WorldWideScience

Sample records for cgmp-activated cation conductance

  1. Use of a material conducting hydrogen cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A.T.; Shilton, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The invention concerns a separator conducting hydrogenous for electrical devices, which contains at least one compound with the formula H(UO 2 )PO 4 x nH 2 O, H(UO 2 )AsO 4 x nH 2 O or H(UO 2 )IO 4 (OH) 2 x nH 2 O, where not more than 50% by weight of the H + is replaced by one or more cations, such as Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + , Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ , Sr 2+ , Pb 2+ , Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Mn 2+ or Al 3+ . The electrical device having the separator can be an electrolysis cell, for example, an electro chromium cell. (H x WO 3 ), a hydrogen isotope enrichment device, a proton-sensitive electrode (eg for a pH meter), a battery or a fuel cell. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Cationic Polymers Inhibit the Conductance of Lysenin Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fologea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-assembles large and stable conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes. The lysenin channels exhibit unique regulation capabilities, which open unexplored possibilities to control the transport of ions and molecules through artificial and natural lipid membranes. Our investigations demonstrate that the positively charged polymers polyethyleneimine and chitosan inhibit the conducting properties of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. The preservation of the inhibitory effect following addition of charged polymers on either side of the supporting membrane suggests the presence of multiple binding sites within the channel's structure and a multistep inhibition mechanism that involves binding and trapping. Complete blockage of the binding sites with divalent cations prevents further inhibition in conductance induced by the addition of cationic polymers and supports the hypothesis that the binding sites are identical for both multivalent metal cations and charged polymers. The investigation at the single-channel level has shown distinct complete blockages of each of the inserted channels. These findings reveal key structural characteristics which may provide insight into lysenin’s functionality while opening innovative approaches for the development of applications such as transient cell permeabilization and advanced drug delivery systems.

  3. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.

    1996-05-01

    Understanding the structure - conductivity relationship is of paramount importance for the development of polymer electrolytes. The present studies present the techniques found useful in the elucidation of structure - conductivity relationship in PEO n :ZnBr 2 (n = 8, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000) and PEO n :FeBr x (n= 8, 20 and 50; x = 2 and 3). Local structural studies have been undertaken using X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) which includes extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). EXAFS provides interatomic distance and coordination numbers of the nearest neighbours and results from the EXAFS studies showed that high conductivity is associated with stretched M - O interatomic distance. In the studies on ultra dilute Zn samples it was found that the cation is highly solvated by the heteroatom forming a tightly bound environment which inhibits local segmental motion thus impeding ion migration. XANES studies on the PEO and modified PEO complexes of NiBr 2 revealed the sensitivity of XANES to the structural differences. XANES on Zn and Fe samples also revealed the sensitivity to changes in interatomic distances reflected in shifts of the white line. The complementary nature of EXAFS and XANES was reflected in the studies conducted. Morphological studies were undertaken employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature polarising microscopy (VTPM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO 8 :FeBr 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle

  4. Effects of Cationic Pendant Groups on Ionic Conductivity for Anion Exchange Membranes: Structure Conductivity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojeong; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Won Bo

    Anion exchange membranes(AEMs) have been widely studied due to their various applications, especially for Fuel cells. Previous proton exchange membranes(PEMs), such as Nafions® have better conductivity than AEMs so far. However, technical limitations such as slow electrode kinetics, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of metal catalysts, high methanol crossover and high cost of Pt-based catalyst detered further usages. AEMs have advantages to supplement its drawbacks. AEMs are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient. Based on the well-defined block copolymer, self-assembled morphology is expected to have some relationship with its ionic conductivity. Recently AEMs based on various cations, including ammonium, phosphonium, guanidinium, imidazolium, metal cation, and benzimidazolium cations have been developed and extensively studied with the aim to prepare high- performance AEMs. But more fundamental approach, such as relationships between nanostructure and conductivity is needed. We use well-defined block copolymer Poly(styrene-block-isoprene) as a backbone which is synthesized by anionic polymerization. Then we graft various cationic functional groups and analysis the relation between morphology and conductivity. Theoretical and computational soft matter lab.

  5. Electrochemical ion exchanger in the water circuit to measure cation conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, B.; Ingemarsson, R.; Settervik, G.; Velin, A.

    2010-01-01

    In Ringhals NPP, more than four years of successful operation with a full-scale EDI for the recycling of steam generator blow down (SGBD) gave the inspiration to modify and 'scale down' this EDI process. This with purpose to explore the possibilities to replace the cation exchanger columns used for cation conductivity analysis, with some small and integrated electrochemical ion-exchange cells. Monitoring the cation conductivity requires the use of a small cation resin column upstream of the conductivity probe and is one of the most important analyses at power plants. However, when operating with high alkaline treatment in the steam circuit, it's connected to the disadvantage of getting the resins rapidly exhausted, with needs to be frequently replaced or regenerated. This is causing interruptions in the monitoring and giving rise to high workload for the maintenance. This paper reports about some optimization and tests of two different two-compartment electrochemical cells for the possible replacements of cation resin columns when analyzing cation conductivity in the secondary steam circuit at Ringhals NPPs. Field tests during start up condition and more than four months of steady operation together with real and simulated test for impurity influences, indicates that a ELectrical Ion Echange process (ELIX) could be successfully used to replace the resin columns in Ringhals during operating with high pH-AVT (All Volatile Treatment), using hydrazine and ammonia. Installation of an ELIX-system downstream a particle filter and upstream of a small cation resin column, will introduce additional safety and further reduce the maintenance with possible interruptions. Performance of the ELIX-process together with other chemical additives (Morpholine, ETA, MPA, DMA) and dispersants, may be further evaluated to qualify the ELIX-process as well as SGBD-EDI for wider use in nuclear applications. (author)

  6. Correlation between the Increasing Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions of Cation Chlorides with Time and the “Salting-Out” Properties of the Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Verdel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent role of cations was investigated by ageing four different aqueous solutions of cation chlorides. A linear correlation was found between the cations’ Setchenov coefficient for the salting-out of benzene and the increase in the conductivity with time. The conductivity of the structure-breaking cations or the chaotropes increased more significantly with time than the conductivity of the kosmotropes. Since larger water clusters accelerate the proton or hydroxyl hopping mechanism, we propose that the structuring of the hydration shells of the chaotropes might be spontaneously enhanced over time.

  7. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, David, E-mail: emin@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  8. Divalent Cations Regulate the Ion Conductance Properties of Diverse Classes of Aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kourghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are known to facilitate water and solute fluxes across barrier membranes. An increasing number of AQPs are being found to serve as ion channels. Ion and water permeability of selected plant and animal AQPs (plant Arabidopsis thaliana AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, AtPIP2;7, human Homo sapiens HsAQP1, rat Rattus norvegicus RnAQP4, RnAQP5, and fly Drosophila melanogaster DmBIB were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined in chelator-buffered salines to evaluate the effects of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ on ionic conductances. AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, HsAQP1 and DmBIB expressing oocytes had ionic conductances, and showed differential sensitivity to block by external Ca2+. The order of potency of inhibition by Ca2+ was AtPIP2;2 > AtPIP2;1 > DmBIB > HsAQP1. Blockage of the AQP cation channels by Ba2+ and Cd2+ caused voltage-sensitive outward rectification. The channels with the highest sensitivity to Ca2+ (AtPIP2;1 and AtPIP2;2 showed a distinctive relief of the Ca2+ block by co-application of excess Ba2+, suggesting that divalent ions act at the same site. Recognizing the regulatory role of divalent cations may enable the discovery of other classes of AQP ion channels, and facilitate the development of tools for modulating AQP ion channels. Modulators of AQPs have potential value for diverse applications including improving salinity tolerance in plants, controlling vector-borne diseases, and intervening in serious clinical conditions involving AQPs, such as cancer metastasis, cardiovascular or renal dysfunction.

  9. Effects of cation contaminants in conductive TiO2 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M. F.; Rhodes, W. W.

    1982-12-01

    Ten cation contaminants, namely Al, Ga, Co, Fe, Mg, Zn, Zr, Ca, Sr, and Ba were investigated for their effects on the electrical properties, microstructures, and discoloration of conductive TiO2 ceramics. It was found that Al, Ga, Co, Fe, and Mg cause discoloration and increase the electrical resistivity by a factor of 104 to 106 in Nb-doped TiO2 ceramics. The other dopants do not introduce such changes in TiO2. The electrical properties, microstructures, and discoloration were measured in specimens of AlxNb0.007Ti0.993-xO2 with 0≤x≤0.01. When the Al content exceeds a critical value, ranging from 0.48% at 1400 °C to 0.25% at 1200 °C, the electrical resistivities and grain size increase rapidly, and the specimen is discolored from the original black to an ivory white color. Color boundary migration induced by Al diffusion in Nb-doped TiO2 was quantitatively measured. From the kinetics of the boundary migration, the Al diffusivity (D) was calculated to be D=2.67 exp(-53.3 kcal/mole/RT) cm2/s in the temperature range of 1200 to 1400 °C. The rapid diffusion of the small cations, namely Al, Ga, Co, Fe, and Mg, results from an interstitial diffusion mechanism. However, other cations, having a radius larger than the interstitial channel (˜0.77 Å radius), cannot diffuse by this mechanism. Defect reactions are proposed to explain the increase in the electrical resistivity and microstructural changes due to Al diffusion. These defect reactions also show that the problem of acceptor contamination cannot be avoided by adding an excess quantity of donor dopant if the solubility of the donor is much less than that of the acceptor contaminant.

  10. The ionic conductivity and local environment of cations in Bi9ReO17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.; Herranz, T.; Santos, B.; Marco, J.F.; Berry, F.J.; Greaves, C.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the structure of Bi 9 ReO 17 has been investigated using differential thermal analysis, variable temperature X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction. The material undergoes an order-disorder transition at ∼1000 K on heating, to form a fluorite-related phase. The local environments of the cations in fully ordered Bi 9 ReO 17 have been investigated by Bi L III - and Re L III -edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements to complement the neutron powder diffraction information. Whereas rhenium displays regular tetrahedral coordination, all bismuth sites show coordination geometries which reflect the importance of a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Because of the wide range of Bi-O distances, EXAFS data are similar to those observed for disordered structures, and are dominated by the shorter Bi-O bonds. Ionic conductivity measurements indicate that ordered Bi 9 ReO 17 exhibits reasonably high oxide ion conductivity, corresponding to 2.9x10 -5 Ω -1 cm -1 at 673 K, whereas the disordered form shows higher oxide ion conductivity (9.1x10 -4 Ω -1 cm -1 at 673 K). - Graphical abstract: The structure of Bi 9 ReO 17 is discussed and related to the ionic conductivity of the ordered and disordered forms.

  11. A Novel Method for the Determination of Membrane Hydration Numbers of Cations in Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafeen, M.J.M.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Polypyrrole polymer films doped with the large, immobile dodecy lbenzene sulfonate anions operating in alkali halide aqueous electroly tes has beenused as a novel physico-chemical environment to develop a more direct way of obtaining reliable values for the hydration numbers of cations. Simultane......Polypyrrole polymer films doped with the large, immobile dodecy lbenzene sulfonate anions operating in alkali halide aqueous electroly tes has beenused as a novel physico-chemical environment to develop a more direct way of obtaining reliable values for the hydration numbers of cations....... The number of water moleculesentering the polymer during the initial part of the first reduction was found to be constant and independent of the concentration of the electrolyte below ∼1 M. This well-defined value can be considered as the primarymembrane hydration number of the cation involved...... in the reduction process. The goal was to investigate both the effects of cation size and of cation charge. The membrane hydration number values obtained by this simple and direct method for a number of cations are: The hydration number for all of these cations seems to follow the same simple relation....

  12. DFT studies of all fluorothiophenes and their cations as candidate monomers for conductive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirani, Hossein, E-mail: shiranihossein@gmail.com [Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Toyserkan Branch, Toyserkan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameh-Bozorghi, Saeed [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ali [Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-22

    In this paper, electronic, structural, and properties of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrafluorothiophenes and their radical cations are studied using the density functional theory and B3LYP method with 6-311++G** basis set. Also, the effects of the number and position of the substituent of fluorine atoms on the properties of the thiophene ring have been studied using optimized structures obtained for these molecules and their radical cations; vibrational frequencies, spin-density distribution, size and direction of the dipole moment vector, ionization potential, electric Polarizabilities, HOMO–LUMO gaps and NICS values of these compounds have been calculated and analyzed.

  13. Electromembrane extraction of heavy metal cations followed by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Strieglerová, Lenka; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 9 (2011), s. 1025-1032 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA ČR GAP206/10/1219; GA AV ČR IAA400310703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * electromembrane extraction * heavy metal cations Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2011

  14. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Tomič, M.; Kučka, M.; Aguilera, G.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2016), s. 1576-1589 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : action potential * background sodium conductance * bursting activity * cation -conducting channels * cytosolic calcium concentration * resting membrane potential Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.286, year: 2016

  15. Structural vs. intrinsic carriers: contrasting effects of cation chemistry and disorder on ionic conductivity in pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriot, Romain; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the role of cation disorder on oxygen diffusion in Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) and Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 (GTO) pyrochlores, a class of complex oxides which contain a structural vacancy relative to the basic fluorite structure. The introduction of disorder has distinct effects depending on the chemistry of the material, increasing the mobility of structural carriers by up to four orders of magnitude in GZO. In contrast, in GTO, there is no mobility at zero or low disorder on the ns timescale, but higher disorder liberates the otherwise immobile carriers, allowing diffusion with rates comparable to GZO for the fully disordered material. Here, we show that the cation disorder enhances the diffusivity by both increasing the concentration of mobile structural carriers and their individual mobility. The disorder also influences the diffusion in materials containing intrinsic carriers, such as additional vacancies VO or oxygen interstitials OI. And while in ordered GZO and GTO the contribution of the intrinsic carriers dominates the overall diffusion of oxygen, OI in GZO contributes along with structural carriers, and the total diffusion rate can be calculated by assuming simple additive contributions from the two sources. Although the disorder in the materials with intrinsic defects usually enhances the diffusivity as in the defect-free case, in low concentrations, cation antisites AB or BA, where A = Gd and B = Zr or Ti, can act as traps for fast intrinsic defects. The trapping results in a lowering of the diffusivity, and causes a non-monotonic behavior of the diffusivity with disorder. Conversely, in the case of slow intrinsic defects, the main effect of the disorder is to liberate the structural carriers, resulting in an increase of the diffusivity regardless of the defect trapping.

  16. Electrical conductivity of pyroxene which contains trivalent cations: Laboratory measurements and the lunar temperature profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, J.S.; Duba, A.; Wiggins, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Three natural orthopyroxene single crystals, measured in the laboratory over the temperature range 850 0 --1200 0 C, are more than 1/2 order of magnitude more electrically conducting than previously measured crystals. Small concentrations (1--2%) of Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 present in these crystals may be responsible for their relatively high conductivity. Such pyroxenes, which contain trivalent elements, are more representative of pyroxenes expected to be present in the lunar mantle than those which have been measured by other investigators. The new conductivity values for pyroxene are responsible for a relatively large bulk conductivity calculated for (polymineralic) lunar mantle assemblages. The results permit a somewhat cooler lunar temperature profile than previously proposed. Such lower profiles, several hundred degrees Celsius below the solidus, are quite consistent with low seismic attenuation and deep moonquakes observed in the lunar mantle

  17. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An evaluation of soluble cations and anions on the conductivity and rate of flocculation of kaolins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Deborah Lee

    1998-10-01

    The focus of this project was to learn how ionic concentrations and their contributions to electric conductivity influence the flocculation behavior of kaolin/water suspensions. Sodium silicate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate were used as chemical additives. The specific surface areas, particle size distributions, and methylene blue indices for two kaolins were measured. The SSA and MBI for these kaolins indicated that they possessed inherent differences in SSA and flocculation behaviors. Rheological studies were also performed. Testing included simultaneous gelation, deflocculation, and pH tests. Viscosity, pH, temperature, and chemical additive concentrations were monitored at each point. Testing was performed at 45/55 wt% solids. Effects of additions of various levels of deflocculant and flocculant to each of the kaolin/water suspensions were studied by making several suspensions from each kaolin. The concentrations of dispersant, and flocculant levels and types were varied to produce suspensions with different chemical additive "histories," but all with similar final apparent viscosities. Slurry filtrates were analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature, and ion concentrations of (Al3+, Fe2+,3+, Ca 2+, Mg+, Na+, SO4 2--, and Cl--). Plastic properties were calculated to determine how variations in suspension histories affected conductivities, pH, and detectable ion contents of the suspensions. These analyses were performed on starting slurries which were under-, completely-, and over-deflocculated before further additions of flocculants and deflocculant were added to tune the slurries to the final, constant, target viscosity. Results showed that rates of flocculation and conductivities increased as concentrations of ions increased. By increasing conductivity correlations with increases in flocculation occurs, which yields higher rates of buildup, or RBU [1]. This is the single most important slip control property in the whitewares industry. Shear

  19. Atomistic detailed mechanism and weak cation-conducting activity of HIV-1 Vpu revealed by free energy calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siladitya Padhi

    Full Text Available The viral protein U (Vpu encoded by HIV-1 has been shown to assist in the detachment of virion particles from infected cells. Vpu forms cation-specific ion channels in host cells, and has been proposed as a potential drug target. An understanding of the mechanism of ion transport through Vpu is desirable, but remains limited because of the unavailability of an experimental structure of the channel. Using a structure of the pentameric form of Vpu--modeled and validated based on available experimental data--umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations (cumulative simulation time of more than 0.4 µs were employed to elucidate the energetics and the molecular mechanism of ion transport in Vpu. Free energy profiles corresponding to the permeation of Na+ and K+ were found to be similar to each other indicating lack of ion selection, consistent with previous experimental studies. The Ser23 residue is shown to enhance ion transport via two mechanisms: creating a weak binding site, and increasing the effective hydrophilic length of the channel, both of which have previously been hypothesized in experiments. A two-dimensional free energy landscape has been computed to model multiple ion permeation, based on which a mechanism for ion conduction is proposed. It is shown that only one ion can pass through the channel at a time. This, along with a stretch of hydrophobic residues in the transmembrane domain of Vpu, explains the slow kinetics of ion conduction. The results are consistent with previous conductance studies that showed Vpu to be a weakly conducting ion channel.

  20. A solid phase extraction-ion chromatography with conductivity detection procedure for determining cationic surfactants in surface water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowska, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-15

    A new analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of individual cationic surfactants (alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides) in surface water samples has been developed. We describe this methodology for the first time: it involves the application of solid phase extraction (SPE-for sample preparation) coupled with ion chromatography-conductivity detection (IC-CD-for the final determination). Mean recoveries of analytes between 79% and 93%, and overall method quantification limits in the range from 0.0018 to 0.038 μg/mL for surface water and CRM samples were achieved. The methodology was applied to the determination of individual alkyl benzyl quaternary ammonium compounds in environmental samples (reservoir water) and enables their presence in such types of waters to be confirmed. In addition, it is a simpler, less time-consuming, labour-intensive, avoiding use of toxic chloroform and significantly less expensive methodology than previously described approaches (liquid-liquid extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography with dual detection of the conductivity and spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of common inorganic anionic species and cations in river and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of common inorganic anionic species (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), phosphate and silicate) and cations (Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) were conducted using an ion-chromatography system with dual detection of conductivity and spectrophotometry in tandem. The separation of ionic species on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was accomplished using a mixture of 100 mM ascorbic acid and 4 mM 18-crown-6 as an acidic eluent (pH 2.6), after which the ions were detected using a conductivity detector. Subsequently, phosphate and silicate were analyzed based on derivatization with molybdate and spectrophotometry at 700 nm. The detection limits at S/N = 3 ranged from 0.11 to 2.9 µM for analyte ionic species. This method was applied to practical river water and wastewater with acceptable criteria for the anion-cation balance and comparisons of the measured and calculated electrical conductivity, demonstrating the usefulness of the present method for water quality monitoring.

  2. Influence of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes on the conductivity and morphology of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtakari, Dimitar, E-mail: dimitar.valtakari@abo.fi [Abo Akademi University, Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Center for Functional Materials at Biological Interfaces (FUNMAT), Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Åbo/Turku (Finland); Bollström, Roger [Omya International AG, CH 4665 Oftringen (Switzerland); Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J. [Abo Akademi University, Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Center for Functional Materials at Biological Interfaces (FUNMAT), Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Åbo/Turku (Finland)

    2015-09-01

    Conductivity of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) strongly depends on the film morphology, which can be altered by the presence of polyelectrolytes. Aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS was studied with anionic sodium polyacrylate (PA) and cationic poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) polyelectrolytes that are typically used in papermaking as retention aids and dispersing agents in the paper pigment coating formulations. Spin-coated PEDOT:PSS films on a PA coated glass formed non-uniform layers with lowered conductivity compared to the reference PEDOT:PSS films on a clean glass substrate. On contrary, spin-coated PEDOT:PSS on a pDADMAC coated glass formed uniform layers with good conductivity. These results point out the importance of surface chemistry when using renewable and recyclable paper-based substrates with the PEDOT:PSS films. - Highlights: • PEDOT:PSS polymer was studied in the presence of polyelectrolytes. • Uniform layers of PEDOT:PSS and polyelectrolytes were spin-coated on glass. • Cationic polyelectrolyte was found to be more susceptible to humidity. • Cationic polyelectrolyte improves the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS. • PEDOT:PSS forms non-uniform layers on anionic polyelectrolyte coated glass.

  3. Influence of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes on the conductivity and morphology of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtakari, Dimitar; Bollström, Roger; Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Conductivity of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) strongly depends on the film morphology, which can be altered by the presence of polyelectrolytes. Aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS was studied with anionic sodium polyacrylate (PA) and cationic poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) polyelectrolytes that are typically used in papermaking as retention aids and dispersing agents in the paper pigment coating formulations. Spin-coated PEDOT:PSS films on a PA coated glass formed non-uniform layers with lowered conductivity compared to the reference PEDOT:PSS films on a clean glass substrate. On contrary, spin-coated PEDOT:PSS on a pDADMAC coated glass formed uniform layers with good conductivity. These results point out the importance of surface chemistry when using renewable and recyclable paper-based substrates with the PEDOT:PSS films. - Highlights: • PEDOT:PSS polymer was studied in the presence of polyelectrolytes. • Uniform layers of PEDOT:PSS and polyelectrolytes were spin-coated on glass. • Cationic polyelectrolyte was found to be more susceptible to humidity. • Cationic polyelectrolyte improves the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS. • PEDOT:PSS forms non-uniform layers on anionic polyelectrolyte coated glass

  4. Hypoxia activates a Ca2+-permeable cation conductance sensitive to carbon monoxide and to GsMTx-4 in human and mouse sickle erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, David H; Xu, Chang; Shmukler, Boris E; Otterbein, Leo E; Trudel, Marie; Sachs, Frederick; Gottlieb, Philip A; Brugnara, Carlo; Alper, Seth L

    2010-01-15

    Deoxygenation of sickle erythrocytes activates a cation permeability of unknown molecular identity (Psickle), leading to elevated intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) and subsequent activation of K(Ca) 3.1. The resulting erythrocyte volume decrease elevates intracellular hemoglobin S (HbSS) concentration, accelerates deoxygenation-induced HbSS polymerization, and increases the likelihood of cell sickling. Deoxygenation-induced currents sharing some properties of Psickle have been recorded from sickle erythrocytes in whole cell configuration. We now show by cell-attached and nystatin-permeabilized patch clamp recording from sickle erythrocytes of mouse and human that deoxygenation reversibly activates a Ca(2+)- and cation-permeable conductance sensitive to inhibition by Grammastola spatulata mechanotoxin-4 (GsMTx-4; 1 microM), dipyridamole (100 microM), DIDS (100 microM), and carbon monoxide (25 ppm pretreatment). Deoxygenation also elevates sickle erythrocyte [Ca(2+)](i), in a manner similarly inhibited by GsMTx-4 and by carbon monoxide. Normal human and mouse erythrocytes do not exhibit these responses to deoxygenation. Deoxygenation-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in mouse sickle erythrocytes did not require KCa3.1 activity. The electrophysiological and fluorimetric data provide compelling evidence in sickle erythrocytes of mouse and human for a deoxygenation-induced, reversible, Ca(2+)-permeable cation conductance blocked by inhibition of HbSS polymerization and by an inhibitor of strctch-activated cation channels. This cation permeability pathway is likely an important source of intracellular Ca(2+) for pathologic activation of KCa3.1 in sickle erythrocytes. Blockade of this pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of sickle disease.

  5. Hypoxia activates a Ca2+-permeable cation conductance sensitive to carbon monoxide and to GsMTx-4 in human and mouse sickle erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Vandorpe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxygenation of sickle erythrocytes activates a cation permeability of unknown molecular identity (Psickle, leading to elevated intracellular [Ca(2+] ([Ca(2+](i and subsequent activation of K(Ca 3.1. The resulting erythrocyte volume decrease elevates intracellular hemoglobin S (HbSS concentration, accelerates deoxygenation-induced HbSS polymerization, and increases the likelihood of cell sickling. Deoxygenation-induced currents sharing some properties of Psickle have been recorded from sickle erythrocytes in whole cell configuration.We now show by cell-attached and nystatin-permeabilized patch clamp recording from sickle erythrocytes of mouse and human that deoxygenation reversibly activates a Ca(2+- and cation-permeable conductance sensitive to inhibition by Grammastola spatulata mechanotoxin-4 (GsMTx-4; 1 microM, dipyridamole (100 microM, DIDS (100 microM, and carbon monoxide (25 ppm pretreatment. Deoxygenation also elevates sickle erythrocyte [Ca(2+](i, in a manner similarly inhibited by GsMTx-4 and by carbon monoxide. Normal human and mouse erythrocytes do not exhibit these responses to deoxygenation. Deoxygenation-induced elevation of [Ca(2+](i in mouse sickle erythrocytes did not require KCa3.1 activity.The electrophysiological and fluorimetric data provide compelling evidence in sickle erythrocytes of mouse and human for a deoxygenation-induced, reversible, Ca(2+-permeable cation conductance blocked by inhibition of HbSS polymerization and by an inhibitor of strctch-activated cation channels. This cation permeability pathway is likely an important source of intracellular Ca(2+ for pathologic activation of KCa3.1 in sickle erythrocytes. Blockade of this pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of sickle disease.

  6. A cell shrinkage-induced non-selective cation conductance with a novel pharmacology in Ehrlich-Lettre-ascites tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawonn, Peter; Hoffmann, Else K; Hougaard, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    In whole-cell recordings on Ehrlich-Lettre-ascites tumour (ELA) cells, the shrinkage-induced activation of a cation conductance with a selectivity ratio P(Na):P(Li):P(K):P(choline):P(NMDG) of 1.00:0.97:0.88:0.03:0.01 was observed. In order of potency, this conductance was blocked by Gd(3+)=benzam......-sensitive and -insensitive channels. In addition, because of its pharmacological profile, it may possibly be related to epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs)....

  7. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO 2 + ) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO 2 + ; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO 2 + cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO 2 + species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO 2 + have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO 2 + cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + ·Th 4+ , PuO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 + ·Th 4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M -1

  8. Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil salinity, hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity and macro-nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif A. Al-Khamisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Agriculture Research Center, Oman during the year 2010/2011 to monitor the impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties after wheat, cowpea and maize cultivation (in rotation. Three different water sources (Groundwater (GW, desalinized water (DW, and Reclaimed Water (RW were used as the treatments in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with 3 blocks (replicates. Samples were taken from four depths (30, 45, 60 and 90 cm after harvesting time of the three crops. Soil salinity (ECe in all soil depths decreased with time. Organic carbon did not show significant difference between harvest timings of wheat and cowpea. Organic carbon increased with time in soil irrigated with reclaimed water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, Ksat didn’t show significant difference among the water types and their interaction with soil depths. Total nitrogen was the highest after cowpea harvest in reclaimed water irrigation. The soil phosphorus and potassium were not affected by any of the three water irrigation types. The highest concentrations of phosphorus and potassium were found to be in the upper soil layers. Overall, no adverse impacts of reclaimed water irrigation were observed after growing three crops of rotation.

  9. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1996-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  10. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1997-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  11. Surface Modification of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes with Cationic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Fundamental Interactions and Intercalation into Conductive Poly(methyl-methacrylate) Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Ezzeddine, Alaa

    2015-05-22

    This research investigates the modification and dispersion and of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a simple solution mixing technique based on noncovalent interactions between poly(phenylene ethynylene) based conjugated polyelectrolytes functionalized with cationic imidazolium solubilizing groups (PIM-2 and PIM-4) and MWCNTs. Spectroscopic studies demonstrated the ability of PIMs to strongly interact with and efficiently disperse MWCNTs in different solvents mainly due to π-interactions between the PIMs and MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the coating of the polyelectrolytes on the walls of the nanotubes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirm the homogenous dispersion of PIM modified MWCNTs in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The addition of 1 wt% PIM modified MWCNTs to the matrix has led to a significant decrease in DC resistivity of the composite (13 orders of magnitude). The increase in electrical conductivity and the improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of the membranes containing the PIM modified MWCNTs is ascribed to the formation of MWCNTs networks and cross-linking sites that provided channels for the electrons to move in throughout the matrix and reinforced the interface between MWCNTs and PMMA.

  12. Thermodynamics of self-assembling of mixture of a cationic gemini surfactant and sodium dodecylsulfate in aqueous solution: Calorimetry, conductivity and surface pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Guangyue; Wang, Yujie; Ding, Yanhong; Zhuo, Kelei; Wang, Jianji; Bastos, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ITC provided thermodynamic characterization of self-association of oppositely charged gemini/SDS surfactants. • Phase transitions and corresponding enthalpies were obtained by ITC. • The transitions reflect a change in morphology, supported by Cryo-TEM images. • Conductivity and ITC results show very good agreement. • An asymmetric distribution of surfactants in the aggregates is supported by results. - Abstract: The thermodynamics and phase behavior of mixtures of cationic gemini surfactant decanediyl-α,ω-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (12-10-12) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were studied in the dilute SDS-rich region. The enthalpy of interaction between both surfactant monomers before the critical micelle concentration for the mixture (cmc_m_i_x) was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). After the cmc_m_i_x, ITC results exhibited a first process associated with a large endothermic enthalpy change followed by a second one with a very small exothermic enthalpy change. In the same regions, the conductivity curves show an increase in slope after the break, followed by a plateau region, respectively for the two processes. The combined results from the various methodologies used lead us to propose that the first process reflects the formation of non-spherical micelles and the second one the vesicle formation. The area per catanionic complex was obtained through surface pressure measurements, leading to an apparent packing parameter ⩾1. The observed behavior may be rationalized on the basis of the hypothesis that both surfactants distribute asymmetrically in the vesicle bilayers and unevenly in the non-spherical micelle. In order to get structural information Cryo-TEM experiments were performed, which provided images that support this interpretation. From all the information gathered a phase diagram was mapped, including three one-phase regions of spherical micelles, non-spherical micelles and vesicles.

  13. Activation of a Ca2+-dependent cation conductance with properties of TRPM2 by reactive oxygen species in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckeis, Susanne; Wernecke, Laura; Salchow, Daniel J; Reichhart, Nadine; Strauß, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    Ion channels are crucial for maintenance of ion homeostasis and transparency of the lens. The lens epithelium is the metabolically and electrophysiologically active cell type providing nutrients, ions and water to the lens fiber cells. Ca 2+ -dependent non-selective ion channels seem to play an important role for ion homeostasis. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize Ca 2+ - and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent non-selective cation channels in human lens epithelial cells. RT-PCR revealed gene expression of the Ca 2+ -activated non-selective cation channels TRPC3, TRPM2, TRPM4 and Ano6 in both primary lens epithelial cells and the cell line HLE-B3, whereas TRPM5 mRNA was only found in HLE-B3 cells. Using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, ionomycin evoked non-selective cation currents with linear current-voltage relationship in both cell types. The current was decreased by flufenamic acid (FFA), 2-APB, 9-phenanthrol and miconazole, but insensitive to DIDS, ruthenium red, and intracellularly applied spermine. H 2 O 2 evoked a comparable current, abolished by FFA. TRPM2 protein expression in HLE-B3 cells was confirmed by means of immunocytochemistry and western blot. In summary, we conclude that lens epithelial cells functionally express Ca 2+ - and H 2 O 2 -activated non-selective cation channels with properties of TRPM2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of sodium cation-conducting Nax(MyL1-yO2 (M = Ni2+, Fe3+; L = Ti4+, Sb5+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques, F. M. B.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Na+-conducting ceramics of layered Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, Na0.8Fe0.8Ti0.2O2, Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2 (structural type O3 and Na0.68Ni0.34Ti0.66O2 (P2 type with density higher than 91% were prepared via the standard solid-state synthesis route and characterized by the impedance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, structure refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data, measurements of Na+ concentration cell e.m.f., and dilatometry. The conductivity of antimonate Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2, synthesized first time, was found lower than that of isostructural Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2 due to larger ion jump distance between Na+ sites. At temperatures above 420 K, transport properties of sodium cationconducting materials are essentially independent of partial water vapor pressure. In the low-temperature range, the conductivity reversibly increases with water vapor pressure varied in the range from approximately 0 (dry air up to 0.46 atm. The sensitivity to air humidity is influenced by the ceramic microstructure, being favored by increasing boundary area. The average thermal expansion coefficients of layered materials at 300-1173 K are in the range (13.7-16.0×10-6 K-1.Se han preparado cerámicas conductoras conteniendo Na+ de composición Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, Na0.8Fe0.8Ti0.2O2, Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2 (tipo estructural O3 y Na0.68Ni0.34Ti0.66O2 (tipo P2 con densidad mayor del 91%. Las vía de preparación fu la ruta de estandard de síntesis en estado sólido. Las composiciones se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía de impedancia, análisis térmico, microscopía electrónica de barrido, refinamiento de la estructura usando datos de difracción de rayos X en polvo, medidas de concentración de Na+, f.e.m. de la célula y dilatometría. La conductividad del antimoniate, sintetizado por primera vez, Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2, era menor que la del compuesto isoestructural Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2 debido a la mayor distancia de salto iónico entre las posiciones de Na

  15. Hypoxia activates a Ca2+-permeable cation conductance sensitive to carbon monoxide and to GsMTx-4 in human and mouse sickle erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    David H Vandorpe; Chang Xu; Boris E Shmukler; Leo E Otterbein; Marie Trudel; Frederick Sachs; Philip A Gottlieb; Carlo Brugnara; Seth L Alper

    2010-01-01

    Background: Deoxygenation of sickle erythrocytes activates a cation permeability of unknown molecular identity (Psickle), leading to elevated intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and subsequent activation of KCa 3.1. The resulting erythrocyte volume decrease elevates intracellular hemoglobin S (HbSS) concentration, accelerates deoxygenation-induced HbSS polymerization, and increases the likelihood of cell sickling. Deoxygenation-induced currents sharing some properties of Psickle have been recorded...

  16. The atypical cation-conduction and gating properties of ELIC underscore the marked functional versatility of the pentameric ligand-gated ion-channel fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is unique among ionotropic receptors in that the same overall structure has evolved to generate multiple members with different combinations of agonist specificities and permeant-ion charge selectivities. However, aside from these differences, pLGICs have been typically regarded as having several invariant functional properties. These include pore blockade by extracellular quaternary-ammonium cations in the micromolar-to-millimolar concentration range (in the case of the cation-selective members), and a gain-of-function phenotype, which manifests as a slower deactivation time course, as a result of mutations that reduce the hydrophobicity of the transmembrane pore lining. Here, we tested this notion on three distantly related cation-selective members of the pLGIC superfamily: the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and the bacterial GLIC and ELIC channels. Remarkably, we found that, whereas low millimolar concentrations of TMA+ and TEA+ block the nAChR and GLIC, neither of these two quaternary-ammonium cations blocks ELIC at such concentrations; instead, both carry measurable inward currents when present as the only cations on the extracellular side. Also, we found that, whereas lidocaine binding speeds up the current-decay time courses of the nAChR and GLIC in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonists, the binding of lidocaine to ELIC slows this time course down. Furthermore, whereas mutations that reduce the hydrophobicity of the side chains at position 9′ of the M2 α-helices greatly slowed the deactivation time course of the nAChR and GLIC, these mutations had little effect—or even sped up deactivation—when engineered in ELIC. Our data indicate that caution should be exercised when generalizing results obtained with ELIC to the rest of the pLGICs, but more intriguingly, they hint at the possibility that ELIC is a representative of a novel branch of the

  17. Tuning the optical bandgap in multi-cation compound transparent conducting-oxides: The examples of In2ZnO4 and In4Sn3O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Luiz N.; Wei, Su-Huai; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2018-02-01

    Transparent conducting oxides such as the bixbyite In2O3 and rutile SnO2 systems have large disparities between the optical and fundamental bandgaps, ΔEgO F , because selection rules forbid dipolar transitions from the top of the valence band to the conduction-band minimum; however, the optical gaps of multi-cation compounds with the same chemical species often coincide with their fundamental gaps. To explain this conundrum, we have employed density-functional theory to compute the optical properties of multi-cation compounds, In2ZnO4 and In4Sn3O12, in several crystal structures. We show that a recently proposed mechanism to explain the disparity between the optical and fundamental gaps of M2O3 (M = Al, Ga, and In) applies also to other binary systems and to multi-compounds. Namely, a gap disparity will arise if the following three conditions are satisfied: (i) the crystal structure has inversion symmetry; (ii) the conduction-band minimum is formed by the cation and O s-orbitals; and (iii) there is strong p-d coupling and weak p-p in the vicinity of the valence-band maximum. The third property depends critically on the cationic chemical species. In the structures with inversion symmetry, Zn (Sn) strengthens (weakens) the p-d coupling in In2ZnO4 (In4Sn3O12), enhancing (reducing) the gap disparity. Furthermore, we have also identified a In4Sn3O12 structure that is 31.80 meV per formula unit more stable than a recently proposed alternative model.

  18. Preparation and characterization of electrically conducting polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate cation-exchanger and its application as Mn(II ion selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Khan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate, an organic–inorganic composite cation-exchanger was synthesized via sol-gel mixing of an organic polymer, polypyrrole, into the matrices of the inorganic precipitate of Sn(IV phosphate. The physico-chemical properties of the material were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, CHN elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA–DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis–Differential Thermal Analysis, and XRD (X-ray diffraction. Ion-exchange behavior was observed to characterize the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for toxic heavy metal ion Mn2+. Due to its selective nature, the material was used as an electroactive component for the construction of an ion-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of mercury ion over several other inorganic ions. The analytical utility of this electrode was established by employing it as an indicator electrode in electrometric titrations for Mn(II in water.

  19. A short term NaCl exposure increases the Na+ conductance of outward-rectified cation currents in the pith cells of sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The regulatory role of pith cells in the stem in Na recirculation in sweet pepper was investigated by evaluating the transport characteristics of the plasma membrane of this cell type and comparison with those of root cells. Ion conductivity and Na permeability of the plasma membranes of protoplasts

  20. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  1. Hand drawing of pencil electrodes on paper platforms for contactless conductivity detection of inorganic cations in human tear samples using electrophoresis chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Cyro L S; Costa Duarte, Lucas; Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Piccin, Evandro; Dossi, Nicolò; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes for the first time the fabrication of pencil drawn electrodes (PDE) on paper platforms for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) on electrophoresis microchips. PDE-C(4) D devices were attached on PMMA electrophoresis chips and used for detection of K(+) and Na(+) in human tear samples. PDE-C(4) D devices were produced on office paper and chromatographic paper platforms and their performance were thoroughly investigated using a model mixture containing K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) . In comparison with chromatographic paper, PDE-C(4) D fabricated on office paper has exhibited better performance due to its higher electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the detector response was similar to that recorded with electrodes prepared with copper adhesive tape. The fabrication of PDE-C(4) D on office paper has offered great advantages including extremely low cost (paper). The proposed electrodes demonstrated excellent analytical performance with good reproducibility. For an inter-PDE comparison (n = 7), the RSD values for migration time, peak area, and separation efficiency were lower than 2.5, 10.5, and 14%, respectively. The LOD's achieved for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) were 4.9, 6.8, and 9.0 μM, respectively. The clinical feasibility of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated with the quantitative analysis of K(+) and Na(+) in tear samples. The concentration levels found for K(+) and Na(+) were, respectively, 20.8 ± 0.1 mM and 101.2 ± 0.1 mM for sample #1, and 20.4 ± 0.1 mM and 111.4 ± 0.1 mM for sample #2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Yu, Xuedi; Hickner, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In order to systematically study how the arrangement of cations on the side chain and length of alkyl spacers between cations impact the performance of multi-cation AEMs for alkaline fuel cells, a series of polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based AEMs with different cationic side chains were synthesized. This work resulted in samples with two or three cations in a side chain pendant to the PPO backbone. More importantly, the length of the spacer between cations varied from 3 methylene (-CH2-) (C3) groups to 8 methylene (C8) groups. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature, was observed for the triple-cation side chain AEM with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) spacers. The multi-cation AEMs were found to have decreased water uptake and ionic conductivity when the spacer chains between cations were lengthened from pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) to octyl (C8) linking groups. The triple-cation membranes with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) groups between cations showed greatest stability after immersion in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 500 h.

