring the Composite Step BCG method, introduced recently by Bank and Chan [1,2], which itself is a stabilized variant of BCG in that it skips over steps for which the BCG iterate is not defined and causes one kind of breakdown in BCG. By doing this, we obtain a method (Composite Step CGS or CSCGS) which not only handles the breakdowns described above, but does so with the advantages of CGS, namely, no multiplications by the transpose matrix and a faster convergence rate than BCG. Our strategy for deciding whether to skip a step does not involve any machine dependent parameters and is designed to skip near breakdowns as well as produce smoother iterates. Numerical experiments show that the new method does produce improved performance over CGS on practical problems.

  17. Study of environmental natural gamma radiation dose and activity of uranium-238, thorium-232 using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuous and unavoidable feature of life-systems on the earth. The environmental effective gamma radiation dose from terrestrial and cosmic radiation at height one foot above the earth's surface in open atmosphere has been measured at twenty different places in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra state by using 2x2 NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. The activity of 238U and 232Th has been measured using gamma ray spectroscopy. The effective gamma radiation dose at different locations varies between, 0.286 to 0.804 mS/y, with an average value 0.512 mSv/y. The 238U activity varies from 0.466 KBq/m2 to 1.133 KBq/m2 with mean value of 0.684 KBq/m2. The 232Th activity varies from 0.552 KBq/m2 to 1.267 KBq/m2 with mean 0.8682 KBq/m2. The 238U to 232Th activity ratio varies from 0.494 to 1.47 with mean 0.898. (author)

  18. Dual effect of digitalis glycosides on norepinephrine release from human atrial tissue and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: differential dependence on [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass, M; Serf, C; Gerber, S H; Krüger, C; Haunstetter, A; Vahl, C F; Nobiling, R; Kübler, W

    1997-06-01

    It was the aim of the present study (1) to characterize the influence of Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibition by the digitalis glycoside ouabain on both spontaneous and nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release from the human heart; and (2) to further investigate the role of glycoside-induced changes in [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i (determined by microfluorimetry) for catecholamine release. The latter experiments were performed in bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (BCC), an established cell culture model for sympathetic nerves. Ouabain (1-1000 mumol/l) exerted a dual effect on norepinephrine release (determined by HPLC) from incubated human atrial tissue: (I) Ouabain induced a concentration-dependent increase in norepinephrine release, that was calcium-independent and almost completely prevented by blockade of the uptake1-carrier by desipramine (1 mumol/l). The characteristics of this release process are consistent with a non-exocytotic mechanism. (II) In addition, ouabain augmented the nicotine-evoked (1-100 mumol/l) calcium-dependent norepinephrine release, which can be considered to be exocytotic. Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibition also reduced the threshold concentration of nicotine from 10 to 1 mumol/l and it delayed the rapid tachyphylaxis of its norepinephrine releasing effect in human atrial tissue. In BCC, ouabain increased [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and [3H]-norepinephrine release in parallel. Under calcium-free conditions, not only the ouabain-induced increase in [Na+]i, but also [3H]-norepinephrine release were enhanced. The ouabain-induced [3H]-norepinephrine release was always closely related to changes in [Na+]i, indicating a key role of [Na+]i for this calcium-independent non-exocytotic norepinephrine release. In addition, pretreatment with ouabain (1 mmol/l) augmented the nicotine-evoked (0.1-10 mumol/l) increments in [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and [3H]-norepinephrine release. As nicotine-induced norepinephrine release depends on an increase in both [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i, these findings are

  19. Proceedings of GeoSask 2005 : The 58. Canadian Geotechnical Conference and 6. Joint CGS-IAH Groundwater Specialty Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Canadian and international geotechnical community gathered at this conference to exchange information on recent research and development concerning all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The technical sessions addressed a wide range of geotechnical engineering issues such as soil mechanics and geodynamics; geoenvironmental issues associated with contaminant transport in landfills; hydrogeology issues such as aquifer properties, hydrogeochemistry, groundwater resources, hydrogeological mapping, contaminants and remediation; geosynthetics; geotechnical modelling; rock engineering; engineering geology; mining geotechnics; buried structures; unsaturated soils and aquitards. The presentations included several geotechnical case studies that focused on broad issues such as hydraulic properties of sedimentary rock aquifers, design criteria for geotextile filters used in agricultural drainage, the long term performance of containment systems, slope stability analysis of landfills, methane emissions from landfills, shear zones in weak rocks and tailings at oil sands operations. The conference featured approximately 200 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Proceedings of GeoHalifax 2009 : the 62. Canadian geotechnical conference and 10. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.; Fenton, G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada); Taylor, B. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Ferguson, G. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    More than 500 delegates from industry, government, universities and research centres attended this conference to exchange professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The conference also highlighted recent geoenvironmental achievements. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: soil mechanics; soil mechanics and brownfields; foundation engineering; landslide and slopes engineering; rock mechanics; risk assessment; reliability-based design; geoenvironmental issues; transportation geotechniques; marine geotechniques and geohazards; non-textbook soils and waste soils; covers and liners; instrumentation; harbour and shoreline geotechniques; geosynthetic mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) systems; cold regions and climate change; computer applications; regional hydrogeology; groundwater-surface water interaction; well hydraulics; radioactive waste management; groundwater sustainability; source water protection; mine waters; field techniques in hydrogeology; and hydrogeology of fractured rocks. The conference featured more than 230 presentations, of which 37 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Proceedings of the 56. annual Canadian Geotechnical and 4. joint IAH-CNC and CGS groundwater specialty conference : Two rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, R. (ed.) [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for more than 400 participants to exchange information on the latest advances and new technologies regarding geotechnical aspects of hydrogeology and groundwater recharge with particular emphasis on the Two Rivers theme, examining the history of the founding of the City of Winnipeg at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. There were 47 technical sessions with more than 200 papers presented. The sessions of the conference were entitled as follows: containment hydrogeology I, Manitoba hydrogeology I and II, Prairie hydrogeology I-III, dams and water retaining structures I and II, geoenvironmental engineering I and II, shallow foundations, earth reinforcement, use of groundwater in heating/cooling systems, permafrost, rock mechanics, hydraulics, hydrogeology case studies, underground nuclear waste storage I and II, soil mechanics I and II, hydraulics and bioengineering, contaminant hydrogeology II, groundwater resource evaluation I and II, radioactive waste management I-III(IAH), site characterization, slope stability, reinforced earth, geoenvironmental, agricultural impact on groundwater, unsaturated soils, mining, NAGS student competition, modeling and geostatistics, deep foundations, site characterization and slope stability, networking session for women, contaminant hydrogeology III, groundwater management and protection I and II, embankments and retaining walls, transportation applications, and mining and rock mechanics. Several short courses and technical tours were added to the technical program. A total of 27 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Radiative transfer modeling of the enigmatic scattering polarization in the solar NaI D1 line

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca; Degl'Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of NaI, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polariza...

  3. Classifier-Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort enti tled "Classifier - Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization" that was conducted during FY 2014 and FY 2015. The goal of this proj ect was to develop, implement, and test major improvements to the classifier - guided sampling (CGS) algorithm. CGS is type of evolutionary algorithm for perform ing search and optimization over a set of discrete design variables in the face of one or more objective functions. E xisting evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithms , may require a large number of o bjecti ve function evaluations to identify optimal or near - optimal solutions . Reducing the number of evaluations can result in significant time savings, especially if the objective function is computationally expensive. CGS reduce s the evaluation count by us ing a Bayesian network classifier to filter out non - promising candidate designs , prior to evaluation, based on their posterior probabilit ies . In this project, b oth the single - objective and multi - objective version s of the CGS are developed and tested on a set of benchm ark problems. As a domain - specific case study, CGS is used to design a microgrid for use in islanded mode during an extended bulk power grid outage.

  4. The mathematical principles and design of the NAIS - a spectrometer for the measurement of cluster ion and nanometer aerosol size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirme, S.; Mirme, A.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes the Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) - a multichannel aerosol instrument capable of measuring the distribution of ions (charged particles and cluster ions) of both polarities in the electric mobility range from 3.2 to 0.0013 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the distribution of aerosol particles in the size range from 2.0 to 40 nm. We introduce the principles of design, data processing and spectrum deconvolution of the instrument.

  5. Towards the conservation of Hong Kong's military heritage : the first survey of the surviving military features at Wong Nai Chung Gap, Hong Kong Island

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Siu-tong; 程肇堂

    2014-01-01

    During the Battle of Hong Kong fought in December 1941, Wong Nai Chung Gap was a major battlefield as it was a strategic location. Like almost all battlefields in this Battle, however, the defensive military installations within the subject area, most in ruins nowadays, have never been professionally surveyed with the purpose of mapping the military buildings of the battlefield apart from those reported in Lai et al (2011) to better fathom the flow of battle. Indeed, the only professionally s...

  6. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  7. Deconvolution of gamma-ray spectra obtained with NAI(Tl) detector in a water tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Sohelur; Cho, Gyuseong; Kang, Bo-Sun

    2009-07-01

    Maximum-likelihood fitting by the expectation maximization deconvolution method is presented to analyse gamma-ray spectra recorded using an NaI(Tl) detector for a water monitoring system. The applicability of the method was tested by deconvolving measured spectra taken using an industry standard 3'' x 3'' cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector in a model water tank with several calibration sources. The results show significant removal of the Compton continuum counts and efficient transfer of the counts into the corresponding photo-peaks. The peak-to-total count ratio and the number of counts in the photo-peaks in the deconvolved spectra increased approximately 4.67 and 5.29 times, respectively, compared with those of measured spectra taken using an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in the case of (137)Cs. PMID:19502359

  8. Assessment of the Na/I symporter as a reporter gene to visualize oncolytic adenovirus propagation in peritoneal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merron, Andrew; McNeish, Iain A. [Queen Mary' s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Institute of Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Baril, Patrick; Tran, Lucile; Vassaux, Georges [CHU Hotel Dieu, INSERM, Nantes (France); CHU de Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Nantes (France); Martin-Duque, Pilar [Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza (Spain); Vieja, Antonio de la [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Madrid (Spain); Briat, Arnaud [INSERM U877, Grenoble (France); Harrington, Kevin J. [Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo imaging of the spread of oncolytic viruses using the Na/I symporter (NIS) has been proposed. Here, we assessed whether the presence of NIS in the viral genome affects the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 following intraperitoneal administration, in a mouse model of peritoneal ovarian carcinoma. We generated AdAM7, a dl922-947 oncolytic adenovirus encoding the NIS coding sequence. Iodide uptake, NIS expression, infectivity and cell-killing activity of AdAM7, as well as that of relevant controls, were determined in vitro. In vivo, the propagation of this virus in the peritoneal cavity of tumour-bearing mice was determined using SPECT/CT imaging and its therapeutic efficacy was evaluated. In vitro infection of ovarian carcinoma IGROV-1 cells with ADAM7 led to functional expression of NIS. However, the insertion of NIS into the viral genome resulted in a loss of efficacy of the virus in terms of replication and cytotoxicity. In vivo, on SPECT/CT imaging AdAM7 was only detectable in the peritoneal cavity of animals bearing peritoneal ovarian tumours for up to 5 days after intraperitoneal administration. Therapeutic experiments in vivo demonstrated that AdAM7 is as potent as its NIS-negative counterpart. This study demonstrated that despite the detrimental effect observed in vitro, insertion of the reporter gene NIS in an oncolytic adenovirus did not affect its therapeutic efficacy in vivo. We conclude that NIS is a highly relevant reporter gene to monitor the fate of oncolytic adenovectors in live subjects. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of the Na/I symporter as a reporter gene to visualize oncolytic adenovirus propagation in peritoneal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo imaging of the spread of oncolytic viruses using the Na/I symporter (NIS) has been proposed. Here, we assessed whether the presence of NIS in the viral genome affects the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 following intraperitoneal administration, in a mouse model of peritoneal ovarian carcinoma. We generated AdAM7, a dl922-947 oncolytic adenovirus encoding the NIS coding sequence. Iodide uptake, NIS expression, infectivity and cell-killing activity of AdAM7, as well as that of relevant controls, were determined in vitro. In vivo, the propagation of this virus in the peritoneal cavity of tumour-bearing mice was determined using SPECT/CT imaging and its therapeutic efficacy was evaluated. In vitro infection of ovarian carcinoma IGROV-1 cells with ADAM7 led to functional expression of NIS. However, the insertion of NIS into the viral genome resulted in a loss of efficacy of the virus in terms of replication and cytotoxicity. In vivo, on SPECT/CT imaging AdAM7 was only detectable in the peritoneal cavity of animals bearing peritoneal ovarian tumours for up to 5 days after intraperitoneal administration. Therapeutic experiments in vivo demonstrated that AdAM7 is as potent as its NIS-negative counterpart. This study demonstrated that despite the detrimental effect observed in vitro, insertion of the reporter gene NIS in an oncolytic adenovirus did not affect its therapeutic efficacy in vivo. We conclude that NIS is a highly relevant reporter gene to monitor the fate of oncolytic adenovectors in live subjects. (orig.)

  10. Trypsinization severely perturbs radioiodide transport via membrane Na/I symporter proteolysis: implications for reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jkhope.jung@sbri.co.kr; Paik, Jin-Young [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, You La; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Jaetae [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Han [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: khnm.lee@samsung.com

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: Cell preparation procedures injurious to Na/I symporters (NIS) could deter their usefulness for reporter gene assays and in vivo cell imaging. In this study, we investigated the effects of cell collection by trypsinization on radioiodide transport and in vivo cell imaging results. Methods: The influence of trypsinization procedures on {sup 125}I transport was evaluated using Huh-7/NIS hepatoma cells. The effects of graded concentrations of trypsin and EDTA were assessed on Huh-7/NIS and A431/NIS lung cancer cells. Trypsin-induced NIS proteolysis was investigated by immunoblots of plasma membrane prepared from adenovirus-infected mouse liver tissue. {sup 99m}Tc-O{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy was performed in Balb/C nude mice at 1 and 4 h following administration of Huh-7/NIS cells collected with and without trypsin. Results: {sup 125}I Transport ability of Huh-7/NIS cells was severely impaired within minutes of standard trypsinization and further deteriorated up to 24 h after termination of treatment. This perturbation was caused by trypsin, which dose- and time-dependently induced substantial reductions of {sup 125}I uptake in Huh-7/NIS and A431/NIS cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant dose- and time-dependent losses of membrane NIS protein by trypsin. NIS proteolysis was completely blocked by soybean trypsin inhibitor, and partial protection was offered by the substrates iodide and perchlorate. On {sup 99m}Tc-O{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy of mice, cells prepared by trypsinization were poorly visualized, whereas those collected with a nonenzymatic method showed significantly better uptake and contrast. Conclusion: Trypsinization leads to serious perturbations in iodide accumulating capacity through tryptic degradation of membrane NIS protein. Hence, NIS-based reporter assays and in vivo cell imaging studies may benefit from better-optimized cell cultivation and harvesting procedures.

  11. Trypsinization severely perturbs radioiodide transport via membrane Na/I symporter proteolysis: implications for reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Cell preparation procedures injurious to Na/I symporters (NIS) could deter their usefulness for reporter gene assays and in vivo cell imaging. In this study, we investigated the effects of cell collection by trypsinization on radioiodide transport and in vivo cell imaging results. Methods: The influence of trypsinization procedures on 125I transport was evaluated using Huh-7/NIS hepatoma cells. The effects of graded concentrations of trypsin and EDTA were assessed on Huh-7/NIS and A431/NIS lung cancer cells. Trypsin-induced NIS proteolysis was investigated by immunoblots of plasma membrane prepared from adenovirus-infected mouse liver tissue. 99mTc-O4- scintigraphy was performed in Balb/C nude mice at 1 and 4 h following administration of Huh-7/NIS cells collected with and without trypsin. Results: 125I Transport ability of Huh-7/NIS cells was severely impaired within minutes of standard trypsinization and further deteriorated up to 24 h after termination of treatment. This perturbation was caused by trypsin, which dose- and time-dependently induced substantial reductions of 125I uptake in Huh-7/NIS and A431/NIS cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant dose- and time-dependent losses of membrane NIS protein by trypsin. NIS proteolysis was completely blocked by soybean trypsin inhibitor, and partial protection was offered by the substrates iodide and perchlorate. On 99mTc-O4- scintigraphy of mice, cells prepared by trypsinization were poorly visualized, whereas those collected with a nonenzymatic method showed significantly better uptake and contrast. Conclusion: Trypsinization leads to serious perturbations in iodide accumulating capacity through tryptic degradation of membrane NIS protein. Hence, NIS-based reporter assays and in vivo cell imaging studies may benefit from better-optimized cell cultivation and harvesting procedures.

  12. Performance of photomultiplier tubes and sodium iodide scintillation detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) and scintillation detector systems incorporating 50.8 by 1.27 cm NaI (T l) crystals was investigated to determine the characteristics of the photomultiplier tubes and optimize the detector geometry for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory. Background information on performance characteristics of PMT's and NaI (T l) detectors is provided, procedures for measurement of relevant parameters are specified, and results of these measurements are presented.

  13. Molecular orientation via a dynamically induced pulse-train: Wave packet dynamics of NaI in a static electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquetand, P.; Materny, A.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm;

    2004-01-01

    We regard the rovibrational wave packet dynamics of NaI in a static electric field after femtosecond excitation to its first electronically excited state. The following quasibound nuclear wave packet motion is accompanied by a bonding situation changing from covalent to ionic. At times when the...... charge separation is present, i.e., when the bond-length is large, a strong dipole moment exists and rotational excitation takes place. Upon bond contraction, the then covalently bound molecule does not experience the external field. This scenario repeats itself periodically. Thus, the vibrational...

  14. Na(+)-I- symport activity is present in membrane vesicles from thyrotropin-deprived non-I(-)-transporting cultured thyroid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, S. M.; Levy, O.; Salvador, C.; Dai, G.; Carrasco, N.

    1994-01-01

    The active accumulation of I- in the thyroid gland is mediated by the Na(+)-I- symporter and driven by the Na+ gradient generated by the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Thyrotropin (TSH) stimulates thyroidal I- accumulation. Rat thyroid-derived FRTL-5 cells require TSH to accumulate I-. TSH withdrawal for over 7 days results in complete loss of Na(+)-I-symport activity in these cells [Weiss, S. J., Philp, N. J. and Grollman, E. F. (1984) Endocrinology 114, 1090-1098]. Surprisingly, membrane vesicles prepare...

  15. Improving the performance of 241Am-Be for PGNAA applications using a proper shielding for neutron source and the NaI detector

    OpenAIRE

    Panjeh Hamed; Hakimabad Hashem M.; Motavalli Lalle R.

    2010-01-01

    The gamma ray spectrum resolution from a 241Am-Be source-based prompt gamma ray activation analysis set-up has been observed to increase in the energy region of interest with enclosing the NaI detector in a proper neutron and gamma ray shield. We have investigated the tact that the peak resolution of prompt gamma rays in the region of interest from the set-up depends on the source activity to the great extent, size and kind of the detector and the geometry of the detector shield. In ord...

  16. The mathematical principles and design of the NAIS – a spectrometer for the measurement of cluster ion and nanometer aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Nanometer aerosol and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS – a multi-channel aerosol instrument capable of measuring the distribution of ions (charged particles and cluster ions of both polarities in the electric mobility range from 3.2 to 0.0013 cm2 V−1 s−1 and the distribution of aerosol particles in the size range from 2.0 to 40 nm. We introduce the principles of design, data processing and spectrum deconvolution of the instrument.

  17. The mathematical principles and design of the NAIS – a spectrometer for the measurement of cluster ion and nanometer aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS – a multichannel aerosol instrument capable of measuring the distribution of ions (charged particles and cluster ions of both polarities in the electric mobility range from 3.2 to 0.0013 cm2 V−1 s−1 and the distribution of aerosol particles in the size range from 2.0 to 40 nm. We introduce the principles of design, data processing and spectrum deconvolution of the instrument.

  18. Energy resolution and light yield non-proportionality of pure NaI scintillator studied with large area avalanche photodiodes at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Moszynski, M; Kapusta, M; Szawlowski, M; Klamra, W; Schotanus, P

    2002-01-01

    The pure NaI crystal has been studied using a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) at near liquid nitrogen (LN sub 2) temperatures. The study showed a high light output of 44 000+-4000 photons/MeV (ph/MeV), the energy resolution of 5.9+-0.2% for 661.6 keV gamma-rays from a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source and a good proportionality of the light yield versus gamma-ray energy. It has been shown also that a cooled LAAPD is an excellent photodetector to study scintillators at near LN sub 2 temperatures.

  19. Energy resolution and light yield non-proportionality of pure NaI scintillator studied with large area avalanche photodiodes at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pure NaI crystal has been studied using a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) at near liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. The study showed a high light output of 44 000±4000 photons/MeV (ph/MeV), the energy resolution of 5.9±0.2% for 661.6 keV γ-rays from a 137Cs source and a good proportionality of the light yield versus γ-ray energy. It has been shown also that a cooled LAAPD is an excellent photodetector to study scintillators at near LN2 temperatures

  20. Specific Activities and Radioactive Contour Maps of Natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K ) and Anthropogenic (137Cs) Radionuclides in Beach Sand Samples Collected from Nai Yang Beach of Phuket Province After Tsunai Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Specific activities of natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K) and artificial anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 50 beach sand samples collected from Nai Yang beach in Phuket province which was effected from 2004 tsunami disaster, have been studied and measured. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system and also evaluated by using the standard reference materials IAEA/RGU-1, IAEA/RGTh-1, KCL and SL-2 which were obtained from Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkhla University Hat Yai Campus. Experimental set-up and measurements were operated and carried out at Nuclear and Material Physics Laboratory in Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University Songkhla Campus. It was found that, the beach sand specific activity ranges from 862.50 to 3,356.35 Bq/kg for 40K, 3.51- 28.58 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 10.15 to 30.22 Bq/kg for 232Th and 0.00 to 2.39 Bq/kg for 137Cs with mean values of 1,843.03 ± 152.49 Bq/kg, 14.88 ± 3.30 Bq/kg, 19.19 ± 2.80 Bq/kg and 0.14 ± 0.11 Bq/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the results were also used to evaluate the absorbed dose rates in air (D), the radium equivalent (Raeq), the external hazard index (Hex) and the annual effective dose rate (AED) in all beach area. Moreover, experimental results were also compared to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurements and evaluation, the recommended values which were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1988, 1993, 2000). Specific activities of natural and artificial anthropogenic radionuclides in all of Nai Yang beach sand samples could be also used to create the radioactive contour maps

  1. Report on the GC-MBS method for correcting NaI spectra for transmission loss in hand-held instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this project were (1) to develop a capability to study the scattered components in the NaI spectra of attenuated sources and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the gross count material basis set (GC-MBS) method in quantifying transmission losses from the shapes of measured NaI spectra. These goals are related, as the GC-MBS method involves a linear log-spectrum decomposition into MBS component spectra, and scattered gamma rays represent a significant nonlinear interference. Eventually, the authors hope to understand the effect of the scattered components on the MBS decomposition and to develop ways to correct for inaccuracies. As of this writing the authors have not reached that long-term objective, so the two halves of this project are treated here as separate topics, with a separate section for each. They have substantially achieved both of the project goals and are collecting additional data for two publications at the upcoming IEEE conference in Albuquerque, NM--one paper about their work on scattering and another on the GC-MBS method. This project report will contain preliminary portions of those two papers

  2. Study of Yb3+-Yb3+ and Yb3+-Ce3+ energy transfer in Yb,Ce:CaGd4Si3O13 (Yb,Ce:CGS) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yb radiative lifetime of 923 μs has been determined by the extrapolation to the zero concentration of Yb. Quenching of the Yb luminescence is observed in the Yb3+,Ce3+:CaGd4Si3O13 (Yb,Ce:CGS) crystals due to their intrinsic defects and Ce3+ ions. The main quenching mechanism is the energy migration through Yb ions to the defects with a micro-parameter CDD (Yb-Yb) = 1.0x10-38 cm6 s-1, and the Yb3+ → Ce3+ energy transfer with a micro-parameter CDA = 5.5x10-44 cm6 s-1. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  3. Comparative Usability Study of a Novel Auto-Injector and an Intranasal System for Naloxone Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Evan T.; Edwards, Eric S.; Davis, Erin; Mulcare, Maureen; Wiklund, Michael; Kelley, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The standard of care for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression associated with opioid overdose is injectable naloxone. This study compared the usability of two naloxone delivery devices, a naloxone auto-injector (NAI) and a naloxone intranasal delivery system (NXN), in the administration of naloxone during a simulated opioid overdose emergency. NAI (EVZIO ® ; kaleo, Inc., Richmond, VA, USA) is a Food and Drug Administration approved single-use pre-filled auto-injector...

  4. Adenosine and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, upregulate CD39 and CD73 expression through E2F-1 and CREB in regulatory T cells isolated from septic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rui; Shui, Xianqi; Hou, Jiong; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The number of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and the expression of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1; also known as CD39) and 5'-ectonucleotidase (NT5E; also known as CD73) on the Treg cell surface are increased during sepsis. In this study, to determine the factors leading to the high expression of CD39 and CD73, and the regulation of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway in Treg cells under septic conditions, we constructed a mouse model of sepsis and separated the Treg cells using a flow cytometer. The Treg cells isolated from the peritoneal lavage and splenocytes of the mice were treated with adenosine or the specific adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, and were transfected with specific siRNA targeting E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F-1) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), which are predicted transcription regulatory factors of CD39 or CD73. The regulatory relationships among these factors were then determined by western blot analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. In addition, changes in adenosine metabolism were measured in the treated cells. The results revealed that adenosine and CGS21680 significantly upregulated CD39 and CD73 expression (PTreg cell surface during sepsis. Adenosine and its A2A receptor agonist served as the signal transducer factors of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway, accelerating adenosine generation. Our study may benefit further research on adenosine metabolism for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:27430240

  5. Usability of a Wearable Camera System for Dementia Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Judith T.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Campbell, Grace B.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Hu, Lu; Pires, Bernardo R.; Hebert, Martial; Schulz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Health care providers typically rely on family caregivers (CG) of persons with dementia (PWD) to describe difficult behaviors manifested by their underlying disease. Although invaluable, such reports may be selective or biased during brief medical encounters. Our team explored the usability of a wearable camera system with 9 caregiving dyads (CGs: 3 males, 6 females, 67.00 ± 14.95 years; PWDs: 2 males, 7 females, 80.00 ± 3.81 years, MMSE 17.33 ± 8.86) who recorded 79 salient events over a combined total of 140 hours of data capture, from 3 to 7 days of wear per CG. Prior to using the system, CGs assessed its benefits to be worth the invasion of privacy; post-wear privacy concerns did not differ significantly. CGs rated the system easy to learn to use, although cumbersome and obtrusive. Few negative reactions by PWDs were reported or evident in resulting video. Our findings suggest that CGs can and will wear a camera system to reveal their daily caregiving challenges to health care providers. PMID:26288888

  6. Usability of a Wearable Camera System for Dementia Family Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith T. Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care providers typically rely on family caregivers (CG of persons with dementia (PWD to describe difficult behaviors manifested by their underlying disease. Although invaluable, such reports may be selective or biased during brief medical encounters. Our team explored the usability of a wearable camera system with 9 caregiving dyads (CGs: 3 males, 6 females, 67.00 ± 14.95 years; PWDs: 2 males, 7 females, 80.00 ± 3.81 years, MMSE 17.33 ± 8.86 who recorded 79 salient events over a combined total of 140 hours of data capture, from 3 to 7 days of wear per CG. Prior to using the system, CGs assessed its benefits to be worth the invasion of privacy; post-wear privacy concerns did not differ significantly. CGs rated the system easy to learn to use, although cumbersome and obtrusive. Few negative reactions by PWDs were reported or evident in resulting video. Our findings suggest that CGs can and will wear a camera system to reveal their daily caregiving challenges to health care providers.

