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  1. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  2. CAPweb: a bioinformatics CGH array Analysis Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Liva, Stéphane; Hupé, Philippe; Neuvial, Pierre; Brito, Isabel; Viara, Eric; La Rosa, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Assessing variations in DNA copy number is crucial for understanding constitutional or somatic diseases, particularly cancers. The recently developed array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) technology allows this to be investigated at the genomic level. We report the availability of a web tool for analysing array-CGH data. CAPweb (CGH array Analysis Platform on the Web) is intended as a user-friendly tool enabling biologists to completely analyse CGH arrays from the raw data to the visu...

  3. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data.

    OpenAIRE

    Brennetot Caroline; Manié Élodie; Liva Stéphane; Brito Isabel; Hupé Philippe; Neuvial Pierre; Radvanyi François; Aurias Alain; Barillot Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continu...

  4. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvial, Pierre; Hupé, Philippe; Brito, Isabel; Liva, Stéphane; Manié, Elodie; Brennetot, Caroline; Radvanyi, François; Aurias, Alain; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spat...

  5. Application of custom-designed oligonucleotide array CGH in 145 patients with autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Kastory-Bronowska, Monika; Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwińska, Katarzyna; Dymczak-Domini, Wanda; Szumbarska, Dorota; Ziemka, Ewa; Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Sykulski, Maciej; Gambin, Tomasz; Gambin, Anna; Shaw, Chad A.; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Obersztyn, Ewa; Bocian, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, including childhood autism, atypical autism, and Asperger syndrome, with an estimated prevalence of 1.0–2.5% in the general population. ASDs have a complex multifactorial etiology, with genetic causes being recognized in only 10–20% of cases. Recently, copy-number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to over 10% of ASD cases. We have applied a custom-designed oligonucleotide array comparative ...

  6. Model-based clustering of array CGH data

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sohrab P.; Cheung, K-John; Johnson, Nathalie A.; Alain, Guillaume; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Horsman, Douglas E.; Ng, Raymond T.; Murphy, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data for recurrent DNA copy number alterations from a cohort of patients can yield distinct sets of molecular signatures or profiles. This can be due to the presence of heterogeneous cancer subtypes within a supposedly homogeneous population. Results: We propose a novel statistical method for automatically detecting such subtypes or clusters. Our approach is model based: each cluster is defined in terms of a sparse profile...

  7. CGHPRO – A comprehensive data analysis tool for array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzner Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridisation is a molecular cytogenetic technique for the genome wide detection of chromosomal imbalances. It is based on the co-hybridisation of differentially labelled test and reference DNA onto arrays of genomic BAC clones, cDNAs or oligonucleotides, and after correction for various intervening variables, loss or gain in the test DNA can be indicated from spots showing aberrant signal intensity ratios. Now that this technique is no longer confined to highly specialized laboratories and is entering the realm of clinical application, there is a need for a user-friendly software package that facilitates estimates of DNA dosage from raw signal intensities obtained by array CGH experiments, and which does not depend on a sophisticated computational environment. Results We have developed a user-friendly and versatile tool for the normalization, visualization, breakpoint detection and comparative analysis of array-CGH data. CGHPRO is a stand-alone JAVA application that guides the user through the whole process of data analysis. The import option for image analysis data covers several data formats, but users can also customize their own data formats. Several graphical representation tools assist in the selection of the appropriate normalization method. Intensity ratios of each clone can be plotted in a size-dependent manner along the chromosome ideograms. The interactive graphical interface offers the chance to explore the characteristics of each clone, such as the involvement of the clones sequence in segmental duplications. Circular Binary Segmentation and unsupervised Hidden Markov Model algorithms facilitate objective detection of chromosomal breakpoints. The storage of all essential data in a back-end database allows the simultaneously comparative analysis of different cases. The various display options facilitate also the definition of shortest regions of overlap and simplify the

  8. Molecular karyotyping by array CGH in a Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iourov Ivan Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH has been repeatedly shown to be a successful tool for the identification of genomic variations in a clinical population. During the last decade, the implementation of array CGH has resulted in the identification of new causative submicroscopic chromosome imbalances and copy number variations (CNVs in neuropsychiatric (neurobehavioral diseases. Currently, array-CGH-based technologies have become an integral part of molecular diagnosis and research in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and children with intellectual disability (mental retardation and congenital anomalies. Here, we introduce the Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies analyzed by BAC array CGH and a novel bioinformatic strategy. Results Among 54 individuals highly selected according to clinical criteria and molecular and cytogenetic data (from 2426 patients evaluated cytogenetically and molecularly between November 2007 and May 2012, chromosomal imbalances were detected in 26 individuals (48%. In two patients (4%, a previously undescribed condition was observed. The latter has been designated as meiotic (constitutional genomic instability resulted in multiple submicroscopic rearrangements (including CNVs. Using bioinformatic strategy, we were able to identify clinically relevant CNVs in 15 individuals (28%. Selected cases were confirmed by molecular cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods. Eight out of 26 chromosomal imbalances (31% have not been previously reported. Among them, three cases were co-occurrence of subtle chromosome 9 and 21 deletions. Conclusions We conducted an array CGH study of Russian patients suffering from intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. In total, phenotypic manifestations of clinically relevant genomic variations were found to result from genomic rearrangements affecting 1247 disease

  9. Automated array-CGH optimized for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material

    OpenAIRE

    Nederlof Petra M; van Beers Erik H; Joosse Simon A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) is a rapidly evolving technology that still lacks complete standardization. Yet, it is of great importance to obtain robust and reproducible data to enable meaningful multiple hybridization comparisons. Special difficulties arise when aCGH is performed on archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue due to its variable DNA quality. Recently, we have developed an effective DNA quality test that predicts suitability ...

  10. Molecular karyotyping by array CGH in a Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Iourov Ivan Y; Vorsanova Svetlana G; Kurinnaia Oxana S; Zelenova Maria A; Silvanovich Alexandra P; Yurov Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been repeatedly shown to be a successful tool for the identification of genomic variations in a clinical population. During the last decade, the implementation of array CGH has resulted in the identification of new causative submicroscopic chromosome imbalances and copy number variations (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric (neurobehavioral) diseases. Currently, array-CGH-based technologies have become an integral part of molecular d...

  11. Improved structural characterization of chromosomal breakpoints using high resolution custom array-CGH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrand, A.; Schoumans, J.; Gustavsson, P.; Hanemaaijer, N.; Malmgren, H.; Blennow, E.

    2010-01-01

    Array-CGH is a powerful tool for the rapid detection of genomic imbalances. By customizing the array it is possible to increase the resolution in a targeted genomic region of interest and determine the structure of the breakpoints with high accuracy, as well as to detect very small imbalances. We ha

  12. High-resolution SNP array analysis of patients with developmental disorder and normal array CGH results

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    Siggberg Linda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic analysis of patients with developmental disorders has improved over recent years largely due to the use of microarray technology. Array methods that facilitate copy number analysis have enabled the diagnosis of up to 20% more patients with previously normal karyotyping results. A substantial number of patients remain undiagnosed, however. Methods and Results Using the Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0, we analyzed 35 patients with a developmental disorder of unknown cause and normal array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH results, in order to characterize previously undefined genomic aberrations. We detected no seemingly pathogenic copy number aberrations. Most of the vast amount of data produced by the array was polymorphic and non-informative. Filtering of this data, based on copy number variant (CNV population frequencies as well as phenotypically relevant genes, enabled pinpointing regions of allelic homozygosity that included candidate genes correlating to the phenotypic features in four patients, but results could not be confirmed. Conclusions In this study, the use of an ultra high-resolution SNP array did not contribute to further diagnose patients with developmental disorders of unknown cause. The statistical power of these results is limited by the small size of the patient cohort, and interpretation of these negative results can only be applied to the patients studied here. We present the results of our study and the recurrence of clustered allelic homozygosity present in this material, as detected by the SNP 6.0 array.

  13. CGH arrays compared for DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, Oscar; Israeli, Danielle; Haan, Josien C.; van Essen, Hendrik F.; Smeets, Serge J.; Eijk, Paul P.; Steenbergen, Renske D. M.; Kok, Klaas; Tejpar, Sabine; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Ylstra, Bauke

    2012-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue is an important source of DNA material. The most commonly used technique to identify copy number aberrations from chromosomal DNA in tumorigenesis is array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Although copy number analysis using DNA from

  14. Genomic instability of human aberrant crypt foci measured by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR and array-CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawi, Sadir J; Carroll, Robert E; Hill, Hank C; Gibbs, John F; Tan, Dongfeng; Brenner, Bruce M; Nowak, Norma J; Swede, Helen; Stoler, Daniel L; Anderson, Garth R

    2006-10-10

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest identifiable neoplastic lesions in the colon. Thirty-two ACFs were examined for genomic instability in forms detectable either by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR or by array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH]. One-fourth of ACFs revealed moderate instability by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR; none showed amplifications or deletions on array-CGH. The absence of genomic events detectible by BAC array-CGH indicates early events in colorectal tumor progression are typically smaller than the approximate 150 kb size of a BAC clone insert. PMID:16806294

  15. The use of array-CGH in a cohort of Greek children with developmental delay

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriades Makarios; Tsoplou Panagiota; Vasileiadis Lefteris; Kitsos George; Garas Antonios; Louizou Eirini; Rapti Stamatia-Maria; Kefalas Konstantinos; Vetro Annalisa; Manolakos Emmanouil; Peitsidis Panagiotis; Orru Sandro; Liehr Thomas; Petersen Michael B; Thomaidis Loretta

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The genetic diagnosis of mental retardation (MR) is difficult to establish and at present many cases remain undiagnosed and unexplained. Standard karyotyping has been used as one of the routine techniques for the last decades. The implementation of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) has enabled the analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) with high resolution. Major cohort studies attribute 11% of patients with unexplained mental retardation to clinically s...

  16. Array CGH improves detection of mutations in the GALC gene associated with Krabbe disease

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    Tanner Alice K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GALC gene. The most common mutation in the Caucasian population is a 30-kb deletion of exons 11 through 17. There are few other reports of intragenic GALC deletions or duplications, due in part to difficulties detecting them. Methods and results We used gene-targeted array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to analyze the GALC gene in individuals with Krabbe disease in whom sequence analysis with 30-kb deletion analysis identified only one mutation. In our sample of 33 cases, traditional approaches failed to identify two pathogenic mutations in five (15.2% individuals with confirmed Krabbe disease. The addition of array CGH deletion/duplication analysis to the genetic testing strategy led to the identification of a second pathogenic mutation in three (9.1% of these five individuals. In all three cases, the deletion or duplication identified through array CGH was a novel GALC mutation, including the only reported duplication in the GALC gene, which would have been missed by traditional testing methodologies. We report these three cases in detail. The second mutation remains unknown in the remaining two individuals (6.1%, despite our full battery of testing. Conclusions Analysis of the GALC gene using array CGH deletion/duplication testing increased the two-mutation detection rate from 84.8% to 93.9% in affected individuals. Better mutation detection rates are important for improving molecular diagnosis of Krabbe disease, as well as for providing prenatal and carrier testing in family members.

  17. Array-CGH analysis in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital malformations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, G S; Medeiros, P F V; Alves, A F; Silva, T O; Jehee, F S

    2016-01-01

    In several patients, intellectual disability and/or congenital malformation may be attributed to chromosomal changes. In this study, we conducted an array-CGH test of 200 patients from the Northeast of Brazil with intellectual disability and/or congenital malformation. Blood samples were collected from the proband and from their parents when possible. DNA was extracted and investigated using the array-CGH test. Findings were evaluated for the pathogenicity in databases of benign and pathogenic changes (ISCA, UCSC, DGV, and DECIPHER). Forty-seven copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in 43/200 (21.5%) patients, including 25/98 (25.5%) in males and 22/102 (21.57%) in females. We considered 33 of these to be clinically significant, reaching a diagnosis rate of 16.5%. The sizes of the CNVs varied from 102 kb to 24 Mb in deletions and from 115 kb to 140 Mb in duplications. In 10/47 (21.3%) patients, the rearrangement involved a sex chromosome. Thirty-nine patients had one chromosomal aberration, while 2 concomitant abnormalities were detected in 4 patients. Ten of 47 CNVs (21.3%) were > 5Mb in size. Fifteen patients had CNVs related to known syndromes. This research highlights the contribution of submicroscopic chromosomal changes to the etiology of intellectual disability and/or congenital malformation, particularly the implication of chromosomal abnormalities detected using an array-CGH test, with a high rate of 16.5%. Thus, our results support the use of array-CGH replacing standard karyotype as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with multiple congenital anomalies and/or intellectual disability. PMID:26909975

  18. A New Normalizing Algorithm for BAC CGH Arrays with Quality Control Metrics

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    Jeffrey C. Miecznikowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus in pin-tip (or print-tip microarray analysis is determining which probes, genes, or oligonucleotides are differentially expressed. Specifically in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH experiments, researchers search for chromosomal imbalances in the genome. To model this data, scientists apply statistical methods to the structure of the experiment and assume that the data consist of the signal plus random noise. In this paper we propose “SmoothArray”, a new method to preprocess comparative genomic hybridization (CGH bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays and we show the effects on a cancer dataset. As part of our R software package “aCGHplus,” this freely available algorithm removes the variation due to the intensity effects, pin/print-tip, the spatial location on the microarray chip, and the relative location from the well plate. removal of this variation improves the downstream analysis and subsequent inferences made on the data. Further, we present measures to evaluate the quality of the dataset according to the arrayer pins, 384-well plates, plate rows, and plate columns. We compare our method against competing methods using several metrics to measure the biological signal. With this novel normalization algorithm and quality control measures, the user can improve their inferences on datasets and pinpoint problems that may arise in their BAC aCGH technology.

  19. False positive rate of an arrayCGH platform for single-cell preimplantation genetic screening and subsequent clinical application on day-3

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Pere; Rodrigo, Lorena; Mercader, Amparo; Buendía Segura, Maria del Pilar; Mateu, Emilia; Milán-Sánchez, Miguel; Peinado, Vanessa; Pellicer Martínez, Antonio; Remohí Giménez, José; Simón, Carlos; Rubio Lluesa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work, false positive rate of an arrayCGH platform for its use in day-3 single-blastomere analysis was calculated. For this purpose, 38 embryos diagnosed as abnormal on day-3 by FISH were re-biopsied on day-4. Single-cell day-4 arrayCGH diagnosis was then performed. A successful amplification was obtained in 97.4 % (37/38) of the day-4 cells analysed by arrayCGH. Day-3 FISH and day-4 arrayCGH diagnosis were concordant in 35/37 cases. The two discordant embryos were spread and all the c...

  20. Mulibrey nanism: Two novel mutations in a child identified by Array CGH and DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzillo, Enza; Cozzolino, Carla; Genesio, Rita; Melis, Daniela; Frisso, Giulia; Orrico, Ada; Lombardo, Barbara; Fattorusso, Valentina; Discepolo, Valentina; Della Casa, Roberto; Simonelli, Francesca; Nitsch, Lucio; Salvatore, Francesco; Franzese, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    In childhood, several rare genetic diseases have overlapping symptoms and signs, including those regarding growth alterations, thus the differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult. The proband, aged 3 years, was suspected to have Silver-Russel syndrome because of intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation, typical facial dysmorphic features, macrocephaly, body asymmetry, and bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly. Other features were left atrial and ventricular enlargement and patent foramen ovale. Total X-ray skeleton showed hypoplasia of the twelfth rib bilaterally and of the coccyx, slender long bones with thick cortex, and narrow medullary channels. The genetic investigation did not confirm Silver-Russel syndrome. At the age of 5 the patient developed an additional sign: hepatomegaly. Array CGH revealed a 147 kb deletion (involving TRIM 37 and SKA2 genes) on one allele of chromosome 17, inherited from his mother. These results suggested Mulibrey nanism. The clinical features were found to fit this hypothesis. Sequencing of the TRIM 37 gene showed a single base change at a splicing locus, inherited from his father that provoked a truncated protein. The combined use of Array CGH and DNA sequencing confirmed diagnosis of Mulibrey nanism. The large deletion involving the SKA2 gene, along with the increased frequency of malignant tumours in mulibrey patients, suggests closed monitoring for cancer of our patient and his mother. Array CGH should be performed as first tier test in all infants with multiple anomalies. The clinician should reconsider the clinical features when the genetics suggests this. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27256967

  1. Use of Virtual Medium in Designing of the CGH Wave Front Generator for Aspheric Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-guo; XIE Jing-hui; LIU Yi

    2007-01-01

    Design method and procedures of computer-generated hologram (CGH) used for aspheric test are introduced in detail.For CGH phase calculation,virtual medium which has zero refractive index at given wavelength is used to model ideal aspheric wavefront.Reflective Fresnel zones located in a ring area concentric to the CGH structure is designed to reduce or eliminate alignment errors.Substrate figure error,pattern distortion,etching and duty cycle variations that influence the reconstructed wavefront are quantitatively analyzed in theory and corresponding error equations are obtained to guide the tolerance distribution during CGH fabricating.A design example is given and the uncertainty of measurement achieves λ/20.

  2. De novo complex intra chromosomal rearrangement after ICSI: characterisation by BACs micro array-CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quimsiyeh Mazin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In routine Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia should be informed about the risk of de novo congenital or chromosomal abnormalities in ICSI program. Also the benefits of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis practice need to be explained to the couple. Methods From a routine ICSI attempt, using ejaculated sperm from male with severe oligozoospermia and having normal karyotype, a 30 years old pregnant woman was referred to prenatal diagnosis in the 17th week for bichorionic biamniotic twin gestation. Amniocentesis was performed because of the detection of an increased foetal nuchal translucency for one of the fetus by the sonographic examination during the 12th week of gestation (WG. Chromosome and DNA studies of the fetus were realized on cultured amniocytes Results Conventional, molecular cytogenetic and microarray CGH experiments allowed us to conclude that the fetus had a de novo pericentromeric inversion associated with a duplication of the 9p22.1-p24 chromosomal region, 46,XY,invdup(9(p22.1p24 [arrCGH 9p22.1p24 (RP11-130C19 → RP11-87O1x3]. As containing the critical 9p22 region, our case is in coincidence with the general phenotype features of the partial trisomy 9p syndrome with major growth retardation, microcephaly and microretrognathia. Conclusion This de novo complex chromosome rearrangement illustrates the possible risk of chromosome or gene defects in ICSI program and the contribution of array-CGH for mapping rapidly de novo chromosomal imbalance.

  3. The development of a mini-array for estimating the disease state of gastric adenocarcinoma by array CGH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment strategy usually depends on the disease state in the individual patient. However, it is difficult to estimate the disease state before treatment in many patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) mini-array allowing for the estimation of node metastasis, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination and the depth of tumor invasion in gastric cancers. Initially, the DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 83 gastric adenocarcinomas as a training-sample set. Next, two independent analytical methods were applied to the aCGH data to identify the BAC clones with DNA copy number aberrations that were linked with the disease states. One of the methods, a decision-tree model classifier, identified 6, 4, 4, 4, and 7 clones for estimating lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, depth of tumor invasion, and histological type, respectively. In the other method, a clone-by-clone comparison of the frequency of the DNA copy number aberrations selected 26 clones to estimate the disease states. By spotting these 50 clones together with 26 frequently or rarely involved clones and 62 reference clones, a mini-array was made to estimate the above parameters, and the diagnostic performance of the mini-array was evaluated for an independent set of 30 gastric cancers (blinded – sample set). In comparison to the clinicopathological features, the overall accuracy was 66.7% for node metastasis, 86.7% for liver metastasis, 86.7% for peritoneal dissemination, and 96.7% for depth of tumor invasion. The intratumoral heterogeneity barely affected the diagnostic performance of the mini-array. These results suggest that the mini-array makes it possible to determine an optimal treatment for each of the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma

  4. The development of a mini-array for estimating the disease state of gastric adenocarcinoma by array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oga Atsunori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment strategy usually depends on the disease state in the individual patient. However, it is difficult to estimate the disease state before treatment in many patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome mini-array allowing for the estimation of node metastasis, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination and the depth of tumor invasion in gastric cancers. Methods Initially, the DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH in 83 gastric adenocarcinomas as a training-sample set. Next, two independent analytical methods were applied to the aCGH data to identify the BAC clones with DNA copy number aberrations that were linked with the disease states. One of the methods, a decision-tree model classifier, identified 6, 4, 4, 4, and 7 clones for estimating lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, depth of tumor invasion, and histological type, respectively. In the other method, a clone-by-clone comparison of the frequency of the DNA copy number aberrations selected 26 clones to estimate the disease states. Results By spotting these 50 clones together with 26 frequently or rarely involved clones and 62 reference clones, a mini-array was made to estimate the above parameters, and the diagnostic performance of the mini-array was evaluated for an independent set of 30 gastric cancers (blinded – sample set. In comparison to the clinicopathological features, the overall accuracy was 66.7% for node metastasis, 86.7% for liver metastasis, 86.7% for peritoneal dissemination, and 96.7% for depth of tumor invasion. The intratumoral heterogeneity barely affected the diagnostic performance of the mini-array. Conclusion These results suggest that the mini-array makes it possible to determine an optimal treatment for each of the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

  5. CGHregions: Dimension Reduction for Array CGH Data with Minimal Information Loss

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    Mark A. van de Wiel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm to reduce multi-sample array CGH data from thousands of clones to tens or hundreds of clone regions is introduced. This reduction of the data is performed such that little information is lost, which is possible due to the high dependencies between neighboring clones. The algorithm is explained using a small example. The potential beneficial effects of the algorithm for downstream analysis are illustrated by re-analysis of previously published colorectal cancer data. Using multiple testing corrections suitable for these data, we provide statistical evidence for genomic differences on several clone regions between MSI+ and CIN+ tumors. The algorithm, named CGHregions, is available as an easy-to-use script in R.

  6. Array-CGH analysis in Rwandan patients presenting development delay/intellectual disability with multiple congenital anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Uwineza, Annette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Dideberg, Vinciane; Rusingiza, Emmanuel K.; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon; Hellin, Anne Cécile

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Array-CGH is considered as the first-tier investigation used to identify copy number variations. Right now, there is no available data about the genetic etiology of patients with development delay/intellectual disability and congenital malformation in East Africa. METHODS: Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed in 50 Rwandan patients with development delay/intellectual disability and multiple congenital abnormalities, using the Agilent's 180 K microarray platform. R...

  7. A genome-wide analysis of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data to detect intra-species variations and evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Array-based comparative genomics hybridization (CGH) has gained prevalence as a technique of choice for the detection of structural variations in the genome. In this study, we propose a novel genome-wide method of classification using CGH data, in order to reveal putative phylogenetic relationships ...

  8. ISACGH: a web-based environment for the analysis of Array CGH and gene expression which includes functional profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Lucía; Montaner, David; Burguet-Castell, Jordi; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    We present the ISACGH, a web-based system that allows for the combination of genomic data with gene expression values and provides different options for functional profiling of the regions found. Several visualization options offer a convenient representation of the results. Different efficient methods for accurate estimation of genomic copy number from array-CGH hybridization data have been included in the program. Moreover, the connection to the gene expression analysis package GEPAS allows...

  9. Different Array CGH profiles within hereditary breast cancer tumors associated to BRCA1 expression and overall survival

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Carolina; Aravena, Andrés; Tapia, Teresa; Rozenblum, Ester; Solís, Luisa; Corvalán, Alejandro; Camus, Mauricio; Alvarez, Manuel; Munroe, David; Maass, Alejandro; Carvallo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background Array CGH analysis of breast tumors has contributed to the identification of different genomic profiles in these tumors. Loss of DNA repair by BRCA1 functional deficiency in breast cancer has been proposed as a relevant contribution to breast cancer progression for tumors with no germline mutation. Identifying the genomic alterations taking place in BRCA1 not expressing tumors will lead us to a better understanding of the cellular functions affected in this heterogeneous disease. M...

  10. A case report of 22q11 deletion syndrome confirmed by array-CGH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sedghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and affects approximately 1 in 4000 persons, making it the second most prevalent genetic syndrome after Down syndrome and the most common genetic syndrome associated with cleft palate. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic; however, in about 10 % of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. This report describes a 1.5 years-old male child with clinical signs of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS presented with heart defect, soft cleft palate, developmental delay, acrocephaly, seizure, MRI abnormalities and descriptive facial feature, such as hypertelorism. Array-CGH test was done to confirm the diagnosis; the result revealed a 2.6 Mbp deletion in 22q11.2 chromosome that containing TBX1 and COMT genes. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of TBX1 gene is probably a major contributor to some of the syndrome characteristic signs, such as heart defect. Because of developmental delay and dysmorphic facial feature were observed in the index′s mother and relatives, inherited autosomal dominant form of VCF is probable, and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification test should be performed for parents to estimate the recurrent risk in next pregnancy.

  11. The use of array-CGH in a cohort of Greek children with developmental delay

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    Eleftheriades Makarios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diagnosis of mental retardation (MR is difficult to establish and at present many cases remain undiagnosed and unexplained. Standard karyotyping has been used as one of the routine techniques for the last decades. The implementation of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH has enabled the analysis of copy number variants (CNVs with high resolution. Major cohort studies attribute 11% of patients with unexplained mental retardation to clinically significant CNVs. Here we report the use of array-CGH for the first time in a Greek cohort. A total of 82 children of Greek origin with mean age 4.9 years were analysed in the present study. Patients with visible cytogenetic abnormalities ascertained by standard karyotyping as well as those with subtelomeric abnormalities determined by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA or subtelomeric FISH had been excluded. Results Fourteen CNVs were detected in the studied patients. In nine patients (11% the chromosomal aberrations were inherited from one of the parents. One patients showed two duplications, a 550 kb duplication in 3p14.1 inherited from the father and a ~1.1 Mb duplication in (22(q13.1q13.2 inherited from the mother. Although both parents were phenotypically normal, it cannot be excluded that the dual duplication is causative for the patient's clinical profile including dysmorphic features and severe developmental delay. Furthermore, three de novo clinically significant CNVs were detected (3.7%. There was a ~6 Mb triplication of 18q21.1 in a girl 5 years of age with moderate MR and mild dysmorphic features and a ~4.8 Mb duplication at (10(q11.1q11.21 in a 2 years old boy with severe MR, multiple congenital anomalies, severe central hypotonia, and ataxia. Finally, in a 3 year-old girl with microcephaly and severe hypotonia a deletion in (2(q31.2q31.3 of about ~3.9 Mb was discovered. All CNVs were confirmed by Fluorescence in situ

  12. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

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    Jan Smetana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91. Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91; del(13(q14 was detected in 57.1% (52/91; gain(1(q21 occurred in 58.2% (53/91; del(17(p13 was observed in 15.4% (14/91; and t(4;14(p16;q32 was found in 18.6% (16/86. Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91. Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%, 1p (39.6%, and 8p (31.1%, whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%. Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients.

  13. [Middle ear salivary gland choristoma related to branchio-oto-renal syndrome diagnosed by array-CGH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, P; Sittel, C; Spaich, C; Kohlhase, J; Boppert, R; Kohlhof, P; Koitschev, A

    2014-05-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is characterized by ear malformations associated with sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. In addition, preauricular tags, preauricular pits, branchial cleft fistulas and cysts, as well as renal dysplasia are seen. A genetic mutation on chromosome 8, either autosomal dominantly inherited or occuring as a spontaneous mutation, is the cause in the majority of cases. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), it is possible to detect even the smallest genetic changes. Salivary gland choristoma in the middle ear is very rare. Surgical removal and histological clarification are required. PMID:23868653

  14. Array CGH com a primera opció per al diagnòstic genètic postnatal

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Sarret, Neus

    2015-01-01

    La citogenètica convencional detecta un 3-5% dels pacients amb retard global del desenvolupament / discapacitat intel·lectual (RGD / DI) i / o malformacions congènites (MC). L'amplificació de sondes múltiples dependents de lligació (MLPA) permet incrementar la taxa diagnòstica entre 2,4-5,8%. Actualment els arrays d'hibridació genòmica comparada (aCGH) constitueixen l'eina diagnòstica amb major rendiment en pacients amb RGD / DI, MC i trastorns de l'espectre autista (TEA). L'objectiu del p...

  15. Detection and precise mapping of germline rearrangements in BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, and MLH1 using zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staaf, Johan; Törngren, Therese; Rambech, Eva;

    2008-01-01

    of primers for sequence determination of the breakpoints. The array platform can be streamlined for a particular application, e.g., focusing on breast cancer susceptibility genes, with increased capacity using multiformat design, and represents a valuable new tool and complement for genetic screening......Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic...... hybridization (CGH) platform of 60mer oligonucleotides. The 4 x 44 K array format provides high-resolution coverage (200-300 bp) of 400-700 kb genomic regions surrounding six cancer susceptibility genes. We evaluate its performance to accurately detect and precisely map earlier described or novel large germline...

  16. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

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    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  17. BAC CGH-array identified specific small-scale genomic imbalances in diploid DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors

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    Samuelson Emma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of breast cancer is a multistage process influenced by hormonal and environmental factors as well as by genetic background. The search for genes underlying this malignancy has recently been highly productive, but the etiology behind this complex disease is still not understood. In studies using animal cancer models, heterogeneity of the genetic background and environmental factors is reduced and thus analysis and identification of genetic aberrations in tumors may become easier. To identify chromosomal regions potentially involved in the initiation and progression of mammary cancer, in the present work we subjected a subset of experimental mammary tumors to cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Methods Mammary tumors were induced with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene in female rats from the susceptible SPRD-Cu3 strain and from crosses and backcrosses between this strain and the resistant WKY strain. We first produced a general overview of chromosomal aberrations in the tumors using conventional kartyotyping (G-banding and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH analyses. Particular chromosomal changes were then analyzed in more details using an in-house developed BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome CGH-array platform. Results Tumors appeared to be diploid by conventional karyotyping, however several sub-microscopic chromosome gains or losses in the tumor material were identified by BAC CGH-array analysis. An oncogenetic tree analysis based on the BAC CGH-array data suggested gain of rat chromosome (RNO band 12q11, loss of RNO5q32 or RNO6q21 as the earliest events in the development of these mammary tumors. Conclusions Some of the identified changes appear to be more specific for DMBA-induced mammary tumors and some are similar to those previously reported in ACI rat model for estradiol-induced mammary tumors. The later group of changes is more interesting, since they may represent anomalies that involve

  18. BAC CGH-array identified specific small-scale genomic imbalances in diploid DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of breast cancer is a multistage process influenced by hormonal and environmental factors as well as by genetic background. The search for genes underlying this malignancy has recently been highly productive, but the etiology behind this complex disease is still not understood. In studies using animal cancer models, heterogeneity of the genetic background and environmental factors is reduced and thus analysis and identification of genetic aberrations in tumors may become easier. To identify chromosomal regions potentially involved in the initiation and progression of mammary cancer, in the present work we subjected a subset of experimental mammary tumors to cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Mammary tumors were induced with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene) in female rats from the susceptible SPRD-Cu3 strain and from crosses and backcrosses between this strain and the resistant WKY strain. We first produced a general overview of chromosomal aberrations in the tumors using conventional kartyotyping (G-banding) and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH) analyses. Particular chromosomal changes were then analyzed in more details using an in-house developed BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) CGH-array platform. Tumors appeared to be diploid by conventional karyotyping, however several sub-microscopic chromosome gains or losses in the tumor material were identified by BAC CGH-array analysis. An oncogenetic tree analysis based on the BAC CGH-array data suggested gain of rat chromosome (RNO) band 12q11, loss of RNO5q32 or RNO6q21 as the earliest events in the development of these mammary tumors. Some of the identified changes appear to be more specific for DMBA-induced mammary tumors and some are similar to those previously reported in ACI rat model for estradiol-induced mammary tumors. The later group of changes is more interesting, since they may represent anomalies that involve genes with a critical role in mammary tumor development. Genetic

  19. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of premenopausal breast cancers from a nuclear fallout area and matched cases from Western New York

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, G.; Varma, R.; Huang, H.; Pryshchepava, A; Groth, J.; Fleming, D; Nowak, N. J.; McQuaid, D; Conroy, J.; Mahoney, M; Moysich, K.; Falkner, K L; Geradts, J

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) was performed on breast carcinomas in premenopausal women from Western New York (WNY) and from Gomel, Belarus, an area exposed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. Genomic DNA was isolated from 47 frozen tumour specimens from 42 patients and hybridised to arrays spotted with more than 3000 BAC clones. In all, 20 samples were from WNY and 27 were from Belarus. In total,...