  3. Uranium isotope separation using styrene cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahovec, J.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of 235 U and 238 U isotopes is carried out either by simple isotope exchange in the system uranium-cation exchanger (sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene resin), or by combination of isotope exchange in a uranium-cation exchanger (Dowex 50, Amberlite IR-120) system and a chemical reaction. A review is presented of elution agents used, the degree of cation exchanger cross-linking, columns length, and 235 U enrichment. The results are described of the isotope effect study in a U(IV)-U(VI)-cation exchanger system conducted by Japanese and Romanian authors (isotope exchange kinetics, frontal analysis, reverse (indirect) frontal analysis). (H.S.)

  4. Isomerization of propargyl cation to cyclopropenyl cation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step) for isomeri- zation of the linear propargyl cation to ..... C3, C4 and C5. The ZPE corrections in each case are derived from the. B3LYP calculations. ..... the converse of which gives the relative capacity of the. LPD's to stabilize TS6 with respect ...

  5. Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: effect of cation type and aging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J A; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+), Ca(2+) or Na(+), respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for CaB and aging-induced structural reorganisation can enhance cross-link formation.

  6. Liquid-solid extraction of metallic cations by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfram; Sievers, Torsten K.; Zemb, Thomas; Diat, Olivier; Sievers, Torsten K.; Dejugnat, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In the field of selective metal ion separation, liquid-liquid extraction is usually conducted through an emulsion mixing of hydrophobic complexants dispersed in an organic phase and acidic water containing the ionic species. Recently, it has been shown that amphiphilic complexants could influence strongly extraction efficiency by enhancing the interfacial interaction between the metal ion in the aqueous and the complexant in the organic phase. Moreover, these amphiphiles can also substitute the organic phase if an appropriate aliphatic chain is chosen. The dispersion of such amphiphilic complexants in an aqueous solution of salt mixtures is not only attractive for studying specific interactions but also to better the understanding of complex formation in aqueous solution of multivalent metal ions, such as lanthanides and actinides. This understanding is of potential interest for a broad range of industries including purification of rare earth metals and pollute treatment e.g. of fission byproducts. This principle can also be applied to liquid-solid extraction, where the final state of the separation is a solid phase containing the selectively extracted ions. Indeed, a novel solid-liquid extraction method exploits the selective precipitation of metal ions from an aqueous salt mixture using a cationic surfactant, below its Krafft point (temperature below which the long aliphatic chains of surfactant crystallize). This technique has been proven to be highly efficient for the separation of actinides and heavy metal using long chain ammonium or pyridinium amphiphiles. The most important point in this process is the recognition of cationic metal ions by cationic surfactants. By computing the free energy of the polar head group per micelle as a function of the different counter-anions, we have demonstrated for the first time that different interactions exist between the micellar surface and the ions. These interactions depend on the nature of the cation but also on

  7. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  8. Effect of doping of trivalent cations Ga{sup 3+}, Sc{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+} in Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7} (PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (LATP) system on Li{sup +} ion conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Dharmesh H.; Kanchan, D.K., E-mail: dkkanchan.ssi@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    We report the effect of trivalent cations dopants in the Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3−x}R{sub x}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (R=Ga{sup 3+}, Sc{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+}) NASICON ceramic system in the concentration range x=0.01,0.03,0.05,0.07, on the Li{sup +} ion conducting properties using impedance spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by solid state reaction method and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and density measurements. The electrical properties were studied using impedance spectroscopy in frequency range 10 Hz to 20 MHz and temperature range 303 K to 423 K. Although the porosity of the material decreased with doping, the overall Li{sup +} ion conductivity of the system did not improve with doping. Ionic radii of the dopant cations was found to be an important factor in formation of impurity phases and low Li{sup +} ion conductivity. Gallium doped samples exhibited a higher Li{sup +} ion conductivity compared to its scandium and yttrium doped counterparts.

  9. Cation radicals of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Mary Grace I; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Deal, Cailin; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2007-10-01

    Carotenes and xanthophylls are well known to act as electron donors in redox processes. This ability is thought to be associated with the inhibition of oxidative reactions in reaction centers and light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, cation radicals of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and lycopene were generated in solution using ferric chloride as an oxidant and then studied by absorption spectroscopy. The investigation provides a view toward understanding the molecular features that determine the spectral properties of cation radicals of carotenoids. The absorption spectral data reveal a shift to longer wavelength with increasing pi-chain length. However, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin exhibit cation radical spectra blue-shifted compared to that of beta-carotene, despite all of these molecules having 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. CIS molecular orbital theory quantum computations interpret this effect as due to the hydroxyl groups in the terminal rings selectively stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbitals of preferentially populated s-trans-isomers. The data are expected to be useful in the analysis of spectral results from PSII pigment-protein complexes seeking to understand the role of carotene and xanthophyll cation radicals in regulating excited state energy flow, in protecting PSII reaction centers against photoinhibition, and in dissipating excess light energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms but not used for photosynthesis.

  10. Identifi cation of Sectarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinovich Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available «New religious movements and society» is traditionally one of the most sophisticated topics in the area of new religions studies. Its problem field is so huge that up to now by far not all important research themes where even touched by scientists from all over the world. The problem of the process of the identification of sectarianism by diff erent societal institutions is one of such untouched themes that is taken as the main subject of this article. This process by itself is an inseparable part of the every societal deliberate reaction to the very existence of unconventional religiosity, its unstructured and mainly structured types. The focal point of the article is step-by-step analysis of the general structure elements of the process of the identification of sectarianism without any reference to the specific time and place of its flow. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the subjects of the identification of sectarianism, to the criteria for religious groups to be qualified as new religious movements, and to the specific features of the process of documents filtration. The causes of selective perception of sectarianism are disclosed. Some main consequences and unpredictable outcomes of the process of the identification of sectarianism are described.

  11. Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: effect of cation type and aging time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamuna Kunhi Mouvenchery

    Full Text Available It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM molecules via cation bridges (CaB. The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+, Ca(2+ or Na(+, respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>>2 h than deprotonation of functional groups (<2 h and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is

  12. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  13. Cationic polymers and porous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2017-04-27

    According to one or more embodiments, cationic polymers may be produced which include one or more monomers containing cations. Such cationic polymers may be utilized as structure directing agents to form mesoporous zeolites. The mesoporous zeolites may include micropores as well as mesopores, and may have a surface area of greater than 350 m2/g and a pore volume of greater than 0.3 cm3/g. Also described are core/shell zeolites, where at least the shell portion includes a mesoporous zeolite material.

  14. Cationic polymers and porous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Tian, Qiwei; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Zhaohui; Basset, Jean-Marie; Saih, Youssef; Sun, Miao; Xu, Wei; Shaikh, Sohel

    2017-01-01

    According to one or more embodiments, cationic polymers may be produced which include one or more monomers containing cations. Such cationic polymers may be utilized as structure directing agents to form mesoporous zeolites. The mesoporous zeolites may include micropores as well as mesopores, and may have a surface area of greater than 350 m2/g and a pore volume of greater than 0.3 cm3/g. Also described are core/shell zeolites, where at least the shell portion includes a mesoporous zeolite material.

  15. The cation-π interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-04-16

    The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author's perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forego aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction (Li(+) binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4(+) with 19 kcal/mol) distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2-5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C(δ-)-H(δ+) bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+): as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is

  16. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  17. Cation disorder in Ga1212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, K B; Ko, D; Vander Griend, D A; Sarjeant, G M; Milgram, J W; Garrity, E S; DeLoach, D I; Poeppelmeier, K R; Salvador, P A; Mason, T O

    2000-07-24

    Substitution of calcium for strontium in LnSr2-xCaxCu2GaO7 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) materials at ambient pressure and 975 degrees C results in complete substitution of calcium for strontium in the lanthanum and praseodymium systems and partial substitution in the other lanthanide systems. The calcium saturation level depends on the size of the Ln cation, and in all cases, a decrease in the lattice parameters with calcium concentration was observed until a common, lower bound, average A-cation size is reached. Site occupancies from X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments for LnSr2-xCaxCu2GaO7 (x = 0 and x = 2) confirm that the A-cations distribute between the two blocking-layer sites and the active-layer site based on size. A quantitative link between cation distribution and relative site-specific cation enthalpy for calcium, strontium, and lanthanum within the gallate structure is derived. The cation distribution in other similar materials can potentially be modeled.

  18. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl - , NO 3 - , C 2 O 4 2- ) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , UO 2 2+ , Fe 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Th 4+ ) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author) [fr

  19. Inversion of membrane surface charge by trivalent cations probed with a cation-selective channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnev, Philip A; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2012-11-13

    We demonstrate that the cation-selective channel formed by gramicidin A can be used as a reliable sensor for studying the multivalent ion accumulation at the surfaces of charged lipid membranes and the "charge inversion" phenomenon. In asymmetrically charged membranes with the individual leaflets formed from pure negative and positive lipids bathed by 0.1 M CsCl solutions the channel exhibits current rectification, which is comparable to that of a typical n/p semiconductor diode. We show that even at these highly asymmetrical conditions the channel conductance can be satisfactorily described by the electrodiffusion equation in the constant field approximation but, due to predictable limitations, only when the applied voltages do not exceed 50 mV. Analysis of the changes in the voltage-dependent channel conductance upon addition of trivalent cations allows us to gauge their interactions with the membrane surface. The inversion of the sign of the effective surface charge takes place at the concentrations, which correlate with the cation size. Specifically, these concentrations are close to 0.05 mM for lanthanum, 0.25 mM for hexaamminecobalt, and 4 mM for spermidine.

  20. Sorption of the organic cation metoprolol on silica gel from its aqueous solution considering the competition of inorganic cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Susann; Schaffer, Mario; Börnick, Hilmar; Licha, Tobias; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-05-01

    Systematic batch experiments with the organic monovalent cation metoprolol as sorbate and the synthetic material silica gel as sorbent were conducted with the aim of characterizing the sorption of organic cations onto charged surfaces. Sorption isotherms for metoprolol (>99% protonated in the tested pH of around 6) in competition with mono- and divalent inorganic cations (Na(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were determined in order to assess their influence on cation exchange processes and to identify the role of further sorptive interactions. The obtained sorption isotherms could be described well by an exponential function (Freundlich isotherm model) with consistent exponents (about 0.8). In general, a decreasing sorption of metoprolol with increasing concentrations in inorganic cations was observed. Competing ions of the same valence showed similar effects. A significant sorption affinity of metoprolol with ion type dependent Freundlich coefficients KF,0.77 between 234.42 and 426.58 (L/kg)(0.77) could still be observed even at very high concentrations of competing inorganic cations. Additional column experiments confirm this behavior, which suggests the existence of further relevant interactions beside cation exchange. In subsequent batch experiments, the influence of mixtures with more than one competing ion and the effect of a reduced negative surface charge at a pH below the point of zero charge (pHPZC ≈ 2.5) were also investigated. Finally, the study demonstrates that cation exchange is the most relevant but not the sole mechanism for the sorption of metoprolol on silica gel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conventional resin cation exchangers versus EDI for CACE measurement in power plants. Feasibility and practical field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Manuel [Swan Systeme AG, Hinwil (Switzerland)

    2017-10-15

    The conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger in power plants with steam turbines was introduced soon after 1950 by Larson and Lane. Due to the simple measuring principle, the sensitivity to ionic contaminations and to its high reliability, the conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger (CACE) has become the most commonly used online analytical method in power plants with steam generators. Swan has investigated electro deionisation (EDI) as substitution of the conventional cation exchange resin and has developed a new conductivity instrument using this principle. This paper provides a description of the conventional method for cation conductivity measurements as well as of the new AMI CACE using EDI method.

  2. Conventional resin cation exchangers versus EDI for CACE measurement in power plants. Feasibility and practical field results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger in power plants with steam turbines was introduced soon after 1950 by Larson and Lane. Due to the simple measuring principle, the sensitivity to ionic contaminations and to its high reliability, the conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger (CACE) has become the most commonly used online analytical method in power plants with steam generators. Swan has investigated electro deionisation (EDI) as substitution of the conventional cation exchange resin and has developed a new conductivity instrument using this principle. This paper provides a description of the conventional method for cation conductivity measurements as well as of the new AMI CACE using EDI method.

  3. New double-cation borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Inge; Domenech Ferrer, Roger; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Hagemann, Hans; Cerny, Radovan [Department of Physical Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Complex hydrides are under consideration for on-board hydrogen storage due to their high hydrogen density. However, up to now conventional borohydrides are either too stable or unstable for applications as in PEM fuel cells (60-120 C). Recently, double-cation borohydride systems have attracted great interest. The desorption temperature of the borohydrides decreases with increasing electronegativity of the cation. Consequently, it is possible to tailor a feasible on-board hydrogen storage material by the combination of appropriate cations. The stability was found to be intermediate between the single-cation borohydride systems. Two combinations were sucessfully synthesised by metathesis reaction via high energy ball milling. Al-Li-borohydride shows desorption at about 70 C combined with a very high hydrogen density (17.2 wt.%) and the Na-Al-borohydride (14.2 wt.%) decomposes around 90 C. Both desorption temperatures are in the target range for applications. The decomposition pathways were observed by in-situ-Raman spectroscopy, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetry) and thermal desorption measurements.

  4. Cationic mobility in polystyrene sulfone exchangers - Application to the elution of a cation on an exchange column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menin, Jean-Pierre

    1969-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve elutions and separations carried out on inorganic exchangers by selective electromigration of the ionic species to be displaced. To do this, it has been found indispensable to make a fundamental study of the mobility of cations in exchangers. As the field for this research we have chosen those organic exchangers whose structure and behaviour with respect to ion-exchange are much better known that in the case of their inorganic equivalents. We have related the idea of the equivalent conductivity to that of the cation mobility in the exchanger, and this has entailed determining the specific conductivity of the exchanger and the cation concentration in the resin. The results obtained have allowed us to draw up a hypothesis concerning the cation migration mechanism in the exchanger. The third part of our work has been the application of the preceding results to an operation on an ion-exchange column, viz. the elution by an acid solution of a single fixed ion, magnesium or strontium. This work has enabled us to show that the electromigration of a cation during its elution can markedly accelerate or retard this elution. (author) [fr

  5. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  6. Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gergely; Danko, Tamas; Bergeron, Marc J; Balazs, Bernadett; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zsembery, Akos; Hediger, Matthias A

    2011-01-01

    TRPV6 belongs to the vanilloid family of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily. This calcium-selective channel is highly expressed in the duodenum and the placenta, being responsible for calcium absorption in the body and fetus. Previous observations have suggested that TRPV6 is not only permeable to calcium but also to other divalent cations in epithelial tissues. In this study, we tested whether TRPV6 is indeed also permeable to cations such as zinc and cadmium. We found that the basal intracellular calcium concentration was higher in HEK293 cells transfected with hTRPV6 than in non-transfected cells, and that this difference almost disappeared in nominally calcium-free solution. Live cell imaging experiments with Fura-2 and NewPort Green DCF showed that overexpression of human TRPV6 increased the permeability for Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and interestingly also for La(3+) and Gd(3+). These results were confirmed using the patch clamp technique. (45)Ca uptake experiments showed that cadmium, lanthanum and gadolinium were also highly efficient inhibitors of TRPV6-mediated calcium influx at higher micromolar concentrations. Our results suggest that TRPV6 is not only involved in calcium transport but also in the transport of other divalent cations, including heavy metal ions, which may have toxicological implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complex Macromolecular Architectures by Living Cationic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Reem D.

    2015-05-01

    Poly (vinyl ether)-based graft polymers have been synthesized by the combination of living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers with other living or controlled/ living polymerization techniques (anionic and ATRP). The process involves the synthesis of well-defined homopolymers (PnBVE) and co/terpolymers [PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE (ABC type) and PSiDEGVE-b-PnBVE-b-PSiDEGVE (CAC type)] by sequential living cationic polymerization of n-butyl vinyl ether (nBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethylene glycol vinyl ether (SiDEGVE), using mono-functional {[n-butoxyethyl acetate (nBEA)], [1-(2-chloroethoxy) ethyl acetate (CEEA)], [1-(2-(2-(t-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethoxy) ethoxy) ethyl acetate (SiDEGEA)]} or di-functional [1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol di(1-ethyl acetate) (cHMDEA), (VEMOA)] initiators. The living cationic polymerizations of those monomers were conducted in hexane at -20 0C using Et3Al2Cl3 (catalyst) in the presence of 1 M AcOEt base.[1] The PCEVE segments of the synthesized block terpolymers were then used to react with living macroanions (PS-DPE-Li; poly styrene diphenyl ethylene lithium) to afford graft polymers. The quantitative desilylation of PSiDEGVE segments by n-Bu4N+F- in THF at 0 °C led to graft co- and terpolymers in which the polyalcohol is the outer block. These co-/terpolymers were subsequently subjected to “grafting-from” reactions by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene to afford more complex macromolecular architectures. The base assisted living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers were also used to synthesize well-defined α-hydroxyl polyvinylether (PnBVE-OH). The resulting polymers were then modified into an ATRP macro-initiator for the synthesis of well-defined block copolymers (PnBVE-b-PS). Bifunctional PnBVE with terminal malonate groups was also synthesized and used as a precursor for more complex architectures such as H-shaped block copolymer by “grafting-from” or

  8. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  9. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... highly enantioselective silylation reactions in polyether-generated chiral environments, and leading to a record-high turnover in asymmetric organocatalysis. This can lead to further applications by the asymmetric use of other inorganic salts in various organic transformations....

  10. Electrical conductivities and chemical stabilities of mixed conducting pyrochlores for SOFC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, P.; Poulsen, F.W.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2000-01-01

    Pyrochlores with praseodymium as the A-site cation and zirconium, tin, cerium and manganese cations on the B-site were prepared in air and their electrical conductivities were investigated as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Pure Pr2Zr2O7+/-delta as well as samples modified...

  11. Conserved Aromatic Residue Confers Cation Selectivity in Claudin-2 and Claudin-10b*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Zhuo, Min; Pei, Lei; Yu, Alan S. L.

    2013-01-01

    In tight junctions, both claudin-2 and claudin-10b form paracellular cation-selective pores by the interaction of the first ECL 1 with permeating ions. We hypothesized that a highly conserved aromatic residue near the pore selectivity filter of claudins contributes to cation selectivity by cation-π interaction with the permeating cation. To test this, we generated MDCK I Tet-off cells stably transfected with claudin-2 Tyr67 mutants. The Y67L mutant showed reduced cation selectivity compared with wild-type claudin-2 due to a decrease in Na+ permeability, without affecting the Cl− permeability. The Y67A mutant enlarged the pore size and further decreased the charge selectivity due to an increase in Cl− permeability. The Y67F mutant restored the Na+ permeability, Cl− permeability, and pore size back to wild-type. The accessibility of Y67C to methanethiosulfonate modification indicated that its side chain faces the lumen of the pore. In claudin-10b, the F66L mutant reduced cation selectivity, and the F66A mutant lost pore conductance. We conclude that the conserved aromatic residue near the cation pore domain of claudins contributes to cation selectivity by a dual role of cation-π interaction and a luminal steric effect. Our findings provide new insight into how ion selectivity is achieved in the paracellular pore. PMID:23760508

  12. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang

    2018-02-14

    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  13. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  14. Thermodynamics and Cation Diffusion in the Oxygen Ion Conductor Lsgm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M.; Schulz, O.

    Perovskite type oxides based on LaGaO3 are of large technical interest because of their high oxygen-ion conductivity. Lanthanum gallate doped with Sr on A- and Mg on B-sites, La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-(x+y)/2 (LSGM), reaches higher oxygen-ion conductivities than yttria-doped zirconia (YSZ). Thus LSGM represents a promising alternative for YSZ as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Cells using thin LSGM-layers as electrolyte are expected to operate at intermediate temperatures around 700°C for more than 30000 hours without severe degradation. A potential long term degradation effect of LSGM is kinetic demixing of the electrolyte, caused by different cation diffusion coefficients. In this paper we report on experimental studies concerning the phase diagram of LSGM and the diffusion of cations. Cation self-diffusion of 139La, 84Sr and 25Mg and cation impurity diffusion of 144Nd, 89Y and 56Fe in polycrystalline LSGM samples was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for temperatures between 900°C and 1400°C. It was found that diffusion occurs by means of bulk and grain boundaries. The bulk diffusion coefficients are similar for all cations with activation energies which are strongly dependent on temperature. At high temperatures, the activation energies are about 5 eV, while at low temperatures values of about 2 eV are found. These results are explained by a frozen in defect structure at low temperatures. This means that the observed activation energy at low temperatures represents only the migration energy of the different cations while the observed activation energy at high temperatures is the sum of the defect formation energy and the migration energy. The migration energies for all cations are nearly identical, although 139La, 84Sr and 144Nd are occupying A-sites while 25Mg and 56Fe are occupying B-sites in the perovskite-structure. To explain these experimental findings we propose a defect cluster containing cation vacancies in both the A

  15. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 ...

  16. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  17. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J A [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Holland, D [Physics Department, Warwick University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bland, J [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Johnson, C E [Physics Department, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Thomas, M F [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-19

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub x} - [ZnCl{sub 2}]{sub 1-x} where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb){sub 2}(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn){sub 2}(OSb){sub 2}].

  18. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J A; Holland, D; Bland, J; Johnson, C E; Thomas, M F

    2003-01-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb 2 O 3 ] x - [ZnCl 2 ] 1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb) 2 (OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn) 2 (OSb) 2

  19. The Free Tricoordinated Silyl Cation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičak, H.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties.The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+, in analogy to carbocations (R3C+ which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative effects and larger steric effects of carbocations make them less sensitive to solvation or other environmental effects than silyl cations. Hence, observation of free silyl cations in the condensed phase proved extremely difficult and the actual problem is the question of the degree of the (remaining silyl cation character.The first free silyl cation, trimesitylsilyl cation, and in analogy with it tridurylsilyl cation, were synthesized by Lambert et al. Free silyl cations based on analogy to aromatic ions (homocyclopropenylium and tropylium have also been prepared. However, in these silyl cations the cationic character is reduced by internal π -conjugation. Čičak et al. prepared some silyl-cationic intermediates (Me3Si--CH≡CR+in solid state. With the help of quantum-mechanical calculations it was concluded that these adducts have much more silyl cation than carbocation character.

  20. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khym, J.X.

    1959-03-10

    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  1. Electronic spectra of astrophysically interesting cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, John P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Rice, Corey A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Mazzotti, Fabio J., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Johnson, Anatoly, E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-22

    The electronic spectra of polyacetylene cations were recorded at 20K in the laboratory in an ion trap instrument. These can then be compared with diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorptions. Examination of recently published data shows that the attribution of a weak DIB at ∼506.9 nm to diacetylene cation is not justified. Study of the higher excited electronic states of polyacetylene cations shows that their widths can still be sufficiently narrow for consideration as DIB carriers.

  2. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  3. Preparation, characterization, and efficient transfection of cationic liposomes and nanomagnetic cationic liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadikhah HR

    2011-10-01

    magnetic characteristic for conduction of genes or drugs to target organs. Keywords: transfection efficiency, magnetic nanoparticles, luciferase, cationic liposome

  4. Cation-π interactions in structural biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gallivan, Justin P.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    1999-01-01

    Cation-pi interactions in protein structures are identified and evaluated by using an energy-based criterion for selecting significant sidechain pairs. Cation-pi interactions are found to be common among structures in the Protein Data Bank, and it is clearly demonstrated that, when a cationic sidechain (Lys or Arg) is near an aromatic sidechain (Phe, Tyr, or Trp), the geometry is biased toward one that would experience a favorable cation-pi interaction. The sidechain of Arg is more likely tha...

  5. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.

    2003-01-01

    and the expulsion of anions; a broad anodic peak centered at ca. - 0.5 V representing the expulsion of cations; and a second broad peak at +0.2 to +0.5 V corresponding to anions being inserted. Although the motion of cations is the most important, as expected, there is a significant anion contribution, thereby...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  6. Cationic nanoparticles induce nanoscale disruption in living cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiumei; Hessler, Jessica A; Putchakayala, Krishna; Panama, Brian K; Khan, Damian P; Hong, Seungpyo; Mullen, Douglas G; Dimaggio, Stassi C; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Baker, James R; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Orr, Bradford G

    2009-08-13

    It has long been recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found that cationic nanoparticles induce the formation and/or growth of nanoscale holes in supported lipid bilayers. In this paper, we show that noncytotoxic concentrations of cationic nanoparticles induce 30-2000 pA currents in 293A (human embryonic kidney) and KB (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells, consistent with a nanoscale defect such as a single hole or group of holes in the cell membrane ranging from 1 to 350 nm(2) in total area. Other forms of nanoscale defects, including the nanoparticle porating agents adsorbing onto or intercalating into the lipid bilayer, are also consistent; although the size of the defect must increase to account for any reduction in ion conduction, as compared to a water channel. An individual defect forming event takes 1-100 ms, while membrane resealing may occur over tens of seconds. Patch-clamp data provide direct evidence for the formation of nanoscale defects in living cell membranes. The cationic polymer data are compared and contrasted with patch-clamp data obtained for an amphiphilic phenylene ethynylene antimicrobial oligomer (AMO-3), a small molecule that is proposed to make well-defined 3.4 nm holes in lipid bilayers. Here, we observe data that are consistent with AMO-3 making approximately 3 nm holes in living cell membranes.

  7. Internal cation mobilities in molten lithium. Potassium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Haruaki; Ohashi, Ryo; Chou, Pao-Hwa; Takagi, Ryuzo

    2006-01-01

    Relative differences between internal cation mobilities in molten (Li, K) F have been measured by countercurrent electromigration (Klemm method) at 1023 K. Internal mobilities of K + are larger than those of Li + in all composition on which we have measured so far. More striking feature is that the isotherms have minimum of mobilities at ca. x K =0.5. The local structural parameters would be highly related to the ionic conduction behavior in molten fluorides. (author)

  8. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to English, automatic hyphenation by computer of Afrikaans words is a problem that still needs to be addressed, since errors are still often encountered in printed text. An initial step in this task is the ability to automatically syllabify words. Since new words are created continuously by joining words, it is necessary to develop an “intelligent” technique for syllabification. As a first phase of the research, we consider only the orthographic information of words, and disregard both syntactic and morphological information. This approach allows us to use machine-learning techniques such as artificial neural networks and decision trees that are known for their pattern recognition abilities. Both these techniques are trained with isolated patterns consisting of input patterns and corresponding outputs (or targets that indicate whether the input pattern should be split at a certain position, or not. In the process of compiling a list of syllabified words from which to generate training data for the  syllabification problem, irregular patterns were identified. The same letter patterns are split differently in different words and complete words that are spelled identically are split differently due to meaning. We also identified irregularities in and between  the different dictionaries that we used. We examined the influence range of letters that are involved in irregularities. For example, for their in agter-ente and vaste-rente we have to consider three letters to the left of r to be certain where the hyphen should be inserted. The influence range of the k in verstek-waarde and kleinste-kwadrate is four to the left and three to the right. In an analysis of letter patterns in Afrikaans words we found that the letter e has the highest frequency overall (16,2% of all letters in the word list. The frequency of words starting with s is the highest, while the frequency of words ending with e is the highest. It is important to

  9. Cationic polymers and their therapeutic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samal, S.K.; Dash, M.; van Vlierberghe, S.; Kaplan, D.; Chiellini, E.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo; Dubruel, P.

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed enormous research focused on cationic polymers. Cationic polymers are the subject of intense research as non-viral gene delivery systems, due to their flexible properties, facile synthesis, robustness and proven gene delivery efficiency. Here, we review the most recent

  10. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  11. Asymmetric Aminalization via Cation-Binding Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sang Yeon; Liu, Yidong; Oh, Joong Suk

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, in principle, can generate "chiral" anionic nucleophiles, where the counter cations are coordinated within chiral environments. Nitrogen-nucleophiles are intrinsically basic, therefore, its use as nucleophiles is often challenging and limiting the scope of the...

  12. Structural and energetic study of cation-π-cation interactions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Silvana; Soteras, Ignacio; Gelpí, Josep Lluis; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles

    2017-04-12

    Cation-π interactions of aromatic rings and positively charged groups are among the most important interactions in structural biology. The role and energetic characteristics of these interactions are well established. However, the occurrence of cation-π-cation interactions is an unexpected motif, which raises intriguing questions about its functional role in proteins. We present a statistical analysis of the occurrence, composition and geometrical preferences of cation-π-cation interactions identified in a set of non-redundant protein structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. Our results demonstrate that this structural motif is observed at a small, albeit non-negligible frequency in proteins, and suggest a preference to establish cation-π-cation motifs with Trp, followed by Tyr and Phe. Furthermore, we have found that cation-π-cation interactions tend to be highly conserved, which supports their structural or functional role. Finally, we have performed an energetic analysis of a representative subset of cation-π-cation complexes combining quantum-chemical and continuum solvation calculations. Our results point out that the protein environment can strongly screen the cation-cation repulsion, leading to an attractive interaction in 64% of the complexes analyzed. Together with the high degree of conservation observed, these results suggest a potential stabilizing role in the protein fold, as demonstrated recently for a miniature protein (Craven et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 1543). From a computational point of view, the significant contribution of non-additive three-body terms challenges the suitability of standard additive force fields for describing cation-π-cation motifs in molecular simulations.

  13. Exploration of overloaded cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui F; McCooey, Beth; Duarte, Tiago; Myers, Deanna E; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; van Reis, Robert; Kelley, Brian D

    2011-09-28

    Cation exchange chromatography using conventional resins, having either diffusive or perfusive flow paths, operated in bind-elute mode has been commonly employed in monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification processes. In this study, the performance of diffusive and perfusive cation exchange resins (SP-Sepharose FF (SPSFF) and Poros 50HS) and a convective cation exchange membrane (Mustang S) and monolith (SO(3) Monolith) were compared. All matrices were utilized in an isocratic state under typical binding conditions with an antibody load of up to 1000 g/L of chromatographic matrix. The dynamic binding capacity of the cation exchange resins is typically below 100 g/L resin, so they were loaded beyond the point of anticipated MAb break through. All of the matrices performed similarly in that they effectively retained host cell protein and DNA during the loading and wash steps, while antibody flowed through each matrix after its dynamic binding capacity was reached. The matrices differed, though, in that conventional diffusive and perfusive chromatographic resins (SPSFF and Poros 50HS) demonstrated a higher binding capacity for high molecular weight species (HMW) than convective flow matrices (membrane and monolith); Poros 50HS displayed the highest HMW binding capacity. Further exploration of the conventional chromatographic resins in an isocratic overloaded mode demonstrated that the impurity binding capacity was well maintained on Poros 50HS, but not on SPSFF, when the operating flow rate was as high as 36 column volumes per hour. Host cell protein and HMW removal by Poros 50HS was affected by altering the loading conductivity. A higher percentage of host cell protein removal was achieved at a low conductivity of 3 mS/cm. HMW binding capacity was optimized at 5 mS/cm. Our data from runs on Poros 50HS resin also showed that leached protein A and cell culture additive such as gentamicin were able to be removed under the isocratic overloaded condition. Lastly, a MAb

  14. Cation transport in isomeric pentanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, Istvan; Gee, Norman; Freeman, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The cation mobility μsub(+) is measured in n-pentane, isopentane, neo-pentane, and mixtures of n- and neo-pentane over conditions from the normal liquid, through the critical fluid, to the low density gas. Most of the liquid data correlate with the reduced temperature T/Tsub(c). The T/Tsub(c) reflects free volume and viscosity changes. Comparison is made to neutral molecule diffusion. The transition from viscosity control of mobility in the liquid to density control in the dilute gas occurs over the reduced viscosity region 3 > eta/etasub(c) > 0.6, which corresponds to the reduced density region 1.9 > eta/etasub(c) > 0.5. In the saturated gas etaμsub(+) is similar in all pentanes, but iso- approximately> n- > neo-pentane. At constant density dμsub(+)/dT >= 0 for gases. The average gas nμsub(+) is similar in all pentanes, but iso- approximately> n- > neo-pentane. At constant density dμsub(+)/dT >= 0 for gases. The average momentum transfer cross sections in the n-/neo-pentane mixtures are similar to those in neo-pentane at low T but similar to those in n-pentane at high T. The present findings are combined with previous electron mobility data in addressing the effect of hydrocarbon molecular (external) shape on the electric breakdown strength of gases

  15. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  16. Protic Cationic Oligomeric Ionic Liquids of the Urethane Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Stryutsky, A. V.; Klymenko, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Protic oligomeric cationic ionic liquids of the oligo(ether urethane) type are synthesized via the reaction of an isocyanate prepolymer based on oligo(oxy ethylene)glycol with M = 1000 with hexamethylene-diisocyanate followed by blocking of the terminal isocyanate groups with the use of amine...... derivatives of imidazole, pyridine, and 3-methylpyridine and neutralization of heterocycles with ethanesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid. The structures and properties of the synthesized oligomeric ionic liquids substantially depend on the structures of the ionic groups. They are amorphous at room...... temperature, but ethanesulfonate imidazolium and pyridinium oligomeric ionic liquids form a low melting crystalline phase. The proton conductivities of the oligomeric ionic liquids are determined by the type of cation in the temperature range 80-120 degrees C under anhydrous conditions and vary within five...

  17. Stressor states and the cation crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Karl T; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Newman, Kevin P; Soberman, Judith E; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B; McGee, Jesse E; Malik, Kafait U; Hickerson, William L

    2010-12-01

    Neurohormonal activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenergic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems is integral to stressor state-mediated homeostatic responses. The levels of effector hormones, depending upon the degree of stress, orchestrate the concordant appearance of hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, hypozincemia, and hyposelenemia. Seemingly contradictory to homeostatic responses wherein the constancy of extracellular fluid would be preserved, upregulation of cognate-binding proteins promotes coordinated translocation of cations to injured tissues, where they participate in wound healing. Associated catecholamine-mediated intracellular cation shifts regulate the equilibrium between pro-oxidants and antioxidant defenses, a critical determinant of cell survival. These acute and chronic stressor-induced iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations are collectively referred to as the cation crossroads. Intracellular cation shifts, particularly excessive accumulation of Ca2+, converge on mitochondria to induce oxidative stress and raise the opening potential of their inner membrane permeability transition pores (mPTPs). The ensuing loss of cationic homeostasis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, together with osmotic swelling, leads to organellar degeneration and cellular necrosis. The overall impact of iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations and their influence on cardiac redox state, cardiomyocyte survival, and myocardial structure and function are addressed herein.

  18. Radical Cations and Acid Protection during Radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zarzana, Christopher A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mezyk, Stephen P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Ligand molecules for used nuclear fuel separation schemes are exposed to high radiation fields and high concentrations of acid. Thus, an understanding of the complex interactions between extraction ligands, diluent, and acid is critical to understanding the performance of a separation process. The diglycolamides are ligands with important structural similarities to CMPO; however, previous work has shown that their radiolytic degradation has important mechanistic differences from CMPO. The DGAs do not enjoy radioprotection by HNO3 and the kinetics of DGA radiolytic degradation are different. CMPO degrades with pseudo-zero-order kinetics in linear fashion with absorbed dose while the DGAs degrade in pseudo-first-order, exponential fashion. This suggests that the DGAs degrade by simple reaction with some product of direct diluent radiolysis, while CMPO degradation is probably multi-step, with a slow step that is not dependent on the CMPO concentration, and mitigated by HNO3. It is thus believed that radio-protection and the zero-order radiolytic degradation kinetics are related, and that these phenomena are a function of either the formation of strong acid complexes with CMPO and/or to the presence of the CMPO phenyl ring. Experiments to test both these hypotheses have been designed and partially conducted. This report summarizes findings related to these phenomena for FY16, in satisfaction of milestone M3FT-16IN030104053. It also reports continued kinetic measurements for the reactions of the dodecane radical cation with solvent extraction ligands.

  19. Radical Cations and Acid Protection during Radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Zarzana, Christopher A.; Mezyk, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand molecules for used nuclear fuel separation schemes are exposed to high radiation fields and high concentrations of acid. Thus, an understanding of the complex interactions between extraction ligands, diluent, and acid is critical to understanding the performance of a separation process. The diglycolamides are ligands with important structural similarities to CMPO; however, previous work has shown that their radiolytic degradation has important mechanistic differences from CMPO. The DGAs do not enjoy radioprotection by HNO3 and the kinetics of DGA radiolytic degradation are different. CMPO degrades with pseudo-zero-order kinetics in linear fashion with absorbed dose while the DGAs degrade in pseudo-first-order, exponential fashion. This suggests that the DGAs degrade by simple reaction with some product of direct diluent radiolysis, while CMPO degradation is probably multi-step, with a slow step that is not dependent on the CMPO concentration, and mitigated by HNO 3 . It is thus believed that radio-protection and the zero-order radiolytic degradation kinetics are related, and that these phenomena are a function of either the formation of strong acid complexes with CMPO and/or to the presence of the CMPO phenyl ring. Experiments to test both these hypotheses have been designed and partially conducted. This report summarizes findings related to these phenomena for FY16, in satisfaction of milestone M3FT-16IN030104053. It also reports continued kinetic measurements for the reactions of the dodecane radical cation with solvent extraction ligands.

  20. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  1. Radioimmunoassay of human eosinophil cationic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venge, P.; Roxin, L.E.; Olsson, I.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunosorbent assay has been developed which allows the detection in serum of a cationic protein derived from eosinophil granulocytes. In 34 healthy individuals the mean level was 31 μg/l. with a range of 5 to 55 μg/l. The serum concentration of 'eosinophil' cationic protein was correlated (P<0.001) to the number of eosinophil granulocytes in peripheral blood. Quantitiation of 'eosinophil' cationic protein in serum might be useful in the study of eosinophil granulocyte turnover and function in vivo. (author)

  2. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  3. Cationization of heparin for film applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkovic, I.; Mendichi, R.; Kelnar, Ivan; Filip, J.; Hricovíni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, 22 January (2015), s. 551-558 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : heparin * cationization * NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.219, year: 2015

  4. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  5. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  6. Chemical reactivity of cation-exchanged zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Pidko, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites modified with metal cations have been extensively studied during the last two decades because of their wide application in different technologically important fields such as catalysis, adsorption and gas separation. Contrary to the well-understood mechanisms of chemical reactions catalyzed by Brønsted acid sites in the hydrogen forms of zeolites, the nature of chemical reactivity, and related, the structure of the metal-containing ions in cation-exchanged zeolites remains the subject...

  7. Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Ali; Baig, Umair; Khalid, Mohd

    2011-02-28

    In this study, the electrically conducting polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate (PANI-TiP) cation exchange nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The cation exchange nanocomposite based sensor for detection of ammonia vapors was developed at room temperature. It was revealed that the sensor showed good reversible response towards ammonia vapors ranging from 3 to 6%. It was found that the sensor with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) doped exhibited higher sensing response than hydrochloric acid doped. This sensor has detection limit ≤1% ammonia. The response of resistivity changes of the cation exchange nanocomposite on exposure to different concentrations of ammonia vapors shows its utility as a sensing material. These studies suggest that the cation exchange nanocomposite could be a good material for ammonia sensor at room temperature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of radical cations of diaryloxadiazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmstreit, W.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the formation of the radical cation of the 2,5-bis-(p-diethylaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PC) in liquid n-butyl chloride and acetonitrile has been investigated by observing excited state fluorescence and transient absorption using nanosecond pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis. The formation of solute oxonium ions has also been observed. At concentrations -4 mol dm -3 the growth time at which the transient absorption of the radical cation reaches the maximum follows the rise time of the electron pulse ( 2 laser yields the solute radical cation in an acetonitrile solution of 2 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 PC via an electronically excited state. Here, the generation time was smaller than 5 ns. The yield of the cation is increased by addition of CCl 4 . A reaction mechanism is proposed that explains the fast cation formation in terms of an exciplex formed by interaction between an electronically excited state of diaryloxadiazole and the ground state of the solvent. This exciplex yields the solute radical cation. (author)

  9. Luminescent sulfides of monovalent and trivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The invention discloses a family of luminescent materials or phosphors having a rhombohedral crystal structure and consisting essentially of a mixed host sulfide of at least one monovalent host cation and at least one trivalent host cation, and containing, for each mole of phosphor, 0.0005 to 0.05 mole of at least one activating cation. The monovalent host cations may be Na, K or Rb and Cs. The trivalent host cations may be Gd, La, Lu, Sc and Y. The activating cations may be one or more of trivalent As, Bi, Ce, Dy, Er, Pr, Sb, Sm, Tb and Tm; divalent Lu, Mn, Pb and Sn; and monovalent Ag, Cu and Tl. The novel phosphors may be used in devices to convert electron-beam, ultraviolet or x-ray energy to light in the visible spectrum. Such energy conversion can be employed for example in fluoroscopic screens, and in viewing screens of cathode-ray tubes and other electron tubes

  10. Divalent cation shrinks DNA but inhibits its compaction with trivalent cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongu, Chika; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Chen, Ning; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-05-28

    Our observation reveals the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA 166 kbp) by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. As the control experiment, we have confirmed the minimum effect of monovalent cation, Na(+) on the DNA higher-order structure. We interpret the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counterions. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we consider the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly charged polyelectrolyte, double-stranded DNA, by the 3+ cations. In contrast, the presence of 2+ cation decreases the gain of entropy contribution by the ion-exchange between monovalent and 3+ ions.