  7. Comparison of calculated absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of CdTe and NaI detectors in the photon energy region of 15-2000 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the calculated absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of CdTe and NaI detectors, i.e. the ratio of the number of counts under the full-energy peak (FEP) to the number of photons at the same energy emitted by the source, is made for six different detectors and three source sizes. The CdTe and NaI detectors are assumed to be of equal volume. The calculations are performed in the photon energy region 15-2000 keV using water, muscle and blood as source media. (author)

  8. Evidence of consumers' willingness to pay for the national animal identification system of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Resende Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the United States National Animal Identification System (NAIS in place, consumers' concerns about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE are mitigated and, by inference, consumers will be willing to pay for the NAIS. We estimated twelve alternative specifications of the generalized almost ideal demand system for beef, pork, and poultry, including indexes of news coverage of BSE in the U.S. as proxies for consumers' risk perception on BSE. Using the preferred model, we constructed scenarios on the basis of hypothesized impacts of the NAIS on consumers' risk perception on BSE inmeat. We found that the impact of BSE on consumer demand for meat was in itself sufficient to cover previously estimated costs of implementing the NAIS.Com a implantação do sistema de rastreamento animal (NAIS dos EUA, as preocupações dos consumidores com respeito ao mal da vaca louca (BSE serão atenuadas e, por conseguinte, os consumidores estariam dispostos a pagar pelo NAIS. Foram estimadas doze especificações alternativas do sistema de equações de demanda generalizado quase ideal para as carnes bovina, suína e de frango, incorporando índices com o número de notícias sobre BSE nos EUA como proxies da percepção de risco dos consumidores. O modelo preferido serviu para construir cenários considerando impactos hipotéticos do NAIS sobre a percepção de risco dos consumidores. Conclui-se que o impacto da BSE sobre a demanda por carnes seria suficiente para cobrir estimativas prévias dos custos com a implantação do NAIS.

  9. Specific activities and radioactive contour maps of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples (Patong, Kamala, Kata, Karon and Nai Yang) after tsunami disaster in Phuket province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 155 beach sand samples collected from Patong, Kamala, Kata, Karon and Nai Yang beaches, which were affected by the 2004 tsunami disaster, in Phuket province, Thailand, have been studied and measured. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system. Gamma ray from radioactive standard sources Cesium-137 (137Cs), Cobalt-60 (60Co) and Barium-133 (133Ba) were used to calibrate the measurement system. KCl, two well-known (IAEA/RGU-1 and IAEA/RGTh-1) and IAEA/SL-2 reference materials obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were used to analyze and compute the 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs specific activities in samples from five beaches. The measuring time of each sample is 10,800 s. It was found that the average specific activity of 40K in these areas (2459.14 ± 171.71 Bq/kg) was rather high. Furthermore, the results were also used to evaluate the absorbed dose rates in air (D), the radium equivalent (Raeq), the external hazard index (Hex) and the annual effective dose rate (AEDout) in all beach areas. Moreover, experimental results were compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace research data, Thailand as well as with global radioactivity measurements and evaluations. All of the calculated values (40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs) were also compared with the recommended values which were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials, 1979) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation, 1988; Exposure from natural sources of radiation, 1993; Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation, 2000). The data can be also used to create the radioactive contour maps of the investigated area. (author)

  10. Actual Condition Evaluation of Cogeneration System in an Urbanized Hotel, and Study of the Optimal Operation to Minimize the CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Kaneko, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru

    Recently, there is an important subject to reduce of the CO2 emission discharged from a building. A cogeneration system (CGS) is one of the effective facilities to reduce of the CO2 emission, but prudent consideration is required in design and operation. Because it is necessary to be matching electric demand and heat demand in order to obtain the high efficiency. In this paper, it is evaluated the power generation efficiency and heat recovery one of CGS in the actual urbanized hotel as measurement result. In addition, the optimal operation analysis is carried out in order to minimize CO2 emission in the present facility.

  11. Physics and technology system of units for electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Mikhail G.

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary practice is to favor the use of the SI units for electric circuits and the Gaussian CGS system for electromagnetic field. A modification of the Gaussian system of units (the Physics and Technology System) is suggested. In the Physics and Technology System the units of measurement for electrical circuits coincide with SI units, and the equations for the electromagnetic field are almost the same form as in the Gaussian system. The XXIV CGMP (2011) Resolution "On the possible fu...

  12. A formação de profissionais para a atenção integral à saúde do idoso: a experiência interdisciplinar do NAI - UNATI/UERJ Training professionals for delivering ingreated health care to the aged: the interdisciplinary experience of NAI - UNATI/UERJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Branco da Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A capacitação de profissionais para atuar na área de envelhecimento e saúde do idoso é uma das ações prioritárias da política nacional do idoso no Brasil, em função do acelerado envelhecimento populacional do país. O Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso, serviço do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, vinculado à Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade/UERJ, desenvolve programa de ensino nesta área, a partir da experiência assistencial, tendo como eixo a integralidade da atenção e o trabalho interdisciplinar. O programa inclui modalidades de ensino em nível de residência, especialização, treinamento profissional e estágio de graduação. A programação teórica inclui um curso de Introdução à Saúde do Idoso, comum às diversas áreas profissionais. A capacitação teórica e prática específica é coordenada pelos preceptores das respectivas áreas. As atividades práticas ocorrem em diferentes cenários, incluindo o acolhimento, a promoção da saúde, a atenção ambulatorial, a hospitalar e a de longa permanência. A interdisciplinaridade é um exercício contínuo que supõe abertura a estratégias inovadoras. A experiência representa uma contribuição à demanda social crescente de capacitação profissional em um modelo de atenção comprometido com princípios do SUS e com o cuidado integral.The training of professionals in the field of healthcare for the aged is one of the priorities of the national policy for the aged in Brazil due to the accelerated aging of the population. The Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso (NAI, a unit of the Open University of the Third Age/UERJ (UNATI/UERJ develops an educational program in this field, based on practical care delivery with emphasis to inter-disciplinarity and teamwork. The program includes different training levels and modalities: Residency, Specialization, Professional Practice and Graduation. The program includes an introductory course in gerontology and geriatrics common

  13. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  14. Post-flight Analysis and Design Improvement in Command Guidance System for a Short-range Surface-to-air Missile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit B. Chaudhary

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A short-range missile with command-to line-of-sight and three-beam guidance has been considered in this paper. The earlier command guidance system (CGS design shows unacceptablyhigh-low-frequency weave-mode oscillations, leading to high latax and body rate oscillations, even for benign, low-speed non-manoeuvring target engagements. For successful targetengagements with the three-beam guidance, missile is to be handed over from wide-to-medium receiver beam, and finally, from medium-to-the most accurate narrow receiver beam, depending on the angular error wrt line-of-sight as early as possible. Due to large amplitude oscillation in the earlier CGS design, the handing over of the missile to narrow receiver beam, and in many cases, to the medium receiver beam, itself could not take place, leading to failure of guidance. In this paper, the cause for this undesirable high magnitude weave-mode oscillation has been analysed in detail. After establishing this, saturation aspects of the earlier CGS design; a simple implementable CGS re-design was carried out to reduce this saturation aspect drastically for preserving almost full-phase advance effects of the linear new analogue compensators designed to give the required stability margins of guidance loop.

  15. Improving the performance of 241Am-Be for PGNAA applications using a proper shielding for neutron source and the NaI detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeh Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gamma ray spectrum resolution from a 241Am-Be source-based prompt gamma ray activation analysis set-up has been observed to increase in the energy region of interest with enclosing the NaI detector in a proper neutron and gamma ray shield. We have investigated the tact that the peak resolution of prompt gamma rays in the region of interest from the set-up depends on the source activity to the great extent, size and kind of the detector and the geometry of the detector shield. In order to see the role of a detector shield, five kinds of the detector shield were used and finally the proper kind was introduced. Since the detector shield has an important contribution in the reduction of the undesirable and high rate gamma rays coming to the gamma ray detector, a good design of a proper shield enables the elimination of the unwanted events, such as a pulse pile-up. By improving the shielding design, discrete and distinguishable photoelectric peaks in the energy region of interest have been observed in the spectrum of prompt gamma rays.

  16. Experimental and first-principles study of photoluminescent and optical properties of Na-doped CuAlO2: the role of the NaAl-2Nai complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report that a band-tail emission at 3.08 eV, lower than near-band-edge energy, is observed in photoluminescence measurements of bulk Na-doped CuAlO2. The band-tail emission is attributed to Na-related defects. Electronic structure calculations based on the first-principles method demonstrate that the donor-acceptor compensated complex of NaAl-2Nai in Na-doped CuAlO2 plays a key role in leading to the band-tail emission and bandgap narrowing. Furthermore, Hall effect measurements indicates that the hole concentration in CuAlO2 is independent on Na doping, which is well understood by the donor-acceptor compensation effect of NaAl-2Nai complex. (paper)

  17. In-Situ monitoring of radioactivity using NaI probe detector and chemical analysis along sebou river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radionuclides released into the aquatic environment are usually accompagned by gamma-emitters. Therefore, a gamma-monitoring system would provide an excellent solution for the monitoring of radionuclides in the aquatic environment. Gamma-ray spectrometers operating underwater can be effectively used for short term as well as long term monitoring of radioactivity. The can, in specific cases, replace sporadic sampling campaigns and laborious analytical measurements in the laboratory. Stationary monitoring systems have several advantages when compared to traditional sampling systems e.g (a) real-time reporting of data, (b) investigation of temporal changes, (c) development of time series. On the other hand, one monitor can cover large surfaces which require large-scale sampling and analysis of many samples in the laboratory. The tidal estuary of Kenitra (some 30 Km north Rabat) has been selected for a training period with a gamma -monitoring system placed in a secure environment. The estuary of Kenitra is of major environmental relevance for several reasons : the important population living in the surroundings, the harbour and the wildlife reservoirs for migratory birds. Upstream several industries release their wastes, enhancing the concentrations of heavy metals in the water and the particulate matter. The entrance of the estuary is protected by a defence dock to prevent the intrusion of sand in the harbour, a serious problem in most of the atlantic port from Morocco. The low activity liquid wastes from the nuclear reactor operated by the CNESTEN will be released in this estuary in the near future. Thus, there is a nice opportunity to combine the objectives of testing and initial training with the improvement of our scientific knowledge of this estuarine system, in order to achieve a better protection of the environment and to assist the decision-making activities. 40K is a naturally occuring gamma emitter that can be found in salt water at relatively

  18. Effect of ambient temperature on the performance of micro gas turbine with cogeneration system in cold region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-scale prime mover especially micro gas turbine is a key factor in order to widespread the utilization of biogas. It is well known that a performance of large-scale gas turbine is greatly affected by its inlet air temperature. However, the effect of the inlet air temperature on the performance of small-scale gas turbine (micro gas turbine) is not widely reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of the inlet air temperature on the performance of a micro gas turbine (MGT) with cogeneration system (CGS) arrangement. An analysis model of the MGT-CGS was set up on the basis of experimental results obtained in a previous study and a manufacturer standard data, and it was analysed under a various ambient temperature condition in a cold region. The results show that when ambient temperature increased, electrical efficiency ηele of the MGT decreased but exhaust heat recovery ηehr increased. It was also found that when ambient temperature increased, exhaust heat to mass flow rate Qexe/me and exhaust heat recovery to mass flow rate Qehr/me increased, with maximum ratios of 259 kJ/kg and 200 kJ/kg, respectively were found in summer peak. Furthermore, it was also found that the exhaust heat to power ratio Qexe/Pe had a similar characteristic with exhaust heat recovery to power ratio Qehr/Pe. Qexe/Pe and Qehr/Pe increased with the increase of ambient temperature. Moreover, although different values of total energy efficiency, fuel energy saving and CO2 reduction for every temperature condition were found comparing with a two conventional system that were considered, the MGT-CGS could annually reduce 30,000-80,000 m3/y of fuel consumption and 35-94 t-CO2/y of CO2 emissions. - Research highlights: → Micro gas turbine cogeneration system (MGT-CGS) has higher electrical efficiency and lower exhaust heat recovery efficiency under cold condition. → MGT-CGS has lower exhaust heat and exhaust heat recovery to power ratio under cold condition.

  19. Free energetics of carbon nanotube association in aqueous inorganic NaI salt solutions: Temperature effects using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Cui, Di; Wezowicz, Matthew; Taufer, Michela; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we examine the temperature dependence of free energetics of nanotube association using graphical processing unit-enabled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (FEN ZI) with two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes in 3 m NaI aqueous salt solution. Results suggest that the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are all reduced at the high temperature, in agreement with previous investigations using other hydrophobes. Via the decomposition of free energy into individual components, we found that solvent contribution (including water, anion, and cation contributions) is correlated with the spatial distribution of the corresponding species and is influenced distinctly by the temperature. We studied the spatial distribution and the structure of the solvent in different regions: intertube, intratube and the bulk solvent. By calculating the fluctuation of coarse-grained tube-solvent surfaces, we found that tube-water interfacial fluctuation exhibits the strongest temperature dependence. By taking ions to be a solvent-like medium in the absence of water, tube-anion interfacial fluctuation shows similar but weaker dependence on temperature, while tube-cation interfacial fluctuation shows no dependence in general. These characteristics are discussed via the malleability of their corresponding solvation shells relative to the nanotube surface. Hydrogen bonding profiles and tetrahedrality of water arrangement are also computed to compare the structure of solvent in the solvent bulk and intertube region. The hydrophobic confinement induces a relatively lower concentration environment in the intertube region, therefore causing different intertube solvent structures which depend on the tube separation. This study is relevant in the continuing discourse on hydrophobic interactions (as they impact generally a broad class of phenomena in biology, biochemistry, and materials science and soft condensed matter research), and

  20. PBDEs and PCBs in sediments of the Thi Nai Lagoon (Central Vietnam) and soils from its mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Stefania; Piazza, Rossano; Mugnai, Cristian; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Huu, Cu Nguyen; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; Hoai, Nhon Dang; Frignani, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    Concentration and distribution of PCBs, PCB 11, and PBDEs in both surficial sediment and soil samples, taken from a zone subject to recent accelerated development, were investigated to assess the environmental quality and understand both natural and anthropogenic processes that influence contaminant behaviors. Values of PCB and PBDE are in the lower range of those reported in literature, typical of low impacted coastal zones. This could be due to efficient processes of resuspension and removal. Contaminants in the lagoon showed higher concentrations in sediments from sites close to the city and the outfalls of the industrial area, while soils showed maximum values in the northern samples. In addition, congener patterns and statistical analyses suggest the presence of effective degradation processes, especially for PBDEs, with the exception of the most concentrated samples that may indicate a direct input. PCB 11 is a significant component (up to 18%) in most lagoon sediments. Its presence is strongly associated with fine particles, thus the distribution seems to be driven mainly by the system hydrodynamic and does not trace the sources. Due to evaporation, only flooded agricultural soils show a similar relative abundance of this congener. PMID:23182686

  1. Problems with Integration opf AGS and CGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim; Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    The report describes and analyses the influence of the environment on the measured signals. Examined parameters are homogeneity of contamination, dept of burial for contamination, tophology on micro and macro scale, altitude for detector and distance to the source......The report describes and analyses the influence of the environment on the measured signals. Examined parameters are homogeneity of contamination, dept of burial for contamination, tophology on micro and macro scale, altitude for detector and distance to the source...

  2. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibing Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system and a chaotic complex Lü system with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  3. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibing; Wang, Xingyuan; Han, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS) is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS). Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic) complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system and a chaotic complex Lü system with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:27014879

  4. AZTEC: A parallel iterative package for the solving linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We describe a parallel linear system package, AZTEC. The package incorporates a number of parallel iterative methods (e.g. GMRES, biCGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR) and preconditioners (e.g. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, polynomial, domain decomposition with LU or ILU within subdomains). Additionally, AZTEC allows for the reuse of previous preconditioning factorizations within Newton schemes for nonlinear methods. Currently, a number of different users are using this package to solve a variety of PDE applications.

  5. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Jointly acquired by NOAA & NASA, the next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES satellites and the ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)(DMSP replacement). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data. The ground system, or JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), has 6 integrated product teams/segments: Command, Control & Communications (C3S); Interface Data Processing (IDPS); Field Terminal (FTS); Systems Engineering, Integration & Test (SEIT); Operations & Support (O&S); and Sustainment developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. The IDPS will process JPSS data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA & DoD processing centers beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through JPSS & DWSS eras. C3S will: manage overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control/status of space/ground assets to ensure timely delivery of high-quality data to IDPS; provide globally-distributed ground assets to collect/transport mission, telemetry and command data between satellites & processing locations; provide all commanding & state-of-health monitoring functions of NPP, JPSS and DWSS satellites, and delivery of mission data to each Central IDP and monitor/report system-wide health/status and data communications with external systems and between CGS segments. SEIT leads the overall effort, including: manage/coordinate/execute JPSS CGS activities with NASA participation/oversight; plan/conduct all activities related to systems engineering, develop & ensure completeness of JPSS CGS functional & technical baselines and perform integration, deployment, testing and verification; sponsor/support modeling & simulation, performance analysis and trade studies; provide engineering for the product

  6. Carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin: Accurate detection of primary with 68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide positron emission tomography/computed tomography enterography

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Roy, Shambo Guha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide (68Ga-DOTANOC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an excellent modality in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin. Most of the primary lesions are located in mid gut region where the lesions have poor resolution due to undistended and overlapping intestinal loops and motility-related artifacts. Although PET/CT enteroclysis, enterography and co...

  7. Geometrical optimization of an annulus Compton suppression system using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jubong; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Lee, S H

    2013-11-01

    We are planning to construct a Compton-suppression system permitting accurate and precise determinations of radioactivity of low-level environmental samples. An annulus guard detector (NaI) and a plug-in detector (NaI) are being used as suppression detectors with an HPGe primary detector. The geometry of the Compton suppression spectrometer was optimized by simulation with PENELOPE for obtaining the highest suppression factor (SF) for a point source. The results of the simulations show that the ultimate value of the suppression factor is 7.87 ± 0.18, obtained when the source is located at 57% of an annuls guard detector. PMID:23583087

  8. DAISY - the Oslo Cyclotron data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new CACTUS multidetector system for the Oslo Cyclotron consists of 8 particle telescopes, 28 NAI detectors and 2 Ge detectors. Each detector gives rise to one energy parameter and one time parameter. Thus, a total of 80 parameters are present. The counting rate is 100 kByte/s for the highest beam intensities. A new data acquisition system, DAISY, satisfying these demands has been designed. The present report is intended as a complete technical manual for the new system. 24 refs

  9. Physics and technology system of units for electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail G

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary practice is to favor the use of the SI units for electric circuits and the Gaussian CGS system for electromagnetic field. A modification of the Gaussian system of units (the Physics and Technology System) is suggested. In the Physics and Technology System the units of measurement for electrical circuits coincide with SI units, and the equations for the electromagnetic field are almost the same form as in the Gaussian system. The XXIV CGMP (2011) Resolution "On the possible future revision of the International System of Units, the SI" provides a chance to initiate gradual introduction of the Physics and Technology System as a new modification of the SI.

  10. Methodology for calibration of detector of NaI (TI)) 3 ' X 3 ' for in vivo measurements of patients with hyperthyroidism undergoing to radioiodotherapy; Metodologia para calibracao de detector de NaI(TI) ) 3'X3' para medicoes in vivo em pacientes portadores de hipertireoidismo submetidos a radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Carlaine B.; Lacerda, Isabelle V.B.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: carlaine.carvalho@gmail.com, E-mail: bellelacerda@hotmail.com, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the methodology for calibration of the detection system to be used in determining the therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I required to release desired absorbed dose in the thyroid gland . This step is critical to the development of a protocol for individualized doses. The system consists of a detector of NaI (Tl ) 3'x3' coupled to software Genie 2000. We used the calibration sources of {sup 60}Co , {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba. We obtained the straight calibration system, with sources {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Subsequently , the detector was calibrated using a thyroid phantom-neck designed and produced by the IRD / CNEN with known activity of {sup 133}Ba standard solution containing 18.7 kBq (on 09/24/12) evenly distributed. He was also calibrated with other thyroid- neck phantom model 3108 manufactured by Searle Radigraphics Ind., containing a liquid source of {sup 131}I ( 7.7 MBq ). Five measurements were performed during 5 minutes for three different distances detector-simulator and calculated the corresponding calibration factors . The values of the calibration factors found for the simulator made by IRD and Searle Radigraphics Ind. for the distances 20, 25 and 30 cm were 0.35 , 0.24, 0.18, 0.15 , 0.11, 0, 09 , respectively. With the detection system properly calibrated and the calibration factors established, the technique is suitable for the evaluation of diagnostic activities of {sup 131}I incorporated by hyperthyroid patients. (author)

  11. Project and construction of a measurement system and nuclear radiations analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A counting system was designed and built, aiming to: detect and measure nuclear radiations using a Geiger-Mueller counter; and to measure the amplitudes of pulses from either a proportional or a NaI detector. The results obtained of the Cs-137 and Co-60 energy spectra were compared with results obtained from other researches. (Author)

  12. Carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin: Accurate detection of primary with 68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide positron emission tomography/computed tomography enterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide (68Ga-DOTANOC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an excellent modality in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin. Most of the primary lesions are located in mid gut region where the lesions have poor resolution due to undistended and overlapping intestinal loops and motility-related artifacts. Although PET/CT enteroclysis, enterography and colonography have been described with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT enterography with68Ga-DOTANOC has not been described in the literature. Here, we present a case where68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT enterography was useful in identifying the primary neuroendocrine tumor lesion in small intestine with accurate delineation

  13. Efficient Implementation of Complementary Golay Sequences for PAR Reduction and Forward Error Correction in OFDM-based WLAN systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Jiménez, Víctor P.; Fernández-Getino García, María Julia; García-Armada, Ana; Sánchez-Fernández, Matilde

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the use of complementary Golay sequences (CGS) for peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) reduction and forward error correction (FEC) in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless local area network (WLAN) system is explored; performance is examined and complexity issues are analyzed. We study their PAR reduction performance depending on sequence lengths and we have found that, for the case that the number of sub-carriers differs from the sequence length, so...

  14. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  15. A SYSTEM OF "DEFINITIVE UNITS" PROPOSED FOR UNIVERSAL USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G A

    1925-04-01

    It is proposed that physicists discard the CGS and Heaviside units, which are responsible for much confusion and needless mental effort, and employ exclusively a single system of "definitive units." The units suggested include the international meter, the international kilogram, the second, the mechanical watt, the international mercury ohm and they conform with the other international units as closely as is compatible with self-consistency. The system is not only definite and absolute, but also comprehensive, readily visualized and, in large part, already employed under well-established names. The system was proposed in 1901 by Giorgi and in 1904 by Robertson but received scant attention on account of the artificial prestige of the CGS system. A single universal system of units should be the ultimate goal, and the "definitive units" are chosen with a view to their adoption not only by all scientists but also by the butcher, the baker and the candlestick-maker. The definitive system of units makes it perfectly feasible to employ a single system much more generally than has ever been the case in the past; the natural ultimate goal is the universal use of these units for all purposes. In the attempt to extend the application of metric units in the United States the meter-stere-kilogram, rather than the meter-liter-gram, should form the basis for legislation, in order to give definitive units their proper legalized status and to secure to the full the advantages of a comprehensive system consistently interrelated with the legalized international electrical units. The gradual discarding of CGS and other redundant units would inevitably follow. Even in the absence of official recognition of definitive units, individuals may advantageously employ the system. This would cause confusion neither to authors nor readers, since these units, in the main, have already acquired vital existence through world-wide, daily use under familiar, well-established names. PMID:17840709

  16. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE [aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation] aerosol code validation with low concentration NaOH and NaI aerosol: CSTF test AB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program for aerosol behavior validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The third large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB7, was performed in the 850-m3 CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions involved the release of a simulated fission product aerosol, NaI, into the containment atmosphere after the end of a small sodium pool fire. Four organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using five computer codes. Two of the codes (QUICKM and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while three (HAA-3, HAA-4, and HAARM-3) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for eight key aerosol behavior parameters. 11 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs

  17. Gamma scanning of industrial column for water treatment comparing two scintillator detectors: CsI (Tl) and NaI (Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma ray scanning system was developed, aiming to identify process failures in industrial columns. Two scintillator detectors: CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) were used for comparison. This system was tested in an industrial column for water treatment (6.5 m diameter and 40 m height). The source detector system consists of: (1) 60 Co radioactive sealed source in a panoramic lead irradiator, (2) a scintillator detector coupled to a ratemeter / analyzer and (3) a mobile system. A dedicated computer with software for a data processing was used for recording in appropriate intervals and a profile of the instantaneous operation state was obtained by plotting the detector response against the column elevation. Based on the gamma ray absorption behavior of the inside medium, the density profiles of the columns were obtained. The thickness and the relative tray position column could then be clearly identified. Both, the NaI(Tl) and the CsI(Tl) detectors showed good properties for gamma scanning applications. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of the performance of a gamma camera equipped with a 5/8'' versus 1'' thick NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrade of a gamma camera from a 5/8'' to a 1'' thick crystal, the latter with StarBrite technology, prompted to the investigation of changes in performance parameters for planar scintigraphy and SPECT, as well as for PET in coincidence mode. For planar and SPECT parameters, the performance was measured according to NEMA standard protocol NU1-2001. No changes were found in terms of intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution, linearity, energy resolution, system resolution, and tomographic system resolution. The only change was an increase of system sensitivity for higher energy gamma rays. For the PET scanner in coincidence mode, the image quality of the camera was determined according lo NEMA NU2-2001. Visually and in terms of contrast values there was a significant improvement of image quality. Changes in image quality relevant for clinical use were tested by evaluation of planar patient scans acquired within a short time with two gamma cameras of the same type, different only in crystal thickness (5/8'' and 1''). No statistically significant difference was found between corresponding scans. For planar and SPECT imaging, the gamma camera with 1'' thick detector and StarBrite technology demonstrated the same performance of a camera with a 5/8'' crystal. For PET in coincidence mode the new detector proved clearly superior. (orig.)

  19. Observation des influences du changement du couvert forestier sur le comportement hydrologique de grands bassins versants tropicaux a l'aide de la teledetection numerique: Cas du bassin versant de Dong Nai, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trinh Hung

    Monitoring hydrological behavior of a large tropical watershed following a forest cover variation has an important role in water resource management planning as well as for forest sustainable management. Traditional methods in forest hydrology studies are Experimental watersheds, Upstream-downstream, Experimental plots, Statistical regional analysis and Watershed simulation. Those methodes have limitations for large watersheds concerning the monitoring time, the lack of input data especially about forest cover and the capacity of extrapolating results accurately in terms of large watersheds. Moreover, there is still currently a scientific debate in forest ecology on relation between water and forest. The reason of this problem comes from geographical differences in publication concerning study zones, experimental watershed size and applied methods. It gives differences in the conclusions on the influence of tropical forest cover change on the changes of outlet water and yet on the yearly runoff in terms of large watershed. In order to exceed the limitations of actual methods, to solve the difficulty of acquiring forest cover data and to have a better understanding of the relation between tropical forest cover change and hydrological behavior evolution of a large watershed, it is necessary to develop a new approach by using numeric remote sensing. We used the watershed of Dong Nai as a case study. Results show that a fusion between TM and ETM+ Landsat image series and hydro-meteorologic data allow us to observe and detect flooding trends and flooding peaks after an intensive forest cover change from 16% to 20%. Flooding frequency and flooding peaks have clearly decreased when there is an increase of the forest cover from 1983 to 1990. The influence of tropical forest cover on the hydrological behavior is varying with geographical locations of watershed. There is a significant relation between forest cover evolution and environmental facteurs as the runoff

  20. Post-flight Analysis and Design Improvement in Command Guidance System for a Short-range Surface-to-air Missile System

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit B. Chaudhary; Anil Kumar D. Uttarkar; Prashant Vora; R. N. Bhattacherjee

    2005-01-01

    A short-range missile with command-to line-of-sight and three-beam guidance has been considered in this paper. The earlier command guidance system (CGS) design shows unacceptablyhigh-low-frequency weave-mode oscillations, leading to high latax and body rate oscillations, even for benign, low-speed non-manoeuvring target engagements. For successful targetengagements with the three-beam guidance, missile is to be handed over from wide-to-medium receiver beam, and finally, from medium-to-the mos...

  1. Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Sirisha, P.; Sandhya, K.G.; Srinivas, K.; SanilKumar, V.; Sabique, L.; Nherakkol, A.; KrishnaPrasad, B.; RakhiKumari; Jeyakumar, C.; Kaviyazhahu, K.; RameshKumar, M.; Harikumar, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, S.