  20. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

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    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  1. Significance of genome-wide analysis of copy number alterations and UPD in myelodysplastic syndromes using combined CGH - SNP arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Iqbal, M Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Genetic information is an extremely valuable data source in characterizing the personal nature of cancer. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of most cancer cells. Chromosomal abnormalities are correlated with poor prognosis, disease classification, risk stratification, and treatment selection. Copy number alterations (CNAs) are an important molecular signature in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Recent application of whole-genome tools to characterize normal and cancer genomes provides the powerful molecular cytogenetic means to enumerate the multiple somatic, genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur in cancer. Combined array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array is a useful technique allowing detection of CNAs and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or uni-parental disomy (UPD) together in a single experiment. It also provides allelic information on deletions, duplications, and amplifications. UPD can result in an abnormal phenotype when the chromosomes involved are imprinted. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common clonal stem cell hematologic malignancy characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, which leads to rapid progression into acute myeloid leukemia. UPD that occurs without concurrent changes in the gene copy number is a common chromosomal defect in hematologic malignancies, especially in MDS. Approximately 40-50% of MDS patients do not have karyotypic abnormalities that are detectable using classical metaphase cytogenetic techniques (MC) because of inherent limitations of MC, low resolution and the requirement of having dividing cells. In this review, we highlight advances in the clinical application of microarray technology in MDS and discuss the clinical potential of microarray. PMID:22680919

  2. A submicroscopic deletion involving part of the CREBBP gene detected by array-CGH in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Angeline H M; Brett, Maggie S; Chin, Wai-Hoe; Lim, Eileen C P; Ng, Jasmine S H; Tan, Ene-Choo

    2012-05-10

    We report a girl with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) who was found to have copy number loss on 16p13.3 by array-CGH. She has developmental delay and other features of RSTS including downslanting palpebral fissures, a prominent nose with the nasal septum extending below the alae nasi, broad thumbs and big toes, postaxial polydactyly of the right foot and constipation from birth. We report the junction sequence across the breakpoint region for a microdeletion in RSTS. The sequencing results also showed that the deletion was 81.4kb involving three genes DNASE 1, TRAP 1, and CREBBP. PMID:22426292

  3. Array CGH identifies distinct DNA copy number profiles of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in chromosomal- and microsatellite-unstable sporadic colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassmann, Silke; Weis, Roland; Makowiec, Frank; Roth, Jasmine; Danciu, Mihai; Hopt, Ulrich; Werner, Martin

    2007-03-01

    DNA copy number changes represent molecular fingerprints of solid tumors and are as such relevant for better understanding of tumor development and progression. In this study, we applied genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify gene-specific DNA copy number changes in chromosomal (CIN)- and microsatellite (MIN)-unstable sporadic colorectal cancers (sCRC). Genomic DNA was extracted from microdissected, matching normal colorectal epithelium and invasive tumor cells of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of 22 cases with colorectal cancer (CIN = 11, MIN = 11). DNA copy number changes were determined by aCGH for 287 target sequences in tumor cell DNAs, using pooled normal DNAs as reference. aCGH data of tumor cell DNAs was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for three genes on serial tissues as those used for aCGH. aCGH revealed DNA copy number changes previously described by metaphase CGH (gains 7, 8q, 13q, and 20q; losses 8p, 15q, 18q, and 17p). However, chromosomal regions 20q, 13q, 7, and 17p were preferentially altered in CIN-type tumors and included DNA amplifications of eight genes on chromosome 20q (TOP1, AIB1, MYBL2, CAS, PTPN1, STK15, ZNF217, and CYP24), two genes on chromosome 13q (BRCA2 and D13S25), and three genes on chromosome 7 (IL6, CYLN2, and MET) as well as DNA deletions of two genes on chromosome 17p (HIC1 and LLGL1). Finally, additional CIN-tumor-associated DNA amplifications were identified for EXT1 (8q24.11) and MYC (8q24.12) as well as DNA deletions for MAP2K5 (15q23) and LAMA3 (18q11.2). In contrast, distinct MIN-tumor-associated DNA amplifications were detected for E2F5 (8p22-q21.3), GARP (11q13.5-q14), ATM (11q22.3), KAL (Xp22.3), and XIST (Xq13.2) as well as DNA deletions for RAF1 (3p25), DCC (18q21.3), and KEN (21q tel). aCGH revealed distinct DNA copy number changes of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in CIN- and MIN-type sporadic colorectal carcinomas. The identified candidate

  4. Genetic counselling difficulties and ethical implications of incidental findings from array-CGH: a 7-year national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, M; Sanlaville, D; Marle, N; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Gautier, E; Chehadeh, S E; Mosca-Boidron, A-L; Thevenon, J; Edery, P; Alex-Cordier, M-P; Till, M; Lyonnet, S; Cormier-Daire, V; Amiel, J; Philippe, A; Romana, S; Malan, V; Afenjar, A; Marlin, S; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Bitoun, P; Heron, B; Piparas, E; Morice-Picard, F; Moutton, S; Chassaing, N; Vigouroux-Castera, A; Lespinasse, J; Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Boute-Benejean, O; Vincent-Delorme, C; Petit, F; Meur, N L; Marti-Dramard, M; Guerrot, A-M; Goldenberg, A; Redon, S; Ferrec, C; Odent, S; Caignec, C L; Mercier, S; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Toutain, A; Arpin, S; Blesson, S; Mortemousque, I; Schaefer, E; Martin, D; Philip, N; Sigaudy, S; Busa, T; Missirian, C; Giuliano, F; Benailly, H K; Kien, P K V; Leheup, B; Benneteau, C; Lambert, L; Caumes, R; Kuentz, P; François, I; Heron, D; Keren, B; Cretin, E; Callier, P; Julia, S; Faivre, L

    2016-05-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used in diagnosing patients with intellectual disability (ID) with or without congenital malformation. Because aCGH interrogates with the whole genome, there is a risk of being confronted with incidental findings (IF). In order to anticipate the ethical issues of IF with the generalization of new genome-wide analysis technologies, we questioned French clinicians and cytogeneticists about the situations they have faced regarding IF from aCGH. Sixty-five IF were reported. Forty corresponded to autosomal dominant diseases with incomplete penetrance, 7 to autosomal dominant diseases with complete penetrance, 14 to X-linked diseases, and 4 were heterozygotes for autosomal recessive diseases with a high prevalence of heterozygotes in the population. Therapeutic/preventive measures or genetic counselling could be argued for all cases except four. These four IF were intentionally not returned to the patients. Clinicians reported difficulties in returning the results in 29% of the cases, mainly when the question of IF had not been anticipated. Indeed, at the time of the investigation, only 48% of the clinicians used consents mentioning the risk of IF. With the emergence of new technologies, there is a need to report such national experiences; they show the importance of pre-test information on IF. PMID:26582393

  5. BAC array CGH in patients with Velocardiofacial syndrome-like features reveals genomic aberrations on chromosome region 1q21.1

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    Estivill Xavier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microdeletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region is the most common genetic aberration among patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS but a subset of subjects do not show alterations of this chromosome region. Methods We analyzed 18 patients with VCFS-like features by comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH array and performed a face-to-face slide hybridization with two different arrays: a whole genome and a chromosome 22-specific BAC array. Putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH and MLPA assays. Results One patient carried a combination of rearrangements on 1q21.1, consisting in a microduplication of 212 kb and a close microdeletion of 1.15 Mb, previously reported in patients with variable phenotypes, including mental retardation, congenital heart defects (CHD and schizophrenia. While 326 control samples were negative for both 1q21.1 rearrangements, one of 73 patients carried the same 212-kb microduplication, reciprocal to TAR microdeletion syndrome. Also, we detected four copy number variants (CNVs inherited from one parent (a 744-kb duplication on 10q11.22; a 160 kb duplication and deletion on 22q11.21 in two cases; and a gain of 140 kb on 22q13.2, not present in control subjects, raising the potential role of these CNVs in the VCFS-like phenotype. Conclusions Our results confirmed aCGH as a successful strategy in order to characterize additional submicroscopic aberrations in patients with VCF-like features that fail to show alterations in 22q11.2 region. We report a 212-kb microduplication on 1q21.1, detected in two patients, which may contribute to CHD.

  6. Array-CGH analysis of mouse malignant lymphomas. Effects of chronic exposure to low-dose-rate γ-radiation on tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported that mice that were chronically irradiated with γ-rays at low dose rates had significantly shorter life spans than unirradiated controls. The major cause of this life-shortening is considered to be the earlier onset and/or the faster progression of malignant lymphomas in the irradiated groups. In this study, chromosomal aberrations in a total of 54 malignant lymphomas from mice irradiated with a dose rate of 21 mGy/day and nonirradiated mice were precisely compared by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. Array-CGH profiles showed that about two-thirds of the tumors had aneuploidy genotypes, in which numeric aberrations of chromosomes 12, 14, 15, 16, and X were observed frequently in the unirradiated group while that of chromosome 15 predominated in the irradiated group. In addition, copy-number alterations were frequently identified on partial chromosomal regions harboring the following oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: c-myc, N-myc, notch-1, notch-2, hes-1, akt-1, akt-2, akt-3, bcl-6, bcl-10, bcl-11a, bcl-11b, pim-2, BCoR, XIAP, rhoE, p16INK4a, p15INK4b, p73, p27Kip1, RB, and pten. If aberrations extending across whole-chromosomal and partial-chromsomal regions are counted together, gains on chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 14, 16 and X can be associated preferentially with the unirradiated group, whereas gains on chromosome 15, along with losses on chromosomes 4 and 14, were detected more frequently in the irradiated group. These observations offer insights into how low-dose-rate irradiation caused the earlier onset and/or the faster progression of tumors, as well as into the molecular pathogenesis of murine lymphomas. (author)

  7. Tiling array-CGH for the assessment of genomic similarities among synchronous unilateral and bilateral invasive breast cancer tumor pairs

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    Ringnér Markus

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, no objective criteria exist to differentiate between individual primary tumors and intra- or intermammary dissemination respectively, in patients diagnosed with two or more synchronous breast cancers. To elucidate whether these tumors most likely arise through clonal expansion, or whether they represent individual primary tumors is of tumor biological interest and may have clinical implications. In this respect, high resolution genomic profiling may provide a more reliable approach than conventional histopathological and tumor biological factors. Methods 32 K tiling microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was used to explore the genomic similarities among synchronous unilateral and bilateral invasive breast cancer tumor pairs, and was compared with histopathological and tumor biological parameters. Results Based on global copy number profiles and unsupervised hierarchical clustering, five of ten (p = 1.9 × 10-5 unilateral tumor pairs displayed similar genomic profiles within the pair, while only one of eight bilateral tumor pairs (p = 0.29 displayed pair-wise genomic similarities. DNA index, histological type and presence of vessel invasion correlated with the genomic analyses. Conclusion Synchronous unilateral tumor pairs are often genomically similar, while synchronous bilateral tumors most often represent individual primary tumors. However, two independent unilateral primary tumors can develop synchronously and contralateral tumor spread can occur. The presence of an intraductal component is not informative when establishing the independence of two tumors, while vessel invasion, the presence of which was found in clustering tumor pairs but not in tumor pairs that did not cluster together, supports the clustering outcome. Our data suggest that genomically similar unilateral tumor pairs may represent a more aggressive disease that requires the addition of more severe treatment modalities, and

  8. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of premenopausal breast cancers from a nuclear fallout area and matched cases from Western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, G; Varma, R; Huang, H; Pryshchepava, A; Groth, J; Fleming, D; Nowak, N J; McQuaid, D; Conroy, J; Mahoney, M; Moysich, K; Falkner, K L; Geradts, J

    2005-09-19

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) was performed on breast carcinomas in premenopausal women from Western New York (WNY) and from Gomel, Belarus, an area exposed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. Genomic DNA was isolated from 47 frozen tumour specimens from 42 patients and hybridised to arrays spotted with more than 3000 BAC clones. In all, 20 samples were from WNY and 27 were from Belarus. In total, 34 samples were primary tumours and 13 were lymph node metastases, including five matched pairs from Gomel. The average number of total CNAs per sample was 76 (range 35-134). We identified 152 CNAs (92 gains and 60 losses) occurring in more than 10% of the samples. The most common amplifications included gains at 8q13.2 (49%), at 1p21.1 (36%), and at 8q24.21 (36%). The most common deletions were at 1p36.22 (26%), at 17p13.2 (26%), and at 8p23.3 (23%). Belarussian tumours had more amplifications and fewer deletions than WNY breast cancers. HER2/neu negativity and younger age were also associated with a higher number of gains and fewer losses. In the five paired samples, we observed more discordant than concordant DNA changes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumours: one comprised predominantly of Belarussian carcinomas and the other largely consisting of WNY cases. In total, 50 CNAs occurred significantly more commonly in one cohort vs the other, and these included some candidate signature amplifications in the breast cancers in women exposed to significant radiation. In conclusion, our high-density aCGH study has revealed a large number of genetic aberrations in individual premenopausal breast cancer specimens, some of which had not been reported before. We identified a distinct CNA profile for carcinomas from a nuclear fallout area, suggesting a possible molecular fingerprint of radiation-associated breast cancer. PMID:16222315

  9. Submicroscopic deletions of 11q24-25 in individuals without Jacobsen syndrome: re-examination of the critical region by high-resolution array-CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanAllen Margot I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jacobsen syndrome is a rare contiguous gene disorder that results from a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. It is typically characterized by intellectual disability, a variety of physical anomalies and a distinctive facial appearance. The 11q deletion has traditionally been identified by routine chromosome analysis. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH has offered new opportunities to identify and refine chromosomal abnormalities in regions known to be associated with clinical syndromes. Results Using the 1 Mb BAC array (Spectral Genomics, we screened 70 chromosomally normal children with idiopathic intellectual disability (ID and congenital abnormalities, and identified five cases with submicroscopic abnormalities believed to contribute to their phenotypes. Here, we provide detailed molecular cytogenetic descriptions and clinical presentation of two unrelated subjects with de novo submicroscopic deletions within chromosome bands 11q24-25. In subject 1 the chromosome rearrangement consisted of a 6.18 Mb deletion (from 128.25–134.43 Mb and an adjacent 5.04 Mb duplication (from 123.15–128.19 Mb, while in subject 2, a 4.74 Mb interstitial deletion was found (from 124.29–129.03 Mb. Higher resolution array analysis (385 K Nimblegen was used to refine all breakpoints. Deletions of the 11q24-25 region are known to be associated with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS: OMIM 147791. However, neither of the subjects had the typical features of JBS (trigonocephaly, platelet disorder, heart abnormalities. Both subjects had ID, dysmorphic features and additional phenotypic abnormalities: subject 1 had a kidney abnormality, bilateral preauricular pits, pectus excavatum, mild to moderate conductive hearing loss and behavioral concerns; subject 2 had macrocephaly, an abnormal MRI with delayed myelination, fifth finger shortening and squaring of all fingertips, and sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion Two

  10. Heterozygous deletion of CHL1 gene: detailed array-CGH and clinical characterization of a new case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassano, Elisa; Biancheri, Roberta; Denegri, Laura; Porta, Simona; Novara, Francesca; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Gimelli, Giorgio; Cuoco, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    CHL1 gene maps at 3p26.3 and encodes a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily highly expressed in the brain. CHL1 regulates neuronal migration and neurite overgrowth in the developing brain, while in mature neurons it accumulates in the axonal membrane and regulates synapse function via the clathrin-dependent pathways. To our knowledge, to date only three familial cases presenting heterozygous deletion of chromosome 3 at band p26.3, including only the CHL1 gene, have been reported. All the patients presented cognitive impairment characterized by learning and language difficulties. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy in which array-CGH analysis disclosed a terminal 3p26.3 deletion. The deletion was transmitted from his normal mother and included only the CHL1 gene. Our patient presented microcephaly, short stature, mild mental retardation, learning and language delay, and strabismus. In our study we compare the phenotypic and molecular cytogenetic features of CHL1 gene deletion cases. Verbal function developmental delay seems to be a common key finding. The concomitance of the genetic and phenotypic alterations could be a good evidence of a new emerging syndrome associated with the deletion of CHL1 gene alone, although the identification of new cases is required. PMID:25451713

  11. Identification by full-coverage array CGH of human DNA copy number increases relative to chimpanzee and gorilla

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Gary M.; Flibotte, Stephane; Missirlis, Perseus I.; Marra, Marco A.; Jones, Steven; Thornton, Kevin; Clark, Andrew G.; Holt, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal segments and associated genes is thought to be a primary mechanism for generating evolutionary novelty. By comparative genome hybridization using a full-coverage (tiling) human BAC array with 79-kb resolution, we have identified 63 chromosomal segments, ranging in size from 0.65 to 1.3 Mb, that have inferred copy number increases in human relative to chimpanzee. These segments span 192 Ensembl genes, including 82 gene duplicates (41 reciprocal best BLAST matches). S...

  12. Age dependence of tumor genetics in unfavorable neuroblastoma: arrayCGH profiles of 34 consecutive cases, using a Swedish 25-year neuroblastoma cohort for validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive neuroblastoma remains a significant cause of childhood cancer death despite current intensive multimodal treatment protocols. The purpose of the present work was to characterize the genetic and clinical diversity of such tumors by high resolution arrayCGH profiling. Based on a 32K BAC whole-genome tiling path array and using 50-250K Affymetrix SNP array platforms for verification, DNA copy number profiles were generated for 34 consecutive high-risk or lethal outcome neuroblastomas. In addition, age and MYCN amplification (MNA) status were retrieved for 112 unfavorable neuroblastomas of the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry, representing a 25-year neuroblastoma cohort of Sweden, here used for validation of the findings. Statistical tests used were: Fisher’s exact test, Bayes moderated t-test, independent samples t-test, and correlation analysis. MNA or segmental 11q loss (11q-) was found in 28/34 tumors. With two exceptions, these aberrations were mutually exclusive. Children with MNA tumors were diagnosed at significantly younger ages than those with 11q- tumors (mean: 27.4 vs. 69.5 months; p=0.008; n=14/12), and MNA tumors had significantly fewer segmental chromosomal aberrations (mean: 5.5 vs. 12.0; p<0.001). Furthermore, in the 11q- tumor group a positive correlation was seen between the number of segmental aberrations and the age at diagnosis (Pearson Correlation 0.606; p=0.037). Among nonMNA/non11q- tumors (n=6), one tumor displayed amplicons on 11q and 12q and three others bore evidence of progression from low-risk tumors due to retrospective evidence of disease six years before diagnosis, or due to tumor profiles with high proportions of numerical chromosomal aberrations. An early age at diagnosis of MNA neuroblastomas was verified by registry data, with an average of 29.2 months for 43 cases that were not included in the present study. MNA and segmental 11q loss define two major genetic variants of unfavorable neuroblastoma with apparent

  13. High-resolution array CGH profiling identifies Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 (NKAIN2 as a predisposing candidate gene in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Romania

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB, the most common solid cancer in early childhood, usually occurs sporadically but also its familial occurance is known in 1-2% of NB patients. Germline mutations in the ALK and PHOX2B genes have been found in a subset of familial NBs. However, because some individuals harbouring mutations in these genes do not develop this tumor, additional genetic alterations appear to be required for NB pathogenesis. Herein, we studied an Italian family with three NB patients, two siblings and a first cousin, carrying an ALK germline-activating mutation R1192P, that was inherited from their unaffected mothers and with no mutations in the PHOX2B gene. A comparison between somatic and germline DNA copy number changes in the two affected siblings by a high resolution array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH analysis revealed a germline gain at NKAIN2 (Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 locus in one of the sibling, that was inherited from the parent who does not carry the ALK mutation. Surprisingly, NKAIN2 was expressed at high levels also in the affected sibling that lacks the genomic gain at this locus, clearly suggesting the existance of other regulatory mechanisms. High levels of NKAIN2 were detected in the MYCN-amplified NB cell lines and in the most aggressive NB lesions as well as in the peripheral blood of a large cohort of NB patients. Consistent with a role of NKAIN2 in NB development, NKAIN2 was down-regulated during all-trans retinoic acid differentiation in two NB cell lines. Taken together, these data indicate a potential role of NKAIN2 gene in NB growth and differentiation.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities using array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using a targeted array-CGH strategy for prenatal diagnosis of genomic imbalances in a clinical setting of current pregnancies. Women undergoing prenatal diagnosis were counseled and offered array-CGH (BCM V4.0) in addition to routine chromosome ...

  15. Use Array-basedCGH technology for fetal chromosomal anomalies syndrome diagnosis%运用Array-basedCGH技术进行胎儿染色体异常综合征的诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易广才; 童华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To use high - resolution Array - basedCCH (aCCH) technology for chromosomes of the small mutation (missing or amplified) to cause fetal malformation syndrome, and its formation mechanism. Method:use of a Agilent4 × 44K CGH chip to detect the normal samples and specimens from the three malformation of Fetal DNA ( M1:normalfetal; M2:abdominal wall defect fetal; M3: single umbilical artery with congenital heart disease, double outlet right ventricle, Ventricular septal defect and mitral atresia pulmonary artery stenosis; M4: karyorype 47, +21, congenital heart disease, Ventricular septal defect, fetus side lateral ventricle broadening, the fetus is small) by the comparative genomic hybridization. Results: M2/MI; high copy (amplification) 560 of fragments of DNA (genes), low copy or missing 1504 of DNA (genes) of the fragment; M3/M1: high copy 511 fragments of DNA (genes) , low copy or missing 1142 articles DNA (genes) of the fragment; M4/M1: section 3034 high copy DNA (genes) of the fragment, low copy or missing section 3571 DNA (genes) fragment. Conclusion; the small mutation of chromosome fragments is one of the main causes which lead to fetal malformation syndrome, the high - resolution aCCH technology is able to be used for quickly and accurately on its testing and prenatal diagnosis.%目的,运用高分辨率的Array-basedCGH(aCGH)技术研究染色体的微小变异(缺失或扩增)引起的胎儿畸形综合征,及其形成机理.方法 采用Agilent4×44K CGH,芯片对一个正常标本和三个畸形胎儿标本DNA(MI 正常胎儿;M2腹壁缺损;M3单脐动脉合并先天性心脏病,右室双出口,空间隔缺损,肺动脉狭窄,二尖瓣闭锁;M4染色体核型47,+21,先天性心脏病,室间隔缺损,胎儿一侧脑室增宽,胎儿偏小)进行比较基因组杂交捡洲.结果 M2/Ml:高拷贝(扩增)560条DNA(基因)片段,低拷贝或缺失1504条DNA(基因)片断;M3/M1:高拷贝511条DNA(基因)片段,低拷贝或缺失1142

  16. Delineation of a de novo 7q21.3q31.1 Deletion by CGH-SNP Arrays in a Girl with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Severe Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Jacobo, L.; Córdova-Fletes, C.; Ortiz-López, R.; Rivas, F; Saucedo-Carrasco, C.; Rojas-Martínez, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a female patient with a constitutional de novo deletion in 7q21.3q31.1 as determined by G-banding and CGH-SNP arrays. She exhibited, among other features, psychomotor retardation, congenital severe bilateral glaucoma, a cleft palate, and heart defect. Microarray assay disclosed a deleted 12.5-Mb region roughly 88 kb downstream the ectrodactyly critical region; thus, the patient's final karyotype was 46,XX.arr 7q21.3q31.1(96,742,140-109,246,085)×1 dn. This girl repres...

  17. Development of a novel ozone- and photo-stable HyPer5 red fluorescent dye for array CGH and microarray gene expression analysis with consistent performance irrespective of environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kille Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and gene expression profiling have become vital techniques for identifying molecular defects underlying genetic diseases. Regardless of the microarray platform, cyanine dyes (Cy3 and Cy5 are one of the most widely used fluorescent dye pairs for microarray analysis owing to their brightness and ease of incorporation, enabling high level of assay sensitivity. However, combining both dyes on arrays can become problematic during summer months when ozone levels rise to near 25 parts per billion (ppb. Under such conditions, Cy5 is known to rapidly degrade leading to loss of signal from either "homebrew" or commercial arrays. Cy5 can also suffer disproportionately from dye photobleaching resulting in distortion of (Cy5/Cy3 ratios used in copy number analysis. Our laboratory has been active in fluorescent dye research to find a suitable alternative to Cy5 that is stable to ozone and resistant to photo-bleaching. Here, we report on the development of such a dye, called HyPer5, and describe its' exceptional ozone and photostable properties on microarrays. Results Our results show HyPer5 signal to be stable to high ozone levels. Repeated exposure of mouse arrays hybridized with HyPer5-labeled cDNA to 300 ppb ozone at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals resulted in no signal loss from the dye. In comparison, Cy5 arrays showed a dramatic 80% decrease in total signal during the same interval. Photobleaching experiments show HyPer5 to be resistant to light induced damage with 3- fold improvement in dye stability over Cy5. In high resolution array CGH experiments, HyPer5 is demonstrated to detect chromosomal aberrations at loci 2p21-16.3 and 15q26.3-26.2 from three patient sample using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays. The photostability of HyPer5 is further documented by repeat array scanning without loss of detection. Additionally, HyPer5 arrays are shown to preserve sensitivity and

  18. Characterization of genetic rearrangements in esophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines by a combination of M-FISH and array-CGH: further confirmation of some split genomic regions in primary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal and genomic aberrations are common features of human cancers. However, chromosomal numerical and structural aberrations, breakpoints and disrupted genes have yet to be identified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Using multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and oligo array-based comparative hybridization (array-CGH), we identified aberrations and breakpoints in six ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, we detected recurrent breakpoints in primary tumors by dual-color FISH. M-FISH and array-CGH results revealed complex numerical and structural aberrations. Frequent gains occurred at 3q26.33-qter, 5p14.1-p11, 7pter-p12.3, 8q24.13-q24.21, 9q31.1-qter, 11p13-p11, 11q11-q13.4, 17q23.3-qter, 18pter-p11, 19 and 20q13.32-qter. Losses were frequent at 18q21.1-qter. Breakpoints that clustered within 1 or 2 Mb were identified, including 9p21.3, 11q13.3-q13.4, 15q25.3 and 3q28. By dual-color FISH, we observed that several recurrent breakpoint regions in cell lines were also present in ESCC tumors. In particular, breakpoints clustered at 11q13.3-q13.4 were identified in 43.3% (58/134) of ESCC tumors. Both 11q13.3-q13.4 splitting and amplification were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P = 0.004 and 0.022) and advanced stages (P = 0.004 and 0.039). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only 11q13.3-q13.4 splitting was an independent predictor for LNM (P = 0.026). The combination of M-FISH and array-CGH helps produce more accurate karyotypes. Our data provide significant, detailed information for appropriate uses of these ESCC cell lines for cytogenetic and molecular biological studies. The aberrations and breakpoints detected in both the cell lines and primary tumors will contribute to identify affected genes involved in the development and progression of ESCC

  19. Design of circular differential microphone arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Cohen, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a completely novel and efficient way to design differential beamforming algorithms for linear microphone arrays. Thanks to this very flexible approach, any order of differential arrays can be designed. Moreover, they can be made robust against white noise amplification, which is the main inconvenience in these types of arrays. The other well-known problem with linear arrays is that electronic steering is not really feasible.  In this book, we extend all these fundamental ideas to circular microphone arrays and show that we can design small and compact differential arrays of any order that can be electronically steered in many different directions and offer a good degree of control of the white noise amplification problem, high directional gain, and frequency-independent response. We also present a number of practical examples, demonstrating that differential beamforming with circular microphone arrays is likely one of the best candidates for applications involving speech enhancement (i....

  20. arrayCGHbase: an analysis platform for comparative genomic hybridization microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Yves

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the human genome sequence as well as the large number of physically accessible oligonucleotides, cDNA, and BAC clones across the entire genome has triggered and accelerated the use of several platforms for analysis of DNA copy number changes, amongst others microarray comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH. One of the challenges inherent to this new technology is the management and analysis of large numbers of data points generated in each individual experiment. Results We have developed arrayCGHbase, a comprehensive analysis platform for arrayCGH experiments consisting of a MIAME (Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment supportive database using MySQL underlying a data mining web tool, to store, analyze, interpret, compare, and visualize arrayCGH results in a uniform and user-friendly format. Following its flexible design, arrayCGHbase is compatible with all existing and forthcoming arrayCGH platforms. Data can be exported in a multitude of formats, including BED files to map copy number information on the genome using the Ensembl or UCSC genome browser. Conclusion ArrayCGHbase is a web based and platform independent arrayCGH data analysis tool, that allows users to access the analysis suite through the internet or a local intranet after installation on a private server. ArrayCGHbase is available at http://medgen.ugent.be/arrayCGHbase/.

  1. Delineation of a de novo 7q21.3q31.1 Deletion by CGH-SNP Arrays in a Girl with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Severe Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jacobo, L; Córdova-Fletes, C; Ortiz-López, R; Rivas, F; Saucedo-Carrasco, C; Rojas-Martínez, A

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a female patient with a constitutional de novo deletion in 7q21.3q31.1 as determined by G-banding and CGH-SNP arrays. She exhibited, among other features, psychomotor retardation, congenital severe bilateral glaucoma, a cleft palate, and heart defect. Microarray assay disclosed a deleted 12.5-Mb region roughly 88 kb downstream the ectrodactyly critical region; thus, the patient's final karyotype was 46,XX.arr 7q21.3q31.1(96,742,140-109,246,085)×1 dn. This girl represents the fourth patient described so far with congenital glaucoma and a deletion encompassing or overlapping the 7q21.3q31.1 region, and confirms the presence of a locus or loci related to such a clinical feature. According to our results, the proneness to ocular defects secondary to 7q intermediate deletions could be caused by co-deletion of TAC1, HBP1, and a small cluster of cytochrome P450 genes (subfamily 3A). This conclusion is supported by their functional roles and expression locations as well as because TAC1 is related to the functional pathway of the MYOC gene whose mutations are linked to glaucoma. Moreover, given that this girl is clinically reminiscent of several phenotypes related to diverse deletions within 7q21q32, our results and observations offer a general overview of the gene content of deletions/phenotypes overlapping 7q21.3q31.1 and confirm that loci distal to DLX genes including the CUX1 gene and potential regulatory elements downstream from DLX5 are unrelated to ectrodactyly. PMID:24167464

  2. Clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with a combination of a deletion and a duplication of 22q13 using array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isabel Ochando,1 Antonio Urbano,1 Juana Rubio,2 Joaquín Rueda1,31Unidad de Genética, Hospital Clínica Vistahermosa, Alicante, 2Hospital Virgen de la Vega, Murcia, 3Departamento de Histología y Anatomía, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Phelan–McDermid syndrome is caused by the loss of terminal regions of different sizes at 22q13. There is a wide range of severity of symptoms in patients with a 22q13 deletion, but these patients usually show neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, and dysmorphic traits. We carried out a clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with neonatal hypotonia and dysmorphic features. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization showed an 8.24 Mb terminal deletion associated with a 0.20 Mb duplication. Characterization of patients with Phelan–McDermid syndrome both clinically and at the molecular level allows genotype-phenotype correlations that provide clues to help elucidate the clinical implications.Keywords: 22q13 deletion, subtelomeric rearrangements, Phelan–McDermid syndrome, genotype–phenotype correlations

  3. Array-CGH in patients with Kabuki-like phenotype: Identification of two patients with complex rearrangements including 2q37 deletions and no other recurrent aberration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Eva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kabuki syndrome (KS is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by specific facial features, mild to moderate mental retardation, postnatal growth delay, skeletal abnormalities, and unusual dermatoglyphic patterns with prominent fingertip pads. A 3.5 Mb duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was once reported as a specific alteration in KS but has not been confirmed in other patients. The molecular basis of KS remains unknown. Methods We have studied 16 Spanish patients with a clinical diagnosis of KS or KS-like to search for genomic imbalances using genome-wide array technologies. All putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH, microsatellite markers and/or MLPA assays, which also determined whether the imbalance was de novo or inherited. Results No duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was observed in our patients. We detected complex rearrangements involving 2q in two patients with Kabuki-like features: 1 a de novo inverted duplication of 11 Mb with a 4.5 Mb terminal deletion, and 2 a de novo 7.2 Mb-terminal deletion in a patient with an additional de novo 0.5 Mb interstitial deletion in 16p. Additional copy number variations (CNV, either inherited or reported in normal controls, were identified and interpreted as polymorphic variants. No specific CNV was significantly increased in the KS group. Conclusion Our results further confirmed that genomic duplications of 8p23 region are not a common cause of KS and failed to detect other recurrent rearrangement causing this disorder. The detection of two patients with 2q37 deletions suggests that there is a phenotypic overlap between the two conditions, and screening this region in the Kabuki-like patients should be considered.

  4. Flat-plate photovoltaic array design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented which integrates the results of specific studies in the areas of photovoltaic structural design optimization, optimization of array series/parallel circuit design, thermal design optimization, and optimization of environmental protection features. The analysis is based on minimizing the total photovoltaic system life-cycle energy cost including repair and replacement of failed cells and modules. This approach is shown to be a useful technique for array optimization, particularly when time-dependent parameters such as array degradation and maintenance are involved.

  5. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF SMART ANTENNA ARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng; Liu Qizhong; Shan Runhong; Zhang Hou

    2004-01-01

    This letter investigates an efficient design procedure integrating the Genetic Algorithm (GA) with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) for the fast optimal design of Smart Antenna Arrays (SAA). The FDTD is used to analyze SAA with mutual coupling. Then,on the basis of the Maximal Signal to Noise Ratio (MSNR) criteria, the GA is applied to the optimization of weighting elements and structure of SAA. Finally, the effectiveness of the analysis is evaluated by experimental antenna arrays.

  6. 2013 CGH Awardees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National cancer institute, CENTER FOR GLOBAL HEALTH, in collaboration with the OFFICE OF CANCER CENTERS, is pleased to announce the 2013 awardees of the Request for Proposals for Pilot Collaborations with Low- and Mid-Income Countries (LMICs) in Global Cancer Research or Global Health Research at NCI-Designated Cancer Centers.  In 2013, the Center for Global Health and the Office of Cancer Centers developed a funding opportunity to promote research collaborations between NCI-Designated Cancer Centers with institutions in LMICs.

  7. Arrayed-Waveguide Layout for AWG Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The key issue of the complex geometry for arrayed-waveguide grating(AWG)is the design of length difference.Conventional-type scheme and improved-type scheme of the ar-rayed -waveguide layout are proposed.For each scheme,the layout rules were given and one ex-ample was presented. At last ,the two schemes were compared with each other.

  8. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  9. The Murchison Widefield Array: Design Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Cappallo, Roger J.; Morales, Miguel F.; Briggs, Frank H.; Benkevitch, Leonid; Bowman, Judd D.; Bunton, John D.; Burns, Steven; Corey, Brian E.; deSouza, Ludi; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Derome, Mark; Deshpande, Avinash; Gopalakrishna, M. R.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.

    2009-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a dipole-based aperture array synthesis telescope designed to operate in the 80-300 MHz frequency range. It is capable of a wide range of science investigations, but is initially focused on three key science projects. These are detection and characterization of 3-dimensional brightness temperature fluctuations in the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) at redshifts from 6 to 10, solar imaging and remote sensing of the inn...

  10. Flexible and accurate detection of genomic copy-number changes from aCGH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar M Rueda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA copy-number alterations (CNAs are associated with complex diseases, including cancer: CNAs are indeed related to tumoral grade, metastasis, and patient survival. CNAs discovered from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH data have been instrumental in identifying disease-related genes and potential therapeutic targets. To be immediately useful in both clinical and basic research scenarios, aCGH data analysis requires accurate methods that do not impose unrealistic biological assumptions and that provide direct answers to the key question, "What is the probability that this gene/region has CNAs?" Current approaches fail, however, to meet these requirements. Here, we introduce reversible jump aCGH (RJaCGH, a new method for identifying CNAs from aCGH; we use a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model fitted via reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo; and we incorporate model uncertainty through Bayesian model averaging. RJaCGH provides an estimate of the probability that a gene/region has CNAs while incorporating interprobe distance and the capability to analyze data on a chromosome or genome-wide basis. RJaCGH outperforms alternative methods, and the performance difference is even larger with noisy data and highly variable interprobe distance, both commonly found features in aCGH data. Furthermore, our probabilistic method allows us to identify minimal common regions of CNAs among samples and can be extended to incorporate expression data. In summary, we provide a rigorous statistical framework for locating genes and chromosomal regions with CNAs with potential applications to cancer and other complex human diseases.

  11. ADaCGH: A parallelized web-based application and R package for the analysis of aCGH data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz-Uriarte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number alterations (CNAs in genomic DNA have been associated with complex human diseases, including cancer. One of the most common techniques to detect CNAs is array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The availability of aCGH platforms and the need for identification of CNAs has resulted in a wealth of methodological studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ADaCGH is an R package and a web-based application for the analysis of aCGH data. It implements eight methods for detection of CNAs, gains and losses of genomic DNA, including all of the best performing ones from two recent reviews (CBS, GLAD, CGHseg, HMM. For improved speed, we use parallel computing (via MPI. Additional information (GO terms, PubMed citations, KEGG and Reactome pathways is available for individual genes, and for sets of genes with altered copy numbers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ADACGH represents a qualitative increase in the standards of these types of applications: a all of the best performing algorithms are included, not just one or two; b we do not limit ourselves to providing a thin layer of CGI on top of existing BioConductor packages, but instead carefully use parallelization, examining different schemes, and are able to achieve significant decreases in user waiting time (factors up to 45x; c we have added functionality not currently available in some methods, to adapt to recent recommendations (e.g., merging of segmentation results in wavelet-based and CGHseg algorithms; d we incorporate redundancy, fault-tolerance and checkpointing, which are unique among web-based, parallelized applications; e all of the code is available under open source licenses, allowing to build upon, copy, and adapt our code for other software projects.

  12. The Murchison Widefield Array: Design Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Colin J; Morales, Miguel F; Briggs, Frank H; Benkevitch, Leonid; Bowman, Judd D; Bunton, John D; Burns, Steven; Corey, Brian E; deSouza, Ludi; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Derome, Mark; Deshpande, Avinash; Gopalakrishna, M R; Greenhill, Lincoln J; Herne, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline N; Kamini, P A; Kasper, Justin C; Kincaid, Barton B; Kocz, Jonathan; Kowald, Errol; Kratzenberg, Eric; Kumar, Deepak; Lynch, Mervyn J; Madhavi, S; Matejek, Michael; Mitchell, Daniel; Morgan, Edward; Oberoi, Divya; Ord, Steven; Pathikulangara, Joseph; Prabu, T; Rogers, Alan E E; Roshi, Anish; Salah, Joseph E; Sault, Robert J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, Jamie; Tingay, Steven; Vaccarella, Annino; Waterson, Mark; Wayth, Randall B; Webster, Rachel L; Whitney, Alan R; Williams, Andrew; Williams, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a dipole-based aperture array synthesis telescope designed to operate in the 80-300 MHz frequency range. It is capable of a wide range of science investigations, but is initially focused on three key science projects. These are detection and characterization of 3-dimensional brightness temperature fluctuations in the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) at redshifts from 6 to 10, solar imaging and remote sensing of the inner heliosphere via propagation effects on signals from distant background sources,and high-sensitivity exploration of the variable radio sky. The array design features 8192 dual-polarization broad-band active dipoles, arranged into 512 tiles comprising 16 dipoles each. The tiles are quasi-randomly distributed over an aperture 1.5km in diameter, with a small number of outliers extending to 3km. All tile-tile baselines are correlated in custom FPGA-based hardware, yielding a Nyquist-sampled instantaneous monochromatic uv co...