  11. Review on cation exchange selectivity coefficients for MX-80 bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, C.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L.; Sellin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bentonite is considered as engineered barrier in the near field of a nuclear waste repository due to its low permeability, what impedes groundwater flow to the nuclear waste, and its high retention capacity (sorption) of radionuclides in the eventuality of groundwater intrusion. One of the main retention processes occurring at the bentonite surface is ion exchange. This process may exert a strong control on the mobility of major pore water cations. Changes in major cation concentration, especially calcium, can affect the dissolution-precipitation of calcite, which in turn controls one of the key parameters in the system: pH. The cation exchange process is usually described according to the Gaines-Thomas convention: Ca 2+ + 2 NaX = CaX 2 + 2 Na + , K Ca = (N Ca x a 2 Na + )/(N 2 Na x a Ca 2+ ) where K Ca is the selectivity coefficient for the Ca by Na exchange, ai is the activity of cation 'i' in solution and NJ the equivalent fractional occupancy of cation 'J' in bentonite. Parameters such as solid to liquid (S:L) ratio and dry density of the solid have an important influence on the value of selectivity coefficients (K ex ). Although in most geochemical modelling works, K ex values are directly taken from experiments conducted at low S:L ratios and low dry densities, the expected conditions in a deep geological nuclear waste repository are higher S:L and higher bentonite density (1.6 g.cm -3 in the SKB design to obtain a fully water saturated density of around 2.0 g.cm -3 ). Experiments focused at obtaining selectivity coefficients under the conditions of interest face the difficulty of achieving a proper extraction and analyses of pore water without disturbing the system by the sampling method itself. In this work we have conducted a complete analyses of published data on MX-80 bentonite cationic exchange in order to assess the effect of the S:L ratio and dry density on the value of the selectivity coefficients determined so far

  12. Accelerators for forming cationic technetium complexes useful as radiodiagnostic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweedle, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions for making cationic radiodiagnostic agents and, in particular, to accelerator compounds for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents, kits for preparing such 99m Tc-labelled cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium, and methods for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium

  13. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe the synthesis and lithium-ion conductivity of new perovskite-related oxides ... work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing d0 cations. Keywords. ..... On the other hand, Nb/Ta compounds show a higher conductivity.

  14. Gas phase chemistry of N-benzylbenzamides with silver(I) cations: characterization of benzylsilver cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hezhi; Jin, Zhe; Quan, Hong; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-03-07

    The benzylsilver cation which emerges from the collisional dissociation of silver(I)-N-benzylbenzamide complexes was characterized by deuterium-labeling experiments, theoretical calculations, breakdown curves and substituent effects. The nucleophilic attack of the carbonyl oxygen on an α-hydrogen results in the generation of the benzylsilver cation, which is competitive to the AgH loss with the α-hydrogen.

  15. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  16. Effect of Divalent Cations on RED Performance and Cation Exchange Membrane Selection to Enhance Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Huerta, Elisa; van Baak, Willem; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-11-07

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-based renewable energy technology that can harvest energy from salinity gradients. The anticipated feed streams are natural river and seawater, both of which contain not only monovalent ions but also divalent ions. However, RED using feed streams containing divalent ions experiences lower power densities because of both uphill transport and increased membrane resistance. In this study, we investigate the effects of divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) on RED and demonstrate the mitigation of those effects using both novel and existing commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Monovalent-selective Neosepta CMS is known to block divalent cations transport and can therefore mitigate reductions in stack voltage. The new multivalent-permeable Fuji T1 is able to transport divalent cations without a major increase in resistance. Both strategies significantly improve power densities compared to standard-grade CEMs when performing RED using streams containing divalent cations.

  17. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  18. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  19. Resistivity Effects of Cation Ordering in Highly-Doped La2-xSrxCu4 Epitaxial Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burquest, Franklin; Marmol, Rodrigo; Cox, Nicholas; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany

    Highly-doped La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) films (0.5 causes internal polar electrostatic forces, which have been shown to cause stretching of the apical oxygen bond in analogous epitaxial nickelate films. Thin film samples are grown concurrently to minimize extraneous effects on film structure and properties. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity demonstrate that the films are single crystalline, epitaxial, and smooth. X-ray diffraction is used to measure the c-axis of the films as a function of doping and dopant cation ordering. Electrical transport data of the ordered samples is compared with transport data of conventional disordered cation samples. Preliminary data indicates significant differences in resistivity at both 300K and 10K between the cation-ordered and cation-disordered samples. This work indicates that dopant cation ordering within the layered cuprates could significantly modify the conduction mechanisms at play in these materials.

  20. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Westmont, IL

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  1. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Trizio, Luca; Manna, Liberato

    2016-09-28

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field.

  2. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field. PMID:26891471

  3. Examination of the effect of the annealing cation on higher order structures containing guanine or isoguanine repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Wang, Junmei; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Isoguanine (2-oxo-6-amino-guanine), a natural but non-standard base, exhibits unique self-association properties compared to its isomer, guanine, and results in formation of different higher order DNA structures. In this work, the higher order structures formed by oligonucleotides containing guanine repeats or isoguanine repeats after annealing in solutions containing various cations are evaluated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The guanine-containing strand (G9) consistently formed quadruplexes upon annealing, whereas the isoguanine strand (Ig9) formed both pentaplexes and quadruplexes depending on the annealing cation. Quadruplex formation with G9 showed some dependence on the identity of the cation present during annealing with high relative quadruplex formation detected with six of ten cations. Analogous annealing experiments with Ig9 resulted in complex formation with all ten cations, and the majority of the resulting complexes were pentaplexes. CD results indicated most of the original complexes survived the desalting process necessary for ESI-MS analysis. In addition, several complexes, especially the pentaplexes, were found to be capable of cation exchange with ammonium ions. Ab initio calculations were conducted for isoguanine tetrads and pentads coordinated with all ten cations to predict the most energetically stable structures of the complexes in the gas phase. The observed preference of forming quadruplexes versus pentaplexes as a function of the coordinated cation can be interpreted by the calculated reaction energies of both the tetrads and pentads in combination with the distortion energies of tetrads. PMID:19746468

  4. Molecular design of high performance fused heteroacene radical cations: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Shigekazu; Matsushige, Kazumi; Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for neutral and radical cation of fused furan oligomer, denoted by F(n) where n means number of furan rings in the oligomer, to elucidate the electronic structures at ground and low-lying excited states. A polymer of fused furan was also investigated using one-dimensional periodic boundary condition (PBC) for comparison. It was found that the reorganization energy of radical cation of F(n) from vertical hole trapping point to its relaxed structure is significantly small. Also, the reorganization energy decreased gradually with increasing n, indicating that F(n) has an effective hole transport property. It was found that the cation radical of F(n) has a low energy band at near IR region, which is strongly correlated to hole conductivity. The relation between the electronic states and hole conductivity was discussed on the basis of theoretical calculations

  5. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  6. Adsorption of cationic amylopectin on microcrystalline cellulose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van de H.G.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bijsterbosch, B.H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of electrolyte concentration and pH on the adsorption of cationic amylopectin on microcrystalline cellulose were investigated. The adsorbed amount in the pseudo-plateau of the isotherm showed a maximum as a function of the electrolyte concentration. We compared the data with a recent

  7. Alkynylcarbenium ions and related unsaturated cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Sergey M; Koblik, Alla V; Muradyan, Lyudmila A [Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Rostov State University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)

    1998-10-31

    Published data on carbenium ions containing carbon-carbon triple bonds both directly conjugated with the carbenium centre and separated from it are surveyed and described systematically. Ammonium, diazonium, iminium, phosphonium and iodonium cations containing alkynyl groups, which can be regarded as heteroanalogues of alkynylcarbenium ions, are also considered. The bibliography includes 283 references.

  8. Alkynylcarbenium ions and related unsaturated cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, Sergey M; Koblik, Alla V; Muradyan, Lyudmila A

    1998-01-01

    Published data on carbenium ions containing carbon-carbon triple bonds both directly conjugated with the carbenium centre and separated from it are surveyed and described systematically. Ammonium, diazonium, iminium, phosphonium and iodonium cations containing alkynyl groups, which can be regarded as heteroanalogues of alkynylcarbenium ions, are also considered. The bibliography includes 283 references

  9. Effect of cations on the hydrated proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Niklas; Hunger, Johannes; Bakker, Huib J

    2014-09-17

    We report on a strong nonadditive effect of protons and other cations on the structural dynamics of liquid water, which is revealed using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1-50 GHz. For pure acid solutions, protons are known to have a strong structuring effect on water, leading to a pronounced decrease of the dielectric response. We observe that this structuring is reduced when protons are cosolvated with salts. This reduction is exclusively observed for combinations of protons with other ions; for all studied solutions of cosolvated salts, the effect on the structural dynamics of water is observed to be purely additive, even up to high concentrations. We derive an empirical model that quantitatively describes the nonadditive effect of cosolvated protons and cations. We argue that the effect can be explained from the special character of the proton in water and that Coulomb fields exerted by other cations, in particular doubly charged cations like Mg(2+)aq and Ca(2+)aq, induce a localization of the H(+)aq hydration structures.

  10. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  11. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Letter: OCCO*+, NNCO*+ and NNNN*+ radical cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, R; Srinivas, R; Nguyen, M T; Gerbaux, P

    2007-01-01

    Chemical ionization of a mixture of nitrogen and carbon monoxide produces three stable isobaric species at m/z 56: OCCO, OCNN and NNNN radical cations. Separated at increased resolution, these ions are readily identified by collisional activation. Neutralization-reionization experiments performed on two different mass spectrometers have not allowed the detection of any recovery signals for the corresponding neutrals.

  13. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical reactivity of cation-exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pidko, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites modified with metal cations have been extensively studied during the last two decades because of their wide application in different technologically important fields such as catalysis, adsorption and gas separation. Contrary to the well-understood mechanisms of chemical reactions catalyzed

  15. Selective crystallization of cations with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Dennis Egidius

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selectivity and preferences of the incorporation of differently sized cations in the cavities of various crown ethers and the characterization of the resulting compounds. The coordination preferences of crown ethers with different cavities have long been known, and the impact of other effects on the structure formation have increasingly become the focus of attention. In this work a comparative overview of the coordination preferences depending on various factors was undertaken. The focus was mainly on the variation of the cavity of the crown ether in the presence of differently sized cations. In addition, the effects of the solvent and differently coordinating anions have been investigated. Within the framework of this work, basic coordination preferences could be detected with rare earth nitrates, which are affected particularly by the choice of the solvent. The formation of different types of structures could be controlled by varying the conditions such that the incorporation of the cation in the cavity of the crown ether was influenced and the formation of a particular type of structure can be influenced partly by the choice of solvent. In this case no direct preferences for the incorporation into the cavity of the crown ether in relation to the cation size were observed for rare earth cations. However, the coordination of the crown ether leads in each case - for lanthanides - to rather high coordination numbers. A total of five new rare earth complexes and two structural variants could be observed with crown ethers. In the study of the selectivity of the incorporation into the cavity, known structures were also reproduced and further structures were characterized but the crystal structures not entirely solved. With the use of monovalent cations such as potassium, lithium or silver a total of nine new compounds could be synthesized, while no clear preferences for the incorporation of certain cations were detected. The

  16. [Noncovalent cation-π interactions--their role in nature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Krzysztof; Boratyński, Janusz

    2014-11-07

    Non-covalent interactions play an extremely important role in organisms. The main non-covalent interactions in nature are: ion-ion interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions. A new kind of intermolecular interactions--cation-π interactions--is gaining increasing attention. These interactions occur between a cation and a π system. The main contributors to cation-π interactions are electrostatic, polarization and, to a lesser extent, dispersion interactions. At first, cation-π interactions were studied in a gas phase, with metal cation-aromatic system complexes. The characteristics of these complexes are as follows: an increase of cation atomic number leads to a decrease of interaction energy, and an increase of cation charge leads to an increase of interaction energy. Aromatic amino acids bind with metal cations mainly through interactions with their main chain. Nevertheless, cation-π interaction with a hydrophobic side chain significantly enhances binding energy. In water solutions most cations preferentially interact with water molecules rather than aromatic systems. Cation-π interactions occur in environments with lower accessibility to a polar solvent. Cation-π interactions can have a stabilizing role on the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. These interactions play an important role in substrate or ligand binding sites in many proteins, which should be taken into consideration when the screening of effective inhibitors for these proteins is carried out. Cation-π interactions are abundant and play an important role in many biological processes.

  17. Effect of illite clay and divalent cations on bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Repka, C. [Baker Petrolite Corp., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-12-15

    Nearly 35 per cent of Canada's petroleum needs can be met from the Athabasca oil sands, particularly as conventional sources of petroleum decline. The interactions between bitumen and clay minerals play a key role in the recovery process of bitumen because they affect bitumen aeration. The 2 clays minerals found in various oil sands extraction process streams are kaolinite and illite. In this study, doping flotation tests using deionized water and electrokinetic studies were performed to examine the effect of illite clays on bitumen recovery. The effect of magnesium ions was also examined and compared with calcium ions. This paper also discussed the effects of temperature and tailings water chemistry. The negative effect of illite clay on bitumen recovery was found to be associated with its acidity. Denver flotation cell measurements indicated that the addition of calcium or magnesium ions to the flotation deionized water had only a slight effect on bitumen recovery, but the co-addition of illite clay and divalent cations resulted in a dramatic reduction in bitumen recovery. The effect was more significant at lower process temperature and low pH values. Zeta potential distributions of illite suspensions and bitumen emulsions were measured individually and as a mixture to determine the effect of divalent cations on the interaction between bitumen and illite clay. The presence of 1 mM calcium or magnesium ions in deionized water had a pronounced effect on the interactions between bitumen and illite clay. Slime coating of illite onto bitumen was not observed in zeta potential distribution measurements performed in alkaline tailings water. When tests were conducted using plant recycle water, the combination of illite clay and divalent cations did not have an adverse effect on bitumen recovery. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Structure relationship of cationic lipids on gene transfection mediated by cationic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paecharoenchai, Orapan; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apirakaramwong, Auayporn; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-ek; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes formulated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) and novel synthesized diethanolamine-based cationic lipids at a molar ratio of 5:1 in comparison with Lipofectamine™ 2000. Factors affecting transfection efficiency and cell viability, including the chemical structure of the cationic lipids, such as different amine head group (diamine and polyamine; and non-spermine and spermine) and acyl chain lengths (C14, C16, and C18) and the weight ratio of liposomes to DNA were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using the pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). Characterizations of these lipoplexes in terms of size and charge measurement and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. The results from this study revealed that almost no transfection was observed in the liposome formulations composed of cationic lipids with a non-spermine head group. In addition, the transfection efficiency of these cationic liposomes was in the following order: spermine-C14 > spermine-C16 > spermine-C18. The highest transfection efficiency was observed in the formulation of spermine-C14 liposomes at a weight ratio of 25; furthermore, this formulation was safe for use in vitro. In conclusion, cationic liposomes containing spermine head groups demonstrated promising potential as gene carriers.

  20. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a salt-tolerant and fluconazole (FLC)-resistant yeast species. Here, we analyse the contribution of plasma-membrane alkali-metal-cation exporters, a cation/proton antiporter and a cation ATPase to cation homeostasis and the maintenance of membrane potential (ΔΨ). Using a series of single and double mutants lacking CNH1 and/or ENA1 genes we show that the inability to export potassium and toxic alkali-metal cations leads to a slight hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane of C. glabrata cells; this hyperpolarization drives more cations into the cells and affects cation homeostasis. Surprisingly, a much higher hyperpolarization of C. glabrata plasma membrane was produced by incubating cells with subinhibitory concentrations of FLC. FLC treatment resulted in a substantially increased sensitivity of cells to various cationic drugs and toxic cations that are driven into the cell by negative-inside plasma-membrane potential. The effect of the combination of FLC plus cationic drug treatment was enhanced by the malfunction of alkali-metal-cation transporters that contribute to the regulation of membrane potential and cation homeostasis. In summary, we show that the combination of subinhibitory concentrations of FLC and cationic drugs strongly affects the growth of C. glabrata cells. © 2014 The Authors.

  1. (4 + 3) Cycloadditions of Nitrogen-Stabilized Oxyallyl Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of heteroatom-substituted oxyallyl cations in (4 + 3) cycloadditions has had a tremendous impact on the development of cycloaddition chemistry. Extensive efforts have been exerted toward investigating the effect of oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-substituents on the reactivity of oxyallyl cations. Most recently, the use of nitrogen-stabilized oxyallyl cations has gained prominence in the area of (4 + 3) cycloadditions. The following article will provide an overview of this concept utilizing nitrogen-stabilized oxyallyl cations. PMID:21384451

  2. Selective alkylation by photogenerated aryl and vinyl cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegt, Micha

    2006-01-01

    Seven para-substituted phenyl cations and the parent phenyl cation were prepared from iodonium salt precursors. Product studies revealed remarkable chemoselectivity and regioselectivity that could be related to the spin multiplicity of the cations. Also an universal method to fingerprint singlet and

  3. Esterification of phenyl acetic acid with p-cresol using metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclay catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, M; Surekha, M; Suma, N

    2018-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of phenyl acetic acid with p -cresol over different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays yields p -cresyl phenyl acetate. Different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays (M n +  = Al 3+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ ) were prepared and the catalytic activity was studied. The esterification reaction was conducted by varying molar ratio of the reactants, reaction time and catalyst amount on the yield of the ester. Among the different metal cation exchanged catalysts used, Al 3+ -montmorillonite nanoclay was found to be more active. The characterization of the material used was studied under different techniques, namely X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The product obtained, p -cresyl phenyl acetate, was identified by thin-layer chromotography and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR. The regeneration activity of used catalyst was also investigated up to fourth generation.

  4. Biosorption of silver cations onto Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei isolated from dairy products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Milanowski

    Full Text Available The current work deals with the phenomenon of silver cations uptake by two kinds of bacteria isolated from dairy products. The mechanism of sorption of silver cations by Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei bacteria was investigated. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was used for determination of silver concentration sorbed by bacteria. Analysis of charge distribution was conducted by diffraction light scattering method. Changes in the ultrastructure of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei cells after treatment with silver cations were investigated using transmission electron microscopy observation. Molecular spectroscopy methods, namely Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS were employed for description of the sorption mechanism. Moreover, an analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs extracted from bacterial cells was performed.

  5. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  6. Penetrating cation/fatty acid anion pair as a mitochondria-targeted protonophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Fedor F.; Severina, Inna I.; Antonenko, Yury N.; Rokitskaya, Tatiana I.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Mokhova, Elena N.; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Yu.; Pustovidko, Antonina V.; Markova, Olga V.; Yaguzhinsky, Lev S.; Korshunova, Galina A.; Sumbatyan, Nataliya V.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    A unique phenomenon of mitochondria-targeted protonophores is described. It consists in a transmembrane H+-conducting fatty acid cycling mediated by penetrating cations such as 10-(6’-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) or dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP). The phenomenon has been modeled by molecular dynamics and directly proved by experiments on bilayer planar phospholipid membrane, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and yeast cells. In bilayer planar phospholipid membrane, the concerted action of penetrating cations and fatty acids is found to result in conversion of a pH gradient (ΔpH) to a membrane potential (Δψ) of the Nernstian value (about 60 mV Δψ at ΔpH = 1). A hydrophobic cation with localized charge (cetyltrimethylammonium) failed to substitute for hydrophobic cations with delocalized charge. In isolated mitochondria, SkQ1 and C12TPP, but not cetyltrimethylammonium, potentiated fatty acid-induced (i) uncoupling of respiration and phosphorylation, and (ii) inhibition of H2O2 formation. In intact yeast cells, C12TPP stimulated respiration regardless of the extracellular pH value, whereas a nontargeted protonophorous uncoupler (trifluoromethoxycarbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone) stimulated respiration at pH 5 but not at pH 3. Hydrophobic penetrating cations might be promising to treat obesity, senescence, and some kinds of cancer that require mitochondrial hyperpolarization. PMID:20080732

  7. Radiation chemistry of aromatic dimer radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    π-π Interactions of aromatic molecules are paid attention much in many fields, especially biology, chemistry, and applied physics, represented as protein, DNA, electron donor-accepter complexes, charge transfers, and self assembly molecules. Aromatic molecules including benzene rings are the simplest case to study the π-π interactions. To interpret the charge resonance (CR) structure in the dimer radical cations, spectroscopic and ESR methods have been carried out. The spectroscopic study on the dimer radical ion of molecules with two chromophores would be profitable to identify the electronic and configurational properties. In this article, dynamics of the dimer radical cation of benzenes, polystyrenes, and resist polymers is described on the basis of direct observation of CR band by the nanosecond pulse radiolysis and low temperature γ-radiolysis methods. (author)

  8. Electronic spectrum of 9-methylanthracenium radical cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, Gerard D.; Schmidt, Timothy W., E-mail: timothy.schmidt@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry, UNSW Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Sanelli, Julian A.; Dryza, Vik; Bieske, Evan J. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-04-21

    The predissociation spectrum of the cold, argon-tagged, 9-methylanthracenium radical cation is reported from 8000 cm{sup −1} to 44 500 cm{sup −1}. The reported spectrum contains bands corresponding to at least eight electronic transitions ranging from the near infrared to the ultraviolet. These electronic transitions are assigned through comparison with ab initio energies and intensities. The infrared D{sub 1}←D{sub 0} transitions exhibit significant vibronic activity, which is assigned through comparison with TD-B3LYP excited state frequencies and intensities, as well as modelled vibronic interactions. Dissociation of 9-methylanthracenium is also observed at high visible-photon energies, resulting in the loss of either CH{sub 2} or CH{sub 3}. The relevance of these spectra, and the spectra of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations, to the largely unassigned diffuse interstellar bands, is discussed.

  9. Photodissociation of spatially aligned acetaldehyde cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Silva, Ruchira; Kim, Myung Hwa; Shen, Lei; Suits, Arthur G

    2007-07-26

    Photofragment translational energy and angular distributions are reported for the photodissociation of acetaldehyde cations in the wavelength range 354-363 nm obtained using the DC slice ion imaging technique. Vibrationally selected parent ions were produced by 2+1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the 3sCH3CO+, and CH4+. The angular distributions reveal that all product channels have a predominantly parallel recoil anisotropy although the lower beta2 parameter of CH3CO+ indicates the concomitant presence of a perpendicular component. Furthermore, the distinct angular distribution of the CH3CO+ fragments shows a large value of the higher order Legendre polynomial term, providing evidence that acetaldehyde cations are spatially aligned during the ionization process.

  10. Mechanism of adsorption of cations onto rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Fujiwara, Kenso; Nishikawa, Sataro; Moriyama, Hirotake

    1999-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of cations onto granite was investigated. The distribution coefficient (K d ) of Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ onto granite was determined in the solution of which pH was ranged from 3.5 to 11.3 and ionic strength was set at 10 -2 and 10 -1 . The K d values were found to increase with increasing pH and with deceasing ionic strength. The obtained data were successfully analyzed by applying an electrical double layer model. The optimum parameter values of the double layer electrostatics and adsorption reactions were obtained, and the mechanism of adsorption of cations onto granite was discussed. Feldspar was found to play an important role in their adsorption. (author)

  11. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  12. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  13. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  14. Effect of Cation Ordering on the Performance and Chemical Stability of Layered Double Perovskite Cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernuy-Lopez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3−δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7.4 and 11.5 Ω·cm2 at 400 °C and 0.16 and 0.32 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C in 3% humidified synthetic air respectively. The oxygen vacancy concentration, electrical conductivity, basicity of cations and crystal structure were evaluated to rationalize the electrochemical performance of the two materials. The combination of high-basicity elements and high electrical conductivity as well as sufficient oxygen vacancy concentration explains the excellent performance of both LaBaCo2O5+δ and La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, oxygen-deficiency in both materials is greatly reduced, leading to decreased performance despite the high basicity and electrical conductivity. A-site cation ordering leads to a higher oxygen vacancy concentration, which explains the better performance of LaBaCo2O5+δ. Finally, the more pronounced oxygen deficiency of the cation ordered polymorph and the lower chemical stability at reducing conditions were confirmed by coulometric titration.

  15. Caffeine inhibits nonselective cationic currents in interstitial cells of Cajal from the murine jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nan Ge; Koh, Sang Don; Sanders, Kenton M

    2009-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) discharge unitary potentials in gastrointestinal muscles that constitute the basis for pacemaker activity. Caffeine has been used to block unitary potentials, but the ionic conductance responsible for unitary potentials is controversial. We investigated currents in cultured ICC from murine jejunum that may underlie unitary potentials and studied the effects of caffeine. Networks of ICC generated slow wave events under current clamp, and these events were blocked by caffeine in a concentration-dependent manner. Single ICC generated spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) under voltage clamp at -60 mV and noisy voltage fluctuations in current clamp. STICs were unaffected when the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl) was set to -60 mV (excluding Cl- currents) and reversed at 0 mV, demonstrating that a nonselective cationic conductance, and not a Cl- conductance, is responsible for STICs in ICC. Caffeine inhibited STICs in a concentration-dependent manner. Reduced intracellular Ca2+ and calmidazolium (CMZ; 1 microM) activated persistent inward, nonselective cation currents in ICC. Currents activated by CMZ and by dialysis of cells with 10 mM BAPTA were also inhibited by caffeine. Excised inside-out patches contained channels that exhibited spontaneous openings, and resulting currents reversed at 0 mV. Channel openings were increased by reducing Ca2+ concentration from 10(-6) M to 10(-8) M. CMZ (1 microM) also increased openings of nonselective cation channels. Spontaneous currents and channels activated by CMZ were inhibited by caffeine (5 mM). The findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-inhibited nonselective cation channels that generate STICs in ICC are blocked directly by caffeine. STICs are responsible for unitary potentials in intact muscles, and the block of these events by caffeine is consistent with the idea that a nonselective cation conductance underlies unitary potentials in ICC.

  16. Dual cell conductivity during ionic exchange processes: the intelligent transmitter EXA DC 400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mier, A.

    1997-01-01

    Why is differential conductivity important versus standard conductivity measurement? That entirely depends on the application. If we have a process where the conductivity changes ge.. Cation exchanger, then standard conductivity measurement is not appropriate. With dual cell conductivity we can rate the process and eliminate conductivity changes outside the process. Therefore we achieve more precise control or monitoring of that process. (Author)

  17. Anchoring cationic amphiphiles for nucleotide delivery: significance of DNA release from cationic liposomes for transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Naohide; Minatani, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Yoshifumi; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-06-01

    We have designed and synthesized lithocholic acid-based cationic amphiphile molecules as components of cationic liposomes for gene transfection (lipofection). To study the relationship between the molecular structures of those amphiphilic molecules, particularly the extended hydrophobic appendant (anchor) at the 3-hydroxyl group, and transfection efficiency, we synthesized several lithocholic and isolithocholic acid derivatives, and examined their transfection efficiency. We also compared the physico-chemical properties of cationic liposomes prepared from these derivatives. We found that isolithocholic acid derivatives exhibit higher transfection efficiency than the corresponding lithocholic acid derivatives. This result indicates that the orientation and extension of hydrophobic regions influence the gene transfection process. Isolithocholic acid derivatives showed a high ability to encapsulate DNA in a compact liposome-DNA complex and to protect it from enzymatic degradation. Isolithocholic acid derivatives also facilitated the release of DNA from the liposome-DNA complex, which is a crucial step for DNA entry into the nucleus. Our results show that the transfection efficiency is directly influenced by the ability of the liposome complex to release DNA, rather than by the DNA-encapsulating ability. Molecular modeling revealed that isolithocholic acid derivatives take relatively extended conformations, while the lithocholic acid derivatives take folded structures. Thus, the efficiency of release of DNA from cationic liposomes in the cytoplasm, which contributes to high transfection efficiency, appears to be dependent upon the molecular shape of the cationic amphiphiles.

  18. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-06-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant species was reported. We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240 members are separated into three families, i.e., Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, K(+) efflux antiporters, and cation/H(+) exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H(+) exchangers in the examined angiosperm species. Sliding window analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and found most motifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fractionation of lithium isotopes in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kawada, Kazuhiko; Kakihana, Hidetake; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1991-01-01

    Various methods for lithium isotope separation have been developed, and their applicability to large-scale enriched lithium isotope production has been assessed. Ion-exchange chromatography is one such method. Cation-exchange chromatography of lithium was carried out to investigate the lithium isotope effect in aqueous ion-exchange systems. The heavier isotope. 7 Li, was preferentially fractionated into the resin phase in every experiment conducted, and this result is consistent with the results of previous work. The value of the separation factor was 1.00089-1.00171 at 25C. A comparison of lithium isotope effect with those of potassium and rubidium indicated that the isotope effect originating from hydration is larger than the effect due to phase change for lithium, while the opposite is the case with potassium and rubidium

  20. Radical cations of quadricyclane and norbornadiene in polar ZSM-5 matrices: Radical cation photochemical transformations without photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnabas, M.V.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radical cations of quadricyclane (Q) and norbornadiene (NBD) are produced by γ-radiolysis in zeolites. In polar ZSM-5, only one radical cation is initially observed below 100K. Increasing the temperature above 200K gives rise to the cyclopentadiene radical cation. Higher temperatures (>360K) give rise to the cyclopenten-4-yl radical. The observation of cyclopentadiene radical cation implies the occurrence of the reverse Diels-Alder reaction. This is a thermally forbidden, photochemically allowed, process, which is made possible by the interaction of the polar zeolite matrix sites with parent NBD and Q radical cations

  1. Ion motion and conductivity in rubidium and cesium hexafluorotitanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvich, Yu.N.; Cherkasov, B.I.; Sukhovskij, A.A.; Davidovich, R.L.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok. Inst. Khimii)

    1988-01-01

    Relaxation times for 19 F nuclei and electric conductivity in Rb 2 TiF 6 and Cs 2 TiF 6 polycrystals are measured. The parameters of reoriented anion motion and diffusion cation motion are determined according to the NMR data. The effect of phase transition to the cubic phase on the parameters of these motions are studied. High conductivity reaching values σ∼10 -2 -10 -3 Ohm -1 xm -1 is detected at high temperatures. The electric conductivity observed is shown to be caused by the diffusion motion of Rb + and Cs + cations

  2. Cationic niosomes an effective gene carrier composed of novel spermine-derivative cationic lipids: effect of central core structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Leksantikul, Lalita; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2017-05-01

    Cationic niosomes formulated from Span 20, cholesterol (Chol) and novel spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) were successfully prepared for improving transfection efficiency in vitro. The niosomes composed of spermine cationic lipid with central core structure of di(oxyethyl)amino revealed the highest gene transfection efficiency. To investigate the factors affecting gene transfection and cell viability including differences in the central core structures of cationic lipids, the composition of vesicles, molar ratio of cationic lipids in formulations and the weight ratio of niosomes to DNA. Cationic niosomes composed of nonionic surfactants (Span20), cholesterol and spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures were formulated. Gene transfection and cell viability were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). The morphology, size and charge were also characterized. High transfection efficiency was obtained from cationic niosomes composed of Span20:Chol:cationic lipid at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM. Cationic lipids with di(oxyethyl)amino as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency. In addition, there was also no serum effect on transfection efficiency. These novel cationic niosomes may constitute a good alternative carrier for gene transfection.

  3. Evolutionary and Structural Perspectives of Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Cation Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Kira Zelman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ligand-gated cation channels are a frequent component of signaling cascades in eukaryotes. Eukaryotes contain numerous diverse gene families encoding ion channels, some of which are shared and some of which are unique to particular kingdoms. Among the many different types are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs. CNGCs are cation channels with varying degrees of ion conduction selectivity. They are implicated in numerous signaling pathways and permit diffusion of divalent and monovalent cations, including Ca2+ and K+. CNGCs are present in both plant and animal cells, typically in the plasma membrane; recent studies have also documented their presence in prokaryotes. All eukaryote CNGC polypeptides have a cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD and a calmodulin binding domain (CaMBD as well as a 6 transmembrane/1 pore tertiary structure. This review summarizes existing knowledge about the functional domains present in these cation-conducting channels, and considers the evidence indicating that plant and animal CNGCs evolved separately. Additionally, an amino acid motif that is only found in the phosphate binding cassette and hinge regions of plant CNGCs, and is present in all experimentally confirmed CNGCs but no other channels was identified. This CNGC-specific amino acid motif provides an additional diagnostic tool to identify plant CNGCs, and can increase confidence in the annotation of open reading frames in newly sequenced genomes as putative CNGCs. Conversely, the absence of the motif in some plant sequences currently identified as probable CNGCs may suggest that they are misannotated or protein fragments.

  4. Evolutionary and structural perspectives of plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.

    2012-05-29

    Ligand-gated cation channels are a frequent component of signaling cascades in eukaryotes. Eukaryotes contain numerous diverse gene families encoding ion channels, some of which are shared and some of which are unique to particular kingdoms. Among the many different types are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs). CNGCs are cation channels with varying degrees of ion conduction selectivity. They are implicated in numerous signaling pathways and permit diffusion of divalent and monovalent cations, including Ca2+ and K+. CNGCs are present in both plant and animal cells, typically in the plasma membrane; recent studies have also documented their presence in prokaryotes. All eukaryote CNGC polypeptides have a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain and a calmodulin binding domain as well as a six transmembrane/one pore tertiary structure. This review summarizes existing knowledge about the functional domains present in these cation-conducting channels, and considers the evidence indicating that plant and animal CNGCs evolved separately. Additionally, an amino acid motif that is only found in the phosphate binding cassette and hinge regions of plant CNGCs, and is present in all experimentally confirmed CNGCs but no other channels was identified. This CNGC-specific amino acid motif provides an additional diagnostic tool to identify plant CNGCs, and can increase confidence in the annotation of open reading frames in newly sequenced genomes as putative CNGCs. Conversely, the absence of the motif in some plant sequences currently identified as probable CNGCs may suggest that they are misannotated or protein fragments. 2012 Zelman, Dawe, Gehring and Berkowitz.

  5. Cation mobility in H+/Na+ ion exchange products of acid tantalum and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnopol'skij, V.A.; Yaroslavtsev, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of Na + /H + exchange products on acid zirconium phosphate with different substitution degree and on acid tantalum phosphate, where ion exchange occurs via formation of a continuous series of solid solutions, was studied by the method of conductometry. It was ascertained that ionic conductivity decreases monotonously with growth in substitution degree of H + for Na + in acid tantalum phosphate. Anomalous increase in ionic conductivity of ion exchange products on acid zirconium phosphate with a low substitution degree has been detected for the first time. Formation of a double electric layer with a high concentration of cationic defects on the interface surface is the reason for increase in ionic conductivity [ru

  6. Cation-Cation Complexes of Pentavalent Uranyl: From Disproportionation Intermediates to Stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougel, Victor; Horeglad, Pawel; Nocton, Gregory; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [CEA, INAC, SCIB, Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 GRENOBLE, Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Three new cation cation complexes of pentavalent uranyl, stable with respect to the disproportionation reaction, have been prepared from the reaction of the precursor [(UO{sub 2}py{sub 5})-(KI{sub 2}py{sub 2})]{sub n} (1) with the Schiff base ligands salen{sup 2-}, acacen{sup 2-}, and salophen{sup 2-} (H{sub 2}salen N, N'-ethylene-bis(salicylidene-imine), H{sub 2}acacen=-N, N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetone-imine), H{sub 2}salophen=N, N'-phenylene-bis(salicylidene-imine)). The preparation of stable complexes requires a careful choice of counter ions and reaction conditions. Notably the reaction of 1 with salophen{sup 2-} in pyridine leads to immediate disproportionation, but in the presence of [18]crown-6 ([18]C-6) a stable complex forms. The solid-state structure of the four tetra-nuclear complexes ([UO{sub 2}-(acacen)]{sub 4}[{mu}{sub 8}-]{sub 2}[K([18]C-6)(py)]{sub 2}) (3) and ([UO{sub 2}(acacen)](4)[{mu}{sub 8}-]).2[K([222])(py)] (4) ([UO{sub 2}(salophen)](4)[{mu}{sub 8}-K]{sub 2}[mu(5)-KI]{sub 2}[(K([18]C-6)]).2 [K([18]C-6)-(thf){sub 2}].2I (5), and ([UO{sub 2}(salen)(4)][{mu}{sub 8}-Rb]{sub 2}[Rb([18]C-6)]{sub 2}) (9) ([222] = [222]cryptand, py =pyridine), presenting a T-shaped cation cation interaction has been determined by X-ray crystallographic studies. NMR spectroscopic and UV/Vis studies show that the tetra-nuclear structure is maintained in pyridine solution for the salen and acacen complexes. Stable mononuclear complexes of pentavalent uranyl are also obtained by reduction of the hexavalent uranyl Schiff base complexes with cobaltocene in pyridine in the absence of coordinating cations. The reactivity of the complex [U{sup V}O{sub 2}(salen)(py)][Cp*{sub 2}Co] with different alkali ions demonstrates the crucial effect of coordinating cations on the stability of cation cation complexes. The nature of the cation plays a key role in the preparation of stable cation cation complexes. Stable tetra-nuclear complexes form in the presence of K

  7. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  8. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Shailesh M.; G, Agathian; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  9. Cationic polymers in water treatment: Part 1: Treatability of water with cationic polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polasek, P.; Mutl, Silvestr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2002), s. 69-82 ISSN 0378-4738 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Keywords : cationic polymers * treatability * water quality Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.481, year: 2002

  10. Alkali Metal Cation versus Proton and Methyl Cation Affinities: Structure and Bonding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughlala, Zakaria; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We have analyzed the structure and bonding of gas-phase Cl-X and [HCl-X](+) complexes for X(+)= H(+), CH3 (+), Li(+), and Na(+), using relativistic density functional theory (DFT). We wish to establish a quantitative trend in affinities of the anionic and neutral Lewis bases Cl(-) and HCl for the various cations. The Cl-X bond becomes longer and weaker along X(+) = H(+), CH3 (+), Li(+), and Na(+). Our main purpose is to understand the heterolytic bonding mechanism behind the intrinsic (i.e., in the absence of solvent) alkali metal cation affinities (AMCA) and how this compares with and differs from those of the proton affinity (PA) and methyl cation affinity (MCA). Our analyses are based on Kohn-Sham molecular orbital (KS-MO) theory in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis (EDA) that pinpoints the importance of the different features in the bonding mechanism. Orbital overlap appears to play an important role in determining the trend in cation affinities.

  11. Cobalt 60 cation exchange with mexican clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava Galve, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Mexican clays can be used to remove radioactive elements from contaminated aqueous solutions. Cation exchange experiments were performed with 60 Co radioactive solution. In the present work the effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ was studied. The contact time in hydrated montmorillonite was from 5 to 120 minutes and in dehydrated montmorillonite 5 to 1400 minutes. The Co 2+ uptake value was, in hydrated montmorillonite, between 0.3 to 0.85 m eq/g and in dehydrated montmorillonite, between 0.6 to 1.40 m eq/g. The experiments were done in a pH 5.1 to 5.7 and normal conditions. XRD patterns were used to characterize the samples. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray Diffraction and it was maintained before and after the cation exchange. DTA thermo grams showed the temperatures of the lost humidity and crystallization water. Finally, was observed that dehydrated montmorillonite adsorb more cobalt than hydrated montmorillonite. (Author)

  12. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture.

  13. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2013-01-01

    Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications. PMID:23665898

  14. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs. The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  15. Basic exchangeable cations in Finnish mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available The content of exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and Na replaced by neutral ammonium acetate was determined in 470 samples of mineral soils from various parts of Finland, except from Lapland. The amount of all these cations tended to increase with an increase in the clay content, but variation within each textural class was large, and the ranges usually overlapped those of the other classes. The higher acidity of virgin surface soils was connected with a lower average degree of saturation by Ca as compared with the corresponding textural classes of cultivated soils. No significant difference in the respective contents of other cations was detected. The samples of various textural groups from deeper layers were usually poorer in exchangeable Ca and K than the corresponding groups of plough layer. The mean content of exchangeable Mg was equal or even higher in the samples from deeper layers than in the samples from plough layer, except in the group of sand soils. The percentage of Mg of the effective CEC increased, as an average, from 9 in the sand and fine sand soils of plough layer to 30 in the heavy clay soils; in the heavy clay soils from deeper layers its mean value was 38 ± 4 %. In the samples of plough layer, the mean ratio of Ca to Mg in sand and fine sand soils was about 9, in silt and loam soils about 6, in the coarser clay soils about 4, and in heavy clay about 2.