    ://www.incois.gov.in/Incois/ wrbimage.jsp). INCOIS collaborates with NGOs such as M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai, Pondicherry Multipurpose Social Service Soci- ety (PMSSS), Puducherry, fishermen associations, district administration, coastal police, Indian... dissemination. We also thank Pondicherry Multipurpose Social Service Society, Puducherry for help during the wave measurement and MSSRF, Chen- nai for disseminating the OSF products to the fishermen community and providing feedback to improve the system. We...

  2. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos Removal of mandibular third molars with endoscopic approach: Technical note of a new surgical procedure to avoid IAN damage and bone defect formation

    OpenAIRE

    R Fuentes; Beltrán, V.; M. Cantín; Engelke, W.

    2012-01-01

    La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI) o nervio lingual, ri...

  3. Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project - Information Management System (WWIPIMS), South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, S.; Sieste, M.; Barth, A.; Rudinskaya, J. [Beak Consultants GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Croukamp, L.; Roos, M. [Council for Geoscience (CGS), Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    The Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project at the Council for Geoscience, South Africa (CGS) deals with an inventory, a risk assessment and the development of rehabilitation strategies for abandoned mining sites in the Witwatersrand Mining Basin. The main focus is the prevention of water ingress and to understand the future decanting scenario. An Information Management System consisting of both a relational database and an application for the Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project is established for accessing and managing all project-related data. This easy to use application makes the data available to all staff at the CGS via several modules as well as a GIS-component for accessing and querying spatial data. This will enable the scientists to derive further knowledge of the water flowing processes by directly using all of the existing up-to-date data. Many additional functions, such as the support for map printing on demand, extensive possibilities for inquiries, data import and export, diagrams and a GIS-viewer for spatial inquiries do complete the system. (orig.)

  4. Aerial radiological measuring system program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present ARMS aircraft has an effective survey time of four hours. Typical survey altitudes are 300 to 500 feet for terrain surveys and up to 20,000 feet for cloud tracks. A number of special airframe modifications have been made to accommodate the various sensor systems. The ARMS radiation measurement system consists of fourteen 4-inch diameter by 4-inch thick sodium iodide (NaI) detectors, a summing network for the detector signals, single and multichannel analyzers, analog computers, digital display and recording equipment, a doppler radar position computer, and strip chart recorders. Major subsystems include meteorology sensors, multispectral camera systems, and an infrared scanner for thermal mapping. Additional radiation detectors include an alpha spectrometer and a beta counter, used to count filter samples taken from a 150 cfm air sampler, which is a permanent part of the aircraft. A small lead shield houses a 1/2-in. x 3-in. NaI crystal for beta and gamma counting of air filter samples. Several BF3 neutron detectors are also available for neutron counting. The raw data from the gross gamma count and the gamma spectral measurements are permanently recorded on paper tape, and they must undergo reduction and analysis for final characterization of the radiological properties of the surveyed area. (U.S.)

  5. Mesoscale Convective Systems Which Do and Do Not Produce Sprites: Results From STEPS 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. A.; Andersen, L. M.; Nelson, T. E.; Cummer, S. A.; Jauget, N. C.; Huffines, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    During the Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study (STEPS) conducted during the summer of 2000 over the High Plains, we addressed two basic questions. First, what are the characteristics of those positive cloud-to-ground strokes (+CGs) which produce transient luminous events (TLEs), especially sprites, halos and elves? It was found the vast majority TLEs optically confirmed over High Plains storms were associated with large charge moment change events (DMq), exceeding thresholds of several hundred C km, substantially larger than the DMq for "normal" lightning. This finding is entirely consistent with present theoretical models of sprite ignition at ~75 km due to conventional breakdown. The second question addressed concerned what types of storms produced these unusual CG discharges. Not all mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) produce TLEs, or if they do, do so only for certain stages in their life cycle. Why? Meteorological analyses of TLE-producing systems had determined that the TLE parent +CGs were concentrated mostly in the stratiform region of their parent storms. Initial and updated analyses for Lightning Mapping Array data from the New Mexico Tech system suggested that the majority of the charge in the parent +CGs was removed from relatively low altitudes in the storm, typically 3 to 5 km AGL. After summarizing the characteristics of over 1500 TLEs and their parent MCSs, some clear criteria have become evident. First the cloud top canopy must be larger than 20,000 sq. km at the 50C level, and the coldest temperature must be at least -55C. Second, the peak reflectivity somewhere in the parent storm must exceed 55 dBZ. This requirement for a very tall and also intense storm initially seems at odds with the known environment of TLE parent CGs (low in the startiform region). Yet, as will be discussed, the emerging conceptual models of TLEs within trailing stratiform regions suggests the overall picture is indeed consistent with what is known

  6. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 μCGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 μCGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists

  7. A sipping system for irradiated fuel elements diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a wet-sipping system for quick diagnosis of irradiated fuel elements. Gamma detection is equated with respect to counting rate and system global efficiency. The theoretical results are verified by an experimental simulation employing NaI (Tl) and HPGe detectors in a I-131 activated water tank. The tank volume is parameterized for dimensioning to reach a minimum sensitivity of 600 Bq/l for gamma rays of 364 keV. It is found that the HPGe is the detector type which best suits the resolution requirement for a sipping system. (author)

  8. Creation of a neo-aortoiliac system from lower extremity deep and superficial veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, G P; Bowers, B L; Lopez-Viego, M A; Rossi, M B; Valentine, R J; Myers, S I; Chervu, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the morbidity, mortality, and intermediate term follow-up of patients undergoing replacement of their aortoiliac-femoral systems with lower extremity deep and superficial veins. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most commonly used treatment for aortic prosthetic infection is ectopic bypass and removal of the prosthesis. The overall mortality rate with this approach is approximately 20%, with an amputation rate of 10% to 14%. Other limitations include thrombosis of the ectopic bypass leading to limb loss, reinfection of the ectopic bypass, and aortic stump blowout. Dissatisfaction with this approach has led the authors to develop the following. METHODS: A neo-aortoiliac system (NAIS) was fashioned from lower extremity deep veins (DV), greater saphenous veins (GSV), or both in patients with infected aortobifemoral prosthesis (n = 17) and other complex aortic problems (n = 3). Removal of infected prosthetic material, harvest of vein, and creation of NAIS was performed as a single-staged procedure. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality and amputation rates were 10% each. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) operative time was 6.5 +/- 1.8 hours and the blood transfusion requirement was 4 +/- 3 units. Four patients experienced postoperative gastrointestinal complications with peritonitis and sepsis; NAIS vein graft resisted infection and remained intact. The mean follow-up time was 22.5 +/- 16 months. NAISs constructed from GSVs were prone to the development of focal stenoses requiring intervention or diffuse neointimal hyperplasia leading to occlusion. In contrast, all NAISs from larger caliber DVs have remained widely patent. The failure rate of GSV NAISs was 64%, compared to 0% for DV NAISs (p = 0.006). Despite the high failure rate in patients with GSV NAISs, none has required amputation. In patients who had DVs harvested for NAIS reconstruction, limb edema and other signs of venous hypertension have been minimal. CONCLUSION: NAIS

  9. Development of a compound energy system for cold region houses using small-scale natural gas cogeneration and a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an independent energy system for houses in cold regions was developed using a small-scale natural gas CGS (cogeneration), air-source heat pump, heat storage tank, and GHB (gas hydrate battery). Heat sources for the GHB were the ambient air and geothermal resources of the cold region. The heat cycle of CO2 hydrate as a source of energy was also experimentally investigated. To increase the formation speed of CO2 hydrates, a ferrous oxide–graphite system catalyst was used. The ambient air of cold regions was used as a heat source for the formation process (electric charge) of the GHB, and the heat supplied by a geothermal heat exchanger was used for the dissociation process (electric discharge). Using a geothermal heat source, fuel consumption was halved because of an increased capacity for hydrate formation in the GHB, a shortening of the charging and discharging cycle, and a decrease in the freeze rate of hydrate formation space. Furthermore, when the GHB was introduced into a cold region house, the application rate of renewable energy was 47–71% in winter. The spread of the GHB can greatly reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gases released from houses in cold regions. - Highlights: • Compound energy system for cold region houses by a gas hydrate battery was proposed. • Heat sources of a gas hydrate battery are exhaust heat of the CGS and geothermal. • Drastic reduction of the fossil fuel consumption in a cold region is realized

  10. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1999-06-01

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ˜30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ˜1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ˜2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs.

  11. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ∼30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ∼1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ∼2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs

  12. 内观认知疗法对精神分裂症康复期患者自尊水平、信赖他人以及容纳他人的影响%Effects of NaiKan Cognitive Therapy on Self-Esteem level, Faith in People and Acceptance of Others in patients with Convalescent Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹桐; 毛富强; 田红军; 周天红; 孙凌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore ef ects of NaiKan cognitive therapy on improving self-esteem level in patients with Convalescent Schizophrenia. Methods The 69 convalescent schizophrenic patients with convalescent clinical state were consecutively recruited from the inpatients of the department of psychiatry, Tianjin Anding Hospital from September in 2008 to February in 2009. Al the patients were divided into NCT group an control group at random and were pretreated with antipsychotic agent therapy. In NCT group, the patients received NaiKan Cognitive Therapy (NCT) for successive 7 days. In control group, the patients only received antipsychotic agent therapy. Pre-and post-treatment The Self-Esteem Scale (SES) were administered to al subjects. Results A increase occur ed in self-esteem scale score in NCT group (t=4.494, =0.000).No significant dif erent between NCT group and control group is in the Pre-and post-treatment.No significant dif erent between NCT group and control guoup is in the Pre-and post-treatment in Faith in People Scale. A significant derease occurred in Acceptance of Others score in NCT group (t=-3.347, =0.002). Conclusion NCT can possibly improve self-esteem level of patients with convalescent schizophrenia to a certain extent, but long-ef ect is not certain.%目的探讨内观认知疗法对精神分裂症康复期患者的自尊水平的影响。方法:选取自2008年9月1日~2009年2月1日于天津市安定医院住院的精神分裂症康复期患者69例,随机将患者分为内观认知治疗组和对照组:内观认知治疗组(n=30)在服用原药物的基础上,合并给予连续7d集中内观认知疗法(NaiKan Cognitive Therapy,NCT);对照组(n=32)只给予原药物治疗,观察1w。在入组时进行阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)以及一般资料的收集,在入组时和1w后进行自尊量表(SES),信赖他人量表(FPS)和容纳他人量表(Acceptance of Others)的评定。结果:NCT组患者治疗后SES评分较治疗

  13. Calibration of low-level beta-gamma coincidence detector systems for xenon isotope detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, K; Wieslander, J S E; Auer, M; Gheddou, A

    2016-03-01

    The beta-gamma coincidence detector systems used for the measurement of the CTBT-relevant xenon isotopes (Xe-131m, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-135) in the International Monitoring System network and in the On-Site Inspection are reviewed. These detectors typically consist of a well-type or bore-through NaI crystal into which a measurement cell, serving also as a sample container, is inserted. This work describes the current calibration procedure for energy, resolution and efficiency, implementation challenges, availability and uncertainties of the specific nuclear decay data and the path forward to full calibration validation using GEANT4. PMID:26702548

  14. Applying systems engineering to astronomical projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Simon C.; Born, Andrew J.

    2004-09-01

    With the award of the VISTA project to the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC), the need for a formal systems approach and dedicated systems engineering management was identified as a key requirement for the success of that project. The structuring of projects within the UK ATC has been increasingly biased toward a systems engineering approach. ROE projects such as CGS4, while very successful, were based on a traditional engineering discipline approach. The systems responsibility was split between the Project Scientist and the Project Manager. Such an approach can be made to work on internal projects where the entire team and project sponsor are in close proximity. As instrumentation projects have grown larger, become more complex and increasingly geographically distributed through international collaboration, the need for technical discipline enforced by a formal system engineering approach has correspondingly grown. Internal projects also benefit and are becoming increasingly reliant on systems engineering as a means to mitigating both schedule and budget risks. This paper describes and analyses the ongoing introduction of a formal systems approach within the UK ATC. Structuring of projects through a sub-system approach rather than by discipline, formal requirements capture, traceability and the use of systems tools to monitor performance are described. The introduction of systems engineering as a discipline is discussed and progress to date reported. Systems engineering activities in previous projects and ongoing implementation in current projects are analysed. Lessons learnt are described and future development in the systems approach outlined.

  15. A Question Answering System based on Conceptual Graph Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Wael

    2009-11-01

    This paper proposes a new text-based question answering system. It models knowledge in documents and questions with conceptual graph formalism (CGF). To prepare knowledge to be modeled, natural language processing is applied to the text using OpenNLP, and then syntactic and semantic information is realized using VerbNet and WordNet. We handle different types of questions, especially questions constructed with wh- pronouns, and questions constructed with "how", and we propose a model to represent them in CGF so that their target is realized and marked. Each question's type has different conceptual graph (CG) representations; thus, for each question, many CGs are generated using formulas. Some of these formulas are introduced here. The projection operator is used to compare a question's CG to a sentence's CG, and then the exact answer is extracted from the part of the sentence's CG that has been projected under the question target's concept.

  16. Data Acquisition and Prompt Analysis System for High Altitude Balloon Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkady, A. A.; Chupp, E. L.; Dickey, J. W.

    1968-01-01

    An inexpensive and simple data acquisition system has been developed for balloon borne experiments and has been tested with a gamma ray detector in a balloon flight launched from Palestine, Texas. The detector used for the test consisted of an NaI(T1) scintillation crystal encased in a 1/8 in. plastic scintillator-charged particle shield. The combination was viewed by a single photomultiplier and charged particle gating was accomplished by a conventional phoswich discriminator. The pulse height analysis of the NaI events, not associated with prompt charged particle interactions, is accomplished by converting to a time spectrum using an airborne height to time converter. A range of pulse widths from 5 microseconds to 250 microseconds corresponds to energy losses in NaI from 100 to 1000 keV. The time spectrum information, along with charged particle events and barometric pressure, is fed to a mixer which modulates a 252.4 Mc FM transmitter. The original scintillator spectrum is recovered on the ground utilizing conversion circuitry at the receiver video output and a 128 channel commercial pulse height analyzer. The charged particle events of standard time width are stored with the spectrum at a fixed channel position and are therefore represented by a sharp line riding on the lower part of the NaI energy loss spectrum. An energy loss greater than 1000 keV is presented by the maximum pulse width of the converter and stored in the last analyzer channel. Barometric pressure data is transmitted by low frequency modulation of the sme FM carrier. In flight operation, the receiver video output can be recorded on a wide band tape recorder and simultaneously analyzed by the 128 channel analyzer, or the telemetered data can be analyzed later. The flight system features high pulse resolution, essentially instantaneous time response, high data rate, and flexibility; and is of modest cost. A detailed description of the system and operating performance is discussed.

  17. A gamma-ray spectrometer system for fusion applications

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Kaschuck, Y A; Martin-Solis, J R; Portnov, D V

    2002-01-01

    A NaI scintillator spectrometer system for the measurement of gamma-ray spectra in tokamak discharges has been developed and installed on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade. Two NaI scintillators are viewing the plasma at two different angles with respect to the equatorial plane. The main features of the spectrometer system (energy range: 0.3-23 MeV) and of the unfolding technique used to restore physical spectra from the pulse-height distributions are described: a method of solution with regularisation for matrix equations of large size, allowing to process count distributions with significant statistical noise, has been developed. A dedicated software, portable to any platform, has been written both for the acquisition and the analysis of the spectra. The typical gamma-ray spectra recorded in hydrogen and deuterium discharges, also with additional heating, are presented and discussed; two components have been observed: (a) thick-target Bremsstrahlung gamma-rays produced by runaway electrons hitting the Inconel po...

  18. Detection of lead via lead-207m using cyclic activation and a modified sum-coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples containing lead were irradiated in a reactor, counted on a detector, and the process repeated for an optimum number of cycles in order to determine the concentration of the element present. The 0.8s isomer of /sup 207m/Pb was detected using two 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm NaI (Tl) crystals operating in a modified sum-coincidence system. The efficiency and resolution of the system were measured using a standard source. The sensitivity and detection limits for lead in various matrices of environmental interest were obtained. The sensitivity in an interference free matrix was found to be 5 μg

  19. An Advanced Radiological Survey and Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of radiological surveying systems have been described in the literature. This paper describes relative performances of a system that can employ a variety of radiological sensors including NaI, LiI, and LaBr3 units of various sizes. The system includes navigation and data collection software that facilitates surveying without the use of survey grid-lines. Parameters presented to the operator via a graphical user interface (GUI) for monitoring system performance and navigation are described. Radiological spectra are logged along with position data from three differential GPS sensors to enhance position accuracy by taking into account the pitch and roll as the survey vehicle moves over uneven terrain. Accuracy of position data increases the potential for, and value of, data fusion with other survey data such as electromagnetic induction images. The survey system described has been developed around a zero turn radius lawn mower equipped with on-board generator/inverter for powering electronic and data communication equipment to maximize surveying effectiveness. Detection limits for U-238 will be discussed for the NaI (FIDLER, 75x75 mm, and 100x100x400 mm) and LaBr3 (75x75 mm) detectors. These parameters will be reported for a variety of survey speeds (stationary, 1, 2, and 3 m/s), with and without the use of advanced signal processing to increase detection sensitivity. A background subtraction algorithm evaluating each spectrum for the presence of naturally occurring radiological materials will also be described for correcting each datum prior to mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj. (authors)

  20. The SiRi particle-telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silicon particle-telescope system for light-ion nuclear reactions is described. In particular, the system is optimized for level density and γ-ray strength function measurements with the so-called Oslo method. Eight trapezoidal modules are mounted at 5 cm distance from the target, covering eight forward angles between θ=40 deg. and 54 deg. The thin front ΔE detectors (130μm) are segmented into eight pads, determining the reaction angle θ for the outgoing charged ejectile. Guard rings on the thick back E detectors (1550μm) guarantee low leakage current at high depletion voltage. - Highlights: → We have designed silicon chips with guard rings with small leakage current. → These form a particle-telescope system with 64 ΔE-E detectors. → The system covers eight forward angels between 40 deg. and 54 deg. → Together with NaI detectors we obtain high γ-particle coincidence efficiency.

  1. The SiRi particle-telescope system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttormsen, M., E-mail: magne.guttormsen@fys.uio.no [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Buerger, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Hansen, T.E.; Lietaer, N. [SINTEF, Department for Microsystems and Nanotechnology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-08-21

    A silicon particle-telescope system for light-ion nuclear reactions is described. In particular, the system is optimized for level density and {gamma}-ray strength function measurements with the so-called Oslo method. Eight trapezoidal modules are mounted at 5 cm distance from the target, covering eight forward angles between {theta}=40 deg. and 54 deg. The thin front {Delta}E detectors (130{mu}m) are segmented into eight pads, determining the reaction angle {theta} for the outgoing charged ejectile. Guard rings on the thick back E detectors (1550{mu}m) guarantee low leakage current at high depletion voltage. - Highlights: > We have designed silicon chips with guard rings with small leakage current. > These form a particle-telescope system with 64 {Delta}E-E detectors. > The system covers eight forward angels between 40 deg. and 54 deg. > Together with NaI detectors we obtain high {gamma}-particle coincidence efficiency.

  2. Möllavad (nais)hormoonid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Fideelia (Signe-Fideelia Roots) maalinäitus "Kurjaloomakobrikas" (5.-16. IV), Anna Kainulaineni maalinäitus "Keha, tants ja mäng" (6.-16. IV), Piret Räni fotonäitus "Punk.Fem" ja Die (Diana Ostrat) fotoinstallatsioon "Müsteerium 35 aktis" (kuni 2. V) Y-galeriis

  3. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos Removal of mandibular third molars with endoscopic approach: Technical note of a new surgical procedure to avoid IAN damage and bone defect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fuentes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI o nervio lingual, riesgo de fractura y formación de defectos periodontales del segundo molar. La implementación de soportes rígidos en la óptica endoscópica ha permitido utilizar esta tecnología para realizar abordajes mínimamente invasivos para remover terceros molares mediante accesos flapless con una mínima osteotomía de la zona oclusal, conservando la pared bucal y lingual a través de la visualización directa y magnificada del sitio quirúrgico, adaptable a los movimientos del paciente durante la intervención. En este reporte se presenta un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico mínimamente invasivo a través de asistencia endoscópica para la conservación ósea en la remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con riesgo de lesión del nervio alveolar inferior.Anatomic variability of the position of mandibular third molars represents significant challenges associated with its depth and angulation. The most common complications of conventional surgical procedure are related to extensive osteotomy and poor visualization, which can cause postsurgical effects such as inflammation, pain, trismus, reversible and irreversible lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN or lingual nerve, fracture risk and formation of a deep periodontal defect on the distal aspect of the second molar. The implementation of rigid endoscopy in optics has allowed to use this technology via a minimally invasive approach to remove third molars by a minimally occlusal flapless ostectomy

  4. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  5. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-08-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples. PMID:18222698

  6. Development of multichannel analyzer using sound card ADC for nuclear spectroscopy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abdul; Jaafar, Zainudin [Technical Support Division, Agency Nuclear Malaysia (Nuclear Malaysia) Bangi, 43000 KAJANG (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    This paper describes the development of Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) using sound card analogue to digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectroscopy system. The system was divided into a hardware module and a software module. Hardware module consist of detector NaI (Tl) 2” by 2”, Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) and a build in ADC chip from readily available in any computers’ sound system. The software module is divided into two parts which are a pre-processing of raw digital input and the development of the MCA software. Band-pass filter and baseline stabilization and correction were implemented for the pre-processing. For the MCA development, the pulse height analysis method was used to process the signal before displaying it using histogram technique. The development and tested result for using the sound card as an MCA are discussed.

  7. Relative Study of CGS with ACO and BCO Swarm Intelligence Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T.Hashni; T Amudha

    2012-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is the collective-level, problem-solving behavior of groups of relatively simple agents.Local interactions among agents, either direct or indirect through the environment, are fundamental for theemergence of swarm intelligence. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a swarm based meta-heuristic method that isinspired by the behavior of real ant colonies. Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) meta-heuristic belongs to the groupof Swarm Intelligence techniques. Consultant Guided Search (CG...

  8. CGS based solar cells with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by CBD and coevaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigated In2S3 as substitute for CdS, which is conventionally used as buffer layer in chalcopyrite based solar cells. In2S3 thin films were deposited by CBD and co-evaporation methods and these were employed as buffer layer in CuGaSe2 based solar cells. Previous to the device fabrication, comparative study was carried out on In2S3 thin films properties deposited from chemical bath containing thioacetamide, Indium Chloride, and sodium citrate, and In2S3 thin films prepared by co-evaporation from its constituents elements. The influence of synthesis conditions on the growth rate, optical, structural and morphological properties of the as-grown In2S3 thin films have been carried out with Spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction and AFM microscopy techniques. Suitable conditions were found for reproducible and good quality In2S3 thin films synthesis. By depositing In2S3 thin films as buffer layers in CuGaSe2 configuration, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 6% was achieved, whilst the reference solar cell with CdS/CuGaSe2 on similar absorber exhibited 7% efficiency. (author)

  9. Review: hCGs: different sources of production, different glycoforms and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, T; Guibourdenche, J; Evain-Brion, D

    2015-04-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the first hormonal message from the placenta to the mother. It is detectable in maternal blood two days after implantation and behaves like an agonist of LH stimulating progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum. hCG has also a role in quiescence of the myometrium and local immune tolerance. Specific to humans, hCG is a complex glycoprotein composed of two glycosylated subunits. The α-subunit is identical to the pituitary gonadotropin hormones (LH, FSH, TSH), contains two N-glycosylation sites, and is encoded by a single gene (CGA). By contrast the β-subunits are distinct in each of the hormones and confer receptor and biological specificity. The hCG β-subunit contains two sites of N-glycosylation and four sites of O-glycosylation and is encoded by a cluster of genes (CGB). In this review, we will stress the importance of hCG glycosylation state, which varies with the stage of pregnancy, its source of production and in the pathology. It is well established that hCG is mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood where it peaks around 8-10 weeks of gestation (WG). The invasive extravillous trophoblast also secretes hCG, and in particular like choriocarcinoma cells, hyperglycosylated forms of hCG (hCG-H). In maternal blood hCG-H is high during early first trimester. In addition to its endocrine role, hCG has autocrine and paracrine roles. It promotes formation of the syncytiotrophoblast and angiogenesis through LHCG receptor. In contrast, hCG-H stimulates trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis by interacting with the TGFβ receptor 2. hCG is largely used in antenatal screening and hCG-H represents a serum marker of early trophoblast invasion. Other abnormally glycosylated hCG are described in aneuploidies. In conclusion, hCG is the major pregnancy glycoprotein hormone, whose maternal concentration and glycan structure change all along pregnancy. Depending on its source of production, glycoforms of hCG display different biological activities and functions that are essential for pregnancy outcome. PMID:25707740

  10. 14 CFR 1260.9 - Synopses requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service (NAIS), located at: http://prod.nais.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/nais/index.cgi; by using the Electronic Posting System (EPS), and transmitted to http://www.Fedgrants.gov. Synopses shall be electronically posted to: http://www.Fedgrants.gov no later than three business days after release of the full...

  11. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  12. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  13. The Daniell Cell, Ohm's Law and the Emergence of the International System of Units

    CERN Document Server

    Jayson, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40s and flourished in the following decades, but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell. Each company had their own resistance standard. In 1862 the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873 they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as ${10}^9$ emu units of resistance and the volt as ${10}^8$ emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the joule) in that the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By in...

  14. Mobile Radiation Detection System against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks in the USA, the discovery of Al-Qaeda's experimentation to build dirty bomb and the death of a former officer of the Russian Federal Security Service from Po-210- induced acute radiation exposure, the threats relating to nuclear and radioactive materials have become a matter of increased international concern. Detection of illicit transport and trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials is necessary for prevention of nuclear terrorism, since failure in detection might lead to catastrophic results. A mobile radiation detection system plays an important role in preventing the potential dangers posed by illicit transport and trafficking of such dangerous materials because it can monitor the suspicious vehicle at place beyond terrorist's expectation which makes intentionally a detour about the portal monitor deployed at seaports, airports, and key traffic checkpoints. The mobile radiation detection system using one NaI, two plastic scintillation, and two He-3 detectors has been developed. This paper describes the developed mobile radiation detection system and experimental results for its performance assessment

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of iterative methods for nonlinear, nonsymmetric systems arising in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrom, T. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Radhakrishnan, K. [Sverdrup Technology, Brook Park, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors report on some iterative methods which they have tested for use in combustion simulations. In particular, they have developed a code to solve zero Mach number reacting flow equations with complex reaction and diffusion physics. These equations have the form of a nonlinear parabolic system coupled with constraints. In semi-discrete form, one obtains DAE`s of index two or three depending on the number of spatial dimensions. The authors have implemented a fourth order (fully implicit) BDF method in time, coupled with a suite of fourth order explicit and implicit spatial difference approximations. Most codes they know of for simulating reacting flows use a splitting strategy to march in time. This results in a sequence of nonlinear systems to solve, each of which has a simpler structure than the one they are faced with. The rapid and robust solution of the coupled system is the essential requirement for the success of their approach. They have implemented and analyzed nonlinear generalizations of conjugate gradient-like methods for nonsymmetric systems, including CGS and the quasi-Newton based method of Eirola and Nevanlinna. They develop a general framework for the nonlinearization of linear methods in terms of the acceleration of fixed-point iterations, where the latter is assumed to include the {open_quote}preconditioning{open_quote}. Their preconditioning is a single step of a split method, using lower order spatial difference approximations as well as simplified (Fickian) approximations of the diffusion physics.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium–Deuterium (D–D) neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium–Deuterium (D–D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82 MeV) following radiative neutron capture by 14N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D–D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 1010 fast neutrons per second (E=2.5 MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described. - Highlights: • Explosive detection system based on Deuterium–Deuterium neutron generator has been designed. • Shielding for a D–D neutron generator has been designed using MCNP code. • The special shield must be designed for each detector and neutron source. • Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting 10.82 MeV line from 14N nuclei. • Simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3 detectors

  17. Some like it hot: Linking diffuse X-ray luminosity, baryonic mass, and star formation rate in compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in LX -T and LX -σ, even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and H I masses ≳ 1011.3 M☉ are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 μm star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due to gas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  18. Characterization of the Very Low Mass Secondary in the GJ 660.1AB System

    CERN Document Server

    Aganze, Christian; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Choban, Caleb; Escala, Ivanna; Lopez, Mike A; Jin, Yuhui; Tamiya, Tomoki; Tallis, Melisa; Rockward, Willie

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic analysis of the low mass binary star system GJ 660.1AB, a pair of nearby M dwarfs for which we have obtained separated near-infrared spectra (0.9-2.5 $\\mu$m) with the SpeX spectrograph. The spectrum of GJ 660.1B is distinctly peculiar, with a triangular-shaped 1.7 $\\mu$m peak that initially suggests it to be a low surface gravity, young brown dwarf. However, we rule out this hypothesis and determine instead that this companion is a mild subdwarf (d/sdM7) based on the subsolar metallicity of the primary, [Fe/H] = $-$0.63$\\pm$0.06. Comparison of the near-infrared spectrum of GJ 660.1B to two sets of spectral models yields conflicting results, with a common effective temperature T$_{eff}$ = 2550-2650 K, but alternately low surface gravity ($\\log{g}$ = 4.4$\\pm$0.5 cgs) and very low metallicity ([M/H] = $-$0.96$^{+0.19}_{-0.24}$), or high surface gravity ($\\log{g}$ = 5.0-5.5) and slightly subsolar metallicity ([M/H] =$-$0.20$^{+0.13}_{-0.19}$). We conjecture that insufficient condensate op...