  13. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes......, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors.......Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes...

  14. Links between orthogonal arrays, association schemes and partial geometric designs

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Kathleen; Olmez, Oktay; Song, Sung Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show how certain three-class association schemes and orthogonal arrays give rise to partial geometric designs. We also investigate the connections between partial geometric designs and certain regular graphs having three or four distinct eigenvalues, three-class association schemes, orthogonal arrays of strength two and particular linear codes. We give various characterizations of these graphs, association schemes and orthogonal arrays in terms of partial geometric designs. ...

  15. Design of a trichromatic cone array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Garrigan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cones with peak sensitivity to light at long (L, medium (M and short (S wavelengths are unequal in number on the human retina: S cones are rare (<10% while increasing in fraction from center to periphery, and the L/M cone proportions are highly variable between individuals. What optical properties of the eye, and statistical properties of natural scenes, might drive this organization? We found that the spatial-chromatic structure of natural scenes was largely symmetric between the L, M and S sensitivity bands. Given this symmetry, short wavelength attenuation by ocular media gave L/M cones a modest signal-to-noise advantage, which was amplified, especially in the denser central retina, by long-wavelength accommodation of the lens. Meanwhile, total information represented by the cone mosaic remained relatively insensitive to L/M proportions. Thus, the observed cone array design along with a long-wavelength accommodated lens provides a selective advantage: it is maximally informative.

  16. Rectangular Thinned Array Design by McFarland Difference Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveri, Giacomo; Caramanica, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The problem of reducing the number of elements of large arrays is of great importance in satellite, remote sensing, radar and biomedical imaging applications in which the cost, weight, power consumption, mutual coupling effects, HW and SW complexity have to be as low as possible. Thinned arrays, however, are known to exhibit high peak sidelobe levels (PSL) if not suitably designed [1]. As a consequence, design techniques able to control and reduce the PSL of non‐regular arrays have been subje...

  17. Orthogonal Genetic Algorithm for Planar Thinned Array Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhang; Yong-Chang Jiao; Bo Chen; Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    An orthogonal genetic algorithm (OGA) is applied to optimize the planar thinned array with a minimum peak sidelobe level. The method is a genetic algorithm based on orthogonal design. A crossover operator formed by the orthogonal array and the factor analysis is employed to enhance the genetic algorithm for optimization. In order to evaluate the performance of the OGA, 20×10-element planar thinned arrays have been designed to minimize peak sidelobe level. The optimization results by the OGA a...

  18. A multi-sample based method for identifying common CNVs in normal human genomic structure using high-resolution aCGH data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihyun Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is difficult to identify copy number variations (CNV in normal human genomic data due to noise and non-linear relationships between different genomic regions and signal intensity. A high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH containing 42 million probes, which is very large compared to previous arrays, was recently published. Most existing CNV detection algorithms do not work well because of noise associated with the large amount of input data and because most of the current methods were not designed to analyze normal human samples. Normal human genome analysis often requires a joint approach across multiple samples. However, the majority of existing methods can only identify CNVs from a single sample. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a multi-sample-based genomic variations detector (MGVD that uses segmentation to identify common breakpoints across multiple samples and a k-means-based clustering strategy. Unlike previous methods, MGVD simultaneously considers multiple samples with different genomic intensities and identifies CNVs and CNV zones (CNVZs; CNVZ is a more precise measure of the location of a genomic variant than the CNV region (CNVR. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We designed a specialized algorithm to detect common CNVs from extremely high-resolution multi-sample aCGH data. MGVD showed high sensitivity and a low false discovery rate for a simulated data set, and outperformed most current methods when real, high-resolution HapMap datasets were analyzed. MGVD also had the fastest runtime compared to the other algorithms evaluated when actual, high-resolution aCGH data were analyzed. The CNVZs identified by MGVD can be used in association studies for revealing relationships between phenotypes and genomic aberrations. Our algorithm was developed with standard C++ and is available in Linux and MS Windows format in the STL library. It is freely available at: http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/~Park/mgvd.php.

  19. A SIW Antipodal Vivaldi Array Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Suo; Wei Li; Jianzhong Chen

    2016-01-01

    A kind of compact SIW (substrate integrated waveguide) Vivaldi array antenna is proposed and analyzed. The antenna consisted of 4 Vivaldi structure radiation elements fed by an equal power divider with SIW technology. The radiation element is composed of antipodal index gradient microstrip lines on both sides of the substrate. The measured reflection coefficient of the array antenna is less than −10 dB from 8.88 GHz to 10.02 GHz. The measured gain of the array antenna is 13.3 dB on 9.5 GHz....

  20. 10-m platform array telescope design for the AMIBA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert N.; Kingsley, Jeffrey S.

    2000-07-01

    We present a unique hexapod platform array for the new Taiwanese AMIBA project. AMIBA is a 90 GHz radio interferometric array consisting of 19 elements mounted on a roughly 10 m diameter platform. A hexapod mount is used to steer this platform. The resulting design is lightweight in comparison to a more conventional mount. The design goals of pointing stability, platform accuracy and reduced cost can be met with this design. A metrology system for pointing is proposed for inclusion in the design.

  1. Utilizing Amniotic Fluid Cell Karyotype Analysis and Array-CGH to Confirm NIPT Results and Discuss the Clinical Significance%羊水细胞染色体核型分析和微列阵比较基因组杂交技术验证无创产前检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 蒋涛; 李璃; 刘安; 季修庆; 林颖; 王艳; 胡平; 许争峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨羊水细胞染色体核型分析技术和微列阵比较基因组杂交技术(array-CGH)验证无创产前检测(NIPT)的临床意义.方法:对NIPT提示信号异常的95例孕妇行羊膜腔穿刺术,抽取羊水进行培养后行染色体核型分析验证其符合率;同时对提示除外21-三体、18-三体、13-三体的常染色体异常(即其他常染色体异常)的患者行array-CGH分析,验证其符合率.结果:NIPT提示21-三体高风险的染色体核型分析符合率86.96%(40/46);18-三体的染色体核型分析符合率76.92%(10/13);13--体染色体核型分析符合率0(0/2).性染色体核型分析的符合率50.00%(9/18),其中1例性染色体异常的染色体核型分析为46,XX,del(Xq23-25),行array-CGH验证,提示为X染色体该区带11.9M的片段缺失.其他常染色体异常的染色体核型分析符合率12.50% (2/16),其array-CGH验证的符合率25.00(4/16).结论:NIPT的结果需要验证,经典的羊水细胞染色体核型分析技术可以验证胎儿染色体数目和结构异常,array-CGH可以验证微缺失或者微重复,分辨率更高.

  2. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes...

  3. Probe design for expression arrays using OligoWiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    Since all measurements from a DNA microarray is dependant on the probes used, a good choice of probes is of vital importa nce when designing custom micro-arrays. This chapter describes how to de sign expression arrays using the “ OligoWiz ” software suite. The general desired features of good...

  4. Design of a new electrode array for cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study aims to design a new electrode array which can be precisely located beneath the basilar membrane within the cochlear scala tympani. This placement of the electrode array is beneficial for increasing the effectiveness of the electrical stimulation of the audi tory nerves and maximising the growth factors delivered into the cochlea for regenerating the progressively lost auditory neurons, thereby significantly improving performance of the cochlear implant systems. Methods The design process involved two steps. First, the biocom patible nitinol-based shape memory alloy, of which mechanical deformation can be controlled using electrical cUTents/fields act vated by body temperature, was selected. Second, five different designs of the electrode array with embedded nitinol actuators were studied (Table I). The finite element method was employed to predict final positions of these electrode arrays. Results The electrode array with three 6 mm actuators at 2-8, 8-J4 and 14-20 mm from the tip (Fig. I) was found to be located most closely to the basilar membrane, compared with those in the other four cases. Conclusions A new nitinol cochlear implant electrode array with three embedded nitinol actuators has been designed. This electrode array is expected to be located beneath the basilar membrane for maximising the delivery of growth factors. Future research will involve the manufacturing of a prototype of this electrode array for use in insertion experiments and neurotrophin release tests.

  5. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  6. Design of an active array filtenna for radar applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.; Berg, S. van den; Water, F. van de

    2014-01-01

    A novel design of an S-band active array antenna with enhanced frequency selectivity properties, for radar applications, is presented. The array unit cell consists of a stacked-patch radiator, characterized by an operational bandwidth of [2.8 - 3.4] GHz. A microstrip two-pole band pass filter is con

  7. Design and Use of Microphone Directional Arrays for Aeroacoustic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Meadows, Kristine R.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the development of two microphone directional arrays for aeroacoustic testing is presented. These arrays were specifically developed to measure airframe noise in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility. A large aperture directional array using 35 flush-mounted microphones was constructed to obtain high resolution noise localization maps around airframe models. This array possesses a maximum diagonal aperture size of 34 inches. A unique logarithmic spiral layout design was chosen for the targeted frequency range of 2-30 kHz. Complementing the large array is a small aperture directional array, constructed to obtain spectra and directivity information from regions on the model. This array, possessing 33 microphones with a maximum diagonal aperture size of 7.76 inches, is easily moved about the model in elevation and azimuth. Custom microphone shading algorithms have been developed to provide a frequency- and position-invariant sensing area from 10-40 kHz with an overall targeted frequency range for the array of 5-60 kHz. Both arrays are employed in acoustic measurements of a 6 percent of full scale airframe model consisting of a main element NACA 632-215 wing section with a 30 percent chord half-span flap. Representative data obtained from these measurements is presented, along with details of the array calibration and data post-processing procedures.

  8. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  9. Discrete Dipole Approximation Aided Design Method for Nanostructure Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shao-Li; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2007-01-01

    A discrete dipole approximation (DDA) aided design method is proposed to determine the parameters of nanostructure arrays. The relationship between the thickness, period and extinction efficiency of nanostructure arrays for the given shape can be calculated using the DDA. Based on the calculated curves, the main parameters of the nanostructure arrays such as thickness and period can be determined. Using this aided method, a rhombic sliver nanostructure array is designed with the determinant parameters of thickness (40 nm) and period (440 nm).We further fabricate the rhombic sliver nanostructure arrays and testify the character of the extinction spectra.The obtained extinction spectra is within the visible range and the full width at half maximum is 99nm, as is expected.

  10. APRON: A Cellular Processor Array Simulation and Hardware Design Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. W. Barr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a software environment for the efficient simulation of cellular processor arrays (CPAs. This software (APRON is used to explore algorithms that are designed for massively parallel fine-grained processor arrays, topographic multilayer neural networks, vision chips with SIMD processor arrays, and related architectures. The software uses a highly optimised core combined with a flexible compiler to provide the user with tools for the design of new processor array hardware architectures and the emulation of existing devices. We present performance benchmarks for the software processor array implemented on standard commodity microprocessors. APRON can be configured to use additional processing hardware if necessary and can be used as a complete graphical user interface and development environment for new or existing CPA systems, allowing more users to develop algorithms for CPA systems.

  11. Nanowire array photovoltaics: Radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmberg, Björn C P; Botten, Lindsay C; Asatryan, Ara A; Poulton, Christopher G; McPhedran, Ross C; de Sterke, C Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Solar cell designs based on disordered nanostructures tend to have higher efficiencies than structures with uniform absorbers, though the reason is poorly understood. To resolve this, we use a semi-analytic approach to determine the physical mechanism leading to enhanced efficiency in arrays containing nanowires with a variety of radii. We use our findings to systematically design arrays that outperform randomly composed structures. An ultimate efficiency of 23.75% is achieved with an array containing 30% silicon, an increase of almost 10% over a homogeneous film of equal thickness.

  12. Optimum array design to maximize Fisher information for bearing estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Saurav R; Buck, John R

    2011-11-01

    Source bearing estimation is a common application of linear sensor arrays. The Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) sets a lower bound on the achievable mean square error (MSE) of any unbiased bearing estimate. In the spatially white noise case, the CRB is minimized by placing half of the sensors at each end of the array. However, many realistic ocean environments have a mixture of both white noise and spatially correlated noise. In shallow water environments, the correlated ambient noise can be modeled as cylindrically isotropic. This research designs a fixed aperture linear array to maximize the bearing Fisher information (FI) under these noise conditions. The FI is the inverse of the CRB, so maximizing the FI minimizes the CRB. The elements of the optimum array are located closer to the array ends than uniform spacing, but are not as extreme as in the white noise case. The optimum array results from a trade off between maximizing the array bearing sensitivity and minimizing output noise power variation over the bearing. Depending on the source bearing, the resulting improvement in MSE performance of the optimized array over a uniform array is equivalent to a gain of 2-5 dB in input signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:22087908

  13. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  14. Genome-Wide High-Resolution aCGH Analysis of Gestational Choriocarcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poaty, Henriette; Coullin, Philippe; Peko, Jean Félix; Dessen, Philippe; Diatta, Ange Lucien; Valent, Alexander; Leguern, Eric; Prévot, Sophie; Gombé-Mbalawa, Charles; Candelier, Jean-Jacques; Picard, Jean-Yves; Bernheim, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Eleven samples of DNA from choriocarcinomas were studied by high resolution CGH-array 244 K. They were studied after histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis, of the androgenic etiology and after a microsatellite marker analysis confirming the absence of contamination of tumor DNA from maternal DNA. Three cell lines, BeWo, JAR, JEG were also studied by this high resolution pangenomic technique. According to aCGH analysis, the de novo choriocarcinomas exhibited simple chromosomal rearrangements or normal profiles. The cell lines showed various and complex chromosomal aberrations. 23 Minimal Critical Regions were defined that allowed us to list the genes that were potentially implicated. Among them, unusually high numbers of microRNA clusters and imprinted genes were observed. PMID:22253721

  15. Design and operation of the Chicago air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large-area surface scintillator array designed to study PeV sources of cosmic rays. The complete detector will consist of 1089 detector stations, distributed on a square 15 m grid. We have operated an array of 49 stations for much of the 1989 calendar year, an array of 529 stations for much of 1990, and the balance of the 1089 stations will be operating in early 1991. This surface array, together with the University of Michigan underground muon detectors (MIA), and the University of Utah atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes and Fly's Eye air fluorescence detector, constitute a uniquely powerful instrument, dubbed the Utah Michigan Chicago (UMC) experiment, for the study of PeV sources. We report here the performance and current status of these detectors

  16. Design and control of phased ICRF antenna arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phased antenna arrays operating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are used to produce highly directional wave spectra, primarily for use in current drive experiments. RF current drive using phased antennas has been demonstrated in both the JET and DIII-D tokamaks, and both devices are planning to operate new four-element arrays beginning early next year. Features of antenna design that are relevant to phased operation and production of directional spectra are reviewed. Recent advances in the design of the feed circuits and the related control systems for these arrays should substantially improve their performance, by reducing the coupling seen by the matching networks and rf power supplies caused by the mutual impedance of the array elements. The feed circuit designs for the DIII-D and JET phased antenna arrays are compared. The two configurations differ significantly due to the fact that one power amplifier is used for the entire array in the former case, and one per element in the latter. The JET system uses automatic feedback control of matching, phase and amplitude of antenna currents, and the transmitter power balance. The design of this system is discussed, and a time dependent model used to predict its behavior is described

  17. Coil Array Design Inspired on the Kepler's Lenten Pretzel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RF coil arrays are an important part in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, since they are the main device for transmission and reception of the magnetic resonance signal. An RF coil array with a new configuration based on the Kepler's Lenten pretzel for the geocentric path of Mars is proposed in this work. The evenly distributed trajectories may serve as the basic configuration to form a coil array to adequately cover a region of interest for magnetic resonance experiments. The main goal is to investigate the electromagnetic properties of this coil array geometry to obtain an optimal design for its further construction. Hence, the electromagnetic properties of the coil array were numerical simulated using the finite element method and the quasi-static approach. Resulting simulations showed that there is an important concentration of magnetic field lines at the centre of the coil array. This is an advantage over other coil arrays where the magnetic field usually decreased at their geometrical centre. Both the electric and magnetic fields had also a very good uniformity. These characteristics made this coil design a good candidate for applications where the use of multi-coil technology is mandatory

  18. Conceptual design and Monte Carlo simulations of the AGATA array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnea, E., E-mail: Enrico.Farnea@pd.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Recchia, F.; Bazzacco, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Kroell, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Quintana, B. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-21

    The aim of the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) project is the construction of an array based on the novel concepts of pulse shape analysis and {gamma}-ray tracking with highly segmented Ge semiconductor detectors. The conceptual design of AGATA and its performance evaluation under different experimental conditions has required the development of a suitable Monte Carlo code. In this article, the description of the code as well as simulation results relevant for AGATA, are presented.

  19. Radio astronomical phased arrays with fiber-optic design architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bratchikov, Alexander N.; Voskresenskii, Dmitriy I.; Klooster, Kees van’t

    2003-01-01

    Fiber optics and microwave photonics are considered to be the technological basis for the solution of at least the two main design problems in large radio astronomical active phased arrays (RAAPA): phase stabilized LO reference signal transmission to each antenna element or subarray; antenna array beamforming. We describe in detail the solution to the former problem. It is the experimental version of a new fiber-optic link, operating in the remote heterodyning mode, with phase stability (<...

  20. Design of the L-SAT solar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, L.; Marks, G.W.; Quittner, E.; Renshall, J.

    1982-06-01

    The concept, requirements, mission phases, design, analyses, and testing of a large, modular, deployable, flexible/foldable blanket, Sun tracking solar array are described. The same design is capable of providing 1.9 kW to 6.5 kW end-of-10 yr geosynchronous equinox power per spacecraft by simple modular changes, with further growth to 7.8 kW by means of structral modifications. The array undergoes partial deployment after insertion into the transfer orbit to develop 3 kW minimum and is fully deployed after apogee engine firing.

  1. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Fast Denoising of aCGH Data

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Gary L; Schwartz, Russell; Tsourakakis, Charalampos E

    2010-01-01

    DNA sequence copy number is the number of copies of DNA at a region of a genome. Identifying genomic regions whose DNA copy number deviates from the normal is a crucial task in understanding cancer evolution. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a high-throughput technique for identifying DNA gain or loss. Due to the high level of noise in microarray data, however, interpretation of aCGH output is a difficult and error-prone task. In this paper, we adopt a recent formulation of the denoising aCGH data problem as a regularized least squares problem and propose an approximation algorithm within $\\epsilon$ additive error, where \\epsilon is an arbitrarily small positive constant. Specifically, we show that for n probes, we can approximate the optimal value of our function within additive \\epsilon with an algorithm that runs in $\\tilde{O}(n^{1.5} \\log{(\\frac{U}{\\epsilon}))}$ time, where U is the maximum value over the regularization term and the probes. The basis of our algorithm is the definiti...

  2. Compressive Sensing Based Design of Sparse Tripole Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hawes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of designing sparse linear tripole arrays. In such arrays at each antenna location there are three orthogonal dipoles, allowing full measurement of both the horizontal and vertical components of the received waveform. We formulate this problem from the viewpoint of Compressive Sensing (CS. However, unlike for isotropic array elements (single antenna, we now have three complex valued weight coefficients associated with each potential location (due to the three dipoles, which have to be simultaneously minimised. If this is not done, we may only set the weight coefficients of individual dipoles to be zero valued, rather than complete tripoles, meaning some dipoles may remain at each location. Therefore, the contributions of this paper are to formulate the design of sparse tripole arrays as an optimisation problem, and then we obtain a solution based on the minimisation of a modified l 1 norm or a series of iteratively solved reweighted minimisations, which ensure a truly sparse solution. Design examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods and show that a good approximation of a reference pattern can be achieved using fewer tripoles than a Uniform Linear Array (ULA of equivalent length.

  3. Compressive Sensing Based Design of Sparse Tripole Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Matthew; Liu, Wei; Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing sparse linear tripole arrays. In such arrays at each antenna location there are three orthogonal dipoles, allowing full measurement of both the horizontal and vertical components of the received waveform. We formulate this problem from the viewpoint of Compressive Sensing (CS). However, unlike for isotropic array elements (single antenna), we now have three complex valued weight coefficients associated with each potential location (due to the three dipoles), which have to be simultaneously minimised. If this is not done, we may only set the weight coefficients of individual dipoles to be zero valued, rather than complete tripoles, meaning some dipoles may remain at each location. Therefore, the contributions of this paper are to formulate the design of sparse tripole arrays as an optimisation problem, and then we obtain a solution based on the minimisation of a modified l1 norm or a series of iteratively solved reweighted minimisations, which ensure a truly sparse solution. Design examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods and show that a good approximation of a reference pattern can be achieved using fewer tripoles than a Uniform Linear Array (ULA) of equivalent length. PMID:26690436

  4. Design of nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic refrigeration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an experimentally validated analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic cooling applications. The procedure aims at maximizing the magnetic flux density variation in the core of the array for a given set of design parameters, namely the inner diameter of the internal magnet, the air gap between the magnet cylinders, the number of segments of each magnet and the remanent flux density of the Nd2Fe14B magnet grade. The design procedure was assisted and verified by 3-D numerical modeling using a commercial software package. An important aspect of the optimal design is to maintain an uniform axial distribution of the magnetic flux density in the region of the inner gap occupied by the active magnetocaloric regenerator. An optimal nested Halbach cylinder array was manufactured and experimentally evaluated for the magnetic flux density in the inner gap. The analytically calculated magnetic flux density variation agreed to within 5.6% with the experimental value for the center point of the magnet gap. - Highlights: • An analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays is proposed. • An optimal magnet configuration was built based on the analytical procedure. • The procedure was validated with 3D COMSOL simulations and experimental data

  5. Design of nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizoli, Paulo V., E-mail: trevizoli@polo.ufsc.br; Lozano, Jaime A.; Peixer, Guilherme F.; Barbosa Jr, Jader R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an experimentally validated analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic cooling applications. The procedure aims at maximizing the magnetic flux density variation in the core of the array for a given set of design parameters, namely the inner diameter of the internal magnet, the air gap between the magnet cylinders, the number of segments of each magnet and the remanent flux density of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnet grade. The design procedure was assisted and verified by 3-D numerical modeling using a commercial software package. An important aspect of the optimal design is to maintain an uniform axial distribution of the magnetic flux density in the region of the inner gap occupied by the active magnetocaloric regenerator. An optimal nested Halbach cylinder array was manufactured and experimentally evaluated for the magnetic flux density in the inner gap. The analytically calculated magnetic flux density variation agreed to within 5.6% with the experimental value for the center point of the magnet gap. - Highlights: • An analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays is proposed. • An optimal magnet configuration was built based on the analytical procedure. • The procedure was validated with 3D COMSOL simulations and experimental data.

  6. Active array design for FAME: Freeform Active Mirror Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskó, Attila; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Agócs, Tibor; Venema, Lars; Hugot, Emmanuel; Schnetler, Hermine; Bányai, Evelin

    2014-07-01

    In this paper a status report is given on the development of the FAME (Freeform Active Mirror Experiment) active array. Further information regarding this project can be found in the paper by Venema et al. (this conference). Freeform optics provide the opportunity to drastically reduce the complexity of the future optical instruments. In order to produce these non-axisymmetric freeform optics with up to 1 mm deviation from the best fit sphere, it is necessary to come up with new design and manufacturing methods. The way we would like to create novel freeform optics is by fine tuning a preformed high surface-quality thin mirror using an array which is actively controlled by actuators. In the following we introduce the tools deployed to create and assess the individual designs. The result is an active array having optimal number and lay-out of actuators.

  7. Evolutionary Multiobjective Design Targeting a Field Programmable Transistor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Arturo Hernandez; Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Coello, Carlos Coello

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the ISPAES algorithm for circuit design targeting a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The use of evolutionary algorithms is common in circuit design problems, where a single fitness function drives the evolution process. Frequently, the design problem is subject to several goals or operating constraints, thus, designing a suitable fitness function catching all requirements becomes an issue. Such a problem is amenable for multi-objective optimization, however, evolutionary algorithms lack an inherent mechanism for constraint handling. This paper introduces ISPAES, an evolutionary optimization algorithm enhanced with a constraint handling technique. Several design problems targeting a FPTA show the potential of our approach.

  8. The design of series-parallel connected thermionic converter arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermionic converters are connected together in a series-parallel array in order to provide a useful output voltage. A model is presented to predict the effects of a nonuniform distribution of input power on the performance of such an array. Three cases are considered: where (1) the heat flux is uniform (2) the heat flux nonuniformity is in the direction of series connections in the array (3) the heat flux nonuniformity is in the direction of parallel connections. The effect of optimizing cesium pressure for the individual converters is also studied. Results show that the heat flux variation in the series direction can cause a 20-40% drop in array output power as compared to a uniform heat input, as well as an unacceptable variation in emitter temperatures. Heat flux variation along the parallel connections without optimizing cesium pressure causes a 38% loss of array output power and very high emitter temperatures in some converters. Optimization of the cesium pressure in this case, however, reduces the output power loss to 12% and gives emitter temperatures which are all within an acceptable range. Thus, given a proper design, series-parallel arrays can be used to accommodate wide ranges of heat input while still delivering good performance

  9. Conceptual design of a hybrid Ge:Ga detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    For potential applications in space infrared astronomy missions such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Large Deployable Reflector, integrated arrays of long-wavelength detectors are desired. The results of a feasibility study which developed a design for applying integrated array techniques to a long-wavelength (gallium-doped germanium) material to achieve spectral coverage between 30 and 200 microns are presented. An approach which builds up a two-dimensional array by stacking linear detector modules is presented. The spectral response of the Ge:Ga detectors is extended to 200 microns by application of uniaxial stress to the stack of modules. The detectors are assembled with 1 mm spacing between the elements. Multiplexed readout of each module is accomplished with integration sampling of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) switch chip. Aspects of the overall design, including the anticipated level of particle effects on the array in the space environment, a transparent electrode design for 200 microns response, estimates of optical crosstalk, and mechanical stress design calculations are included.

  10. Design of Linear Systolic Arrays for Matrix Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    MILOVANOVIC, E. I.; STOJCEV, M. K.; MILOVANOVIC, I. Z.; NIKOLIC, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents architecture for matrix multiplication optimized to be integrated as an accelerator unit to a host computer. Two linear systolic arrays with unidirectional data flow (ULSA), used as hardware accelerators, where synthesized in this paper. The solution proposed here is designed to accelerate both the computation and communication by employing hardware address generator units (AGUs). The proposed design has been implemented on Xilinx Spartan-2E and Virtex4 FPG...

  11. High resolution array-CGH analysis of single cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fiegler, Heike; Geigl, Jochen B.; Langer, Sabine; Rigler, Diane; Porter, Keith; Unger, Kristian; Carter, Nigel P; Speicher, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the genome copy number of tissues is of particular importance in solid tumor biology. Furthermore, many clinical applications such as pre-implantation and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis would benefit from the ability to characterize individual single cells. As the amount of DNA from single cells is so small, several PCR protocols have been developed in an attempt to achieve unbiased amplification. Many of these approaches are suitable for subsequent cytogenetic analyses usin...

  12. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Yuan

    2008-01-09

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  13. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  14. The ARA Mark 3 solar array design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHassel, Rob H. A.

    1996-01-01

    The ARA (Advanced Rigid Array) Mark3 solar array of Fokker Space BV is currently in its final stages of qualification (wing tests to be completed in March, 1996; unit/part tests in April, 1996). With regard to its predecessor, the ARA Mark2, the design has not only been improved in terms of mechanical and electrical performance, but also with regard to production cost and throughput time. This 'state of the art' array is designed to fit the needs of a wide variety of geostationary telecommunications satellites and is qualified for launch on the complete range of medium/large size commercial launchers (Ariane IV & V, Atlas, Delta, Proton, Long March, H2). The first mission to fly the new ARA Mk3 array is Hot Bird 2 (customer: Eutelsat, prime contractor: Matra Marconi Space; launch: mid-1996). In this configuration, its end of life (EOL) power-to-mass ratio is 42 W/kg, with an operational life of more than 12 years. The main mechanisms on a solar array are typically found in the deployment system and in the hold down and release system. During the design and development phase of these mechanisms, extensive engineering and qualification tests have been performed. This paper presents the key design features of these mechanisms and the improvements that were made with regard to their predecessors. It also describes the qualification philosophy on unit/part and wing level. Finally, some of the development items that turned out to be critical, as well as the lessons learned from them, are discussed.

  15. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development.

  16. Structure design of high accuracy 2 x 2 array grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type high accuracy 2 x 2 array diffraction grating structure is proposed, which has good structure stability in design method of modularization and frame structure. Designed micro-nano adjusting unit consists of differential thread and piezoelectricity driver, that realize micro-nano adjustment request of tiled-grating. Design and manufacture questions about essential parts is discussed. Preliminary test of experiment prototype indicates that the coplanar maximum relative error is 17 μm, minimum adjustment precision of micro-nano adjusting unit is possible to achieve 1.8 nm, and the resolution is 0.9 nm. The optical path experiment indicates that tiling adjusting mechanism may fast and real-time adjust 2 x 2 array diffraction grating to meet requirements, and stable work time is larger than 1 h. (authors)

  17. Impact of Solar Array Designs on High Voltage Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Piszczor, Mike; ONeill, Mark

    2006-01-01

    As power levels of advanced spacecraft climb above 25 kW, higher solar array operating voltages become attractive. Even in today s satellites, operating spacecraft buses at 100 V and above has led to arcing in GEO communications satellites, so the issue of spacecraft charging and solar array arcing remains a design problem. In addition, micrometeoroid impacts on all of these arrays can also lead to arcing if the spacecraft is at an elevated potential. For example, tests on space station hardware disclosed arcing at 75V on anodized A1 structures that were struck with hypervelocity particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) plasmas. Thus an understanding of these effects is necessary to design reliable high voltage solar arrays of the future, especially in light of the Vision for Space Exploration of NASA. In the future, large GEO communication satellites, lunar bases, solar electric propulsion missions, high power communication systems around Mars can lead to power levels well above 100 kW. As noted above, it will be essential to increase operating voltages of the solar arrays well above 80 V to keep the mass of cabling needed to carry the high currents to an acceptable level. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss various solar array approaches, to discuss the results of testing them at high voltages, in the presence of simulated space plasma and under hypervelocity impact. Three different types of arrays will be considered. One will be a planar array using thin film cells, the second will use planar single or multijunction cells and the last will use the Stretched Lens Array (SLA - 8-fold concentration). Each of these has different approaches for protection from the space environment. The thin film cell based arrays have minimal covering due to their inherent radiation tolerance, conventional GaAs and multijunction cells have the traditional cerium-doped microsheet glasses (of appropriate thickness) that are usually attached with Dow Corning DC 93-500 silicone

  18. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  19. Design of nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic refrigeration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizoli, Paulo V.; Lozano, Jaime A.; Peixer, Guilherme F.; Barbosa, Jader R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    We present an experimentally validated analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic cooling applications. The procedure aims at maximizing the magnetic flux density variation in the core of the array for a given set of design parameters, namely the inner diameter of the internal magnet, the air gap between the magnet cylinders, the number of segments of each magnet and the remanent flux density of the Nd2Fe14B magnet grade. The design procedure was assisted and verified by 3-D numerical modeling using a commercial software package. An important aspect of the optimal design is to maintain an uniform axial distribution of the magnetic flux density in the region of the inner gap occupied by the active magnetocaloric regenerator. An optimal nested Halbach cylinder array was manufactured and experimentally evaluated for the magnetic flux density in the inner gap. The analytically calculated magnetic flux density variation agreed to within 5.6% with the experimental value for the center point of the magnet gap.

  20. A Compressive Sensing Based Approach to Sparse Wideband Array Design

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, M.B.; Liu, W

    2014-01-01

    Sparse wideband sensor array design for sensor location optimisation is highly nonlinear and it is traditionally solved by genetic algorithms, simulated annealing or other similar optimization methods. However, this is an extremely time-consuming process and more efficient solutions are needed. In this work, this problem is studied from the viewpoint of compressive sensing and a formulation based on a modified $l_1$ norm is derived. As there are multiple coefficients associated with each sens...

  1. Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Extensive Amplicon Profiling of Breast Cancers : A New Approach for the Molecular Analysis of Paraffin-Embedded Cancer Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Daigo, Yataro; Chin, Suet-Feung; Gorringe, Kylie L.; Bobrow, Lynda G; Bruce A J Ponder; Pharoah, Paul D P; Caldas, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a protocol for degenerate oligonucleotide-primed-polymerase chain reaction-based array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) that, when combined with a laser microdissection technique, allows the analysis of cancer cell populations isolated from routine, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Comparison of copy number changes detected by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed-polymerase chain reaction-based array CGH to those detected by conventional array CGH ...

  2. Design and Analysis of MEMS Linear Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS linear phased array based on “multi-cell” element is designed to increase radiation sound pressure of transducer working in bending vibration mode at high frequency. In order to more accurately predict the resonant frequency of an element, the theoretical analysis of the dynamic equation of a fixed rectangular composite plate and finite element method simulation are adopted. The effects of the parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction on the three-dimensional beam directivity characteristics are comprehensively analyzed. The key parameters in the analysis include the “cell” number of element, “cell” size, “inter-cell” spacing and the number of elements, element width. The simulation results show that optimizing the linear array parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction can greatly improve the three-dimensional beam focusing for MEMS linear phased array, which is obviously different from the traditional linear array.

  3. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  4. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  5. A CMOS ASIC Design for SiPM Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Banks, Lushon; Chen, Shaw-Pin; Xu, Wenbin; Lewellen, Thomas K; Miyaoka, Robert S; Rudell, Jacques C

    2011-12-01

    Our lab has previously reported on novel board-level readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array featuring row/column summation technique to reduce the hardware requirements for signal processing. We are taking the next step by implementing a monolithic CMOS chip which is based on the row-column architecture. In addition, this paper explores the option of using diagonal summation as well as calibration to compensate for temperature and process variations. Further description of a timing pickoff signal which aligns all of the positioning (spatial channels) pulses in the array is described. The ASIC design is targeted to be scalable with the detector size and flexible to accommodate detectors from different vendors. This paper focuses on circuit implementation issues associated with the design of the ASIC to interface our Phase II MiCES FPGA board with a SiPM array. Moreover, a discussion is provided for strategies to eventually integrate all the analog and mixed-signal electronics with the SiPM, on either a single-silicon substrate or multi-chip module (MCM). PMID:24825923

  6. Neutron detector array at IUAC: Design features and instrumentation developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sugathan; A Jhingan; K S Golda; T Varughese; S Venkataramanan; N Saneesh; V V Satyanarayana; S K Suman; J Antony; Ruby Shanti; K Singh; S K Saini; A Gupta; A Kothari; P Barua; Rajesh Kumar; J Zacharias; R P Singh; B R Behera; S K Mandal; I M Govil; R K Bhowmik

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics and performance of the newly commissioned neutron detector array at IUAC are described. The array consists of 100 BC501 liquid scintillators mounted in a semispherical geometry and are kept at a distance of 175 cm from the reaction point. Each detector is a 5″ × 5″ cylindrical cell coupled to 5″ diameter photomultiplier tube (PMT). Signal processing is realized using custom-designed home-made integrated electronic modules which perform neutron–gamma discrimination using zero cross timing and time-of-flight (TOF) technique. Compact custom-built high voltage power supply developed using DC–DC converters are used to bias the detector. The neutrons are recorded in coincidence with fission fragments which are detected using multi-wire proportional counters mounted inside a 1m diameter SS target chamber. The detectors and electronics have been tested off-line using radioactive sources and the results are presented.

  7. Evolutionary Design of a Phased Array Antenna Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Linden, Derek; Lohn, Jason

    2006-01-01

    We present an evolved S-band phased array antenna element design that meets the requirements of NASA's TDRS-C communications satellite scheduled for launch early next decade. The original specification called for two types of elements, one for receive only and one for transmit/receive. We were able to evolve a single element design that meets both specifications thereby simplifying the antenna and reducing testing and integration costs. The highest performance antenna found using a genetic algorithm and stochastic hill-climbing has been fabricated and tested. Laboratory results are largely consistent with simulation. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years its computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Many antenna types have been investigated, including wire antennas, antenna arrays and quadrifilar helical antennas. In particular, our laboratory evolved a wire antenna design for NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft. This antenna has been fabricated, tested, and is scheduled for launch on the three spacecraft in 2006.