  16. Radiochemical study of isomerization of free butyl cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinotova, E.N.; Nefedov, V.D.; Skorokhodov, S.S.; Arkhipov, Yu.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ion-molecular reactions of free butyl cations, generated by nuclear chemical method, with carbon monoxide containing small quantities of ethanol vapors are studied. Carbon monoxide was used to fix instable butyl cations in the form of corresponding acyl ions. Ester of α-methyl-butyric acid appears to be the only product of free butyl cation interaction with carbon monoxide in the presence of ethanol vapors. That means, that up to the moment of butyl cation reaction with carbon monoxide, the primary butyl cations are almost completely isomerized into secondary in agreement with results of previous investigations. This allows one to study free butyl cation isomerization process according to ion-molecular reaction product isomeric composition

  17. Stability and recovery of DNA origami structure with cation concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ting; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zhu, Jun; Ye, Kai; Huang, Guang; Dannong, He

    2018-01-01

    We synthesized triangular and rectangular DNA origami nanostructures and investigated the stability and recovery of them under low cation concentration. Our results demonstrated that the origami nanostructures would melt when incubated in low cation concentration, and recover whilst kept in the concentration for less than 10 min. However, extending the incubation time would lead to irreversible melting. Our results show the possibility of application of DNA origami nanostructures for things such as a sensor for cation concentration response, etc.

  18. Effect of competing cations on strontium sorption to surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The following study was conducted to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K d 'S) of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine K d 's which describe the partitioning of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A surficial sediment was mixed with synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically simulate wastewater disposed to infiltrations ponds near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the INEL with respect to major ionic character and pH. The effects of variable concentrations of competing cations (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) on strontium sorption were investigated at a fixed pH of 8.00. The pH of the natural system shows no appreciable variation, whereas a marked variability in cation concentration has been noted. Strontium sorption was impacted to a greater degree by the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution than by the presence of sodium or potassium. However, extreme sodium solution concentrations of 1.0 to 5.0 g/L dramatically reduced strontium sorption. In all cases, strontium K d 's decreased as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution increased. Linear isotherm model K d 's ranged from 12.0 to 84.7 mL/g. Analysis of data from these experiments indicated that moderate concentrations of calcium and magnesium (less than 40 mg/L) and high concentrations of sodium (1.0 to 5.0 g/L) in wastewater increase strontium mobility by decreasing the sorption of strontium on surficial sediments beneath infiltration ponds at the INEL

  19. Studies of Fe-Co based perovskite cathodes with different A-site cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Iron-cobalt based perovskite cathodes with different A-site cations ((Ln(0.6)Sr(0.4))(0.99)Fe0.8Co0.2O3-delta, where Ln is La, Pr, Sm or Gd) have been synthesised, characterised by a powder XRD, dilatometry, 4-point DC conductivity measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS......) on cone shaped electrodes. In addition to this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterise the bars. XRD revealed that only the La-containing perovskite was hexagonal. The Pr and Sm perovskites were orthorhombic. The gadolinium-based perovskite was a two phase system consisting...... of an orthorhombic and a cubic perovskite phase. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) increased systematically with a decrease in the size of the A-site cation until the gadoliniurn-containing perovskite where the TEC decreases abruptly. The total electric conductivity was the highest for the La-based perovskite...

  20. A Cation-containing Polymer Anion Exchange Membrane based on Poly(norbornene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Frederick; Price, Samuel; Ren, Xiaoming; Savage, Alice

    Cation-containing polymers are being studied widely for use as anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) because AEMs offer a number of potential benefits including allowing a solid state device and elimination of the carbonate poisoning problem. The successful AEM will combine high performance from several orthogonal properties, having robust mechanical strength even when wet, high hydroxide conductivity, and the high chemical stability required for long device lifetimes. In this study, we have synthesized a model cationic polymer that combines three of the key advantages of Nafion. The polymer backbone based on semicrystalline atactic poly(norbornene) offers good mechanical properties. A flexible, ether-based tether between the backbone and fixed cation charged species (quaternary ammonium) should provide the low-Tg, hydrophilic environment required to facilitate OH- transport. Finally, methyl groups have been added at the beta position relative to the quaternary ammonium cation to prevent Hoffman elimination, one mechanism by which AEMs are neutralized in a high pH environment. In this poster, we will present our findings on mechanical properties, morphology, charge transport, and chemical stability of this material.

  1. Cation depletion by the sodium pump in red cells with pathologic cation leaks. Sickle cells and xerocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Joiner, C H; Platt, O S; Lux, S E

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blo...

  2. Effect of dietary cation-anion balance on milk production and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three diets with different cation-anion differences ((DCAD: mEq[(Na + K) − (Cl + S)]/100 g of dry matter)) in far-off and close-up period, on milk production and blood mineral of Holstein cows. Eighteen pregnant cows (220 - 225 d) were fed a base diet with three DCAD (+13 ...

  3. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo L.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH 4 ) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 °C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200–600 °C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 °C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 °C reached a plateau or steady-state within the first 24 h increasing only

  4. Predicting Organic Cation Sorption Coefficients: Accounting for Competition from Sorbed Inorganic Cations Using a Simple Probe Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, William C; Goyetche, Reaha; Carter, Katherine; Medina, John; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2017-06-06

    With the increasing number of emerging contaminants that are cationic at environmentally relevant pH values, there is a need for robust predictive models of organic cation sorption coefficients (K d ). Current predictive models fail to account for the differences in the identity, abundance, and affinity of surface-associated inorganic exchange ions naturally present at negatively charged receptor sites on environmental solids. To better understand how organic cation sorption is influenced by surface-associated inorganic exchange ions, sorption coefficients of 10 organic cations (including eight pharmaceuticals and two simple probe organic amines) were determined for six homoionic forms of the aluminosilicate mineral, montmorillonite. Organic cation sorption coefficients exhibited consistent trends for all compounds across the various homoionic clays with sorption coefficients (K d ) decreasing as follows: K d Na + > K d NH 4 + ≥ K d K + > K d Ca 2+ ≥ K d Mg 2+ > K d Al 3+ . This trend for competition between organic cations and exchangeable inorganic cations is consistent with the inorganic cation selectivity sequence, determined for exchange between inorganic ions. Such consistent trends in competition between organic and inorganic cations suggested that a simple probe cation, such as phenyltrimethylammonium or benzylamine, could capture soil-to-soil variations in native inorganic cation identity and abundance for the prediction of organic cation sorption to soils and soil minerals. Indeed, sorption of two pharmaceutical compounds to 30 soils was better described by phenyltrimethylammonium sorption than by measures of benzylamine sorption, effective cation exchange capacity alone, or a model from the literature (Droge, S., and Goss, K. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 14224). A hybrid approach integrating structural scaling factors derived from this literature model of organic cation sorption, along with phenyltrimethylammonium K d values, allowed for

  5. Computational study of cation substitutions in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Toomas; Peld, Merike

    2006-01-01

    Density-functional theory plane-wave modeling of fluor- and hydroxyapatites has been performed, where one or two calcium ions per unit cell were replaced with cadmium or zinc cations. It was found that cadmium ions favor Ca(1) positions in fluorapatites and Ca(2) positions in hydroxyapatites, in agreement with experiment. A similar pattern is predicted for zinc substitutions. In the doubly substituted cases, where only hydroxyapatites were modeled, a preference for the substituting ions to be located in Ca(2) position was also observed. Displacement of the hydroxide ions from their symmetrical positions on the hexagonal axis can be used to explain the preferred configurations of substituting ions around the axis. -- Deformation of the hydroxide ion chain due to substitutions around the ion channel in substituted hydroxyapatites

  6. Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2008-08-01

    Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a Ι of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

  7. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We...... then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients...... with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any...

  8. A Cationic Smart Copolymer for DNA Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Ribeiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new block copolymer with a temperature-responsive block and a cationic block was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, with good control of its size and composition. The first block is composed by di(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA and oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA, with the ratio DEGMA/OEGMA being used to choose the volume phase transition temperature of the polymer in water, tunable from ca. 25 to above 90 °C. The second block, of trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride (TMEC, is positively charged at physiological pH values and is used for DNA binding. The coacervate complexes between the block copolymer and a model single strand DNA are characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new materials offer good prospects for biomedical application, for example in controlled gene delivery.

  9. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo

    2010-11-25

    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Calixarenes synthesized for seducing and trapping cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Calixarenes are known to be selective extractants for cesium radioactive cations. This liquid-liquid extraction is still to be studied and would allow to reduce the volume of years living radioactive wastes before they were stored and perhaps to remove then the cesium by transmutation. Calixarenes are macrocycles with phenolic units bridged by methylene groups. They have the important property to have a flexible structure. On this basic structure, all kinds of chemical functions can be branched. They thus confer particular properties to the molecule. A computerized virtual construction phase of molecules is actually studied in order to optimize the extraction. It is currently known that with small modifications it will be possible to selectively extract heavy metals (Hg, Cd..) coming from industrial pollution. (O.M.)

  11. Effect of nature of base cation on surface conductivity of H forms of stratified silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, N.G.; Ovcharenko, F.D.; Savkin, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Interpretation has been proposed for curves of conductometric titration of diluted suspensions of natural silicates in hydrogen forms with solutions of alkalies and organic bases. The curves of conductometric are presented for suspensions of H-form of montmorillonite with solutions of alkali metal hydroxides and with Ba(OH) 2 . A linear decrease in electroconductiv;ty of the system is observed when H-mineral is neutralized with LIOH and NaOH solution. If hydroxides of other metals are added to such a system, the titration curves have an anomalous character. It is especially pronounced when H-mineral is titrated with RbOH and CsOH solutions. When these solutions are added to the suspension of h H-mineral, an additional amount of highly mobile H+-ions is formed which increases electroconductivity of the system. When all the exchange protons in a flat double layer are replaced by Rb 1 or Cs 1 ions, electroconductivity decreases which is related to neutralization of protons in the diffusion part of the layer

  12. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-01-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag"+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L"−"1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L"−"1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag"+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L"−"1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L"−"1), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  13. Organic cation rhodamines for screening organic cation transporters in early stages of drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Malachy C; Oli, Angus; Esimone, Charles O; Agu, Remigius U

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of rhodamine-123, rhodamine-6G and rhodamine B as non-radioactive probes for characterizing organic cation transporters in respiratory cells. Fluorescent characteristics of the compounds were validated under standard in vitro drug transport conditions (buffers, pH, and light). Uptake/transport kinetics and intracellular accumulation of the compounds were investigated. Uptake/transport mechanisms were investigated by comparing the effect of pH, temperature, concentration, polarity, OCTs/OCTNs inhibitors/substrates, and metabolic inhibitors on the cationic dyes uptake in Calu-3 cells. Fluorescence stability and intensity of the compounds were altered by buffer composition, light, and pH. Uptake of the dyes was concentration-, temperature- and pH-dependent. OCTs/OCTNs inhibitors significantly reduced intracellular accumulation of the compounds. Whereas rhodamine-B uptake was sodium-dependent, pH had no effect on rhodamine-123 and rhodamine-6G uptake. Transport of the dyes across the cells was polarized: (AP→BL>BL→AP transport) and saturable: {V max =14.08±2.074, K m =1821±380.4 (rhodamine-B); V max =6.555±0.4106, K m =1353±130.4 (rhodamine-123) and V max =0.3056±0.01402, K m =702.9±60.97 (rhodamine-6G)}. The dyes were co-localized with MitoTracker®, the mitochondrial marker. Cationic rhodamines, especially rhodamine-B and rhodamine- 6G can be used as organic cation transporter substrates in respiratory cells. During such studies, buffer selection, pH and light exposure should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of metallic cations in the beryl flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Leonel, C.M. de; Peres, A.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The beryl zeta potential in microelectrophoretic cell is studied in the presence of neutral electrolyte, cations of calcium, magnesium and iron. The petroleum sulfonate is used how collector in Hallimond tube. Hydroxy complex of metallic cations seems activate the ore and precipitates of colloidal metallic hidroxies seems lower him when added to the mixture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Stable polyfluorinated cycloalkenyl cations and their NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snegirev, V.F.; Galakhov, M.V.; Makarov, K.N.; Bakhmutov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    New stable 1-methoxyperfluoro-2-ethylcyclobutenyl, 1-methoxyperfluoro-2-methylcyclo-pentenyl, and 1-methoxyperfluoro-2-ethylcyclohexenyl cations were obtained by the action of antimony pentafluoride on the corresponding olefins. The distribution of the charges in the investigated polyfluorinated cycloalkenyl cations was investigated by 13 C NMR method

  16. Synthesis of Cationic Core-Shell Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziomkina, N.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant-free seeded (core-shell) polymerization of cationic polymer colloids is presented. Polystyrene core particles with sizes between 200 nm and 500 nm were synthesized. The number average diameter of the colloidal core particles increased with increasing monomer concentration. Cationic shells

  17. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  18. CATION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studier, M.H.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1959-07-14

    A cation exchange prccess is described for separating protactinium values from thorium values whereby they are initially adsorbed together from an aqueous 0.1 to 2 N hydrochloric acid on a cation exchange resin in a column. Then selectively eluting the thorium by an ammonium sulfate solution and subsequently eluting the protactinium by an oxalate solution.

  19. pi-Dimers of end-capped oligopyrrole cation radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haare, van J.A.E.H.; Groenendaal, L.; Havinga, E.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    1996-01-01

    In two consecutive one-electron oxidations, oligopyrroles substituted with phenyl capping groups (PhPynPh, n = 2–4) can be oxidized reversibly to give stable cation radicals and dications. Spectroelectrochemical studies give direct evidence that diamagnetic p-dimers of cation radicals are formed in

  20. Cation exchange of 53 elements in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Alarid, J.E.; Hamond, C.F.; McLeod, M.J.; Roensch, F.R.; Rein, J.E.

    1978-02-01

    Cation-exchange distribution data are presented for 53 elements from 3 to 12M HNO 3 for three strong-acid resins, having cross-linkages of 8%, 4%, and macroporous. Data obtained by 16- to 18-h dynamic batch contacts are compared to cation-exchange distribution data from strong HCl and HClO 4

  1. Base Cation Leaching From the Canopy of a Rubber ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base cations are essential to the sustainability of forest ecosystems. They are important for neutralizing the acidifying effects of atmospheric deposition. There is the need for in-depth understanding of base cation depletion and leaching from forest canopy. This is important particularly due to the increasing acidification and ...

  2. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Inactivate Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Del Cogliano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non-alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: (1 direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, (2 cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and (3 inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  3. Cation substitution induced blue-shift of optical band gap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cation substitution induced blue-shift of optical band gap in nanocrystalline Zn ( 1 − x ) Ca x O thin films deposited by sol–gel dip coating technique ... thin films giving 13.03% enhancement in theenergy gap value due to the electronic perturbation caused by cation substitution as well as deterioration in crystallinity.

  4. In vivo toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Northeved, Helle; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated toxicity of nanocarriers comprised of cationic polymer and lipid components often used in gene and drug delivery, formulated as cationic micelles and liposomes. Rats were injected intravenously with 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg and sacrificed after 24 or 48 h, or 24 h after the las...

  5. Cation binding at the node of Ranvier: I. Localization of binding sites during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoren, J C; Raine, C S; Suzuki, K

    1982-06-17

    Cations are known to bind to the node of Ranvier and the paranodal regions of myelinated fibers. The integrity of these specialized structures is essential for normal conduction. Sites of cation binding can be microscopically identified by the electrondense histochemical reaction product formed by the precipitate of copper sulfate/potassium ferrocyanide. This technique was used to study the distribution of cation binding during normal development of myelinating fibers. Sciatic nerves of C57B1 mice, at 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 18, 24 and 30 days of age, were prepared for electron microscopy following fixation in phosphate-buffered 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 1% osmic acid, microdissection and incubation in phosphate-buffered 0.1 M cupric sulfate followed by 0.1 M potassium ferrocyanide. Localization of reaction product was studied by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy, no reaction product was observed prior to 9 days of age. At 13 days, a few nodes and paranodes exhibited reaction product. This increased in frequency and intensity up to 30 days when almost all nodes or paranodes exhibited reaction product. Ultrastructurally, diffuse reaction product was first observed at 3 days of age in the axoplasm of the node, in the paranodal extracellular space of the terminal loops, in the Schwann cell proper and in the terminal loops of Schwann cell cytoplasm. When myelinated axons fulfilled the criteria for mature nodes, reaction product was no longer observed in the Schwann cell cytoplasm, while the intensity of reaction product in the nodal axoplasm and paranodal extracellular space of the terminal loops increased. Reaction product in the latter site appeared to be interrupted by the transverse bands. These results suggest that cation binding accompanies nodal maturity and that the Schwann cell may play a role in production or storage of the cation binding substance during myelinogenesis and development.

  6. Cation interdiffusion in polycrystalline calcium and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.P.; Jain, H.; Smyth, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a method that has been developed to study bulk lattice interdiffusion between calcium and strontium titanate by fabrication of a diffusion couple using cosintering. The measured interdiffusion coefficients, D(C), indicate that strontium impurity diffusion in calcium titanate occurs at a faster rate than calcium impurity diffusion in strontium titanate. These interdiffusion coefficients are composition independent when the concentration of the calcium cation exceeds that of the strontium cation; otherwise D(C) is strongly composition dependent. Investigations into the effect of cation nonstoichiometry give results that are consistent with a defect incorporation reaction in which excess TiO 2 , within the solid solubility limit, produces A-site cation vacancies as compensating defects. The interdiffusion coefficients increase with increasing concentrations of TiO 2 , so it is concluded that interdiffusion of these alkaline-earth cations in their titanates occurs via a vacancy mechanism

  7. Thermochemical stability of Soviet macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukhlyada, N.N.; Plotnikova, V.P.; Roginskaya, B.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Zavodovskaya, A.S.; Dobrova, E.I.

    1988-10-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of macroporosity on the thermochemical stability of sulfonated cation-exchangers. The investigations were carried out on commercial macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Study of the thermochemical stability of macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions showed that the type of macroporosity has virtually no influence on their stability. The determining factor in thermal stability of macroporous cation-exchangers, as of the gel type, is the degree of cross-linking of the polymer matrix. The capacity loss of macroporous cation-exchangers during oxidative thermolysis is caused by destruction of the macromolecular skeleton and elution of fragments of polar chains containing sulfo groups into the solution.

  8. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  9. Increasing Base Cations in Streams: Another Legacy of Deicing Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, A. M.; Barclay, J. R.; Bellucci, C.; Rittenhouse, C.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated use of deicing salts directly increases sodium chloride inputs to watersheds. Sodium can accumulate in soils over time and has the potential to leach other cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) from the soil through cation exchange. We hypothesize that increased use of deicing salts results in a legacy of soils depleted in non-sodium base cations with loss of cations to receiving waters. The goal of this project is to quantify temporal trends in base cations and chloride in streams and rivers across the United States. We used Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) to analyze trends in base cations. Our preliminary analysis of 10 rivers in Connecticut with chemical periods of record ranging from 24 - 64 years (median = 55 years), shows that the flux of base cations is increasing in all sites (25 - 366 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), driven largely by increases in sodium (23 - 222 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), the dominant cation in 7 of the sites. Chloride is also increasing at all sites (26 - 261 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), which, in combination with salt use trends, suggests a road salt source for the increased sodium. Non-sodium cations are also increasing in 9 of the sites (8 - 54 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), though they are not directly added with most deicing salts. We will compare these trends to other long-term sites across the United States, and quantify relationships between cation trends and land cover, road density, and snowfall.

  10. Thermodynamics and defect chemistry of substitutional and interstitial cation doping in layered α-V2O5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kit; Johnson, Ian; Corà, Furio

    2018-05-25

    A systematic study of the location and energetics of cation dopants in α-V2O5 has been conducted using pair-potential methods, supplemented by first-principles calculations. The consequences of doping on intrinsic defect equilibria have been discussed and the effects of selected dopants on Li+ and Mg2+ diffusion energy barriers have been investigated.

  11. Cation and anion dependence of stable geometries and stabilization energies of alkali metal cation complexes with FSA(-), FTA(-), and TFSA(-) anions: relationship with physicochemical properties of molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kubota, Keigo; Matsumoto, Hajime

    2013-12-19

    Stable geometries and stabilization energies (Eform) of the alkali metal complexes with bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethylslufonyl)amide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (FSA(-), FTA(-) and TFSA(-)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The FSA(-) complexes prefer the bidentate structures in which two oxygen atoms of two SO2 groups have contact with the metal cation. The FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+) and Na(+) prefer the bidentate structures, while the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Cs(+) prefer tridentate structures in which the metal cation has contact with two oxygen atoms of an SO2 group and one oxygen atom of another SO2 group. The two structures are nearly isoenergetic in the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with K(+) and Rb(+). The magnitude of Eform depends on the alkali metal cation significantly. The Eform calculated for the most stable TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) cations at the MP2/6-311G** level are -137.2, -110.5, -101.1, -89.6, and -84.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The viscosity and ionic conductivity of the alkali TFSA molten salts have strong correlation with the magnitude of the attraction. The viscosity increases and the ionic conductivity decreases with the increase of the attraction. The melting points of the alkali TFSA and alkali BETA molten salts also have correlation with the magnitude of the Eform, which strongly suggests that the magnitude of the attraction play important roles in determining the melting points of these molten salts. The anion dependence of the Eform calculated for the complexes is small (less than 2.9 kcal/mol). This shows that the magnitude of the attraction is not the cause of the low melting points of alkali FTA molten salts compared with those of corresponding alkali TFSA molten salts. The electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the complexes. The electrostatic energies for the most stable TFSA

  12. Cation depletion by the sodium pump in red cells with pathologic cation leaks. Sickle cells and xerocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, C H; Platt, O S; Lux, S E

    1986-12-01

    The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blocked by ouabain, removal of external potassium, or pretreatment with 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate, which blocks the increase in cation permeability induced by deoxygenation. The loss of cation exhibited by oxygenated xerocytes similarly incubated was also blocked by ouabain. These data support the hypothesis that the elevated "passive" cation fluxes of xerocytes and deoxygenated sickle cells are not directly responsible for cation depletion of these cells; rather, these pathologic leaks interact with the sodium pump to produce a net loss of cellular cation.

  13. Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Montfoort, JE; Muller, M; Groothuis, GMM; Meijer, DKF; Koepsell, H; Meier, PJ

    Previous inhibition studies with taurocholate and cardiac glycosides suggested the presence of separate uptake systems for small "type I" (system1) and for bulky "type II" (system2) organic cations in rat hepatocytes. To identify the transport systems involved in type I and type II organic cation

  14. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both

  15. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W. [Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet, E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag{sup +} under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L{sup −1}, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1} as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag{sup +}. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L{sup −1} as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1}), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Cation and Anion Channelrhodopsins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Adrian S.

    Optogenetics is a technique to control and monitor cell activity with light by expression of specific microbial rhodopsins. Cation channelrhodopsins (CCRs) and anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) have been demonstrated to activate and silence cell activity, respectively. In this dissertation, the molecular mechanisms of two channelrhodopsins are studied: a CCR from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) and an ACR from Guillardia theta (GtACR1). The recently discovered GtACR1is especially interesting, as it achieves neural silencing with 1/1000th of the light intensity compared to previous microbial rhodopsin silencing ion pumps. Static and time-resolved resonance Raman, FTIR difference, and UV-visible spectroscopies were utilized in addition to various biochemical and genetic techniques to explore the molecular mechanisms of these channelrhodopsins. In CaChR1, Glu169 and Asp299 residues are located nearby the Schiff base (SB) similar to the homologous residues Asp85 and Asp212, which exist in an ionized state in unphotolyzed bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and play a key role in proton pumping. We observe significant changes in the protonation states of the SB, Glu169, and Asp299 of CaChR1 leading up to the open-channel P2 state, where all three groups exist in a charge neutral state. This unusual charge neutrality along with the position of these groups in the CaChR1 ion channel suggests that charge neutrality plays an important role in cation gating and selectivity in these low efficiency CCRs. Significant differences exist in the photocycle and protonation/hydrogen bonding states of key residues inGtACR1compared to BR and CaChR1. Resonance Raman studies reveal that in the unphotolyzed state of GtACR1, residues Glu68, Ser97 (BR Asp85 homolog), and Asp234 (BR Asp212 homolog) located near the SB exist in charge neutral states. Furthermore, upon K formation, these residues do not change their protonation states. At room temperature, a slow decay of the red-shifted K intermediate is

  17. Cation-π interaction of the univalent sodium cation with [2.2.2]paracyclophane: Experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Sýkora, David; Böhm, Stanislav; Vaňura, Petr

    2018-02-01

    By employing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent sodium cation (Na+) forms with [2.2.2]paracyclophane (C24H24) the cationic complex [Na(C24H24)]+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the [Na(C24H24)]+ complex was derived. In the resulting complex with a symmetry very close to C3, the "central" cation Na+, fully located in the cavity of the parent [2.2.2]paracyclophane ligand, is bound to all three benzene rings of [2.2.2]paracyclophane via cation-π interaction. Finally, the interaction energy, E(int), of the considered cation-π complex [Na(C24H24)]+ was found to be -267.3 kJ/mol, confirming the formation of this fascinating complex species as well.

  18. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part I. Results of an Iranian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas; Fotovat, Amir; Khorassani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of monovalent cations on clay dispersion, aggregate stability, soil pore size distribution, and saturated hydraulic conductivity on agricultural soil in Iran. The soil was incubated with treatment solutions containing different concentrations (0-54.4 mmol l-1) of potassium and sodium cations. The treatment solutions included two levels of electrical conductivity (EC=3 or 6 dS m-1) and six K:Na ratios per electrical conductivity level. At both electrical conductivity levels, spontaneously dispersible clay increased with increasing K concentration, and with increasing K:Na ratio. A negative linear relationship between percentage of water-stable aggregates and spontaneously dispersible clay was observed. Clay dispersion generally reduced the mean pore size, presumably due to clogging of pores, resulting in increased water retention. At both electrical conductivity levels, hydraulic conductivity increased with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage at low exchangeable potassium percentage values, but decreased with further increases in exchangeable potassium percentage at higher exchangeable potassium percentage. This is in agreement with earlier studies, but seems in conflict with our data showing increasing spontaneously dispersible clay with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage. Our findings show that clay dispersion increased with increasing K concentration and increasing K:Na ratio, demonstrating that K can have negative impacts on soil structure.

  19. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Cation Diffusion in Low-K Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Low thermal conductivity (low-K) ceramic materials are of interest to the aerospace community for use as the thermal barrier component of coating systems for turbine engine components. In particular, zirconia-based materials exhibit both low thermal conductivity and structural stability at high temperature, making them suitable for such applications. Because creep is one of the potential failure modes, and because diffusion is a mechanism by which creep takes place, we have performed computer simulations of cation diffusion in a variety of zirconia-based low-K materials. The kinetic Monte Carlo simulation method is an alternative to the more widely known molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is designed to study "infrequent-event" processes, such as diffusion, for which MD simulation can be highly inefficient. We describe the results of kinetic Monte Carlo computer simulations of cation diffusion in several zirconia-based materials, specifically, zirconia doped with Y, Gd, Nb and Yb. Diffusion paths are identified, and migration energy barriers are obtained from density functional calculations and from the literature. We present results on the temperature dependence of the diffusivity, and on the effects of the presence of oxygen vacancies in cation diffusion barrier complexes as well.

  20. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  1. Cyanide ion complexation by a cationic borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Wen; Gabbaï, François P

    2008-02-14

    While we have previously reported that [1-(Mes2B)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6]+ ([2]+) complexes fluoride ions to form [1-(Mes2FB)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6] (2-F), we now show that this cationic borane also complexes cyanide to form [1-(Mes2(NC)B)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6] (2-CN). This reaction also occurs under biphasic conditions (H2O-CHCl3) and may serve to transport cyanide in organic phases. The zwitterionic cyanoborate 2-CN has been fully characterized and its crystal structure determined. UV-vis titration experiments carried out in THF indicate that [2]+ has a higher affinity for fluoride (K > 10(8) M(-1)) than cyanide (K = 8.0 (+/-0.5) x 10(5) M(-1)). Steric effects which impede cyanide binding to the sterically congested boron center of [2]+ are most likely at the origin of this selectivity. Finally, electrochemical studies indicate that [2]+ is significantly more electrophilic than its neutral precursor 1-(Mes2B)-8-(Me2NCH2)-(C10H6) (1). These studies also show that reduction of [2]+ is irreversible, possibly because of elimination of the NMe3 moiety under reductive conditions. In fact, [2]OTf reacts with NaBH4 to afford 1-(Mes2B)-8-(CH3)-(C10H6) (4) which has also been fully characterized.

  2. Interaction of cationic drugs with liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Brett A; Chauhan, Anuj

    2009-10-20

    Interactions between cationic drugs and anionic liposomes were studied by measuring binding of drugs and the effect of binding on liposome permeability. The measurements were analyzed in the context of a continuum model based on electrostatic interactions and a Langmuir isotherm. Experiments and modeling indicate that, although electrostatic interactions are important, the fraction of drug sequestered in the double-layer is negligible. The majority of drug enters the bilayer with the charged regions interacting with the charged lipid head groups and the lipophilic regions associated with the bilayer. The partitioning of the drug can be described by a Langmuir isotherm with the electrostatic interactions increasing the sublayer concentration of the drug. The binding isotherms are similar for all tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). Bupivacaine (BUP) binds significantly less compared to TCA because its structure is such that the charged region has minimal interactions with the lipid heads once the BUP molecule partitions inside the bilayer. Conversely, the TCAs are linear with distinct hydrophilic and lipophilic regions, allowing the lipophilic regions to lie inside the bilayer and the hydrophilic regions to protrude out. This conformation maximizes the permeability of the bilayer, leading to an increased release of a hydrophilic fluorescent dye from liposomes.

  3. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  4. Electrochemical insertion in solid media of alkali cations in carbonated host structures (polyacetylene, fullerene and graphite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemont, Sylvain

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the investigation of electrochemical insertion of alkali cations in different host carbon containing structures (polyacetylene, fullerene, graphite). After a recall of the main characteristics of the three considered compounds, the author reports a bibliographical survey, describes the different compounds which can be used as solid electrolytes and explains the choice of the studied compounds with respect to their phase diagrams, ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability range. He describes the experimental methods, discusses the results obtained by intercalation of alkali cations (Li + , Na + , K + ) in polyacetylene. He discusses the electrochemical and structural results obtained on intercalation compounds of lithium and sodium ions in fullerene. The structures of several phases have been obtained by electron diffraction. Preliminary studies of electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) are reported. The last part compares the results obtained on two types of graphite: pellets and spherules [fr

  5. Improvement in ionic conductivities of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cal properties, easy fabrication into thin films of desired sizes and their ability to ... liquid state can be used for electroplating and water purifi- cation. The merits of ... that its ionic conductivity increases very appreciably and. P-2VP-HI proved to ...

  6. Codes of conduct in public schools: a legal perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    cation change in South Africa, particularly the transformation of public schools ... been granted legal personality to act as "juristic persons" (i.e. legal persons ..... cess, a decision is made to amend, or repeal, the code of conduct, de- pending on ...

  7. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  8. Effect of alkali metal cations on anodic dissolution of gold in cyanide solutions. Potentiodynamic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, R.Yu.; Rogozhnikov, N.A.; Kosolapov, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that gold dissolution rate in cyanic solutions in Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + cation series increases basically and decreases under cation concentration increasing. Cation effect on current value is caused by cations drawing in dense layer. A model of dense part of double layer with two Helmholtz planes (anion and cation) is suggested. Effect of nature and concentration of alkali metal cations on gold dissolution rate is explained on the base of the model [ru

  9. Relation between heat of vaporization, ion transport, molar volume, and cation-anion binding energy for ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Oleg

    2009-09-10

    A number of correlations between heat of vaporization (H(vap)), cation-anion binding energy (E(+/-)), molar volume (V(m)), self-diffusion coefficient (D), and ionic conductivity for 29 ionic liquids have been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that employed accurate and validated many-body polarizable force fields. A significant correlation between D and H(vap) has been found, while the best correlation was found for -log(DV(m)) vs H(vap) + 0.28E(+/-). A combination of enthalpy of vaporization and a fraction of the cation-anion binding energy was suggested as a measure of the effective cohesive energy for ionic liquids. A deviation of some ILs from the reported master curve is explained based upon ion packing and proposed diffusion pathways. No general correlations were found between the ion diffusion coefficient and molecular volume or the diffusion coefficient and cation/anion binding energy.

  10. Evaluation of phenomena affecting diffusion of cations in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.

    1995-04-01

    In a number of diffusion studies, contradictions between the apparent diffusivities of cations and their distribution coefficients in bentonite have been found. Two principal reasons have been offered as explanations for this discrepancy; diffusion of the sorbed cations, often called surface diffusion, and the decrease of sorption in compacted clay compared to a sorption value obtained from a batch experiment. In the study the information available from the literature on sorption-diffusion mechanisms of cations in bentonite has been compiled and re-interpreted in order to improve the understanding of the diffusion process. (103 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.)

  11. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  12. Cation Exchange Capacity of Biochar: An urgent method modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Jose; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Tau Strand, Line; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    A better understanding of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of biochar and its acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is crucial when tailoring a single biochar for a particular soil and crop. Literature values for the CEC of biochar are surprisingly variable, commonly ranging from 5 to 50 cmol+/Kg even as high as 69 to 204 cmol+/Kg and often poorly reproducible, suggesting methodological problems. Ashes and very fine pores in biochar may complicate the analysis and thus compromise the results. Here, we modify and critically assess different steps in a common method for CEC determination in biochar and investigate how the measured CEC may be affected by slow cation diffusion from micro-pores. We modified the existing ammonium acetate (NH4-OAc) method (buffered at pH 7), based on displaced ammonium (NH4+) in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts after removing excess NH4-OAc with alcohol in batch mode. We used pigeon pea biochar (produced at 350 ˚C; particle size 0.5mm to 2mm) to develop the method and we tested its reproducibility in biochars with different ANC. The biochar sample (1.00g) was pH-adjusted to 7 after 2 days of equilibration, using hydrochloric acid (HCl), and washed with water until the conductivity of the water was modified method were highly reproducible and that 1 day shaking with NH4OAc and KCl is enough to saturate the exchange sites with NH4+ and subsequently with K+. The biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio did not affect the measured CEC. Three washings with at least 15 ml alcohol are required to remove excess NH4-OAc. We found the CEC of biochar with the displacement method from pigeon pea, corncob, rice husk and cacao shell to be 26.4(±0.3), 19.2(±0.5), 20.5(±0.4), 46.5±(0.2) cmol+/Kg, respectively. The selected batch experiment allows a large sample throughput, less laboratory equipment is needed and shaking ensures better contact between the extracting solution and the exchange sites.

  13. Quantitative imaging of cation adsorption site densities in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter; Koestel, John

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of present soil system models assume a homogeneous distribution and accessibility of cation adsorption sites (CAS) within soil structural units like e.g. soil horizons. This is however in conflict with several recent studies finding that CAS in soils are not uniformly but patchily distributed at and below the cm-scale. It is likely that the small-scale distribution of CAS has significant impact on the performance of these models. However, systematic approaches to map CAS densities in undisturbed soil with 3-D resolution that could lead to respective model improvements are still lacking. We therefore investigated the 3-D distribution of the CAS in undisturbed soils using X-ray scanning and barium ions as a contrast agent. We appraised the validity of the approach by comparing X-ray image-derived cation exchange coefficients (CEC) with ones obtained using the ammonium acetate method. In the process, we evaluated whether there were larger CAS concentrations at aggregate and biopore boundaries as it is often hypothesized. We sampled eight small soil cores (approx. 10 ccm) from different locations with contrasting soil texture and organic matter contents. The samples were first saturated with a potassium chloride solution (0.1 mol per liter), whereupon a 3-D X-ray image was taken. Then, the potassium chloride solution was flushed out with a barium chloride solution (0.3 mol per liter) with barium replacing the potassium from the CAS due to its larger exchange affinity. After X-ray images as well as electrical conductivity in the effluent indicated that the entire sample had been saturated with the barium chloride, the sample was again rinsed using the potassium chloride solution. When the rinsing was complete a final 3-D X-ray image was acquired. The difference images between final and initial 3-D X-ray images were interpreted as depicting the adsorbed barium as the density of barium exceeds the one of potassium by more than 2 times. The X-ray image

  14. Alkali Metal Cation versus Proton and Methyl Cation Affinities: Structure and Bonding Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Boughlala, Z.; Guerra, C.F.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have analyzed the structure and bonding of gas?phase Cl?X and [HCl?X]+ complexes for X+=?H+, CH3 +, Li+, and Na+, using relativistic density functional theory (DFT). We wish to establish a quantitative trend in affinities of the anionic and neutral Lewis bases Cl? and HCl for the various cations. The Cl?X bond becomes longer and weaker along X+?=?H+, CH3 +, Li+, and Na+. Our main purpose is to understand the heterolytic bonding mechanism behind the intrinsic (i.e., in the absence ...

  15. Converting Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 via Tl-Hg cation exchange in combination with Tl cation intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hua; Wu, Judy Z

    2007-01-01

    In a cation exchange process developed recently for epitaxy of HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6 (Hg-1212) thin films, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 (Tl-1212) or Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 9 (Tl-2212) precursor films were employed as the precursor matrices and Hg-1212 was obtained by replacing Tl cations on the precursor lattice with Hg cations. The reversibility of the cation exchange dictates directly the underlying mechanism. Following our recent success in demonstrating a complete reversibility within '1212' structure, we show the conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 can be achieved via two steps: conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-1212 followed by Tl intercalation to form double Tl-O plans in each unit cell. The demonstrated reversibility of the cation exchange process has confirmed the process is a thermal perturbation of weakly bonded cations on the lattice and the direction of the process is determined by the population ratio between the replacing cations and that to be replaced

  16. Endomembrane Cation Transporters and Membrane Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, Heven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics

    2017-04-01

    Multicellular, as well as unicellular, organisms have evolved mechanisms to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental cues and to a changing environment. The working hypothesis is that the balance of fluxes mediated by diverse transporters at the plasma membrane and in subcellular organelles determines ionic cellular distribution, which is critical for maintenance of membrane potential, pH control, osmolality, transport of nutrients, and protein activity. An emerging theme in plant cell biology is that cells respond and adapt to diverse cues through changes of the dynamic endomembrane system. Yet we know very little about the transporters that might influence the operation of the secretory system in plants. Here we focus on transporters that influence alkali cation and pH homeostasis, mainly in the endomembrane/ secretory system. The endomembrane system of eukaryote cells serves several major functions: i) sort cargo (e.g. enzymes, transporters or receptors) to specific destinations, ii) modulate the protein and lipid composition of membrane domains through remodeling, and iii) determine and alter the properties of the cell wall through synthesis and remodeling. We had uncovered a novel family of predicted cation/H+ exchangers (CHX) and K+ efflux antiporters (KEA) that are prevalent in higher plants, but rare in metazoans. We combined phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses with molecular genetic, cell biological and biochemical studies, and have published the first reports on functions of plant CHXs and KEAs. CHX studied to date act at the endomembrane system where their actions are distinct from the better-studied NHX (Na/K-H+ exchangers). Arabidopsis thaliana CHX20 in guard cells modulate stomatal opening, and thus is significant for vegetative survival. Other CHXs ensure reproductive success on dry land, as they participate in organizing pollen walls, targeting of pollen tubes to the ovule or promoting

  17. Conducting single-molecule magnet materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosquer, Goulven; Shen, Yongbing; Almeida, Manuel; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2018-05-11

    Multifunctional molecular materials exhibiting electrical conductivity and single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour are particularly attractive for electronic devices and related applications owing to the interaction between electronic conduction and magnetization of unimolecular units. The preparation of such materials remains a challenge that has been pursued by a bi-component approach of combination of SMM cationic (or anionic) units with conducting networks made of partially oxidized (or reduced) donor (or acceptor) molecules. The present status of the research concerning the preparation of molecular materials exhibiting SMM behaviour and electrical conductivity is reviewed, describing the few molecular compounds where both SMM properties and electrical conductivity have been observed. The evolution of this research field through the years is discussed. The first reported compounds are semiconductors in spite being able to present relatively high electrical conductivity, and the SMM behaviour is observed at low temperatures where the electrical conductivity of the materials is similar to that of an insulator. During the recent years, a breakthrough has been achieved with the coexistence of high electrical conductivity and SMM behaviour in a molecular compound at the same temperature range, but so far without evidence of a synergy between these properties. The combination of high electrical conductivity with SMM behaviour requires not only SMM units but also the regular and as far as possible uniform packing of partially oxidized molecules, which are able to provide a conducting network.