  19. Absolute dimensions of detached eclipsing binaries. II. The metallic-lined system XY Ceti

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Tamajo, E; Smalley, B; West, R G; Anderson, D R

    2011-01-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy and extensive survey photometry of the detached eclipsing binary system XY Cet, which is composed of two metallic-lined stars. We measure their masses to be 1.773 +/- 0.016 and 1.615 +/- 0.014 Msun and their radii to be 1.873 +/- 0.035 and 1.773 +/- 0.029 Rsun, resulting in logarithmic surface gravities of 4.142 +/- 0.016 and 4.149 +/- 0.014 (cgs). We determine effective temperatures of 7870 +/- 115 and 7620 +/- 125 K. The projected rotational velocities are 34.4 +/- 0.4 and 34.1 +/- 0.4 km/s, which are close to synchronous. Theoretical models cannot match all of these properties, but come closest for a solar helium and metal abundance and an age in the region of 850 Myr. We obtain the individual spectra of the two stars by the spectral disentangling method, and compare them to synthetic spectra calculated for the measured effective temperatures and a solar chemical composition. Both stars show enhanced abundances of iron-group elements and clear deficiencies of Ca I and...

  20. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  1. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  2. Metal-ceramic composite coatings obtained by new thermal spray technologies: Cold Gas Spray (CGS) and its wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, composite coatings composed by an aluminum bronze metal matrix and a hard ceramic alumina phase obtained by cold spray technique were obtained in order to increase the tribological properties of the pure bronze coatings. The different processes that occur during the coating formation (hardening of the metal particles, fragmentation of the ceramic particles, shot peening on the metal substrate, etc) are described and their effects on the coating properties are studied. Wear tests consisting on Ball-on-Disk tests, abrasion Rubber Wheel tests and erosion tests as well as microhardness and adhesion tests are carried out and the results are correlated with the ceramic phase content of the coatings. It can be concluded that the hard ceramic phase increases the tribological properties with relation of the initial bronze coating. Finally, main wear mechanisms during the tribological tests are described. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Composite-step product methods for solving nonsymmetric linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.F.; Szeto, T. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Biconjugate Gradient (BCG) algorithm is the {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} generalization of the classical Conjugate Gradient method to nonsymmetric linear systems. It is an attractive method because of its simplicity and its good convergence properties. Unfortunately, BCG suffers from two kinds of breakdowns (divisions by 0): one due to the non-existence of the residual polynomial, and the other due to a breakdown in the recurrence relationship used. There are many look-ahead techniques in existence which are designed to handle these breakdowns. Although the step size needed to overcome an exact breakdown can be computed in principle, these methods can unfortunately be quite complicated for handling near breakdowns since the sizes of the look-ahead steps are variable (indeed, the breakdowns can be incurable). Recently, Bank and Chan introduced the Composite Step Biconjugate Gradient (CSBCG) algorithm, an alternative which cures only the first of the two breakdowns mentioned by skipping over steps for which the BCG iterate is not defined. This is done with a simple modification of BCG which needs only a maximum look-ahead step size of 2 to eliminate the (near) breakdown and to smooth the sometimes erratic convergence of BCG. Thus, instead of a more complicated (but less prone to breakdown) version, CSBCG cures only one kind of breakdown, but does so with a minimal modification to the usual implementation of BCG in the hope that its empirically observed stability will be inherited. The authors note, then, that the Composite Step idea can be incorporated anywhere the BCG polynomial is used; in particular, in product methods such as CGS, Bi-CGSTAB, and TFQMR. Doing this not only cures the breakdown mentioned above, but also takes on the advantages of these product methods, namely, no multiplications by the transpose matrix and a faster convergence rate than BCG.

  4. A Compton-suppression detection system for use in manganese bath measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manganese sulfate bath technique is a standard tool for neutron source strength measurement (Park et al., 2005). However, the dominate Compton continuum of most sodium iodide scintillators used in manganese bath systems (MBSs) does not allow the precise identification of induced gamma rays required for such measurements. In this research, to resolve this problem, a Compton-suppression system has been proposed which consists of a 2 in. by 2 in. NaI(Tl) right cylindrical scintillator as the main and a set of eight rectangular NE102 plastic scintillators of 12×12×15 cm3 dimensions as suppression detectors. Both detectors operate in anti-coincidence circuit to suppress the Compton continuum. The proposed system has been simulated with the MCNPX code with two different approaches and the corresponding measurements with 137Cs gamma-ray source and neutron-activated MnSO4 solution have been undertaken that give rise to a promising agreement. - Highlights: • A Compton-suppression system (CSS) consists of eight NE102 plastic and one NaI scintillators is proposed. • The motivation for the proposed CSS is to improve the minimum detectable activity in a manganese bath system (MBS). • Both MCNPX and experimental studies have been undertaken to obtain the optimum source-to-detector distance in CSS

  5. A Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System on a Cubed Sphere Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, In-Hyuk; Song, Hyo-Jong; Kwun, Jihye; Kim, Sangil; Ha, Ji-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    A 3DVAR system has been developed for a cubed-sphere grid (CSG) model and recently implemented to Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model based on HOMME dynamical core (KIM-SH). We devised a spectral transformation method which enables spherical harmonic functions to be represented on the CSG points without horizontal interpolation. The 3DVAR system contains a background error covariance model which generates a static or ensemble background error covariance to represent uncertainty of background. In the background error covariance modeling, the spectral transformation and Eigen decomposition play roles as horizontal and vertical filters, respectively. The parameter transformation using linear and nonlinear balances and Helmholtz decomposition is conducted directly on CGS as well. As a result of the parameter transformation, the model variables such as zonal wind, meridional wind, temperature, specific humidity and surface pressure are respectively transformed to control variables such as streamfunction, velocity potential, unbalanced temperature, specific humidity, and unbalanced surface pressure. To evaluate the performance of the 3DVAR system, observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) were conducted using KIM-SH with ne30np4 (about 1 degree resolution). We assumed that the model run of KIM-SH with a year spin-up is true and designated as a nature. The root mean square differences (RMSD) between model results and the nature show significant reduction in the analysis compared to the background, and the results also show better forecast skill during 72 h forecast period. The assimilation results of real observation with conventional data such as Sonde, surface wind, temperature and pressure, and aircraft also will be represented at conference.

  6. Transient luminous events above two mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy; Rutledge, Steve; Lyons, Walt; Cummer, Steve; Li, Jingbo; Macgorman, Don

    2010-05-01

    Two warm-season mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were analyzed with respect to production of transient luminous events (TLEs), mainly sprites. Sprites were documented over the lightning mapping array (LMA) network in Oklahoma, USA, using highly sensitive optical cameras operated at Yucca Ridge in Ft. Collins, Colorado, as part of our Sprites 2007 field campaign. Information about charge moment changes in lightning flashes was obtained by the National Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN). Cloud-to-ground lightning data were obtained from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The 20 June 2007 symmetric MCS produced 282 observed TLEs over a 4-h period, during which time the storm's intense convection weakened and its stratiform region strengthened. In contrast to previous sprite studies, the stratiform charge layer involved in producing the TLE-parent positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning flash was situated at upper levels as opposed to near the melting level. This layer was physically connected to an even higher upper-level convective positive charge region via a downward-sloping pathway. The average altitude discharged by TLE-parent flashes during TLE activity was 8.2 km above mean sea level (MSL; -25 °C). The 9 May 2007 asymmetric MCS produced 25 observed TLEs over a 2-h period, during which the storm's convection rapidly weakened before recovering later. The 9 May storm best fit the conventional model of low-altitude positive charge playing the dominant role in sprite production; however, the average altitude discharged during the TLE phase of flashes still was higher than the melting level: 6.1 km MSL (-15 °C). The average TLE-parent +CG flash in the symmetric 20 June case initiated at higher altitude, discharged a substantially larger area, had a larger peak current, and tapped positive charge at higher altitude compared to the asymmetric 9 May case. Analysis of full charge moment change (CMC) data from TLE-parent +CGs in these two cases

  7. Gamma ray attenuation in a developed borate glassy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aly; El shazly, R. M.; Elbashar, Y. H.; Abou El-azm, A. M.; El-Okr, M. M.; Comsan, M. N. H.; Osman, A. M.; Abdal-monem, A. M.; El-Sersy, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Measurements and calculations of gamma ray attenuation coefficients in glass barriers of xBaO-5ZnO-5MgO-14Na2O--1Li2O-(75-x)B2O3, previously prepared by the melt-quenching technique [1], were performed for γ-ray of energies 121.8, 244.7, 344.14, 661.66, 778.7, 974, 1086.7, 1173.24, 1332.5, and 1407.9 keV; which emitted from 152Eu, 137Cs, and 60Co radioactive gamma ray sources. The transmitted γ-rays were detected by 3″×3″ and 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) scintillation γ-ray spectrometers, and a highly calibrated survey meter. The mass attenuation coefficients of γ-rays (σ(E) were deduced from the attenuation curves, while the WinXCom computer program (version 3.1) was used to calculate the mass attenuation coefficients of γ-rays for such energies at different barium concentrations of a glassy system. A good agreement between both experimental and theoretical results was achieved as well as results obtained by other workers in similar field.

  8. Real-Time Soil Characterization and Analysis Systems Used at US Department of Energy Closure Sites in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  9. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241Am, 137Cs and 109Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4Πα-γ and 2Πec-X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4Π proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241Am, 0.7% for 137Cs and 0.6% for 109Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author)

  10. Ultra sensitive sea water radioactivity monitoring system. Autonomous low power consumption equipped with wireless data communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recognition of their usefulness by the States and the scientific community, the automatic water monitoring networks were developed again to be able to measure sea water. For that purpose they had to be fully autonomous, have low power consumption (solar panels power supply), use wireless communicating (satellite, GSM, Radio) and be very sensitive (few Bq/m3). It is important to note that radioactivity detection in sea has many constraints: The detection system sensitivity must be very high because of the dilution factor of the ocean. The analysis method has to be adapted: the detection of very low levels of artificial contamination is made difficult due to the natural radioactivity in seawater (i.e., more than 10 kBq of 40K/m3). The system has to be completely autonomous, 'wireless'. Additional conventional measuring probes must be connected to the system to increase its interest (pH, t deg, salinity, position, meteorology). The system maintenance must be very limited (1/year). Wind and corrosion resistance must be high. The probe must be installed on a buoy. Moreover, some improvements are needed to allow: Amplification Gain drifts due to NaI sensitivity to t deg to be compensated. Net peak area computation in a specific energy range. Interference correction to prevent false alarms due to natural radiation. Very long counting time. (author)

  11. Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII): Version 2.1. User's guide and software documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII) software is a database management package for doing Holdup Measurements. It is based on the generalized geometry holdup (GGH) methodology taught in the US Department of Energy Safeguards Technology Training Program, ''Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Materials Holdup.'' This program was developed and taught by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The HMSII was developed as a joint effort between LANL and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed for the US Department of Energy by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The system is designed specifically for use with three types of Multichannel Analyzer (MCA): a Davidson Portable MultiChannel Analyzer (MCA); a EG ampersand G Ortec MicroNOMAD (μNOMAD); or a new Miniature Modular MultiChannel Analyzer (M3CA) under development at LANL. It is also designed assuming a 512 channel spectrum from a low resolution (e.g., NaI) detector measuring Uranium or Plutonium. Another important hardware component of the system is a portable bar code reader (also called a DataLogger or Trakker), by Intermec Corporation. The 944X series and the JANUS 2OXX series readers are compatible models with the HMSII. The JANUS series is a bar code reader which is also a 386 compatible palmtop PC with MS-DOS 5.0 built-in. Both series readers are programmable and control all the aspects of field holdup data collection from the MCAs

  12. Upgrade of the data acquisition system for the A2 experiment at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiser, Andreas; Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: TRB3-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The A2 collaboration at the electron accellerator MAMI in Mainz uses energy-tagged photons to produce light mesons off the nucleon. Its current data acquisition system is the major performance bottleneck under typical trigger conditions. Furthermore, the availability of spare parts is limited, which renders the maintainability for the next decade difficult. Thus, an upgraded system is desirable for A2 to achieve the upcoming experimental goals. For this upgrade, an FPGA-based solution using the TRB3 is being considered. The TRB3 is a multi-purpose 4+1 FPGA board and implements a 4 x 65 + 4 = 264 channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 11 ps RMS precision between two channels. It was developed at GSI in Darmstadt including different front-ends for signal discrimination and charge measurements. For the precursor TRB2, a charge-to-digital precision of 0.2 % was shown. Owing to its flexible design, it is an attractive upgrade option for A2. We present the successful integration of the TRB3 into the existing A2 data acquisition system at the trigger and the data read-out interface. First test measurements at our 4π NaI calorimeter Crystal Ball with up to 16 channels yielded promising results. The performance of the TRB3 platform seems to be sufficient for the future requirements of A2. An outlook on upscaling and deploying the system is given.

  13. Upgrade of the data acquisition system for the A2 experiment at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A2 collaboration at the electron accellerator MAMI in Mainz uses energy-tagged photons to produce light mesons off the nucleon. Its current data acquisition system is the major performance bottleneck under typical trigger conditions. Furthermore, the availability of spare parts is limited, which renders the maintainability for the next decade difficult. Thus, an upgraded system is desirable for A2 to achieve the upcoming experimental goals. For this upgrade, an FPGA-based solution using the TRB3 is being considered. The TRB3 is a multi-purpose 4+1 FPGA board and implements a 4 x 65 + 4 = 264 channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 11 ps RMS precision between two channels. It was developed at GSI in Darmstadt including different front-ends for signal discrimination and charge measurements. For the precursor TRB2, a charge-to-digital precision of 0.2 % was shown. Owing to its flexible design, it is an attractive upgrade option for A2. We present the successful integration of the TRB3 into the existing A2 data acquisition system at the trigger and the data read-out interface. First test measurements at our 4π NaI calorimeter Crystal Ball with up to 16 channels yielded promising results. The performance of the TRB3 platform seems to be sufficient for the future requirements of A2. An outlook on upscaling and deploying the system is given.

  14. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject

  15. Low gamma counting for measuring NORM/TENORM with a radon reducing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection system for counting low levels of gamma radiation was built by upgrading an existing rectangular chamber made of 18 metric tonne of steel fabricated before World War II. The internal walls, the ceiling, and the floor of the chamber are covered with copper sheets. The new detection system consists of a stainless steel hollow cylinder with variable circular apertures in the cylindrical wall and in the base, to allow introduction of a NaI (Tl) crystal, or alternatively, a HPGe detector in its interior. This counting system is mounted inside the larger chamber, which in turn is located in a subsurface air-conditioned room. The access to the subsurface room is made from a larger entrance room through a tunnel plus a glass anteroom to decrease the air-exchange rate. Both sample and detector are housed inside the stainless steel cylinder. This cylinder is filled with hyper pure nitrogen gas, before counting a sample, to prevent radon coming into contact with the detector surface. As a consequence, the contribution of the 214Bi photopeaks to the background gamma spectra is minimized. The reduction of the gamma radiation background near the detector facilitates measurement of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and/or technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM), which are usually at concentration levels only slightly higher than those typically found in the natural radioactive background. (author)

  16. Development of systems of analysis in industrial processes with XRF. A technology transfer alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FRX Laboratory's experience in developing a unit of analysis by excitation with a radioisotope source is described, with a discussion of its advantages, limitations, types of existing units in the market, use, values and state-of-the-art. The evolution of mining and metallurgical processes has led to the development of new technologies that provide quick and precise control of control and analysis operations, avoiding loss of raw material, chemical reagents, waste of materials and time, to obtain a better quality and purer product. The system developed by the FRX Laboratory is relatively low cost compared to other equipment that is available in the market, and it focuses on single element analysis in hydrometallurgical processes. This system uses a NaI (T1) detector with a beryllium window, related electronics, monitor and printer, which controls the operation automatically using an adequate program for taking samples, measuring, analysis, printing results, changing samples, etc. The sampling is continuous, so it does not have to be taken or prepared chemically. This system can extrapolate to other more complex ones, using new kinds of detectors with higher resolution, more modern electronics, and new multichannel cards. The development of this kind of equipment in Chile means that dependence on foreign technology can be avoided by replacing expensive imported equipment, creating our own technology and transferring it to the domestic market, and even generating income by exporting these units and opening new development prospects (au)

  17. Nucleation and capture of condensible airborne contaminants in an aqueous scrubbing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of condensible contaminants in an aqueous scrubbing system was evaluated. Knowledge of the behavior of volatile fission product compounds is important in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency air cleaning systems proposed for use in containment systems of breeder reactor plants. When a high temperature air stream passes through a spray quench chamber, very large cooling rates occur in the drop boundary layers. These large cooling rates cause large supersaturations in airborne concentrations of condensible contaminants, and one predicts that most condensation would take place through homogeneous nucleation. The very small particles formed would agglomerate, and attach to sodium aerosol particles which would be present. In the study the overall removal efficiency of volatile fission product species (typified by NaI, SeO2, and Sb2O3) in an air cleaning train (quench chamber, venturi scrubber, and fibrous bed) was theoretically evaluated. The overall removal efficiency of condensible materials was found to be lower than that for sodium compound aerosols because the freshly condensed particles would be smaller in size. For a base case, a removal efficiency of 99.97 percent was predicted for condensible materials. The fibrous bed scrubber exhibited superior particle removal characteristics for small particles compared to the quench chamber and venturi scrubber. Its removal efficiency exceeded 97 percent for even the most penetrating particle size (about 0.4 micron aerodynamic diameter). Therefore, all condensible fission products would be removed with efficiencies exceeding 97 percent

  18. Gamma ray attenuation in a developed borate glassy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements and calculations of gamma ray attenuation coefficients in glass barriers of xBaO–5ZnO–5MgO–14Na2O–-1Li2O–(75−x)B2O3, previously prepared by the melt-quenching technique [1], were performed for γ-ray of energies 121.8, 244.7, 344.14, 661.66, 778.7, 974, 1086.7, 1173.24, 1332.5, and 1407.9 keV; which emitted from 152Eu, 137Cs, and 60Co radioactive gamma ray sources. The transmitted γ-rays were detected by 3″×3″ and 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) scintillation γ-ray spectrometers, and a highly calibrated survey meter. The mass attenuation coefficients of γ-rays (σ(E)) were deduced from the attenuation curves, while the WinXCom computer program (version 3.1) was used to calculate the mass attenuation coefficients of γ-rays for such energies at different barium concentrations of a glassy system. A good agreement between both experimental and theoretical results was achieved as well as results obtained by other workers in similar field. - Highlights: • Design new glass system can be used as nuclear radiation shielding material. • Three different systems were used to measure γ-ray attenuation coefficients. • The γ-ray attenuation coefficients in this glass system were measured for 10 γ-energy lines. • Good agreement between experimental, theoretical, and results by other workers have been achieved. • Improvement of σ and HVL by increasing BaO concentration up to 50% in our glassy system

  19. The temperature dependence of the phononic band gap of NaI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kempa, Martin; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Bourges, P.; Ollivier, J.; Rols, S.; Kulda, J.; Margueron, S.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2013), "055403-1"-"055403-4". ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/11/P404 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11024 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alkali halides * phonon density of states * anharmonic lattice modes * inelastic neutron scattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2013 http://stacks.iop.org/JPhysCM/25/055403

  20. The NAi Effect: Museological Institutions and the Construction of Architectural Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Sergio Miguel

    2014-01-01

    While historically, institutions shaping architectural discourse have been primarily academic, recently, architecture museums and institutes have emerged as increasingly influential platforms in furthering architectural debate. As nexus of architectural knowledge, these institutions have become particularly operative in contemporary society, primarily by involving a wide audience. By not only engaging the concerns of a broad audience, but allowing a broad audience to engage with the stakes, p...

  1. Measuring radioactivity level in various types of rice using NaI (Tl) detector

    OpenAIRE

    Laith A. Najam; Nada F. Tawfiq; Fouzey H. Kitha

    2015-01-01

    A study of long- lived gamma emitting radionuclides in rice consumed in Nineveh Province (IRAQ) were performed. The study targeted the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K .The rice samples originated from seven different countries. NaI(Tl) detector was used to measure the radionuclides level. The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 51.15 to 109.26 Bq/kg,13.67 to 71.97 Bq/kg and 231.87 to 691.71Bq/kg. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the na...

  2. Measuring radioactivity level in various types of rice using NaI (Tl detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith A. Najam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of long- lived gamma emitting radionuclides in rice consumed in Nineveh Province (IRAQ were performed. The study targeted the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K .The rice samples originated from seven different countries. NaI(Tl detector was used to measure the radionuclides level. The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 51.15 to 109.26 Bq/kg,13.67 to 71.97 Bq/kg and 231.87 to 691.71Bq/kg. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity, gamma absorbed dose rate, internal and external hazard indices , gamma index and finally alpha index have been calculated . Hence rice consumption in Nineveh province (IRAQ is radiologically safe for the presence of the investigated radionuclides.

  3. Particle transport simulation for spaceborne, NaI gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity induced in detectors by protons and secondary neutrons limits the sensitivity of spaceborne gamma-ray spectrometers. Three dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes have been employed to simulate particle transport of cosmic rays and inner-belt protons in various representations of the Gamma Ray Observatory Spacecraft and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment. Results are used to accurately quantify the contributions to the radioactive background, assess shielding options and examine the effect of detector and space-craft orientation in anisotropic trapped proton fluxes. (author)

  4. Characterization of a HV Nais protein derived from a patient with hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA encoding hepatitis C virus NS5A protein was isolated from the serum of a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. The NS5AHCC was localized in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of Huh-7 cells. Immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis experiments showed four major phosphorylated species of NS5AHCC, p58, p56, p53, and p50. Two mutants (NS5AHCC-NLSmt and NS5AHCC-TSmt) carrying mutations on the putative nuclear localization signal were engineered. NS5AHCC-NLSmt was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, whereas some forms of NS5AHCC-TSmt can be transported into the nucleus. These NS5AHCC mutant proteins were capable of transactivating c-fos and SV40 promoters. However, the transactivation efficiency was not dependent on its capability of nuclear localization. Subsequently, interaction between NS5AHCC mutants and Grb2 was studied. While capable of transactivating oncogenic promoters, NS5AHCC-TSmt could not interact with Grb2. Our results suggested that other cytosolic pathways independent of Grb2-mediated mechanisms were involved in the transactivation activity of HCV NS5A

  5. A simulation-based study of the neutron backgrounds for NaI dark matter experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, E. J.; Kim, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    Among the direct search experiments for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter, the DAMA experiment observed an annual modulation signal interpreted as WIMP interactions with a significance of 9.2σ. Recently, Jonathan Davis claimed that the DAMA modulation may be interpreted on the basis of the neutron scattering events induced by the muons and neutrinos together. We tried to simulate the neutron backgrounds at the Gran Sasso and Yangyang laboratory with and without the polyethylene shielding to quantify the effects of the ambient neutrons on the direct detection experiments based on the crystals.

  6. Water allocation policies for the Dong Nai River Basin in Vietnam: an integrated perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ringler, Claudia; Vu Huy, Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Recent water sector reforms, increased scarcity and vulnerability of existing water resources, combined with declining public funding available for large-scale infrastructure investment in the sector have led to an increased awareness by the Government of Vietnam for the need to analyze water resource allocation and use in an integrated fashion, at the basin scale, and from an economic efficiency perspective. This paper presents the development, application, and results from an integrated eco...

  7. Radioiodide uptake in melanoma cells after transfer of human NaI symporter gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain human sodium/iodide symporter gene cDNA for studying its potential ability as a radioiodide treatment for melanoma, the hNIS gene cDNA was amplified with total RNA from human thyroid tissue by RT-PCR. The hNIS cDNA was inserted into cloning vector pUCm-T and subcloned into eukaryotic expression vector pc-DNA3. The pc-DNA3-hNIS and pc-DNA3 were transduced into melanoma cells (B16) by electroporation, and two cell lines termed B16-A and B16-B respectively were established. The uptake and efflux of iodide was examined in vitro. The three cell lines (B16-A, B16-B, B16) were injected subcutaneously into the right flank of C57 mice. Biodistribution study and tumor imaging were performed when the tumor reached approximately 10 mm in diameter. The cloned hNIS cDNA sequence was identical with the published sequence. Two novel cell lines named B16-A containing pc-DNA3-hNIS and B16-B containing pc-DNA3 only were established. The resultant cell line B16-A accumulated 17 and 19 times more radioiodide in vitro than B16 and B16-B respectively. The iodide uptake reached the half-maximal level within 10 min, and reached a plateau at 30 min. The efflux of iodide was also rapid (T1/2eff=10 min). The imaging shows in vivo uptake in expected sites including the salivary glands, thyroid, stomach, and hNIS-transduced tumor, whereas the nontransduced tumor was not visualized. The %ID/g of B16-A tumors at 1,2,4,12 and 24h after injection of 125I were 12.22 ± 0.71, 10.91 ± 0.72, 8.73 ± 0.99, 1.24 ± 0.29, and 0.19 ± 0.03, respectively, which were significantly higher percentages than those for controlling tumors, p1/2 was about 6 h. Our preliminary data indicate that the transduction of the hNIS gene per se is sufficient to induce iodide transport in melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo, but T1/2eff is short. (authors)

  8. Radioiodide uptake in melanoma cells after transfer of human NaI symporter gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-Bo; ZHU Rui-Sen; LU Han-Kui; YU Yong-Li; LUO Quan-Yong; HUANG Fang; FEI Jian; GUO Li-He

    2004-01-01

    To obtain human sodium/iodide symporter gene cDNA for studying its potential ability as a radioiodide treatment for melanoma, the hNIS gene cDNA was amplified with total RNA from human thyroid tissue by RT-PCR.The hNIS cDNA was inserted into cloning vector pUCm-T and subcloned into eukaryotic expression vector pc-DNA3.The pc-DNA3-hNIS and pc-DNA3 were transduced into melanoma cells (B 16) by electroporation, and two cell lines termed B 16-A and B16-B respectively were established. The uptake and efflux of iodide was examined in vitro. The three cell lines (B16-A, B16-B, B16) were injected subcutaneously into the right flank of C57 mice. Biodistribution study and tumor imaging were performed when the tumor reached approximately 10mm in diameter. The cloned hNIS cDNA sequence was identical with the published sequence. Two novel cell lines named 16-A containing pc-DNA3-hNIS and B16-B containing pc-DNA3 only were established. The resultant cell line B16-A accumulated 17and 19 times more radioiodide in vitro than B 16 and B 16-B respectively. The iodide uptake reached the half-maximal level within 10 min, and reached a plateau at 30 min. The efflux of iodide was also rapid (T1/2cff=10min). The imaging shows in vivo uptake in expected sites including the salivary glands, thyroid, stomach, and hNIS-transduced tumor,whereas the nontransduced tumor was not visualized. The %ID/g of B 16-A tumors at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24h after injection of 125I were 12.22±0.71, 10.91±0.72, 8.73±0.99, 1.24±0.29, and 0.19±0.03, respectively, which were signifi cantly higher percentages than those for controlling tumors, p<0.01. However, biologic T1/2 was about 6 h. Our preliminary data indicate that the transduction of the hNIS gene per se is sufficient to induce iodide transport in melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo, but T1/2eff is short.