  8. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, N.; Iasiello, M.; Naso, V.

    2015-11-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics®. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

  9. Design of a focal plane array with analog neural preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ivo; Dohndorf, Juergen; Schluessler, Jens-Uwe; Werner, Joerg; Kroenig, Arndt; Ramacher, Ulrich

    1996-12-01

    The design of a CMOS focal plane array with 128 by 128 pixels and analog neural preprocessing is presented. Optical input to the array is provided by substrate-well photodiodes. A two-dimensional neural grid wIth next- neighbor connectivity, implemented as differential current- mode circuit, is capable of spatial low-pass filtering combined with contrast enhancement or binarization. The gain, spatial filter and nonlinearity parameters of the neural network are controlled externally using analog currents. This allows the multipliers and sigmoid transducers to be operated in weak inversion for a wide parameter sweep range as well as in moderate or strong inversion for a larger signal to pattern-noise ratio. The cell outputs are sequentially read out by an offset compensated differential switched-capacitor multiplexer with column preamplifiers. The analog output buffer is designed for pixel rates up to 1 pixel/microsecond and 2 by 100 pF load capacitance. All digital clocks controlling the analog data path are generated on-chip. The clock timing is programmable via a serial computer interface. Using 1 micrometer double-poly double-metal CMOS process, one pixel cell occupies 96 by 96 micrometer2 and the total chip size is about 2.3 cm2. Operating the neural network in weak inversion, the power dissipation of the analog circuitry is less than 100 mW.

  10. Design of Linear Systolic Arrays for Matrix Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOVANOVIC, E. I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents architecture for matrix multiplication optimized to be integrated as an accelerator unit to a host computer. Two linear systolic arrays with unidirectional data flow (ULSA, used as hardware accelerators, where synthesized in this paper. The solution proposed here is designed to accelerate both the computation and communication by employing hardware address generator units (AGUs. The proposed design has been implemented on Xilinx Spartan-2E and Virtex4 FPGAs. In order to evaluate performance of the proposed solution, we have introduced quantitative and qualitative performance criteria. For the ULSA with n processing elements (PEs, the speed-up is O(n/2. Average gain factor of hardware AGUs is about 2.7, with hardware overhead of 0.6% for 32-bit PEs.

  11. Design and Experiment of Multi-resolution Composite Digital Array Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because a sparse array has the advantages of a simplified structure and reduced cost in a radar system, radar technology based on the sparse array has gained widespread attention. To take advantage of the sparse array, in this paper, we designed a Multi-Resolution Composite digital Array antenna (MRCA, and then used it in single-target and multi-target detection experiments. Using the same number of array elements, our experimental results demonstrate that the MRCA can obtain a narrower main lobe and a lower side lobe, enhances the direction of the array antenna, and improves the angular resolution compared with the uniform linear array.

  12. Structural design and analysis of a solar array substrate for a GEO satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Safak, Omer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the design of solar array substrate for a geostationary satellite. The design of deployable solar array substrate is realized based on the requirements which are provided by BILUZAY (Bilkent University Space Technologies Research Centre). This array is going to empower a telecommunication satellite which will be operating in a geostationary orbit during 15 years. The main work presented in this thesis consists of two principal directions: solar cell array area dimens...

  13. A geometric method for optimal design of color filter arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengwei; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhouchen; Dubois, Eric

    2011-03-01

    A color filter array (CFA) used in a digital camera is a mosaic of spectrally selective filters, which allows only one color component to be sensed at each pixel. The missing two components of each pixel have to be estimated by methods known as demosaicking. The demosaicking algorithm and the CFA design are crucial for the quality of the output images. In this paper, we present a CFA design methodology in the frequency domain. The frequency structure, which is shown to be just the symbolic DFT of the CFA pattern (one period of the CFA), is introduced to represent images sampled with any rectangular CFAs in the frequency domain. Based on the frequency structure, the CFA design involves the solution of a constrained optimization problem that aims at minimizing the demosaicking error. To decrease the number of parameters and speed up the parameter searching, the optimization problem is reformulated as the selection of geometric points on the boundary of a convex polygon or the surface of a convex polyhedron. Using our methodology, several new CFA patterns are found, which outperform the currently commercialized and published ones. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our CFA design methodology and the superiority of our new CFA patterns. PMID:20858581

  14. A novel silicon array designed for intraoperative charged particle imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel Si-PIN imaging array is under investigation for a charged particle (beta, positron, or alpha) sensitive intraoperative camera to be used for (residual) tumor identification during surgery. This class of collimator-less nuclear imaging device has a higher signal response for direct interactions than its scintillator-optical detector-based counterparts. Monte Carlo simulations with 635 keV betas were performed, yielding maximum and projected ranges of 1.64 and 0.55 mm in Si. Up to 90% of these betas were completely absorbed in the first 0.30 mm. Based on these results, 300 μm thick prototype Si detector arrays were designed in a 16x16 crossed-grid arrangement with 0.8 mm wide orthogonal strips on 1.0 mm pitch. A NIM- and CAMAC-based high-density data acquisition and processing system was used to collect the list mode data. The system was calibrated by comparisons of measured spectra to energy deposition simulations or by direct measurement of various >100 keV conversion electron or beta emitters. Mean electronic noise per strip was 2 pixel size, and measurements of beta emitting point and line sources yielded FWHM resolutions of 1.5 (lateral) and 2.5 mm (diagonal), respectively, with the larger widths due to particle range blurring effects. Deconvolution of the finite source size yielded intrinsic resolutions that corresponded to the image pixel size. Transmission images of circle and line phantoms with various hole sizes and pitch were resolved with either pure beta or positron irradiation without a background correction. This novel semiconductor imaging device facilitates high charged particle and low gamma sensitivity, high signal/noise ratio, and allows for compact design to potentially aid surgical guidance by providing in situ images of clinical relevance

  15. Subjective assessments of spherical microphone arrays - Paired comparisons of two arrays designed using different microphone models

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, Vincent; Paquier, Mathieu; Delikaris-Manias, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    International audience Microphone arrays are commonly used to capture sound fields. As the number of sensors forming the array increases, the spatial sampling accuracy at high frequencies improves. Numerous prototypes of spherical arrays were developed over the last years. However, much less attention has been paid to the intrinsic performances of the sensors than to their number and arrangement. This study aims at evaluating the relative performances of two rigid spherical microphone arra...

  16. Computer-generated holograms (CGH) realization: the integration of dedicated software tool with digital slides printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Vittorio; Francini, Franco

    1997-12-01

    Last generation of digital printer is usually characterized by a spatial resolution enough high to allow the designer to realize a binary CGH directly on a transparent film avoiding photographic reduction techniques. These devices are able to produce slides or offset prints. Furthermore, services supplied by commercial printing company provide an inexpensive method to rapidly verify the validity of the design by means of a test-and-trial process. Notably, this low-cost approach appears to be suitable for a didactical environment. On the basis of these considerations, a set of software tools able to design CGH's has been developed. The guidelines inspiring the work have been the following ones: (1) ray-tracing approach, considering the object to be reproduced as source of spherical waves; (2) Optimization and speed-up of the algorithms used, in order to produce a portable code, runnable on several hardware platforms. In this paper calculation methods to obtain some fundamental geometric functions (points, lines, curves) are described. Furthermore, by the juxtaposition of these primitives functions it is possible to produce the holograms of more complex objects. Many examples of generated CGHs are presented.

  17. Design of Circularly-Polarised, Crossed Drooping Dipole, Phased Array Antenna Using Genetic Algorithm Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal

    2007-01-01

    A printed drooping dipole array is designed and constructed. The design is based on a genetic algorithm optimisation procedure used in conjunction with the software programme AWAS. By optimising the array G/T for specific combinations of scan angles and frequencies an optimum design is obtained...

  18. Design and fabrication of multi-channel photodetector array monolithic with arrayed waveguide grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian-Qian, Lv; Pan, Pan; Han, Ye; Dong-Dong, Yin; Yu-Bing, Wang; Xiao-Hong, Yang; Qin, Han

    2016-03-01

    We have provided optical simulations of the evanescently coupled waveguide photodiodes integrated with a 13-channels AWGs. The photodiode could exhibit high internal efficiency by appropriate choice of layers geometry and refractive index. Aseamless joint structure has been designed and fabricated for integrating the output waveguides of AWGs with the evanescently coupled waveguide photodiode array. The highest simulation quantum efficiency could achieve 92% when the matching layer thickness of the PD is 120 nm and the insertion length is 2 μm. The fabricated PD with 320-nm-thick matching layer and 2-μm-length insertion matching layer present a responsivity of 0.87 A/W. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013AA031401, 2015AA016902, and 2015AA016904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176053, 61274069, and 61435002), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB933503 and 2013CB932904).

  19. Design and test of reliable high strength ingressive polycrystalline silicon microgripper arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design and validation of a micromachined gripper array that enables reliable transmission of forces of at least 14 mN. The gripper is constructed with polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon), a brittle material, and is compatible with polysilicon surface micromachining. Two ingressive snap-and-lock array designs are presented. After developing design guidelines, it is shown that the first gripper array is functional. However, a risk remains that the gripper array rather than the tensile bar that it grips in its intended application fails. Therefore, an improved geometry is designed and it is shown that it is robust with respect to failure. Scanning confocal Raman imaging directly confirms that the local peak tensile stresses in the robust gripper array are approximately 50% of the lower bound material strength, and also resolves a 25% stress variation across the array. (paper)

  20. Design and test of reliable high strength ingressive polycrystalline silicon microgripper arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, S. S.; Beuth, J. L.; Myers, G. A.; DelRio, F. W.; de Boer, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and validation of a micromachined gripper array that enables reliable transmission of forces of at least 14 mN. The gripper is constructed with polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon), a brittle material, and is compatible with polysilicon surface micromachining. Two ingressive snap-and-lock array designs are presented. After developing design guidelines, it is shown that the first gripper array is functional. However, a risk remains that the gripper array rather than the tensile bar that it grips in its intended application fails. Therefore, an improved geometry is designed and it is shown that it is robust with respect to failure. Scanning confocal Raman imaging directly confirms that the local peak tensile stresses in the robust gripper array are approximately 50% of the lower bound material strength, and also resolves a 25% stress variation across the array.

  1. MIMO radar arrays with minimum redundancy: a design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, A. J.; Siart, U.; Guetlein, J.; Detlefsen, J.

    2013-10-01

    Coherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems with co-located antennas, form monostatic vir- tual arrays by discrete convolution of a bistatic setup of transmitters and receivers. Thereby, a trade-off between maximum array dimension, element spacing and hardware efforts exists. In terms of estimating the direction of arrival, the covariance matrix of the array element signals plays an important role. Here, minimum redundancy arrays aim at a hardware reduction with signal reconstruction by exploiting the Toeplitz characteristics of the covariance matrix. However, the discrete spatial convolution complicates the finding of an optimal antenna setup with minimum redundancy. Combinatorial effort is the consequence. This paper presents a possible simplified algorithm in order to find MIMO array setups of maximum dimension with minimum redundancy.

  2. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BROADBAND BEAMSPACE ADAPTIVE ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. SRINIVASA RAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beamwidth of a linear array depends on number of elements in the array and frequency of the input signal. At present designing of wideband antennas and beamformers became important, in the fields of microphone arrays intended for teleconferencing, in transmitting or receiving spread spectrum signals, crip signals etc. A beamspace adaptive planar array for broadband beamforming is proposed based on the filter – and - sum beamforming technique. A detailed design method was provided for both the linear arrays and the adaptivearrays and simulation results are provided for the proposed method. Our proposed method is used to demonstrate that the beam-space adaptive array can suppress interference signals having a wide fractional bandwidth and that the array has fast convergence.

  3. Mechanical design and development of TES bolometer detector arrays for the Advanced ACTPol experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan T; Beall, James A; Choi, Steve K; Crowley, Kevin T; Devlin, Mark J; Duff, Shannon M; Gallardo, Patricio M; Henderson, Shawn W; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Simon, Sara M; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Ullom, Joel N; Vavagiakis, Eve M; Wollack, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling ~5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline profile leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at t...

  4. EM design and analysis of dipole arrays on non-planar dielectric substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a simple and systematic description of EM design of antenna arrays. Printed dipole antennas are known to be simple yet more efficient than wire antennas. The dielectric substrate and the presence of ground plane affect the antenna performance and the resonant frequency is shifted. This book includes the EM design and performance analysis of printed dipole arrays on planar and cylindrical substrates. The antenna element is taken as half-wave centre-fed dipole. The substrate is taken as low-loss dielectric. The effect of substrate material, ground plane, and the curvature effect is discussed. Results are presented for both the linear and planar dipole arrays. The performance of dipole array is analyzed in terms of input impedance, return loss, and radiation pattern for different configurations. The effect of curved platform (substrate and ground plane) on the radiation behaviour of dipole array is analyzed. The book explains fundamentals of EM design and analysis of dipole antenna array throu...

  5. SimArray: a user-friendly and user-configurable microarray design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meadows Lisa A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays were first developed to assess gene expression but are now also used to map protein-binding sites and to assess allelic variation between individuals. Regardless of the intended application, efficient production and appropriate array design are key determinants of experimental success. Inefficient production can make larger-scale studies prohibitively expensive, whereas poor array design makes normalisation and data analysis problematic. Results We have developed a user-friendly tool, SimArray, which generates a randomised spot layout, computes a maximum meta-grid area, and estimates the print time, in response to user-specified design decisions. Selected parameters include: the number of probes to be printed; the microtitre plate format; the printing pin configuration, and the achievable spot density. SimArray is compatible with all current robotic spotters that employ 96-, 384- or 1536-well microtitre plates, and can be configured to reflect most production environments. Print time and maximum meta-grid area estimates facilitate evaluation of each array design for its suitability. Randomisation of the spot layout facilitates correction of systematic biases by normalisation. Conclusion SimArray is intended to help both established researchers and those new to the microarray field to develop microarray designs with randomised spot layouts that are compatible with their specific production environment. SimArray is an open-source program and is available from http://www.flychip.org.uk/SimArray/.

  6. Membrane Material-Based Rigid Solar Array Design and Thermal Simulation for Stratospheric Airships

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen Sun; Ming Zhu; Qiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve effective utilization of rigid solar array used in stratospheric airships here, the flexible connection design and light laminated design were introduced to rigid solar array. Based on the analysis of the design scheme, firstly, the equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity was calculated by the theoretical formula. Subsequently, the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell module were accurately modeled and simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynami...

  7. ICE decoupling technique for RF coil array designs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ye; Xie, Zhentian; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires an array of RF coil elements with different sensitivity distributions and with minimal electromagnetic coupling. The goal of this project was to develop a new method based on induced current compensation or elimination (ICE) for improved coil element decoupling and to investigate its performance in phantom MR images.

  8. Design of a fraction collector for capillary array electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minarik, M.; Klepárník, Karel; Gilar, M.; Foret, František; Miller, A. W.; Sosic, Z.; Karger, B. L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2002), s. 35-42. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : fraction collector * capillary array electrophoresis * DNA analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  9. Coherent MIMO Array Design With Periodical Physical Element Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Rossum, W.L. van; Peter Hoogeboom, P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) processing is a consolidated technique in communication systems thanks to the benefits that it offers in multipath fading environments. In recent years, studies have shown how the performances of conventional phased-array radar can be improved by using the same

  10. Design and optimization of a self-developing single axis tracking PV array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a study performed in order to design a tracking PV array and optimize the design for maximum specific power. The design considerations were minimal deployment time, high reliability and small stowage volume. The array design was self-deployable, from a compact stowage configuration, using a passive pressurized gas deployment mechanism. The array structural components consist of a combination of beams, columns and cables used to deploy and orient a flexible PV blanket. Each structural component of the design was analyzed to determine the size necessary to withstand the various forces it would be subjected to. An optimization was performed to determine the array dimensions and blanket geometry which produce the maximum specific power

  11. Design and Realization of Phased Array Radar Optical Fiber Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shan-qing; LIU Feng; LONG Teng

    2007-01-01

    One optical fiber transmission system is designed.The modularization optical fiber transmission adapters were utilized in the system,so the system structure could be flexibly scalable.The sub-array adapter and signal processor adapter were designed and realized utilizing the new field programmable gate array (FPGA) which could drive the optical transceiver.The transmission agreement was designed based on the data stream.In order to solve the signal synchronization problem of the optical fiber transmitted phased array radar,a method named synchronous clock was designed.The fiber transmission error code rate of the system was zero with an experimental transmission velocity of 800 Mbit/s.The phased array radar system has detected the airplane target,thus validated the feasibility of the design method.

  12. Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis in Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicardi syndrome is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal lacunae, severe seizures (starting as infantile spasms), neuronal migration defects, mental retardation, costovertebral defects, and typical facial features. Because Aicardi syndrome is sporadic and affects only fem...

  13. KC-SMARTR: An R package for detection of statistically significant aberrations in multi-experiment aCGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinders Marcel JT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most approaches used to find recurrent or differential DNA Copy Number Alterations (CNA in array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH data from groups of tumour samples depend on the discretization of the aCGH data to gain, loss or no-change states. This causes loss of valuable biological information in tumour samples, which are frequently heterogeneous. We have previously developed an algorithm, KC-SMART, that bases its estimate of the magnitude of the CNA at a given genomic location on kernel convolution (Klijn et al., 2008. This accounts for the intensity of the probe signal, its local genomic environment and the signal distribution across multiple samples. Results Here we extend the approach to allow comparative analyses of two groups of samples and introduce the R implementation of these two approaches. The comparative module allows for a supervised analysis to be performed, to enable the identification of regions that are differentially aberrated between two user-defined classes. We analyzed data from a series of B- and T-cell lymphomas and were able to retrieve all positive control regions (VDJ regions in addition to a number of new regions. A t-test employing segmented data, that we implemented, was also able to locate all the positive control regions and a number of new regions but these regions were highly fragmented. Conclusions KC-SMARTR offers recurrent CNA and class specific CNA detection, at different genomic scales, in a single package without the need for additional segmentation. It is memory efficient and runs on a wide range of machines. Most importantly, it does not rely on data discretization and therefore maximally exploits the biological information in the aCGH data. The program is freely available from the Bioconductor website http://www.bioconductor.org/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  14. Comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (a-CGH in constitutional and acquired mosaicism may detect as low as 8% abnormal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquali Francesco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of cytogenetic investigations on unbalanced chromosome anomalies, both constitutional and acquired, were largely improved by comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (a-CGH, but in mosaicism the ability of a-CGH to reliably detect imbalances is not yet well established. This problem of sensitivity is even more relevant in acquired mosaicism in neoplastic diseases, where cells carrying acquired imbalances coexist with normal cells, in particular when the proportion of abnormal cells may be low. We constructed a synthetic mosaicism by mixing the DNA of three patients carrying altogether seven chromosome imbalances with normal sex-matched DNA. Dilutions were prepared mimicking 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 10% and 15% levels of mosaicism. Oligomer-based a-CGH (244 K whole-genome system was applied on the patients' DNA and customized slides designed around the regions of imbalance were used for the synthetic mosaics. Results and conclusions The a-CGH on the synthetic mosaics proved to be able to detect as low as 8% abnormal cells in the tissue examined. Although in our experiment some regions of imbalances escaped to be revealed at this level, and were detected only at 10-15% level, it should be remarked that these ones were the smallest analyzed, and that the imbalances recurrent as clonal anomalies in cancer and leukaemia are similar in size to those revealed at 8% level.

  15. A CMOS ASIC Design for SiPM Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Samrat; Banks, Lushon; Chen, Shaw-Pin; Xu, Wenbin; Lewellen, Thomas K; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Rudell, Jacques C.

    2011-01-01

    Our lab has previously reported on novel board-level readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array featuring row/column summation technique to reduce the hardware requirements for signal processing. We are taking the next step by implementing a monolithic CMOS chip which is based on the row-column architecture. In addition, this paper explores the option of using diagonal summation as well as calibration to compensate for temperature and process variations. Further descr...

  16. Design and Performance of the ARIANNA Hexagonal Radio Array Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, S W; Besson, D Z; Cheim, E; Duffin, T; Hanson, J C; Klein, S R; Kleinfelder, S A; Prakash, T; Piasecki, M; Ratzlaff, K; Reed, C; Roumi, M; Samanta, A; Stezelberger, T; Tatar, J; Walker, J; Young, R; Zou, L

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development, installation and operation of the first three of seven stations deployed at the ARIANNA site's pilot Hexagonal Radio Array in Antarctica. The primary goal of the ARIANNA project is to observe ultra-high energy (>100 PeV) cosmogenic neutrino signatures using a large array of autonomous stations each dispersed 1 km apart on the surface of the Ross Ice Shelf. Sensing radio emissions of 100 MHz to 1 GHz, each station in the array contains RF antennas, amplifiers, 1.92 G-sample/s, 850 MHz bandwidth signal acquisition circuitry, pattern-matching trigger capabilities, an embedded CPU, 32 GB of solid-state data storage, and long-distance wireless and satellite communications. Power is provided by the sun and LiFePO4 storage batteries, and the stations consume an average of 7W of power. Operation on solar power has resulted in >=58% per calendar-year live-time. The station's pattern-trigger capabilities reduce the trigger rates to a few milli-Hertz with 4-sigma thresholds while retaining ...

  17. Design and development of a brushless, direct drive solar array reorientation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    This report covers the design and development of the laboratory model, and is essentially a compilation of reports covering the system and its various parts. To enhance completeness, the final report of Phase 1 covering circuit development of the controller is also included. A controller was developed for a brushless, direct-drive, single axis solar array reorientation system for earth-pointed, passively-stabilized spacecraft. A control systems was designed and breadboard circuits were built and tested for performance. The controller is designed to take over automatic control of the array on command after the spacecraft is stabilized in orbit. The controller will orient the solar array to the sun vector and automatically track to maintain proper orientation. So long as the orbit is circular, orientation toward the sun is maintained even though the spacecraft goes into the shadow of the earth. Particular attention was given in the design to limit reaction between the array and the spacecraft.

  18. Design and fabrication of an array type electron multiplier for radiation imaging by micromachining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new position sensitive array type electron multiplier using micromachining technique has been investigated. Here are described new miniature three dimensional structures for such a multichannel electron multiplies. Their design and preliminary processing are presented. (author)

  19. Low power and reliable SRAM memory cell and array design

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Success in the development of recent advanced semiconductor device technologies is due to the success of SRAM memory cells. This book addresses various issues for designing SRAM memory cells for advanced CMOS technology. To study LSI design, SRAM cell design is the best materials subject because issues about variability, leakage and reliability have to be taken into account for the design.

  20. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  1. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    OpenAIRE

    Didouh, S.; Abri, M.; F. T. Bendimerad

    2012-01-01

    A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, ele...

  2. Fast Computation of Wideband Beam Pattern for Designing Large-Scale 2-D Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cheng; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    For real-time and high-resolution 3-D ultrasound imaging, the design of sparse distribution and weights of elements of a large-scale wideband 2-D array is needed to reduce hardware cost and achieve better directivity. However, due to the high time consumption of computing the wideband beam pattern, the design methods that need massive iterations have rarely been applied to design large-scale wideband 2-D arrays by directly computing the wideband beam pattern. In this paper, a fast method is proposed to realize the computation of a wideband beam pattern of arbitrary 2-D arrays in the far field in order to design large-scale wideband 2-D arrays. The proposed fast method exploits two important techniques: 1) nonuniform fast Fourier transform (FFT) and 2) short inverse FFT. Compared with the commonly used ultrasound simulator Field II, two orders of magnitude improvement in computation speed is achieved with comparable accuracy. The proposed fast method enables massive iterations of direct wideband beam pattern computation of arbitrary large-scale 2-D arrays. A design example in this paper demonstrates that the proposed fast method can help achieve better performance in designing large-scale wideband 2-D arrays. PMID:27046870

  3. A software framework for microarray and gene expression object model (MAGE-OM) array design annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Matloob; Ivens, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    Background The MIAME and MAGE-OM standards defined by the MGED society provide a specification and implementation of a software infrastructure to facilitate the submission and sharing of data from microarray studies via public repositories. However, although the MAGE object model is flexible enough to support different annotation strategies, the annotation of array descriptions can be complex. Results We have developed a graphical Java-based application (Adamant) to assist with submission of Microarray designs to public repositories. Output of the application is fully compliant with the standards prescribed by the various public data repositories. Conclusion Adamant will allow researchers to annotate and submit their own array designs to public repositories without requiring programming expertise, knowledge of the MAGE-OM or XML. The application has been used to submit a number of ArrayDesigns to the Array Express database. PMID:18366695

  4. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz, E-mail: ambrozin@agh.edu.pl; Stepinski, Tadeusz, E-mail: ambrozin@agh.edu.pl; Uhl, Tadeusz, E-mail: ambrozin@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-03-31

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an array’s aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays’ elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  5. A hybrid antenna array design for 3-d direction of arrival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam-Us Saqib

    Full Text Available A 3-D beam scanning antenna array design is proposed that gives a whole 3-D spherical coverage and also suitable for various radar and body-worn devices in the Body Area Networks applications. The Array Factor (AF of the proposed antenna is derived and its various parameters like directivity, Half Power Beam Width (HPBW and Side Lobe Level (SLL are calculated by varying the size of the proposed antenna array. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB 2012b. The radiators are considered isotropic and hence mutual coupling effects are ignored. The proposed array shows a considerable improvement against the existing cylindrical and coaxial cylindrical arrays in terms of 3-D scanning, size, directivity, HPBW and SLL.

  6. A hybrid antenna array design for 3-d direction of arrival estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Najam-Us; Khan, Imdad

    2015-01-01

    A 3-D beam scanning antenna array design is proposed that gives a whole 3-D spherical coverage and also suitable for various radar and body-worn devices in the Body Area Networks applications. The Array Factor (AF) of the proposed antenna is derived and its various parameters like directivity, Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) and Side Lobe Level (SLL) are calculated by varying the size of the proposed antenna array. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB 2012b. The radiators are considered isotropic and hence mutual coupling effects are ignored. The proposed array shows a considerable improvement against the existing cylindrical and coaxial cylindrical arrays in terms of 3-D scanning, size, directivity, HPBW and SLL. PMID:25790103

  7. Cost Efficient Design Approach for Reversible Programmable Logic Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Md. RiazurRahman

    2016-01-01

    Reversible programmable logicarrays (PLA) are at the heart of designing of efficient low power computers. This paper presents anefficient approach to design Reversible PLAs that maximizes the usability of garbage outputs and also reduces the number of ancilla inputs generated. The designfor proposed essentialcomponents and the architecture of reversible grid network for designing AND and EX-OR planes are also presented. Several algorithms have been proposed and presented to describe th...

  8. Cost Efficient Design Approach for Reversible Programmable Logic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. RiazurRahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible programmable logicarrays (PLA are at the heart of designing of efficient low power computers. This paper presents anefficient approach to design Reversible PLAs that maximizes the usability of garbage outputs and also reduces the number of ancilla inputs generated. The designfor proposed essentialcomponents and the architecture of reversible grid network for designing AND and EX-OR planes are also presented. Several algorithms have been proposed and presented to describe the programming interfaces in context of Reversible PLAs construction. Lastly, recent result on the trade-off between cost factors of standard benchmarkcircuits shows that the proposed design clearly outperforms the existing ones in terms various cost factors.

  9. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH) maps to Xq26-q27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figuera, L.E.; Dunne, P.W.; Pandolfo, M. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    CGH is a rare, X-linked dominant trait previously described by one of us in a large, five-generational Mexican family with 28 affected individuals. Family history and clinical examination reveal that excessive hair is present at the patient`s birth becoming more dense during the first year of life. In males the hair eventually covers the face and upper portion of the trunk. The affected women have transmitted the trait to both male and female offspring, while one affected male has transmitted the trait to all three female offspring but not to his nine sons. In addition, manifestations are more severe in males than females, who show an uneven pattern of excessive hair distribution, possibly due to the random nature of X-inactivation. The rarity of this trait and the apparently extremely low rate of mutation of the gene led the authors to hypothesize that this condition was the result of a {open_quotes}back{close_quotes} mutation, leading to reactivation of an {open_quotes}atavistic{close_quotes} gene. Clinical examination, blood collection, and establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines have been completed for the majority of the members of the family available, including affected and unaffected males and females. Sixteen meioses were screened using several polymorphic microsatellite markers distributed along the X-chromosome. The locus DXS1211 did not show recombination events. Two-point linkage analysis yielded a maximum LOD score of 3.08 at theta of zero. An updated map of the X chromosome localizes this marker at Xq16-q27. The identification of the CGH gene will provide insight into development of hair and allow testing of the hypothesis of {open_quotes}atavism{close_quotes}.

  10. Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode Bøhagen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.

  11. Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orten Pål

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.

  12. Design of a Compact Wideband Antenna Array for Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puskely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, wideband antenna arrays aimed at microwave imaging applications and SAR applications operating at Ka band were designed. The antenna array feeding network is realized by a low-loss SIW technology. Moreover, we have replaced the large feed network comprised of various T and Y junctions by a simple broadband network of compact size to more reduce losses in the substrate integrated waveguide and also save space on the PCB. The designed power 8-way divider is complemented by a wideband substrate integrated waveguide to a grounded coplanar waveguide transition and directly connected to the antenna elements. The measured results of antenna array are consistent with our simulation. Obtained results of the developed array demonstrated improvement compared to previously developed binary feed networks with microstrip or SIW splitters.

  13. Design of Multilayer Dielectric Cover to Enhance Gain and Efficiency of Slot Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Montisci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective design procedure, based on the Elliot synthesis method, is proposed to investigate the properties of waveguide slot arrays with multilayer dielectric cover. Then, the features of the designed arrays are analyzed by means of a FEM commercial software, namely, Ansys HFSS 13. We show how a proper choice of the dielectric cover configuration allows increasing the array gain and aperture efficiency, while taking advantage of the properties of the radome structure, in terms of insulation, protection, and pressurization of the radiating waveguides. Therefore, a significant outcome of the optimal choice of the multilayer dielectric cover is the reduction of the number of slots with respect to an array radiating into free space with the same gain and efficiency, with a consequent reduction of the production cost.

  14. Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) I. Design, Commissioning, and First Science Results

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Jonathan J.; Bottom, Michael; Johnson, John A.; Wright, Jason T.; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Muirhead, Philip S.; Herzig, Erich; Myles, Justin; Blake, Cullen H.; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.; Barnes, Stuart I.

    2014-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) is a US-based observational facility dedicated to the discovery and characterization of exoplanets around a nearby sample of bright stars. MINERVA employs a robotic array of four 0.7 m telescopes outfitted for both high-resolution spectroscopy and photometry, and is designed for completely autonomous operation. The primary science program is a dedicated radial velocity survey and the secondary science objective is to obtain high precisio...

  15. Design, Build, and Testing of TacSat Thin Film Solar Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zuckermandel, J William; Enger, Scott; Gupta, Neeraj

    2006-01-01

    MicroSat Systems, Inc. (MSI) has developed a low cost, lightweight, solar array system using thinfilm photovoltaic (TFPV) material to meet power generation needs for future responsive space missions. The Fold Integrated Thin Film Stiffener (FITS) is the deployment portion of the system. FITS is an integrated, passively deployed solar array structure designed specifically for TFPV, however a variety of photovoltaic (PV) options can be utilized by using the FITS deployment technology. FITS exte...

  16. Microwave holographic antenna array design by using psychophysical properties of eye

    OpenAIRE

    Titar, V. P.; Bogdanova, T. V.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave holographic systems use antenna arrays with elements distributed uniformly in the plane of receiving aperture. Such distribution provides decreasing the redundancy of registered holographic information, while the quality of images remains high (side lobes are suppressed). Design principles are proposed of microwave quasiperiodic holographic arrays, which can be synthesized by various space-time methods using the psychophysical properties of the human vision. Besides of the redundanc...

  17. TPF-I Emma X-Array: 2007 Design Team Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan R.; Rodriguez, Jose; Scharf, Dan; Smith, Jim; McKinstry, David; Wirz, Richie; Purcell, George; Wayne, Len; Scherr, Larry; Mennesson, Bertrand; Lay, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a study of an Emma design for Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) formation flying interferometer. The objective is to develop a design with reduced cost compared to TPF-I X-Array, derive mass and cost estimates, and study thermal and radiation issues.

  18. Magnetic design consideration of a Magnetic Lead Screw with Halbach Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Berg, Nick Ilsø; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    This paper presents the novel design of a Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) with magnetic thread of Halbach Arrays. The MLS where designed and build, tests indicated a stall force which where 12 % lower than calculated in 3D FE. This is explained by demagnetization of the magnet during stall, the behavior...

  19. The design of a DAQ system for a GEM imaging detector based on FET array readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data acquisition system was designed for a GEM imaging detector, which is readout by a FET switch array and can be used in real-time imaging. By using some advanced technologies, like FPGA and MCU, the designed DAQ system succeeds in multi-channel real-time readout with high-accuracy and high universality. (authors)

  20. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance

  1. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  2. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  3. Direction-of-arrival interferometer array design using genetic algorithm with fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatveit, S. Nils

    2004-04-01

    Design of interferometer arrays for radio frequency direction of arrival estimation involves optimizing conflicting requirements. For example, high resolution conflicts with low cost. Lower level requirements also invoke lower level design issues such as ambiguity in direction of arrival angle. A more efficient array design process is described here, which uses a genetic algorithm with a growing genome and fuzzy logic scoring. Extensive simulation software is also needed. Simulation starts with randomized small array configurations. These are then evaluated against the fitness functions with results scored using fuzzy logic. The best-fit of the population are combined to produce the next generation. A mutation function introduces slight randomness in some genomes. Finally, if the overall population scores well the size of the genome is increased until final genome size is consistent with the desired array resolution requirement. The genetic algorithm design process described here produced a number of array designs. The results indicate discrete stages or steps in the optimization and an interesting trade-off of lower resolution for greater accuracy.

  4. CPV semi-dense array design for dish and tower collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Herb; Thomas, Paul; Fette, Nicholas; Farkas, Zoltan; Bading, Michael; Stone, Bradley; Miner, Mark; Stickroth, Oliver; Bagewadi, Nakul; Romero, Memo; Sonuparlak, Birol; Eichholz, Rainer; Ziegler, Michael; Pawlowski, Edgar

    2012-10-01

    SST is developing a new Dish CPV dense array system that overcomes the flux uniformity requirement of previous designs. The ability to operate without flux uniformity relaxes the precision requirements of primary collector optics and eliminates homogenizing optics previously required for dense array CPV. Array design can be configured for dish and tower/heliostat systems developed for thermal CSP applications. The design uses industry standard CPV cells and manufacturing materials and methods for minimum cost and high reliability. Nominal input flux to the array for full power is about 250 suns. Internal array optics increase flux to the cells to about 1200 suns. Linear optics provide additional concentration, permit novel use of commercial glass production methods and facilitate power collection design that is integrated with dynamic power conversion and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Efficient power hybrid packaging methods are used along with advanced liquid cooling "cold-plate" thermal management. Byproduct "waste heat" can be provided for on-site CHP use. We report on the design approach and status of development with the beginning of on-sun alpha testing of the first of 50 kW of CPV modules being produced.

  5. AWG-Parameters: new software tool to design arrayed waveguide gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyringer, D.; Bielik, M.

    2013-03-01

    A new software tool and its application in the design of optical multiplexers/demultiplexers based on arrayed waveguide gratings is presented. The motivation for this work is the fact that when designing arrayed waveguide gratings a set of geometrical parameters must be first calculated. These parameters are the input for AWG layout that will be created and simulated using commercial photonic design tools. It is important to point out that these parameters influence strongly correct AWG demultiplexing properties and therefore have to be calculated very carefully. However, most of the commercial photonic design tools do not support this fundamental calculation. To be able to design any AWG, with any software tool and particularly to save the time needed for AWG design a new software tool was developed. The tool was already applied in various AWG designs and also technologically well-proven.