  18. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Roman V; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I; Kopylov, Alexei M; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Makarov, Alexander A; Golovin, Andrey V

    2011-12-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I.; Kopylov, Alexei M.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Golovin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. PMID:21893589

  20. Use of marker ion and cationic surfactant plastic membrane electrode for potentiometric titration of cationic polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadome, Takashi; Imato, Toshihiko

    2003-07-04

    A plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode sensitive to stearyltrimethylammonium (STA) ion is applied to the determination of cationic polyelectrolytes such as poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (Cat-floc) by potentiometric titration, using a potassium poly (vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) solution as a titrant. The end-point of the titration is detected as the potential change of the plasticized PVC membrane electrode caused by decrease in the concentration of STA ion added to the sample solution as a marker ion due to the ion association reaction between the STA ion and PVSK. The effects of the concentration of STA ion, coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution and pH of the sample on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of cationic polyelectrolyte and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2x10(-5) to 4x10(-4) N for Cat-floc, glycol chitosan, and methylglycol chitosan.

  1. Opposing effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides and divalent cations on bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Rajagopal, Aruna; Liu, Wing-Ki; Ha, Bae-Yeun

    2017-10-01

    The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane, enclosing Gram-negative bacteria, depends on the interactions of the outer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, with surrounding ions and molecules. We present a coarse-grained model for describing how cationic amphiphilic molecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides) interact with and perturb the LPS layer in a biologically relevant medium, containing monovalent and divalent salt ions (e.g., Mg2+). In our approach, peptide binding is driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and is assumed to expand the LPS layer, eventually priming it for disruption. Our results suggest that in parameter ranges of biological relevance (e.g., at micromolar concentrations) the antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 effectively disrupts the LPS layer, even though it has to compete with Mg2+ for the layer. They also show how the integrity of LPS is restored with an increasing concentration of Mg2+. Using the approach, we make a number of predictions relevant for optimizing peptide parameters against Gram-negative bacteria and for understanding bacterial strategies to develop resistance against cationic peptides.

  2. Chemical bonding and structural ordering of cations in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calas, G.; Cormier, L.; Galoisy, L.; Ramos, A.; Rossano, St.

    1997-01-01

    The specific surrounding of cations in multicomponent silicate glasses is briefly presented. Information about interatomic distances and site geometry may be gained by using spectroscopic methods among which x-ray absorption spectroscopy may be used for the largest number of glass components. Scattering of x-rays and neutrons may also be used to determine the importance of medium range order around specific cations. All the existing data show that cations occur in sites with a well-defined geometry, which are in most cases connected to the silicate polymeric network. Medium range order has been detected around cations such as Ti, Ca and Ni, indicating that these elements have an heterogeneous distribution within the glassy matrix. (authors)

  3. Dynamics of photoexcited Ba+ cations in 4He nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Departament ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Leal, Antonio; 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Departament ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Pi, Martí; Zhang, Xiaohang; Drabbels, Marcel; 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratoire des Collisions, Agrégats, Réactivité, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse 3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France))" data-affiliation=" (Departament ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratoire des Collisions, Agrégats, Réactivité, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse 3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France))" >Barranco, Manuel; Cargnoni, Fausto; Hernando, Alberto; Mateo, David; Mella, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study on the desolvation of Ba + cations in 4 He nanodroplets excited via the 6p ← 6s transition. The experiments reveal an efficient desolvation process yielding mainly bare Ba + cations and Ba + He n exciplexes with n = 1 and 2. The speed distributions of the ions are well described by Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions with temperatures ranging from 60 to 178 K depending on the excitation frequency and Ba + He n exciplex size. These results have been analyzed by calculations based on a time-dependent density functional description for the helium droplet combined with classical dynamics for the Ba + . In agreement with experiment, the calculations reveal the dynamical formation of exciplexes following excitation of the Ba + cation. In contrast to experimental observation, the calculations do not reveal desolvation of excited Ba + cations or exciplexes, even when relaxation pathways to lower lying states are included.

  4. Aggregation of trypsin and trypsin inhibitor by Al cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-04-01

    Al cation may trigger protein structural changes such as aggregation and fibrillation, causing neurodegenerative diseases. We report the effect of Al cation on the solution structures of trypsin (try) and trypsin inhibitor (tryi), using thermodynamic analysis, UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermodynamic parameters showed Al-protein bindings occur via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts for trypsin and trypsin inhibitor. AFM showed that Al cations are able to force trypsin into larger or more robust aggregates than trypsin inhibitor, with trypsin 5±1 SE (n=52) proteins per aggregate and for trypsin inhibitor 8.3±0.7 SE (n=118). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced more alterations of trypsin inhibitor conformation than trypsin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Significant role of cationic polymers in drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshbaf, Masoud; Davaran, Soodabeh; Zarebkohan, Amir; Annabi, Nasim; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Salehi, Roya

    2017-11-06

    Cationic polymers are characterized as the macromolecules that possess positive charges, which can be either inherently in the polymer side chains and/or its backbone. Based on their origins, cationic polymers are divided in two category including natural and synthetic, in which the possessed positive charges are as result of primary, secondary or tertiary amine functional groups that could be protonated in particular situations. Cationic polymers have been employed commonly as drug delivery agents due to their superior encapsulation efficacy, enhanced bioavailability, low toxicity and improved release profile. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent examples of cationic polymers which have been revealed to be applicable in drug delivery systems and we also discuss their general synthesis and surface modification methods as well as their controlled release profile in drug delivery.

  6. Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on blood chemistry, milk ... Increased blood pH and serum HCO3 were noticed in buffaloes fed with LC ... Serum calcium and chloride increased with decreased DCAD level while ...

  7. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  8. Isomerizations of the Nitromethane Radical Cation in the Gas Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars; Elbel, Susanne

    1986-01-01

    The concurrent isomerizations of the nitromethane radical cation to its aci-nitromethane and methylnitrite isomers, respectively, has been established based on metastable ion studies and collision activation mass spectrometry. The energy diagram for the ionized nitromethane/aci-nitromethane tauto......The concurrent isomerizations of the nitromethane radical cation to its aci-nitromethane and methylnitrite isomers, respectively, has been established based on metastable ion studies and collision activation mass spectrometry. The energy diagram for the ionized nitromethane...

  9. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  10. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  11. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K.; Dai, W.; Hunger, M.

    2014-01-01

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of 23 Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 23 Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed

  12. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  13. Separation of cations of heavy metalsfrom concentrated galvanic drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When applying galvanic coatings, soluble salts of heavy metals such as iron, copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, chromium and other metals are used, toxic cations enter the water, with subsequent migration to the biosphere. To date, many methods have been developed for cleaning galvanic sewage, which cannot be considered sufficiently effective. The joint sorption of divalent cations of copper, nickel and cadmium from concentrated aqueous solutions was investigated. Calculation and experimental methods were used to determine the separation conditions of the bivalent ion systems that differed and close in sorption properties on the aminophosphonic polyampholyte Purolite S950 in a natrium form. It is shown that the cadmium (II cations can be isolated from solutions containing copper (II or nickel (II cations even at the height of the sorption layer of 0.13 m due to the difference in the defining characteristics of the cations. This layer height can be used not only in a chromatographic column, but also in a concentrating cartridge. Separation of the copper (II and nickel (II close to the sorption properties requires an absorbing layer of 0.76 m, which can only be used in a chromatographic column, but not for a concentrating cartridge. In this paper, the degrees of ion separation in various sorption conditions are calculated. The applicability of the conductometric method for controlling the ion exchange process is shown not only when the free cations are isolated from aqueous solutions but also bound to complexes.

  14. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm(4+) > Spd(3+) > Put(2+). On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K(+)-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H(+) pumps and Ca(2+) pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca(2+) influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment.

  15. Radiation induced graft copolymerization for preparation of cation exchange membranes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi; Hussin Mohd Nor

    1999-01-01

    Cation exchange membranes are regarded as the ideal solid polymer electrolyte materials for the development of various electrochemical energy conversion applications where significant improvements in the current density are required. Such membranes require special polymers and preparation techniques to maintain high chemical , mechanical and thermal stability in addition to high ionic conductivity and low resistance. A lot of different techniques have been proposed in the past to prepare such membranes. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization provides an attractive ft method for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymeric materials and is of particular interest in achieving specially desired cation exchange membranes as well as excellent membrane properties. This is due to the ability to control the membrane compositions as well as properties by proper selection of grafting conditions. Therefore numerous parameters have to be investigated to properly select the right polymeric materials, radiation grafting technique and the grafting conditions to be employed. In this paper a state-of-the-art of radiation-induced graft copolymerization for preparation of cation exchange membranes and their applications are briefly reviewed. (Author)

  16. Salinity and cationic nature of irrigation water on castor bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the water relations, cell damage percentage and growth of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ as a function of salinity and cationic nature of the water used in irrigation. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in eutrophic Grey Argisol of sandy loam texture. Six combinations of water salinity and cations were studied (S1 - Control; S2 - Na+, S3 - Ca2+, S4 - Na+ + Ca2+; S5 - K+ and S6 - Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the control (S1, plants were irrigated with 0.6 dS m-1 water, whereas the other treatments received 4.5 dS m-1 water, obtained by adding different salts, all in the chloride form. Higher relative water content in the leaf blade of plants irrigated with K+-salinized water associated with leaf succulence are indicative of tolerance of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ to salinity. Saline stress negatively affected castor bean growth, regardless of cationic nature of water. Among the ions studied, ‘BRS Energia’ castor bean was more sensitive to the presence of sodium in the irrigation water, in terms of both water relations and leaf succulence.

  17. How the cation-cation π-π stacking occurs: A theoretical investigation into ionic clusters of imidazolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Tian, Yong; Xuan, Xiaopeng

    2015-07-01

    The cation-cation π-π stacking is uncommon but it is essential for the understanding of some supramolecular structures. We explore theoretically the nature of non-covalent interaction occurring in the stacked structure within modeled clusters of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium and halide. The evidences of the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and reduced density gradient (RDG) approach are different from those of common π-π interaction. Isosurfaces with RDG also illustrate the strength of the titled π-π interaction and their region. Additionally, we find that the occurrence of this interaction is attributed to a few C-H···X interactions, as depicted using atom in molecule (AIM) method. This work presents a clear picture of the typical cation-cation π-π interaction and can serve to advance the understanding of this uncommon interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Reactivity Of The Cationic Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Dash, A.K.; Eisen, AM.; Berthet, J.C.; Ephritikhine, M.

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic chemistry of electrophilic d 0 /f organometallic complexes is nowadays under intense investigation, reaching a high level of sophistication. General aspects concerning these complexes are concentrated for most studies to the functionalization of unsaturated organic molecules. To cite an instance, the actinide-promoted oligomerization of terminal alkynes is of essential present concern since it may introduce to a diversity of organic enynes and oligoacetylene products that are valuable synthons for the synthesis of natural products. Enynes are the simplest oligomerization products of alkynes. We have demonstrated that organoactinides complexes of the type [Cp* 2 AnMe 2 AnMe 2 ] (Cp* = C 5 Me 5 ; An = U, Th) are active catalysts for the linear oligomerization of terminal alkynes and the extent of oligomerization was found to be strongly dependent on the electronic and steric properties of the alkyne substituents. Bulky alkynes were reacted with high regioselectivity toward dimer and/or trimers whereas for non-bulky alkynes, these compounds were transformed into oligomers with a total deficiency of regioselectivity. The addition of primary amines to the catalytic cycle, for An = Th, granted the chemoselective formation of dimers, chemoselectively, whereas for An = U, this control was not succeeded. In distinction to the neutral organoactinide complexes, homogeneous cationic d 0 /f n actinide complexes have been used as in the homogeneous polymerization of olefins as extremely active catalysts. Hence, the catalytic alkyne oligomerization is a opportune route to explore insertions and σ-bond metathesis reactivity of complexes. We have recently shown that the reaction of terminal alkynes (RC≡CH), promoted by [(Et 2 N) 3 U][BPh 4 ], in toluene, produces efficiently mostly the gem dimers (for R = Me, i Pr and n Bu) as the major products, whereas for bulky alkynes (R = t MS or t Bu) small amounts of the cis dimer was concomitantly obtained. A plausible

  19. Does the cation really matter? The effect of modifying an ionic liquid cation on an SN2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Eden E L; Yau, Hon Man; Hawker, Rebecca R; Croft, Anna K; Harper, Jason B

    2013-09-28

    The rate of reaction of a Menschutkin process in a range of ionic liquids with different cations was investigated, with temperature-dependent kinetic data giving access to activation parameters for the process in each solvent. These data, along with molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrate the importance of accessibility of the charged centre on the cation and that the key interactions are of a generalised electrostatic nature.

  20. High-capacity cation-exchange column for enhanced resolution of adjacent peaks of cations in ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, M A

    2001-06-22

    One of the advantages of ion chromatography [Anal Chem. 47 (1975) 1801] as compared to other analytical techniques is that several ions may be analyzed simultaneously. One of the most important contributions of cation-exchange chromatography is its sensitivity to ammonium ion, which is difficult to analyze by other techniques [J. Weiss, in: E.L. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook of Ion Chromatography, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA]. The determination of low concentrations of ammonium ion in the presence of high concentrations of sodium poses a challenge in cation-exchange chromatography [J. Weiss, Ion Chromatography, VCH, 2nd Edition, Weinheim, 1995], as both cations have similar selectivities for the common stationary phases containing either sulfonate or carboxylate functional groups. The task was to develop a new cation-exchange stationary phase (for diverse concentration ratios of adjacent peaks) to overcome limitations experienced in previous trails. Various cation-exchange capacities and column body formats were investigated to optimize this application and others. The advantages and disadvantages of two carboxylic acid columns of different cation-exchange capacities and different column formats will be discussed.

  1. (Cationic + nonionic) mixed surfactant aggregates for solubilisation of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S.K.; Chaudhary, G.R.; Mehta, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical micelle concentration of mixed surfactant has been measured. • Aqueous solubility and alkaline stability of curcumin has been significantly improved. • Location of curcumin within micelles has been evaluated. • Scavenging activity of curcumin has been improved. • Non-intercalative binding with ct-DNA has been observed. - Abstract: Curcumin is a potential drug for variety of diseases. Major limitations of curcumin are low water solubility, rapid hydrolytic degradation in alkaline medium and poor bioavailability. To overcome these limitations, highly potential mixed micellar system has been prepared. In order to reduce inter ionic repulsion and precipitation of surfactants, (cationic + non-ionic) mixed system have been chosen that directly influence its applicability. Hydrophobic chain of non-ionic surfactant significantly influences the cmc of mixed surfactant system as indicated by fluorescence and conductivity data. UV–visible spectroscopy analyses show that solubility, stability and antioxidant property of the curcumin is remarkably improved depending on cmc and aggregation number (N_a_g_g) of mixed surfactants, where N_a_g_g plays crucial role. Generally, curcumin undergoes complete degradation in slight basic medium, but stability has been maintained up to 8 h at pH-13 using formulated mixed micelles (only (20 to 25)% degraded). Location of curcumin which is monitored using emission spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching and "1H NMR spectroscopy techniques play the most important role. Observed results show that the major population of curcumin is located at the polar region and some are in hydrophobic region of the mixed micelles. To ensure the effect of mixed surfactants and curcumin loaded mixed surfactants on DNA, the interaction parameter indicates non-interclative interactions.

  2. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    Belgium. In this work we are interested in studying the causes of deterioration of reinforced concrete pipeline in the region of east Morocco. This pipe is used for transporting drinking water. The alteration of the pipe was found damaged by corrosion way on a section well-defined. For this we conducted a sampling of section.

  3. Cation Substitution in Earth‐Abundant Kesterite Photovoltaic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Dongxiao; Li, Xiuling; Zeng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract As a promising candidate for low‐cost and environmentally friendly thin‐film photovoltaics, the emerging kesterite‐based Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have experienced rapid advances over the past decade. However, the record efficiency of CZTSSe solar cells (12.6%) is still significantly lower than those of its predecessors Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin‐film solar cells. This record has remained for several years. The main obstacle for this stagnation is unanimously attributed to the large open‐circuit voltage (V OC) deficit. In addition to cation disordering and the associated band tailing, unpassivated interface defects and undesirable energy band alignment are two other culprits that account for the large V OC deficit in kesterite solar cells. To capture the great potential of kesterite solar cells as prospective earth‐abundant photovoltaic technology, current research focuses on cation substitution for CZTSSe‐based materials. The aim here is to examine recent efforts to overcome the V OC limit of kesterite solar cells by cation substitution and to further illuminate several emerging prospective strategies, including: i) suppressing the cation disordering by distant isoelectronic cation substitution, ii) optimizing the junction band alignment and constructing a graded bandgap in absorber, and iii) engineering the interface defects and enhancing the junction band bending. PMID:29721421

  4. Cation Substitution in Earth-Abundant Kesterite Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Dongxiao; Li, Xiuling; Zeng, Yu; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    As a promising candidate for low-cost and environmentally friendly thin-film photovoltaics, the emerging kesterite-based Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have experienced rapid advances over the past decade. However, the record efficiency of CZTSSe solar cells (12.6%) is still significantly lower than those of its predecessors Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cells. This record has remained for several years. The main obstacle for this stagnation is unanimously attributed to the large open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) deficit. In addition to cation disordering and the associated band tailing, unpassivated interface defects and undesirable energy band alignment are two other culprits that account for the large V OC deficit in kesterite solar cells. To capture the great potential of kesterite solar cells as prospective earth-abundant photovoltaic technology, current research focuses on cation substitution for CZTSSe-based materials. The aim here is to examine recent efforts to overcome the V OC limit of kesterite solar cells by cation substitution and to further illuminate several emerging prospective strategies, including: i) suppressing the cation disordering by distant isoelectronic cation substitution, ii) optimizing the junction band alignment and constructing a graded bandgap in absorber, and iii) engineering the interface defects and enhancing the junction band bending.

  5. THERMODYNAMICS OF ETHANOLAMMONIUM CATIONES DISSOCIATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the thermodynamics of ethanolamines onium cations dissociation have been systematized and generalized. The correlation between these cations dissociation thermodynamic functions (DH and DS and physicochemical properties (Tmp., Tbp, Pp, lgPow et al. has been revealed. There was a correlation between lipophilicity determined experimentally and calculated by QSAR. For monoethanolammonium, diethanolammonium, and their N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives it was found dissociation thermodynamic functions to depend on bases lgPow. Acid-base dissociation of TRIS and triethanolamine onium cations does not correspond to said relationship because TRIS (primary amine, TEA (tertiary amine act differently on aqueous solutions of SO2. TEA, unlike MEA, DEA and MMEA, has a salting out effect towards sulfur dioxide because of competing hydration that promotes sulfite «onium» salts hydrolysis. TRIS promotes S(IV → S(VI sulphooxidation, in contrast to another ethanolamines. Enthalpy–enthropy compensation with isothermodynamic temperature 303 K has been recorded. The revealed correlations may be useful in developing of procedures for air sanitary cleaning from acidic gases; chemisorbents immobilized for gas and ion exchange chromatography; potentiometric methods for fluorocomplex acids determinations. The use of monoethanolamine is most promising to obtain chemisorbents because the thermodynamic functions of its onium cation acid-base dissociation are least dependent on temperature compared to other etanolammonium cations.

  6. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  7. Cation-enhanced capillary electrophoresis separation of atropoisomer anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yun-Cheol; Berthod, Alain; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-12-01

    CE was used to study the separation of the atropoisomers of four phosphoric acids and two sulfonic acids and the enantiomers of two phosphoric acids. All solutes are in their anionic forms in aqueous electrolytes. The chiral additives were two hydroxypropyl cyclodextrins (CDs) and cyclofructan 6 (CF6). The CDs were able to separate four solutes and the CF6 additive could separate only one: 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diyl hydrogenphosphate (BHP). Since CF6 is able to bind with cations, nitrate of alkaline metals, Ba(2+) , and Pb(2+) were added, greatly improving the BHP separation at the expense of longer migration times. There seems to be a link between CF6-cation-binding constants and BHP resolution factors. Cation additions were also performed with CD selectors that are less prone to form complexes with cations. Significant improvements of enantiomer or atropoisomer separations were observed also associated with longer migration times. It is speculated that the anionic solutes associate with the added cations forming larger entities better differentiated by CDs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cation Binding to Xanthorhodopsin: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Magnetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky Koganov, Elena; Leitus, Gregory; Rozin, Rinat; Weiner, Lev; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai

    2017-05-04

    Xanthorhodopsin (xR) is a member of the retinal protein family and acts as a proton pump in the cell membranes of the extremely halophilic eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. In addition to the retinal chromophore, xR contains a carotenoid, which acts as a light-harvesting antenna as it transfers 40% of the quanta it absorbs to the retinal. Our previous studies have shown that the CD and absorption spectra of xR are dramatically affected due to the protonation of two different residues. It is still unclear whether xR can bind cations. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy used in the present study revealed that xR can bind divalent cations, such as Mn 2+ and Ca 2+ , to deionized xR (DI-xR). We also demonstrate that xR can bind 1 equiv of Mn 2+ to a high-affinity binding site followed by binding of ∼40 equiv in cooperative manner and ∼100 equiv of Mn 2+ that are weakly bound. SQUID magnetic studies suggest that the high cooperative binding of Mn 2+ cations to xR is due to the formation of Mn 2+ clusters. Our data demonstrate that Ca 2+ cations bind to DI-xR with a lower affinity than Mn 2+ , supporting the assumption that binding of Mn 2+ occurs through cluster formation, because Ca 2+ cations cannot form clusters in contrast to Mn 2+ .

  9. Cationic polymerization of styrene by means of pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, S.; Arai, S.; Kira, A.; Imamura, M.; Tabata, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The radiation-induced cationic polymerization of styrene has been studied by microsecond pulse radiolysis. It was possible to observe absorption bands of a monomer cation radical (St. + ) at 630 nm and at 350 nm in a mixture of isopentane and n-butyl chloride at - 165 0 C. Three absorption bands, around 1600 nm, at 600 nm and at 450 nm, grew in parallel with the decay of St. + after pulse. The 1600-nm and 600-nm bands were assigned to an associated dimer cation radical (St 2 . + ), and the 450-nm band to a bonded dimer cation radical (St-St. + ) by comparison of absorption spectra of α-methylstyrene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene and trans-β-methylstyrene. The kinetic behaviour of these species suggests that St-St. + and a part of St 2 . + are formed by the reaction of St. + with a styrene monomer, and the rest of St 2 . + may be formed by positive charge transfer from a solvent cation radical to an auto-associated neutral dimer of styrene. A long-lived absorption band at 340 nm grew with the decay of St-St. + . This band is considered due to a growing polymer carbonium ion. (author)

  10. Cationic uremic toxins affect human renal proximal tubule cell functioning through interaction with the organic cation transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; Wilmer, Martijn J; Jansen, Jitske; Gustavsson, Lena; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Hoenderop, Joost G J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2013-12-01

    Several organic cations, such as guanidino compounds and polyamines, have been found to accumulate in plasma of patients with kidney failure due to inadequate renal clearance. Here, we studied the interaction of cationic uremic toxins with renal organic cation transport in a conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC). Transporter activity was measured and validated in cell suspensions by studying uptake of the fluorescent substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium-iodide (ASP(+)). Subsequently, the inhibitory potencies of the cationic uremic toxins, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine (polyamines), acrolein (polyamine breakdown product), guanidine, and methylguanidine (guanidino compounds) were determined. Concentration-dependent inhibition of ASP(+) uptake by TPA, cimetidine, quinidine, and metformin confirmed functional endogenous organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) expression in ciPTEC. All uremic toxins tested inhibited ASP(+) uptake, of which acrolein required the lowest concentration to provoke a half-maximal inhibition (IC50 = 44 ± 2 μM). A Dixon plot was constructed for acrolein using three independent inhibition curves with 10, 20, or 30 μM ASP(+), which demonstrated competitive or mixed type of interaction (K i = 93 ± 16 μM). Exposing the cells to a mixture of cationic uremic toxins resulted in a more potent and biphasic inhibitory response curve, indicating complex interactions between the toxins and ASP(+) uptake. In conclusion, ciPTEC proves a suitable model to study cationic xenobiotic interactions. Inhibition of cellular uptake transport was demonstrated for several uremic toxins, which might indicate a possible role in kidney disease progression during uremia.

  11. Hydration of cations: a key to understanding of specific cation effects on aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Jacob C; Wu, Tsung-yu; Zhang, Yanjie

    2013-09-05

    This work reports results from the interactions of a series of monovalent and divalent cations with a triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO). Phase transition temperatures of the polymer in the presence of chloride salts with six monovalent and eight divalent cations were measured using an automated melting point apparatus. The polymer undergoes a two-step phase transition, consisting of micellization of the polymer followed by aggregation of the micelles, in the presence of all the salts studied herein. The results suggest that hydration of cations plays a key role in determining the interactions between the cations and the polymer. The modulation of the phase transition temperature of the polymer by cations can be explained as a balance between three interactions: direct binding of cations to the oxygen in the polymer chains, cations sharing one water molecule with the polymer in their hydration layer, and cations interacting with the polymer via two water molecules. Monovalent cations Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) do not bind to the polymer, while Li(+) and NH4(+) and all the divalent cations investigated including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) bind to the polymer. The effects of the cations correlate well with their hydration thermodynamic properties. Mechanisms for cation-polymer interactions are discussed.

  12. Ionomers for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ralph

    For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conducting ionomers that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on DFT calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for battery separators that conduct Li+ or Na+. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. 7Li NMR diffusion measurements find that diffusion is faster than expected by conductivity using the Nernst-Einstein equation, which means that the majority of Li diffusion occurs by ion pairs moving with the polymer segmental motion. Segmental motion only contributes to ionic conduction in the rare event that one of these ion pairs has an extra Li (a positive triple ion). This leads us to a new metric for ion-conducting soft materials, the product of the cation number density p0 and their diffusion coefficient D; p0D is the diffusive flux of lithium ions. This new metric has a maximum at intermediate ion content that corresponds to the overlap of ion pair polarizability volumes. At higher ion contents, the ion pairs interact strongly and form larger aggregation states that retard segmental motion of both mobile ion pairs and triple ions.

  13. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  14. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  15. Comparison contemporary methods of regeneration sodium-cationic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, I. A.; Burakov, A. Y.; Nikitina, I. S.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Ilyushin, A. S.; Aladushkin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Regeneration plays a crucial role in the field of efficient application sodium-cationic filters for softening the water. Traditionally used as regenerant saline NaCl. However, due to the modern development of the energy industry and its close relationship with other industrial and academic sectors the opportunity to use in the regeneration of other solutions. The report estimated data and application possibilities as regenerant solution sodium-cationic filters brine wells a high mineral content, as both primary application and after balneotherapeutic use reverse osmosis and concentrates especially recycled regenerant water repeated. Comparison of the effectiveness of these solutions with the traditional use of NaCl. Developed and tested system for the processing of highly mineralized brines wells after balneological use. Recommendations for use as regeneration solutions for the sodium-cationic unit considered solutions and defined rules of brine for regeneration costs.

  16. Gamma-irradiated cationic starches: Paper surface-sizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofreiter, B.T.; Heath, H.D.; Schulte, M.I.; Phillips, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Cationic starches, precisely depolymerized by gamma-irradiation ( 60 Co), were dispersed in mild alkali and evaluated as surface sizes for bond paper on a pilot paper machine. The irradiated products had excellent dispersion properties, were well retained on fibers when sized wastepaper (broke) was repulped and had an ability to enhance paper properties that was comparable to that of starch-based materials used commercially. A yellow corn flour, cationized by an essentially dry reaction process recently developed at this Center, was also radiolyzed and evaluated as a size. This latter product was unique in that all drying steps were eliminated in the preparation of a cationic ceral product of reduced viscosity. (orig.) [de

  17. Nanoscale encapsulation: the structure of cations in hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, S.R.; Yuchs, S.E.; Giaquinta, D.; Soderholm, L.; Song, Kang.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates, created by organic surface modification of inherently hydrophilic materials such as zeolites and clays, are currently being investigated as storage media for hazardous cations. Use of organic monolayers to modify the surface of an aluminosilicate after introducing an ion into the zeolite/clay reduces the interaction of water with the material. Resulting systems are about 20 times more resistant to leaching of stored ion. XAS spectra from the encapsulated ion demonstrate that byproducts from the organic modifier can complex with the stored cation. This complexation can result in a decreased affinity of the cation for the aluminosilicate matrix. Changing the organic modifier eliminates this problem. XAS spectra also indicate that the reactivity and speciation of the encapsulated ion may change upon application of the hydrophobic layer

  18. Radical Addition to Iminium Ions and Cationic Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tauber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-centered radicals represent highly useful reactive intermediates in organic synthesis. Their nucleophilic character is reflected by fast additions to electron deficient C=X double bonds as present in iminium ions or cationic heterocycles. This review covers diverse reactions of preformed or in situ-generated cationic substrates with various types of C-radicals, including alkyl, alkoxyalkyl, trifluoromethyl, aryl, acyl, carbamoyl, and alkoxycarbonyl species. Despite its high reactivity, the strong interaction of the radical’s SOMO with the LUMO of the cation frequently results in a high regioselectivity. Intra- and intermolecular processes such as the Minisci reaction, the Porta reaction, and the Knabe rearrangement will be discussed along with transition metal and photoredox catalysis or electrochemical methods to generate the odd-electron species.

  19. A covalent attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG FangFang; WANG Yi; WANG BingQiang; WANG YinFeng; MA Fang; Li ZhiRu

    2009-01-01

    The optimized structure of the tetrathiafulvalence radical-cation dimer (TTF·~+-TTF·~+) with all-real frequencies is obtained at MP2/6-311G level,which exhibits the attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+.The new attraction interaction is a 20-center-2-electron intermolecular covalent π/π bonding with a telescope shape.The covalent π/π bonding has the bonding energy of about-21 kcal·mol~(-1) and is concealed by the Coulombic repulsion between two TTF·~+ cations.This intermolecular covalent attraction also influences the structure of the TTF·~+ subunit,I.e.,its molecular plane is bent by an angle θ=5.6°.This work provides new knowledge on intermolecular interaction.

  20. A covalent attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The optimized structure of the tetrathiafulvalence radical-cation dimer(TTF·+-TTF·+) with all-real frequencies is obtained at MP2/6-311G level,which exhibits the attraction between two molecular cation TTF·+.The new attraction interaction is a 20-center-2-electron intermolecular covalent π /π bonding with a telescope shape.The covalent π /π bonding has the bonding energy of about -21 kcal·mol-1 and is concealed by the Coulombic repulsion between two TTF·+ cations.This intermolecular covalent attraction also influences the structure of the TTF·+ subunit,i.e.,its molecular plane is bent by an angle θ=5.6°.This work provides new knowledge on intermolecular interaction.

  1. Intracrystalline cation order in a lunar crustal troctolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar sample 76535 appears to be one of the most slowly cooled bits of silicate material yet studied. It provides, therefore, a unique opportunity for the study of ordering processes in the minerals present. A better understanding of these processes may permit better characterization of the thermal history of this and similar rocks. The cation ordering in the olivine is consistent with terrestrial olivines favoring the interpretation that ordering in olivines increases with increasing temperature. In low bronzite, the deviations from the common orthopyroxene space group appear to be caused by cation order on the basis of four M sites instead of two. The degree of cation order in each of these minerals is consistent with the rock having been excavated from its depth of formation by tectonic or impact processes without being reheated above 300 C.

  2. Structure and Intramolecular Proton Transfer of Alanine Radical Cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Yong

    2012-01-01

    The structures of the four lowest alanine conformers, along with their radical cations and the effect of ionization on the intramolecular proton transfer process, are studied using the density functional theory and MP2 method. The energy order of the radical cations of alanine differs from that of the corresponding neutral conformers due to changes in the basicity of the NH 2 group upon ionization. Ionization favors the intramolecular proton transfer process, leading to a proton-transferred radical-cation structure, [NH 3 + -CHCH 3 -COO·], which contrasts with the fact that a proton-transferred zwitterionic conformer is not stable for a neutral alanine in the gas phase. The energy barrier during the proton transfer process is calculated to be about 6 kcal/mol

  3. Effect of cation exchange of major cation chemistry in the large scale redox experiment at Aespoe. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    Geochemical modeling was used to test the hypothesis that cation exchange with fracture-lining clays during fluid mixing in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory can significantly affect major element chemistry. Conservative mixing models do not adequately account for changes in Na, Ca and Mg concentrations during mixing. Mixing between relatively dilute shallow waters and more concentrated waters at depth along fracture zones was modeled using the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling package. A cation exchange model was added to the code to describe simultaneously aqueous speciation, mineral precipitation/dissolution, and equilibration between a fluid and a cation exchanger. Fluid chemistries predicted to result from mixing were compared with those monitored from boreholes intersecting the fracture zone. Modeling results suggest that less than 0.1 equivalent of a smectite exchanger per liter of groundwater is necessary to account for discrepancies between predictions from a conservative mixing model and measured Na and Ca concentrations. This quantity of exchanger equates to an effective fracture coating thickness of 20 microm or less given a fracture aperture width of 1,000 microm or less. Trends in cation ratios in the fluid cannot be used to predict trends in cation ratios on the exchanger because of the influence of ionic strength on heterovalent exchange equilibrium. It is expected that Na for Ca exchange will dominate when shallow waters such as HBHO2 are mixed with deeper waters. In contrast, Na for Mg exchange will dominate mixing between deeper waters

  4. Selected anionic and cationic surface active agents: case study on the Kłodnica sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkowska Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface active agents (surfactants are a group of chemical compounds, which are used as ingredients of detergents, cleaning products, cosmetics and functional products. After use, wastes containing surfactants or their degradation products are discharged to wastewater treatment plants or directly into surface waters. Due to their specific properties of SAAs, compounds are able to migrate between different environmental compartments such as soil, sediment, water or even living organisms and accumulate there. Surfactants can have a harmful effect on living organisms. They can connect with bioactive molecules and modify their function. Additionally, they have the ability to migrate into cells and cause their damage or death. For these reasons investigation of individual surfactants should be conducted. The presented research has been undertaken to obtain information about SAA contamination of sediment from the River Kłodnica catchment caused by selected anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS C10-C13 and cationic (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium (BDMA-C12-16, alkyl trimethyl ammonium (DTMA, hexadecyl piridinium chloride (HP chlorides surfactants. This river flows through an area of the Upper Silesia Industrial Region where various companies and other institutions (e.g. coal mining, power plants, metallurgy, hospitals are located. To determine their concentration the following analytical tools have been applied: accelerated solvent extraction– solid phase extraction – high performance liquid chromatography – UV-Vis (anionic SAAs and conductivity (cationic SAAs detectors. In all sediments anionic SAAs have been detected. The concentrations of HTMA and BDMA-C16 in tested samples were higher than other cationic analytes. Generally, levels of surfactants with longer alkyl chains were higher and this observation can confirm their higher susceptibility to sorption on solid surfaces.

  5. Biochar immobilizes soil-borne arsenic but not cationic metals in the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozie, Nneka; Heaney, Natalie; Lin, Chuxia

    2018-07-15

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of biochar on the behaviour of soil-borne arsenic and metals that were mobilized by three low-molecular-weight organic acids. In the presence of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid at a molar concentration of 0.01M, the surface of biochar was protonated, which disfavours adsorption of the cationic metals released from the soil by organic acid-driven mobilization. In contrast, the oxyanionic As species were re-immobilized by the protonated biochar effectively. Biochar could also immobilize oxyanionic Cr species but not cationic Cr species. The addition of biochar increased the level of metals in the solution due to the release of the biochar-borne metals under attack by LMWOAs via cation exchange. Biochar could also have the potential to enhance reductive dissolution of iron and manganese oxides in the soil, leading to enhanced release of trace elements bound to these oxides. The findings obtained from this study have implications for evaluating the role of biochar in immobilizing trace elements in rhizosphere. Adsorption of cationic heavy metals on biochar in the presence of LMWOAs is unlikely to be a mechanism responsible for the impeded uptake of heavy metals by plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inward Cationic Diffusion and Percolation Transition in Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsklaer, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng; Mørup, Steen

    2010-01-01

    We show the quantitative correlation between the degree of crystallization and the cationic diffusion extent in iron-containing diopside glass–ceramics at the glass transition temperature. We find a critical degree of crystallization, above which the diffusion extent sharply drops with the degree...... of crystallization. Below the critical value, the diffusion extent decreases only slightly with the degree of crystallization. No cationic diffusion is observed in the fully crystalline materials. The critical value might be associated with a percolation transition from an interconnected to a disconnected glass...

  7. Radiation-induced cationic curing of vinyl ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapin, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in nonacrylate radiation-curable coatings. Vinyl ethers are particularly reactive under cationic polymerization reaction conditions. The high efficiency of the photoacid initiators combined with the high reactivity of vinyl ether monomers makes this a potentially very useful system. This chapter discusses the preparation of vinyl ethers, introduces vinyl ether-functional monomers and oligomers, describes radiation-induced cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers, and discusses various coating systems. Throughout the chapter, an emphasis is placed on radiation-curable coating applications. 64 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Conductometric determination of solvation numbers of alkali metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, Yu.Ya.; Gorbachev, V.Yu.; Chumak, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Theories describing the interrelation of ion mobility with their effective radii in solutions are considered. Possibility of using these theories for determination the solvation numbers n s of some ions is estimated. According to conductometric data values of n s are calculated for alkali metal ions in propylene carbonate. The data obtained are compared with solvation numbers determined with the use of entropies of ions solvation. Change of n s values within temperature range 273.15-323.15 K is considered. Using literature data the effect of crystallographic radii of cations and medium permittivity on the the values of solvation numbers of cations are analyzed. (author)

  9. Membrane potential and cation channels in rat juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, U G; Jørgensen, F; Andreasen, D

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between membrane potential and cation channels in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is not well understood. Here we review electrophysiological and molecular studies of JG cells demonstrating the presence of large voltage-sensitive, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca)) of the Z......The relationship between membrane potential and cation channels in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is not well understood. Here we review electrophysiological and molecular studies of JG cells demonstrating the presence of large voltage-sensitive, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK...

  10. Mass spectral analysis of cationic and neutral technetium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.E.; McCormick, T.J.; Nunn, A.N.; Treher, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Cationic and neutral technetium compounds have been characterized by mass spectrometry using a variety of ionization methods. These compounds include octahedral cationic complexes containing phosphorous and arsenic ligands such as DIPHOS and DIARS and neutral complexes containing PnAO and dimethylglyoxime, DMG, or cyclohexanedione dioxime, CDO, ligands. Boronate esters incorporating methyl and butyl derivatives of the DMG and CDO dioximes represent a new class of seven-coordinate Tc radiopharmaceuticals whose characterization by mass spectrometry has not previously been described. These complexes show promise as myocardial imaging agents. (author)

  11. Basally activated nonselective cation currents regulate the resting membrane potential in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lowe, Vanessa; Zheng, Haifeng; Peri, Lauren; Ro, Seungil; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2011-01-01

    Resting membrane potential (RMP) plays an important role in determining the basal excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The RMP in colonic muscles is significantly less negative than the equilibrium potential of K+, suggesting that it is regulated not only by K+ conductances but by inward conductances such as Na+ and/or Ca2+. We investigated the contribution of nonselective cation channels (NSCC) to the RMP in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine potential molecular candidates for these channels among the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily. Spontaneous transient inward currents and holding currents were recorded in human and monkey SMC. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with equimolar tetraethylammonium or Ca2+ with Mn2+ inhibited basally activated nonselective cation currents. Trivalent cations inhibited these channels. Under current clamp, replacement of extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine or addition of trivalent cations caused hyperpolarization. Three unitary conductances of NSCC were observed in human and monkey colonic SMC. Molecular candidates for basally active NSCC were TRPC1, C3, C4, C7, M2, M4, M6, M7, V1, and V2 in human and monkey SMC. Comparison of the biophysical properties of these TRP channels with basally active NSCC (bINSCC) suggests that TRPM4 and specific TRPC heteromultimer combinations may underlie the three single-channel conductances of bINSCC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that basally activated NSCC contribute to the RMP in human and monkey colonic SMC and therefore may play an important role in determining basal excitability of colonic smooth muscle. PMID:21566016

  12. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  13. A theoretical study of complexes formed between cations and curved aromatic systems: electrostatics does not always control cation-π interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús

    2017-04-19

    The present work studies the interaction of two extended curved π-systems (corannulene and sumanene) with various cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, tetramethylammonium, guanidinium and imidazolium). Polyatomic cations are models of groups found in important biomolecules in which cation-π interaction plays a fundamental role. The results indicate an important size effect: with extended π systems and cations of the size of potassium and larger, dispersion is much more important than has been generally recognized for cation-π interactions. In most of the systems studied here, the stability of the cation-π complexes is the result of a balanced combination of electrostatic, induction and dispersion contributions. None of the systems studied here owes its stability to the electrostatic interaction more than 42%. Induction dominates stabilization in complexes with sodium, and in some of the potassium and ammonium complexes. In complexes with large cations and with flat cations dispersion is the major stabilizing contribution and can provide more than 50% of the stabilization energy. This implies that theoretical studies of the cation-π interaction involving large or even medium-size fragments require a level of calculation capable of properly modelling dispersion. The separation between the cation and the π system is another important factor to take into account, especially when the fragments of the cation-π complex are bound (for example, to a protein backbone) and cannot interact at the most favourable distance.