  9. Real-Time Remediation Utilizing The Backpack Sodium Iodide System And The U.S. EPA Triad Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time characterization during remediation activities is being accomplished at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the use of the backpack sodium iodide system (BaSIS). The BaSIS is comprised of a 3-in. by 5-in. sodium iodide (NaI) detector, differential corrected global positioning system (GPS), and portable computer, integrated into a lightweight backpack deployment platform. The system is operated with specialized software that allows the operator and/or remediation field manager to view data as they are collected. Upon completion of planned excavation stages, the area is surveyed for residual radiological contamination. After data collection is complete, data is available to the remediation field manager as a contour map showing the area(s) that require further excavation. The use of real-time measurement systems, rapid turn-around time of data, and dynamic work strategy support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Triad approach. Decisions are made in real-time as to the need for further remediation. This paper describes the BaSIS system calibration, testing and use, and outlines negotiations with the appropriate CERCLA regulatory agencies (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, and U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office) to allow the use of real-time instrumentation during the remediation process, and for confirmation surveys. By using the BaSIS in such a manner, the INL seeks to demonstrate compliance with remediation objectives

  10. A model system using confocal fluorescence microscopy for examining real-time intracellular sodium ion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Collings, David A; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-15

    The gills of euryhaline fish are the ultimate ionoregulatory tissue, achieving ion homeostasis despite rapid and significant changes in external salinity. Cellular handling of sodium is not only critical for salt and water balance but is also directly linked to other essential functions such as acid-base homeostasis and nitrogen excretion. However, although measurement of intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) is important for an understanding of gill transport function, it is challenging and subject to methodological artifacts. Using gill filaments from a model euryhaline fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), the suitability of the fluorescent dye CoroNa Green as a probe for measuring [Na(+)]i in intact ionocytes was confirmed via confocal microscopy. Cell viability was verified, optimal dye loading parameters were determined, and the dye-ion dissociation constant was measured. Application of the technique to freshwater- and 100% seawater-acclimated inanga showed salinity-dependent changes in branchial [Na(+)]i, whereas no significant differences in branchial [Na(+)]i were determined in 50% seawater-acclimated fish. This technique facilitates the examination of real-time changes in gill [Na(+)]i in response to environmental factors and may offer significant insight into key homeostatic functions associated with the fish gill and the principles of sodium ion transport in other tissues and organisms. PMID:27235170

  11. Efficacy of Navigation in Skull Base Surgery using Composite Computer Graphics of Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography Images

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Kurimoto, Masanori; Hirashima, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takashi; Tomita, Takahiro; Endo, Shunro

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a neurosurgical navigation system using three-dimensional composite computer graphics (CGs) of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images was evaluated in skull base surgery. Three-point transformation was used for integration of MR and CT images. MR and CT image data were obtained with three skin markers placed on the patient's scalp. Volume-rendering manipulations of the data produced three-dimensional CGs of the scalp, brain, and lesions from the MR images,...

  12. Entrepreneurial orientation and corporate governance structures at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent B. Molokwu; Jose Barreria; Boris Urban

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Corporate governance systems (CGS) have been observed as one of the most important structures and mechanisms that regulate the relationships between executives and shareholders. By having well-defined and established CGS, company board members and executives are able to shape company vision and increase managerial commitment towards formulating strategies that espouse an entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Firms with high levels of EO tend to be innovative and encourage creati...

  13. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in evaluation of irradiation vessel of flue gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper design of the irradiation vessel of electron beam flue gases treatment plant and resultant optimum gas flow pattern is a very important factor to get a high removal efficiency of toxic materials from flue gases. Radioisotope tracer experiments were conducted to study the residence time distribution of gas flow in a cylindrical irradiation vessel. A few mCi of gaseous radioisotope tracer Ar-41 was injected to the upstream of the vessel and the input and output response were measured with two NaI scintillation detectors. The same experiment was conducted after the modification of the vessel by introducing 4 baffles. The experimental data were analyzed to calculate mean residence times and mixing characteristics of each system using the residence time distribution (RTD) analysis software. A method to estimate pollutant removal efficiencies of an irradiation vessel from the residence time distributions measured by radiotracer experiments was suggested. The analytical results were compared to evaluate the effect of the baffles on the removal efficiency of the plant

  14. Electrical transport study of potato starch-based electrolyte system-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Tuhina; Kumar, Manindra [Department of Physics (Mahila Mahavidyalay), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Srivastava, Neelam, E-mail: neelamsrivastava_bhu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics (Mahila Mahavidyalay), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Srivastava, P.C. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Cheap and bio-degradable polymer electrolyte. • High conductivity ∼ 9.59 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}. • Detailed ion dynamics stud. -- Abstract: Glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinked potato starch, after mixing with sodium iodide (NaI), resulted in electrolyte film having conductivity (σ) ∼ 10{sup −3} S/cm and ionic transference number (t{sub ion}) ≥ 0.99. Out of two preparation mediums, namely methanol and acetone, methanol based electrolyte system seems to be better. Super-linear power law (SLPL) phenomenon is observed in MHz frequency range and both lattice site potential and coulomb cage potential due to neighboring mobile charge carriers seems to be responsible for existence of SLPL, and variation of power law exponent ‘n’ with salt concentration. These ion dynamics results are supported by dielectric data also. Estimated number of charge carriers ‘N’ and mobility ‘μ’ are discussed with reference to different variants (medium of preparation, plasticizer, and salt content). Material's conductivity strongly depends on humidity.

  15. An automatic locating and data logging system for radiological walkover surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) to track a radiation surveyor in the field, to log his instrument's reading automatically, and to provide tabular and graphical data display in the field or in the office. Once each second, USRADS computes the position of the radiation surveyor by using the time-of-flight of an ultrasonic chirp, emitted by a transducer carried in a backpack, to stationary receivers deployed in the field. When the ultrasonic transducer is pulsed, a microprocessor in the backpack radios the start time and survey instrument's reading to the master receiver at the base station (a van or truck). A portable computer connected to the master receiver plots the surveyor's position on the display, and stores his position and instrument reading. The CHEMRAD Corporation has just completed a survey of the ORNL main plant area using two radiation survey instruments simultaneously: a ratemeter connected to a NaI crystal that is swung in a arc near the ground, to look for surface contamination; and a small pressurized ionization chamber (PIC), attached to the backpack frame at a height of 3 ft, to measure the exposure rate. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Stimulus generation technique for code simulation of FPGA based gamma spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text:The aim of this study is to develop a software that can systematically generate stimulus required for code simulation (functional and timing) of new digital processors in gamma spectroscopy system. Software must be able to produce stimulus that emulate ADC data of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) output signal. Signal parameters such as pulse shape, amplitude, pulse width and count rate should be adjustable while allowing options such as pulse pile-up and random pulse events. To fulfill this objective, a pulse generator software PulseGEN has been developed. The software GUI is designed to operate in two modes, Single/Pile-Up Mode and Continuous Random Mode. Its ADC module simulates real-time ADC sampling. The output can be saved as input stimulus to test various functions of digital processors such as pulse height measurements, pile-up detection and correction, as well as random pulse detection and measurement that is similar to the actual real-time measurement. PulseGEN results have been compared and verified against commercial charge sensitive amplifier with NaI detector and NIM pulser. (author)

  17. Some Like It Hot: Linking Diffuse X-ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, S.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Walker, L.; Brandt, W. N.; Charlton, J. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2014-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies (CGs) are ideal laboratories in which to study the effects of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution due to their high galaxy number densities and low velocity dispersions, which cause frequent and prolonged galaxy-galaxy interactions. In our study to better understand the origin and properties of hot gas in poor systems of galaxies, we present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in a sample of 19 CGs observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Our analysis shows that the hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations, even in CGs where the hot gas is clearly associated with the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and combine them with HI masses from the literature to find that high-baryonic-mass CGs are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint X-ray emission attributed to star formation. We also use a new physically motivated definition of fossil groups (evolved galaxy groups where most of the mass is concentrated within a single galaxy) to investigate the hot gas properties of three compact fossil systems in our sample. In addition, we find that the most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because the cold gas has been exhausted in star formation, heated to X-ray temperatures, or removed from the galaxies by ram-pressure stripping. Finally, the optical colors that trace the recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is not dependent on the recent assembly of stellar mass in the most massive galaxies. This work has been supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Ontario Early Researcher Award Program, and NASA.

  18. Quantitative analysis of L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tasneem; Tahtali, Murat; Pickering, Mark R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of a newly proposed L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging. The L-SPECT system consists of an array of 100 × 100 micro range diameter pinholes. The proposed detector module has a 48 mm by 48 mm active area and the system is based on a pixelated array of NaI crystals (10×10×10 mm elements) coupled with an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). The performance of this system was evaluated with pinhole radii of 50 μm, 60 μm and 100 μm. Monte Carlo simulation studies using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) software package validate the performance of this novel dual head L-SPECT system where a geometric mouse phantom is used to investigate its performance. All SPECT data were obtained using 120 projection views from 0° to 360° with a 3° step. Slices were reconstructed using conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. We have evaluated the quality of the images in terms of spatial resolution (FWHM) based on line spread function, the system sensitivity, the point source response function and the image quality. The sensitivity of our newly proposed L- SPECT system was about 4500 cps/μCi at 6 cm along with excellent full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using 50 μm pinhole aperture at several radii of rotation. The analysis results show the combination of excellent spatial resolution and high detection efficiency over an energy range between 20-160 keV. The results demonstrate that SPECT imaging using a pixelated L-SPECT detector module is applicable in a quantitative study of mouse brain imaging.

  19. Analysis of Oseltamivir Resistance Substitutions in Influenza Virus Glycoprotein Neuraminidase using a Lentivirus-Based Surrogate Assay System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Tisoncik-Go; Katie S Cordero; Lijun Rong

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus poses a great threat to global health,and oseltamivir (trade marked as Tamiflu),which targets influenza surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA),is used clinically as a major anti-influenza treatment.However,certain substitutions in NA can render an influenza virus resistant to this drug.In this study,using a lentiviral pseudotyping system,which alleviates the safety concerns of studying highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as avian influenza H5N 1,that utilizes influenza surface glycoproteins (hemagglutinin or HA,and NA) and an HIV-core combined with a luciferase reporter gene as a surrogate assay,we first assessed the functionality of NA by measuring pseudovirion release in the absence or presence of oseltamivir.We demonstrated that oseltamivir displays a dose-dependent inhibition on NA activity.In contrast,a mutant NA (H274Y) is more resistant to oseltamivir treatment.In addition,the effects of several previously reported substitution NA mutants were examined as well.Our results demonstrate that this lentivirus-based pseudotyping system provides a quick,safe,and effective way to assess resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors.And we believe that as new mutations appear in influenza isolates,their impact on the effectiveness of current and future anti-NA can be quickly and reliably evaluated by this assay.

  20. High angular momentum decay properties of the compound systems 100Ru and 160Er formed in 50Ti-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-decay from the evaporation residues formed in the 50Ti + 50Ti → 100Rusup(*) and 50Ti + 110Pd → 160Ersup(*) reactions with angular momentum up to the maximum these systems can sustain, has been studied utilizing a sum spectrometer in coincidence with two smaller NaI detectors. The excitation energy and average angular momentum are determined as a function of γ-ray cascade energy. Simultaneously, the structure of the γ-ray continuum and its multipolarity is obtained as a function of these two correlated parameters. From the centroid energy of quadrupole transitions between states confined to a narrow spin region an effective moment of inertia is extracted. For the products of the 100Ru compound system a large deformation, is indicated by a moment of inertia as large as 1.3 times the spherical rigid-body value for I approx. > 40 h/2π. This is considerably lower in angular momentum than the transition to triaxial shape predicted for a rotating liquid drop. The moment of inertia for the residues of the 160Er compound system is 5-15% larger than the spherical rigid body value. For both systems studied a considerable part of the decay is due to dipole transitions of rather low energy (< 1 MeV) even at the highes spins where a quadrupole bump is well developed. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of an RSD x-ray backscatter system for detecting defects in the space shuttle external tank thermal foam insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel; Addicott, Benjamin; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.

    2005-09-01

    A new Compton x-ray backscatter imaging technique, backscatter radiography by selective detection (RSD), has been used for inspection of the spray-on-foam-insulation (SOFI) on the space shuttle external tank. RSD employs detection of selected backscatter field components, by using specially designed detectors with movable detector collimators, to achieve high image contrast. The optimization study utilized test panels with simulated and natural defects in the spray-on foam insulation. Some of the test panels include structural features, stiffener-stringers and connection flanges, which were bolted to an aluminum base plate representative of the external tank. The SOFI was then layed down over the base plate and structural components with thicknesses varying from a few tens of mm up to a few hundred mm. The simulated defects range in cross-sectional size from 6 × 6 mm to 50 × 50 mm. Natural defects including roll-over voids and knit-line delaminations have a wide range of sizes, geometries, and orientations with a minimum critical cross-sectional size of 6 mm. Imaging registration is currently obtained at 0.05 seconds per 2 mm pixel, or about 19 minutes per 0.093 m2(1 ft2). The current system is being evaluated to enhance the detection of natural defects of a minimal critical size. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with MCNP5 are being used to determine the history and corresponding spectrum of the detected photons that are responsible for improving defect image contrast. The simulation results are used in combination with experimental data to select optimal detector configurations. Detector configurations are sensitive not only to the type of defect being detected, but also the defect's depth in SOFI, distance from aluminum substrate, and defect orientation. Additional parameters including detector type, detection mode, and x-ray illumination beam size were also evaluated. Both NaI and plastic (BC404) scintillation detectors in pulse and integral mode were used to

  2. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8-9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies' aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1'' x 1'', 2'' x 4'' x 4'', 2'' x 4'' x16'', and an ''up-looking'' 2'' x 4'' x 4''. The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center - Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2'' diameter x 2'' long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24-27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test

  3. Aerial gamma mapping system for characterizing the impact of radioactive deposition on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'energie atomique has developed an aerial system of gamma cartography called HELINUC. This system makes it possible to establish, within a few hours, a map of radioactivity for areas (several dozens to several hundreds of hectares) by identifying the radioelements present, in a range from the level of natural radioactivity to that of man-made radioactivity resulting from a large scale accident. HELINUC has been operational for about ten years and is part of the French intervention system in the event of a civil or military nuclear accident. The HELINUC system is mounted on a light helicopter (equipped with a NaI detector) and is linked to ground based equipment. HELINUC has been used at the request of the Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL), Monaco, to estimate the radioactivity of nine industrial or nuclear sites between Budapest and the Black Sea, as well as that of a stretch of 2000 km of the river banks of the Danube. The paper presents a few main results of this measurement campaign (carried out in early 1992), particularly those concerning the Paks nuclear power station in Hungary. The cartography of the Turnu Severin site (Romania) was a good demonstration of the method; the maps obtained showed the presence of spots of 137Cs from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Use of three-dimensional digitized maps in support of isoactivity maps improves the readability of the maps and increases the quantity of available information. Furthermore, this mapping method is applicable to environmental monitoring for the purpose of surveillance of industrial and agricultural pollution. The results obtained with the HELINUC system during the different measurement campaigns have shown that the aerial gamma cartography method is a rapid, powerful and efficient technique for measuring and controlling the radioactivity in the environment of industrial or nuclear sites. (author). 6 refs

  4. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  5. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Halevy, I. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel)

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  6. A compartmentalized mathematical model of the β1-adrenergic signaling system in mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E Bondarenko

    Full Text Available The β1-adrenergic signaling system plays an important role in the functioning of cardiac cells. Experimental data shows that the activation of this system produces inotropy, lusitropy, and chronotropy in the heart, such as increased magnitude and relaxation rates of [Ca(2+]i transients and contraction force, and increased heart rhythm. However, excessive stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to heart dysfunction and heart failure. In this paper, a comprehensive, experimentally based mathematical model of the β1-adrenergic signaling system for mouse ventricular myocytes is developed, which includes major subcellular functional compartments (caveolae, extracaveolae, and cytosol. The model describes biochemical reactions that occur during stimulation of β1-adrenoceptors, changes in ionic currents, and modifications of Ca(2+ handling system. Simulations describe the dynamics of major signaling molecules, such as cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, in different subcellular compartments; the effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases on cAMP production; kinetics and magnitudes of phosphorylation of ion channels, transporters, and Ca(2+ handling proteins; modifications of action potential shape and duration; magnitudes and relaxation rates of [Ca(2+]i transients; changes in intracellular and transmembrane Ca(2+ fluxes; and [Na(+]i fluxes and dynamics. The model elucidates complex interactions of ionic currents upon activation of β1-adrenoceptors at different stimulation frequencies, which ultimately lead to a relatively modest increase in action potential duration and significant increase in [Ca(2+]i transients. In particular, the model includes two subpopulations of the L-type Ca(2+ channels, in caveolae and extracaveolae compartments, and their effects on the action potential and [Ca(2+]i transients are investigated. The presented model can be used by researchers for the interpretation of experimental data and for the developments of

  7. 神经行为评价系统在飞行员脑功能评定中的应用研究%Application of neurobehavioral evaluation system for the identification of pilot's cerebral function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇胜; 贾宏博; 邓学谦; 强东昌; 曹淑玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨神经行为评价系统(neurobehavioral evaluation system-C3,NES-C3)在飞行员脑功能(cerebral function,CF)评定中的应用价值.方法 采用NES-C3评价系统中的情绪状态测试量表(profile of mood status,POMS)(包括紧张-焦虑、愤怒-敌意、疲惫-惰性、忧郁-沮丧、有力-好动、困惑-迷茫6个方面情绪状态),以及记忆扫描、数字检索、视简单反应时、视复杂反应时、目标跟踪、连续操作等6项神经行为能力指数(neurobehavioral ability index,NAI)评定飞行员的脑功能.分别测试45名飞行员[飞行员组,年龄25~31岁,平均(27.6±2.5)岁]和45名非飞行员[对照组,本科生及研究生,年龄25~30岁,平均(27.5±2.6)岁]在无环境干扰及模拟喷气发动机噪声干扰环境下的CF状态,判断测试的差别.结果 无论有无干扰,飞行员组"有力-好动"项评分始终高于对照组,(t=9.74、12.52,P<0.05),而对照组的"紧张-焦虑"项评分始终高于飞行员组(t=10.46、14.25,P<0.05).在有噪声干扰时,对照组的POMS 6项指标均显著增加(t=2.85~6.33,P<0.05),飞行员组的POMS 6项指标除"紧张-焦虑"和"有力-好动"项增加外(t=4.12、5.92,P<0.05),余无显著差异.无干扰条件下,飞行员组有4项NAI测试指标高于对照组(t=2.91~10.55,P<0.05).而在干扰前后,飞行员组的6项NAI测试指标均无统计学差异,而对照组则在干扰后均显著降低(t=5.24~29.24,P<0.05),且均低于飞行员组(t=4.07~28.41,P<0.05).结论 NES-C3神经行为评价系统对飞行员CF鉴定具有实际应用价值.%Objective To explore the application of neurobehavioral evaluation system-C3(NES-C3) for pilot's cerebral function (CF) evaluation. Methods The characters of CF under interference of simulated jet engine noise and neurobehavioral ability index (NAI) were investigated in 45 military pilots [(27.6±2.5) yr] (as pilot group) and in 45 college students [(27.5±2.6) yr] (as control group) by

  8. Detection system and processing of signals originated by backscattering gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer to the requirements of some groups of work destined to carry out studies about soil density and position of steel bars in reinforced cement, using NaI solid scintillation detectors, the electronics required by this type of detectors has been designed and implemented. In this first phase, the construction and test of the 5 modules that constitute the spectrometry chain-which has a digital control: high-tension source, amplifier, control interphase, analog to digital converter (ADC) and multichannel analyzers (MCA) storage logic-were finished. For the development of the operation tests, a compatible computer was used, while the construction of the control logic was finished. This control logic, linked to the implemented analog phases, will provide a totally portable system. The system was evaluated, generating the spectra of some well-known radioactive samples using a 2 inch x 2 inch scintillation detector, having as a result a total resolution of 8,6% (related to the photopeak of Cs-137) The ADC Wilkinson type has a maximum resolution of 2048 channels. Because of the fulfillment of the above-mentioned studies with backscattered beams, all the related electronics was designed considering this criterion. That is why neither base line restoration circuits nor piling-up rebound circuits were included in the amplifier, because the radiation beam to be studied had low activity. By the same reason and in order to avoid the unnecessary complexity and the high cost of the electronics circuits, the ADC operates at a relatively low frequency of 16 MHz. Afterwards, it is expected to interconnect all the system to a laptop compatible computer. In this way, we would have a higher versatility for the modification of the operation parameters of the spectrometry chain during the field tests that may be carried out. (author). 26 refs., 29 tabs., 121 figs

  9. Performance of HPGe gamma spectrometry system for the measurement of low level radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive quality assurance/quality control procedure is very much necessary to obtain accurate and precise analytical measurement result. This paper discusses the quality control aspects of the High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometry system, which has been used for the measurement of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples. The gamma spectrometry system consisting of coaxial n-type HPGe detector having 50% relative efficiency with respect to 7.62 cm x 7.62 cm NaI (Tl), Nuclear Instrumentation Module (NIM) based pulse processing electronic accessories and 8 k MCA. To reduce the background contribution, 7.5 cm thick lead has been placed surrounding the detector. The minimum detectable activities (MDA) with 95% confidence level (for 300 g soil sample and 100,000 s counting time) for important radionuclides such as 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs are 10.4, 4.3, 4.1, 16.9 and 0.1 Bq kg-1, respectively. The Quality control (X bar R) charts were plotted using 137Cs and 40K background counts observed periodically, which showed that the fluctuation is well within the confidence limit and confirms the stability of the system. The laboratory has been participating in the proficiency tests (PTs) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In recently concluded PTs, the samples include soil, spiked standard solution, spinach, phosphogypsum and spiked air filter were analysed for the natural, fission and activation products radionuclides. The performance evaluation of the IAEA PTs showed that the laboratory results were in good agreement with the target value, which confirms the reliability and traceability of the gamma spectrometric measurement result of the laboratory. (author)

  10. 基于Red5和Flex的地面运行控制系统设计%Design of Ground Operation Control System Based on Red5 & Flex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春林; 周桂林; 侯毅

    2011-01-01

    According to the ground production of Beijing Branch of China Southern Airlines, a production monitoring ground system was designed. The system is mainly used for ground monitoring of aircraft loading and production activities at the airfield, and use the event mechanism to coordinate the production work of SOC,CGS,cargo and aircraft maintenance factory. The system will provide strong support for SOC's work and has great significance for the protection of normal flights and investigation of delays. This innovative design proposed the online games conception and architecture to deal the production problems, and satisfy the frontline operational units' strong demand of real-time, ease use and ease deployment.%根据南航北京分公司的地面生产情况,提出了一套完善的地面生产监控系统设计方案.地面生产监控系统主要用于监控飞机预落及在机坪上的生产活动,并采用事件机制协调SOC、CGS、货运及飞机维修厂的生产工作.该系统将对运行指挥部的地面航班监控提供强力支持,对保障航班正常性及延误原因调查具有重要意义.提出以网络在线游戏的设计理念和架构处理企业生产问题,从而满足一线运行单位对信息系统即时性、易用性和易部署性的强烈需求.

  11. Excitability of the T-tubular system in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O B; Ørtenblad, Niels; Lamb, G D;

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous exercise causes an increase in extracellular [K(+)] and intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) of working muscles, which may reduce sarcolemma excitability. The excitability of the sarcolemma is, however, to some extent protected by a concomitant increase in the activity of muscle Na(+)-K(+) ...

  12. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  13. Intra-accumbens injections of the adenosine A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 affect effort-related choice behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Stopper, Colin M.; WORDEN, LILA T.; Mingote, Susana; Port, Russell G.; Salamone, John D.; Font Hurtado, Laura; Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired accumbens DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-reinforced activities that have high response requirements, and instead select less-effortful types of food-seeking behavior. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating eff...

  14. Proceedings of Sea to Sky Geotechnique 2006 : The 59. Canadian Geotechnical Conference and 7. Joint CGS-IAH-CNC Groundwater Specialty Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was attended by members of the Canadian and international geotechnical communities to exchange information on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. A wide range of topics were addressed, including special sessions on infrastructure and geotechnical mining methods that are of particular local or national relevance to the fields of geotechnical and groundwater engineering. The Canadian Geotechnical Society sessions covered oil mechanics and foundation engineering; engineering geology and geophysical investigation; seismology and earthquake engineering; landslide and slope engineering; soft soils engineering; forestry geotechnical issues; rock mechanics and rock engineering; mining; aging infrastructure; geo-environmental engineering; geosynthetics and cold regions geotechnology. The sessions of the International Association of Hydrogeologists covered groundwater protection and sustainability; groundwater and slope failures; fractured rock hydrogeology; mine water geochemistry and hydrology; hydrogeology of the Fraser Lowlands and data collection successes and failures. Many themes associated with major civil engineering works were also explored. The conference featured approximately 250 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Proceedings of GeoEdmonton 2008 : the 61. Canadian geotechnical conference and 9. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference : a heritage of innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Skirrow, R. [Alberta Transportation, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Froese, C. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)

    2008-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for more than 500 delegates from industry, government universities and research centres to share their professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. Accomplishments in the geoenvironmental field were also highlighted. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: pile foundations and load testing; excavations and special foundation issues; reinforced soil and soil-structure interactions; advances in modelling, constitutive issues; advances in modelling, consolidation and other applications; advances in modelling, discrete elements and slope stability; embankments and dams; landfills and barriers; fundamental soil mechanics; soil mechanics and ground movement; GIS and remote sensing; landslides and slopes; cone penetration tests and liquefaction assessment; rock mechanics; engineering geology; geoenvironmental sustainability; oilsand and petroleum geomechanics; and, oilsand tailings. The hydrogeology sessions were entitled: paste tailings and cemented paste backfill; acid mine drainage and containment issues; contaminated sites; cold regions; instrumentation, insitu testing and field applications; transportation geotechniques; urban geohazards; staff retention and motivation; geotechnical education for modern practice; regional issues and studies; policy, regulation and conservation; groundwater and development; groundwater and surface water interactions; groundwater and terrain interactions; aquicludes and aquitards; general hydrogeology; and, geochemistry and contaminant hydrogeology. The conference featured more than 250 presentations, of which 42 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Estimations of the Cs-137 distribution in a boreal forest using a traditional sampling method compared with the use of a portable NaI-detector connected to a geographical information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field-portable detectors have been used frequently in routine monitoring and in hazard assessment studies. However, there have been few attempts to carry out a careful evaluation of their potential as an alternative to sample collection and subsequent laboratory analysis, the subject of this study, conducted at the Nyaenget catchment in the Svartberget Research Forest, 60 km northwest of Umeaa, northern Sweden. The objectives were i) to determine the 137Cs activity in recharge areas, discharge areas, shrub mire and open mire, ii) to map the geographical distribution of 137Cs by means of the portable NaI detector connected to a GIS system and iii) to identify 137Cs anomalies in the catchment. The study used two different methods, the portable NaI detector (GDM-40) and soil samples measured by gamma-ray spectrometry at the laboratory. The agreement in 137Cs activity between soil samples and GDM-40 data is good. More than 50% of the Cs137 activity in all areas was found in the upper 5 cm of the soil. The GDM-40 survey of 137Cs at the catchment shows a trend in higher activity in the west to east direction as well as lower activity on the mire. The lower values in the south eastern part are explained by the low activity on the road. Our soil sample data indicates that the caesium lost from this catchment moves from the recharge area to the shrub mire and from the shrub mire to the open mire and then out in the stream. The topography and the climate in this catchment may be a key to those redistribution processes. Previous research in this catchment showed that the radioactive caesium in this catchment was leached from the mire to the stream and constituted a secondary source for contamination of lakes. Nylen and Grip (1997) estimated that the yearly loss of caesium from the shrub mire was 1.8% and 30% from the open mire. They were, however, not able to demonstrate any loss from the recharge areas during the period 1986 to 1989. Our results demonstrate that the GDM-40

  17. Development of a computational system for monitoring data management in vivo of the radionuclides in human body; Desenvolvimento de um sistema computacional para gerenciamento de dados de monitoracao in vivo de radionuclideos no corpo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Lucena, Eder A. de; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: arlene@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The management of in vivo monitoring process of internal contamination by radionuclides in human beings request a set of steps ranging from the spectrum acquisition to reporting. The spectrum analysis is the identification and quantification of radioactive materials present in organs and individual's body tissues submitted to monitoring procedures. The Body Counter Unit of IRD performs in vivo measurements emitting radionuclide photons in the 10-3000 keV energy range, using NaI type scintillation detectors (Tl) 8” x 4” and 3” x 3” and as semiconductor detectors type HPGe. The measuring system uses the Canberra Genie 2000 software for the acquisition of spectra with 1024 channels related to their respective energies. The counting are distributed in the spectrum due to the energy of the photons emitted by radionuclides of interest. The SIGMIV program (System for Management of in vivo monitoring), developed in MS Visual Basic 2010 accesses the spectrum after it is converted into an EXCEL spreadsheet. This program uses a bank Data developed in MS-Access to store information associated with each measurement, as counting and calibration parameters. SIGMIV generates a report containing personal information, activity and radionuclides of interest present in the body, associated with respective uncertainties and minimum activity detectable. The program SIGMIV optimized monitoring procedures 'in vivo', showing that is flexible, reliable and easy to handle, thus becoming an important tool for development routine in In vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD.