  6. Optimal spatial filtering for design of a conformal velocity sonar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traweek, Charles M.

    In stark contrast to the ubiquitous optimization problem posed in the array processing literature, tactical hull sonar arrays have traditionally been designed using extrapolations of low spatial resolution empirical self noise data, dominated by hull noise at moderate speeds, in conjunction with assumptions regarding achievable conventional beamformer sidelobe levels by so-called Taylor shading for a time domain, delay-and-sum beamformer. That ad hoc process defaults to an extremely conservative (expensive and heavy) design for an array baffle as a means to assure environmental noise limited sonar performance. As an alternative, this dissertation formulates, implements, and demonstrates an objective function that results from the expression of the log likelihood ratio of the optimal Bayesian detector as a comparison to a threshold. Its purpose is to maximize the deflection coefficient of a square-law energy detector over an arbitrarily specified frequency band by appropriate selection of array shading weights for the generalized conformal velocity sonar array under the assumption that it will employ the traditional time domain delay-and-sum beamformer. The restrictive assumptions that must be met in order to appropriately use the deflection coefficient as a performance metric are carefully delineated. A series of conformal velocity sonar array spatial filter optimization problems was defined using a data set characterized by spatially complex structural noise from a large aperture conformal velocity sonar array experiment. The detection performance of an 80-element cylindrical array was optimized over a reasonably broad range of frequencies (from k0a = 12.95 to k 0a = 15.56) for the cases of broadside and off-broadside signal incidence. In each case, performance of the array using optimal real-valued time domain delay-and-sum beamformer weights was much better than that achieved for either uniform shading or for Taylor shading. The result is an analytical engine

  7. Effusive atomic oven nozzle design using an aligned microcapillary array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senaratne, Ruwan, E-mail: rsenarat@physics.ucsb.edu; Rajagopal, Shankari V.; Geiger, Zachary A.; Fujiwara, Kurt M.; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M. [Department of Physics and California Institute for Quantum Emulation, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design, we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525 °C, the collimated atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is 1.2 × 10{sup 14} atoms/s with a peak beam intensity greater than 5.0 × 10{sup 16} atoms/s/sr. This suggests an oven lifetime of several decades of continuous operation.

  8. Effusive Atomic Oven Nozzle Design Using a Microcapillary Array

    CERN Document Server

    Senaratne, Ruwan; Geiger, Zachary A; Fujiwara, Kurt M; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525$^{\\circ}$C the total atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is $1.2 \\times 10^{14}$ atoms per second with a peak beam intensity greater than $5.0 \\times 10^{16}$ atoms per second per steradian. This suggests an oven lifetime of several centuries of continuous operation.

  9. 相控阵雷达用阵面电源的结构设计%Structure Design of a Array Power Supply for Phased array Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵奎武; 王长瑞; 肖竑

    2015-01-01

    针对某相控阵雷达用阵面电源,提出了全新设计思路,先进行概念设计,再利用ANSYS、FloEFD有限元分析软件进行力学和热仿真验证,在此基础上对阵面电源进行优化设计。结果表明,阵面电源结构减重28%,结构设计和热设计满足要求。采用此方法可有效降低设计时间及差错,实现电源的快速化、轻量化设计。%In this paper,the new design idea for array power supply of phased array radar was proposed. Firstly,conceptual structure was designed. Secondly,dynamic simulation and thermal simulation were used to verify the conceptual design results by ANSYS and FloEFD finite elements analysis software, and on this basis,optimization design of array power supply was made.The result indicates that 28% weight loss of structure for array power supply is achieved.The structure and thermal design of array power supply meet the demands.The design time and error are reduced by this method.The rapid product design and light weight design of array power supply are realized.

  10. Design of an impeller-mounted electrode array for EIT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information content in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructions is limited by the number of independent impedance measurements acquired for each image frame. This paper describes the design and construction of an electrode array mounted onto a rotating impeller used for mixing processes. By combining the process compliant rotation of the electrodes with a dynamic measurement protocol, a substantial increase in the number of independent measurements is reported. A pitch-blade impeller is built and fitted with four electrodes. A number of challenges associated with operating a rotating electrode array have been addressed including a wireless communications protocol. The impeller has been accurately modelled and measurement simulations closely correspond to those acquired using the array. The apparatus has been used to successfully visualize a test distribution to a consistent standard compared to a conventional EIT electrode array and strategy. Presently, the limiting factor to this approach is the necessary high measurement acquistion rates which lead to restricted impeller velocities

  11. Design of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Based Emulators for Motor Control Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Ben Achballah; Slim Ben Othman; Slim Ben Saoud

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) circuits play a significant role in major recent embedded process control designs. However, exploiting these platforms requires deep hardware conception skills and remains an important time consuming stage in a design flow. High Level Synthesis technique avoids this bottleneck and increases design productivity as witnessed by industry specialists. Approach: This study proposes to apply this technique for the conception and implementation...

  12. Design and Analysis of 4×4 Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The operation principle of an arrayed waveguide grating(AWG) multiplexer is introduced and the 4×4 AWG with following design parameters is discussed in detail, such as the choice of wavelength, the neighboring arrayed waveguide distance ΔL, the channel frequency interval Δf, and the free spectral range. The structure of 4×4 AWG is designed and the result of stimulated test is also given. Analysis shows that the 4×4 AWG is characterized by a wide dynamic range, low crosstalk, better spectrum properties, and a compact structure.

  13. Design of a Compact Wideband Antenna Array for Microwave Imaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    J. Puskely; Mikulasek, T.; Z. Raida

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, wideband antenna arrays aimed at microwave imaging applications and SAR applications operating at Ka band were designed. The antenna array feeding network is realized by a low-loss SIW technology. Moreover, we have replaced the large feed network comprised of various T and Y junctions by a simple broadband network of compact size to more reduce losses in the substrate integrated waveguide and also save space on the PCB. The designed power 8-way divider is complemented by a wideb...

  14. A Design of ABC95 Array Computer Multi-function Interconnection Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network computer based on FPGA technology. A notable feature of ABC95 array computer is the support of complex interconnection, which determines that the computer must have enough I/O band and flexible communications between Pes. The authors designed the interconnecting network chips of ABC95 and realized a form of multi-function interconnection. The multi-function interconnecting network supports conflict-free access from processors to memory matrix and the MESH network of enhanced processors to processor communications. The design scheme has been proved feasible by experiment.

  15. Theory and design of compact hybrid microphone arrays on two-dimensional planes for three-dimensional soundfield analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanchi; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Zhang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Soundfield analysis based on spherical harmonic decomposition has been widely used in various applications; however, a drawback is the three-dimensional geometry of the microphone arrays. In this paper, a method to design two-dimensional planar microphone arrays that are capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) spatial soundfields is proposed. Through the utilization of both omni-directional and first order microphones, the proposed microphone array is capable of measuring soundfield components that are undetectable to conventional planar omni-directional microphone arrays, thus providing the same functionality as 3D arrays designed for the same purpose. Simulations show that the accuracy of the planar microphone array is comparable to traditional spherical microphone arrays. Due to its compact shape, the proposed microphone array greatly increases the feasibility of 3D soundfield analysis techniques in real-world applications. PMID:26627782

  16. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Rachel M.; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M.; Shur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10–30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient.

  17. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  18. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  19. Copy number analysis of the low-copy repeats at the primate NPHP1 locus by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Liu, Pengfei; Rogers, Jeffrey; Lupski, James R

    2016-06-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been widely used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in both research and clinical settings. A customizable aCGH platform may greatly facilitate copy number analyses in genomic regions with higher-order complexity, such as low-copy repeats (LCRs). Here we present the aCGH analyses focusing on the 45 kb LCRs [1] at the NPHP1 region with diverse copy numbers in humans. Also, the interspecies aCGH analysis comparing human and nonhuman primates revealed dynamic copy number transitions of the human 45 kb LCR orthologues during primate evolution and therefore shed light on the origin of complexity at this locus. The original aCGH data are available at GEO under GSE73962. PMID:27222811

  20. The design and application of large area intensive lens array focal spots measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingzhen; Yao, Shun; Yang, Guanghui; Dai, Mingchong; Wang, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) modules are getting thinner and using smaller cells now days. Correspondingly, large area intensive lens arrays with smaller unit dimension and shorter focal length are wanted. However, the size and power center of lens array focal spots usually differ from the design value and are hard to measure, especially under large area situation. It is because the machining error and deformation of material of the lens array are hard to simulate in the optical design process. Thus the alignment error between solar cells and focal spots in the module assembly process will be hard to control. Under this kind of situation, the efficiency of CPV module with thinner body and smaller cells is much lower than expected. In this paper, a design of large area lens array focal spots automatic measurement system is presented, as well as its prototype application results. In this system, a four-channel parallel light path and its corresponding image capture and process modules are designed. These modules can simulate focal spots under sunlight and have the spots image captured and processed using charge coupled devices and certain gray level algorithm. Thus the important information of focal spots such as spot size and location will be exported. Motion control module based on grating scale signal and interval measurement method are also employed in this system in order to get test results with high speed and high precision on large area lens array no less than 1m×0.8m. The repeatability of the system prototype measurement is +/-10μm with a velocity of 90 spot/min. Compared to the original module assembled using coordinates from optical design, modules assembled using data exported from the prototype is 18% higher in output power, reaching a conversion efficiency of over 31%. This system and its design can be used in the focal spot measurement of planoconvex lens array and Fresnel lens array, as well as other kinds of large area lens array application

  1. Design and Implementation of Series Micro Strip Patch Antenna Array for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Upadhyay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Strip Antenna Array has beenproposed with high efficiency for wirelesscommunication. Micro strip antenna arrays arewidely used in various applications like in wirelesscommunication system, satellite communication,Radar systems, Global positioning systems, RadioFrequency Identification (RFID, Worldwideinteroperability for microwave access (WiMax,Rectenna applications, Telemedicine applications,Medicinal applications of patch. In this articleseries micro strip square patch antenna array isdesigned due to its wide band and wide scanproperties which can give more information at highdata rate. The proposed antenna consist of astraight feeding micro strip line and squareradiating elements connected directly to the microstrip line at their corners without dividers andimpedance transformers in order to realize lowerfeeding line loss. In this paper, the model of microstrip series antenna array is designed and analyzedusing the HFSS Software. The parametric study ofthe antenna characteristics has been done to knowhow the micro strip series antenna array meets thewireless properties for geometric parameters. Thispaper micro strip series antenna array will bedesigned at 2.4 GHz (S- band frequency

  2. Bondwire array modeling for the design of hybrid high power amplifiers above C-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carlos Cilla; Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Hanberg, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    simulate the large bondwire arrays that are used in long multi-transistor power bars. The usefulness of an accurate 3D EM model during the amplifier's matching network design process is highlighted using a practical example, and the effect of the insertion loss variations along the different bondwires...

  3. A leading edge heating array and a flat surface heating array: Final design. [for testing the thermal protection system of the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A heating array is described for testing full-scale sections of the leading edge and lower fuselage surfaces of the shuttle. The heating array was designed to provide a tool for development and acceptance testing of leading edge segments and large flat sections of the main body thermal protection system. The array was designed using a variable length module concept to meet test requirements using interchangeable components from one test configuration in another configuration. Heat generating modules and heat absorbing modules were employed to achieve the thermal gradient around the leading edge. A support was developed to hold the modules to form an envelope around a variety of leading edges; to supply coolant to each module; the support structure and to hold the modules in the flat surface heater configuration. An optical pyrometer system mounted within the array was designed to monitor specimen surface temperatures without altering the test article's surface.

  4. Custom-designed arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels with individually tunable pore sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a process to selectively tune the pore size of an individual nanochannel in an array of high-aspect-ratio anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanochannels in which the pore sizes were originally uniform. This novel process enables us to fabricate arrays of AAO nanochannels of variable sizes arranged in any custom-designed geometry. The process is based on our ability to selectively close an individual nanochannel in an array by using focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering, which leads to redeposition of the sputtered material and closure of the nanochannel with a capping layer of a thickness depending on the energy of the FIB. When such a partially capped array is etched in acid, the capping layers are dissolved after different time delays due to their different thicknesses, which results in differences in the time required for the following pore-widening etching processes and therefore creates an array of nanochannels with variable pore sizes. The ability to fabricate such AAO templates with high-aspect-ratio nanochannels of tunable sizes arranged in a custom-designed geometry paves the way for the creation of nanophotonic and nanoelectronic devices. (paper)

  5. Implementation of the first student-designed PV array in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a culmination of a 2-year project involving students, faculty, staff member, and private industry. Solar Technology Education Project (STEP) became the first student-led group to successfully install a 36-panel photovoltaic (PV) array on a Canadian University campus. The fundraising, design, and assembly of the PV array was entirely student driven. The project was completed in January 2004 with the installation of a 2 kW photovoltaic grid-tied array mounted to the roof of the University of Waterloo's Federation Hall, the largest student-run pub in North America. The photovoltaic array was a demonstration project to raise awareness about solar technology and the need for energy efficiency in buildings. It took two years to complete the project, which was implemented in three phases. The first phase was aimed at raising the required capital. The second phase included design and fabrication of the array. The third phase, still ongoing today, is the community outreach phase, which involves educating the surrounding communities about the project, solar technology, and the role of individuals in combating global warming. This paper examines the steps required for the implementation of a successful educational photovoltaic project, using the students' experience as a roadmap. A section highlighting what's next for STEP is also presented as the students attempt to build on the momentum from the project. The aim is to launch a solar thermal project on another University of Waterloo building to move one step closer to the ultimate goal of a sustainable campus

  6. Design trade-offs in ADC architectures dedicated to uncooled focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, P.; Dupont, B.; Pochic, D.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents two different architectures for the design of Analog to Digital Converters specifically adapted to infrared bolometric image sensors. Indeed, the increasing demand for integrated functions in uncooled readout circuits leads to on-chip ADC design as an interface between the internal analog core and the digital processing electronics. However specifying an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. We will show that two architecture approaches are needed to cover the different sensor features in terms of array size and frame speed. A monolithic 14 bits ADC with a pipeline architecture, and a column 13 bits ADC with an original dual-ramp architecture, will be described. Finally, we will show measurement results to confirm the monolithic ADC is suitable for small array, as 160 x 120 with low frame speed, while a column ADC is more compliant for higher array, as 640 x 480 with a 60 Hz frame speed or 1024 x 768 arrays.

  7. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  8. Membrane Material-Based Rigid Solar Array Design and Thermal Simulation for Stratospheric Airships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve effective utilization of rigid solar array used in stratospheric airships here, the flexible connection design and light laminated design were introduced to rigid solar array. Based on the analysis of the design scheme, firstly, the equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity was calculated by the theoretical formula. Subsequently, the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell module were accurately modeled and simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Compared to the results of test samples, the solar cell module described here guaranteed effective output as well as good heat insulating ability, effectively improving the feasibility of the stratospheric airship design. In addition, the simulation model can effectively simulate the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell, which, therefore, provides technical support for the engineering application.

  9. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  10. Design and fabrication of polarization-insensitive hybrid solgel arrayed waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-Ryong; Jeong, Jaewan; O, Beom-Hoan; Lee, Seung-Gol; Lee, El-Hang

    2003-03-15

    We report on the successful design and fabrication of a polarization-insensitive arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), using solgel-derived silica glass films formed on fused-silica substrates. By controlling the waveguide width and making the propagation constants of the polarizations equal, we have found it possible to fabricate polarization-insensitive solgel-based AWGs. Polarization-insensitive design improves the cross talk by approximately 10 dB in the dynamic range. PMID:12659253

  11. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-G??mez, Gilberto; Mej??a-Guti??rrez, Ricardo; Su??rez-Casta??eda, Nicol??s; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Vel??squez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel -- Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications -- The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency eval...

  12. Design and fabrication of an InP arrayed waveguide grating for monolithic PICs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Pan; An Junming; Wang Liangliang; Wu Yuanda; Wang Yue; Hu Xiongwei

    2012-01-01

    A 10-channel,200 GHz channel spacing InP arrayed waveguide grating was designed,and the deep ridge waveguide design makes it polarization independent.Under the technologies of molecular beam epitaxy,lithography,and induced coupler plasma etching,the chip was fabricated in our laboratory.The test results show that the insertion loss is about 8 dB,and the crosstalk is less than-17 dB.

  13. Development of an Efficient Design Technique for the Optimisation of Mooring Systems for Wave Energy Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Kirrane, P.; Fabricius, P; Morvan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research, funded by the Marine Institute, was carried out on mooring systems for wave energy arrays. An outline of the research results and outcomes are presented in this report. The objectives of the research were to: review the wave energy industry and define design parameters; establish a comprehensive set of design curves to facilitate the selection of a preliminary mooring system; develop trends in system response from the evaluation of a broad range of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) specif...

  14. Impacts on the Electrical System Economics from Critical Design Factors of Wave Energy Converters and Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Fergus; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It is expected that ultimately, like offshore wind farms, electrical systems will make up to a quarter of the overall Capex of wave farms. This is a significant element of cost and consideration must be taken in the design of both individual wave energy converters (WECs) and arrays of WECs to ensure that these costs can be minimised. In a worst case scenario design decisions could increase the cost of the electrical system by several orders and ultimately make the technology uncompetitive. ...

  15. NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, LEO Spacecraft Solar Array Charging Design Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    Two new NASA Standards are now official. They are the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (NASA-STD-4005) and the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook (NASA-HDBK-4006). They give the background and techniques for controlling solar array-induced charging and arcing in LEO. In this paper, a brief overview of the new standards is given, along with where they can be obtained and who should be using them.

  16. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  17. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  18. Conformal Patch Antenna Arrays Design for Onboard Ship Deployment Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios A. Mitilineos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformal antennas and antenna arrays (arrays have become necessary for vehicular communications where a high degree of aerodynamic drag reduction is needed, like in avionics and ships. However, the necessity to conform to a predefined shape (e.g., of an aircraft’s nose directly affects antenna performance since it imposes strict constraints to the antenna array’s shape, element spacing, relative signal phase, and so forth. Thereupon, it is necessary to investigate counterintuitive and arbitrary antenna shapes in order to compensate for these constraints. Since there does not exist any available theoretical frame for designing and developing arbitrary-shape antennas in a straightforward manner, we have developed a platform combining a genetic algorithm-based design, optimization suite, and an electromagnetic simulator for designing patch antennas with a shape that is not a priori known (the genetic algorithm optimizes the shape of the patch antenna. The proposed platform is further enhanced by the ability to design and optimize antenna arrays and is intended to be used for the design of a series of antennas including conformal antennas for shipping applications. The flexibility and performance of the proposed platform are demonstrated herein via the design of a high-performance GPS patch antenna.

  19. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, T; Nieto, D; Wood, M

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout design and composition impacts the overall CTA performance by analyzing Monte Carlo simulations including Davies-Cotton and Schwarzschild-Couder medium-sized telescopes.

  20. Bi-Band Bow-Tie Antennas Array Design Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a simple equivalent and accurate transmission line model for bi-band bow-tie antennas array design over a band of frequencies for satellite communications. This model uses the resistance of a square element that appears at the edges of the antenna (radiating slots. To test this model, two antennas array were simulated and results were compared with those obtained by a rigorous method (moment’s method of the simulator ADS/Momentum. Using this transmission line approach the resonant frequency, return loss, VSWR, reflected phase, input impedance can be determined simultaneously. The results confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  1. Bi-Band Bow-Tie Antennas Array Design Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abri, M.; H. Abri Badaoui; Dib, H; A.S.E. Gharnaout

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simple equivalent and accurate transmission line model for bi-band bow-tie antennas array design over a band of frequencies for satellite communications. This model uses the resistance of a square element that appears at the edges of the antenna (radiating slots). To test this model, two antennas array were simulated and results were compared with those obtained by a rigorous method (moment’s method) of the simulator ADS/Momentum. Using this transmission line appro...

  2. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  3. Monte Carlo comparison of mid-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2012-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-, medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davis-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  4. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  5. Design and Deployment of a Multichroic Polarimeter Array on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, R; Beall, J A; Becker, D; Coughlin, K P; Duff, S M; Gallardo, P A; Grace, E; Hasselfield, M; Henderson, S W; Hilton, G C; Ho, S P; Hubmayr, J; Koopman, B J; Lanen, J V; Li, D; McMahon, J; Munson, C D; Nati, F; Niemack, M D; Page, L; Pappas, C G; Salatino, M; Schmitt, B L; Schillaci, A; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Stevens, J R; Vavagiakis, E M; Ward, J T; Wollack, E J

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the preliminary on sky performance with respect to beams and pass-bands of a multichroic polarimeter array covering the 90 and 146 GHz Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) bands and its enabling broadband optical system recently deployed on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The constituent pixels are feedhorn-coupled multichroic polarimeters fabricated at NIST. This array is coupled to the ACT telescope via a set of three silicon lenses incorporating novel broad-band metamaterial anti-reflection coatings. This receiver represents the first multichroic detector array deployed for a CMB experiment and paves the way for the extensive use of multichroic detectors and broadband optical systems in the next generation of CMB experiments.

  6. Design and Deployment of a Multichroic Polarimeter Array on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Coughlin, K. P.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Koopman, B. J.; Lanen, J. V.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C. D.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schmitt, B. L.; Schillaci, A.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    We present the design and the preliminary on-sky performance with respect to beams and passbands of a multichroic polarimeter array covering the 90 and 146 GHz cosmic microwave background bands and its enabling broad-band optical system recently deployed on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The constituent pixels are feedhorn-coupled multichroic polarimeters fabricated at NIST. This array is coupled to the ACT telescope via a set of three silicon lenses incorporating novel broad-band metamaterial anti-reflection coatings. This receiver represents the first multichroic detector array deployed for a CMB experiment and paves the way for the extensive use of multichroic detectors and broad-band optical systems in the next generation of CMB experiments.

  7. Design and fabrication of microwave kinetic inductance detectors using NbN symmetric spiral resonator array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We designed and fabricated a microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) using a niobium nitride (NbN) symmetric spiral resonator array. Previously we revealed that a rewound spiral structure works as not only a high-Q half-wavelength resonator but also as a broadband terahertz antenna. We conducted simulations for a 9 resonator array assuming NbN as the superconducting material and sapphire as the dielectric substrate, and obtained a maximum attenuation of over 30 dB and unloaded quality factors of over 2×105 for frequencies between 4.4 and 4.9 GHz. We fabricated the 9 resonator array MKID using NbN thin film deposited on an m-sapphire substrate by using dc magnetron sputtering. We observed half-wavelength resonances of around 4.5 GHz at 4 K. We measured the optical response of the MKID. The frequency shift was 0.5 MHz when illuminated with 650 nm photons.

  8. Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDOGMUS, O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used for balanced the motor power and PV power to obtain a high efficiency. The results are performed by using MATLAB/SimPowerSystem blocks. In addition, the PV array is modeled to allow for the possibility of running as on-line adjustable in simulation environment without using lookup table. The performances of motor, MPPT and drive system are analyzed in different conditions as temperature and irradiation of PV array.

  9. Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) I. Design, Commissioning, and First Science Results

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Jonathan J; Johnson, John A; Wright, Jason T; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Muirhead, Philip S; Herzig, Erich; Myles, Justin; Blake, Cullen H; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G; Lin, Brian; Zhao, Ming; Gardner, Paul; Falco, Emilio; Criswell, Stephen; Nava, Chantanelle; Robinson, Connor; Sliski, David H; Hedrick, Richard; Ivarsen, Kevin; Hjelstrom, Annie; de Vera, Jon; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) is a US-based observational facility dedicated to the discovery and characterization of exoplanets around a nearby sample of bright stars. MINERVA employs a robotic array of four 0.7 m telescopes outfitted for both high-resolution spectroscopy and photometry, and is designed for completely autonomous operation. The primary science program is a dedicated radial velocity survey and the secondary science objective is to obtain high precision transit light curves. The modular design of the facility and the flexibility of our hardware allows for both science programs to be pursued simultaneously, while the robotic control software provides a robust and efficient means to carry out nightly observations. In this article, we describe the design of MINERVA including major hardware components, software, and science goals. The telescopes and photometry cameras are characterized at our test facility on the Caltech campus in Pasadena, CA, and their on-sky performance...

  10. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  11. Logic design for array-based circuits a structured design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    White, D E

    1992-01-01

    This book will show you how to approach the design covering everything from the circuit specification to the final design acceptance, including what support you can expect, sizing, timing analysis, power and packaging, various simulations, design verification, and design submission.

  12. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

  13. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  14. Design Concept of Array ECT Sensor for Steam Generator Tubing Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Tae Hun; Yoo, Hyun Ju [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The eddy current testing, which is one of the nondestructive examination methods, is widely used for the inspection of heat exchangers including steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. It uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. Two types of eddy current probes are conventionally used for the inspection of steam generator tubing according to the main purpose. One is the bobbin probe technology and the other is the rotating probe. During the inspection, they have restrictions for the flaw detection or the inspection speed. An array probe can be alternative to the bobbin and rotating probes. The design concept of array coils with high sensitivity is described in this paper. It is expected that the eddy current testing using this type of array sensors may provide high detectability and resolution for flaws in steam generator tubing. Eddy current technology has some barriers for the inspection of steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. Bobbin probes offer poor circumferential crack detection and rotating probes are time and money consuming due to the mechanical rotation. Array probe inspection technique can replace bobbin and rotating probe techniques due to its sensitivity for flaw detection and inspection speed. In general, circular-shaped coils are considered in an array eddy current probe.

  15. Design Concept of Array ECT Sensor for Steam Generator Tubing Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eddy current testing, which is one of the nondestructive examination methods, is widely used for the inspection of heat exchangers including steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. It uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. Two types of eddy current probes are conventionally used for the inspection of steam generator tubing according to the main purpose. One is the bobbin probe technology and the other is the rotating probe. During the inspection, they have restrictions for the flaw detection or the inspection speed. An array probe can be alternative to the bobbin and rotating probes. The design concept of array coils with high sensitivity is described in this paper. It is expected that the eddy current testing using this type of array sensors may provide high detectability and resolution for flaws in steam generator tubing. Eddy current technology has some barriers for the inspection of steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. Bobbin probes offer poor circumferential crack detection and rotating probes are time and money consuming due to the mechanical rotation. Array probe inspection technique can replace bobbin and rotating probe techniques due to its sensitivity for flaw detection and inspection speed. In general, circular-shaped coils are considered in an array eddy current probe

  16. Design of 280~GHz feedhorn-coupled TES arrays for the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER

    CERN Document Server

    Hubmayr, Johannes; Beall, James A; Becker, Daniel T; Benton, Steven J; Bergman, A Stevie; Bond, J Richard; Bryan, Sean; Duff, Shannon M; Duivenvoorden, Adri J; Eriksen, H K; Filippini, Jeffrey P; Fraisse, Aurelien A; Galloway, Mathew; Gambrel, Anne E; Ganga, K; Grigorian, Arpi L; Gualtieri, Riccardo; Gudmundsson, Jon E; Hartley, John W; Halpern, M; Hilton, Gene C; Jones, William C; McMahon, Jeffrey J; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nagy, Johanna M; Netterfield, C B; Osherson, Benjamin; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Racine, B; Ruhl, John; Ruud, T M; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Song, Xue; Ullom, Joel N; Van Lanen, Jeff; Vissers, Michael R; Wehus, I K; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, D V; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe 280 GHz bolometric detector arrays that instrument the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER. A primary science goal of SPIDER is to measure the large-scale B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the cosmic-inflation, gravitational-wave signature. 280 GHz channels aid this science goal by constraining the level of B-mode contamination from galactic dust emission. We present the focal plane unit design, which consists of a 16$\\times$16 array of conical, corrugated feedhorns coupled to a monolithic detector array fabricated on a 150 mm diameter silicon wafer. Detector arrays are capable of polarimetric sensing via waveguide probe-coupling to a multiplexed array of transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers. The SPIDER receiver has three focal plane units at 280 GHz, which in total contains 765 spatial pixels and 1,530 polarization sensitive bolometers. By fabrication and measurement of single feedhorns, we demonstrate 14.7$^{\\circ}$ FHWM Gaussian-shaped beams with $<$1% ellip...

  17. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu

    2015-03-25

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  18. Application of the MNA design method to a nonlinear turbofan engine. [multivariable Nyquist array method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Using nonlinear digital simulation as a representative model of the dynamic operation of the QCSEE turbofan engine, a feedback control system is designed by variable frequency design techniques. Transfer functions are generated for each of five power level settings covering the range of operation from approach power to full throttle (62.5% to 100% full power). These transfer functions are then used by an interactive control system design synthesis program to provide a closed loop feedback control using the multivariable Nyquist array and extensions to multivariable Bode diagrams and Nichols charts.

  19. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  20. [Confirmation of a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, T; Thein, A; Bán, Z; Soothill, P; Oroszné, N J; Papp, Z

    2001-05-13

    Trisomy 13 was diagnosed with genetic amniocentesis in a fetus of a 50 years old patient. Fetopathologic examination has shown cyclopy, proboscis and semilobar holoprosencephaly of the fetus, which is consistent with Patau syndrome. DNA was extracted from frozen liver tissue. Result of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was consistent with trisomy 13. They processed the DNA according Kallioniemi's method with modifications. CGH was developed for cancer genetics in mid 90s and now it is widely used in prenatal diagnosis too. CGH allows global analysis to detect unbalanced chromosome gains and losses in the whole genome in a single experiment without the need for cell culture. Significant results can be expected in those cases where conventional cytogenetics is not able to provide an answer either because postmortem tissue is not appropriate for cytogenetics or because the chromosomal change is sub-microscopical. CGH is a fluorescent in situ hybridization on a healthy target metaphase, with equal amount of competitive hybridization of green labelled digested test DNA and red labelled digested control DNA. Red to green ratio is assessed with the help of an image analyser. Green dominance represents chromosome gain, while red shift chromosome loss. In the paper they present the fetopathologic report of a trisomy 13 fetus and illustrate the method being the first Hungarian obstetric case diagnosed by CGH. PMID:11419300

  1. Design and test analysis of a solar array root hinge drive assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xilun; Li, Xin

    2014-09-01

    A root hinge drive assembly is preferred in place of the classical viscous damper in a large solar array system. It has advantages including better deployment control and higher reliability. But the traditional single degree of freedom model should be improved. A multiple degrees of freedom dynamics model is presented for the solar arrays deployment to guide the drive assembly design. The established model includes the functions of the torsion springs, the synchronization mechanism and the lock-up impact. A numerical computation method is proposed to solve the dynamics coupling problem. Then considering the drive torque requirement calculated by the proposed model, a root hinge drive assembly is developed based on the reliability engineering design methods, and dual actuators are used as a redundancy design. Pseudo-efficiency is introduced and the major factors influencing the (pseudo-) efficiency of the gear mechanism designed with high reduction ratio are studied for further test data analysis. A ground prototype deployment test is conducted to verify the capacity of the drive assembly. The test device consists of a large-area solar array system and a root hinge drive assembly. The RHDA development time is about 43 s. The theoretical drive torque is compared with the test values which are obtained according to the current data and the reduction efficiency analysis, and the results show that the presented model and the calibration methods are proper enough.

  2. Design and Test Analysis of a Solar Array Root Hinge Drive Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xilun; LI Xin

    2014-01-01

    A root hinge drive assembly is preferred in place of the classical viscous damper in a large solar array system. It has advantages including better deployment control and higher reliability. But the traditional single degree of freedom model should be improved. A multiple degrees of freedom dynamics model is presented for the solar arrays deployment to guide the drive assembly design. The established model includes the functions of the torsion springs, the synchronization mechanism and the lock-up impact. A numerical computation method is proposed to solve the dynamics coupling problem. Then considering the drive torque requirement calculated by the proposed model, a root hinge drive assembly is developed based on the reliability engineering design methods, and dual actuators are used as a redundancy design. Pseudo-efficiency is introduced and the major factors influencing the (pseudo-) efficiency of the gear mechanism designed with high reduction ratio are studied for further test data analysis. A ground prototype deployment test is conducted to verify the capacity of the drive assembly. The test device consists of a large-area solar array system and a root hinge drive assembly. The RHDA development time is about 43 s. The theoretical drive torque is compared with the test values which are obtained according to the current data and the reduction efficiency analysis, and the results show that the presented model and the calibration methods are proper enough.

  3. Design of a Pico-Satellite for the Monitoring of the Performance of a Thin Film Solar Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hegarty, William; Teshirogi, Jerry; Prager, Ian; Twiggs, Robert; Jackson, Keoki

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and mission of a pico-satellite designed to monitor the performance of a Thin Film Solar Array (TFSA) over a one-week period. TFSA is a solar array technology that allows solar cells to be deposited onto a thin, flexible substrate. This substrate can be easily folded, which allows large solar arrays to collapse into a small space. The Aerospace Corporation has developed a small deployable solar array based on this technology. During this mission, ...

  4. DESIGN OF HYBRID COUPLER CONNECTED SQUARE ARRAY PATCH ANTENNA FOR Wi-Fi APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sahaya Anselin Nisha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antennas being popular because of light weight, low volume, thin profile configuration which can be made conformal. Wireless communication systems applications circular polarization antenna is placing vital role. In this study we introduce a new technique to produce circular polarization. Hybrid coupler is directly connected to microstrip antenna to get circular polarization. Also gain is further increased by introducing antenna array technique. Each square in array having length of 4.6mm patch is having thickness of 0.381mm and the dielectric material used FR4. The designed antenna having high gain of 6.26dB and directivity of 5.11dB at the resonant frequency of 3.7GHz. Simulation results shows that the designed antenna characteristic is suitable for Wi-Fi applications.

  5. A Design and Analysis of Dolph-Chebyshev Microstrip Planar Array Using Butler Matrix Beamforming Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The design and analysis of special type beamformer, the Butler matrix, to achieve orthogonal beamforming networks is presented in this paper. A 4×4 microstrip planar array antenna is assumed to simulate a 4×4 Butler matrix to demonstrate orthogonal beamforming and beam steering. The dimensions of rectangular patches in the planar array are chosen according to the Dolph-Chebyshev current distribution in order to minimize the side-lobe level ratio for a given value of beamwidth. The simulations are carried out using an antenna design and analysis software PCAAD. It is shown that orthogonal beams can be formed to cover about 163° angle with a constant beam crossover level and high directivity.

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Packaging of an Integrated, Wirelessly-Powered Optrode Array for Optogenetics Application

    OpenAIRE

    Wen eLi; Ki Yong eKwon; Hyung-Min eLee; Maysam eGhovanloo; Arthur eWeber

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) dies and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coup...

  7. Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupl...

  8. Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays

    OpenAIRE

    Hedili, M. Kıvanç; Ürey, Hakan; Freeman, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays M. Kivanc Hedili,1 Mark O. Freeman,2 and Hakan Urey1,* 1Optical Microsystems Laboratory, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sarıyer, İstanbul 34450, Turkey 2Lost Lake Technology LLC, 21623 W. Lost Lake Rd., Snohomish, Washington 98296, USA *Corresponding author: Received 2 October 2012; revised 28 December 2012; accepted 29 December 2012; posted 18 January 2013 (Doc. ID 17...

  9. On the design of a planar phased array radar antenna architecture for space debris situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gasco Trujillo, Javier; Noval Sánchez de Toca, Alvaro; Montesinos Ortego, Ignacio; Fernández González, José Manuel; Sierra Pérez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program from the European Space Agency (ESA) protects Europe's citizens and their satellite-based services by detecting space hazards. ESA Ground Systems (GS) division is currently designing a phased array radar composed of thousands of radiating elements for future stages of the SSA program [1]. The radar shall guarantee the detection of most of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris, providing a general map of space junk. While range accuracy is mainly ...