  14. Electrodeposition properties of modified cational epoxy resin-type photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong He; Yunlong Zhang; Feipeng Wu; Miaozhen Li; Erjian Wang

    1999-01-01

    Multi-component cationic epoxy and acrylic resin system for ED photoresist was used in this work, since they can provide better storage stability for ED emulsion and better physical and chemical properties of deposited film than one-component system. The cationic main resin (AE) was prepared from amine modified epoxy resins and then treated with acetic acid. The amination degree was controlled as required. The synthetic procedure of cationic main resins is described in scheme I. The ED photoresist (AME) is composed of cationic main resin (AE) and nonionic multifunctional acrylic crosslinkers (PETA), in combination with suitable photo-initiator. They can easily be dispersed in deionized water to form a stable ED emulsion. The exposed part of deposited film upon UV irradiation occurs crosslinking to produce an insoluble semi-penetrating network and the unexposed part remains good solubility in the acidic water solution. It is readily utilized for fabrication of fine micropattern. The electrodeposition are carried out on Cu plate at room temperature. To evaluate the electrodeposition properties of ED photoresist (AME), the different influences are examined

  15. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  16. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  17. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca 2+ as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK a2 (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d 001 ) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  18. Stepwise radical cation Diels-Alder reaction via multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Okada, Yohei; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Herein we disclose the radical cation Diels-Alder reaction of aryl vinyl ethers by electrocatalysis, which is triggered by an oxidative SET process. The reaction clearly proceeds in a stepwise fashion, which is a rare mechanism in this class. We also found that two distinctive pathways, including "direct" and "indirect", are possible to construct the Diels-Alder adduct.

  19. Fabrication of Cationic Exchange Polystyrene Nanofibers for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare polystyrene nanofiber ion exchangers (PSNIE) with surface cation exchange functionality using a new method based on electrospinning and also to optimize crosslinking and sulfonation reactions to obtain PSNIE with maximum ion exchange capacity (IEC). Method: The nanofibers were prepared from ...

  20. Catalytic Ketone Hydrodeoxygenation Mediated by Highly Electrophilic Phosphonium Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Meera; Holthausen, Michael H; Mallov, Ian; Pérez, Manuel; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Grimme, Stefan; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-07-06

    Ketones are efficiently deoxygenated in the presence of silane using highly electrophilic phosphonium cation (EPC) salts as catalysts, thus affording the corresponding alkane and siloxane. The influence of distinct substitution patterns on the catalytic effectiveness of several EPCs was evaluated. The deoxygenation mechanism was probed by DFT methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed ...

  2. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    ) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  3. Small angle neutron scattering studies on the interaction of cationic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of the protein–surfactant complex of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cationic surfactants has been studied by small angle neutron scattering. At low concentrations, the CTAB monomers are observed to bind to the protein leading to an increase in its size. On the other hand at high concentrations, surfactant ...

  4. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  5. Selective oxidation of propane over cation exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on investigation of the fundamental knowledge on a new method for selective oxidation of propane with O2 at low temperature (< 100°C). The relation between propane catalytic selective oxidation and physicochemical properties of cation exchanged Y zeolite has been studied. An

  6. The exchangeable cations in soils flooded with sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der W.H.

    1958-01-01

    The changes in the exchangeable cations of soils flooded with sea-water were extensively studied in the Netherlands after the inundations of 1940, 1945 and 1953. A synopsis of the results was given, both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

    Current formulae for ion-exchange tested in the

  7. Mutations of the cystic fibrosis gene, but not cationic trypsinogen gene, are associated with recurrent or chronic idiopathic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, J; Stuhrmann, M; Ballmann, M; Teich, N; Keim, V; Dörk, T; Manns, M P

    2000-08-01

    We investigated whether mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and cationic trypsinogen gene are associated with recurrent acute, or chronic idiopathic pancreatitis. Twenty patients with idiopathic pancreatitis (11 women, nine men; mean age, 30 yr) were studied for the presence of a CFTR mutation by screening the genomic DNA for more than 30 mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. Selected mutations of the cationic trypsinogen gene were screened by Afl III restriction digestion or by a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In each patient exons 1, 2, and 3 of the cationic trypsinogen gene were sequenced. Patients with a CFTR mutation underwent evaluation of further functional electrophysiological test (intestinal current measurement). No mutation of the cationic trypsinogen gene was detected. A CFTR mutation was detected in 6/20 (30.0%) patients. Three patients (15.0%) had a cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation on one chromosome (deltaF508, I336K, Y1092X), which is known to cause phenotypical severe cystic fibrosis. One patient was heterozygous for the 5T allele. In addition, two possibly predisposing CFTR variants (R75Q, 1716G-->A) were detected on four patients, one of these being a compound heterozygous for the missense mutation I336K and R75Q. No other family member (maternal I336K; paternal R75Q; sister I1336K) developed pancreatitis. An intestinal current measurement in rectum samples of patients with a CFTR mutation revealed no CF-typical constellations. CFTR mutations are associated with recurrent acute, or chronic idiopathic pancreatitis, whereas mutations of the cationic trypsinogen mutation do not appear to be a frequent pathogenetic factor.

  8. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Asghar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R² ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  9. Cation effect on small phosphonium based ionic liquid electrolytes with high concentrations of lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Kerr, Robert; Forsyth, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes with high alkali salt concentrations have displayed some excellent electrochemical properties, thus opening up the field for further improvements to liquid electrolytes for lithium or sodium batteries. Fundamental computational investigations into these high concentration systems are required in order to gain a better understanding of these systems, yet they remain lacking. Small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with high concentrations of alkali metal ions have recently shown many promising results in experimental studies, thereby prompting us to conduct further theoretical exploration of these materials. Here, we conducted a molecular dynamics simulation on four small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with 50 mol. % LiFSI salt, focusing on the effect of cation structure on local structuring and ion diffusional and rotational dynamics—which are closely related to the electrochemical properties of these materials.

  10. Cell shape changes induced by cationic anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The effects of local anesthetics on cultivated macrophages were studied in living preparations and recorded in still pictures and time-lapse cine-micrographs. Exposure to 12mM lidocaine or 1.5 mM tetracaine resulted in rounding in 10-15 min. Rounding was characterized by cell contraction, marked increase in retraction fibrils, withdrawal of cell processes, and, in late stages, pulsation-like activity and zeiosis. Cells showed appreciable membrane activity as they rounded. Respreading was complete within 15 min of perfusion in drug-free medium and entailed a marked increase in surface motility over control periods. As many as eight successive cycles of rounding and spreading were obtained with lidocaine without evidence of cell damage. The effects of anesthetics were similar to those observed with EDTA, but ethylene- glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid-Mg was ineffective. Rounding was also induced by benzocaine, an anesthetic nearly uncharged at pH 7.0. Quaternary (nondischargeable) compounds were of low activity, presumably because they are slow permeants. Lidocaine induced rounding at 10 degrees C and above but was less effective at 5 degrees C and ineffective at 0 degrees C. Rounding by the anesthetic was also obtained in media depleted or Na or enriched with 10 mM Ca or Mg. The latter finding, together with the failure of tetrodotoxin to induce rounding, suggests that the anesthetic effect is unrelated to inhibition of sodium conductance. It is possible that the drugs influence divalent ion fluxes or some component of the contractile cells' machinery, but a metabolic target of action cannot yet be excluded. PMID:814194

  11. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  12. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  13. Silver Cation Coordination Study to AsW9 Ligand – A Trilacunar Arsenotungstate Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Lavinia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this research is to find the coordination ratio between AsW9 and Ag+, as a preliminary study for synthesizing a new silver-arsenotungstate complex. Material and method: The ligand:cation molar ratio in complexes was determined by conductometric and potentiometric titrations of AsW9 with silver salts: CH3COOAg, AgNO3. Results: The ratio was obtained from the inflexion points of the curves when molar ratio was plotted versus conductivity, or from the equivalence point when silver added volume was plotted versus pH value. Each graphic shows one point of inflexion corresponding to 1:1.54 ratio of AsW9:Ag+. In the same manner, the equivalent volumes determined by graphical method gave the ratio 1:1.53. The spectral results confirmed that a AsW9:Ag+ complex was formed since the ligand absorption maxima values have been changed from 190 nm to 197 nm in the case of using AgNO3 and 196 nm for CH3COOAg corresponding to the W=Od bond, and from 246.5 nm to 274 nm (AgNO3 and 270 nm (CH3COO-Ag+ for the W-Ob,c-W bond. Conclusions: Silver cation exhibit a preference for AsW9 in a ratio of 3 to 2. This ratio can be associated to a sandwich type arrangement, with two trilacunary Keggin building blocks incorporating 3 metal cations in a tetrahedral geometry.

  14. Biocompatible water softening system using cationic protein from moringa oleifera extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, R. R.; Jegathambal, P.; Parameswari, K.; Kirupa, K.

    2017-10-01

    In developing countries like India, the deciding factors for the selection of the specific water purification system are the flow rate, cost of implementation and maintenance, availability of materials for fabrication or assembling, technical manpower, energy requirement and reliability. But most of them are energy and cost intensive which necessitate the development of cost-effective water purification system. In this study, the feasibility of development of an efficient and cost-effective water purifier using Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand column to treat drinking water is presented. Moringa oleifera seeds contain cationic antimicrobial protein which acts as biocoagulant in the removal of turbidity and also aids in water softening. The main disadvantage of using Moringa seeds in water purification is that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is left over in the water contributes to growth of any pathogens that come into contact with the stored water. To overcome this limitation, the Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand (MOCP c-sand) is prepared in which the flocculant and antimicrobial properties of the MOCP are maintained and the DOM to be rinsed away. The efficiency of MOCP c-sand in removing suspended particles and reducing total hardness (TH), chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) was also studied. Also, it is shown that the functionalized sand showed the same treatment efficiency even after being stored dry and in dehydrated condition for 3 months. This confirms MOCP c-sand's potential as a locally sustainable water treatment option for developing countries since other chemicals used in water purification are expensive.

  15. Automated dual capillary electrophoresis system with hydrodynamic injection for the concurrent determination of cations and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thanh Thuy; Mai, Thanh Duc [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Thanh Dam [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sáiz, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering – University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pham, Hung Viet, E-mail: phamhungviet@hus.edu.vn [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hauser, Peter C., E-mail: Peter.Hauser@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, Basel 4056 (Switzerland)

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • Concurrent determination of cations and anions was carried out by electrophoretic separation. • Optimized conditions for each class of analystes was possible by using separate capillaries. • Simultaneous hydrodynamic injection was carried out. • Pneumatic actuation was used for flushing and sample handling. • The denitrification of drinking water was successfully demonstrated. - Abstract: The capillary electrophoresis instrument developed for the concurrent determination of cations and anions features two separate capillaries and individual detectors to allow independent optimization for each group of ions. The capillaries are joined in a common injector block. The sample is drawn into the injector with a small membrane pump and automated simultaneous injection into both capillaries is achieved by pressurization of the fluid with compressed air. Flushing of the injector and of the capillaries with the background electrolyte is also carried out automatically by the same means. The buffer consisted of 12 mM histidine and 2 mM 18-crown-6 adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid and was suitable for the contactless conductivity detection employed. The system was optimized for the determination of cationic NH{sub 4}{sup +} and anionic NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}, and linear calibration curves from about 20 μM up to about 1.5 mM were obtained for these ions. In a test run over 8 h, the reproducibility for the peak areas was within ±7%. For demonstration, the instrument was successfully applied to the concurrent monitoring of the concentrations of the three ions during the biological removal of ammonium from contaminated groundwater in a sequencing batch reactor, where NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −} are formed as intermediate products.

  16. Voltammetry of Lead Cations on a New Type of Silver Composite Electrode in the Presence of Other Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šebková, Světlana; Kopanica, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 379, - (2004), s. 294-301 ISSN 1618-2642 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : voltammetry * silver composite electrode * lead cations Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2004

  17. Cation-pi interaction of the univalent silver cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, Miroslav; Kvíčala, J.; Makrlík, E.; Křížová, Věra; Vaňura, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1130, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 408-413 ISSN 0022-2860 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 20/2015; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : silver cation * meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole * complexation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  18. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayss, M. K.; Armentrout, P. B.; Oomens, J.; Schaefer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+,K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectra

  19. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayß, M.K.; Armentrout, P.B.; Oomens, J.; Schäfer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD

  20. Effect of cation competition on cadmium uptake from solution by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-Z.; Zhou, D.-M.; Wang, P.; Jin, S.-Y.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Reinecke, A.J.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Metal speciation alone is insufficient to predict metal accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, because competition between cations can play an important role. In the present study, the effects of competing cations (Ca

  1. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  2. Ion Dynamics in a Mixed-Cation Alkoxy-Ammonium Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Sodium Device Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Cameron R; Kar, Mega; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Armand, Michel; Forsyth, Maria; O'Dell, Luke A

    2016-10-18

    The ion dynamics in a novel sodium-containing room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) consisting of an ether-functionalised quaternary ammonium cation and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [NTf 2 ] anion with various concentrations of Na[NTf 2 ] have been characterised using differential scanning calorimetry, impedance spectroscopy, diffusometry and NMR relaxation measurements. The IL studied has been specifically designed to dissolve a relatively large concentration of Na[NTf 2 ] salt (over 2 mol kg -1 ) as this has been shown to improve ion transport and conductivity. Consistent with other studies, the measured ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients show that the overall ionic mobility decreases with decreasing temperature and increasing salt content. NMR relaxation measurements provide evidence for correlated dynamics between the ether-functionalised ammonium and Na cations, possibly with the latter species acting as cross-links between multiple ammonium cations. Finally, preliminary cyclic voltammetry experiments show that this IL can undergo stable electrochemical cycling and could therefore be potentially useful as an electrolyte in a Na-based device. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Structure and size of ions electrochemically doped in conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, Keiichi; Hata, Fumito; Uto, Sadahito

    2018-05-01

    Among electroactive polymers (EAPs) for softactuators, conducting polymers have been intensively studied because of the large strain and stress caused by a low voltage operation. A larger deformation is desirable to extend their cycle life by reducing the operation voltage, and this is advantageous for their potential use in wider applications. The deformation is generated by the insertion of ions by electrochemical oxidation; hence, the magnitude of the strain depends on the bulkiness of the ions in the electrolytes. It is important, therefore, to clarify the structure and size of the ions during the electrochemical cycle, in order to achieve better performance of actuation. Anion and cation sizes (radii) in polypyrrole (PPy) film have been estimated using the precise measurement of strain against the amount of charge injected during the electrochemical cycles, assuming isotropic deformation of the film. The anion size was estimated using an anion-drive film, which was electrodeposited in TBABF4/methyl benzoate. The film was electrochemically cycled in sodium electrolytes, and the strain was measured simultaneously using a laser displacement meter. The cation size was obtained using a cation-drive film, being electropolymerized in aqueous dodecylbenzene sulfonic (DBS) acid. The cation-drive film was cycled in chloride electrolytes and measured the strain. The Cl-, Br-, NO3- , BF4- , and ClO4- radii were found to be approximately 235, 245, 250, 270 and 290 pm, respectively. The radii of K+, Na+ and Li+ were approximately 230, 237 and 274 pm, respectively. The results were discussed and took the crystalline ion radius and hydrated ion radius (Stokes radius) into consideration. It was found that the structure and size of the anions were slightly larger than the crystalline ion radius. Contrary to the anions, the cation radii were close to the hydrated ion radius, being larger than the crystalline ion radius.

  4. Metal cation dependence of interactions with amino acids: bond dissociation energies of Rb(+) and Cs(+) to the acidic amino acids and their amide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentrout, P B; Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M T

    2014-04-24

    Metal cation-amino acid interactions are key components controlling the secondary structure and biological function of proteins, enzymes, and macromolecular complexes comprising these species. Determination of pairwise interactions of alkali metal cations with amino acids provides a thermodynamic vocabulary that begins to quantify these fundamental processes. In the present work, we expand a systematic study of such interactions by examining rubidium and cesium cations binding with the acidic amino acids (AA), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu), and their amide derivatives, asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln). These eight complexes are formed using electrospray ionization and their bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are determined experimentally using threshold collision-induced dissociation with xenon in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. Analyses of the energy-dependent cross sections include consideration of unimolecular decay rates, internal energy of the reactant ions, and multiple ion-neutral collisions. Quantum chemical calculations are conducted at the B3LYP, MP2(full), and M06 levels of theory using def2-TZVPPD basis sets, with results showing reasonable agreement with experiment. At 0 and 298 K, most levels of theory predict that the ground-state conformers for M(+)(Asp) and M(+)(Asn) involve tridentate binding of the metal cation to the backbone carbonyl, amino, and side-chain carbonyl groups, although tridentate binding to the carboxylic acid group and side-chain carbonyl is competitive for M(+)(Asn). For the two longer side-chain amino acids, Glu and Gln, multiple structures are competitive. A comparison of these results to those for the smaller alkali cations, Na(+) and K(+), provides insight into the trends in binding energies associated with the molecular polarizability and dipole moment of the side chain. For all four metal cations, the BDEs are inversely correlated with the size of the metal cation and follow the order Asp < Glu

  5. Viscosity, Conductivity, and Electrochemical Property of Dicyanamide Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The instructive structure-property relationships of ionic liquids (ILs can be put to task-specific design of new functionalized ILs. The dicyanamide (DCA ILs are typical CHN type ILs which are halogen free, chemical stable, low-viscous, and fuel-rich. The transport properties of DCA ionic liquids are significant for their applications as solvents, electrolytes, and hypergolic propellants. This work systematically investigates several important transport properties of four DCA ILs ([C4mim][N(CN2], [C4m2im][N(CN2], N4442[N(CN2], and N8444[N(CN2] including viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property at different temperatures. The melting points, temperature-dependent viscosities and conductivities reveal the structure-activity relationship of four DCA ILs. From the Walden plots, the imidazolium cations exhibit stronger cation–anion attraction than the ammonium cations. DCA ILs have relatively high values of electrochemical windows (EWs, which indicates that the DCA ILs are potential candidates for electrolytes in electrochemical applications. The cyclic voltammograms of Eu(III in these DCA ILs at GC working electrode at various temperatures 303–333 K consists of quasi-reversible waves. The electrochemical properties of the DCA ILs are also dominated by the cationic structures. The current intensity (ip, the diffusion coefficients (Do, the charge transfer rate constants (ks of Eu(III in DCA ILs all increased with the molar conductivities increased. The cationic structure-transport property relationships of DCA ILs were constructed for designing novel functionalized ILs to fulfill specific demands.

  6. Comparison of cation adsorption by isostructural rutile and cassiterite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machesky, Michael; Wesolowski, David; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Předota, Milan; Vlcek, Lukas; Ridley, Moira; Kohli, Vaibhav; Zhang, Zhan; Fenter, Paul; Cummings, Peter; Lvov, Serguei; Fedkin, Mark; Rodriguez-Santiago, Victor; Kubicki, James; Bandura, Andrei

    2011-04-19

    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl(2) in NaCl, and trace ZnCl(2) in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite (ε(bulk) ≈ 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb(+) and Na(+) on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl(-) binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb(+), Na(+), and especially Sr(2+) are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn(2+) are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn(2+) hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH(+) on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the cassiterite (110) surface. Hence, their removal upon inner

  7. Star-like superalkali cations featuring planar pentacoordinate carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jin-Chang [Institute of Materials Science and Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers’ University, Xinzhou, Shanxi 034000 (China); Tian, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Wu, Yan-Bo, E-mail: wyb@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisidian@sxu.edu.cn; Li, Si-Dian, E-mail: wyb@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisidian@sxu.edu.cn [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Wang, Ying-Jin [Institute of Materials Science and Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers’ University, Xinzhou, Shanxi 034000 (China); Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Zhai, Hua-Jin, E-mail: wyb@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisidian@sxu.edu.cn [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2016-06-28

    Superalkali cations, known to possess low vertical electron affinities (VEAs), high vertical detachment energies, and large highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps, are intriguing chemical species. Thermodynamically, such species need to be the global minima in order to serve as the promising targets for experimental realization. In this work, we propose the strategies of polyhalogenation and polyalkalination for designing the superalkali cations. By applying these strategies, the local-minimum planar pentacoordinate carbon (ppC) cluster CBe{sub 5} can be modified to form a series of star-like superalkali ppC or quasi-ppC CBe{sub 5}X{sub 5}{sup +} (X = F, Cl, Br, Li, Na, K) cations containing a CBe{sub 5} moiety. Polyhalogenation and polyalkalination on the CBe{sub 5} unit may help eliminate the high reactivity of bare CBe{sub 5} molecule by covering the reactive Be atoms with noble halogen anions and alkali cations. Computational exploration of the potential energy surfaces reveals that the star-like ppC or quasi-ppC CBe{sub 5}X{sub 5}{sup +} (X = F, Cl, Br, Li, Na, K) clusters are the true global minima of the systems. The predicted VEAs for CBe{sub 5}X{sub 5}{sup +} range from 3.01 to 3.71 eV for X = F, Cl, Br and 2.12–2.51 eV for X = Li, Na, K, being below the lower bound of the atomic ionization potential of 3.89 eV in the periodic table. Large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps are also revealed for the species: 10.76–11.07 eV for X = F, Cl, Br and 4.99–6.91 eV for X = Li, Na, K. These designer clusters represent the first series of superalkali cations with a ppC center. Bonding analyses show five Be–X–Be three-center two-electron (3c-2e) σ bonds for the peripheral bonding, whereas the central C atom is associated with one 6c-2e π bond and three 6c-2e σ bonds, rendering (π and σ) double aromaticity. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the CBe{sub 5} motif is robust in the

  8. Multi-State Vibronic Interactions in Fluorinated Benzene Radical Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, S.; Köppel, H.

    2009-06-01

    Conical intersections of potential energy surfaces have emerged as paradigms for signalling strong nonadiabatic coupling effects. An important class of systems where some of these effects have been analyzed in the literature, are the benzene and benzenoid cations, where the electronic structure, spectroscopy, and dynamics have received great attention in the literature. In the present work a brief overview is given over our theoretical treatments of multi-mode and multi-state vibronic interactions in the benzene radical cation and some of its fluorinated derivatives. The fluorobenzene derivatives are of systematic interest for at least two different reasons. (1) The reduction of symmetry by incomplete fluorination leads to a disappearance of the Jahn-Teller effect present in the parent cation. (2) A specific, more chemical effect of fluorination consists in the energetic increase of the lowest σ-type electronic states of the radical cations. The multi-mode multi-state vibronic interactions between the five lowest electronic states of the fluorobenzene radical cations are investigated theoretically, based on ab initio electronic structure data, and employing the well-established linear vibronic coupling model, augmented by quadratic coupling terms for the totally symmetric vibrational modes. Low-energy conical intersections, and strong vibronic couplings are found to prevail within the set of tilde{X}-tilde{A} and tilde{B}-tilde{C}-tilde{D} cationic states, while the interactions between these two sets of states are found to be weaker and depend on the particular isomer. This is attributed to the different location of the minima of the various conical intersections occurring in these systems. Wave-packet dynamical simulations for these coupled potential energy surfaces, utilizing the powerful multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method are performed. Ultrafast internal conversion processes and the analysis of the MATI and photo-electron spectra shed new light

  9. Influence of Sulfonated-Kaolin On Cationic Exchange Capacity Swelling Degree and Morphology of Chitosan/Kaolin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozi Adi Saputra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of sulfonated-kaolin (sKao has been conducted and used as filler on chitosan matrix via solution casting method, namely chitosan/sKao (Cs/sKao. Swelling degree, cationic exchange capacity and thermal stability were evaluated to determine chitosan/sKao membranes performance as proton exchange membrane in fuel cell. Functional group analysis of chitosan, sKao and synthesized products were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy. In this study, swelling degree and swelling area of Cs/sKao are also studied to determine of membrane ability to swelling which compare to unmodified chitosan/kaolin (Cs/Kao. The presence of sKao in chitosan matrix was able to improve cationic exchange capacity (CEC which proved by morphological study of membrane surface after CEC test. Moreover, Thermal stability of Cs/sKao showed the membrane has meet requirement for PEM application.

  10. Spectroscopic and computer modelling studies of mixed-cation superionic fluorites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Netshisaulu, TT

    2005-10-19

    Full Text Available into the local environments of the Cd and Pb cations (as a function of composition and temperature) in CdF2 (xPbF(2)) mixed-cation superionic fluorites. A high degree of disorder is shown around both cations. However, the extent of disorder is even larger around...

  11. Surface enhanced spectroscopic investigations of adsorption of cations on electrochemical interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, M; Wang, Junhua; Yan, Y; Xu, B

    2017-01-04

    The adsorption of alkali and tetraalkylammonium cations on Pt is investigated using surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy and carbon monoxide as a probe molecule. Alkali cations exhibit a stronger adsorption than organic cations, with potassium showing the strongest effect, followed by sodium and lithium.

  12. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  13. Green sample preparation for liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis of anionic and cationic analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Alain; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2015-04-21

    A sample preparation device for the simultaneous enrichment and separation of cationic and anionic analytes was designed and implemented in an eight-channel configuration. The device is based on the use of an electric field to transfer the analytes from a large volume of sample into small volumes of electrolyte that was suspended into two glass micropipettes using a conductive hydrogel. This simple, economical, fast, and green (no organic solvent required) sample preparation scheme was evaluated using cationic and anionic herbicides as test analytes in water. The analytical figures of merit and ecological aspects were evaluated against the state-of-the-art sample preparation, solid-phase extraction. A drastic reduction in both sample preparation time (94% faster) and resources (99% less consumables used) was observed. Finally, the technique in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis was applied to analysis of quaternary ammonium and phenoxypropionic acid herbicides in fortified river water as well as drinking water (at levels relevant to Australian guidelines). The presented sustainable sample preparation approach could easily be applied to other charged analytes or adopted by other laboratories.

  14. Promising silicones modified with cationic biocides for the development of antimicrobial medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Tarasyuk, Oksana; Rogalsky, Sergiy; Lyoshina, Lyudmila; Bulko, Olga; Bardeau, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    We have tested silicones containing 2% or 5% of the cationic biocides polyhexamethylene guanidine dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PHMG-DBS), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (OMIM-BF 4 ) or 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (DMIM-BF 4 ) against the major relevant bacterial and yeast species in health care-associated infections (HCAI). Study conducted according to the international standard ISO 22196 revealed that silicones containing 2% or 5% DMIM-BF 4 or 5% PHMG-DBS presented the highest antimicrobial activity, leading to a logarithmic growth reduction of 3.03 to 6.46 and 3.65 to 4.85 depending on the bacterial or fungal species. Heat-pretreated silicones containing 2% DMIM-BF 4 kept a high activity, with at least a 3-log reduction in bacterial growth, except against P. aeruginosa where there was only a 1.1-log reduction. After 33days, the release ratio of cationic biocide from silicone films containing 5% of DMIM-BF 4 was found to be 5.6% in pure water and 1.9% in physiological saline solution, respectively. No leaching of PHMG-DBS polymeric biocide was detected under the same conditions. These results demonstrate unambiguously that silicones containing 2% DMIM-BF 4 or 5% PHMG-DBS present high antimicrobial activity, as well as high leaching resistance and therefore may be good candidates for the development of safer medical devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Light-induced cation exchange for copper sulfide based CO2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Aurora; Simon, Thomas; Sonnleitner, Clemens; Döblinger, Markus; Wyrwich, Regina; Stern, Omar; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Feldmann, Jochen

    2015-11-11

    Copper(I)-based catalysts, such as Cu2S, are considered to be very promising materials for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. A common synthesis route for Cu2S via cation exchange from CdS nanocrystals requires Cu(I) precursors, organic solvents, and neutral atmosphere, but these conditions are not compatible with in situ applications in photocatalysis. Here we propose a novel cation exchange reaction that takes advantage of the reducing potential of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band of CdS and proceeds with Cu(II) precursors in an aqueous environment and under aerobic conditions. We show that the synthesized Cu2S photocatalyst can be efficiently used for the reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide and methane, achieving formation rates of 3.02 and 0.13 μmol h(-1) g(-1), respectively, and suppressing competing water reduction. The process opens new pathways for the preparation of new efficient photocatalysts from readily available nanostructured templates.

  16. Cation exchange removal of Cd from aqueous solution by NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Saddique, M.T.; Naeem, A.; Mustafa, S.; Dilara, B.; Raza, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sorption of Cd on NiO particles is described by modified Langmuir adsorption isotherms. - Abstract: Detailed adsorption experiments of Cd from aqueous solution on NiO were conducted under batch process with different concentrations of Cd, time and temperature of the suspension. The solution pH is found to play a decisive role in the metal ions precipitation, surface dissolution and adsorption of metal ions onto the NiO. Preliminary adsorption experiments show that the selectivity of NiO towards different divalent metal ions follows the trend Pb > Zn > Co > Cd, which is related to their first hydrolysis equilibrium constant. The exchange between the proton from the NiO surface and the metal from solution is responsible for the adsorption. The cation/exchange mechanism essentially remains the same for Pb, Zn, Co and Cd ions. The sorption of Cd on NiO particles is described by the modified Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH) indicates the endothermic nature of the cation exchange process. Spectroscopic analyses provide evidence that Cd is chemisorbed onto the surface of NiO.

  17. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [Atkins Ltd, Chilbrook, Oasis Business Park, Eynsham, Oxford, OX29 4AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Rule, K.L. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conrad, A.U. [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TR (United Kingdom); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538 Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S.F. [Procter and Gamble, Temselaan 100, Strombeek-Bever B1853 (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion.

  18. Induction of divalent cation permeability by heterologous expression of a voltage sensor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hiroki; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Ayako; Yoshida, Manabu; Okamura, Yasushi

    2018-01-06

    The voltage sensor domain (VSD) is a protein domain that confers sensitivity to membrane potential in voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-sensing phosphatase. Although VSDs have long been considered to function as regulatory units acting on adjacent effectors, recent studies have revealed the existence of direct ion permeation paths in some mutated VSDs and in the voltage-gated proton channel. In this study, we show that calcium currents are evoked upon membrane hyperpolarization in cells expressing a VSD derived from an ascidian voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. Unlike the previously reported omega-pore in the Shaker K + channel and rNav1.4, mutations are not required. From electrophysiological experiments in heterologous expression systems, we found that the conductance is directly mediated by the VSD itself and is carried by both monovalent and divalent cations. This is the first report of divalent cation permeation through a VSD-like structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, S.D.W.; Rule, K.L.; Conrad, A.U.; Hoess, S.; Webb, S.F.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion

  20. Effect of the intercalated cation-exchanged on the properties of nanocomposites prepared by 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toumi, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Benyoucef, A., E-mail: ghani29000@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Yahiaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Quijada, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Pza Ferrandiz i Carbonel, E-03801 Alcoy, Alicante (Spain); Morallon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2013-02-25

    Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared. Intercalation of 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline monomers into montmorillonite modified by cation was followed by subsequent oxidative polymerization of monomers in the interlayer spacing. The clay was prepared by cation exchange process between sodium cation in (M-Na) and copper cation (M-Cu). XRD analyses show the manifestation of a basal spacing (d-spacing) for M-Cu changes depending on the inorganic cation and the polymer intercalated in the M-Cu structure. TGA analyses reveal that polymer/M-Cu composites is less stable than M-Cu. The conductivity of the composites is found to be 10{sup 3} times higher than that for M-Cu. The microscopic examinations including TEM picture of the nanocomposite demonstrated an entirely different and more compatible morphology. Remarkable differences in the properties of the polymers have also been observed by UV-Vis and FTIR, suggesting that the polymer produced with presence of aniline has a higher degree of branching. The electrochemical behavior of the polymers extracted from the nanocomposites has been studied by cyclic voltammetry which indicates the electroactive effect of nanocomposite gradually increased with aniline in the polymer chain.

  1. Complex conductivity of oil-contaminated clayey soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Revil, A.; Shi, X.

    2017-12-01

    Non-intrusive hydrogeophysical techniques have been wildly applied to detect organic contaminants because of the difference of electrical properties for contaminated soil. Among them, spectral induced polarization (SIP) has emerged as a promising tool for the identification of contamination due to its sensitivity to the chemistry of pore water, solid-fluid interfaces and fluid content. Previous works have investigated the influences of oil on the electrical signatures of porous media, which demonstrated the potentials of SIP in the detection of hydrocarbon contamination. However, few works have done on the SIP response of oil in clayey soils. In this study, we perform a set of SIP measurements on the clayey samples under different water saturations. These clayey soils are characterized by relatively high cation exchange capacity. The objective in this work is to test the empirical relationships between the three exponents, including the cementation exponent (m), the saturation exponent (n) and the quadrature conductivity exponent (p), which is expected to reduce the model parameters needed in geophysical and hydraulic properties predictions. Our results show that the complex conductivity are saturation dependent. The magnitude of both in-phase and quadrature conductivities generally decrease with decreasing water saturation. The shape of quadrature conductivity spectra slightly changes when water saturation decreases in some cases. The saturation exponent slightly increases with cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and clay content, with an average value around 2.05. Compared to saturation exponent, the quadrature conductivity exponent apparently increases with cation exchange capacity and specific surface area while has little to do with the clay content. Further, the results indicate that the quadrature conductivity exponent p does not strictly obey to p=n-1 as proposed by Vinegar and Waxman (1984). Instead, it mostly ranges between p=n-1.5 and p=n-0

  2. Characterization of in vivo chemistry of cations in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, S.A.; Williams, S.J.; Sands, H.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of laboratory procedures can be used to define the chemistry and pharmacokinetics of myocardial cationic imaging agents. These methods are utilized to define the in vivo chemistry of cationic heart agents, in order to understand the kinetics and mechanisms of: tissue and cellular transport, subcellular distribution, and intracellular localization. Transport across cell membranes can be active, passive or facilitated. Studies performed in erythrocytes, heart cells, slices and isolated perfused hearts using methods for separation of metabolites have shown a high degree of myocardial specificity for [99mTc]hexakis alkyl isonitrile by an uptake mechanism different from 201 Tl. These studies demonstrate the importance of in vivo chemistry and pharmacokinetics in the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. 31 references

  3. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  4. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Y.M., E-mail: ymabbas@live.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Ali, Shehab E., E-mail: shehab_physics@yahoo.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: > The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. > The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. > The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  5. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Y.M.; Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Ali, Shehab E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: → The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. → The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. → The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  6. Positron annihilation studies on nasicon analogues containing cation vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreeramalu, V.; Sreepad, H.R.; Chandrashekara, A.; Ravindrachary, V.; Gopal, S.

    1990-01-01

    Positron annihilation studies were carried out on the Nasicon analogue Na 2 (La, Al)Zr(PO 4 ) 3 compound for three different concentrations (2.2, 2.8 and 5.2 by wt.%) of ZrO 2 in the nutrient. Angular correlation study of annihilated photons reveals that the defect concentration is maximum for 2.8(wt.%) of ZrO 2 . Further, positron lifetime studies indicate that the positrons are trapped at cation vacancies. Application of a two state trapping model to this system made it possible to evaluate the lifetime of positrons in the Bloch state and of positrons trapped at cation vacancies. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  7. Removal of both cationic and anionic contaminants by amphoteric starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huanlong; Zhong, Songxiong; Lin, Qintie; Yao, Xiaosheng; Liang, Zhuoying; Yang, Muqun; Yin, Guangcai; Liu, Qianjun; He, Hongfei

    2016-03-15

    A novel amphoteric starch incorporating quaternary ammonium and phosphate groups was applied to investigate the efficiency and mechanism of cationic and anionic contaminant treatment. Its flocculation abilities for kaolin suspension and copper-containing wastewater were evaluated by turbidity reduction and copper removal efficiency, respectively. And the kinetics of formation, breakage and subsequent re-formation of aggregates were monitored using a Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA) and characterized by flocculation index (FI). The results showed that amphoteric starch possessed the advantages of being lower-dosages-consuming and being stronger in shear resistance than cationic starch, and exhibited a good flocculation efficiency over a wide pH range from 3.0 to 11.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors impacting the electro conductivity variations of clayey soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouhadi, V. R.; Goodarzi, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The variation of pore fluid properties in soil has a major effect on soil behaviour. This effect is a function of pore fluid properties and soil mineralogy. Such variation usually happens in the reservoirs of dams or in some geotechnical projects. The electro conductivity measurement is a simple method to monitor any variation in the pore fluid of soils. electro conductivity is the ability of a material to transmit (conduct) an electrical current. This paper focuses attention on the effect of soil-pore fluid interaction on the electro conductivity of clayey soils. A set of physico-chemical experiments are performed and the role of different factors including soil pH, soil mineralogy, soil: water ratio, cation and anion effects are investigated. The results of this study indicate that for soil that has a relatively low CEC, the anion type is an important factor, while the cation type does not noticeably affect the electro conductivity of the soil-solution. However, for such soil, an electrolyte property, i.e. its solubility, is much more effective than the CEC of the soil. In addition, it was observed that in the presence of neutral salts such as pore fluid, the pH of the soil-solution decreases causing an increase in the electro conductivity of the soil sample

  9. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  10. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  11. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: The role of compensating cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemical and thermal treatment enhances catalytic activity of natural zeolite. ► Modified natural zeolite exhibits high stability after thermal treatment. ► Reducing the compensating cation content leads to an increase on ozone abatement. ► Surface active atomic oxygen was detected using the DRIFT technique. ► The highest reactivity toward ozone was performed by NH4Z3 zeolite sample. - Abstract: Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L −1 ). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 -TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal.

  12. Radioiodinated Rhodamine-123: a potential cationic hepatobiliary imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, P.; Gorree, G.C.M.; Hoekstra, A.

    1987-01-01

    The labelling of the cationic dye Rhodamine-123 with 125 I is described. The biodistribution of the iodinated Rhodamine-123 has been determined at different time intervals after intravenous injection into fasted rats. It turned out that the dye is predominantly cleared by the liver and discharged into the bile. The bile acid taurocholate did not enhance the rate of excretion of 125 I-Rhodamine-123. (author)

  13. Temporal Deductive Verification of Basic ASM Models

    OpenAIRE

    Daho, Hocine El-Habib; University of Oran; Benhamamouch, Djillali; University of Oran

    2010-01-01

    Abstract State Machines (ASMs, for short) provide a practical new computational model which has been applied in the area of software engineering for systems design and analysis. However, reasoning about ASM models occurs, not within a formal deductive system, but basically in the classical informal proofs style of mathematics. Several formal verification approaches for proving correctness of ASM models have been investigated. In this paper we consider the use of the TLA+logic for the deductive...

  14. Cation exchange process for molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new method, utilizing a cation exchange technique, has been developed for processing molten salt extraction (MSE) chloride salt residues. The developed ion exchange procedure has been used to separate americium and plutonium from gross quantities of magnesium, potassium, and sodium chloride that are present in the residues. The recovered plutonium and americium contained only 20 percent of the original amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium and were completely free of any detectable amounts of chloride impurity. (U.S.)

  15. Nitrogen heteroaromatic cations by [2+2+2] cycloaddition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, Martina; Kolivoška, Viliam; Císařová, I.; Šaman, David; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Teplý, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2011), s. 450-462 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1614; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : modular synthesis * N-heteroaromatic cation * [2+2+2] cycloaddition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  16. Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution via Organic Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Nicholas E S; Nicewicz, David A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S N Ar) is a direct method for arene functionalization; however, it can be hampered by low reactivity of arene substrates and their availability. Herein we describe a cation radical-accelerated nucleophilic aromatic substitution using methoxy- and benzyloxy-groups as nucleofuges. In particular, lignin-derived aromatics containing guaiacol and veratrole motifs were competent substrates for functionalization. We also demonstrate an example of site-selective substitutive oxygenation with trifluoroethanol to afford the desired trifluoromethylaryl ether.