  18. Efficacy of navigation in skull base surgery using composite computer graphics of magnetic resonance and computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of a neurosurgical navigation system using three-dimensional composite computer graphics (CGs) of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images was evaluated in skull base surgery. Three-point transformation was used for integration of MR and CT images. MR and CT image data were obtained with three skin markers placed on the patient's scalp. Volume-rendering manipulations of the data produced three-dimensional CGs of the scalp, brain, and lesions from the MR images, and the scalp and skull from the CT. Composite CGs of the scalp, skull, brain, and lesion were created by registering the three markers on the three-dimensional rendered scalp images obtained from MR imaging and CT in the system. This system was used for 14 patients with skull base lesions. Three-point transformation using three-dimensional CGs was easily performed for multimodal registration. Simulation of surgical procedures on composite CGs aided in comprehension of the skull base anatomy and selection of the optimal approaches. Intraoperative navigation aided in determination of actual spatial position in the skull base and the optimal trajectory to the tumor during surgical procedures. (author)

  19. Excitability of the T-tubular system in rat skeletal muscle: roles of K+ and Na+ gradients and Na+-K+ pump activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, O B; Ørtenblad, N; Lamb, G D; Stephenson, D G

    2004-05-15

    Strenuous exercise causes an increase in extracellular [K(+)] and intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) of working muscles, which may reduce sarcolemma excitability. The excitability of the sarcolemma is, however, to some extent protected by a concomitant increase in the activity of muscle Na(+)-K(+) pumps. The exercise-induced build-up of extracellular K(+) is most likely larger in the T-tubules than in the interstitium but the significance of the cation shifts and Na(+)-K(+) pump for the excitability of the T-tubular membrane and the voltage sensors is largely unknown. Using mechanically skinned fibres, we here study the role of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in maintaining T-tubular function in fibres with reduced chemical K(+) gradient. The Na(+)-K(+) pump activity was manipulated by changing [Na(+)](i). The responsiveness of the T-tubules was evaluated from the excitation-induced force production of the fibres. Compared to control twitch force in fibres with a close to normal intracellular [K(+)] ([K(+)](i)), a reduction in [K(+)](i) to below 60 mM significantly reduced twitch force. Between 10 and 50 mM Na(+), the reduction in force depended on [Na(+)](i), the twitch force at 40 mM K(+) being 22 +/- 4 and 54 +/- 9% (of control force) at a [Na(+)](i) of 10 and 20 mM, respectively (n= 4). Double pulse stimulation of fibres at low [K(+)](i) showed that although elevated [Na(+)](i) increased the responsiveness to single action potentials, it reduced the capacity of the T-tubules to respond to high frequency stimulation. It is concluded that a reduction in the chemical gradient for K(+), as takes place during intensive exercise, may depress T-tubular function, but that a concomitant exercise-induced increase in [Na(+)](i) protects T-tubular function by stimulating the Na(+)-K(+) pump. PMID:15034125

  20. A real-time system of accounting and control of nuclear materials and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes a real-time system of accounting and control of nuclear materials [NMs] and radioactive source [RSs] in a nuclear facility operating as a research and development [R and D] laboratory. The system's approach is based on the recording, accounting and verification of every item containing such materials during any process, or that moves in/or/out the facility at specific key measurement points [KMP]. The system is designed to operate in coordination with the physical protection system [PPS] of the facility in order to allow cross-checking of the inventory changes of NMs and RSs, hence; enhancing the control and PP of Materials and the facility itself. The basic verification measure in this study is the Real-time Accountancy of NMs and RSs. This implies the application of real-time accounting of materials and performing -in the same time- measurements to verify qualitatively or quantitatively the amounts of such materials. The employed measuring system for the verification of NMs and RSs is a classical γ-ray spectrometer. Its basic components are; NaI (Tl) Scintillation Detector and associated electronics and; a suitable computer (PC - Pentium III, or compatible). A computer program is developed for constructing the real-time accounting and control system that can deal with information concerning NMs and RSs as well. This is done by means of a suitable software technique (Oracle). The program uses a Database Management System [DBMS] that enables it to store, retrieve or modify data in the DB as required by the operator. The DB is created for chronological recording; and retrieving of all transactions involving the material inventory, movements and inventory changes at any time. The program allows to access data from the DB concerning the total inventory of materials in the facility or any specified material at any specified time or period of time. The system is capable of controlling the inventory and the flow of materials in the facility

  1. Study of regional respiratory mechanics using xenon-133 and a multidetector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine assessment of overall flow measured at the mouth during the forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver fails to detect early and localized lung disease. The authors developed a method using 133Xe and a multidetector system to analyse regional dynamics at each zone of the lungs during the FVC maneuver. Data gathered from twenty-one normal subjects were used as a baseline for assessment of regional impairment in lung dynamics in patients. The technique consists in having the subject perform a FVC maneuver using a spirometer containing a 133Xe gas mixture (1.5 - 2.0 mCi/litre). Before the FVC maneuver, the subject is instructed to rebreathe in closed circuit with the spirometer until equilibration. Regional flow indices during the FVC maneuver are derived from the decrease in regional radioactivity monitored at each of the eight lung zones by a pair of NaI detectors, one in the front collinear with one in the back. Regional flow indices were consistently higher at the bases and at the apices than at the mid-lung zones. This distribution of regional flow indices may reflect differences in regional airway resistance and the regional difference in pressure applied by the expiratory muscles during the FVC maneuver. Changing in relative geometry between chest and lung in dynamic conditions may be another factor determining the higher flow indices at the base. Further investigation is necessary for analysis of the significance of the findings. However, data as generated, being reproducible from one FVC to another in the normal group, could be used as baseline values for detection and location of localized lung disease in many conditions. (author)

  2. Spectrofluorimetric study of the β-cyclodextrin-dapsone-linear alcohol supramolecular system and determination of dapsone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapsone (DDS) forms a 1:1 supramolecular complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) both in the absence and presence of linear alcohols. The apparent association constants (Kapp) were measured using a steady-state fluorescence method. Kapp decreases linearly with an increasing number of carbon atoms in the chain of the alcohol. We attribute this to a competition between dapsone and linear alcohol for the β-CD hydrophobic cavity as detailed analysis of Kapp as a function of the concentration of alcohol suggests that the interactions in the β-CD-dapsone-linear alcohol system do not result in the formation of ternary supramolecular complex. Quenching the fluorescence of dapsone with NaI shows that the β-CD cavity acts as a shield against contact between dapsone and this aqueous phase quencher, while addition of alcohols inhibits this protective effect. This again suggests that alcohols occupy the space within the β-CD cavity with the result that dapsone molecules are forced to reside in the aqueous environment. Based on the significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of dapsone produced through complex formation, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of dapsone in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of β-CD is developed. The linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and dapsone concentration was obtained in the range of 3.39 to 1.50x103 ng ml-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The detection limit was 1.02 ng ml-1. There was no interference from the excipients normally used in tablet formulations. The application of the present method to the determination of dapsone in tablets and human plasma gave satisfactory results and was compared with the pharmacopoeia method

  3. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field

    OpenAIRE

    CINELLI GIORGIA; TOSITTI Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; BARE Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code us...

  4. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giorgia; Tositti, Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; Baré, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP. Experimental verification of the calibration goodness is obtained by comparison with appropriate standards, as reported. On-site measurements yield a quick quantitative assessment of natural radioactivity levels present ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th). On-site gamma spectrometry can prove particularly useful insofar as it provides information on materials from which samples cannot be taken. PMID:26913974

  5. Deconvolution of gamma energy spectra from NaI (Tl) detector using the Nelder-Mead zero order optimisation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to develop a method for gamma ray spectrum deconvolution from NaI(Tl) detector. Deconvolution programs edited with Matlab 7.6 using Nelder-Mead method were developed to determine multiplet shape parameters. The simulation parameters were: centroid distance/FWHM ratio, Signal/Continuum ratio and counting rate. The test using synthetic spectrum was built with 3σ uncertainty. The tests gave suitable results for centroid distance/FWHM ratio≥2, Signal/Continuum ratio ≥2 and counting level 100 counts. The technique was applied to measure the activity of soils and rocks samples from the Anosy region. The rock activity varies from (140±8) Bq.kg-1 to (190±17)Bq.kg-1 for potassium-40; from (343±7)Bq.Kg-1 to (881±6)Bq.kg-1for thorium-213 and from (100±3)Bq.kg-1 to (164 ±4) Bq.kg-1 for uranium-238. The soil activity varies from (148±1) Bq.kg-1 to (652±31)Bq.kg-1 for potassium-40; from (1100±11)Bq.kg-1 to (5700 ± 40)Bq.kg-1 for thorium-232 and from (190 ±2) Bq.kg-1 to (779 ±15) Bq-1 for uranium -238. Among 11 samples, the activity value discrepancies compared to high resolution HPGe detector varies from 0.62% to 42.86%. The fitting residuals are between -20% and +20%. The Figure of Merit values are around 5%. These results show that the method developed is reliable for such activity range and the convergence is good. So, NaI(Tl) detector combined with deconvolution method developed may replace HPGe detector within an acceptable limit, if the identification of each nuclides in the radioactive series is not required

  6. An effective method for the radioactive anomalism discrimination by car borne NaI (Tl) γ spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective method was established for the radioactive anomalies discrimination by carborne Nal (Tl) γ spectra based on the principles that the second singular value of Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition (NASVD) was sensitive to the changes of the background, and that the adjacent background spectra of scanning measurement were similar. In this method, NASVD was used for the noise reduction of spectra, anomalies discrimination, and the reconstruction and stripping of background spectra, then the anomalies display was done in rainbow method. This method was used successfully in the discrimination and display of the radioactive anomalism. (authors)

  7. Heuristic approach for peak regions estimation in gamma-ray spectra measured by a NaI detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Meng-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; YOU Zhong; XU Ao-Ao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach based on Slavic's peak searching method has been employed to estimate the width of peak regions for background removing. Synthetic and experimental data are used to test this method. With the estimated peak regions using the proposed method in the whole spectrum, we find it is simple and effective enough to be used together with the Statistics-sensitive Nonlinear Iterative Peak-Clipping method.

  8. 100 billion Chimera of Tai Zi Nai Group%太子奶的1000亿狂想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚世华

    2008-01-01

    连续6年业绩翻番的太子奶已经创造了一个商业奇迹,但掌门人李途纯再次立下豪言——“十年之后,1000亿的年销售额是太子奶集团一定要实现的目标。”

  9. Implementation and application of the gaussian decomposition software for NaI gamma-ray spectrometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to extract the information of peaks in different energy from the data of overlapping peaks in environmental gamma spectrometer, a spectrum data Gaussian decomposition software was designed based on least-square Gaussian fitting method. The interface of this software is friendly, it can complete the decomposition of overlapping peaks in gamma spectrometer quickly by the way of man-machines interactive. The result of field measured data decomposed by this software indicates that the Gaussian decomposition software can efficiently extract 137Cs spectra from over lapping peaks, which has significance to estimate the human nuclide contamination in the environment. (authors)

  10. Implementation and application of the gaussian decomposition software for NaI gamma-ray spectrometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to extract the information of peaks in different energy from the data of overlapping peaks in environmental gamma spectrometer, a spectrum data Gaussian decomposition soft is designed based on least- square Gaussian fitting method. The interface of this software is friendly, it can complete the decomposition of overlapping peaks in gamma spectrometer quickly by the way of man-machines interactive. The result that applied gamma spectrometry to data analysis in the field measurement indicates that the Gaussian decomposition soft can efficiently extract 137Cs from overlapping peaks which has significance to assess the human nuclide contamination of environment. (authors)

  11. Search for exotic nuclear transition by using the large volume NaI detector of ELEGANTS V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied elastic and inelastic scattering of dark matter with nuclei in huge NaI(Tl) scintillator. The light output response f was measured by fast neutron scattering. The result was fI=0.05±0.02 for I recoil and fNa=0.4±0.2 for Na recoil. The low noise ( similar eq5keV) and low BG ( similar 8counts/day/keV/kg) was achieved by huge (36.5kg/module) NaI(Tl) scintillator. Strong limit for inelastic excitation of 127I nuclei was studied and strong limit on the local halo density of spin coupled dark matter candidate was derived. ((orig.))

  12. A large area LaBr3/NaI phoswich for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of energy resolution, temporal response to burst events, and thermal stability, lanthanum bromide doped with Ce is a much better choice than the traditional NaI(Tl) scintillator for hard X-ray astronomy. We present the test results of a phoswich detector with a diameter of 101.6 mm consisting of 6 mm thick LaBr3:Ce and 40 mm thick NaI(Tl), which is the largest one of this type reported so far. The measured energy resolution is 10.6% at 60 keV, varying inversely proportional to the square root of the energy, and the energy nonlinearity is found to be less than 1%, as good as those of smaller phoswiches. The coupled scintillators and phototube also show excellent uniformity across the detecting surface, with a deviation of 0.7% on the pulse amplitude produced by 60 keV gamma-rays. Thanks to the large ratio of light decay times of NaI(Tl) and LaBr3:Ce, 250 ns versus 16 ns, pulse shape discrimination is much easier for this combination than for NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na). As the light decay time of LaBr3:Ce is about 15 times faster than that of NaI(Tl), this phoswich is more suitable for detection of bright, transient sources such as gamma-ray bursts and soft gamma-ray repeaters. The internal activity of lanthanum produces a count rate of about 6 counts s−1 at 37.5 keV in the detector. This peak could be used for in-flight spectral calibration and gain correction.

  13. Calibration procedures for in vivo sodium iodide spectrometry of plutonium and americium in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calibration techniques and associated error analysis for the in vivo measurement by NaI spectrometry of heavy elements in the lung, specifically plutonium and americium. A very brief description of the instrumentation system is included

  14. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation. PMID

  15. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  16. The deployment of an innovative real-time radiological soil characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Fernald Inc., in conjunction with partners from Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has developed a program for characterizing radiological contaminants in soil in real time. The soil characterization system in use at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for over three years combines gamma ray spectrometry equipment with other technologies to produce a system that can scan large areas of ground and produce color coded maps which display quantitative information regarding isotopic contamination patterns. Software running on a battery powered lap-top computer, is used to control acquisition of gamma spectral data to link the spectral Information with precise detector position measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and to control transmission of data to a central station or van via a wireless Ethernet link where Surfer6 mapping software is used to produce maps showing the position and amount of each target analyte. Either sodium iodide (NaI) gamma ray detectors mounted on three different vehicles for mobile measurements or stationary tripod-mounted hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detectors can be used in this system to radiologically characterize soil. The operational and performance characteristics, as well as the strengths and limitations of each of these units, will be described. The isotopic information generated by this system can be made available to remediation project mangers within an hour after the completion of a scan to aid in determination of excavation footprints, segregation of contaminated soil and verification of contamination removal. The immediate availability of radiological characterization data made possible by this real-time scanning system has allowed Fluor Fernald to accelerate remediation schedules and reduce costs by avoiding excavation delays and expensive and time consuming

  17. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  18. Metal-ceramic composite coatings obtained by new thermal spray technologies: Cold Gas Spray (CGS) and its wear resistance; Recubrimientos de materiales compuestos metal-ceramico obtenidos por nuevas tecnologias de proyeccion termica: Proyeccion fria (CGS) y su resistencia al desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J. M.; Vizcaino, S.; Dosta, S.; Cinca, N.; Lorenzana, C.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, composite coatings composed by an aluminum bronze metal matrix and a hard ceramic alumina phase obtained by cold spray technique were obtained in order to increase the tribological properties of the pure bronze coatings. The different processes that occur during the coating formation (hardening of the metal particles, fragmentation of the ceramic particles, shot peening on the metal substrate, etc) are described and their effects on the coating properties are studied. Wear tests consisting on Ball-on-Disk tests, abrasion Rubber Wheel tests and erosion tests as well as microhardness and adhesion tests are carried out and the results are correlated with the ceramic phase content of the coatings. It can be concluded that the hard ceramic phase increases the tribological properties with relation of the initial bronze coating. Finally, main wear mechanisms during the tribological tests are described. (Author) 21 refs.

  19. Relationships of systemic IgG antibody response and lesions caused by Oestrus ovis L. larvae (Diptera: Oestridae in infected goats - Interacciones de la respuesta sistémica de anticuerpos IgG y las lesiones causadas por larvas de Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae en cabras infectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThis is the abstract, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae is a nasosinusalparasite of sheep and goats that affects the wellbeing andperformance of the hosts. Our objectives were (1 to analyzeassociations of host phenotypic characteristics (age, weight, sex, O.ovis larval characteristics, systemic antibody IgG response, andlesions in sinusal and horn cavities in naturally infected goats, and (2to estimate the serodiagnostic value of salivary gland antigens foroestrosis diagnosis by ELISA test in goats naturally exposed to O.ovis infection. O. ovis third-instar larvae (L3 were collected, thendissected to remove the salivary gland and to obtain the antigenssource (SGC. A total of 251 goats were necropsied. The host’sweight, age and sex were individually recorded. The sinusal and horncavities were examined for the presence of O. ovis larvae. Cavitarylesions and lesion intensity in infected goats (n=38 were scoredaccording to a severity table. Sera (n=125 were analyzed by ELISAto detect specific humoral IgG responses. Annual prevalence of goatoestrosis was 73.9%. A low positive association (r=0.38, P<0.05was observed between larval burden and severity of sinus lesions. Ingeneral, high sensitivity (90.82% and low specificity (25.93% wereobserved in ELISA. As conclusions, major pathological damages caused by O. ovis were associated with the presence of early L2 andearly L3 larvae, probably enhanced by larval molting. SGC antigenswere proven valuable antigens for oestrosis diagnosis by ELISA test ingoats.ResumenOestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae es un parásito nasosinusal de lascabras y las ovejas que afecta el bienestar y el rendimiento de sushospedadores. Nuestros objetivos fueron (1 analizar las asociacionesde características fenotípicas del hospedador (peso, sexo, edad,características larvarias de O. ovis, la respuesta de IgG, y las lesionesen las cavidades sinusales y cornuales de cabras infectadas, y (2estimar el valor de los antígenos de

  20. Approach to a system of removal of 131I of liquid discharges in a health unit of nuclear medicine using 127I as a reference standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 131I prepared as potassium iodide (KI) or sodium iodide (NaI) is given to patients to treat some diseases related to the thyroid gland, in doses of 15 to 30 mCi for hyperthyroidism and 100 to 300 mCi in treatments of thyroid cancer. Up to 80% of the administered activity is discarded by the patient through the body fluids over a period of 24 h; these radioactive waste must be controlled and accordingly the different countries based on radiological impact studies establishing maximum release rates. In Colombia, the Resolution 180005 2010 establishes 1000 Bq/day (2.7027x10-5 Ci /day), 10000 Bq/month (2.7027x10-4 mCi/month) or 100000 Bq/year (2.7027x10-3 mCi/year), this restriction requires implementing waste management methods generated by patients before discharge to the sewage networks. The method of retention of these wastes through tanks, without any treatment generates a high potential risk, therefore, this study shows three alternatives to remove the 131I in the amount of waste liquids, to generate a small solid residue in secure containers, allowing pouring fluids with radioactive traces without exceeding the limits. The sizing of the system applicable to nuclear medicine services depends on the workload of the service and combines the three methods described here by a control system, which does not require the direct intervention of staff, optimizing safety and radiation protection in the service. (author)

  1. Entrepreneurial orientation and corporate governance structures at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent B. Molokwu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate governance systems (CGS have been observed as one of the most important structures and mechanisms that regulate the relationships between executives and shareholders. By having well-defined and established CGS, company board members and executives are able to shape company vision and increase managerial commitment towards formulating strategies that espouse an entrepreneurial orientation (EO. Firms with high levels of EO tend to be innovative and encourage creative initiatives in new products and technology developments.Research purpose: In an emerging economy such as South Africa, one of the primary goals of an organisation is growth and good governance, which can be achieved through wellgoverned structures and continuous innovation in the face of challenges. This study identified potential links between the multidimensional constructs of CGS and EO at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry.Motivation for the study: One of the greatest challenges faced by organisations when implementing CGS is to ensure compliance.Research design, approach and method: Board members and senior decision-makers were surveyed in the South African oil and gas industry, using a structured questionnaire. A series of correlational analyses were used to determine the strength of relationships between the dimensions of EO and CGS.Main findings: By drawing extensively on existing theory on EO, this study found that the different dimensions of CGS have a significant and positive relationship with each of the EO dimensions – innovation, risk-taking and proactiveness.Practical/managerial implications: Corporate boards supportive of entrepreneurship must provide appropriate reward systems, top management support, explicit goals and appropriate organisational values which signal to employees that entrepreneurial behaviour action is desirable. Practitioners should scrutinise their governance structures in their organisations to ensure

  2. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  3. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying Syste

  4. Mental Health of Parents as Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Based on Japanese Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yui; Tamiya, Nanako; Moriyama, Yoko; Sandoval Garrido, Felipe Alfonso; Sumazaki, Ryo; Noguchi, Haruko

    2015-01-01

    The number of children with disability is increasing gradually in Japan. Previous researches in other countries have reported that parents as caregivers (CGs) of children with disability have mental health problems, but the actual situation has not been examined nationwide in Japan so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between mental health of CGs who had children with disability and characteristics of children, CGs, and household based on the nation-wide survey. This study utilized data from 2010 Comprehensive Survey of the Living Conditions, and defined children with disability aged 6 to 17. Individual data of children and CGs were linked, and 549 pairs of them were extracted. The Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) was used to assess mental health status of caregiver, scored 5 and over represented to general psychological distress. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. The almost half (44.4%) of CGs had psychological distress (k6 score; 5 +) in nationwide, and 8.9% of CGs might have serious mental illness (K6 score; 13 +). After adjusting covariates of child, CG, and household factors, CG having a current symptom (OR, 95% CI: 3.26, 1.97-5.39), CG's activity restriction (OR, 95% CI: 2.95, 1.38-6.32), low social support (OR, 95%CI: 9.31, 1.85-46.8), three generation family (OR, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.26-0.92), and lower 25% tile group of monthly household expenditure (OR, 95% CI:1.92, 1.05-3.54), were significantly associated with psychological distress of CGs. This study encourages health care providers to pay more attentions toward parent's mental health, especially for in case of having low social support, and lower income family. Further research should examine the detailed information of child's disease and disability, medical service use, and quality and quantity of social support in nationwide to straighten the system for supporting services of both children with disabilities and their CGs. PMID:26692344

  5. Systems autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

  6. Level and Chemical Composition of Cryoglobulins in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoyetsyan, Aren; Boyajyan, Anna; Melkumova, Maya

    The blood samples of 40 schizophrenic patients were tested for the presence of cryoglobulins (Cgs) and composition of Cgs was examined. The elevated levels of type III Cgs, containing complement components, were detected in all study subjects.

  7. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  8. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  9. Development of an aerial monitoring system in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power station located some 50 km to the northeast of Hong Kong has been in operation since 1994. The Hong Kong Observatory has implemented an Aerial Monitoring System (AMS) in October 1997 for rapid surveillance of the radiation levels in Hong Kong in the event of a severe accident occurring at the power station. Although Hong Kong is outside the Plume Emergency Planning Zone for the station, the AMS serves the useful purpose of dispelling rumors and reassuring the public that Hong Kong is not adversely affected by the plume even if there is a release. The Aerial Monitoring System, consisting of a NaI-based detector unit, a central control and a display unit, can be rapidly mounted and operated on board a Sikorsky S76A helicopter. The detector unit can be configured with either two 4.2 L NaI crystals or five 1.6 L crystals for plume tracking and ground contamination measurement respectively. The system, which is tailor-made according to the Observatory's technical specifications, has been special feature of being able to analyse, display and update the gamma radiation data (a 256 channel gamma ray spectrum) once every second. Positioning data of the helicopter are acquired once every second from the helicopter's Global Positioning System and radar altimeter. Radiation data together with positioning data can be displayed graphically to both the pilot and operator in real-time. A flight strategy for plume tracking has been developed based on remote detection, if any, of the location and extent of the radioactive contaminants without flying into the plume. For plume tracking, the helicopter typically cruises at altitudes of 500 meters with air speeds of about 100 km/h. In-flight displays of count-rates of full spectrum and count-rates of preset regions of interest can be updated once every second. When the AMS is operated in the ground contamination measurement mode, the helicopter will fly at a constant altitude of 100 meters above ground level with a

  10. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  11. Harbor systems; Kowan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, K.; Mitsuhashi, M. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-10

    Container terminals these days are required to be enlarged, automated in operation, and enhanced in reliability so that they can properly deal with ships growing larger in size and containers increasing in number. Stable supply of electric power and efficient monitor and control of the related equipment are very important in securing stabilized, continuous operation for such container terminals. Outlined in this report are the electrical equipment of a modern container terminal and the large-capacity voltage fluctuation compensation unit delivered by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., to West 5 Container Terminal, Nagoya Harbor. The electrical equipment of a terminal is a special high voltage reception/transformation facility capable of loop reception at 66kV. The 66kV cubicle type gas-insulated switch is provided with a current transformer for a sectionalized protection relay, current transformer for bus protection, and VCT bypass disconnector. The main transformer is a gas-insulated transformer, and a molded transformer is adopted for the special high voltage reception/transformation facility. The equipment monitor and control system employs a UNIX-base computer as the central processing system, and the information LAN is so designed as to be connectable to the Ethernet and P-link. 6 figs.

  12. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  13. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System Print A A ... body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  14. Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  15. Conceiving systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchins, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the development of innovative, robust design concepts for a class of systems called Information Decision Action (IDA) Systems. IDA systems are typified by Command and Control (C2) and Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) systems as used by police, emergency services and the military - the two titles refer respectively to the human activity and the technological systems. The class of systems is much wider, however, and includes, financial, traffi...

  16. System dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.

  17. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the “congruent” condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]); in the “incongruent” condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., ) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with “incongruent” items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects of

  18. The influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems on the acquisition of Mandarin word forms by native English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eHayes-Harb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of written input in second language (L2 phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers’ ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the ‘congruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]; in the ‘incongruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]. At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., 'xiu' were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group’s difficulty with ‘incongruent’ items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ] from the foils (e.g., [z], suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to

  19. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the "congruent" condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]); in the "incongruent" condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., ) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with "incongruent" items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects of orthographic

  20. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  1. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems'' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage. (orig.)

  2. Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 and Na17Au15.87(2)Ga46.63: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold 0 Cross Mark symmetries in the Na-Au-Ga system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, Volodymyr [Ames Laboratory; Corbett, John D.; Miller, Gordon J. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-08-29

    The Na-rich part (similar to 30% Na) of the Na-Au-Ga system between NaAu2, NaGa4, and Na(22)Ga39 has been found to contain the ternary phases NasAug(8)(4)Ga-7.2 (I) and NavAu(5.87(2))Ga46.63 (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a= 5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) A, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, a =16.325(2), c=35.242(7) A, and contains building blocks that are structurally. identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au-Ga and Au-Au bonds in I and by Ga-Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, 20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Nai(3)Aui(2)Gai(5) quasicrystal approximant. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stem system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajmardanova L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the stem cells from the point of view of systemic anatomy, where they are united into an entire stem system. This integration shows various advantages for better understanding the stem cells role in the body. Authors, considering functions and action mechanism of stem cells, phylogeny, ontogeny, regulation of functions, explain the base for stem cells system existance. The definition and terminology, age peculiarities, relationship with other systems of organs and differences are offered. The theoretical proof of primary-integrative role of stem system is provided for all other systems in body. Of particular importance is the role of stem system as a link between neural and endocrine systems. The work helps to sistematize data on investigations of stem cells, their entire-system perception, that will ease the goals determining for further research and their clinical use.