  10. Design of a SQUID Sensor Array Measuring the Tangential Field Components in Magnetocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider design factors for a SQUID sensor array to construct a 52-channel magnetocardiogram (MCG) system that can be used to measure tangential components of the cardiac magnetic fields. Nowadays, full-size multichannel MCG systems, which cover the whole signal area of a heart, are developed to improve the clinical analysis with high accuracy and to provide patients with comfort in the course of measurement. To design the full-size MCG system, we have to make a compromise between cost and performance. The cost is involved with the number of sensors, the number of the electronics, the size of a cooling dewar, the consumption of refrigerants for maintenance, and etc. The performance is the capability of covering the whole heart volume at once and of localizing current sources with a small error. In this study, we design the cost-effective arrangement of sensors for MCG by considering an adequate sensor interval and the confidence region of a tolerable localization error, which covers the heart. In order to fit the detector array on the cylindrical dewar economically, we removed the detectors that were located at the corners of the array square. Through simulations using the confidence region method, we verified that our design of the detector array was good enough to obtain whole information from the heart at a time. A result of the simulation also suggested that tangential-component MCG measurement could localize deeper current dipoles than normal-component MCG measurement with the same confidence volume; therefore, we conclude that measurement of the tangential component is more suitable to an MCG system than measurement of the normal component.

  11. Design, modeling and testing of the Askaryan Radio Array South Pole autonomous renewable power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the design, construction and operation of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Autonomous Renewable Power Stations, initially installed at the South Pole in December, 2010 with the goal of providing an independently operating 100 W power source capable of year-round operation in extreme environments. In addition to particle astrophysics applications at the South Pole, such a station can easily be, and has since been, extended to operation elsewhere, as described herein

  12. Design, modeling and testing of the Askaryan Radio Array South Pole autonomous renewable power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, D.Z., E-mail: zedlam@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 1082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskaya Highway, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Kennedy, D.M., E-mail: dmkennedy@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 1082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Ratzlaff, K., E-mail: ratzlaff@ku.edu [Instrumentation Design Laboratory, University of Kansas, 6042 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Young, R., E-mail: rwyoung@ku.edu [Instrumentation Design Laboratory, University of Kansas, 6042 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design, construction and operation of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Autonomous Renewable Power Stations, initially installed at the South Pole in December, 2010 with the goal of providing an independently operating 100 W power source capable of year-round operation in extreme environments. In addition to particle astrophysics applications at the South Pole, such a station can easily be, and has since been, extended to operation elsewhere, as described herein.

  13. Analysis and design of coupled-oscillator arrays for microwave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussounda, Renaud

    The concept of synchronized nonlinear coupled oscillators is applied to microwave and antenna engineering for the analysis and design of wireless communication and sensing systems operating at the microwave and/or millimeter (mm)-wave frequencies. The significance of such approach is justified from the potential gain in efficiency, weight, cost and functionality although technical challenges stand in the way. Unlike typical phased array systems, which are currently used to construct such systems, coupled-oscillator systems present additional challenges that mainly arise from maintaining stability and synchronization as the the coupled nonlinear system is operated. Linear systems do not present such stability issues and are consequently faster since they do not rely on any gradual synchronization mechanism in order to function. However, at significantly higher frequencies in the quasi-optical domain, coupled-oscillator systems can make up for the speed difference and present significant efficiency advantages over typical phased array architectures. In addition, coupled nonlinear systems possess inherent analog properties that can be used for a multitude of functions. This dissertation advances the topic of coupled-oscillator arrays by 1) developing an alternative set of techniques for designing the oscillating unit cells called active integrated antennas (AIAs) at microwave or mm-wave frequencies, 2) developing a more accurate description of the dynamics of the array, 3) developing and implementing a new topology for a coupling network that is able to extend stability, 4) implementing a fully non-reciprocally coupled array able to produce large scan angle without loss of stability, 5) proposing an architecture based on a single phase-locked loop (PLL) and containing a self-calibration mechanism, and finally 6) implementing a phase-boosting mechanism using simple circuits to amplify the phase difference between adjacent radiating antennas in order to increase

  14. MR thermometry characterization of a hyperthermia ultrasound array designed using the k-space computational method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hotaik

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound induced hyperthermia is a useful adjuvant to radiation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. A uniform thermal dose (43°C for 30 minutes is required within the targeted cancerous volume for effective therapy. This requires specific ultrasound phased array design and appropriate thermometry method. Inhomogeneous, acoustical, three-dimensional (3D prostate models and economical computational methods provide necessary tools to predict the appropriate shape of hyperthermia phased arrays for better focusing. This research utilizes the k-space computational method and a 3D human prostate model to design an intracavitary ultrasound probe for hyperthermia treatment of prostate cancer. Evaluation of the probe includes ex vivo and in vivo controlled hyperthermia experiments using the noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI thermometry. Methods A 3D acoustical prostate model was created using photographic data from the Visible Human Project®. The k-space computational method was used on this coarse grid and inhomogeneous tissue model to simulate the steady state pressure wavefield of the designed phased array using the linear acoustic wave equation. To ensure the uniformity and spread of the pressure in the length of the array, and the focusing capability in the width of the array, the equally-sized elements of the 4 × 20 elements phased array were 1 × 14 mm. A probe was constructed according to the design in simulation using lead zerconate titanate (PZT-8 ceramic and a Delrin® plastic housing. Noninvasive MRI thermometry and a switching feedback controller were used to accomplish ex vivo and in vivo hyperthermia evaluations of the probe. Results Both exposimetry and k-space simulation results demonstrated acceptable agreement within 9%. With a desired temperature plateau of 43.0°C, ex vivo and in vivo controlled hyperthermia experiments showed that the MRI temperature at the steady state was 42.9 ± 0.38

  15. Design of Circle Array Pattern for Transparent Nanomesh-Type Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungsu; Ganorkar, Shraddha; Kim, Jungyoon; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Seong-Il

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we report simulation results for the optical properties of nanomesh-type electrodes for transparent electrode. Usually, indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used for transparent conductor to solar cell, display, LED and other electronic modules. However, the cost is high due to the rarity of indium. An alternative way is use of transparent nanomesh-type metal electrode for solar cell. Finite different time domain (FDTD) method was used to simulate and analyze their optical properties. Various array patterns (square, circle and circle hexagonal array) of metal on glass (SiO2) substrates were designed and their properties of transmission and reflection were simulated by using the broad band (λ = 300~1200 nm) plane wave source. To compare basic characteristics of each pattern, various structural parameters such as hole diameter, pitch and metal thickness were applied. The effect of three typical metals, such as Ag, Au, and Al was also compared. In the results, we will discuss about large dip of transmission appeared at the particular wavelength region from the circle array pattern, which is design with pitch of 500 nm at the wavelength range 700 to 800 nm. The surface plasmonpolaritons (SPP) effect can be the cause of large dip and we could find a broad and high transmission from the properly designed in nanomesh-type electrodes, which was calculated as a function of wavelength. PMID:26726388

  16. Detection of chromosome imbalances in retinoblastoma by parallel karyotype and CGH analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, A; Pinglier, E; Gilbert, E; Peter, M; Validire, P; Desjardins, L; Doz, F; Aurias, A; Couturier, J

    2000-08-01

    We have studied a series of 20 primary retinoblastomas by karyotypic analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), to perform an exhaustive evaluation of chromosome imbalances in this tumor. In addition, 4 tumors were studied by CGH only. On the whole, CGH results were largely in agreement with those of karyotypic analysis and with known cytogenetic data. The most frequent imbalances were +6p (13/24 cases), +1q (12/24), -16/-16q (11/24), and +2p (9/24). Recurrent high-level amplifications were observed in 2p23-25 and 1q21. Amplification of 2p23-25, present in 4 cases among which 3 showed double-minute chromosomes, was related to MYCN amplification, as demonstrated by FISH and PCR. No evident correlation was found in this small series between any of the imbalances identified and either the differentiation or the histoprognostic risk. PMID:10862045

  17. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future. PMID:26831987

  18. Design of Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) arrays using current mirror circuits for Flat Panel Detectors (FPDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Salahuddin, Nur Sultan; Paindavoine, Michel; Huda, Nurul; Parmentier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    We designed 4x4 matrix TFTs arrays using current mirror amplifiers. Advantages of current mirror amplifiers are they need less requiring switches and the conversion time is short. The TFTs arrays 4x4 matrix using current mirror circuits have been fabricated and tested with success. The TFTs array directly can process signals coming from 16 pixels in the same node. This enables us to make the summation of the light intensities of close pixels during a reading.

  19. Design, implementation, and comparison of guided wave phased arrays using embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2006-03-01

    Phased array can interrogate large structural areas from a single location using ultrasonic guided waves generated by tuned piezoelectric wafer active sensors that are permanently attached (embedded) to the structure. Various array parameters determine the array beamforming and steering characteristics. This paper aims to bring up several one or two dimension array designs and research on their beamforming properties and damage detection performance through both analytical simulation and laboratory experiments. The paper will firstly present the generic guided wave phased array beamforming formulation and explain how the beamforming characteristics are affected by the array parameters such as number of elements, element spacing, and steering angle. Preliminary work of implementing a one dimensional linear phase array is then followed to exemplify how our embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) scans and detects damage on the plate structures. However, such a linear array has the limitations that it has limited scanning range due to the beamforming directionality deficiency and it can only scan the 0 °~180 ° range either in front of or behind it, i.e., it can not tell if the damage is in the positive or negative direction in the polar coordinates. Hence, we proposed several improved array designs including: (1) a miniaturized array using smaller PWAS; (2) an array using rectangular PWAS; (3) a cross-shaped two dimensional array; (4) a L-shaped two dimensional array. Extensive simulation work has been done to explore the beamforming and beamsteering properties of those arrays. Laboratory experiments have also been conducted to testify the arrays damage detection abilities. The results show that the miniaturized array can look into larger area and be used for damage detection of compact specimen with complicated geometry. Signal rectangular PWAS has directional rather than omnidirectional beamforming which resulting in improved beamforming of the phased array

  20. Note: The design of thin gap chamber simulation signal source based on field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is an important part of ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator. Targeting the feature of the output signal of TGC detector, we have designed a simulation signal source. The core of the design is based on field programmable gate array, randomly outputting 256-channel simulation signals. The signal is generated by true random number generator. The source of randomness originates from the timing jitter in ring oscillators. The experimental results show that the random number is uniform in histogram, and the whole system has high reliability

  1. Design of a stacked diode array pumped Yb:YAG laser with a diffusive optical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stacked diode array pumped Yb:YAG laser is designed using a five-fold symmetric diffusive optical cavity. By using a ray-tracing method, we analyzed numerically the absorbed pump power distribution, the absorbed pump power, and the threshold power for the various radii of the laser crystal and the optical cavity, and the doping rates of the laser crystal. Based upon these analyses, we found that the design of a highly efficient diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser is possible with the five-fold symmetric diffusive optical cavity. TYhe optimum absorption efficiency was 59.2%

  2. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  3. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  4. Visual Basic语言数组程序的设计%Design of Array Program for Visual Basic Language Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏邦龙; 岳秋菊; 冯婕; 魏赟; 海波

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了Visual Basic语言的两种数组,提出了正确理解和设计不同数组的方法和步骤,并通过实例对静态数组和动态数组的定义进行了讨论。%This paper introduced two kinds of arrays for Visual Basic language Programming and put forward the methods and procedures to correctly understand and design different arrays, and then discussed the definitions of static array and dynamic array by an example.

  5. Design, fabrication and characterization of a polarization-sensitive focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of polarization is a powerful yet underutilized technique, with potential applications in remote sensing, astronomy, biomedical imaging and optical metrology. We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a CCD-based polarization-sensitive focal plane array (FPA). These devices are compact permanently aligned detectors capable of determining the degree and angle of linear polarization in a scene, with a single exposure, over a broad spectral range. To derive the polarization properties, we employ a variation of the division-of-focal plane modulation strategy. The devices are fabricated by hybridizing a micropolarizer array (MPA) with a CCD. The result is a "general-purpose" polarization-sensitive imaging sensor, which can be placed at the focal plane of a wide number of imaging systems (and even spectrographs). We present our efforts to date in developing this technology and examine the factors that fundamentally limit the performance of these devices.

  6. 2D Active Antenna Array Design for FD-MIMO System and Antenna Virtualization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tzanidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Full dimension MIMO (FD-MIMO is one of the key technologies presently studied in the 3GPP for the next generation long-term evolution advanced (LTE-A systems. By incorporating FD-MIMO into LTE/LTE-A systems, it is expected that system throughput will be drastically improved beyond what is possible in conventional LTE systems. This paper presets details on the 2D active antenna array design for FD-MIMO systems supporting 32 antenna elements. The FD-MIMO system allows for dynamic and adaptive precoding to be performed jointly across all antennas thus achieving more directional transmissions in the azimuth and elevation domains simultaneously, to a larger number of users. Finally, we discuss 2D antenna array port virtualization techniques for creating beams with wide coverage, necessary for broadcasting signals to all users within a sector, such as the CRS (Common Reference Signal.

  7. Autoantibody profiling of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and design of a prototype diagnostic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Lanshchakov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the “gold standard” in diagnostics of thyroid tumors is a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. However, FNAC cannot discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in 15 to 30% of observations. In order to develop an additional tool for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors we evaluated the diagnostic performance of 3-antigen serum autoantibody signature in groups of benign ( n = 22 and malignant ( n = 26 thyroid tumors using a dot-blot ELISA-based analysis The sensitivity and specificity of resultant array were estimated to be 55–60% and 95–100%, respectively ( p < 0.001 according to one-sided Fisher Exact Test. Thus, we created a prototype antigen array for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors which can be regarded as a platform for design of more complicated panel, highly sensitive in thyroid cancer detection, which can significantly improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  8. The Square Kilometre Array Science Data Processor. Preliminary compute platform design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Square Kilometre Array is a next-generation radio-telescope, to be built in South Africa and Western Australia. It is currently in its detailed design phase, with procurement and construction scheduled to start in 2017. The SKA Science Data Processor is the high-performance computing element of the instrument, responsible for producing science-ready data. This is a major IT project, with the Science Data Processor expected to challenge the computing state-of-the art even in 2020. In this paper we introduce the preliminary Science Data Processor design and the principles that guide the design process, as well as the constraints to the design. We introduce a highly scalable and flexible system architecture capable of handling the SDP workload

  9. DSTN (Distributed Sleep Transistor Network) for Low Power Programmable Logic array Design

    CERN Document Server

    Singla, Pradeep; Malik, Naveen Kr; 10.5120/7004-9563

    2012-01-01

    With the high demand of the portable electronic products, Low- power design of VLSI circuits & Power dissipation has been recognized as a challenging technology in the recent years. PLA (Programming logic array) is one of the important off shelf part in the industrial application. This paper describes the new design of PLA using power gating structure sleep transistor at circuit level implementation for the low power applications. The important part of the power gating design i.e. header and footer switch selection is also describes in the paper. The simulating results of the proposed architecture of the new PLA is shown and compared with the conventional PLA. This paper clearly shows the optimization in the reduction of power dissipation in the new design implementation of the PLA. The transient response of the power gates structure of PLA is also illustrate in the paper by using TINA-PRO software.

  10. Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism: Design, Build and Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Noemy; Ferris, Mark; Phillips, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism (BSADM) presented in this paper is a demonstration of SSTL's unique space manufacturing approach that enables performing rapid development cycles for cost-effective products that meet ever-challenging mission requirements: The BSADM is designed to orient a solar array wing towards the sun, using its first rotation axis to track the sun, and its second rotation axis to compensate for the satellite orbit and attitude changes needed for a successful payload operation. The tight development schedule, with manufacture of 7 Flight Models within 1.5 year after kick-off, is offset by the risk-reduction of using qualified key component-families from other proven SSTL mechanisms. This allowed focusing the BSADM design activities on the mechanism features that are unique to the BSADM, and having an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) built 8 months after kick-off. The EQM is currently undergoing a full environmental qualification test campaign. This paper presents the BSADM design approach that enabled meeting such a challenging schedule, its design particularities, and the ongoing verification activities.

  11. Design and optimization of arrays of neodymium iron boron-based magnets for magnetic tweezers applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design methodology for arrays of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnets for use in magnetic tweezers devices. Using finite element analysis (FEA), we optimized the geometry of the NdFeB magnet as well as the geometry of iron yokes designed to focus the magnetic fields toward the sample plane. Together, the magnets and yokes form a magnetic array which is the basis of the magnetic tweezers device. By systematically varying 15 distinct shape parameters, we determined those features that maximize the magnitude of the magnetic field gradient as well as the length scale over which the magnetic force operates. Additionally, we demonstrated that magnetic saturation of the yoke material leads to intrinsic limitations in any geometric design. Using this approach, we generated a compact and light-weight magnetic tweezers device that produces a high field gradient at the image plane in order to apply large forces to magnetic beads. We then fabricated the optimized yoke and validated the FEA by experimentally mapping the magnetic field of the device. The optimization data and iterative FEA approach outlined here will enable the streamlined design and construction of specialized instrumentation for force-sensitive microscopy

  12. Design and optimization of arrays of neodymium iron boron-based magnets for magnetic tweezers applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchia, Nicholas A; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-05-01

    We present the design methodology for arrays of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnets for use in magnetic tweezers devices. Using finite element analysis (FEA), we optimized the geometry of the NdFeB magnet as well as the geometry of iron yokes designed to focus the magnetic fields toward the sample plane. Together, the magnets and yokes form a magnetic array which is the basis of the magnetic tweezers device. By systematically varying 15 distinct shape parameters, we determined those features that maximize the magnitude of the magnetic field gradient as well as the length scale over which the magnetic force operates. Additionally, we demonstrated that magnetic saturation of the yoke material leads to intrinsic limitations in any geometric design. Using this approach, we generated a compact and light-weight magnetic tweezers device that produces a high field gradient at the image plane in order to apply large forces to magnetic beads. We then fabricated the optimized yoke and validated the FEA by experimentally mapping the magnetic field of the device. The optimization data and iterative FEA approach outlined here will enable the streamlined design and construction of specialized instrumentation for force-sensitive microscopy. PMID:26026529

  13. Mechanical design of SST-GATE, a dual-mirror telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Laporte, Philippe; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create the next generation Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescope array. It will be devoted to the observation of gamma rays over a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky where about 100 telescopes, composed of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are devoted to the highest energy region, to beyond 100 TeV. Due to the large number of SSTs, their unit cost is an important parameter. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which has never before been implemented in the design of a telescope. Over the last two years, we developed a mechanical design for SST-GATE from the optical and preliminary mechanical designs made by the University of Durham. The integration of this telescope is currently in progress. Since the early stages of mechanical design of SST-GATE, finite element method has been used employing shape and topology optimization techniques to help design several elements of the telescope. This allowed optimization of the mechanical stiffness/mass ratio, leading to a lightweight and less expensive mechanical structure. These techniques and the resulting mechanical design are detailed in this paper. We will also describe the finite element analyses carried out to calculate the mechanical deformations and the stresses in the structure under observing and survival conditions.

  14. 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome : Clinical and Molecular Analysis Using Array CGH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhar, S. U.; del Gaudio, D.; German, J. R.; Peters, S. U.; Ou, Z.; Bader, P. I.; Berg, J. S.; Blazo, M.; Brown, C. W.; Graham, B. H.; Grebe, T. A.; Lalani, S.; Irons, M.; Sparagana, S.; Williams, M.; Phillips, J. A.; Beaudet, A. L.; Stankiewicz, P.; Patel, A.; Cheung, S. W.; Sahoo, T.

    2010-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome results from loss of terminal segments of varying sizes at 22qter. Few genotype phenotype correlations have been found but all patients have mental retardation and severe delay, or absence of, expressive speech. We carried out clinical and molecular characterization of

  15. Prenatal detection and characterization of supernumerary marker chromosomes by array-CGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) occur in about 0.043% of newborns and in 0.076% of prenatal diagnoses. The phenotypes associated with sSMC vary substantially depending on size, gene content, and chromosome origin, which cannot easily be determined by karyotype or FISH analysis. There...

  16. Assessment of genome integrity in cattle transgenic cell lines using array CGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic cattle carrying multiple genomic modifications have been produced by serial rounds of somatic cell chromatin transfer (cloning) of sequentially genetically targeted somatic cells. However, cloning efficiency tends to decline with the increase of rounds of cloning. It is possible that mult...

  17. Increasing live birth rate by preimplantation genetic screening of pooled polar bodies using array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feichtinger

    Full Text Available Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using array-CGH to evaluate trophectoderm cells. However, in some countries, the analysis of embryonic cells is restricted by law. Therefore, we used BAC array-CGH to assess the impact of polar body analysis on the live birth rate. A disadvantage of polar body aneuploidy screening is the necessity of the analysis of both the first and second polar bodies, resulting in increases in costs for the patient and complex data interpretation. Aneuploidy screening results may sometimes be ambiguous if the first and second polar bodies show reciprocal chromosomal aberrations. To overcome this disadvantage, we tested a strategy involving the pooling of DNA from both polar bodies before DNA amplification. We retrospectively studied 351 patients, of whom 111 underwent polar body array-CGH before embryo transfer. In the group receiving pooled polar body array-CGH (aCGH analysis, 110 embryos were transferred, and 29 babies were born, corresponding to live birth rates of 26.4% per embryo and 35.7% per patient. In contrast, in the control group, the IVF treatment was performed without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS. For this group, 403 embryos were transferred, and 60 babies were born, resulting in live birth rates of 14.9% per embryo and 22.7% per patient. In conclusion, our data show that in the aCGH group, the use of aneuploidy screening resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate compared with the control group, supporting the benefit of PGS for IVF couples in

  18. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-05-01

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  19. Optimized design and research of secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Bingzhen; Liu, Youqiang; Guo, Limin; Yao, Shun; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    As the critical component of concentrating photovoltaic module, secondary concentrators can be effective in increasing the acceptance angle and incident light, as well as improving the energy uniformity of focal spots. This paper presents a design of transmission-type secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module. The 3-D model of this design is established by Solidworks and important parameters such as inclination angle and component height are optimized using Zemax. According to the design and simulation results, several secondary microprisms with different parameters are fabricated and tested in combination with Fresnel lens and multi-junction solar cell. The sun-simulator IV test results show that the combination has the highest output power when secondary microprism height is 5mm and top facet side length is 7mm. Compared with the case without secondary microprism, the output power can improve 11% after the employment of secondary microprisms, indicating the indispensability of secondary microprisms in concentrating photovoltaic module.

  20. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  1. Design of oligonucleotides for microarrays and perspectives for design of multi-transcriptome arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Wernersson, Rasmus; Knudsen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    with an overview of these parameters. We present here a flexible tool named OligoWiz for designing oligonucleotides for multiple purposes. OligoWiz presents a set of parameter scores in a graphical interface to facilitate an overview for the user. Additional custom parameter scores can easily be added......Optimal design of oligonucleotides for microarrays involves tedious and laborious work evaluating potential oligonucleotides relative to a series of parameters. The currently available tools for this purpose are limited in their flexibility and do not present the oligonucleotide designer...... to the program to extend the default parameters: homology, DeltaTm, low-complexity, position and GATC-only. Furthermore we present an analysis of the limitations in designing oligonucleotide sets that can detect transcripts from multiple organisms. OligoWiz is available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/OligoWiz/....

  2. Design of oligonucleotides for microarrays and perspectives for design of multi-transcriptome arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Wernersson, Rasmus; Knudsen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    overview of these parameters. We present here a flexible tool named OligoWiz for designing oligonucleotides for multiple purposes. OligoWiz presents a set of parameter scores in a graphical interface to facilitate an overview for the user. Additional custom parameter scores can easily be added to the......Optimal design of oligonucleotides for microarrays involves tedious and laborious work evaluating potential oligonucleotides relative to a series of parameters. The currently available tools for this purpose are limited in their flexibility and do not present the oligonucleotide designer with an...... program to extend the default parameters: homology, DeltaTm, low-complexity, position and GATC-only. Furthermore we present an analysis of the limitations in designing oligonucleotide sets that can detect transcripts from multiple organisms. OligoWiz is available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/OligoWiz/....

  3. Design of Frame-transferred Surface Array CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-heng; Yan, Yi-hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the requirement of low-noise observations of dark objects in deep-space explorations, the design method for a simple and stable space camera imaging system is proposed in this paper. Based on the back-illuminated frame-transferred surface array CCD (CCD47-20AIMO) produced by the British E2V company, the circuitry design is given for the every part of the system. In which the applications of the correlated double-sampling analog-digital converter (AD) and the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) can effectively suppress the correlated noise in the image signal. In addition, a drive control method favorable to the adjustment of exposure time is proposed, in the light-sensing stage it provides the exposure time with an independent and adjustable time delay to make the imaging system satisfy the requirement of long exposure time setting. The imaging system adopts the Cyclone III-series EP3C25Q240C8 field programable gate array produced by the Altera company as the kernel control device, and the drives are programmed in modules according to the function of the every device, in favor of transplantation. The simulative and experimental results indicate that the drive circuitry works normally, and that the system design can satisfy the preset requirement.

  4. Design of novel digital reactor protection system based on field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel design of reactor protection system (RPS) based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) is introduced. It is aided by micro-controller to achieve a kind of device diversity. The 2-out-of-3 voting mechanism is applied. FPGA modules perform the primary protection functions to accelerate the response speed, and avoid the common-mode-failures in software programming. Micro-controllers are able to enhance the communication ability and man-machine interface (MMI), they also accomplish the secondary protection functions

  5. Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOGMUS, O.

    2012-01-01

    A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV) array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used f...

  6. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  7. An analog bipolar-JFET master slice array for front-end electronics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog bipolar-JFET Master Slice Array (MSA) has been designed for implementation of ICs used in nuclear physics front-end electronics. The universal conception of MSAs active and passive elements provides great functional complexity to ICs in using them. The quality of active element parameters, number and values of available resistors and capacitors made it possible to integrate a four channel amplifier-shaper-discriminator with a base line restorer into the MSA die with dimensions 2.7 mmx3.6 mm. Eight-channel ICs can be made by connection of two chips by metal wiring on a wafer

  8. Simulation of g factor for size optimization and coupling in phased array coil design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effect of geometric parameters of the coil element in an array on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and g factor of parallel imaging are analyzed, and the optimal parameters for the maximal SNR and minimal g factor are also given in this paper. In addition, the effects of coupling on SNR and g factor have been analyzed. The test results indicate that g factor for parallel imaging is greatly increased and SNR is decreased for coupling. According to the optimization, a six-channel parallel coil has been designed for torso imaging.

  9. Design and fabrication of adjustable red-green-blue LED light arrays for plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitz J Dustin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although specific light attributes, such as color and fluence rate, influence plant growth and development, researchers generally cannot control the fine spectral conditions of artificial plant-growth environments. Plant growth chambers are typically outfitted with fluorescent and/or incandescent fixtures that provide a general spectrum that is accommodating to the human eye and not necessarily supportive to plant development. Many studies over the last several decades, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana, have clearly shown that variation in light quantity, quality and photoperiod can be manipulated to affect growth and control developmental transitions. Light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used for decades to test plant responses to narrow-bandwidth light. LEDs are particularly well suited for plant growth chambers, as they have an extraordinary life (about 100,000 hours, require little maintenance, and use negligible energy. These factors render LED-based light strategies particularly appropriate for space-biology as well as terrestrial applications. However, there is a need for a versatile and inexpensive LED array platform where individual wavebands can be specifically tuned to produce a series of light combinations consisting of various quantities and qualities of individual wavelengths. Two plans are presented in this report. Results In this technical report we describe the practical construction of tunable red-green-blue LED arrays to support research in plant growth and development. Two light fixture designs and corresponding circuitry are presented. The first is well suited for a laboratory environment for use in a finite area with small plants, such as Arabidopsis. The second is expandable and appropriate for growth chambers. The application of these arrays to early plant developmental studies has been validated with assays of hypocotyl growth inhibition/promotion and phototropic curvature in Arabidopsis seedlings

  10. Chromosomal aberrations detected by comparative genomic hybridization technique (CGH in invasive ductal carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshiravanpour P

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonlethal genetic damage is the basis for carcinogenesis. As various gene aberrations accumulate, malignant tumors are formed, regardless of whether the genetic damage is subtle or large enough to be distinguished in a karyotype. The study of chromosomal changes in tumor cells is important in the identification of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes by molecular cloning of genes in the vicinity of chromosomal aberrations. Furthermore, some specific aberrations can be of great diagnostic and prognostic value. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH is used to screen the entire genome for the detection and/or location chromosomal copy number changes.Methods: In this study, frozen sections of 20 primary breast tumors diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma from the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were studied by CGH to detect chromosomal aberrations. We compared histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.Results: Hybridization in four of the cases was not optimal for CGH analysis and they were excluded from the study. DNA copy number changes were detected in 12 (75% of the remaining 16 cases. Twenty-one instances of chromosomal aberrations were detected in total, including: +1q, +17q, +8q, +20q, -13q, -11q, -22q, -1p, -16q, -8p. The most frequent were +1q, +17q, +8q, -13q, similar to other studies. In three cases, we detected -13q, which is associated with axillary lymph node metastasis and was reported in one previous study. The mean numbers of chromosomal aberrations per tumor in metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors was 1.5 and 1, respectively. No other association between detected chromosomal aberrations and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were seen.Conclusion: Since intermediately to widely invasive carcinomas are more likely to have chromosomal aberrations, CGH can be a valuable prognostic tool. Furthermore, CGH can be used to detect targeting molecules within novel amplifications

  11. Design, development, and evaluation of focused ultrasound arrays for transesophageal cardiac ablations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hotaik

    The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is the evaluation of the feasibility of transesophageal cardiac surgery in arrhythmia treatment, using therapeutic ultrasound energy without the requirement for surgical incisions or blood contact. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting over 2.2 million Americans. One effective treatment is cardiac ablation, which shows a high rate of success in treating paroxysmal AF. As a prevailing modality for this treatment, catheter ablation using radiofrequency has been effective, but there is measurable morbidity and significant costs and time associated with this invasive procedure for permanent or persistent AF. To address these issues, a transesophageal ultrasound applicator for noninvasive cardiac ablations has been designed, developed and evaluated in this dissertation. Focused ultrasound for thermal ablation has gained interest for decades due to its noninvasive characteristics. Since the esophagus is close to the posterior of the left atrium, its position makes it attractive for the incision-less surgery of the selected area of the heart using ultrasound. The overall goal of this study is to bring an applicator as closely as possible to the heart in order to effectively deliver ultrasound energy, and create electrically isolating lesions in myocardial tissue, replicating the currently used Maze procedure. The Maze procedure is a surgical operation that treats AF by creating a grid of incisions resulting in non-conductive scar tissue in the atria. The initial design of an ultrasound applicator capable of creating atrial lesions from the esophagus, involved evaluating sound pressure fields within layers of the esophagus and myocardium. Based on the multiple factors of the simulation results of transducer arrays, current transesophageal medical devices, and the throat anatomy, a focused ultrasound transducer that can be inserted into the esophagus has been designed and tested. In this study, a

  12. Design of On-Chip N-Fold Orbital Angular Momentum Multicasting Using V-Shaped Antenna Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We design a V-shaped antenna array to realize on-chip multicasting from a single Gaussian beam to four orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. A pattern search assisted iterative (PSI) algorithm is used to design an optimized continuous phase pattern which is further discretized to generate collinearly superimposed multiple OAM beams. Replacing the designed discrete phase pattern with corresponding V-shaped antennas, on-chip N-fold OAM multicasting is achieved. The designed on-chip 4-fold OAM multicasting exploiting V-shaped antenna array shows favorable operation performance with low crosstalk less than -15 dB. PMID:25951325

  13. Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We design a V-shaped antenna array to realize on-chip multicasting from a single Gaussian beam to four orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. A pattern search assisted iterative (PSI) algorithm is used to design an optimized continuous phase pattern which is further discretized to generate collinearly superimposed multiple OAM beams. Replacing the designed discrete phase pattern with corresponding V-shaped antennas, on-chip N-fold OAM multicasting is achieved. The designed on-chip 4-fold OAM multicasting exploiting V-shaped antenna array shows favorable operation performance with low crosstalk less than -15 dB. PMID:25951325

  14. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes. (paper)

  15. Optimal activation of carboxyl-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles bioconjugated with antibody using orthogonal array design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoqang; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong; Tang, Meng; Liu, Hui

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to bioconjugate anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody on the surface of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and to optimize the activated conditions of bioconjugation. Anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody bioconjugated carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles were performed through a coupling strategy of EDC and sulfo-NHS. The procedure was comprised of two steps by activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal antibody. The optimal activated parameters of bioconjugation were evaluated by single factor design and orthogonal array design. SDS-PAGE analysis and Bradford assay was used for testing and verifying the efficiency of activated conditions obtained from orthogonal array. The results show that pH value, temperature and reaction time were important factors that influence bioconjugated efficiency. The activated parameters with pH value 6.2, temperature 25 degrees C and reaction time 30 min were obviously optimal for activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal EMMPEIN antibody. This coupling strategy for anti-EMMPRIN mAb bioconjugated on SPIO nanoparticles was efficient, and may be further applied in the fields of medical or biological practices. PMID:24266206

  16. Dynamic experiment design regularization approach to adaptive imaging with array radar/SAR sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkvarko, Yuriy; Tuxpan, José; Santos, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel structures adapted to the metrics in such the solution space. Next, the "model-free" variational analysis (VA)-based image enhancement approach and the "model-based" descriptive experiment design (DEED) regularization paradigm are unified into a new dynamic experiment design (DYED) regularization framework. Application of the proposed DYED framework to the adaptive array radar/SAR imaging problem leads to a class of two-level (DEED-VA) regularized SSP reconstruction techniques that aggregate the kernel adaptive anisotropic windowing with the projections onto convex sets to enforce the consistency and robustness of the overall iterative SSP estimators. We also show how the proposed DYED regularization method may be considered as a generalization of the MVDR, APES and other high-resolution nonparametric adaptive radar sensing techniques. A family of the DYED-related algorithms is constructed and their effectiveness is finally illustrated via numerical simulations. PMID:22163859

  17. Dynamic Experiment Design Regularization Approach to Adaptive Imaging with Array Radar/SAR Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel structures adapted to the metrics in such the solution space. Next, the “model-free” variational analysis (VA-based image enhancement approach and the “model-based” descriptive experiment design (DEED regularization paradigm are unified into a new dynamic experiment design (DYED regularization framework. Application of the proposed DYED framework to the adaptive array radar/SAR imaging problem leads to a class of two-level (DEED-VA regularized SSP reconstruction techniques that aggregate the kernel adaptive anisotropic windowing with the projections onto convex sets to enforce the consistency and robustness of the overall iterative SSP estimators. We also show how the proposed DYED regularization method may be considered as a generalization of the MVDR, APES and other high-resolution nonparametric adaptive radar sensing techniques. A family of the DYED-related algorithms is constructed and their effectiveness is finally illustrated via numerical simulations.