  17. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: The role of compensating cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Hector, E-mail: hvaldes@ucsc.cl [Laboratorio de Tecnologias Limpias (F. Ingenieria), Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica (F. Ingenieria), Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and thermal treatment enhances catalytic activity of natural zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified natural zeolite exhibits high stability after thermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reducing the compensating cation content leads to an increase on ozone abatement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface active atomic oxygen was detected using the DRIFT technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest reactivity toward ozone was performed by NH4Z3 zeolite sample. - Abstract: Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L{sup -1}). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal.

  18. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  19. The complex nature of calcium cation interactions with phospholipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melcrová, Adéla; Pokorná, Šárka; Pullanchery, S.; Kohagen, Miriam; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Cremer, P. S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, DEC 2016 (2016), č. článku 38035. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : FLUORESCENCE SOLVENT RELAXATION * MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS * ALKALINE-EARTH CATION S Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of protic alkanolammonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, André; Ang, Keng L; Marsh, Kenneth N; Pang, Shusheng

    2011-03-21

    Ionic liquids are molten salts with melting temperatures below the boiling point of water, and their qualification for applications in potential industrial processes does depend on their fundamental physical properties such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This study aims to investigate the structure-property relationship of 15 ILs that are primarily composed of alkanolammonium cations and organic acid anions. The influence of both the nature and number of alkanol substituents on the cation and the nature of the anion on the densities, viscosities and electrical conductivities at ambient and elevated temperatures are discussed. Walden rule plots are used to estimate the ionic nature of these ionic liquids, and comparison with other studies reveals that most of the investigated ionic liquids show Walden rule values similar to many non-protic ionic liquids containing imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, tetraalkylammonium, or tetraalkylphosphonium cations. Comparison of literature data reveals major disagreements in the reported properties for the investigated ionic liquids. A detailed analysis of the reported experimental procedures suggests that inappropriate drying methods can account for some of the discrepancies. Furthermore, an example for the improved presentation of experimental data in scientific literature is presented.

  1. The chemistry of separations ligand degradation by organic radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, S.P.; Horne, G.P.; Mincher, B.J.; Zalupski, P.R.; Cook, A.R.; Wishart, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Solvent based extractions of used nuclear fuel use designer ligands in an organic phase extracting ligand complexed metal ions from an acidic aqueous phase. These extractions will be performed in highly radioactive environments, and the radiation chemistry of all these complexing agents and their diluents will play a major role in determining extraction efficiency, separation factors, and solvent-recycle longevity. Although there has been considerable effort in investigating ligand damage occurring in acidic water radiolysis conditions, only minimal fundamental kinetic and mechanistic data has been reported for the degradation of extraction ligands in the organic phase. Extraction solvent phases typically use normal alkanes such as dodecane, TPH, and kerosene as diluents. The radiolysis of such diluents produce a mixture of radical cations (R"."+), carbon-centered radicals (R".), solvated electrons, and molecular products such as hydrogen. Typically, the radical species will preferentially react with the dissolved oxygen present to produce relatively inert peroxyl radicals. This isolates the alkane radical cation species, R"."+ as the major radiolytically-induced organic species that can react with, and degrade, extraction agents in this phase. Here we report on our recent studies of organic radical cation reactions with 2 ligands: CMPO and TODGA. Elucidating these parameters, and combining them with the known acidic aqueous phase chemistry, will allow a full, fundamental, understanding of the impact of radiation on solvent extraction based separation processes to be achieved. (authors)

  2. Sorption and fixation of large cations by shale formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindley, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Large cations such as Cs + are preferentially sorbed and partially fixed by fine-grained 2 : 1 type layer silicates such as micas, vermiculites, smectites and various mixed-layer minerals. Since these minerals are common constituents of many shale formations, these formations may provide suitable location for the burial of radioactive waste containers. However, the usual investigations of cation sorption and fixation must be extended to the conditions likely to develop in the vicinity of buried radioactive waste. Prior to possible leakage from buried containers, elevated temperatures around the burial site will develop leading to hydrothermal modification of the surrounding mineralogy. A range of temperature and of mineralogy must be envisaged. If and when leakage occurs, an outward diffusion of radioactive ions will occur by solvation in the fluids in the shale. The ratio of radioactive ions/normal ions will diminish outwards from the source. At near distances from the source high temperature modifications of the clay minerals and high concentrations of radioactive cations may lead to saturation of the fixation capacity. At greater distances, little or no thermal modification of the clay minerals and lower concentrations of ions will permit maximum sorption and fixation

  3. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Review on Adsorption of Cationic Dyes using Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corda Nikita Chrishel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article efficiency of activated carbon as a potent adsorbent of cationic dyes has been reviewed. Non-biodegradable nature of pollutants and their removal in the present generation is a great challenge. Therefore, extensive study on adsorption of these classes of pollutants from water bodies is being carried out. Methylene blue (majorly a dye seen in the effluent streams of textile, printing, paper industries along with some of the commonly used cationic dyes in process industries and their sorption on activated carbon are reviewed here. High cost of commercially activated carbon which is a limitation to its extensive use have paved way for study of adsorption by naturally obtained and extracted activated carbon from agricultural wastes and various other sources. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the available information on the removal of cationic dyes using naturally extracted and commercially obtained activated carbon. Various parameters such as temperature, initial dye concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, particle size, stirring, agitation etc. were studied and the optimum parameters were determined based on the experimental outcomes. Equilibrium data was examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich and few other isotherm models. Kinetic studies also have been carried out to find the most suitable way of expressing the adsorption process.

  5. Drug loading to lipid-based cationic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Leide P.; Konovalov, Oleg; Torriani, Iris L.; Haas, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Lipid-based cationic nanoparticles are a new promising option for tumor therapy, because they display enhanced binding and uptake at the neo-angiogenic endothelial cells, which a tumor needs for its nutrition and growth. By loading suitable cytotoxic compounds to the cationic carrier, the tumor endothelial and consequently also the tumor itself can be destroyed. For the development of such novel anti-tumor agents, the control of drug loading and drug release from the carrier matrix is essential. We have studied the incorporation of the hydrophobic anti-cancer agent Paclitaxel (PXL) into a variety of lipid matrices by X-Ray reflectivity measurements. Liposome suspensions from cationic and zwitterionic lipids, comprising different molar fractions of Paclitaxel, were deposited on planar glass substrates. After drying at controlled humidity, well ordered, oriented multilayer stacks were obtained, as proven by the presence of bilayer Bragg peaks to several orders in the reflectivity curves. The presence of the drug induced a decrease of the lipid bilayer spacing, and with an excess of drug, also Bragg peaks of drug crystals could be observed. From the results, insight into the solubility of Paclitaxel in the model membranes was obtained and a structural model of the organization of the drug in the membrane was derived. Results from subsequent pressure/area-isotherm and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) measurements performed with drug/lipid Langmuir monolayers were in accordance with these conjectures

  6. Synthesis of cationic star polymers by simplified electrochemically mediated ATRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chmielarz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin-based cationic star polymers were synthesized using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD core, and 2-(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA as hydrophilic arms. Star-shaped polymers were prepared via a simplified electrochemically mediated ATRP (seATRP under potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. The polymerization results showed molecular weight (MW evolution close to theoretical values, and maintained narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD of obtained stars. The rate of the polymerizations was controlled by applying more positive potential values thereby suppressing star-star coupling reactions. Successful chain extension of the ω-functional arms with a hydrophobic n-butyl acrylate (BA formed star block copolymers and confirmed the living nature of the β-CD-PDMAEMA star polymers prepared by seATRP. Novelty of this work is that the β-CD-PDMAEMA-b-PBA cationic star block copolymers were synthesized for the first time via seATRP procedure, utilizing only 40 ppm of catalyst complex. The results from 1H NMR spectral studies support the formation of cationic star (copolymers.

  7. Specific cationic emission of cisplatin following ionization by swift protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Champeaux, J.P.; Deville, C.; Sence, M.; Cafarelli, P.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated collision-induced ionization and fragmentation by 100 keV protons of the radio sensitizing molecule cisplatin, which is used in cancer treatments. A large emission of HCl"+ and NH_2"+ is observed, but surprisingly, no cationic fragments containing platinum are detected, in contrast to ionization-dissociation induced by electronic collision. Theoretical investigations show that the ionization processes take place on platinum and on chlorine atoms. We propose new ionization potentials for cisplatin. Dissociation limits corresponding to the measured fragmentation mass spectrum have been evaluated and the theoretical results show that the non-observed cationic fragments containing platinum are mostly associated with low dissociation energies. We have also investigated the reaction path for the hydrogen transfer from the NH_3 group to the Cl atom, as well as the corresponding dissociation limits from this tautomeric form. Here again the cations containing platinum correspond to lower dissociation limits. Thus, the experimental results suggest that excited states, probably formed via inner-shell ionization of the platinum atom of the molecule, correlated to higher dissociation limits are favored. (authors)

  8. From cation to oxide: hydroxylation and condensation of aqueous complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Hydroxylation, condensation and precipitation of metal cations in aqueous solution are briefly reviewed. Hydroxylation of aqueous complexes essentially depends on the format charge (oxidation state), the size and the pH of the medium. It is the step allowing the condensation reaction. Depending on the nature of complexes (aqua-hydroxo, oxo-hydroxo), the. mechanism of condensation is different, olation or ox-olation respectively. The first one leads to poly-cations or hydroxides more or less stable against dehydration. The second one leads to poly-anions or oxides. Oligomeric species (poly-cations, poly-anions) are form from charged monomer complexes while the formation of solid phases requires non-charged precursors. Because of their high lability, charged oligomers are never the precursors of solids phases. The main routes for the formation of solid phases from solution are studied with two important and representative elements, Al and Si. For Al 3+ ions, different methods (base addition in solution, thermo-hydrolysis, hydrothermal synthesis) are discussed in relation to the crystal structure of the solid phase obtained. For silicic species condensing by ox-olation, the role of acid or base catalysis on the morphology of gels is studied. The influence of complexing ligands on the processes and on the characteristics of solids (morphology of particles, basic salts and polymetallic oxides formation) is studied. (author)

  9. Specific cationic emission of cisplatin following ionization by swift protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Deville, Charlotte; Sence, Martine; Cafarelli, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated collision-induced ionization and fragmentation by 100 keV protons of the radio sensitizing molecule cisplatin, which is used in cancer treatments. A large emission of HCl+ and NH2+ is observed, but surprisingly, no cationic fragments containing platinum are detected, in contrast to ionization-dissociation induced by electronic collision. Theoretical investigations show that the ionization processes take place on platinum and on chlorine atoms. We propose new ionization potentials for cisplatin. Dissociation limits corresponding to the measured fragmentation mass spectrum have been evaluated and the theoretical results show that the non-observed cationic fragments containing platinum are mostly associated with low dissociation energies. We have also investigated the reaction path for the hydrogen transfer from the NH3 group to the Cl atom, as well as the corresponding dissociation limits from this tautomeric form. Here again the cations containing platinum correspond to lower dissociation limits. Thus, the experimental results suggest that excited states, probably formed via inner-shell ionization of the platinum atom of the molecule, correlated to higher dissociation limits are favored.

  10. The chemistry of separations ligand degradation by organic radical cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezyk, S.P.; Horne, G.P. [California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Mincher, B.J.; Zalupski, P.R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Cook, A.R.; Wishart, J.F. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, 11973 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Solvent based extractions of used nuclear fuel use designer ligands in an organic phase extracting ligand complexed metal ions from an acidic aqueous phase. These extractions will be performed in highly radioactive environments, and the radiation chemistry of all these complexing agents and their diluents will play a major role in determining extraction efficiency, separation factors, and solvent-recycle longevity. Although there has been considerable effort in investigating ligand damage occurring in acidic water radiolysis conditions, only minimal fundamental kinetic and mechanistic data has been reported for the degradation of extraction ligands in the organic phase. Extraction solvent phases typically use normal alkanes such as dodecane, TPH, and kerosene as diluents. The radiolysis of such diluents produce a mixture of radical cations (R{sup .+}), carbon-centered radicals (R{sup .}), solvated electrons, and molecular products such as hydrogen. Typically, the radical species will preferentially react with the dissolved oxygen present to produce relatively inert peroxyl radicals. This isolates the alkane radical cation species, R{sup .+} as the major radiolytically-induced organic species that can react with, and degrade, extraction agents in this phase. Here we report on our recent studies of organic radical cation reactions with 2 ligands: CMPO and TODGA. Elucidating these parameters, and combining them with the known acidic aqueous phase chemistry, will allow a full, fundamental, understanding of the impact of radiation on solvent extraction based separation processes to be achieved. (authors)

  11. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-18

    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of some bentonites in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Murakami, Satoshi; Yasuhara, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of three common sodium-types of bentonite and one calcium-type bentonite by the laboratory experiments. >From the results of laboratory experiment, this study discussed the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of bentonites from the viewpoints of kinds of bentonite such as exchangeable-cation type and montmorillonite content and dry density of bentonite-based buffer. (author)

  13. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  14. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  15. Conductivities from attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Goulart, Prieslei [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, São Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Witkowski, Piotr [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-28

    In the context of applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter physics, we compute conductivities for field theory duals of dyonic planar black holes in 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories at zero temperature. We combine the near-horizon data obtained via Sen’s entropy function formalism with known expressions for conductivities. In this way we express the conductivities in terms of the extremal black hole charges. We apply our approach to three different examples for dilaton theories for which the background geometry is not known explicitly. For a constant scalar potential, the thermoelectric conductivity explicitly scales as α{sub xy}∼N{sup 3/2}, as expected. For the same model, our approach yields a finite result for the heat conductivity κ/T∝N{sup 3/2} even for T→0.

  16. Thermal conductivity of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.; Fukuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of technetium was measured on a disk sample of 5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness by the laser flash method from room temperature to 1173 K, and the thermal conductivity was determined by the measured thermal diffusivity and density, and the reported specific heat capacity. The thermal diffusivity of technetium decreases with increasing temperature though it is almost constant above 600 K. The thermal conductivity of technetium shows a minimum around 400 K, above which the thermal conductivity increases with temperature. The electronic and phonon components of the thermal conductivity were evaluated approximately. The increase in the thermal conductivity of technetium with temperature is due to the increase in the electronic component. (orig.)

  17. Screening for High Conductivity/Low Viscosity Ionic Liquids Using Product Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shawn; Pratt, Harry D; Anderson, Travis M

    2017-07-01

    We seek to optimize Ionic liquids (ILs) for application to redox flow batteries. As part of this effort, we have developed a computational method for suggesting ILs with high conductivity and low viscosity. Since ILs consist of cation-anion pairs, we consider a method for treating ILs as pairs using product descriptors for QSPRs, a concept borrowed from the prediction of protein-protein interactions in bioinformatics. We demonstrate the method by predicting electrical conductivity, viscosity, and melting point on a dataset taken from the ILThermo database on June 18 th , 2014. The dataset consists of 4,329 measurements taken from 165 ILs made up of 72 cations and 34 anions. We benchmark our QSPRs on the known values in the dataset then extend our predictions to screen all 2,448 possible cation-anion pairs in the dataset. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Sun Jiazeng; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10 -4 to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the 7 Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids

  19. Computer simulation of displacement cation exchange chromatography: separation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1980-05-01

    A first-generation mathematical model of displacement cation exchange chromatography (CES) was constructed. The model incorporated the following phenomena: diffusion of cations up and down the column, diffusion of cations from the bulk liquid to the resin surface, and equilibrium of cations between liquid and solid resin beads. A limited number of experiments with rare earths using DTPA as the separation agent were undertaken to increase the current understanding of the processes involved in cation exchange chromatography. The numerical computer program based on the mathematical model was written in FORTRAN IV for use on the IBM 360 series of computers

  20. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, YuPo J [Naperville, IL; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL

    2011-07-12

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  1. Cation diffusion facilitators transport initiation and regulation is mediated by cation induced conformational changes of the cytoplasmic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Zeytuni

    Full Text Available Cation diffusion facilitators (CDF are part of a highly conserved protein family that maintains cellular divalent cation homeostasis in all domains of life. CDF's were shown to be involved in several human diseases, such as Type-II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we employed a multi-disciplinary approach to study the activation mechanism of the CDF protein family. For this we used MamM, one of the main ion transporters of magnetosomes--bacterial organelles that enable magnetotactic bacteria to orientate along geomagnetic fields. Our results reveal that the cytosolic domain of MamM forms a stable dimer that undergoes distinct conformational changes upon divalent cation binding. MamM conformational change is associated with three metal binding sites that were identified and characterized. Altogether, our results provide a novel auto-regulation mode of action model in which the cytosolic domain's conformational changes upon ligand binding allows the priming of the CDF into its transport mode.

  2. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  3. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  6. Resorcarene-based receptor: versatile behavior in its interaction with heavy and soft metal cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danil de Namor, Angela F; Chaaban, Jinane K; Piro, Oscar E; Castellano, Eduardo E

    2006-02-09

    Standard solution Gibbs energies, DeltasG degrees, of the resorcarene-based receptor 5,11,17,23-ethylthiomethylated calix[4]resorcarene, (characterized by 1H NMR and X-ray diffraction studies) in its monomeric state (established through partition experiments) in various solvents are for the first time reported in the area of resorcarene chemistry. Transfer Gibbs energies of from hexane (reference solvent) to other medium are calculated. Agreement between DeltatG degrees (referred to the pure solvents) and standard partition Gibbs energies, DeltapG degrees (solvent mutually saturated) is found. Cation-ligand interactions were investigated through 1H NMR (CD3CN and CD3OD) and conductometric titrations in acetonitrile and methanol. 1H NMR data revealed the sites of interaction of with the metal cation. The composition of the metal-ion complexes (Ag+ and Pb2+ in acetonitrile and Ag+ and Cu2+ in methanol) was established through conductometric titrations. Thus, complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry were formed between and Ag+ and Pb2+ in acetonitrile and Cu2+ in methanol. However, in moving from acetonitrile to methanol, the composition of the silver complex was altered. Thus, two metal cations are hosted by a unit of the ligand. As far as Cu2+ and in acetonitrile is concerned, conductance data suggest that metalates are formed in which up to four units of Cu2+ are taken up per unit of resorcarene. The contrasting behavior of with Cu2+ in acetonitrile relative to methanol is discussed. As far as mercury (II) is concerned, the unusual jump in conductance observed in the titration of Hg2+ with in acetonitrile and methanol after the formation of a multicharged complex (undefined composition) is attributed to the presence of highly charged smaller units (higher mobility) resulting from the departure of pendant arms from the resorcarene backbone. Isolation of these species followed by X-ray diffraction studies corroborated this statement. The thermodynamic characterization of metal

  7. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  8. Conductive open frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2018-05-22

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  9. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  10. Conductive polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszkul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of studies on polypropylene composites with three sorts of Polish-made carbon blacks were presented. It was found that composite of 20% black content had properties of an electrically conducting material

  11. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  12. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, César A C

    2012-07-19

    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC's performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes' evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  13. Capillary electrochromatography of inorganic cations in open tubular columns with a controllable capacity multilayered stationary phase architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubán, Pavel; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil; Hauser, Peter C; Bocek, Petr

    2008-05-09

    In this paper capillary electrochromatography of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations in open tubular capillary columns is described. Capillary columns are prepared by coating fused silica capillaries of 75 microm I.D. with poly(butadiene-maleic acid) copolymer (PBMA) in multiple layers. Thermally initiated radical polymerization is used to crosslink the stationary phase. Capillary columns with different number of stationary phase layers can be prepared and allow for the adjustment of separation selectivity in the electrochromatographic mode. Fast and sensitive separations of common inorganic cations are achieved in less than 6 min in a 60 cm capillary column with on-column capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector. Limits of detection (S/N=3) for the determination of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations range from 0.3 to 2.5 microM and repeatability is better than 0.5, 4.5 and 6.1% for migration times, peak heights and peak areas, respectively.

  14. Interactions of solutes and streambed sediment: 1. An experimental analysis of cation and anion transport in a mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Kennedy, Vance C.; Zellweger, Gary W.; Jackman, Alan P.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental injection was performed to study the transport of stream water solutes under conditions of significant interaction with streambed sediments in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream. Experiments were conducted in Little Lost Man Creek, Humboldt County, California, in a period of low flow duringwhich only a part of the bank-full channel held active surface flow. The injection of chloride and several trace cations lasted 20 days. In this report we discuss the results of the first 24 hours of the injection and survey the results of the first 10 days. Solute-streambed interactions of two types were observed. First, the physical transport of the conservative tracer, chloride, was affected by intergravel flow and stagnant watt, zones created by the bed relief. Second, the transport of the cations (strontium, potassium, and lithium) was appreciably modified by sorption onto streambed sediment. In the stream the readily observable consequence of the solute-streambed interactions was an attenuation of the dissolved concentration of each of the tracers. The attenuation in the stream channel occurred concurrently with the storage of tracers in the streambed via both physical and chemical processes. All tracers were subsequently present in shallow wells dug several meters from the wetted part of the channel. Sediment samples collected approximately 3 weeks after the start of the injection contained increased concentrations of the injected cations.

  15. Radioactive waste management-colloidal adsorption of cations and anions. Technical progress report (semiannual), September 30, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balam, B.S.

    1986-04-01

    The surface adsorption characteristics of ion-exchange resins and clay minerals as influenced by the type of colloidal material, activity of ions and the concentration of associated electrolytes are being investigated. Electrodes and dialysis techniques are being used to determine the binding and release characteristics of cations and anions of significance in the radioactive waste management. The results obtained and techniques employed for clay fractionation, colloidal material separation, cation exchange capacity measurement and preparation of monocationic saturated colloidal materials have already been reported. The research work was continued to determine the distribution, mobility and binding characteristics of Montmorillonite and Illite clay materials as affected by the degree of saturation of colloidal adsorption capacity and the presence of electrolytes. Donnan equilibrium systems using Ca:Rb ratios of 90:10, 75:25, 50:50 and 10:90 and electrolyte concentrations corresponding to 0 and 0.2 symmetries were established. The systems were allowed to attain equilibrium as judged by conductivity measurements of the dialyzate. The distribution of cations at equilibrium was calculated from ion selective electrode and spectrophotometric measurements

  16. Cations form sequence selective motifs within DNA grooves via a combination of cation-pi and ion-dipole/hydrogen bond interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mikaela; Dunlap, Tori; Dourlain, Elizabeth; Grant, Bryce; McFail-Isom, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The fine conformational subtleties of DNA structure modulate many fundamental cellular processes including gene activation/repression, cellular division, and DNA repair. Most of these cellular processes rely on the conformational heterogeneity of specific DNA sequences. Factors including those structural characteristics inherent in the particular base sequence as well as those induced through interaction with solvent components combine to produce fine DNA structural variation including helical flexibility and conformation. Cation-pi interactions between solvent cations or their first hydration shell waters and the faces of DNA bases form sequence selectively and contribute to DNA structural heterogeneity. In this paper, we detect and characterize the binding patterns found in cation-pi interactions between solvent cations and DNA bases in a set of high resolution x-ray crystal structures. Specifically, we found that monovalent cations (Tl⁺) and the polarized first hydration shell waters of divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺) form cation-pi interactions with DNA bases stabilizing unstacked conformations. When these cation-pi interactions are combined with electrostatic interactions a pattern of specific binding motifs is formed within the grooves.

  17. Cation-pi interaction of the univalent silver cation with racemic [6]helicene in the gas phase and in the solid state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepetářová, Blanka; Makrlík, E.; Sýkora, D.; Böhm, S.; Vaňura, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, Oct 15 (2016), s. 1-6 ISSN 0277-5387 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : univalent silver cation * [6]helicene * cation -pi interaction * DFT calculations * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  18. Comparative energies of Zn(II) cation localization as a function of the distance between two forming cation position aluminium ions in high-silica zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachurovskaya, N.A.; Zhidomirov, G.M.; van Santen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Periodical calcns. of Zn(II) metal cation stabilization in cationic positions with distantly placed aluminum ions has been performed for high-silica ferrierite. It was found that decrease of the stabilization energy at large distances between Al ions (more than 10 .ANG.) is about of 2 eV in

  19. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  20. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  1. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  2. Evolution of electrochemical performance in Li3V2(PO4)3/C composites caused by cation incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Liang, Gan; Peng, Gang; Jiang, Yan; Fang, Hui; Huang, Yun-Hui; Croft, Mark C.; Ignatov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Four electrochemically active cations (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) are doped into Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . M-incorporation does not change the monoclinic structure of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , but forms some solid solutions. Minor LiMPO 4 impurity phases can be formed in the LVMP/C samples. Moreover, FePO 4 also exists as impurity in the LVFeP/C sample. Compared with pristine LVP/C, LVNiP/C electrode exhibits the lowest capacity, resulting from the decreased electronic conductivity and the lowest Li-ion diffusion coefficient, whereas LVFeP/C shows the best electrochemical performance. -- Highlights: • Cation-incorporated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C have been systematically investigated. • Cation incorporation in Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 does not change the monoclinic structure but form solid solution. • Fe-incorporation shows the best electrochemical performance whereas Ni-incorporation shows the poorest performance. • A clear profile of cation incorporation with Fe, Co, Ni, Mn ions in Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is obtained. -- Abstract: Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C (LVP/C) composites incorporated by a series of electrochemically active cations (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) have been successfully prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction. M-incorporation (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) in Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 does not change the monoclinic structure. Analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we find that the valence is between +2.67 and +3 for Fe, and is +2 for Co, Ni and Mn. M-doped LVP and LiMPO 4 phases coexist in the incorporated LVP/C composites. Compared with pristine LVP/C, Fe-incorporated LVP/C shows the best electrochemical performance with the highest initial discharge capacity of 131.4 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C between 2.5 and 4.3 V. The Fe-incorporated LVP/C sample also exhibits excellent rate capability with an average capacity of 122.4 mAh g −1 at 1 C and 93.5 mAh g −1 at 5 C, resulting from the

  3. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  4. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  5. Cation symmetry effect on the volatility of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marisa A A; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2012-09-06

    This work reports the first data for the vapor pressures at several temperatures of the ionic liquids, [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)] (N = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) measured using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology and the thermodynamic parameters of vaporization derived from the vapor pressures, are compared with those for the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide series, [C(N-1)C(1)im][NTf(2)] (N = 3 - 9, 11, and 13). It was found that the volatility of [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)] series is significantly higher than the asymmetric cation ILs with the same total number of carbons in the alkyl side chains, [C(N-1)C(1)im][NTf(2)]. The observed higher volatility is related with the lower enthalpy of vaporization. The symmetric cation, [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)], presents lower entropies of vaporization compared with the asymmetric [C(N-1)C(1)im][NTf(2)], indicating an increase of the absolute liquid entropy in the symmetric cation ILs, being a reflection of a change of the ion dynamics in the IL liquid phase. Moreover both the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of the [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)] ILs, present a clear odd-even effect with higher enthalpies/entropies of vaporization for the odd number of carbons in each alkyl chain ([C(3)C(3)im][NTf(2)] and [C(5)C(5)im][NTf(2)]).

  6. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2017-11-01

    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Effect of cations in the background electrolyte on the adsorption kinetics of copper and cadmium and the isoelectric point of imogolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Silva-Yumi, Jorge; Escudey, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of various cations on the IEP of imogolite was studied. • Studied adsorption kinetics of Cd and Cu on imogolite in the presence of cations. • K"+ acted as an indifferent electrolyte and did not affect the IEP of imogolite. • Adsorption in the presence of K"+ is described well by three of the four models. • These include pseudo-second order, Elovich equation, and Weber–Morris model. - Abstract: Modification of surface charge and changes in the isoelectric point (IEP) of synthetic imogolite were studied for various cations in the background electrolyte (K"+, NH_4"+, Mg"2"+, and Ca"2"+). From the electrophoretic mobility data, it was established that the K"+ (KCl) concentration does not affect the IEP of imogolite; therefore, KCl is a suitable background electrolyte. In terms of the magnitude of changes in the IEP and surface charge, the cations may be ranked in the following order: Mg"2"+ ≈ Ca"2"+ >> NH_4"+ >> K"+. Four different kinetic models were used to evaluate the influence of Mg"2"+, Ca"2"+, NH_4"+, and K"+ on the adsorption of Cd and Cu on synthetic imogolite. When adsorption occurs in the presence of cations with the exception of K"+, the kinetics of the process is well described by the pseudo-first order model. On the other hand, when adsorption is conducted in the presence of K"+, the adsorption kinetics is well described by the pseudo-second order, Elovich, and Weber–Morris models. From the surface charge measurements, the affinity between imogolite and the cations and their effect on the adsorption of trace elements, namely Cu and Cd, were established.

  8. Effect of cations in the background electrolyte on the adsorption kinetics of copper and cadmium and the isoelectric point of imogolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás, E-mail: nicolas.arancibia@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. B. O' Higgins, 3363, Santiago (Chile); Silva-Yumi, Jorge [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Escudey, Mauricio [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. B. O' Higgins, 3363, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Effect of various cations on the IEP of imogolite was studied. • Studied adsorption kinetics of Cd and Cu on imogolite in the presence of cations. • K{sup +} acted as an indifferent electrolyte and did not affect the IEP of imogolite. • Adsorption in the presence of K{sup +} is described well by three of the four models. • These include pseudo-second order, Elovich equation, and Weber–Morris model. - Abstract: Modification of surface charge and changes in the isoelectric point (IEP) of synthetic imogolite were studied for various cations in the background electrolyte (K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}). From the electrophoretic mobility data, it was established that the K{sup +} (KCl) concentration does not affect the IEP of imogolite; therefore, KCl is a suitable background electrolyte. In terms of the magnitude of changes in the IEP and surface charge, the cations may be ranked in the following order: Mg{sup 2+} ≈ Ca{sup 2+} >> NH{sub 4}{sup +} >> K{sup +}. Four different kinetic models were used to evaluate the influence of Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} on the adsorption of Cd and Cu on synthetic imogolite. When adsorption occurs in the presence of cations with the exception of K{sup +}, the kinetics of the process is well described by the pseudo-first order model. On the other hand, when adsorption is conducted in the presence of K{sup +}, the adsorption kinetics is well described by the pseudo-second order, Elovich, and Weber–Morris models. From the surface charge measurements, the affinity between imogolite and the cations and their effect on the adsorption of trace elements, namely Cu and Cd, were established.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance and electrical conductivity measurements of diffusion and disorder in LiBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, H.; Reininghaus, J.; Richtering, H.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical conductivity and nuclear magnetic relaxation rates were measured with pure and doped LiBr between 400 K and the melting point (824 K). Prevalent intrinsic disorder was observed down to 470 K. The degree of thermal disorder is 5 X 10 -7 at 470 K and 5 X 10 -3 at the melting point. From the relaxation rates of 7 Li, which are caused by Li-diffusion and nuclear dipole interaction, mean jump frequencies of the cations are derived. Conductivities calculated from these frequencies for a jump process via neighbouring cation vacancies are in perfect agreement with directly measured conductivities. From relaxation rates of 81 Br with MgBr 2 -doped crystals jump frequencies of vacancies were obtained which are again in good agreement with those derived from the conductivity data. From motional narrowing of the 81 Br absorption line the jump frequency of the anions is obtained, which is much smaller than for the cations. Since this motional narrowing is not influenced by any doping, it is concluded that anion transport mainly occurs via pairs of cation and anion vacancies. (Auth.)

  10. Development of a novel device to trap heavy metal cations: application of the specific interaction between heavy metal cation and mismatch DNA base pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Hidetaka; Miyakawa, Yukako; Fukushi, Miyako; Ono, Akira; Kozasa, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    We have already found that Hg(II) cation specifically binds to T:T mismatch base pair in heteroduplex DNA, which increases the melting temperature of heteroduplex DNA involving T:T mismatch base pair by about 4 degrees C. We have also found that Ag(I) cation specifically binds to C:C mismatch base pair in heteroduplex DNA, which increases the melting temperature of heteroduplex DNA involving C:C mismatch base pair by about 4 degrees C. Using the specific interaction, we developed a novel device to trap each of Hg(II) and Ag(I) cation. The device is composed of 5'-biotinylated T-rich or C-rich DNA oligonucleotides, BIO-T20: 5'-Bio-T(20)-3' or BIO-C20: 5'-Bio-C(20)-3' (Bio is a biotin), immobilized on streptavidin-coated polystylene beads. When the BIO-T20-immobilized beads were added to a solution containing Hg(II) cation, and the beads trapping Hg(II) cation were collected by centrifugation, almost all of Hg(II) cation were removed from the solution. Also, when the BIO-C20-immobilized beads were added to a solution containing Ag(I) cation, and the beads trapping Ag(I) cation were collected by centrifugation, almost all of Ag(I) cation were removed from the solution. We conclude that, using the novel device developed in this study, Hg(II) and Ag(I) cation can be effectively removed from the solution.

  11. Antimony(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complexes with single- and doubly charged cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, R.L.; Logvinova, V.B.; Kajdalova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The antimony(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complexes with alkaline and bivalent metals cations of the M + Sb(Edta) · H 2 O (M + = K, Rb, Cs, NH 4 ), M 2+ [Sb(Edta)] 2 · 8H 2 O (M 2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Co, Cd) composition are synthesized. Roentgenographic and IR-spectroscopic characteristics of the synthesized substances are determined. Two groups of the isostructural compounds: M + Sb(Edta) · H 2 O (M + = K, Rb, NH 4 ) and M 2+ [Sb(Edta)] 2 · 8H 2 O (M 2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Co, Cd) are established [ru

  12. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  13. Magnesium isotope fractionation in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, T.; Yanase, S.; Kakihana, H.

    1987-01-01

    Band displacement chromatography of magnesium has been carried out successfully for the purpose of magnesium isotope separation by using a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin and the strontium ion as the replacement ion. A small but definite accumulation of the heavier isotopes ( 25 Mg, 26 Mg) has been observed at the front parts of the magnesium chromatograms. The heavier isotopes have been fractionated preferentially into the solution phase. The single-stage separation factors have been calculated for the 25 Mg/ 24 Mg and 26 Mg/ 24 isotopic pairs at 25 0 C. The reduced partition function ratios of magnesium species involved in the present study have been estimated

  14. Gold for the generation and control of fluxional barbaralyl cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigal, Paul R; de León, Claudia; Wang, Yahui; Homs, Anna; Solorio-Alvarado, César R; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2012-12-21

    The frog prince with his two identities pales in comparison with the shape-shifting barbaralyl cation, which exists as a mixture of 181,400 degenerate forms. Gold-catalyzed cycloisomerizations of 7-alkynyl cyclohepta-1,3,5-trienes were found to proceed via fluxional barbaralyl intermediates. The evolution of the intermediates into 1- or 2-substituted indenes could be controlled by the choice of gold complex. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Applications of pressurized cation exchange chromatography for fission yield determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuheng; Lin Fa; Zhang Hongdi; Li Xueliang; Zhang Shulan

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the fission yields of lanthanides precisely, lanthanides with carriers of 1-2 mg per element are separated from each other by means of pressurized cation exchange chromatography - αHIBA concentration gradient elution. The effect of initial loading technique, concentration gradient, flow rate, and temperature on separation were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions adapted according to the results given in this work, all the lanthanides can be completely separated within about 90 minutes with a recovery of more than 95% and purity higher than 99%. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-03-14

    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  17. EXAFS determination of cation local order in layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M. E.; Fuentes M, L.; Duarte M, J. A.; Fuentes C, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Garcia G, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Mehta, A.; Webb, S. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2008-02-15

    EXAFS analysis of Bi{sub 6}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 18} Aurivillius ceramic was performed to elucidate the local environment of Fe cations. Experiments were performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, at T = 10, 30, 50, 75, 100 and 298 K, in fluorescence regime. EXAFS spectra were processed using the ab initio multiple scattering program FEFF6. Distances among representative atomic pairs were refined. As a basic result, the previous hypothesis suggested by X-ray diffraction experiments, regarding a preference of iron atoms for the centered perovskite layer of the unit cell, was confirmed. (Author)

  18. Properties of sulfonated cation-exchangers made from petroleum asphaltites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol'kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ion-exchangers in radiochemical technology is accompanied by changes of their properties under the influence of ionizing radiation. The rate of development of these processes depends on the nature and structure of the matrix and on the nature and amount of ionic groups. We have proposed a method of synthesis of ion-exchangers resistant to γ radiation from petroleum asphaltites. Continuing these investigations, we prepared cation-exchangers by sulfonation of a mixture of petroleum asphaltites and acid asphalt. An investigation of their radiation resistance is described in this paper

  19. Extraction chemistry of actinide cations by N,N-dialkylamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condamines, N.; Musikas, C.

    1990-01-01

    N,N-dialkylamides are alternate extractants to tributylphosphate, TBP, for the actinides separation in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Extraction mechanisms of UO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ from nitric acid media are investigated for the amides DOBA and DOiBA. For low acidities, amides are neutral extractants. The stoechiometries of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (Amide) 2 (Amide = DOBA or DOiBA), Pu(NO 3 ) 4 (DOBA) 2 are established. A bond between the oxygen of the carbonyl group and the metallic cation is the driving force of the transfer

  20. SEARCHING FOR NAPHTHALENE CATION ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, Justin M.; Destree, Joshua D.; Snow, Theodore P.; Salama, Farid; York, Donald G.; Dahlstrom, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Interstellar naphthalene cations (C 10 H + 8 ) have been proposed by a study to be the carriers of a small number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Using an archive of high signal-to-noise spectra obtained at the Apache Point Observatory, we used two methods to test the hypothesis. Both methods failed to detect significant absorption at lab wavelengths of interstellar spectra with laboratory spectra. We thereby conclude that C 10 H + 8 is not a DIB carrier in typical reddened sight lines.

  1. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We can accurately determine the intrinsic anisotropy and material properties in the laboratory, providing empirical evidence of transverse isotropy and the polarization of the organic and metallic fractions in saturated and unsaturated shales. We develop two distinct approaches to obtain the complex conductivity tensor from spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements. Experimental results indicate clear anisotropy, and characterize the effects of thermal maturation, TOC, and pyrite, aiding in the calibration and interpretation of geophysical data. SIP is a non-intrusive measurement, sensitive to the surface conductance of mineral grains, frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer, and bulk conductivity of the pore water. The in-phase and quadrature components depend upon parameters of principal importance in unconventional shale formation evaluation (e.g., the distribution of pore throat sizes, formation factor, permeability, salinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC), fluid saturation and wettability). In addition to the contribution of the electrical double layer of non-conducting minerals to surface conductivity, we have observed a clear relaxation associated with kerogen pyrolysis, pyrite distribution, and evidence that the CEC of the kerogen fraction may also contribute, depending on thermal maturation history. We utilize a recent model for anisotropic complex conductivity, and rigorous experimental protocols to quantify the role of kerogen and pyrolysis on surface and quadrature conductivity in mudrocks. The complex conductivity tensor σ* describes the directional dependence of electrical conduction in a porous medium, and accounts for both conduction and polarization. The complex-valued tensor components are given as σ*ij , where σ'ij represents in-phase and σ"ij denotes quadrature conductivities. The directional dependence of the complex conductivity tensor is relegated to the textural properties of the material. The

  2. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  3. Quantized Majorana conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-04-01

    Majorana zero-modes—a type of localized quasiparticle—hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

  4. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  5. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  6. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  7. The lanthanum gallate-based mixed conducting perovskite ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Aleksandrovskii, V. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Avetisov, A. K.; Sung, J. S.; Choo, K. Y.; Kim, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, dielectric, and transport properties of the anion deficient perovskite solid solutions (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg,M)O3- with M=Fe, Ni have been studied. Substitution of iron and nickel for gallium up to about 20 and 40 at.% respectively, leads to the perovskite lattice contraction due to the cation substitutions by the transition elements. The transition from pure ionic to mixed ionic-electronic conductivity was observed for both the systems studied. Both the enhancement of total conductivity and increasing in the thermal expansion coefficient values has been proved to correlate with the increasing amount of weakly bounded oxygen species in the Fe or Ni-doped ceramics. The oxygen ionic conductivity has been estimated from the kinetic experiments using the dc-conductivity and dilatometry methods under the condition of the stepwise change of the atmosphere from nitrogen to oxygen.

  8. One-step Fabrication of Cellulose/Graphene Conductive Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaiWen Mou; LuMing Yang; HuangWei Xiong; RuiTao Cha

    2017-01-01

    In this study,a straightforward,one-step wet-end formation process was employed to prepare cellulose/graphene conductive paper for antistatic packing materials.Cationic polyacrylamide was introduced into the cellulose/graphene slurry to improve the graphene loading on the surfaces of the cellulose fibers.The effect of the super calender process on the properties of the cellulose/graphene conductive paper was investigated.When 55 wt% graphene was added,the volume resistivity of the cellulose/graphene conductive paper was 94.70 Ω·cm,decreasing to 35.46 Ω·cm after the super calender process.The cellulose/graphene conductive paper possessed excellent anti-static ability and could be used as an anti-static material.

  9. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  10. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  11. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    The electronic conductance of metal nanocontacts is analyzed in terms of eigenchannels for the transmission. The transmission through individual eigenchannels is calculated numerically for realistic models of gold point contacts based on molecular-dynamics simulation of the elongation of a contac...