  4. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a undisturbed reactor operation, the various Auxiliary and Ancillary Systems must function perfectly with the Reactor Coolant System together. While the Auxiliary Systems are directly connected to the Reactor Coolant System and therefore have contact with the Reactor Coolant, the Ancillary Systems perform tasks which do not directly influence reactor operation and in part are necessary exclusively for environment protection. The design criteria of the individual systems are a result of these tasks, especially in relation to availability, operational readiness and probability of failure. (orig.)

  5. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lymph system is a network of organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that make and move lymph from tissues to the bloodstream. The lymph system is a major part of the body's immune ...

  6. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more...

  7. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  8. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  9. Approach to a system of removal of {sup 131}I of liquid discharges in a health unit of nuclear medicine using {sup 127}I as a reference standard; Planteamiento de un sistema de remocion de {sup 131}I de vertimientos liquidos en una unidad sanitaria de medicina nuclear empleando {sup 127}I como patron de referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Emeterio; Mayorga, Manuel A., E-mail: ecruzs@ecci.edu.co, E-mail: mmayorgab@ecci.edu.co [Escuela Colombiana de Carreras Industriales (ECCI), Grupo de Investigacion INDETECA (ECCI), Bogota (Colombia); Quiverio, Noelia M.; Villada, Julian D., E-mail: noelia.quiverio@estudiantes.uamerica.edu.co, E-mail: julian.villada@estudiantes.uamerica.edu.co [Fundacion Universidad de America, Grupo de Investigacion INDETECA (ECCI), Bogota (Colombia)

    2013-07-01

    The {sup 131}I prepared as potassium iodide (KI) or sodium iodide (NaI) is given to patients to treat some diseases related to the thyroid gland, in doses of 15 to 30 mCi for hyperthyroidism and 100 to 300 mCi in treatments of thyroid cancer. Up to 80% of the administered activity is discarded by the patient through the body fluids over a period of 24 h; these radioactive waste must be controlled and accordingly the different countries based on radiological impact studies establishing maximum release rates. In Colombia, the Resolution 180005 2010 establishes 1000 Bq/day (2.7027x10{sup -5} Ci /day), 10000 Bq/month (2.7027x10{sup -4} mCi/month) or 100000 Bq/year (2.7027x10{sup -3} mCi/year), this restriction requires implementing waste management methods generated by patients before discharge to the sewage networks. The method of retention of these wastes through tanks, without any treatment generates a high potential risk, therefore, this study shows three alternatives to remove the {sup 131}I in the amount of waste liquids, to generate a small solid residue in secure containers, allowing pouring fluids with radioactive traces without exceeding the limits. The sizing of the system applicable to nuclear medicine services depends on the workload of the service and combines the three methods described here by a control system, which does not require the direct intervention of staff, optimizing safety and radiation protection in the service. (author)

  10. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit

  11. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  12. An Overview of the Integrated Crate Interrogation System (ICIS) for use at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Crate Interrogation System (ICIS) was developed for use at the Savannah River Site to assay transuranic waste in large containers. The system comprises a Box Segmented Gamma Scanner (BSGS) providing high resolution gamma spectroscopy, and a Box Neutron Assay System (BNAS) providing passive neutron counting capability. The multi-modality approach is taken where the assay results from the gamma and neutron systems are combined to complement each other in satisfying Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria. This paper gives an overview of the system that has been built, factory calibrated, and delivered to the site. The BSGS is similar to a standard Canberra Segmented Gamma Box Counter, but with the addition of a transmission option for ascertaining density and rudimentary fill-height information. This supplements the Multi-Curve approach based on efficiency in energy and density. The BSGS has a moving trolley which travels on rails through a passive emission counting station using large BEGe detectors, and a transmission counting station using NaI detectors in conjunction with high- and low-beam transmission stages. The assay result provides information on the Pu, Am and/or U isotopic ratios using standard isotopic analysis codes, quantitative measurement of Pu and U for low and medium density matrices, and direct measurement of other gamma emitters in the waste that are not identified in the isotopic measurement. It also provides basic positional information to improve the accuracy of both the gamma and the neutron measurement. The BNAS is a passive neutron coincidence counter intended for use with multiplicity counting of items of various geometries. The counter utilizes 320 3He filled proportional counters arranged in a 4 π geometry about the assay cavity and divided into 80 counting channels. The assay result provides the 240Pu-effective mass with which the gamma isotopic measurement is combined to provide reliable reporting of Pu and other

  13. Cryogenic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  14. Semiconductor detector systems (dE/dx and E) for the detection and mass identification of protons, deuterons, tritons, He3 and alpha particles in the 10 to 30-MeV energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -energy nuclear physics, such as increased resolution, improved mass identification, fast rise-time, and small size, will be discussed and demonstrated by comparison with NaI scintillation systems. (author)

  15. The Prognostic Value of a Four-Dimensional CT Angiography-Based Collateral Grading Scale for Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Weili; Tang, Huan; Han, Quan; Yan, Shenqiang; Zhang, Xiaocheng; Chen, Qingmeng; Parsons, Mark; Wang, Shaoshi; Lou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leptomeningeal collaterals, which affects tissue fate, are still challenging to assess. Four-dimensional CT angiography (4D CTA) originated from CT perfusion (CTP) provides the possibility of non-invasive and time-resolved assessment of leptomeningeal collateral flow. We sought to develop a comprehensive rating system to integrate the speed and extent of collateral flow on 4D CTA, and investigate its prognostic value for reperfusion therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods We retrospectively studied 80 patients with M1 ± internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who had baseline CTP before intravenous thrombolysis. The velocity and extent of collaterals were evaluated by regional leptomeningeal collateral score on peak phase (rLMC-P) and temporally fused intensity projections (tMIP) (rLMC-M) on 4D CTA, respectively. The cutoffs of rLMC-P and rLMC-M score for predicting good outcome (mRS score ≤ 2) were integrated to develop the collateral grading scale (CGS) (rating from 0–2). Results The CGS score was correlated with 3-months mRS score (non-recanalizers: ρ = -0.495, p = 0.01; recanalizers: ρ = -0.671, p < 0.001). Patients with intermediate or good collaterals (CGS score of 1 and 2) who recanalized were more likely to have good outcome than those without recanalization (p = 0.038, p = 0.018), while there was no significant difference in outcome in patients with poor collaterals (CGS score of 0) stratified by recanalization (p = 0.227). Conclusions Identification of collaterals based on CGS may help to select good responders to reperfusion therapy in patients with large artery occlusion. PMID:27505435

  16. A systemic risk warning system

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Economists largely neglected systemic risk in the financial sector. This column discusses how governments should gather data about systemic risk and assess its implications. It says the new European Systemic Risk Board is far from the ideal – it is too big, too homogeneous, and lacks independence.

  17. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  18. Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all lev...

  19. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  20. Geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  1. Survey of the radiation by a car borne survey method and γ ray spectrometry by NaI detector in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami caused by the earthquake attacked the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant of TEPCO on March 11, 2011. A nuclear accident followed at an unprecedented scale and huge amounts of radioactive material were released into the environment. Distributions of dose rate in Fukushima prefecture were measured on April 18-21 and June 20-22, 2011 by a car borne survey method using a NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter. The gamma-ray spectrometry by a NaI(Tl) detector was also done at several points. Dose rate near Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP and at Iitate-mura, Fukushima-city was high (1 ∼ >30 μSv/h). So distribution of dose rate is uneven, further investigation is necessary. The gamma-ray peak of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were mainly detected in gamma-ray spectrum. (author)

  2. Flows in a rotor disk rim seal with a nonaxisymmetric mainstream; Hitaisho jikuryuchu no rotor disk rim seal nai no nagare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M. [Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, Shizuoka (Japan); Hasegawa, Y.; Kikuyama, K. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Daikoku, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-25

    An experimental investigation of fluid flows in a model of gas-turbine rotor disk rim seal has been carried out. The effects of outward throughflow and rotor speed were examined on the distributions of static pressure as well as velocity inside the rim seal when a mainstream was made nonaxisymmetric by stationary vanes. Measurements were made at the mainflow axial Reynolds number of 8.0 x 10{sup 4}. As a radially outward flow is forced to be generated on the rotor by centrifugal force, a radially inward flow due to a mainstream ingestion is originated on the stator of the rim seal when the throughflow rate is decreased beyond the critical value. Once the ingestion occurs locally, the static pressure is increased remarkably just behind the stationary vanes resulting in the circumferentially non-uniform distribution. But the ingestion is suppressed with the increasing throughflow rate and the static pressure distribution tends to be uniform. The critical throughflow rate was found to be about 0.8 times of the outward flow rate caused by a free disk. (author)

  3. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocho, S.; Mitsuishi, Y.; Inagaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S.; Mizusawa, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Holdup of O/W emulsion in a packed column for liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon; Tankasuiso no ekimaku bunri ni okeru jutento nai no emarushon horudo appu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egashira, R.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawasaki, J. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-07-10

    Liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon is an energy saving separation method that is expected of practical use. If the method uses a packed column, the holdup of O/W emulsion affects the effective contact area and residence time of the emulsion. Therefore, this paper describes an attempt to correlate the dynamic emulsion holdup in a packed column in liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon with property values of the emulsion and external oil phase, and operation variables. The experiment used a mixture of toluene + n - heptane + n - decane for oil phase in the O/W emulsion and saponin aqueous solution for liquid phase (liquid membrane phase). The packed column with an inner diameter of 37 mm used stainless steel McMahon packing. As a result of the experiment, the dynamic emulsion holdup showed a correlation according to the Reynolds number and Galilei number, regardless of whether the emulsion permeates the liquid membrane. The correlation made it possible to estimate in a simple manner the emulsion holdup in the packed column when this separation method is used. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Optimization of the catalytic converter internal flow by using 3D-CFD; Sanjigen nagare kaiseki ni yoru shokubai converter nai nagare no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toi, M.; Sugiura, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    By using computational fluid dynamics and statistical quality control method, we investigated the contribution of front and rear catalytic converter cone shape for the pressure loss and the partial flow, also led the optimal terms and the predictional formulations efficiently. According to this, we can investigate the optimal position of the catalytic converter from the planning. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. 由《埃及古代史》想到夏鼐%Thinking of the tripod of Xia Nai Dynasty from Ancient History of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖双

    2001-01-01

    买书不为阅读只为观赏的,恐怕只有两种人,要么是附庸风雅的暴发户,要么是家境殷实的藏书家。这两种人我都不是,却也有过一番类似的经历。汉译《埃及古代史》不过10万字,买回一两年至今尚未读毕,可它又是我从书架上取出次数最多的一本书,不时拿在手中把玩欣赏。对一本书产生这样的“感情”,在我是从未有过的。当时在旧书摊上发现它后的喜悦,仿佛现在还能感觉到。

  7. Smelting reactions in a copper flash furnace shaft with an oxygen concentrate burner. Junsanso seiko burner wo mochiita jiyoro shaft nai hanno ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemori, N.; Akada, A.; Kondo, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    In order to develop oxygen flash smelting technologies for copper concentrates, the combustibility of concentrates was studied in industrial oxygen stream in terms of oxygen pressure, temperature, sulfur elimination, particle size and so on using a pilot scale Outokumpu flash smelting furnace of 1 t/h in copper concentrate smelting rate. Such smelting performances of oxygen flash smelting as dust generation and oxygen efficiency were compared with those of oxygen-enriched air (including nearly 35% O{sub 2}) flash smelting conducted in this study. As a result, copper concentrates offered the oxidation behavior based on a two-particle model even in oxygen flash smelting. No combustibility of concentrates was obstructed by adding non-self-combustibles in oxygen flash smelting, resulting in both better dust generation and oxygen efficiency. The great merit of the oxygen flash smelting was remarkably high oxygen efficiency, however, the dust generation was not always reduced in oxygen flash smelting. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Student Aids and BBCCS (B'nai B'rith Career and Counseling Service): A New Look at an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, S. Norman

    Approximately 95 percent of affiliated Jewish youth attend college. Much is happening in student aid today that will probably affect parents and their children. Issues of importance include: (1) legal considerations; (2) sources of financial aid; (3) applying for financial aid; (4) state and federal programs of financial aid; (5) sources of…

  9. A key physical mechanism for understanding the enigmatic linear polarization of the solar BaII and NaI D1 lines

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The linearly polarized spectrum of the solar limb radiation produced by scattering processes is of great diagnostic potential for exploring the magnetism of the solar atmosphere. This spectrum shows an impressive richness of spectral details and enigmatic Q/I signals, whose physical origin must be clearly understood before they can be exploited for diagnostic purposes. The most enduring enigma is represented by the polarization signals observed in the D1 resonance lines of Na I (5896 A) and Ba II (4934 A), which were expected to be intrinsically unpolarizable. The totality of sodium and 18% of barium have hyperfine structure (HFS), and it has been argued that the only way to produce a scattering polarization signal in such lines is through the presence of a substantial amount of atomic polarization in their lower HFS levels. The strong sensitivity of these long-lived levels to depolarizing mechanisms led to the paradoxical conclusion that the observed D1-line polarization is incompatible with the presence in ...

  10. A method for improving the efficiency of proton microprobe profiling of strontium in otoliths using a vacuum compatible NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precision of proton microprobe measurements of Sr in otoliths by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been improved significantly by use of a large area low resolution NaI(Tl) detector. This is achieved by scanning the sample simultaneously with a high resolution Si(Li) detector to measure the main constituent Ca and to confirm the absence of other elements in the counting window used by the large area detector. In our experimental setup the count rate for Sr was improved by a factor of 30. We took advantage of this to improve precision and achieve higher sample throughput in studies of diadromous fish, i.e. those whose life cycles may include both marine and freshwater stages

  11. Investigation and evaluation of soil pollution with oil products in the most intensively used territories of gaižiūnai military training groun

    OpenAIRE

    Vasarevičius, Saulius; Greičiūtė, Kristina; Šiaulytė, Edita

    2005-01-01

    Pastaruoju metu Lietuvoje ypač aktuali aplinkos taršos problema. Daug dėmesio skiriama teršalų šalinimui iš teritorijų, kuriose ir praeityje, ir pastaruoju metu vyksta aktyvi karinė veikla. Buvusiose įvairios paskirties karinėse bazėse ir specialios paskirties karinėse teritorijose aptinkama organinėmis medžiagomis (nafta ir jos produktais) labai užterštų dirvožemio plotų. Paviršinis dirvožemis yra viena iš pirmųjų gamtinių sistemų, tiesiogiai veikiama bet kokio lygio taršos, jame kaupiasi te...

  12. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  13. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  14. Monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent relates to monitoring systems for, and a method of monitoring, industrial process plants or apparatus. The system monitors a plurality of data signals representing a number of parameters of a plant or apparatus. One application of the invention is in nuclear reactors for the detection of fault conditions. (U.K.)

  15. cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    6.1 Cardiac arrhythmias 2006037 Electroanatomical systems guided circumferential pulmonary veins ablation for atrial fibrillation: initial experience from comparison between the EnSite -NavX and CARTO system LIU Xu(刘旭 ), et al. Dept Cardiol, Shanghai Chest Hosp, Shanghai, 200030, China. Chin J Cardiol 2005; 33 (22): 975 -978.

  16. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  17. Power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  18. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  19. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  20. Proceedings of OttawaGeo 2007 : the Diamond Jubilee 60. Canadian Geotechnical Conference and 8. Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference : Breaking Ground in the Nation's Capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for more than 600 delegates from industry, government universities and research centres to share their professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. Accomplishments in the geoenvironmental field were also highlighted. The geotechnical themes included buried structures; cold region engineering; computer modelling; earthquake engineering; engineering geology; foundation engineering; landfills and contaminated sites; mining geotechniques and the environment; slope stability/landslides; unsaturated soils; geosynthetics; problematic soils; rock mechanics; soil dynamics and liquefaction; and, soil-structure interactions. The hydrogeology themes included applications of geophysics to hydrogeology; aquifer case studies; hydrogeology of the Canadian Shield; hydrogeology of the Great Lakes Basin and St. Lawrence Lowlands; quantitative performance assessment of contaminant remediation; radioactive waste management; and, source water protection. The conference featured more than 320 presentations, of which 35 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Implantación mediante Soporte Digital de un Sistema de Gestión de Calidad acorde con la Norma UNE-EN ISO 9001:2000 en la Empresa de Puertas CGS S.A

    OpenAIRE

    Navazo García, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo consigue simular la implantación de un sistema de Gestión de la Calidad en una empresa de puertas sustituyendo la manera tradicional a través del soporte papel por un soporte digital, de manera que se mejora la eficacia en la administración de la información. De esta manera se lograrán beneficios en 5 aspectos:  Reducción de los trabajos administrativos.  Reducción de documentación en soporte papel.  Mayor efectividad en la Gestión.  Realización de una...

  2. Gamma ray detector optimization for mobile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Research and Development Administration supports a program enabling a rapid response to situations requiring a mobile, detection-at-a-distance capability for locating lost or stolen nuclear materials. For this application, man-portable, vehicular-borne, and airborne detection systems are used. For gamma ray detection, NaI detectors are usually used. Because weight is a serious constraint, many systems employ unshielded detectors. Results of optimization studies to determine a suitable thickness for 12.7 cm diameter NaI detectors that are commonly used in these applications are presented

  3. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  4. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  5. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  6. Physical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belkind, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a physical system, this book offers a new philosophical interpretation of classical mechanics and the Special Theory of Relativity. According to Belkind's view the role of physical theory is to describe the motions of the parts of a physical system in relation to the motions of the whole. This approach provides a new perspective into the foundations of physical theory, where motions of parts and wholes of physical systems are taken to be fundamental, prior to spacetime, material properties and laws of motion. He defends this claim with a constructive project, deriving b

  7. Creative systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    At udvikle systemer har altid været et væsentligt element i den arkitektoniske skabelsesproces. Systemer er ikke nødvendigvis begrænsninger, men kan ses som positive faktorer i skabelses og fremstillinsprocessen. Center for Industriel Arkitektur, Cinark, har afholdt en international konference, en...... workshop og en udstilling under overskriften; Creative Systems. Artiklen præsenterer de fire oplægsholdere Matilda McQuaid, Mark West, Stephen Kieran og Ludger Hovestadt og en række diskussionstemaer....

  8. The systems integration modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system (SIMS), an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) and its interface with waste generators. It's use for evaluations in support of system-level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system-preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented. SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations

  9. The climatology of lightning producing large impulse charge moment changes with an emphasis on mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Nicholas

    The use of both total charge moment change (CMC) and impulse charge moment change (iCMC) magnitudes to assess the potential of a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning stroke to induce a mesospheric sprite has been well described in literature. However, this work has primarily been carried out on a case study basis. To complement these previous case studies, climatologies of regional, seasonal, and diurnal observations of large-iCMC discharges are presented. In this study, large-iCMC discharges for thresholds > 100 and > 300 C km in both positive and negative polarities are analyzed on a seasonal basis using density maps of 2o by 2o resolution across the conterminous U.S. using data from the Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN). Also produced were local solar time diurnal distributions in eight different regions covering the lower 48 states as well as the Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf Stream. In addition, National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) cloud-to-ground (CG) flash diurnal distributions were included. The seasonal maps show the predisposition of large positive iCMCs to dominate across the Northern Great Plains, with large negative iCMCs favored in the Southeastern U.S. year-round. During summer, the highest frequency of large positive iCMCs across the Upper Midwest aligns closely with the preferred tracks of nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). As iCMC values increase above 300 C km, the maximum shifts eastward of the 100 C km maximum in the Central Plains. The Southwestern U.S. also experiences significant numbers of large-iCMC discharges in summer, presumably due to convection associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM). The Gulf Stream is active year round, with a bias towards more large positive iCMCs in winter. Diurnal distributions in the eight regions support these conclusions, with a nocturnal peak in large-iCMC discharges in the Northern Great Plains and Great Lakes, an early- to mid-afternoon peak in the Intermountain West and the

  10. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  11. Avionics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Soundar Rajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Avionics’ systems, over the decades, have grown from simple communication radios and navigation equipments to complex integrated equipments primarily infiuenced by dominance of digital technology. Continuous growth in integrated circuit technology, functional integration of complete system on chip, very high speed communication channels and fault tolerant communication protocols have brought remarkable advancements in avionics systems. Further Mechanical and Pneumatic functional blocks are being replaced by digital systems progressively and decisively. New generation aircraft are being built around powerful avionics assets to provide stress free cockpit to the pilot.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.129-130, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4269

  12. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and...... its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all levels of cognition as large real world digital environments (such as the Internet) usually are too complex...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  13. AEG System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The AEG System is used to create, revise, approve, and distribute text of the AEGS and Flight Standard Board (FSB)/Type Rating Report. The MMEL specifies under what...

  14. System zeros

    OpenAIRE

    Smagina, Ye. M.

    2006-01-01

    The present book is the first publication in English considered the modern problems of control theory and analysis connected with a concept of system zeros. The previous book by Ye.M. Smagina (1990) had been written in Russian and it is inaccessible to English speaking researchers. The purpose of the offered book is to systematize and consistently to state basic theoretical results connected with properties of multivariable system zeros. Different zeros definitions and different types of zero...

  15. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  16. Systems Thinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, Magnus; Shipp, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Systems Thinkers presents a biographical history of the field of systems thinking, by examining the life and work of thirty of its major thinkers. It discusses each thinker's key contributions, the way this contribution was expressed in practice and the relationship between their life and ideas. This discussion is supported by an extract from the thinker's own writing, to give a flavour of their work and to give readers a sense of which thinkers are most relevant to their own interests. ...

  17. Systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity, the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the U.S.A. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated Bioenergy Systems (IBS) Activity of IEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the U.S.A. and the U.K. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modelling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from techno-economic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the U.S.A. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review 8 refs, 10 tabs

  18. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  19. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  20. Systemic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  1. Memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, David A; Budson, Andrew E

    2010-08-01

    Converging evidence from patient and neuroimaging studies suggests that memory is a collection of abilities that use different neuroanatomic systems. Neurologic injury may impair one or more of these memory systems. Episodic memory allows us to mentally travel back in time and relive an episode of our life. Episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, other medial temporal lobe structures, the limbic system, and the frontal lobes, as well as several other brain regions. Semantic memory provides our general knowledge about the world and is unconnected to any specific episode of our life. Although semantic memory likely involves much of the neocortex, the inferolateral temporal lobes (particularly the left) are most important. Procedural memory enables us to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and algorithms that operate at an automatic, unconscious level. Damage to the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area often impair procedural memory. PMID:22810510

  2. Turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  3. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...... data from computation, allowing for decidable type checking. The data level is LF [Robert Harper, Furio Honsell, and Gordon Plotkin. A framework for defining logics. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 40(1):143-184, January 1993], which allows for the specification of deductive systems...

  4. Kreative systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2007-01-01

    Artikel med eksempler på armerede teglhvælv produceret i hængende tekstiler ud fra kædebueprincipper og inspireret af Eladio Dieste. Beskriver desuden konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems på KA september 2007......Artikel med eksempler på armerede teglhvælv produceret i hængende tekstiler ud fra kædebueprincipper og inspireret af Eladio Dieste. Beskriver desuden konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems på KA september 2007...

  5. Computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  6. Communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a survey of the field of data communication. The topics covered are: Types of communication, protocols, communication control systems, communication equipment and techniques, and types of data nets. Further, some of the data nets in use today, and the techniques applied in their implementation, are described. The intent of the paper is not to give an in-depth analysis of the various data communication techniques; rather, to describe the principles and problems involved in the construction of a state-of-the-art communication system. (Auth.)

  7. Lindenmayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Juha

    The theory of Lindenmayer systems studies free monoid morphisms, free monoid substitutions and their iterations. In this chapter, we discuss similar ideas in a more general framework. Instead of a free monoid, we consider the free semi-algebra S consisting of polynomials with non-commuting variables in Σ and coefficients in a semiring S and we study the iteration of endomorphisms of S. We allow various modes of iteration and we consider various classes of morphisms. Classical L systems are obtained as special cases by taking S to be the Boolean semiring. Our approach also generalizes the theory of algebraic series in noncommuting variables.

  8. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  9. Neuromodulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eWerner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We examine the interactions and interdependencies between Neuroglia, the Brain-Cell Microenvironment, and the processes commonly subsumed under Neuromodulation. The interactions of the component processes covering a wide spectrum of frequencies are designated as Neuromodulatory Systems (NMS. This implies NMS's scale-invariance as the capacity of linking actions across many time scales, and self-similarity at any scale. These features endow NMS with the ability to respond adaptively to neural impulse traffic of an unpredictably wide frequency spectrum. In this preliminary perspective, the components of NMS are only outlined based on concepts of Complex Systems Dynamics. However, their interactions must be formally elaborated in further investigations.

  10. Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  11. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  12. Superpave System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Superpave is the acronym for 'SUperior PERforming Asphalt PAVEments' system. It was developed by Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) to give highway engineers and contractors the tools they need to design asphalt pavements that will perform better under extremes of temperature and heavy traffic loads.

  13. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  14. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  15. Hierarchical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis addresses the long-term dynamical evolution of hierarchical multiple systems. First, we consider the evolution of orbits of stars orbiting a supermassive black hole (SBH). We study the long-term evolution and compute tidal disruption rates of stars by the SBH. Such disruption events revea

  16. QU Carinae: Supernova Ia in the making?

    CERN Document Server

    Kafka, Stella; Williams, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Variable NaI absorption lines have been reported in a number of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa). The presence of this circumstellar material suggests that cataclysmic variables (CVs) with a giant donor star may be the progenitors of these SNeIa (Patat et al. 2007). We present echelle spectra of the CV QU Carinae which strengthen the connection between CVs of the V Sge class, the Accretion Wind Evolution scenario, variable wind features, variable NaI absorption, and SNIa. This thread not only provides insight into the spectral peculiarities of QU Car, but also links SNeIa as a class with their parent systems.

  17. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  18. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This is a manual investigating the subject of urban ecology and systemic development from the perspective of architectural design. It sets out to explore two main goals: to discuss the contemporary relevance of a systemic practice to architectural design, and to share a toolbox of informational...... design protocols developed to describe the city as a territory of self-organization. Collecting together nearly a decade of design experiments by the authors and their practice, ecoLogicStudio, the book discusses key disciplinary definitions such as ecologic urbanism, algorithmic architecture, bottom......-up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto...

  19. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented

  20. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  1. Navigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ocepek, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we present different navigation systems which may be used also in surveying. Map as a basis of navigation is described at the beginning. Next, we focus on navigation based on celestial bodies. We present basic terms such as navigation and orientation and describe some primitive methods, which had been used for orientation without compass. We present two important time keeping instruments that facilitated the process of position determination, the chronometer and chronograph, an...

  2. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  3. Systems paleobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Andrew Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Systems paleobiology seeks to interpret the history of life within the framework of Earth’s environmental history, using physiology as the conceptual bridge between paleontological and geochemical data sets. In some cases, physiological performance can be estimated directly and quantitatively from fossils—this is commonly the case for vascular plant remains. In other instances, statistical inferences about physiology can be made on the basis of phylogenetic relationships. Examples from resear...

  4. Italgrip System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The ever increasing number of registered vehicles has resulted in, up until the present time, a parallel increase in the number of road accidents. One of the reasons for this is that the quality of the road surface has not adequately kept pace with the increased volume of traffic. The Italgrip System increases skid resistance, reduces hydroplaning risk, reduces noise, and reduces salt consumption and can be applied to asphalt, concrete, or steel surfaces. It has been applied to several roadwa...

  5. Neuromodulatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Gerhard; Mitterauer, Bernhard J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the interactions and interdependencies between Neuroglia, the Brain-Cell Microenvironment, and the processes commonly subsumed under Neuromodulation. The interactions of the component processes covering a wide spectrum of frequencies are designated as Neuromodulatory Systems (NMS). This implies NMS's scale-invariance as the capacity of linking actions across many time scales, and self-similarity at any scale. These features endow NMS with the ability to respond adaptively to neural...