  18. Design, fabrication and performance test of a planar array module-type micro fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new and novel planar array module. • Easy handling/assembling as well as fast fabrication upon its commercialization. • Compact configuration design and geometry could be secured. - Abstract: We proposed and tested a new and novel planar array module (4 N style; N is an integer) consisting of 4, 8, 12 and 16 single polymer electrotype membrane (PEM) fuel cells connected in series on a plane with two different pin electrode flowfield configurations. This module has the potential to be not only easily handled and assembled but also to be fabricated quickly upon its commercialization. Using a Lithography Galvanic Abformung (LIGA)-like microfabrication technique, copper metal sheets were used to make two different flowfield plates with serpentine flow channels. A 4-cell (short stack), 8-cell, 12-cell and 16-cell (long stack) stack were developed and tested for performance study under different operating conditions. These were connected in a series of micro fuel cells consisting of an anode/cathode and Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). Performance results for a short stack/unit module (4 cells), 8 cells, 12 cells and a long stack/four modules (16 cells) were presented; it was found that significant improvements in VI/PI characteristics could be attained due to uniform and compact configuration design and geometry

  19. A novel stretchable micro-electrode array (SMEA) design for directional stretching of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretchable micro-electrode arrays (SMEAs) are useful tools to study the electrophysiology of living cells seeded on the devices under mechanical stimulation. For such applications, the SMEAs are used as cell culture substrates; therefore, the surface topography and mechanical properties of the devices should be minimally affected by the embedded stretchable electrical interconnects. In this paper, a novel design and micro-fabrication technology for a pneumatically actuated SMEA are presented to achieve stretchability with minimal surface area dedicated to the electrical interconnects and a well-defined surface strain distribution combined with integrated diverse micro-patterns to enable alignment and directional stretching of cells. The special mechanical design also enables the SMEA to have a prolonged electro-mechanical fatigue life time required for long-term cyclic stretching of the cell cultures (stable resistance of electrical interconnects for more than 160 thousand cycles of 20% stretching and relaxing). The proposed fabrication method is based on the state of the art micro-fabrication techniques and materials and circumvents the processing problems associated with using unconventional methods and materials to fabricate stretchable electrode arrays. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of the SMEA shows 4.5 MΩ impedance magnitude at 1 kHz for a TiN electrode 12 um in diameter. Cell culture experiments demonstrate the robustness of the SMEAs for long-term culturing experiments and compatibility with inverted fluorescent microscopy. (paper)

  20. Design and calibration of a six-axis MEMS sensor array for use in scoliosis correction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-axis sensor array has been developed to quantify the 3D force and moment loads applied in scoliosis correction surgery. Initially this device was developed to be applied during scoliosis correction surgery and augmented onto existing surgical instrumentation, however, use as a general load sensor is also feasible. The development has included the design, microfabrication, deployment and calibration of a sensor array. The sensor array consists of four membrane devices, each containing piezoresistive sensing elements, generating a total of 16 differential voltage outputs. The calibration procedure has made use of a custom built load application frame, which allows quantified forces and moments to be applied and compared to the outputs from the sensor array. Linear or non-linear calibration equations are generated to convert the voltage outputs from the sensor array back into 3D force and moment information for display or analysis. (papers)

  1. Design and synthesis of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array on Kapton substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Rabobason, Yvon; Rigas, Grigorios; Swaisaenyakorn, Srijittar; Mirkhaydarov, Bobur; Ravelo, Blaise; Shkunov, Maxim; Young, Paul; Benjelloun, Nabil

    2016-06-01

    Flexible front- and back-end RF/analogue system antennas were recently emerged. However, little flexible antenna system design is available so far, in planar hybrid technology with surface mounted components. This paper describes the design feasibility of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array system. It acts as a switching antenna implemented in hexapole configuration. The system is comprised of a key element RF switch terminated by two identical patch antennas associated to half-wave elementary transmission lines (TLs). A detailed theory illustrating the global S-parameter model determination in function of the given RF-switch return and insertion losses is established. In difference to the conventional microwave circuit theory, the proposed equivalent S-parameter model is originally built with the non-standard optimized antenna load. Thus, the synthesis method of the terminal antenna input impedance and the output access line characteristic impedance is formulated in function of the specified return and optimal transmission losses. The design method and theoretical approach feasibility is verified with the demonstrator of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array printed on Kapton substrate. The circuit prototype is implemented in hybrid planar technology integrating patch antenna operating at about 6 GHz and a packaged GaAs RF switch associated to the RF/DC signal decoupling accessory mounted surface components. Simulations of the designed circuit transmission and isolation losses from 5.5 GHz to 7 GHz were carried out by using the commercial RF switch S-parameter touchstone model provided by the manufacturer. The simulated and measured return losses are compared and discussed. Then, the measured radiation patterns confirm the proposed switched antenna concept feasibility.

  2. Design of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Emulators for Motor Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ben Achballah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA circuits play a significant role in major recent embedded process control designs. However, exploiting these platforms requires deep hardware conception skills and remains an important time consuming stage in a design flow. High Level Synthesis technique avoids this bottleneck and increases design productivity as witnessed by industry specialists. Approach: This study proposes to apply this technique for the conception and implementation of a Real Time Direct Current Machine (RTDCM emulator for an embedded control application. Results: Several FPGA-based configuration scenarios are studied. A series of tests including design and timing-precision analysis were conducted to discuss and validate the obtained hardware architectures. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed methodology has accelerated the design time besides it has provided an extra time to refine the hardware core of the DCM emulator. The high level synthesis technique can be applied to the control field especially to test with low cost and short delays newest algorithms and motor models.

  3. Model based on-chip 13bits ADC design dedicated to uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Benoit; Robert, Patrick; Dupret, Antoine; Villard, Patrick; Pochic, David

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents an on-chip 13 bits 10 M/S Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) specifically designed for infrared bolometric image sensor. Bolometric infrared sensors are MEMs based thermal sensors, which covers a large spectrum of infrared applications, ranging from night vision to predictive industrial maintenance and medical imaging. With the current move towards submicron technologies, the demand for more integrated, smarter sensors and microsystems has dramatically increased. This trend has strengthened the need of on-chip ADC as the interface between the analog core and the digital processing electronic. However designing an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. To take into account those specific needs, a high level model has been developed prior to the actual design. In this paper, we present the trade-offs of ADC design linked to infrared key performance parameters and bolometric technology detection method. The original development scheme, based on system level modeling, is also discussed. Finally we present the actual design and the measured performances.

  4. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator. PMID:26978370

  5. Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and its application for DNA methylation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviani Diego

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is essential for human immunity and is highly associated with common diseases, including cancer. While the genetics of the MHC has been studied intensively for many decades, very little is known about the epigenetics of this most polymorphic and disease-associated region of the genome. Methods To facilitate comprehensive epigenetic analyses of this region, we have generated a genomic tiling array of 2 Kb resolution covering the entire 4 Mb MHC region. The array has been designed to be compatible with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and expression profiling, including of non-coding RNAs. The array comprises 7832 features, consisting of two replicates of both forward and reverse strands of MHC amplicons and appropriate controls. Results Using MeDIP, we demonstrate the application of the MHC array for DNA methylation profiling and the identification of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs. Based on the analysis of two tissues and two cell types, we identified 90 tDMRs within the MHC and describe their characterisation. Conclusion A tiling array covering the MHC region was developed and validated. Its successful application for DNA methylation profiling indicates that this array represents a useful tool for molecular analyses of the MHC in the context of medical genomics.

  6. Development of accelerated test design for service-life prediction of solar array at Mead, Nebraska. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-11-03

    As a significant beginning in applying accelerated tests to solar arrays for life-prediction purposes, this study is directed toward (a) developing a plan for predicting the service life of a specific solar array in a specific geographic site - viz., the 25-KW flat-plate array installed near Mead, Nebraska, and (b) developing technical information from laboratory and field measurements for designing an accelerated test that can be carried out in 2 years and have predictive validity for a service life as long as 20 years. Status of the program is described.

  7. Quadrature transmit array design using single-feed circularly polarized patch antenna for parallel transmission in MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Daniel B Vigneron; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Quadrature coils are often desired in MR applications because they can improve MR sensitivity and also reduce excitation power. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a quadrature array design strategy for parallel transmission at 298 MHz using single-feed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna technique. Each array element is a nearly square ring microstrip antenna and is fed at a point on the diagonal of the antenna to generate quadrature magnetic fields. Compared with conventional ...

  8. Designing Antenna Arrays Using Signal Processing, Image Processing and Optimization Toolboxes of MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Sahaya Kulandai Raj; Schoebel, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting the similarity between signal-processing theory and antenna-array theory, it has been demonstrated that with little effort analysis of antenna arrays can be done using signaland image-processing tools of MATLAB. The analogy between FIR filters and arrays can be effectively used to explain the concepts of the arrays to students. Also, synthesis of arrays, to a first approximation, can be carried out using signal-processing tools in the case of onedimensional arrays, and image-proc...

  9. A novel design of infrared focal plane array with digital read out interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Ding, Ruijun; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Chun

    2010-10-01

    Infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) with digital read out interface is a key sign of the third generation IRFPA, which plays an important role in the reliability and miniaturization of infrared systems. A readout integrated circuit (ROIC) of IRFPA with digital readout interface based on dual ramp single slope (DRSS) analog to digital converter (ADC) architecture is presented in the paper. The design is realized using shared ADCs in column-wise and these ADCs are consisted of simplified DRSS architecture and shared units. Sample, conversion and readout are proceeded simultaneously in order to adapt large scale and high readout frame rate application. This circuit also shows many advantages, including small area and low power consumption. Simulation result shows that this architecture can be expand to 320×256 pixel array with a frame rate of 100 frames per second or a larger size whit lower frame rate, the quantized resolution of this circuit is 12 bit, and the analog power consumption is only 17μw per ADC.

  10. Design of DSP-based high-power digital solar array simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Zhilong; Tong, Weichao; Feng, Jian; Ji, Yibo

    2013-12-01

    To satisfy rigid performance specifications, a feedback control was presented for zoom optical lens plants. With the increasing of global energy consumption, research of the photovoltaic(PV) systems get more and more attention. Research of the digital high-power solar array simulator provides technical support for high-power grid-connected PV systems research.This paper introduces a design scheme of the high-power digital solar array simulator based on TMS320F28335. A DC-DC full-bridge topology was used in the system's main circuit. The switching frequency of IGBT is 25kHz.Maximum output voltage is 900V. Maximum output current is 20A. Simulator can be pre-stored solar panel IV curves.The curve is composed of 128 discrete points .When the system was running, the main circuit voltage and current values was feedback to the DSP by the voltage and current sensors in real-time. Through incremental PI,DSP control the simulator in the closed-loop control system. Experimental data show that Simulator output voltage and current follow a preset solar panels IV curve. In connection with the formation of high-power inverter, the system becomes gridconnected PV system. The inverter can find the simulator's maximum power point and the output power can be stabilized at the maximum power point (MPP).

  11. High-Throughput Analysis of Subtelomeric Chromosome Rearrangements by Use of Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman, Joris A; Schoenmakers, Eric F.P.M.; Eussen, Bert H; Janssen, Irene; Merkx, Gerard; van Cleef, Brigitte; van Ravenswaaij, Conny M.; Brunner, Han G.; Smeets, Dominique; van Kessel, Ad Geurts

    2002-01-01

    Telomeric chromosome rearrangements may cause mental retardation, congenital anomalies, and miscarriages. Automated detection of subtle deletions or duplications involving telomeres is essential for high-throughput diagnosis, but impossible when conventional cytogenetic methods are used. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) allows high-resolution screening of copy number abnormalities by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference genomes to arrays of robotically spot...

  12. Interference testing methods of large astronomical mirrors base on lenses and CGH wavefront correctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Patrikeev, Vladimir E.; Semenov, Alexandr P.

    2010-07-01

    Since last years and at present days LZOS, JSC has been producing a range of primary mirrors of astronomical telescopes with diameter more than 1m under contracts with foreign companies. Simultaneous testing of an aspherical surface figure by means of a lens corrector and CGH (computer generated hologram) corrector, testing of the corrector using the CGH allow challenging the task of definite testing of the mirrors surfaces figure. The results of successful figuring of the mirrors with diameter up to 4m like VISTA Project (Southern European Observatory), TNT (Thai National telescope, Australia - Thailand), LCO telescopes (Las Cumbres Observatory, USA; Russian national projects and meeting these mirrors specifications' requirements are all considered as the sufficient evidence.

  13. LINAC DESIGN FOR AN ARRAY OF SOFT X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the linac delivering electron bunches into ten independent soft x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) producing light at 1 nm and longer wavelengths is presented. The bunch repetition rate in the linac is 1 MHz and 100 kHz in each of ten FEL beam lines. Various issues regarding machine layout and lattice, bunch compression, collimation, and the beam switch yard are discussed. Particular attention is given to collective effects. A demanding goal is to preserve both a low beam slice emittance and low slice energy spread during acceleration, bunch compression and distribution of the electron bunches into the array of FEL beamlines. Detailed studies of the effect of the electron beam microbunching caused by longitudinal space-charge forces and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) have been carried out and their results are presented

  14. Designing shielded radio-frequency phased-array coils for magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wen-Long; Zhang Ju-Cheng; Li Xia; Xu Bing-Qiao; Tao Gui-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an approach to the design of shielded radio-frequency (RF) phased-array coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is proposed.The target field method is used to find current densities distributed on primary and shield coils.The stream function technique is used to discretize current densities and to obtain the winding patterns of the coils.The corresponding highly ill-conditioned integral equation is solved by the Tikhonov regularization with a penalty function related to the minimum curvature.To balance the simplicity and smoothness with the homogeneity of the magnetic field of the coil's winding pattern,the selection of a penalty factor is discussed in detail.

  15. Design of a tunable frequency selective surface absorber as a loaded receiving antenna array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective approach to designing a tunable electromagnetic absorber is presented and experimentally verified; it is based on an idea that an existing frequency selective surface (FSS) absorber is regarded as a loaded receiving antenna array. The existing absorber is effectively simplified by withdrawing half of the loaded resistors; a more compact one is obtained when lumped capacitors are introduced. Building on this, a varactor-tunable absorber with a proper bias network is proposed. Numerical simulations of one tunable absorber with 1.6 mm in thickness show that a wide tuning range from 3.05 GHz to 1.96 GHz is achieved by changing the capacitance of the loaded varactor from 0.5 pF to 5.0 pF. An experiment is carried out using a rectangular waveguide measurement setup and excellent agreement between the simulated and measured results is demonstrated. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Design and analysis of a high fill-factor SOI diode uncooled infrared focal plane array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept for uncooled infrared (IR) imaging with a high fill-factor SOI diode structure has been proposed. This approach has the potential of reaching a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) in the milli-Kelvin range. This detector makes the IR absorbing structure cover almost the entire pixel area, in which the fill factor can reach 80%. Using the multilever structure, thermal isolation can be independently optimized without sacrificing the IR absorption area. The analysis shows that this high fill-factor SOI diode uncooled IR focal plane array can be made without failure of structure breakdown or buckling. The design shows that the sensitivity is of 7.75 × 10−3 V K−1, and the NETD is of 42 mK (f/1.0, 30Hz) which can be achieved in a 35 µm × 35 µm micromachined structure. (paper)

  17. Design of tunable acoustic metamaterials through periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic shunted piezoelectric patches are employed for the design of a tunable, one-dimensional metamaterial. The configuration considered encompasses a beam undergoing longitudinal and transverse motion, and a periodic array of piezoelectric patches with electrodes connected to a resonant electric circuit. The resulting acousto-electrical system is characterized by an internal resonant behavior that occurs at the tuning frequency of the shunting circuits, and is analogous in its operation to other internally resonating systems previously proposed, with the addition of its simple tunability. The performance of the beam is characterized through the application of the transfer matrix approach, which evaluates the occurrence of bandgaps at the tuning frequencies and estimates wave attenuation within such bands. Moreover, a homogenization study is conducted to illustrate the internal resonant characteristics of the system within an analytical framework. Experiments performed on the considered beam structure validate the theoretical predictions and illustrate its internal resonant characteristics and the formation of the related bandgaps. (paper)

  18. Design of readout circuit for microcantilever-based ripple uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junmin; Chen, Zhongjian; Lu, Wengao; Zhang, Yacong; Lei, Ke; Zhao, Baoying

    2009-07-01

    A readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for uncooled microcantilever infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) based on capacitive readout is proposed. The ROIC is optimized according to noise modeling and analysis to reduce noise. An experimental chip of 16×16 FPAs readout circuit has been designed and fabricated using 0.35um CMOS technology. The measurement results showed that the power dissipation is 16.5mW from a 5V supply voltage at 50Hz frame rate, the linearity is 99.2% at the typical mode; the uniformity is larger than 97% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) is below 150e. It is believed that the ROIC has a great potential in the applications of large-scale micro-cantilever-based uncooled IRFPAs.

  19. Application of Correlation and Coherency Methods to Naqu Seismic Array Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Chunyue; Zheng Zhong

    2006-01-01

    The waveform data recorded during the site survey of the Naqu seismic array in Aug. 2004 were processed by the author. According to the relativity of site pairs in time and frequency domains, the reference values of the inner ring and outer ring were determined. The author evaluated the array deployed for site survey as the primary array, and the results show that the resolution of the primary array is high enough to locate earthquakes precisely.

  20. Investigation of error compensation in CGH-based form testing of aspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuerwald, S.; Brill, N.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-05-01

    Interferometric form testing using computer generated holograms is one of the main full-field measurement techniques. Till now, various modified measurement setups for optical form testing interferometry have been presented. Currently, typical form deviations in the region of several tens of nanometers occur in case of the widely used computer generated hologram (CGH) based interferometric form testing. Deviations occur due to a non-perfect alignment of the computer generated hologram (CGH) relative to the transmission sphere (Fizeau objective) and also of the asphere relative to the testing wavefront. Thus, measurement results are user and setup dependent which results in an unsatisfactory reproducibility of the form errors. In case of aligning a CGH, this usually requires a minimization of the spatial frequency of the fringe pattern by an operator. Finding the ideal position however often cannot be performed with sufficient accuracy by the operator as the position of minimum spatial fringe density is usually not unique. Therefore, the scientific and technical objectives of this paper comprise the development of a simulation based approach to explain and quantify the experimental errors due to misalignment of the specimen towards a computer generated hologram in an optical form testing measurement system. A further step is the programming of an iterative method to realize a virtual optimised realignment of the system on the basis of Zernike polynomial decomposition which should allow the calculation of the measured form for an ideal alignment and thus the subtraction of the alignment based form error. Different analysis approaches are investigated with regard to the final accuracy and reproducibility. To validate the theoretical models a series of systematic experiments is performed with hexapod-positioning systems in order to allow an exact and reproducible positioning of the optical CGH-based setup.

  1. Design Studies for a VUV--Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft X-ray light source, and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility responsive to them is being studied at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The facility is based on a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on the experimental requirements, the individualFELs may be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded highgain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds. This new light source would serve a broad community of scientists in many areas of research, similar to existing utilization of storage ring based light sources. To reduce technical risks and constructioncosts, accelerator research, development, and design studies at LBNL target the most critical components and systems of the facility. We are developing a high-repetition-rate low-emittance electron gun, high quantum efficiency photocathodes, and have embarked on design and optimization of the electron beam accelerator, FEL switchyard, and array of FELs. We continue our work on precision timing and synchronization systems critical for time-resolved experiments using pump-probe techniques.

  2. Biochip array technology immunoassay performance and quantitative confirmation of designer piperazines for urine workplace drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Concheiro, Marta; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Designer piperazines are emerging novel psychoactive substances (NPS) with few high-throughput screening methods for their identification. We evaluated a biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for phenylpiperazines (PNP) and benzylpiperazines (BZP) and analyzed 20,017 randomly collected urine workplace specimens. Immunoassay performance at recommended cutoffs was evaluated for PNPI (5 μg/L), PNPII (7.5 μg/L), and BZP (5 μg/L) antibodies. Eight hundred forty positive and 206 randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Assay limits of detection for PNPI, PNPII, and BZP were 2.9, 6.3, and 2.1 μg/L, respectively. Calibration curves were linear (R (2) > 0.99) with upper limits of 42 μg/L for PNPI/PNII and 100 μg/L for BZP. Quality control samples demonstrated imprecision performance of the Randox BAT immunoassay to identify urinary piperazines and documented improved performance when antibody cutoffs were raised. In addition, in randomized workplace urine specimens, all but two positive specimens contained mCPP and/or trazodone, most likely from legitimate medical prescriptions. Graphical Abstract Biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for designer piperazines detection in urine. In chemiluminescent immunoassay, the labeled-drug (antigen) competes with the drug in the urine. In the absence of drug, the labeled-drug binds to the antibody releasing an enzyme (horseradish peroxidase) to react with the substrate and producing chemiluminescence. The higher the drug concentration in urine, the weaker the chemiluminescent signal is produced. All presumptive positive specimens and randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were analyzed and confirmed by a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry with limit of quantification of 2.5 or 5 μg/L. PMID:25903022

  3. Improved design of superconductor/normal conductor/superconductor Josephson junction series arrays for an ac Josephson voltage standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconductor/normal conductor/superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction series arrays are the subject of research for the realization of a Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) based on pulse-driven Josephson junctions. Lumped arrays of SNS Josephson junctions are investigated for this application at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The series arrays consisting of Nb/HfTi/Nb SNS junctions are embedded in the center line of a coplanar waveguide transmission line. To increase the ac output voltage, the Josephson junction series array is designed as a meander-like structure. A broadband response of the arrays is required for the complex pulse operation of the JAWS. The arrays are investigated by dc measurements and for test purposes under continuous microwave irradiation at different frequencies. Flat Shapiro steps were measured for meander-like series arrays with 21 parallel lines containing up to 10 752 junctions. A sine wave with a frequency of 2.5 kHz and a peak voltage of 214 mVPeak was synthesized under pulse mode operation

  4. Indigenous design and development of multiPSD array for time of flight neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Devan, Shylaja; Das, Amrita; Patkar, S. M.; Rao, Mala N.

    2016-05-01

    Time of Flight neutron Spectrometer for inelastic neutron scattering studies is being commissioned at Dhruva reactor. Neutron pulse tagging is carried out using the Fermi chopper. Scattered neutrons at maximum possible scattered solid angle are needed to be detected along with the time information at detector. Precise and efficient detection system is essential for measurement of spatial and temporal distribution. Detection area is optimized to cover an angle of 70° in horizontal direction and 23° in vertical direction. Position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are designed with judicial use of precious 3He gas and a few PSDs with BF3 gas as suitable alternative for 3He gas. An array of vertically arranged 1 m long, 50 PSDs, covers the arc length of 2.5 m and detection area 2.5 m2. The design of the BF3 PSDs is supported by investigations on the gas purity, fill gas pressure, drift region, drift field and neutron absorption in cathode wall. Design details and performance of the PSDs are presented in the paper.

  5. A new sparse design method on phased array-based acoustic emission sensor for partial discharge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acoustic detecting performance of a partial discharge (PD) ultrasonic sensor array can be improved by increasing the number of array elements. However, it will increase the complexity and cost of the PD detection system. Therefore, a sparse sensor with an optimization design can be chosen to ensure good acoustic performance. In this paper, first, a quantitative method is proposed for evaluating the acoustic performance of a square PD ultrasonic array sensor. Second, a method of sparse design is presented to combine the evaluation method with the chaotic monkey algorithm. Third, an optimal sparse structure of a 3 × 3 square PD ultrasonic array sensor is deduced. It is found that, under different sparseness and sparse structure, the main beam width of the directivity function shows a small variation, while the sidelobe amplitude shows a bigger variation. For a specific sparseness, the acoustic performance under the optimal sparse structure is close to that using a full array. Finally, some simulations based on the above method show that, for certain sparseness, the sensor with the optimal sparse structure exhibits superior positioning accuracy compared to that with a stochastic one. The sensor array structure may be chosen according to the actual requirements for an actual engineering application. (paper)

  6. Design of Vivaldi antenna array with end-fire beam steering function for 5G mobile terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a new design of phased array antenna for future fifth generation (5G) cellular communications. The proposed phased array antenna is designed on a low-cost N9000 PTFE substrate with overall size of 60×120×0.8 mm3. It consists of eight 28-GHz Vivaldi antenna elements used to...... characteristics in the entire operation band, which makes it suitable for millimeter-wave 5G communications. In addition, the performance of the antenna in the vicinity of user’s hand has been investigated in this study....

  7. Genomic characterization of some Iranian children with idiopathic mental retardation using array comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Behjati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation (MR has a prevalence of 1-3% and genetic causes are present in more than 50% of patients. Chromosomal abnormalities are one of the most common genetic causes of MR and are responsible for 4-28% of mental retardation. However, the smallest loss or gain of material visible by standard cytogenetic is about 4 Mb and for smaller abnormalities, molecular cytogenetic techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH should be used. It has been shown that 15-25% of idiopathic MR (IMR has submicroscopic rearrangements detectable by array CGH. In this project, the genomic abnormalities were investigated in 32 MR patients using this technique. Materials and Methods: Patients with IMR with dysmorphism were investigated in this study. Karyotype analysis, fragile X and metabolic tests were first carried out on the patients. The copy number variation was then assessed in a total of 32 patients with normal results for the mentioned tests using whole genome oligo array CGH. Multiple ligation probe amplification was carried out as a confirmation test. Results: In total, 19% of the patients showed genomic abnormalities. This is reduced to 12.5% once the two patients with abnormal karyotypes (upon re-evaluation are removed. Conclusion: The array CGH technique increased the detection rate of genomic imbalances in our patients by 12.5%. It is an accurate and reliable method for the determination of genomic imbalances in patients with IMR and dysmorphism.

  8. Genome-wide mapping of copy number variation in humans: comparative analysis of high resolution array platforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini R Haraksingh

    Full Text Available Accurate and efficient genome-wide detection of copy number variants (CNVs is essential for understanding human genomic variation, genome-wide CNV association type studies, cytogenetics research and diagnostics, and independent validation of CNVs identified from sequencing based technologies. Numerous, array-based platforms for CNV detection exist utilizing array Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genotyping or both. We have quantitatively assessed the abilities of twelve leading genome-wide CNV detection platforms to accurately detect Gold Standard sets of CNVs in the genome of HapMap CEU sample NA12878, and found significant differences in performance. The technologies analyzed were the NimbleGen 4.2 M, 2.1 M and 3×720 K Whole Genome and CNV focused arrays, the Agilent 1×1 M CGH and High Resolution and 2×400 K CNV and SNP+CGH arrays, the Illumina Human Omni1Quad array and the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. The Gold Standards used were a 1000 Genomes Project sequencing-based set of 3997 validated CNVs and an ultra high-resolution aCGH-based set of 756 validated CNVs. We found that sensitivity, total number, size range and breakpoint resolution of CNV calls were highest for CNV focused arrays. Our results are important for cost effective CNV detection and validation for both basic and clinical applications.

  9. The Design of Monolithic AC-coupled 1-Dimensional Voltage-Controlled-Oscillators (VCOs) Phased-array Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Donald Y. C.; Lopez, J.

    2011-04-01

    A fully monolithic 1-Dimensional (1-D) AC-coupled Voltage-Controlled-Oscillators (VCOs) phased-array network design will be presented in this paper. This radio-frequency (RF) VCO array integrates on-chip inductors, varactors and bias current sources and it contains an odd number of VCOs AC-coupled through on-chip switchable resistor networks using MOSFETs. The measured results and SPICE simulated performance of the monolithic unit cell VCO agree reasonably well. Realistic circuit simulations in IBM 7HP 0.18 um BiCMOS design kit indicate promising results of the 1-D coupled-VCO array by showing the design can control the phasing of this on-chip VCO-array by means of tuning the edge elements and/or by varying the coupling strength via different resistor values using the on-chip MOSFET switches. Simulation data shows that it can offer high directivity and a possible element-to-element phase tuning arrangement that allows a ˜±20-30° degree coverage from broadside without the need for phase shifters or additional circuitry complexity. This AC-coupled 1-D VCO array, therefore, shows great potential for RF active antennas applications to perform wide angle beam steering for the highly used S-band.

  10. Microdeletion and microduplication analysis of chinese conotruncal defects patients with targeted array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Gong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to develop a reliable targeted array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to detect microdeletions and microduplications in congenital conotruncal defects (CTDs, especially on 22q11.2 region, and for some other chromosomal aberrations, such as 5p15-5p, 7q11.23 and 4p16.3. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with CTDs, including 12 pulmonary atresia (PA, 10 double-outlet right ventricle (DORV, 3 transposition of great arteries (TGA, 1 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF and one ventricular septal defect (VSD, were enrolled in this study and screened for pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs, using Agilent 8 x 15K targeted aCGH. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was performed to test the molecular results of targeted aCGH. RESULTS: Four of 27 patients (14.8% had 22q11.2 CNVs, 1 microdeletion and 3 microduplications. qPCR test confirmed the microdeletion and microduplication detected by the targeted aCGH. CONCLUSION: Chromosomal abnormalities were a well-known cause of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA. This aCGH using arrays with high-density coverage in the targeted regions can detect genomic imbalances including 22q11.2 and other 10 kinds CNVs effectively and quickly. This approach has the potential to be applied to detect aneuploidy and common microdeletion/microduplication syndromes on a single microarray.

  11. Conceptual design and infrastructure for the installation of the first AGATA sub-array at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadea, A., E-mail: gadea@ific.uv.es [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova (Italy); IFIC, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia (Spain); Farnea, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Million, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Mengoni, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Bazzacco, D.; Recchia, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Dewald, A.; Pissulla, Th.; Rother, W. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Angelis, G. de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Austin, A. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Aydin, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkey); Badoer, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Bellato, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Benzoni, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Berti, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Beunard, R. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Birkenbach, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Bissiato, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova (Italy); and others

    2011-10-21

    The first implementation of the AGATA spectrometer consisting of five triple germanium detector clusters has been installed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN. This setup has two major goals, the first one is to validate the {gamma}-tracking concept and the second is to perform an experimental physics program using the stable beams delivered by the Tandem-PIAVE-ALPI accelerator complex. A large variety of physics topics will be addressed during this campaign, aiming to investigate both neutron and proton-rich nuclei. The setup has been designed to be coupled with the large-acceptance magnetic-spectrometer PRISMA. Therefore, the in-beam prompt {gamma} rays detected with AGATA will be measured in coincidence with the products of multinucleon-transfer and deep-inelastic reactions measured by PRISMA. Moreover, the setup is versatile enough to host ancillary detectors, including the heavy-ion detector DANTE, the {gamma}-ray detector array HELENA, the Cologne plunger for lifetime measurements and the Si-pad telescope TRACE. In this paper the design, characteristics and performance figures of the setup will be described.

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Packaging of an Integrated, Wirelessly-Powered Optrode Array for Optogenetics Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED dies and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments.

  13. Fabrication and design of various dimensions of multi-step ashperical microlens arrays for OLED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C. T.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, M. F.; Hsu, Y. C.

    2011-06-01

    An optical film with aspherical microlens array (A-MLA) by using multi-step lithography process for an OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) package is fabricated, by which method the luminance of OLEDs can be enhanced. The method of design and fabrication of an A-MLA is explored in this study. In the design process, various parameters of an A-MLA such as curved profiles, layout template and dimensions of microlens are analyzed and characterized. Curved profiles include hyperbola, parabola, ellipse and sphere; and layout templates include square, hexagon, triangle and tangential circle. The profile of the A-MLA was determined by using a commercial optical simulation software, FRED. Based on the simulated result, a film with an A-MLA was fabricated using the LIGA-like (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung, LIGA) process, including lithography, sputtering, micro-molding with PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) and UV (Ultraviolet)-cured technology. The major challenge to this process is to use JSR-126N negative thick photoresist to manufacture an approximate A-MLA optical film with multi-step lithography method. Finally, the films with A-MLAs are attached to an OLED to measure their optical-electric properties. The effectsof A-MLA optical films on OLED luminance are analyzed. In addition, the measured results are compared with simulated ones. They show good agreement with each other.

  14. The Design of FPGA-based Array CCD Sensor Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtao Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CCD Sensor is the crutial equipment for environment perception which is widely used in various fields such as surveilliance,vision navigation and machine vision. The commercial CCD device has been encapsulated the sensor driver inside which is not opened for secondary development. Even this mode facilitate the usage but it really can not content the customizable need. For solving this challenging but imperative issue, we designed a novel CCD sensor driver system which implement the efficient and effective image acquisition task in customizing approach. The working principle and driving timing sequence about ICX625AQA the interline CCD image sensor used in our system are discussed in detail. For handling with this data intensive task, a high performance Field Programmable GateArray (FPGA controller is used for data allocation and translation, the peripheral circuits including AD9974 and CXD3400 drive interface which process the horizontal signal and vertical signal, respectively. The designed system proposed at the end of this paper.

  15. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  16. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Calorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Masimilliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; Porter, F. Scott; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor-bearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  17. Studie zur Häufigkeit und Art von Chromosomenanomalien unter frühen Spontanaborten ohne in vitro Wachstum - Retrospektive Untersuchung mittels Comparativer Genomhybridisierung (CGH)

    OpenAIRE

    Pircher, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Die CGH ist eine molekularzytogenetische Methode, welche chromosomale Imbalancen durch reverse Floureszenz-in-situ-Hybridisierung zuverlässig aufdecken kann. Dadurch dass ausschließlich genomische DNA und keine Metaphasen des zu untersuchenden Materials benötigt werden, umgeht die CGH damit die Einschränkungen der konventionellen Chromosomenanalyse. In dieser Studie wurde das diagnostische Potential der CGH zur retrospekt...

  18. Joint Design of Spherical Microphone and Loudspeaker Arrays for Room Acoustic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Hai; Rafaely, Boaz; Noisternig, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Spherical microphone arrays (SMAs) and spherical loudspeaker arrays (SLAs) have been studied separately for directional sound recording and radiation, respectively, and for room acoustic analysis. The use of configurations comprised of both a SLA and a SMA, referred to as acoustic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, can potentially facilitate an additional spatial analysis of room acoustics due to the added spatial diversity they provide. When using spherical arrays, robustness to ...

  19. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.

  20. Research on analytical model and design formulas of permanent magnetic bearings based on Halbach array with arbitrary segmented magnetized angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nianxian; Wang, Dongxiong; Chen, Kuisheng; Wu, Huachun

    2016-07-01

    The bearing capacity of permanent magnetic bearings can be improved efficiently by using the Halbach array magnetization. However, the research on analytical model of Halbach array PMBs with arbitrary segmented magnetized angle has not been developed. The application of Halbach array PMBs has been limited by the absence of the analytical model and design formulas. In this research, the Halbach array PMBs with arbitrary segmented magnetized angle has been studied. The magnetization model of bearings is established. The magnetic field distribution model of the permanent magnet array is established by using the scalar magnetic potential model. On the basis of this, the bearing force model and the bearing stiffness model of the PMBs are established based on the virtual displacement method. The influence of the pair of magnetic rings in one cycle and the structure parameters of PMBs on the maximal bearing capacity and support stiffness characteristics are studied. The reference factors for the design process of PMBs have been given. Finally, the theoretical model and the conclusions are verified by the finite element analysis.

  1. Application-specific coarse-grained reconfigurable array: architecture and design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Dongpei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Hengzhu

    2015-06-01

    Coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays (CGRAs) have shown potential for application in embedded systems in recent years. Numerous reconfigurable processing elements (PEs) in CGRAs provide flexibility while maintaining high performance by exploring different levels of parallelism. However, a difference remains between the CGRA and the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Some application domains, such as software-defined radios (SDRs), require flexibility with performance demand increases. More effective CGRA architectures are expected to be developed. Customisation of a CGRA according to its application can improve performance and efficiency. This study proposes an application-specific CGRA architecture template composed of generic PEs (GPEs) and special PEs (SPEs). The hardware of the SPE can be customised to accelerate specific computational patterns. An automatic design methodology that includes pattern identification and application-specific function unit generation is also presented. A mapping algorithm based on ant colony optimisation is provided. Experimental results on the SDR target domain show that compared with other ordinary and application-specific reconfigurable architectures, the CGRA generated by the proposed method performs more efficiently for given applications.

  2. Design of a prototype microchannel plate detector with cooled amorphous silicon array readout for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-performance large-area imaging detectors for fast neutrons in the 5-14 MeV energy range do not exist at present. The aim of this project is to combine microchannel plates or MCPs (or similar electron multiplication structures) traditionally used in image intensifiers and X-ray detectors with amorphous silicon pixel arrays to produce a composite converter and intensifier position-sensitive imaging system. This detector will provide an order of magnitude improvement in image resolution when compared with current millimetre resolution limits obtained using phosphor- or scintillator-based hydrogen-rich converters. In this study the detection of fast neutrons is based on neutron capture in silicon rather than proton recoil in hydrogen-rich converters. This will reduce the effect that light spreading has on image resolution when using conventional phosphor-based converters. The threshold in the silicon capture cross-section will reduce the effect of neutron scatter on the detectability of small features in fast neutron radiographs. In this study we highlight the prototype detector design, present its main advantages and the current status of the detector build phase

  3. Design and fabrication of an elliptical micro-lens array with grating for laser safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. H.; Wu, B. Q.; Chan, C. Y.; Lee, W. B.; Dong, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    With the enormous expansion of laser usage in medicine, industry and research, all facilities must formulate and adhere to specific safety methods that appropriately address user protection. The protective ellipticalal microstructure with grating is a novel technology which can provide the principal means of ensuring against ocular injury, and must be worn at all times during laser operation. On the basis of Fresnel's law and the diffractive law, Solidworks and Lighttools software are applied to design the elliptical micro-lens array and correspondent grating. The height of the microstructure is 100um and its period is 3mm. The period of grating is 5um. It is shown that the amount of emergent light of a specific wavelength (1064nm) can reflect more than 40° from the incident light through simulation, while the incident light is perpendicular to the microstructure. The fabrication adopts the ultra-precision single point diamond method and injection molding method. However, it is found in the test that the surface roughness has a serious effect on the angle between the emergent and incident light. As a result, the element can reflect the vertical incidence beam into a tilted emergent beam with a certain angular degree , as well as protecting users from laser damage injures.