  12. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1999-01-01

    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  13. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  14. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  15. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  16. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  17. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  18. Quantized Majorana conductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; Van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D.S.; De Moor, Michiel W.A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L.M.; Van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-01-01

    Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The

  19. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  20. Comparative sensing of aldehyde and ammonia vapours on synthetic polypyrrole-Sn(IVarsenotungstate nanocomposite cation exchange material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole-Sn(IVarsenotungstate (PPy-SnAT conductive nanocomposite cation exchange have been synthesized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole with Sn(IVarsenotungstate (SnAT. PPy-SnAT nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The ion exchange capacity (IEC and DC electrical conductivity of nanocomposite was found to be 2.50 meq/g and 5.05 × 10−1 S/cm respectively. The nanocomposite showed appreciable isothermal stability in terms of DC electrical conductivity retention under ambient condition up to 130 °C. The nanocomposite cation exchange based sensor for detection of formaldehyde and ammonia vapours were fabricated at room temperature. It was revealed that the resistivity of the nanocomposite increases on exposure to higher percent concentration of ammonia and lower concentration of formaldehyde at room temperature (25 °C.

  1. Electrochemical investigations on cation-cation interaction between Np(V) and U(VI) in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.K.; Murali, M.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the first report on cation-cation interactions (CCIs) in 1961 by Sullivan et al., many researchers have worked on this using different techniques like optical spectroscopy and potentiometry. However, there is almost no report, in recent times, on this interesting subject using an electrochemical technique. In the present work, we set out to use simple cyclic voltammetry (CV) as a probe to study this phenomenon in the case of Np(V)-U(VI) in nitric acid medium. Accordingly, cyclic voltammograms were recorded individually for Np(V) , U(VI) in 4M HNO 3 and for solutions resulting from a titration of Np(V) with incremental additions of U(VI) in the same medium. These experiments were carried out using AutoLab 30 with three solid electrode system. Ag/AgCl was the reference electrode while Pt wires were used as working and counter electrode. The paper gives the part of CVs for successive additions of only U(VI) (1.4M) at fixed scan rate and room temperature. It can be seen that that the reduction peak shifts only slightly towards left with increased aliquots of U(VI). In contrast, the paper also gives the part of CVs for only U(VI) and for a titration mixture of fixed concentration of Np(V) and successive volume aliquot-additions of U(VI). It can be seen that there was no appreciable shift in the cathodic peak (∼ -0.15V) for additions of 1225μL of only U(VI) and 3225 μL of U(VI) in presence of Np. This showed that no change occurred till this composition. But with the addition of next aliquot of 4225μL of U(VI), there was an appreciable shift in the peak. This signified the formation of a new complex which can be attributed to the cation-cation interaction envisaged for Np(V)-U(VI). With further addition of an aliquot of 4725 μL of U(VI), it can be seen that again there was no appreciable shift in the cathodic peak position which probably underlined that the formation of the complex was complete

  2. Characterization of cationic glycoporphyrins by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eduarda M P; Serra, Vanda Vaz; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Tomé, João P C; Domingues, Pedro; Faustino, M Amparo F; Neves, M Graça P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Ferrer-Correia, António J; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2006-01-01

    Novel cationic porphyrin derivatives having a galactose or a bis(isopropylidene)galactose unit linked directly to a pyridine or to an aminophenyl group were characterized by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The electrospray mass spectra (ESI-MS) show the M(+) ions, since these porphyrins are already monocharged in solution. The fragmentation of these ions under ESI-MS/MS conditions was studied and it was found that elimination of the sugar residue as a radical (-163 or -243 Da) is a common fragmentation pathway. Loss of the sugar unit as a neutral fragment (-162 or -242 Da) and cross-ring fragmentations typical of glyco-derivatives are also observed for the pyridinium glycoporphyrins, but they are absent in the case of ammonium glycoporphyrins. The cationic beta-pyridiniumvinyl porphyrins show an atypical fragmentation due to the cleavage of the C(5)-C(6) bond of the sugar unit. Overall, the different patterns of fragmentation observed in the ESI-MS/MS spectra of the sugar pyridinium porphyrins and of the sugar ammonium phenyl porphyrins can give important information about the type of spacer between the porphyrin and the sugar unit. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  4. Source of Lake Vostok Cations Constrained with Strontium Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berry Lyons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Vostok is the largest sub-glacial lake in Antarctica. The primary source of our current knowledge regarding the geochemistry and biology of the lake comes from the analysis of refrozen lake water associated with ice core drilling. Several sources of dissolved ions and particulate matter to the lake have been proposed, including materials from the melted glacier ice, the weathering of underlying geological materials, hydrothermal activity and underlying, ancient evaporitic deposits. A sample of Lake Vostok Type 1 accretion ice has been analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr signature as well as its major cation and anion and Sr concentrations. The strontium isotope ratio of 0.71655 and the Ca/Sr ratio in the sample strongly indicate that the major source of the Sr is from aluminosilicate minerals from the continental crust. These data imply that at least a portion of the other cations in the Type 1 ice also are derived from continental crustal materials and not hydrothermal activity, the melted glacier ice, or evaporitic sources.

  5. Diffusion of anions and cations in compacted sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    1994-02-01

    The thesis presents the results of studies on the diffusion mechanisms of anions and cations in compacted sodium bentonite, which is planned to be used as a buffer material in nuclear waste disposal in Finland. The diffusivities and sorption factors were determined by tracer experiments. The pore volume accessible to chloride, here defined as effective porosity, was determined as a function of bentonite density and electrolyte concentration in water, and the Stern-Gouy double-layer model was used to explain the observed anion exclusion. The sorption of Cs + and Sr 2+ was studied in loose and compacted bentonite samples as a function of the electrolyte concentration in solution. In order to obtain evidence of the diffusion of exchangeable cations, defined as surface diffusion, the diffusivities of Cs + and Sr 2+ in compacted bentonite were studied as a function of the sorption factor, which was varied by electrolyte concentration in solution. The measurements were performed both by a non-steady state method and by a through-diffusion method. (89 refs., 35 fig., 4 tab.)

  6. Methylene blue adsorption in clay mineral dealt with organic cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L.; Lemos, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction among organic cations, as the methylene blue (AM) and benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and clay minerals of the group of the smectite they result in the formation of applied materials in the adsorption of organic pollutant presents in waters, soils and you cultivate. In this work they were prepared the adsorbents (organic-clays) smectite - AM and smectite-BTMA. The precursory sample of smectite was collected in Rio Branco-Acre. We were also used an smectite sample collected in Sena Madureira (SM)-Acre already characterized in previous work and a sample of standard smectite Swy-2-Na-Montmorillonite (SWy-2) of Wymong - USA. The organic agents selected for this study they were: Blue of Methylene, denominated AM and Benzyltrimethylammonium, denominated BTMA. They were appraised the capacities adsorptive of the treated samples with BTMA being used AM as adsorbate. The results of these evaluations detected that ran total adsorption of AM (concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ppm) for the treated samples with BTMA. The organic cation, BTMA, interacting with the surfaces of the natural clay was more efficient in the adsorption of AM than the clay without the previous treatment with this salt. (author)

  7. The adsorption of helium atoms on coronene cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzthaler, Thomas; Rasul, Bilal; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Scheier@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: andrew.ellis@le.ac.uk [Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Lindinger, Albrecht [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ellis, Andrew M., E-mail: Paul.Scheier@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: andrew.ellis@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-14

    We report the first experimental study of the attachment of multiple foreign atoms to a cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The chosen PAH was coronene, C{sub 24}H{sub 12}, which was added to liquid helium nanodroplets and then subjected to electron bombardment. Using mass spectrometry, coronene cations decorated with helium atoms were clearly seen and the spectrum shows peaks with anomalously high intensities (“magic number” peaks), which represent ion-helium complexes with added stability. The data suggest the formation of a rigid helium layer consisting of 38 helium atoms that completely cover both faces of the coronene ion. Additional magic numbers can be seen for the further addition of 3 and 6 helium atoms, which are thought to attach to the edge of the coronene. The observation of magic numbers for the addition of 38 and 44 helium atoms is in good agreement with a recent path integral Monte Carlo prediction for helium atoms on neutral coronene. An understanding of how atoms and molecules attach to PAH ions is important for a number of reasons including the potential role such complexes might play in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.

  8. Correlation between cationic lipid-based transfection and cell division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchenbuechler, Inka; Kirchenbuechler, David; Elbaum, Michael, E-mail: michael@elbaum.ac.il

    2016-07-01

    We evaluate the temporal relation between protein expression by cationic lipid-mediated transfection and cell division using time lapse fluorescence microscopy. Detailed image analysis provides new insights on the single cell level while simultaneously achieving appropriate statistics. Earlier evidence by less direct methods such as flow cytometry indicates a primary route for transfection involving nuclear envelope breakdown, but also suggests the existence of a pathway independent of mitosis. We confirm and quantify both mechanisms. We found the timing for successful transfection to be unexpectedly flexible, contrary to assertions of a narrow time window. Specifically, cells dividing more than 24 h after exposure to the transfection medium express the probed protein at a comparable level to cells in a mitotic state during or shortly after transfection. This finding can have a profound impact on the guidance and development of non-viral gene delivery materials. - Highlights: • Cationic lipid-based transfection supports protein expression without cell division. • Protein expression is unrelated to cell cycle status at the time of transfection. • Time-lapse imaging provides direct evaluation without statistical averaging. • Lipoplex dissociation is a likely target for improvement of transfection efficiency.

  9. Geminate electron--cation recombination in disordered solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Y.A.; Chekunaev, N.I.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of a geminate electron--cation recombination has been developed using the percolation approach to the description of the electron transport in disordered solids. Following this approach all trapping sites are separated into two groups. The first group forms a diffusion cluster responsible for the macroscopic charge transfer in disordered media whilethe second group consists of isolated traps playing the role of origins and sinks for mobile electrons. In the framework of such a model an equation has been derived describing the electron motion in the Coulomb field of a parent cation. The solution of this equation in the long time limit shows that the recombination rate decreases vs time as t -(1+α/2) with α being a positive constant or a very weak function of t. In the particular case of Gaussian diffusion α=1 and the kinetic law obtained reduces to that predicted by the well-known Onsager--Smoluchowski theory. However for the dispersive (non-Gaussian) transport in highly disordered systems α<1 and its value depends on the type of disorder, on the energy level structure of trapped electrons and on the specific mechanism of electron migration through the medium

  10. Cationic Contrast Agent Diffusion Differs Between Cartilage and Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Juuso T J; Turunen, Mikael J; Freedman, Jonathan D; Saarakkala, Simo; Grinstaff, Mark W; Ylärinne, Janne H; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-10-01

    Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is a non-destructive imaging technique used for the assessment of composition and structure of articular cartilage and meniscus. Due to structural and compositional differences between these tissues, diffusion and distribution of contrast agents may differ in cartilage and meniscus. The aim of this study is to determine the diffusion kinematics of a novel iodine based cationic contrast agent (CA(2+)) in cartilage and meniscus. Cylindrical cartilage and meniscus samples (d = 6 mm, h ≈ 2 mm) were harvested from healthy bovine knee joints (n = 10), immersed in isotonic cationic contrast agent (20 mgI/mL), and imaged using a micro-CT scanner at 26 time points up to 48 h. Subsequently, normalized X-ray attenuation and contrast agent diffusion flux, as well as water, collagen and proteoglycan (PG) contents in the tissues were determined. The contrast agent distributions within cartilage and meniscus were different. In addition, the normalized attenuation and diffusion flux were higher (p < 0.05) in cartilage. Based on these results, diffusion kinematics vary between cartilage and meniscus. These tissue specific variations can affect the interpretation of CECT images and should be considered when cartilage and meniscus are assessed simultaneously.

  11. Coordination phenomena of cationic uranium(iv) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, H.E.

    1974-12-01

    The coordination properties of the cationic uranium(IV) complexes UCl 3 + , UCl 2 2+ , UCl 3+ , and U 4+ were studied in a non-aqueous medium in the presence of perchlorate as counterion which, however, proved to coordinate to a much greater extent than expected. The strong neutral ligand, HMPA, could successively displace some of the perchlorates. An electrostatic model for the U(CIO 4 ) 4 -HMPA-acetone system compared favourably with the actual results. This emphasized the high ionic content in the bonding with actenoid cations, even with such a high charge as +4 . These conclusions are in agreement with studies 75 in which nitrate acts as counter ion. Correspondingly the uranium (IV) chemistry is characterized by the absence of typical 3d-organometallic chemistry, for example, strong bonding with CO, P(Phi) 3 etc, which strongly depends on covalent bonding. This stresses the fact that the d and f orbitals are not readily available for strong bond formation with the actenoids. 76

  12. Role of distonic dimer radical cations in the radiation-induced polymerisation of vinyl ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, Sergej; Janovsky, Igor; Knolle, Wolfgang; Mehnert, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    The experimental low-temperature EPR results and the quantum chemical calculations suggest that dimer radical cations of cyclic and aliphatic vinyl ethers (VE) plays a key role in starting of radiation-induced polymerisation. The main species observed at high 2,3-dihydrofuran (DHF), 2,3-dihydropyran (DHP) and VE concentration is the dimer radical cation. In the case of cyclic VE the dimer radical cation transforms through H-abstraction from neutral molecule into a carbocation and radical, which could start both cationic and free-radical polymerisation. However, in the case of aliphatic VE no further reactive species, which could start polymerisation, were observed. This is caused (in agreement with experiment and quantum chemical calculations) by the very high stability of dimer radical cation and calculated endothermity of H-abstraction reaction by dimer radical cation from monomer

  13. Cation incorporation into zirconium oxide in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Kim, K.H.; Baek, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the cation incorporation into zirconium oxide, SIMS analysis was performed on the specimens prepared to have an equal oxide thickness in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions. Even though they have an equal oxide thickness in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions, the penetration depth of cation into the oxide decreased with an increase in the ionic radius of cation. The cation is considered to control the corrosion in alkali hydroxide solutions and its effect is dependent on the concentration of alkali and the oxide thickness. The slight enhancement of the corrosion rate at a low concentration is thought to be caused by cation incorporation into oxide, while the significant acceleration at a high concentration is due to the transformation of oxide microstructures that would be also induced by cation incorporation into oxide. (orig.)

  14. Effect of alkyl length of cationic surfactants on desorption of Cs from contaminated clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hee Man; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Jin [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, desorption characteristics of Cs from clay according to the hydrophobic alkyl chain length of the cationic surfactant were investigated. Alkyltrimethylammonium bromide was used as a cationic surfactant, and the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the cationic surfactant was varied from –octyl to –cetyl. The adsorbed amount of the cationic surfactant on montmorillonite increased with the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain, and intercalation of the cationic surfactant into the clay interlayer increased the interlayer distances. The Cs removal efficiency was also enhanced with increasing alkyl chain length, and the cationic surfactant with the cetyl group showed a maximum Cs removal efficiency of 99±2.9%.

  15. Structure and dynamics of olefin radical cation aggregates. Time-resolved fluorescence detected magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The time-resolved EPR spectra and thus the structure and dynamics of transient hydrocarbon radical cations are obtained by the pulse radiolysis-fluorescence detected magnetic resonance (FDMR) technique. Here the authors report the observation of short-lived radical cations from olefins. FDMR-EPR spectra of radical cations from tetramethylethylene and cyclohexadiene are illustrated. The olefin radical cations, FDMR spectra are concentration-dependent, since dimerization with neutral molecules takes place at higher (>10 -2 M) olefin concentration. Rate constants for the dimerization reaction are derived and the effect of solvent viscosity on aggregate formation is demonstrated. By monitoring the further reactions of dimer cations the authors have obtained EPR evidence for previously unobserved higher-order (multimer) radical cation aggregates of olefins. 16 references, 5 figures

  16. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  17. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  18. Super ionic conductive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  19. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  20. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Star-shaped tetrathiafulvalene oligomers towards the construction of conducting supramolecular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The construction of redox-active supramolecular assemblies based on star-shaped and radially expanded tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) oligomers with divergent and extended conjugation is summarized. Star-shaped TTF oligomers easily self-aggregate with a nanophase separation to produce supramolecular structures, and their TTF units stack face-to-face to form columnar structures using the fastener effect. Based on redox-active self-organizing supramolecular structures, conducting nanoobjects are constructed by doping of TTF oligomers with oxidants after the formation of such nanostructures. Although radical cations derived from TTF oligomers strongly interact in solution to produce a mixed-valence dimer and π-dimer, it seems to be difficult to produce nanoobjects of radical cations different from those of neutral TTF oligomers. In some cases, however, radical cations form nanostructured fibers and rods by controlling the supramolecular assembly, oxidation states, and counter anions employed.

  2. Early events following radiolytic and photogeneration of radical cations in hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werst, D.W.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Real-time studies in hydrocarbons have revealed a richness of chemistry involving the initial ionic species produced in radiolysis and photoionization. A modified radical cation mechanism patterned after the core mechanism for alkane radiolysis-formation of radical cations and their disappearance via ion-molecule reactions - is capable of explaining a wide range of observations in high-energy photochemistry, and thus unifies two high-energy regimes. Fundamental studies of radical cations suggest strategies for mitigating radiation effects in materials

  3. Structure-activity relationship of carbamate-linked cationic lipids bearing hydroxyethyl headgroup for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Defu; Zhang, Shubiao; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhao, Yinan; Cui, Shaohui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Huiying; Yang, Baoling; Zhao, Defeng

    2013-12-01

    A novel series of carbamate-linked cationic lipids containing hydroxyl headgroup were synthesized and included in formulations for transfection assays. The DNA-lipid complexes were characterized for their ability to bind DNA, their size, ζ-potential and cytotoxicity. Compared with our previously reported cationic transfection lipid DDCDMA lacking the hydroxyl group and the commercially available, these cationic liposomes exhibited relatively higher transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemistry of cations in diopsidic melt - Determining diffusion rates and redox potentials from voltammetric curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.; Crane, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on determinations of reduction potentials and their temperature dependence of selected ions in diopsidic melt, by using linear sweep voltammetry. Diffusion coefficients were measured for cations of Eu, Mn, Cr, and In. Enthalpies and entropies of reduction were determined for the cations V(V), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Mn(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Mo(VI), Sn(IV), and Eu(3+). Reduction potentials were used to study the structural state of cations in the melt.

  5. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized [ 3 H]albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized [ 3 H]albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling [ 3 H]beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The [ 3 H]beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier

  6. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  7. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  8. Tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and cellulose and their applications as electrochemical electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenjian; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Conductive hybrid films of metal nanoparticles and polymers have practical applications in the fields of sensing, microelectronics and catalysis, etc. Herein, we present the electrochemical availability of tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cellulose. The hybrid films were provided with stable tunnelling conductive properties with 12 nm GNPs of 12.7% (in weight). For the first time, the conductive hybrid films were used as substrates of electrochemical electrodes to load calmodulin (CaM) proteins for sensing of calcium cations. The electrodes of hybrid films with 20 nm GNPs of 46.7% (in weight) exhibited stable electrochemical properties, and showed significant responses to calcium cations with concentrations as low as 10 −9 M after being loaded with CaM proteins. (paper)

  9. Anomalous frequency-dependent ionic conductivity of lesion-laden human-brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Fallah, Aria; Vinters, Harry V.; Mathern, Gary W.

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of lesions on our four-electrode measurements of the ionic conductivity of (˜1 cm3) samples of human brain excised from patients undergoing pediatric epilepsy surgery. For most (˜94%) samples, the low-frequency ionic conductivity rises upon increasing the applied frequency. We attributed this behavior to the long-range (˜0.4 mm) diffusion of solvated sodium cations before encountering intrinsic impenetrable blockages such as cell membranes, blood vessels, and cell walls. By contrast, the low-frequency ionic conductivity of some (˜6%) brain-tissue samples falls with increasing applied frequency. We attribute this unusual frequency-dependence to the electric-field induced liberation of sodium cations from traps introduced by the unusually severe pathology observed in samples from these patients. Thus, the anomalous frequency-dependence of the ionic conductivity indicates trap-producing brain lesions.

  10. Divalent Metal Ion Transport across Large Biological Ion Channels and Their Effect on Conductance and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Giménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological characterization of large protein channels, usually displaying multi-ionic transport and weak ion selectivity, is commonly performed at physiological conditions (moderate gradients of KCl solutions at decimolar concentrations buffered at neutral pH. We extend here the characterization of the OmpF porin, a wide channel of the outer membrane of E. coli, by studying the effect of salts of divalent cations on the transport properties of the channel. The regulation of divalent cations concentration is essential in cell metabolism and understanding their effects is of key importance, not only in the channels specifically designed to control their passage but also in other multiionic channels. In particular, in porin channels like OmpF, divalent cations modulate the efficiency of molecules having antimicrobial activity. Taking advantage of the fact that the OmpF channel atomic structure has been resolved both in water and in MgCl2 aqueous solutions, we analyze the single channel conductance and the channel selectivity inversion aiming to separate the role of the electrolyte itself, and the counterion accumulation induced by the protein channel charges and other factors (binding, steric effects, etc. that being of minor importance in salts of monovalent cations become crucial in the case of divalent cations.

  11. Icosahedral cationic framework in the structures of MR2F7 fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A.M.; Maksimov, B.A.; Rastsvetaeva, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Cationic icosahedral frame formed by BiCs 6 Bi 6 icosahedrons is detected in C 5 Bi 2 F 7 structure. Similarity of cationic motives of CsBi 2 F 7 and β-KEr 2 F 7 structure types is determined, occurrence of a similar motive in RbEr 2 F 7 structure is assumed. Cationic motives of MR 2 F 7 fluorides (R=Y, Ln) are studied and dependence of cationic frame type on the ratio of metal ion radii is shown using KLn 2 F 7 fluorides as an example. 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  12. π-Cation Interactions in Molecular Recognition: Perspectives on Pharmaceuticals and Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhibin; Li, Qing X

    2018-04-04

    The π-cation interaction that differs from the cation-π interaction is a valuable concept in molecular design of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. In this Perspective we present an up-to-date review (from 1995 to 2017) on bioactive molecules involving π-cation interactions with the recognition site, and categorize into systems of inhibitor-enzyme, ligand-receptor, ligand-transporter, and hapten-antibody. The concept of π-cation interactions offers use of π systems in a small molecule to enhance the binding affinity, specificity, selectivity, lipophilicity, bioavailability, and metabolic stability, which are physiochemical features desired for drugs and pesticides.

  13. Potential effect of cationic liposomes on interactions with oral bacterial cells and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Marika; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although oral infectious diseases have been attributed to bacteria, drug treatments remain ineffective because bacteria and their products exist as biofilms. Cationic liposomes have been suggested to electrostatically interact with the negative charge on the bacterial surface, thereby improving the effects of conventional drug therapies. However, the electrostatic interaction between oral bacteria and cationic liposomes has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavior of cationic liposomes and Streptococcus mutans in planktonic cells and biofilms. Liposomes with or without cationic lipid were prepared using a reverse-phase evaporation method. The zeta potentials of conventional liposomes (without cationic lipid) and cationic liposomes were -13 and 8 mV, respectively, and both had a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. We first assessed the interaction between liposomes and planktonic bacterial cells with a flow cytometer. We then used a surface plasmon resonance method to examine the binding of liposomes to biofilms. We confirmed the binding behavior of liposomes with biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The interactions between cationic liposomes and S. mutans cells and biofilms were stronger than those of conventional liposomes. Microscopic observations revealed that many cationic liposomes interacted with the bacterial mass and penetrated the deep layers of biofilms. In this study, we demonstrated that cationic liposomes had higher affinity not only to oral bacterial cells, but also biofilms than conventional liposomes. This electrostatic interaction may be useful as a potential drug delivery system to biofilms.

  14. Disposal of heavy metal cations in aqueous media by adsorption on coal to Ghazni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.М. Заславський

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  Adsorption of Pb and Cu cations and their mixture on the surface of modified and non-modified anti-gas coal trough different time intervals have been studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of coal relative to each cations have been determined. Absence  of concurrence between cations of Pb and Cu during adsorption from mixture is explained by difference of  types of their interaction with coal surface. The high effectiveness and perspectivities of application of anti-gas coal for neutralization of heavy metal cations in aqueous solution was shown.

  15. Conductivity and thermodynamic characteristic of superionic transition in strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, B.M.; Prisyazhnyj, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity of strontium polycrystalline chloride in the wide temperature range including melting point is measured. Reciprocally caused anomalous behaviour of kinetic and thermodynamic properties, which relates to peculiarities of salt transition to a superionic state is established in the region of high temperatures. Thermodynamic functions corresponding to crystal anion sublattice disordering are determined and characterized. Comparative analysis of data on strontium chloride and other structural-like salts testifies about step-by-step washing-out character of superionic transition, and the depth of transition (the degree of disordering) reached at melting points relates regularly to relative sizes of cations and anions in the fluorite lattice

  16. A uranium-based UO_2"+-Mn"2"+ single-chain magnet assembled trough cation-cation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougel, Victor; Chatelain, Lucile; Hermle, Johannes; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella; Caciuffo, Roberto; Colineau, Eric; Tuna, Floriana; Magnani, Nicola; Geyer, Arnaud de

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are materials composed of magnetically isolated one-dimensional (1D) units exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization. The occurrence of SCM behavior requires the fulfillment of stringent conditions for exchange and anisotropy interactions. Herein, we report the synthesis, the structure, and the magnetic characterization of the first actinide-containing SCM. The 5f-3d heterometallic 1D chains [{[UO_2(salen)(py)][M(py)_4](NO_3)}]_n, (M=Cd (1) and M=Mn (2); py=pyridine) are assembled trough cation-cation interaction from the reaction of the uranyl(V) complex [UO_2(salen)py][Cp"*_2Co] (Cp"*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with Cd(NO_3)_2 or Mn(NO_3)_2 in pyridine. The infinite UMn chain displays a high relaxation barrier of 134±0.8 K (93±0.5 cm"-"1), probably as a result of strong intra-chain magnetic interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) dioxo group. It also exhibits an open magnetic hysteresis loop at T<6 K, with an impressive coercive field of 3.4 T at 2 K.

  17. A uranium-based UO_2"+-Mn"2"+ single-chain magnet assembled trough cation-cation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougel, Victor; Chatelain, Lucile; Hermle, Johannes; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella; Caciuffo, Roberto; Colineau, Eric; Tuna, Floriana; Magnani, Nicola; Geyer, Arnaud de

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are materials composed of magnetically isolated one-dimensional (1D) units exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization. The occurrence of SCM behavior requires the fulfillment of stringent conditions for exchange and anisotropy interactions. Herein, we report the synthesis, the structure, and the magnetic characterization of the first actinide-containing SCM. The 5f-3d heterometallic 1D chains [{[UO_2(salen)(py)][M(py)_4](NO_3)}]_n, (M=Cd (1) and M=Mn (2); py=pyridine) are assembled trough cation-cation interaction from the reaction of the uranyl(V) complex [UO_2(salen)py][Cp*_2Co] (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with Cd(NO_3)_2 or Mn(NO_3)_2 in pyridine. The infinite UMn chain displays a high relaxation barrier of 134 ±0.8 K (93 ±0.5 cm"-"1), probably as a result of strong intra-chain magnetic interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) dioxo group. It also exhibits an open magnetic hysteresis loop at T <6 K, with an impressive coercive field of 3.4 T at 2 K. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conductive Supramolecular Architecture Constructed from Polyoxovanadate Cluster and Heterocyclic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Misawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton-conductive solid electrolytes are significant for fuel-cell battery technology. Especially for use in motor vehicles, proton conductors which work at intermediate temperatures (373–673 K under an anhydrous atmosphere are desired to improve the fuel cell stability and efficiency. Inorganic–organic hybrid supramolecular architectures are a promising option for the realization of highly conductive proton conductors. Here, a hybrid layered crystal was synthesized for the first time by using an proton-containing decavanadate (V10 anion and a heterocyclic surfactant cation. A simple ion-exchange reaction led to the formation of an inorganic–organic hybrid of V10 by using dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda as the heterocyclic surfactant. Single crystal X-ray analyses revealed that four C12pda cations were associated with one V10 anion, which was a diprotonated species forming a one-dimensional infinite chain structure through hydrogen bonds. Anhydrous proton conductivity was investigated by alternating current (AC impedance spectroscopy in the range of 313–393 K, exhibiting a maximum value of 1.7 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 373 K.

  20. Fluoride ion recognition by chelating and cationic boranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnall, Todd W; Chiu, Ching-Wen; Gabbaï, François P

    2009-02-17

    Because of the ubiquity of fluoride ions and their potential toxicity at high doses, researchers would like to design receptors that selectively detect this anion. Fluoride is found in drinking water, toothpaste, and osteoporosis drugs. In addition, fluoride ions also can be detected as an indicator of uranium enrichment (via hydrolysis of UF(6)) or of the chemical warfare agent sarin, which releases the ion upon hydrolysis. However, because of its high hydration enthalpy, the fluoride anion is one of the most challenging targets for anion recognition. Among the various recognition strategies that are available, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on Lewis acidic boron compounds. These molecules typically interact with fluoride anions to form the corresponding fluoroborate species. In the case of simple triarylboranes, the fluoroborates are formed in organic solvents but not in water. To overcome this limitation, this Account examines various methods we have pursued to increase the fluoride-binding properties of boron-based receptors. We first considered the use of bifunctional boranes, which chelate the fluoride anion, such as 1,8-diborylnaphthalenes or heteronuclear 1-boryl-8-mercurio-naphthalenes. In these molecules, the neighboring Lewis acidic atoms can cooperatively interact with the anionic guest. Although the fluoride binding constants of the bifunctional compounds exceed those of neutral monofunctional boranes by several orders of magnitude, the incompatibility of these systems with aqueous media limits their utility. More recently, we have examined simple triarylboranes whose ligands are decorated by cationic ammonium or phosphonium groups. These cationic groups increase the electrophilic character of these boranes, and unlike their neutral analogs, they are able to complex fluoride in aqueous media. We have also considered cationic boranes, which form chelate complexes with fluoride anions. Our work demonstrates that Coulombic and chelate

  1. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  2. Hysteresis in conducting ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Carl S.; Winchell, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Maxwell's magnetic diffusion equation is solved for conducting ferromagnetic cylinders to predict a magnetic wave velocity, a time delay for flux penetration and an eddy current field, one of five fields in the linear unified field model of hysteresis. Measured Faraday voltages for a thin steel toroid are shown to be proportional to magnetic field step amplitude and decrease exponentially in time due to maximum rather than average permeability. Dynamic permeabilities are a field convolution of quasistatic permeability and the delay function from which we derive and observe square root dependence of coercivity on rate of field change

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies in HgMo sub 6 S sub 8 doped with Cu sup 2 sup + : evidence for cationic mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Kadam, R M; Iyer, R M; Gopalakrishnan, I K; Yakhmi, J V

    1997-01-01

    Some of the Chevrel phase compounds are reported to exhibit unusual cationic mobilities, particularly those with transition metals. EPR evidence is presented for mobile Cu sup 2 sup + ions in Cu sup 2 sup + -doped HgMo sub 6 S sub 8. Evidence is also obtained for the existence of Hg sup + ions, giving possible support for the model correlating the site change with the reaction A sup 2 sup + + e sup -reversible A sup + during ionic conductivity. (author)

  4. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  5. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  6. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  7. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Huang, Jinhua; Burrell, Anthony

    2018-05-08

    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte comprises a tetrafluorohydroquinone ether compound or a tetrafluorocatechol ether compound.

  8. Uranyl oxo activation and functionalization by metal cation coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold Polly, L.; Pecharman, A. F.; Hollis, E.; Parsons, S.; Love, J. B.; Yahia, A.; Maron, L.; Yahia, A.; Maron, L.

    2010-01-01

    The oxo groups in the uranyl ion [UO 2 ] 2+ - one of many oxo cations formed by metals from across the periodic table - are particularly inert, which explains the dominance of this ion in the laboratory and its persistence as an environmental contaminant. In contrast, transition metal oxo (M=O) compounds can be highly reactive and carry out difficult reactions such as the oxygenation of hydrocarbons. Here we show how the sequential addition of a lithium metal base to the uranyl ion constrained in a 'Pacman' environment results in lithium coordination to the U=O bonds and single-electron reduction. This reaction depends on the nature and stoichiometry of the lithium reagent and suggests that competing reduction and C-H bond activation reactions are occurring. (authors)

  9. Site preferences of actinide cations in [NZP] compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H. T.; Spearing, D. R.; Smith, D. M.; Hampel, F. G.; Veirs, D. K.; Scheetz, B. E.

    2000-07-01

    Compounds adopting the sodium dizirconium tris(phosphate) (NaZr2(PO4)3) structure type belong to the [NZP] structural family of compounds. [NZP] compounds possess desirable properties that would permit their application as hosts for the actinides. These properties include compositional flexibility (i.e., three structural sites that can accommodate a variety of different cations), high thermal stability, negligible thermal expansion, and resistance to radiation damage. Experimental data indicate that [NZP] compounds resist dissolution and release of constituents over a wide range of experimental conditions. Moreover, [NZP] compounds may be synthesized by both conventional and novel methods and may be heat treated or sintered at modest temperatures (800 °C-1350 °C) in open or restricted systems.

  10. Uranyl oxo activation and functionalization by metal cation coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold Polly, L; Pecharman, A F; Hollis, E; Parsons, S; Love, J B [Univ Edinburgh, EaStCHEM Sch Chem, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ, Midlothian (United Kingdom); Yahia, A; Maron, L [Univ Toulouse 3, LPCNO, UMR 5215, INSA, CNRS, F-31077 Toulouse 4 (France); Yahia, A; Maron, L [Univ Montpellier 2, ENSCM, CNRS, ICSM, UMR 5257, CEA, Ctr Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    The oxo groups in the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+} - one of many oxo cations formed by metals from across the periodic table - are particularly inert, which explains the dominance of this ion in the laboratory and its persistence as an environmental contaminant. In contrast, transition metal oxo (M=O) compounds can be highly reactive and carry out difficult reactions such as the oxygenation of hydrocarbons. Here we show how the sequential addition of a lithium metal base to the uranyl ion constrained in a 'Pacman' environment results in lithium coordination to the U=O bonds and single-electron reduction. This reaction depends on the nature and stoichiometry of the lithium reagent and suggests that competing reduction and C-H bond activation reactions are occurring. (authors)

  11. A spectroscopic study of interaction of cationic dyes with heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes namely, acridine orange and pinacyanol chloride with an anionic polyelectrolyte, heparin, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method.The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths. The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and heparin was found to be lesser than that formed between pinacyanol chloride and heparin. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea and surfactants. The interaction of acridine orange with heparin has also been investigated fluorimetrically.The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and heparin arises due to electrostatic interaction while that between pinacyanol chloride and heparin is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye in inducing metachromasy has also been discussed.

  12. Preparation and characterization of UV-curable cationic composite adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Yang Wenbin; Li Yintao; Xie Changqiong; Li Yingjun; Cheng Yafei; Zhou Yuanlin; Lu Zhongyuan

    2011-01-01

    UV-curable cationic composite adhesives containing TiO 2 nanostructures were prepared by using 3, 4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3, 4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate(CE) as monomer, triphenylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salt (PI-432) as photoinitiator and titanium isopropoxide (TIP) as inorganic precursor. The morphology of the composite adhesives was characterized by atom force microscopy (AFM). The effect of TIP content on refractive index and transmittance of adhesives were studied. The results show that TiO 2 nanostructures, the average diameter of which is 20 nm or so, can be uniformly dispersed in polymers of composite adhesives. The refractive index of adhesives can be adjusted from 1.501 9 to 1.544 9 with the change of TIP content. The transmittance of adhesives has a slight reduce with the increase of TIP content. When TIP content is up to 40%, the transmittance of composite adhesives remains around 90% or so. (authors)

  13. Reconditioning perovskite films in vapor environments through repeated cation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthum, Chirapa; Pinsuwan, Kusuma; Ponchai, Jitprabhat; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn

    2018-06-01

    Perovskites have attracted considerable attention for application as high-efficiency photovoltaic devices owing to their low-cost and low-temperature fabrication. A good surface and high crystallinity are necessary for high-performance devices. We examine the negative effects of chemical ambiences on the perovskite crystal formation and morphology. The repeated cation doping (RCD) technique was developed to remedy these issues by gradually dropping methylammonium ions on top of about-to-form perovskite surfaces to cause recrystallization. RCD promotes pinhole-free, compact, and polygonal-like surfaces under various vapor conditions. Furthermore, it enhances the electronic properties and crystallization. The benefits of RCD extend beyond perovskites under vapor ambiences, as it can improve regular and wasted perovskites.

  14. Renin secretion from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells requires a permeant cation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1999-01-01

    The cytosolic concentration of chloride correlates directly with renin secretion from renal juxtaglomerular granular (JG) cells. In the present study, the mechanism by which chloride stimulates renin release was investigated in a preparation of permeabilized rat glomeruli with attached JG cells....... An isosmotic increase in the concentration of chloride by 129 mM stimulated renin release 16- to 20-fold. Substitution of K+ by the impermeant cation N-methyl-d-glucamine (NMDG) abolished this response, while substitution with Na+ caused marginal inhibition. Substitution with Cs+ had no effect. Addition...... of sucrose, which permeates the secretory granules poorly, also abolished the stimulation of renin secretion by KCl. The response to KCl was not affected by K+-channel antagonists or by agonists of K+ channels. Chloride channel blockers were also without effect on the secretory response to KCl. When the ATP...

  15. Preliminary Testing For Anionic, Cationic and Non-ionic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokic, Lj.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Detergents present a major environmental problem due to large quantities of surfactants released from laundries. For this reason, it is important to apply an appropriate analytical method for their determination. In this work, we propose two simple, fast and inexpensive analytical methods for anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactant determination: thin layer chromatography (TLC separation for qualitative screening and quantitative potentiometric determination with ion-selective electrodes. These methods have been chosen because of their many advantages: rapidity, ease of operation, low cost of analysis and a wide variety of TLC application possibilities. The advantage of potentiometric titration is its very high degree of automation and very low detection limits obtained with different ion-selective electrodes applied for different surfactants.

  16. Co-ordination of heterovalent cation impurities in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, W.; Rovere, M.; Tosi, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The local liquid structure around heterovalent cation impurities in molten chlorides is discussed in relation to spectroscopic data on solutions of transition metal ions. A tightly packed, low co-ordination shell is shown to be favoured by Coulomb ionic interactions for physically reasonable values of the size of the impurity. A competition between these forces and ''crystal field'' interactions favouring octahedral co-ordination is thus to be expected for many transition metal ions, as suggested by Gruen and McBeth. The transition observed for some transition metal ions from higher to lower co-ordination with increasing temperature is attributed primarily to entropy differences, that are roughly estimated in a solid-like model. (author)

  17. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Two Tetrasubstituted Cationic Porphyrin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton M. Barbosa Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An imidazolium tetrasubstituted cationic porphyrin derivative (the free base and its Zn(II complex with five-membered heterocyclic groups in the meso-positions were synthesized using microwave irradiation, and the compounds obtained characterized by 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry. We observed that under microwave irradiation the yield is similar to when the synthesis is performed under conventional heating, however, the time required to prepare the porphyrins decreases enormously. In order to investigate the electronic state of these compounds, we employed UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with quantum chemical calculations. The results reveal the presence, in both compounds, of a large number of electronic states involving the association between the Soret and a blue-shifted band. The Soret band in both compounds also shows a considerable solvent dependence. As for emission, these compounds present low quantum yield at room temperature and no solvent influence on the fluorescence spectra was observed.

  18. The adsorption of helium atoms on small cationic gold clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Marcelo; Gatchell, Michael; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Martini, Paul; Gitzl, Norbert; Rainer, Manuel; Postler, Johannes; Scheier, Paul; Ellis, Andrew M

    2018-04-04

    Adducts formed between small gold cluster cations and helium atoms are reported for the first time. These binary ions, Aun+Hem, were produced by electron ionization of helium nanodroplets doped with neutral gold clusters and were detected using mass spectrometry. For a given value of n, the distribution of ions as a function of the number of added helium atoms, m, has been recorded. Peaks with anomalously high intensities, corresponding to so-called magic number ions, are identified and interpreted in terms of the geometric structures of the underlying Aun+ ions. These features can be accounted for by planar structures for Aun+ ions with n ≤ 7, with the addition of helium having no significant effect on the structures of the underlying gold cluster ions. According to ion mobility studies and some theoretical predictions, a 3-D structure is expected for Au8+. However, the findings for Au8+ in this work are more consistent with a planar structure.

  19. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Vaughey, John T.; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Lu; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2016-03-29

    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte is selected to have a higher redox potential than the redox reactant of the negative electrolyte.

  20. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.