  6. Neuromodulatory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard eWerner; Mitterauer, Bernhard J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We examine the interactions and interdependencies between Neuroglia, the Brain-Cell Microenvironment, and the processes commonly subsumed under Neuromodulation. The interactions of the component processes covering a wide spectrum of frequencies are designated as Neuromodulatory Systems (NMS). This implies NMS's scale-invariance as the capacity of linking actions across many time scales, and self-similarity at any scale. These features endow NMS with the ability to respond adaptively ...

  7. Organizational Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Kirk A. Astroth: So...You Want to Serve on The NAE4-HA Board! Marilyn Corbin: Diversity in Action: Promising Practices of CASD. Teresa Hogue: Can Extension Programs Afford Not to Invest in Business Plans? Dallas L. Holmes: FOCIS an Extension Web-Based Accountability in Action Reporting System. Maureen Hosty: 4-H Wildlife Stewards- Unleashing the Force and Vitality of Communities. Beverly Kelbaugh: Identifying Professional Development Needs of Extension Personnel. Jane E. Keyser: Property Tax ...

  8. Modular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the Earth and Planetary Sciences community plan to use the APS facility for a variety of applications. Each type of beam line described in the previous chapter offers a set of properties that are valuable for several applications. Therefore, each beam line will need to serve several different experiments. In addition many of the experiments will need more than one type of radiation. As a result, flexibility will be extremely important to the success of the program. In order to provide the required flexibility, we propose a system consisting of modules. Each module will be a rack on which there will be mounted all of the necessary instrumentation for a particular type of experiment. It will be designed so that it can be moved by crane from one beam line hutch to another or from staging area to beam line hutch and back. Each beam line, in turn, will be equipped to receive any of the various modules. There will be a simple arrangement for indexing each module on each beam line so that a minimum of alignment will be necessary when a module is installed. An example of a module would be an energy dispersive x-ray diffraction system consisting of adjustable fine slits, a sample mounting system with computer-driven translational and orientational alignment capabilities, telescopes for alignment, solid state detector, multichannel analyzer, computer, and the associated power supplies and electronics. Such a module would be suitable for high pressure-temperature diamond cell studies

  9. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  10. Systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N

    2016-06-25

    Tissue deposition of protein fibrils causes a group of rare diseases called systemic amyloidoses. This Seminar focuses on changes in their epidemiology, the current approach to diagnosis, and advances in treatment. Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common of these conditions, but wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is increasingly being diagnosed. Typing of amyloid fibrils, a critical determinant of therapy, has improved with the wide availability of laser capture and mass spectrometry from fixed histological tissue sections. Specific and accurate evaluation of cardiac amyloidosis is now possible using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac repurposing of bone scintigraphy tracers. Survival in AL amyloidosis has improved markedly as novel chemotherapy agents have become available, but challenges remain in advanced disease. Early diagnosis, a key to better outcomes, still remains elusive. Broadening the amyloid-specific therapeutic landscape to include RNA inhibitors, fibril formation stabilisers and inhibitors, and immunotherapeutic targeting of amyloid deposits holds promise to transform outcomes in systemic amyloidoses. PMID:26719234

  11. Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe--its origins, evolution, distribution, and future. It brings together the physical and biological sciences to address some of the most fundamental questions of the natural world: How do living systems emerge? How do habitable worlds form and how do they evolve? Does life exist on worlds other than Earth? As an endeavor of tremendous breadth and depth, astrobiology requires interdisciplinary investigation in order to be fully appreciated and examined. As part of a concerted effort to undertake such a challenge, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 as an innovative way to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions. Now that the NAI has been in existence for almost a decade, the time is ripe to assess its achievements. At the request of NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Committee on the Review of the NASA Astrobiology Institute undertook the assignment to determine the progress made by the NAI in developing the field of astrobiology. It must be emphasized that the purpose of this study was not to undertake a review of the scientific accomplishments of NASA's Astrobiology program, in general, or of the NAI, in particular. Rather, the objective of the study is to evaluate the success of the NAI in achieving its stated goals of: 1. Conducting, supporting, and catalyzing collaborative interdisciplinary research; 2. Training the next generation of astrobiology researchers; 3. Providing scientific and technical leadership on astrobiology investigations for current and future space missions; 4. Exploring new approaches, using modern information technology, to conduct interdisciplinary and collaborative research among widely distributed investigators; and 5. Supporting outreach by providing scientific content for use in K-12 education programs, teaching undergraduate classes, and

  12. Ration System

    OpenAIRE

    Vymazalova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of rations can be found in documents from different period of the Egyptian history but the general features of the ration system is not easy to trace. Most of the sources are the more or less fragmentary lists of wages/payments that reflect various conditions, such as status of the recipients, period to which the payment corresponds etc, that are not always known to us. Other documents provide us with categories of allowances ascribed to the workmen and officials who particip...

  13. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  14. Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  15. Scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved transversally cutting radionuclide scanning system is described which can be used for medical diagnosis and medical treatment of men, particularly, for brain investingations. 99mTc43 is named as a radionuclide. The device described is more sensitive, and displays results in a shorter period of time than devices known until now. By means of laser emitting diodes a continuous transmission and collection of signals is obtained, due to a rotating picture framework of offset and meshing detectors surrounding completely the scanning field around a single rotation axis - coaxialy with the axis of the head. Signals are processed and displayed by a connected computer. Description in detail, 7 figures. (UWI)

  16. Sterilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  17. Linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bourlès, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe

  18. Radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention discloses a radiographic system comprising an X-ray source disposed to direct an X-ray beam through an adjustable shutter aperture in an aligned collimator and onto an image receptor in a holder located at a preselected distance from the source; and automatic means for preventing an X-ray exposure until prescribed operating conditions have been satisfied, the automatic means including a readily interchangeable read-only-memory module for storing the prescribed conditions therein and ascertaining whether or not the prescribed conditions have been met

  19. System update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laser Experiments Analysis Facility consists of two DEC computers - PDP-11/34 and a VAX/VMS-11/780; and a Perkin-Elmer 1010GM microdensitometer - a photodigitizing system (PDS). The PDP-11/34 is a dedicated machine used to control the PDS, and the VAX is used for storage and analysis of ICF data and for general purpose computing. A one-way, fiber-optic link connects the LEAF VAX to the Nova VAX for transfer of shot data. Over the past year, major improvements were made in the hardware, system software, and applications codes. The VAX hardware was modernized by the addition of two high-speed tape drives and four Winchester disks. The disks have a combined capacity of over 4 gigabytes. A number of special peripherals were also added: an array processor, an IBM Personal Computer (PC), a Versatec Random Element Processor (REP), a high-resolution color monitor, and two 1000-line-per-minute Versatec printer/plotters. Currently on order is an upgrade to the VAX central processing unit (CPU) that will increase its computing speed by about 50%

  20. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  1. Nuva - System (**)

    OpenAIRE

    BAYIRLI, Gündüz

    2013-01-01

    «Nuva-fil», «Nuva-seal» ve «Nuva-lite» dan oluşan maddeler ve apareye fabrika tarafından «Nuva-system» adı verilmiştir.«Nuva-seal» bir fissür koruyucusudur; «Nuva-fil» bir kompozit dolgu maddesidir; «Nuva-lite» ultraviyole ışını sağlayan bir apareydir."Nuva-seal» ve «Nuva-fil» bu güne kadar kullanılan dolgu maddelerinden şu nokta da ayrılırlar : Her ikisi de yalnız ultraviyole ışığı etkisiyle sertleşmektedir. «Nuva-seal» asit etkisinde kalan mineye bağlanır; «Nuva-fil» «Nuva-seal» in üzerinde...

  2. Quantum systems as classical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cassa, A

    2001-01-01

    A characteristical property of a classical physical theory is that the observables are real functions taking an exact outcome on every (pure) state; in a quantum theory, at the contrary, a given observable on a given state can take several values with only a predictable probability. However, even in the classical case, when an observer is intrinsically unable to distinguish between some distinct states he can convince himself that the measure of its ''observables'' can have several values in a random way with a statistical character. What kind of statistical theory is obtainable in this way? It is possible, for example, to obtain exactly the statistical previsions of quantum mechanics? Or, in other words, can a physical system showing a classical behaviour appear to be a quantum system to a confusing observer? We show that from a mathematical viewpoint it is not difficult to produce a theory with hidden variables having this property. We don't even try to justify in physical terms the artificial construction ...

  3. Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Kelm, P; Kelm, Paola Focardi & Birgit

    2002-01-01

    Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxy catalogue (Falco 1999) we have identified 291 compact groups (CGs) with redshifts between 1000 and 10000 km/s. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Triplets display kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higher order CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute low velocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population and are typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multiplets show higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and are generally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating that Triplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond to different galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilst Multiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected or collapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selection effects can only partially account for differences, but significant contamination of Triplets...

  4. ARES: automated response function code. Users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ARES user's manual provides detailed instructions for a general understanding of the Automated Response Function Code and gives step by step instructions for using the complete code package on a HP-1000 system. This code is designed to calculate response functions of NaI gamma-ray detectors, with cylindrical or rectangular geometries

  5. ARES: automated response function code. Users manual. [HPGAM and LSQVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maung, T.; Reynolds, G.M.

    1981-06-01

    This ARES user's manual provides detailed instructions for a general understanding of the Automated Response Function Code and gives step by step instructions for using the complete code package on a HP-1000 system. This code is designed to calculate response functions of NaI gamma-ray detectors, with cylindrical or rectangular geometries.

  6. Measurement of radiocesium concentration in trees using cumulative gamma radiation dose rate detection systems - A simple presumption for radiocesium concentration in living woods using glass-badge based gamma radiation dose rate detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, T.; Hashida, S.N. [Plant Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Science, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 1646 Abiko, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Kawachi, N.; Suzui, N.; Yin, Y.G.; Fujimaki, S. [Radiotracer Imaging Gr., Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagao, Y.; Yamaguchi, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium from the severe accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on 11 March 2011 contaminates large areas. After this, a doubt for forest products, especially of mushroom, is indelible at the areas. Pruned woody parts and litters are containing a considerable amount of radiocesium, and generates a problem at incineration and composting. These mean that more attentive survey for each subject is expected; however, the present survey system is highly laborious/expensive and/or non-effective for this purpose. On the other hand, we can see a glass-badge based gamma radiation dose rate detection system. This system always utilized to detect a personal cumulative radiation dose, and thus, it is not suitable to separate a radiation from a specific object. However, if we can separate a radiation from a specific object and relate it with the own radiocesium concentration, it would enable us to presume the specific concentration with just an easy monitoring but without a destruction of the target nature and a complicated process including sampling, pre-treatment, and detection. Here, we present the concept of the measurement and results of the trials. First, we set glass-badges (type FS, Chiyoda Technol Corp., Japan) on a part of bough (approximately 10 cm in diameter) of Japanese flowering cherry trees (Prunus x yedoensis cv. Somei-Yoshino) with four different settings: A, a direct setting without any shield; B, a setting with an aluminum shield between bough and the glass-badge; C, a setting with a lead shield between bough and the glass-badge; D, a setting with a lead shield covering the glass-badge to shut the radiation from the surrounding but from bough. The deduction between the amount of each setting should separate a specific radiation of the bough from unlimited radiation from the surrounding. Even if the hourly dose rate is not enough to count the difference, a moderate cumulative dose would clear the difference. In fact, results demonstrated a

  7. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  8. Chem systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that world styrene demand, paced by a near doubling of combined requirements in East Asia and Oceania, could reach 19.3 million metric tons by 2000, an average growth rate of 3.7%/year. So concludes Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., in a study of world styrene markets through the end of the century. Pacific Rim styrene production and consumption throughout the 1990s are predicted to make up increasingly larger shares of world markets, while demand and production lag in the U.S. and western Europe. Demand and capacity in other parts of the world will grow in real terms, increasing combined market shares only slightly. Most of the increase will be driven by demand in East Asia and Oceania, where consumption by century's end is expected to increase 4.48 million metric tons from 2.25 million tons in 1991. Meantime, Japan's styrene demand in 2000 is projected at 2.64 million tons, a 500,000 ton increase from 1991 demand but a net market loss of 1.9%

  9. [Systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborrini, Giorgio; Distler, Meike; Distler, Oliver

    2008-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a severe fibrotic multiorgan connective tissue disease. Vascular abnormalities such as fingertip ulcers and Raynaud's syndrome as well as involvement of organs including the lungs, heart, kidney and the gastrointestinal tract are prominent features of the disease. There are currently no disease modifying drugs available that can modify the course of the disease. In this review we will discuss medications that have been found to be effective in improving specific organ involvement due to SSc. For the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), proton pump inhibitors are effective agents. In the setting of clinically significant gastrointestinal dysmotility, metoclopramide, erythromycin and octreotide may be beneficial. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth should be treated with oral antibiotics. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are the first-line agents for acute renal crisis. A variety of treatment options are available for Raynaud's phenomenon and include calcium channel blockers, iloprost (i. v.), losartan, fluoxetine and sildenafil. Fingertip ulcers can be prevented by using the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan. The therapeutic options for treatment of pulmonary hypertension associated with SSc include bosentan, sildenafil and various prostacyclin analogs (eg, epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost). Sitaxentan, ambrisentan and new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors could be new options for therapy as well. Therapeutic options for interstitial lung fibrosis include cyclophosphamide, however, clinical effects are mild to moderate. Methotrexate has been used to treat skin fibrosis and can be beneficial when arthritis is present. PMID:18552072

  10. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  11. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fluid control systems — pneumatic (using air) and hydraulic (using fluid). Pneumatic control. These systems: compress air ... control than friction systems are less effective than hydraulic systems. Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually ...

  12. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Lew, D.; Kumar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  13. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  14. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  15. Mining for normal galaxies in the First XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakakis, A; Georgantopoulos, I; Koulouridis, E; Leonidaki, I; Mercado, A; Plionis, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses the 1st XMM Serendipitous Source Catalog compiled by the XMM Science Center to identify low-z X-ray selected normal galaxy candidates. Our sample covers a total area of ~6deg^2 to the 0.5-2keV limit 1e-15cgs. A total of 23 sources are selected on the basis of low X-ray-to-optical flux ratio logfx/fopt1e-15cgs). We estimate a slope of -1.46\\pm0.13 for the cumulative number counts consistent with the euclidean prediction. We further combine our sample with 23 local (z<0.2) galaxies from the CDF North and South to construct the local X-ray luminosity function of normal galaxies. A Schechter form provides a good fit to the data with a break at logL*~41.02cgs and a slope of -1.76\\pm0.10. Finally, for the sample of 46 systems we explore the association between X-ray luminosity and host galaxy properties, such as SFR and stellar mass. We find that the L_X of the emission-line systems correlates with Ha luminosity and 1.4GHz radio power, both providing an estimate of the current star-formation rate...

  16. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  17. Symmetries, Groups, Groupoids and Systems of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, E.; Karcanias, N.; Hessami, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algebraic model of systems based on the concept of symmetry that can be instrumental in representing Systems of Systems two main characteristics, namely complexity and (hierarchical) emergence.

  18. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  19. Paradigms of Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU

    2007-01-01

    This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent systems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make acquaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent systems). We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent systems combine paradigms because they are ma...

  20. Effects of adenosine A2a receptor agonist and antagonist on cerebellar nuclear factor-kB expression preceded by MDMA toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanian, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Pourheydar, Bagher; Samzadeh-Kermani, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Farzaneh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that has a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. The amphetamine derivative (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliated emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential of damage to brain neurons. The NF-kB family of proteins are ubiquitously expressed and are inducible transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in disparate processes such as immunity and ingrowth, development and cell-death regulation. In this study we investigated the effects of the A2a adenosine receptor (A2a-R) agonist (CGS) and antagonist (SCH) on NF-kB expression after MDMA administration. Methods: Sixty three male Sprague–Dawley rats were injected to MDMA (10 and 20mg/kg) followed by intraperitoneal CGS (0.03 mg/kg) or SCH (0.03mg/kg) injection. The cerebellum were then removed forcresylviolet staining, western blot and RT- PCR analyses. MDMA significantly elevated NF-kB expression. Our results showed that MDMA increased the number of cerebellar dark neurons. Results: We observed that administration of CGS following MDMA, significantly elevated the NF-kB expression both at mRNA and protein levels. By contrast, administration of the A2a-R antagonist SCH resulted in a decrease in the NF-kB levels. Conclusion: These results indicated that, co-administration of A2a agonist (CGS) can protect against MDMA neurotoxic effects by increasing NF-kB expression levels; suggesting a potential application for protection against the neurotoxic effects observed in MDMA users. PMID:25678999

  1. Comparison of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply and compare the preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to solve the linear system equation that arises in the two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in this paper. Several subroutines are developed on the basis of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in the transport theory. These generalized conjugate gradient methods are used: TFQMR (transpose free quasi-minimal residual algorithm) CGS (conjugate gradient square algorithm), Bi-CGSTAB (bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm) and QMRCGSTAB (quasi-minimal residual variant of bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm). These subroutines are connected to computer program DORT. Several problems are tested on a personal computer with Intel Pentium CPU. The reasons to choose the generalized conjugate gradient methods are that the methods have better residual (equivalent to error) control procedures in the computation and have better convergent rate. The pointwise incomplete LU factorization ILU, modified pointwise incomplete LU factorization MILU, block incomplete factorization BILU and modified blockwise incomplete LU factorization MBILU are the preconditioning techniques used in the several testing problems. In Bi-CGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR and QMRCGSTAB method, we find that either CGS or Bi-CGSTAB method combined with preconditioner MBILU is the most efficient algorithm in these methods in the several testing problems. The numerical solution of flux by preconditioned CGS and Bi-CGSTAB methods has the same result as those from Cray computer, obtained by either the point successive relaxation method or the line successive relaxation method combined with Gaussian elimination

  2. Information Systems in the Polish Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Murowaniecki, Łukasz; Woźniacki, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on computerised information systems responsible for payment information exchange in Polish payment system. Firstly some terms, connected with the topic of funds transfer system, are ordered. Then, relying on the taxonomy, the paper presents a comprehensive view of domestic payment system.

  3. Geoinformation Systems as Automated Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Pavlov

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes geoinformation systems (GIS) development as management systems, highlights the basic principles of decision-making in GIS, describes GIS storage systems and decision-making systems, discloses the use of GIS for the territory management and briefly describes the use of GIS for transport management and monitoring.

  4. Geoinformation Systems as Automated Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Pavlov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes geoinformation systems (GIS development as management systems, highlights the basic principles of decision-making in GIS, describes GIS storage systems and decision-making systems, discloses the use of GIS for the territory management and briefly describes the use of GIS for transport management and monitoring.

  5. Understanding Patterns for System of Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazman, Rick; Schmid, Klaus; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård;

    2013-01-01

    Architecting systems of systems is well known to be a formidable challenge. A major aspect in this is defining the integration among the systems that constitute the system of systems. In this paper, we aim to support the SoS architect by systematically developing a way to characterize system of...... systems integration patterns. These characteristics at the same time support the architecting process by highlighting important issues a SoS architect needs to consider. We discuss the consolidated template and illustrate it with an example pattern. We also discuss the integration of this novel pattern...

  6. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  7. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  8. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  9. Systems design of long-life systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  10. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B. M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hainiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the geometric structures associated with thermodynamic properties). These systems, both energy-preserving and irreversible, are then used to analyze the loss-lessness of these systems with respect to ...

  11. Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Digestive System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Digestive System Print A ... flush we were talking about! Dig That Digestive System You can help your digestive system by drinking ...

  12. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  13. Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  14. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  15. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  16. Integrated library systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

  17. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  18. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX); Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  19. The MAST data acquisition system - system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new data acquisition (DA) system has been developed for the MAST experiment at Culham. It has also been implemented on the COMPASS experiment as a replacement for the old PDP-11 based data acquisition system and as a test bed for MAST. The DA system is distributed across a number of computers with a DA process for each distinct diagnostic system. An object-orientated approach is taken to the control and readout of each device in the system. It is designed to be independent of the hardware interfaces used on each diagnostic. The system is flexible enough to cope with diagnostics ranging from those involving simple time evolving signals to complex spectrometers, and will incorporate a new high speed distributed timing system. This system is also being considered as the interface to the real time Plasma Control system on MAST. A distributed scheduling system is used to co-ordinate the activity of each DA process with the Central Control system for each experiment. This paper describes the architecture of this data acquisition system with particular emphasis on the core of the data acquisition system. Aspects of distributed implementation of the system on real diagnostics are discussed in a companion paper

  20. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  1. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received of the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; the first version was issued in July 1979. (author)

  2. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received by the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made

  3. Comparison of sodium iodide and solid-state detectors for the measurement of lung-stored uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of measurement of uranium sources were made, using a solid state detector consisting of 4 high-purity germanium detectors, and compared with measurements made with a single NaI detector. The comparative efficiencies at various energies are shown. As energy increases the differences in efficiencies increase in favour of NaI. A estimate of detection sensitivity gave the limit of error on the net count of a subject with one maximum permissible lung burden as 27 +- 7.2 counts/min for NaI and 3.73 +- 1.04 counts/min for the solid state detector. On a microgram basis the respective limits of error are +- 66 and +- 67 μg. It is concluded that solid state detectors can give 17 times better resolution compared with NaI while maintaining the same detection sensitivity. Sensitivity is related to the scatter of higher energy gammas into a fairly wide energy range. This 17-fold improvement in resolution results in a narrower energy range in which the scattered radiation can fall. Thus gamma analysis with such a system would be less subject to background errors. (author)

  4. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  5. [X-33 Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  6. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government. The...... Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  7. Immune System as a Sensory System

    OpenAIRE

    Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This...

  8. Operating System Performance Analyzer for Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzada Khayyam Nisar; Maqsood Ahmed; Huma Ayub; Iram Baig

    2011-01-01

    RTOS provides a number of services to an embedded system designs such as case management, memory management, and Resource Management to build a program. Choosing the best OS for an embedded system is based on the available OS for system designers and their previous knowledge and experience. This can cause an imbalance between the OS and embedded systems. RTOS performance analysis is critical in the design and integration of embedded software to ensure that limits the application meet at runti...

  9. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    ShabnamNoorani,; Sharmila Gaikwad Rathod

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusio...

  10. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  11. Game Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Spits Warnars

    2010-01-01

    In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizations' performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will ...

  12. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  13. Instrumentation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains instrumentation control system, which mentions summary, basic theory, kinds, control device, and design of each instrumentation system. The contents of this book are introduction of instrumentation system, temperature detector, pressure sensor, flow detector, level detector, ingredient detector, signal convert and transmission, instructions, record and control of instrumentation system, PID controller control valve of instrumentation system, instrumentation equipment of water system, instrumentation facility of thermal power plant, examples of advance instrumentation facility and install and design of instrumentation system.

  14. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  15. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  16. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering o

  17. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  18. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three areas of work are reported: (1) the development of the Analogue Ring Detector; (2) other instrument development; and (3) instrument applications. The analogue ring design calculations and measurements were made for a single slice NaI(Tl) detector PC Ring. Detector material other than NaI was evaluated for the analogue ring design. Design studies for a high resolution detector using BGO were made and a high data rate detector using CsF is being designed. The design concept for PC Ring uses BGO rather than NaI as a detector material. Subsequent studies indicated that it is also the preferred design for NaI(Tl). The design of PC ring is complete to the computer interface. Layout of the electronics boards including preamplifier, position sensing, and coincidence logic is complete. Testing of the partially assembled detector will begin September 1. Initial design studies for a 50 cm diameter, high-resolution BGO analogue ring were made. Monte-Carlo studies of stopping power, spatial resolution, and light spread function were made. Measurements were made with a 4 PM tube section using 3 BGO detector elements and two types of PM tubes. The detector elements were polished and coated with reflective paint. The spatial resolution measured with the RCA S83012E PM tubes was 3.9 mm FWHM for events greater than 400 keV. Preliminary design studies were made for a high data rate CsF analogue ring detector. The goal is for 1 cm resolution using 2.8 cm diameter PM tubes. Measurements using CsF have not yet been made. Summaries of the clinical applications of the positron instrument are included. Applications include CNS, Cardiovascular, and pulmonary imaging studies

  19. Information Systems: Towards a System of Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Majd; Abel, Marie-Helene

    2015-01-01

    International audience Information Systems are viewed as a set of services creating a workflow of information directed to specific groups and members. This allows individuals to share ideas and their talents with other members. In such manner , tasks can be carried out both efficiently and effectively. Due to the nature of Information Systems that revolves around creating information useful to users , and in some higher forms of Information Systems creating knowledge , management of inform...

  20. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  1. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  2. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  3. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  4. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  5. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  6. Intelligent test integration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  7. Collaborative Systems Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  8. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  9. Manned systems technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  10. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  11. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  12. Immune System Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  13. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  14. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  15. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  16. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  17. Photovoltaic systems test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Facility provides broad and flexible capability for evaluating photovoltaic systems and design concepts. As 'breadboard' system, it can be used to check out complete systems, subsystems, and components before installation in actual service.

  18. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  19. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  20. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  1. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  2. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks

  3. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  4. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  5. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  6. RECURSIVE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Fu Chen

    2009-01-01

    Most of existing methods in system identification with possible exception of those for linear systems are off-line in nature, and hence are nonrecursive.This paper demonstrates the recent progress in recursive system identification.The recursive identifi-cation algorithms are presented not only for linear systems (multivariate ARMAX systems) but also for nonlinear systems such as the Hammerstein and Wiener systems, and the non-linear ARX systems.The estimates generated by the algorithms are online updated and converge a.s.to the true values as time tends to infinity.

  7. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  8. Aeronautical Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  9. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  10. Airports Geographic Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  11. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  12. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  13. Expert system modeling of a vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihani, Kamran; Thompson, Wiley E.

    1992-05-01

    The proposed artificial intelligence-based vision model incorporates natural recognition processes depicted as a visual pyramid and hierarchical representation of objects in the database. The visual pyramid, with based and apex representing pixels and image, respectively, is used as an analogy for a vision system. This paper provides an overview of recognition activities and states in the framework of an inductive model. Also, it presents a natural vision system and a counterpart expert system model that incorporates the described operations.

  14. Test System Impact on System Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the...... system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  15. Risk-based systems configuration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the work done in the frame of the Research Contract No. 6993/RB - ''Risk based systems configuration monitoring system'' part of the coordinated programme ''Development of safety related expert systems''. The aim of this contract was to develop the prototype of an expert system based on PSA technology to be use for controlling the plant systems configuration taking into account the risk. The software prototype implementation was done using Visual Basic language, under Windows environment. The implemented prototype has the following features: store data/knowledge about components and human factor; store data/knowledge about the plant system and systems components, providing facilities to modify/search data/knowledge, based on the general knowledge; generate the logic model of the system; provide minimal cut sets and path sets determination; provide information to be used by the user for configuration risk management; provide user friendly interface (graphical interface under windows). The prototype can be independently used as an operator support system or for other on-line or off-line applications. After the testing of the prototype, some of the conclusions are: the developed software can be one of the most useful tools to be used by designers, PSA analysts, operators and regulatory for evaluation of the safety and reliability of the plant systems; the structure of the General Knowledge Base included into the prototype offers the possibility to combine knowledge introduced by different users. This feature can be the basis for the development of a knowledge acquisition system; the developed software and methodology can offer the basis for the risk-based data collection system development. (author). 12 refs, 30 figs

  16. Engine Auxiliary System Guideline: Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kela, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was done for Wärtsilä Technical Services organization. The assignment was to consolidate a guideline for cooling systems as an engine auxiliary system covering the Wärtsilä 4-stroke engines currently in production. The guideline was to include information considering both marine and power plants installations. The sources of information were internal documentation from Wärtsilä, literature review and discussions with Wärtsilä cooling system experts. The guideline includes informati...

  17. Forming different planetary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Lin Zhou; Ji-Wei Xie; Hui-Gen Liu; Hui Zhang; Yi-Sui Sun

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples,the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer.In this review,we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations,and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation,especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars.Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems,we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs:hot Jupiter systems,standard systems and distant giant planet systems.The standard systems can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances:solar-like systems,hot Super-Earth systems,and subgiant planet systems.We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

  18. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  19. L-system fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Jibitesh

    2007-01-01

    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  20. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section