  4. Design and performance of acoustic planar array antenna for Doppler sodar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Kamalakumari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote probing of the thermal structure and the wind velocity in the lower atmosphere requires highly directive antennas, which should have a half-power beam width of about ±10° (3-dB points, a 90°-sidelobe suppression of at least 40 dB, little volume reverberation, low wind sensitivity, and be made of weatherproofmaterial. In this paper, various off-axis planar antennas have been built and acoustically evaluated the design aspects, measured results and field patterns of an 8x8 acoustic planar array antennas are described. Tweeter elements are arranged in a planar geometry and are capable of transmitting vertical polarization when placed nearly horizontal, are appropriate for the sodar applications. The performance of 8x8 planar antennas are tested experimentally for the frequencies from 1.8KHz to 4KHz at elevation angles ranging between 0 to 180°.The experimental results, as well as the measured beam widths and field patterns of this antennas, are presented.

  5. Design and Performance Evaluation of Two-Unit YAGI-UDA Array for UHF Satellite Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Lad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cube satellite missions perform innovative scientif ic experiments on a low cost developmental platform but have an inherent limitation of size and space. This restricts the total available solar power that can be harnessed and as a result, the radio links operate on stringent power budgets. For improving the avail able margins for communication in such satellites, it is desirable to improve upon the antenna system performance at the ground station used for the esta blishment of the links with the satellite. This can be achieved by improving the forward gain, the forward to backward ratio and the directivity of the anten na. This paper describes the electrical simulations and the performance evaluation of the one unit, two un it and four unit circularly polarized crossed Yagi-Uda ant enna array designed for communication with amateur radio (HAM satellites operating over the 434 MHz t o 438 MHz Amateur UHF band. The electro-magnetic model has been developed using the 4NEC2 software. The simulations have been validated with the practical field testing performed for estimating th e SWR, antenna gain, the forward to backward ratio and radiation pattern for the antenna system

  6. Design of Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers for use as optical OFDM demultiplexers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2010-06-21

    All-optical OFDM uses optical techniques to multiplex together several modulated lightsources, to form a band of subcarriers that can be considered as one wavelength channel. The subcarriers have a frequency separation equal to their modulation rate. This means that they can be demultiplexed without any cross-talk between them, usually with a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), implemented optically or electronically. Previous work has proposed networks of optical couplers to implement the DFT. This work shows that the topology of an Arrayed Grating Waveguide Router (AWGR) can be used to perform the demultiplexing, and that the AWGR can be considered as a serial-to-parallel converter followed by a DFT. The simulations show that the electrical bandwidths of the transmitter and receiver are critical to orthogonal demultiplexing, and give insight into how crosstalk occurs in all-optical OFDM and coherent-WDM systems using waveforms and spectra along the system. Design specifications for the AWGR are developed, and show that non-uniformity will lead to crosstalk. The compensation of dispersion and the applications of these techniques to 'coherent WDM' systems using Non-Return to Zero modulation is discussed. PMID:20588546

  7. Design and Performance of the Astro-E/XRS Microcalorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, C. K.; Audley, M. D.; Boyce, K. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Gendreau, K. C.; Gygax, J. D.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McClanahan, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    The XRS instrument has an array of 32 micro-calorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of 9 eV at 3 keV and 11 eV at 6 keV. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, operating temperature, thermistor size, absorber choice, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor bearing element. We will present representative performance data, though a more detailed presentation of the results of the instrument calibration is presented elsewhere in these proceedings. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance in conjunction with the array.

  8. Excimer laser micromachining of aspheric microlens arrays based on optimal contour mask design and laser dragging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2012-03-12

    This paper presents an improved excimer laser micromachining method for fabricating arrayed microstructures with a predesigned surface profile. The proposed method is developed from a conventional biaxial laser dragging method, but numerical analysis and optimal pattern design on the contour mask are introduced so that the machined surface profiles can be well controlled and matched to the designed profiles. To demonstrate the capability of this new approach, an array of aspheric microlenses that have analog surfaces for minimizing the focal spot sizes of the lenses is designed and fabricated. An array of 10×10 microlenses with an aperture size of 100 μm and a designed aspheric profile are obtained experimentally. The machined surface profiles are closely matched to their designed ones, with a profile deviation of less than 1 μm. Furthermore, the machined surfaces are smooth, with an average surface roughness of around 2 nm. Optical measurements on these machined aspheric microlenses show minimized focal spot sizes approaching their optical diffraction limits. PMID:22418468

  9. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. II. A novel antenna array design with combined compressor/radiator elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation of compressed high power short RF pulses using two different types of antennas: (i) A simple monopole antenna and (ii) a novel array design, where each of the elements is constructed by combining a compressor and a radiator. The studies on the monopole antenna demonstrate the possibility of a high power short RF pulse\\'s efficient radiation even using simple antennas. The studies on the novel array design demonstrate that a reduced size array with lower pulse distortion and power decay can be constructed by assembling the array from elements each of which integrates a compressor and a radiator. This design idea can be used with any type of antenna array; in this work it is applied to a phased array.

  10. Designing hybrid onconase nanocarriers for mesothelioma therapy: a Taguchi orthogonal array and multivariate component driven analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekade, Rakesh K; Youngren-Ortiz, Susanne R; Yang, Haining; Haware, Rahul; Chougule, Mahavir B

    2014-10-01

    Onconase (ONC) is a member of a ribonuclease superfamily that has cytostatic activity against malignant mesothelioma (MM). The objective of this investigation was to develop bovine serum albumin (BSA)-chitosan based hybrid nanoformulations for the efficient delivery of ONC to MM while minimizing the exposure to normal tissues. Taguchi orthogonal array L9 type design was used to formulate ONC loaded BSA nanocarriers (ONC-ANC) with a mean particle size of 15.78 ± 0.24 nm (ζ = -21.89 ± 0.11 mV). The ONC-ANC surface was hybridized using varying chitosan concentrations ranging between 0.100 and 0.175% w/v to form various ONC loaded hybrid nanocarriers (ONC-HNC). The obtained data set was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regressions (PCR) to decode the effects of investigated design variables. PCA showed positive correlations between investigated design variables like BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol with particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE) of formulated nanocarriers. PCR showed that the particle size depends on BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol content, while EE was only influenced by BSA content. Further analysis of chitosan and TPP effects used for coating of ONC-ANC by PCR confirmed their positive impacts on the particle size, zeta potential, and prolongation of ONC release compared to uncoated ONC-ANC. PCR analysis of preliminary stability studies showed increase in the particle size and zeta potential at lower pH. However, particle size, zeta potential, and EE of developed HNC were below 63 nm, 31 mV, and 96%, respectively, indicating their stability under subjected buffer conditions. Out of the developed formulations, HNC showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability with lower IC50 against human MM-REN cells compared to ONC and ONC-ANC. This might be attributed to the better cell uptake of HNC, which was confirmed in the cell uptake fluorescence studies. These studies indicated that a developed

  11. Optimal Design of Low-Density SNP Arrays for Genomic Prediction: Algorithm and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Jiaqi; Feng, Guofei; Wiggans, George R; Taylor, Jeremy F; He, Jun; Qian, Changsong; Qiu, Jiansheng; Simpson, Barry; Walker, Jeremy; Bauck, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Low-density (LD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide a cost-effective solution for genomic prediction and selection, but algorithms and computational tools are needed for the optimal design of LD SNP chips. A multiple-objective, local optimization (MOLO) algorithm was developed for design of optimal LD SNP chips that can be imputed accurately to medium-density (MD) or high-density (HD) SNP genotypes for genomic prediction. The objective function facilitates maximization of non-gap map length and system information for the SNP chip, and the latter is computed either as locus-averaged (LASE) or haplotype-averaged Shannon entropy (HASE) and adjusted for uniformity of the SNP distribution. HASE performed better than LASE with ≤1,000 SNPs, but required considerably more computing time. Nevertheless, the differences diminished when >5,000 SNPs were selected. Optimization was accomplished conditionally on the presence of SNPs that were obligated to each chromosome. The frame location of SNPs on a chip can be either uniform (evenly spaced) or non-uniform. For the latter design, a tunable empirical Beta distribution was used to guide location distribution of frame SNPs such that both ends of each chromosome were enriched with SNPs. The SNP distribution on each chromosome was finalized through the objective function that was locally and empirically maximized. This MOLO algorithm was capable of selecting a set of approximately evenly-spaced and highly-informative SNPs, which in turn led to increased imputation accuracy compared with selection solely of evenly-spaced SNPs. Imputation accuracy increased with LD chip size, and imputation error rate was extremely low for chips with ≥3,000 SNPs. Assuming that genotyping or imputation error occurs at random, imputation error rate can be viewed as the upper limit for genomic prediction error. Our results show that about 25% of imputation error rate was propagated to genomic prediction in an Angus population. The

  12. Quadrature transmit array design using single-feed circularly polarized patch antenna for parallel transmission in MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-02-01

    Quadrature coils are often desired in MR applications because they can improve MR sensitivity and also reduce excitation power. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a quadrature array design strategy for parallel transmission at 298 MHz using single-feed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna technique. Each array element is a nearly square ring microstrip antenna and is fed at a point on the diagonal of the antenna to generate quadrature magnetic fields. Compared with conventional quadrature coils, the single-feed structure is much simple and compact, making the quadrature coil array design practical. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the decoupling between elements is better than -35 dB for all the elements and the RF fields are homogeneous with deep penetration and quadrature behavior in the area of interest. Bloch equation simulation is also performed to simulate the excitation procedure by using an 8-element quadrature planar patch array to demonstrate its feasibility in parallel transmission at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. PMID:24649430

  13. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2016-01-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as “fingerprints” and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma. PMID:27574247

  14. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as "fingerprints" and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma. PMID:27574247

  15. Simulation-based optimization of the design and settings of ultrasonic phased-array transducers with an evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an ultrasonic array and its settings for a specific inspection involves multiple parameters and is the result of a compromise between different requirements and limitations. Parametric studies based on simulation tools are often performed to ensure that the transducer has suitable performances in terms of detection of the defects sought. An automatic optimization tool, based on an evolutionary algorithm driving CIVA's simulation data, is proposed and tested in realistic applications to design inspection parameters (designing, positioning and/or setting the transducer). (authors)

  16. Rationale for and design of a generic tiled hierarchical phased array beamforming architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Rovers, K.C.; Burgwal, van de, Marcel Dominicus; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the phased array beamforming project is to develop a generic flexible efficient phased array receiver platform, using a mixed signal hardware/software-codesign approach. The results will be applicable to any radio (RF) system, but we will focus on satellite receiver (DVB-S) and radar applications. We will present a preliminary mapping of beamforming processing on a tiled architecture and determine its scalability. The functionality, size and cost constraints imply an integrated...

  17. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Aixin Chen; Chuo Yang; Zhizhang (David) Chen; Yanjun Zhang; Yingyi He

    2012-01-01

    Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array e...

  18. Clone-array pooled shotgun mapping and sequencing: design and analysis of experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Csürös, Miklós; Li, Bingshan; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies sequencing and mapping methods that rely solely on pooling and shotgun sequencing of clones. First, we scrutinize and improve the recently proposed Clone-Array Pooled Shotgun Sequencing (CAPSS) method, which delivers a BAC-linked assembly of a whole genome sequence. Secondly, we introduce a novel physical mapping method, called Clone-Array Pooled Shotgun Mapping (CAPS-MAP), which computes the physical ordering of BACs in a random library. Both CAPSS and CAPS-MAP construct s...

  19. Design and implementation of Gm-APD array readout integrated circuit for infrared 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-xia; Yang, Jun-hao; Liu, Zhao; Dong, Huai-peng; Wu, Jin; Sun, Wei-feng

    2013-09-01

    A single-photon detecting array of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) capable of infrared 3D imaging by photon detection and time-of-flight measurement is presented in this paper. The InGaAs avalanche photon diodes (APD) dynamic biased under Geiger operation mode by gate controlled active quenching circuit (AQC) are used here. The time-of-flight is accurately measured by a high accurate time-to-digital converter (TDC) integrated in the ROIC. For 3D imaging, frame rate controlling technique is utilized to the pixel's detection, so that the APD related to each pixel should be controlled by individual AQC to sense and quench the avalanche current, providing a digital CMOS-compatible voltage pulse. After each first sense, the detector is reset to wait for next frame operation. We employ counters of a two-segmental coarse-fine architecture, where the coarse conversion is achieved by a 10-bit pseudo-random linear feedback shift register (LFSR) in each pixel and a 3-bit fine conversion is realized by a ring delay line shared by all pixels. The reference clock driving the LFSR counter can be generated within the ring delay line Oscillator or provided by an external clock source. The circuit is designed and implemented by CSMC 0.5μm standard CMOS technology and the total chip area is around 2mm×2mm for 8×8 format ROIC with 150μm pixel pitch. The simulation results indicate that the relative time resolution of the proposed ROIC can achieve less than 1ns, and the preliminary test results show that the circuit function is correct.

  20. High-Frequency Ultrasound Array Designed for Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas; Eliahoo, Payam; Kirk Shung, K

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniaturized high-frequency linear array that can be integrated within a core biopsy needle to improve tissue sampling accuracy during breast cancer biopsy procedures. The 64-element linear array has an element width of [Formula: see text], kerf width of [Formula: see text], element length of 1 mm, and element thickness of [Formula: see text]. The 2-2 array composite was fabricated using deep reactive ion etching of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal material. The array composite fabrication process as well as a novel high-density electrical interconnect solution are presented and discussed. Array performance measurements show that the array had a center frequency and fractional bandwidth ([Formula: see text]) of 59.1 MHz and 29.4%, respectively. Insertion loss and adjacent element crosstalk at the center frequency were -41.0 and [Formula: see text], respectively. A B-mode image of a tungsten wire target phantom was captured using a synthetic aperture imaging system and the imaging test results demonstrate axial and lateral resolutions of 33.2 and [Formula: see text], respectively. PMID:27046895

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Superconducting Pop-up Bolometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chervenak, James A.; Allen, Christine A.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Irwin, Kent D.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Page, Lyman A.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing an architecture for producing large format, two dimensional arrays of close-packed bolometers, which will enable submillimeter cameras and spectrometers to obtain images and spectra orders of magnitude faster than present instruments. The low backgrounds achieved in these instruments require very sensitive detectors with NEPs of order 5 x 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. Superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers can be close-packed using the Pop-up Detector (PUD) format, and SQUID multiplexers operating at the detector base temperature can be intimately coupled to them. The array unit cell is 8 x 32 pixels, using 32- element detector and multiplexer components. We have fabricated an engineering model array with this technology which features a very compact, modular approach for large format arrays. We report on the production of the 32-element components for the arrays. Planned instruments using this array architecture include the Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory, the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) for the AST/RO observatory, the Millimeter Bolometer Camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (MBC/ACT), and the Redshift (Z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS j.

  2. Design a freeform microlens array module for any arbitrary-shape collimated beam shaping and color mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Wu, Rengmao; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-06-01

    Collimated beam shaping with freeform surface usually employs a predefined mapping to tailor one or multiple freeform surfaces. Limitation on those designs is that the source, the freeform optics and the target are in fixed one-to-one correspondence with each other. To overcome this drawback, this paper presents a kind of freeform microlens array module integrated with an ultra-thin freeform microlens array and a condenser lens to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam into a prescribed uniform rectangular illumination and achieve color mixing. The design theory is explicitly given, and some key issues are addressed. Several different application examples are given, and the target is obtained with high uniformity and energy efficiency. This freeform microlens array module, which shows better flexibility and practicality than the regular designs, can be used not only to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam (or a collimated beam integrated with several sub-collimated beams), but also most importantly to achieve color mixing. With excellent optical performance and ultra-compact volume, this optical module together with the design theory can be further introduced into other applications and will have a huge market potential in the near future.

  3. Electrical crosstalk in front-illuminated photodiode array with different guard ring designs for medical CT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents electrical crosstalk studies on front-illuminated photodiode arrays for medical computed tomography (CT) applications. Crosstalk is an important factor to the system noise and image quality. The electrical crosstalk depends on silicon substrate properties and photodiode structures. The photodiode samples employed in this paper are planar processed on high-resistivity n-type silicon substrate, resulting in a p+/n-/n+ diode structure. Two types of guard ring structures are designed and applied to the same geometry of two-dimensional photodiode arrays. One structure is an n guard ring in the gap area between pixels, and the other structure is an additional p+ guard ring around each pixel together with the n guard ring. A 10 μm light spot with wavelength of 525 nm is used to scan across the surface of the photodiode array in the electrical crosstalk measurements. The electrical currents of two neighbor pixels are measured and the results are compared between two guard ring designs. The design with the p+ guard ring structure gives better electrical crosstalk suppression. Moreover, the measurement results show much smaller influence on surrounding pixels with the p+ guard ring structure in the case of disconnected pixel. Besides the electrical crosstalk, the light sensitivity within the gap area is also discussed between two guard ring designs.

  4. Electrical crosstalk in front-illuminated photodiode array with different guard ring designs for medical CT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Fan [Detection Technology Inc., Espoo (Finland); Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)], E-mail: ji.fan@deetee.com; Juntunen, Mikko; Hietanen, Iiro [Detection Technology Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents electrical crosstalk studies on front-illuminated photodiode arrays for medical computed tomography (CT) applications. Crosstalk is an important factor to the system noise and image quality. The electrical crosstalk depends on silicon substrate properties and photodiode structures. The photodiode samples employed in this paper are planar processed on high-resistivity n-type silicon substrate, resulting in a p+/n-/n+ diode structure. Two types of guard ring structures are designed and applied to the same geometry of two-dimensional photodiode arrays. One structure is an n guard ring in the gap area between pixels, and the other structure is an additional p+ guard ring around each pixel together with the n guard ring. A 10 {mu}m light spot with wavelength of 525 nm is used to scan across the surface of the photodiode array in the electrical crosstalk measurements. The electrical currents of two neighbor pixels are measured and the results are compared between two guard ring designs. The design with the p+ guard ring structure gives better electrical crosstalk suppression. Moreover, the measurement results show much smaller influence on surrounding pixels with the p+ guard ring structure in the case of disconnected pixel. Besides the electrical crosstalk, the light sensitivity within the gap area is also discussed between two guard ring designs.

  5. Genomic imbalances in 5918 malignant epithelial tumors: an explorative meta-analysis of chromosomal CGH data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with most human malignancies, with gains and losses on some genomic regions associated with particular entities. Of the 15429 cases collected for the Progenetix molecular-cytogenetic database, 5918 malignant epithelial neoplasias analyzed by chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) were selected for further evaluation. For the 22 clinico-pathological entities with more than 50 cases, summary profiles for genomic imbalances were generated from case specific data and analyzed. With large variation in overall genomic instability, recurring genomic gains and losses were prominent. Most entities showed frequent gains involving 8q2, while gains on 20q, 1q, 3q, 5p, 7q and 17q were frequent in different entities. Loss 'hot spots' included 3p, 4q, 13q, 17p and 18q among others. Related average imbalance patterns were found for clinically distinct entities, e.g. hepatocellular carcinomas (ca.) and ductal breast ca., as well as for histologically related entities (squamous cell ca. of different sites). Although considerable case-by-case variation of genomic profiles can be found by CGH in epithelial malignancies, a limited set of variously combined chromosomal imbalances may be typical for carcinogenesis. Focus on the respective regions should aid in target gene detection and pathway deduction

  6. A sensitivity analysis for the F100 turbofan engine using the multivariable Nyquist array. [feedback control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.; Borysiak, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In the feedback control design of multivariable systems, closed loop performance evaluations must include the dynamic behavior of variables unavailable to the feedback controller. For the multivariable Nyquist array method, a set of sensitivity functions are proposed to simplify the adjustment of compensator parameters when the dynamic response of the unmeasurable output variables is unacceptable. A sensitivity study to improve thrust and turbine temperature responses for the Pratt-Whitney F100 turbofan engine demonstrates the utility of the proposed method.

  7. Design and development of compact readout electronics with silicon photomultiplier array for a compact imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at developing compact readout electronics for a compact imaging detector module with silicon photomultiplier (SPM) array. The detector module consists of a LYSO crystal array coupling with a SensL's 4 × 4 SPM array. A compact multiplexed readout based on a discretized positioning circuit (DPC) was developed to reduce the readout channels from 16 to 4 outputs. Different LYSO crystal arrays of 4 × 4, 8 × 8 and 12 × 12 with pixel sizes of 3.2, 1.6 and 1.0 mm respectively, have been tested with the compact readout board using a 137Cs source. The initial results show that the compact imaging detector module with the compact multiplexed readout could clearly resolve 1 mm × 1 mm × 10 mm LYSO scintillation crystal array except those at the edges. The detector's intrinsic spatial resolution up to 1 mm can be achieved with the 3 mm × 3 mm size SPMArray4 through light sharing and compact multiplexed readout. Our results indicate that this detector module is feasible for the development of high-resolution compact PET. (authors)

  8. Design and construction of a target chamber and associated equipments for the BARC Charged Particle Detector Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60 cm diameter spherical high-vacuum target-chamber with side-opening hemispherical-lids, two ancillary-chambers, beam-line-tubes, tees and other high-vacuum components, and chamber-lid handling systems have been designed, constructed and installed for the Charged Particle Detector Array in BARC-TIFR Pelletron-LINAC Facility, Mumbai. This array of several tens of Si-CsI detector modules and other ancillary-detectors will be used for investigations in fusion-fission dynamics, nuclear structure at elevated temperatures and angular momenta, exotic nuclear clusters and related fields. This paper describes the unique features of the system that aid different coincidence experiments, the chamber fabrication experience and the pump-down characteristics with a turbo molecular pump. Unlike many other target chambers in use, this chamber allows multiple overall geometrical configurations to be set to reach experimental goals. For instance, by replacing a hemispherical-lid from one side with a flat-lid, the overall configuration becomes hemispherical. This way, high geometrical efficiency can be provided to an ancillary gamma detector array by allowing it to move close to target from the flat-lid side, although with some sacrifice of geometrical efficiency for charged particles. In experiments where a further improvement of geometrical efficiency for a gamma array is desired, a third compact-cylinder configuration can also be arrived at. Thinned portion of the lids of the chamber also allow neutron coincidence measurements with charged particles and gamma rays.

  9. Designing Adaptive Linear Array Antenna to Achieve Pattern Steering Optimization by Phase-Amplitude Perturbations Using Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSUChaohsing; CHENTsongyi; PanJengshyang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a phase-amplitude perturbation method of an adaptive array factor based on the genetic algorithm is proposed. The design for an optimal beam pattern of an adaptive antenna is able to not only suppress interference by placing nulls at the directions of the interfering sources but also provide a maximized main lobe in the direction of the desired signal, i.e., to maximizethe Signal interference ratio (SIR). In order to achieve this goal, a kind of new convergent skill called the two-way convergent method for genetic algorithms is proposed. The phase-amplitude perturbation method is applied to realize the optimal beam pattern of an adaptively linear array antenna. The Genetic algorithms are applied to find the optimal phase-amplitude weighting vector of adaptive array factor. An optimal beam pattern of linear array is derived by phase-amplitude perturbations using a genetic algorithm. Computer simulation result is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Diffraction aperture non-ideal behaviour of air coupled transducers array elements designed for NDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego Borges, J L; Montero de Espinosa, F; Salazar, J; Garcia-Alvarez, J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; Garcia-Hernandez, M J

    2006-12-22

    Air coupled piezoelectric ultrasonic array transducers are a novel tool that could lead to interesting advances in the area of non-contact laminar material testing using Lamb wave's propagation techniques. A key issue on the development of such transducers is their efficient coupling to air media (impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and air is 90 dB or more). Adaptation layers are used in order to attain good matching and avoid possible serious signal degradation. However, the introduction of these matching layers modify the transducer surface behaviour and, consequently, radiation characteristics are altered, making the usual idealization criteria (of uniform surface movement) adopted for field simulation purposes inaccurate. In our system, we have a concave linear-array transducer of 64 elements (electrically coupled by pairs) working at 0.8 MHz made of PZ27 rectangular piezoceramics (15 mm x 0.3 mm) with two matching layers made of polyurethane and porous cellulose bonded on them. Experimental measurements of the acoustic aperture of single excited array elements have shown an increment on the geometrical dimensions of its active surface. A sub-millimeter vibrometer laser scan has revealed an extension of the aperture beyond the supposed physical single array element dimensions. Non-uniform symmetric apodized velocity surface vibration amplitude profile with a concave delay contour indicates the presumed existence of travelling wave phenomena over the surface of the outer array matching layer. Also, asymptotic propagation velocities around 2500 m/s and attenuation coefficient between 15 and 20 dB/mm has been determined for the travelling waves showing clear tendencies. Further comparisons between the experimental measurements of single array element field radiation diagram and simulated equivalent aperture counterpart reveal good agreement versus the ideal (uniform displaced) rectangular aperture. For this purpose an Impulse Response Method

  11. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  12. Application of the Solubility Parameter Concept to the Design of Chemiresistor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, M.P.; Hughes, R.C.; Jenkins, M.W.; Patel, S.V.; Ricco, A.J.; Yelton, G.

    1999-01-11

    Arrays of unheated chemically sensitive resistors (chemiresistors) can serve as extremely small, low-power-consumption sensors with simple read-out electronics. We report here results on carbon-loaded polymer composites, as well as polymeric ionic conductors, as chemiresistor sensors. We use the volubility parameter concept to understand and categorize the chemiresistor responses and, in particular, we compare chemiresistors fabricated from polyisobutylene (PIB) to results from PIB-coated acoustic wave sensors. One goal is to examine the possibility that a small number of diverse chemiresistors can sense all possible solvents-the "Universal Solvent Sensor Array". keywords: chemiresistor, volubility parameter, chemical sensor

  13. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the 58Ni + 56Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  14. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueyuek, Tayfun; Gadea, Andres; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Di Nitto, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Jaworski, Grzegorz; Javier Valiente-Dobon, Jose; De Angelis, Giacomo; Modamio, Victor; Triossi, Andrea [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Nyberg, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Palacz, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Soederstroem, Paer-Anders [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Aliaga-Varea, Ramon Jose [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Atac, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Collado, Javier; Egea, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez, Vicente; Sanchis, Enrique [University of Valencia, Department of Electronic Engineering, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Erduran, Nizamettin [Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey); Ertuerk, Sefa [University of Nigde, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde (Turkey); France, Gilles de [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, CEA/DSAM, Caen (France); Gadea, Rafael; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Kaskas, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Moszynski, Marek [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wadsworth, Robert [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the {sup 58}Ni + {sup 56}Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  15. Design and performance of a low noise, 128-channel ASIC preamplifier for readout of active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Maolinbay, M; Yarema, R J; Antonuk, L E; El-Mohri, Y; Yeakey, M

    2002-01-01

    Design architecture and performance measurements of a low noise, 128-channel application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC) preamplifier are reported. The ASIC was designed for readout of active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) arrays. Such arrays, which presently can be made as large as 41 cmx41 cm and with pixel-to-pixel pitches down to approx 70 mu m, require large numbers of low noise, high density, custom integrated readout circuits. The design of this new chip is specifically tailored for research and development of active matrix flat-panel arrays for various medical imaging applications. The design architecture includes the following features: (1) Programmable signal gain which allows acquisition of a wide range of signal sizes from various array designs so as to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio; (2) Correlated double sampling (CDS) which significantly reduces certain noise components; (3) Pipelined readout (simultaneously sampling and multiplexing signals) which reduces image acquisition time; (4) P...

  16. Development of an accelerated test design for predicting the service life of the solar array at Mead, Nebraska. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1979-02-06

    Economic viability requires that photovoltaic arrays should have a service life of 20 years or longer. Qualification and performance tests indicate that presently available photovoltaic modules provide acceptable performance at the time of installation. This study is being conducted as part of a program to develop and validate an accelerated test plan that can be used to predict the useful service life of present and future solar arrays. Previously a methodology was developed for designing an accelerated test program incorporating trade-offs between the cost of each test and its value in reducing the variance in the life prediction for that array. The objective of the present study is to apply this methodology to develop an accelerated test plan to predict the service life of the 25-kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. Potential long-term degradation modes for the two types of modules in the Mead array have been determined and judgments have been made as to those environmental stresses and combinations of stresses which accelerate the degradation of the power output. Hierarchical trees representing the severity of effects of stresses (test conditions) on eleven individual degradation modes have been constructed and have been pruned of tests judged to be nonessential. Composites of those trees have been developed so that there is now one pruned tree covering eight degradation modes, another covering two degradation modes, and a third covering one degradation mode. These three composite trees form the basis for selection of test conditions in the final test plan which is now being prepared.

  17. Software design for the control system for Small-Size Telescopes with single-mirror of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Błocki, J; Bogacz, L; Borkowski, J; Bulik, T; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; Curyło, M; della Volpe, D; Dyrda, M; Favre, Y; Frankowski, A; Grudnik, Ł; Grudzińska, M; Heller, M; Idźkowski, B; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Kasperek, J; Lalik, K; Lyard, E; Mach, E; Mandat, D; Marszałek, A; Michałowski, J; Moderski, R; Rameez, M; Montaruli, T; Neronov, A; Niemiec, J; Ostrowski, M; Paśko, P; Pech, M; Porcelli, A; Prandini, E; Rajda, P; Schioppa, E jr; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Skowron, K; Sliusar, V; Sowiński, M; Stawarz, Ł; Stodulska, M; Stodulski, M; Pujadas, I Troyano; Toscano, S; Walter, R; Wiȩcek, M; Zagdański, A; Ziȩtara, K; Zychowski, P

    2015-01-01

    The Small-Size Telescope with single-mirror (SST-1M) is a 4 m Davies-Cotton telescope and is among the proposed telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). It is conceived to provide the high-energy ($>$ few TeV) coverage. The SST-1M contains proven technology for the telescope structure and innovative electronics and photosensors for the camera. Its design is meant to be simple, low-budget and easy-to-build industrially. Each device subsystem of an SST-1M telescope is made visible to CTA through a dedicated industrial standard server. The software is being developed in collaboration with the CTA Medium-Size Telescopes to ensure compatibility and uniformity of the array control. Early operations of the SST-1M prototype will be performed with a subset of the CTA central array control system based on the Alma Common Software (ACS). The triggered event data are time stamped, formatted and finally transmitted to the CTA data acquisition. The software system developed to control the devices of an SS...

  18. Front end electronics for a variable field PET camera using the PMT-quadrant-sharing detector array design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an electronic design for a PET camera with 8 arrays of position sensitive detectors. Each array has 16 BGO blocks (each block is composed of 49 crystals). The design goals are component and space reduction. Each PMT has its fast amplifier and triggered integrator. Nine flash ADC serve an array of 27 PMT and 784 crystals. The fast signals from one or more PMT clusters are summed. The fast summed signals are thresholded and sent to a programmable logic to determines the probable scintillation zone (4 blocks) and to turn on the associated 9 PMT integrators. After integration, the logic also drives a set of ultra-fast analog switches to connect the flash ADC set to the PMT integration channels in the scintillation zone. The 9 ADC output (integrated pulses with good photon statistics) are latched and compared. The comparator result determines which block in the zone is firing and the appropriate 4 ADC are selected and bused into a position decoder. The decoder outputs the image-slice address and the crystal address. The circuit is pipelined and driven by a 250 MHz master clock. The maximum event-processing rate for the circuit and a random radiation source is 2 x 106/sec (with 10:1 randomness allowance)

  19. Design and Development of Broadband Inverted E-shaped Patch Microstrip Array Antenna For 3G Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbahiah Misran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antenna has been received tremendous attention since the last two decades and now it becomes a major component in the development of Smart Antenna System for Third-Generation Wireless Network proposed by the ITU-R under the banner of IMT-2000. Smart antenna consists of an array of antennas associated with it a base-band hardware and control unit (inclusive of the software algorithm that have the capability to change its radiation pattern according to the direction of the user. This paper describes the design and development of broadband Inverted E-shaped patch microstrip array antennas for 3G wireless network. The antenna was designed for the IMT-2000 operating frequency range of 1.885–2.200GHz and was built as an array of 4x4 inverted E-shaped patches. The beamforming feed network comprises of commercial variable attenuators (KAT1D04SA002, variable phase shifters (KPH35OSC000, and the corporate 16-ways Wilkinson power divider which was developed in-house. The antenna successfully achieves the bandwidth of 16.14% (at VSWR: 1.5 with respect to the center frequency of 2.045 GHz. The antenna is capable of scanning with the maximum scanning angle of ±30º and ±25º in azimuth and elevation respectively.

  20. Concept, Design, and Prototyping of XSAS: A High Power Extendable Solar Array for CubeSat Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Patrick; Klesh, Andrew; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; McKague, Darren; Cutler, James

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats have proven themselves as a reliable and cost-effective method to perform experiments in space, but they are highly constrained by their specifications and size. One such constraint is the average continuous power, about 5 W, which is available to the typical CubeSat. To improve this constraint, we have developed the eXtendable Solar Array System (XSAS), a deployable solar array prototype in a CubeSat package, which can provide an average 23 W of continuous power. The prototype served as a technology demonstrator for the high risk mechanisms needed to release, deploy, and control the solar array. Aside from this drastic power increase, it is in the integration of each mechanism, their application within the small CubeSat form-factor, and the inherent passive control benefit of the deployed geometry that make XSAS a novel design. In this paper, we discuss the requirements and design process for the XSAS system and mechanical prototype, and provide qualitative and quantitative results from numerical simulations and prototype tests. We also discuss future work, including an upcoming NASA zero-gravity flight campaign, to further improve on XSAS and prepare it for future launch opportunities.

  1. Chromosomes of Iberian Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae) Revisited: Evidence of Genome Restructuring in Homoploid Hybrids Using Dual-Color FISH and CGH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, 2/3 (2013), s. 143-152. ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CGH/GISH * Chondrostoma s.I. * genome reshuffling hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  2. Comparing temporally-focused GPC and CGH for two-photon excitation and optogenetics in turbid media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    a 4f setup that directly converts phase information to intensity. The GPC method has been used with temporal focusing for excitation in two-photon optogenetics [1-3]. The computer generated hologram (CGH) is also used to generate arbitrary light patterns and has been used for optical manipulation...

  3. Increased nuchal translucency with normal karyotype: a follow-up study of 100 cases supplemented with CGH and MLPA analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, K V; Kirchhoff, M; Nygaard, U;

    2009-01-01

    karyotype on conventional karyotyping. METHODS: Chorionic villus samples from 100 fetuses with NT > or = 99(th) percentile and normal G-banding analysis and MLPA for detection of aneuploidies for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were included. Examinations were supplemented by HR-CGH and MLPA for syndromes...

  4. 毫米波微带天线阵列设计%Design of a millimeter wave microstrip antenna array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于慧娟

    2016-01-01

    A circular aperture millimeter wave series and parallel fed microstrip antenna array was proposed. The antenna was designed with rectangular microstrip patch which was fed by slot-coupled to increase the bandwidth. A series-fed microstrip antenna array was selected in order to use the antenna aperture area effectively and decrease the net complexity. At the same time, according to design of the circular aperture millimeter wave micro-strip antenna array, the part array was series and parallel fed to increase the bandwidth of the microstrip antenna. Results show that the bandwidth of the antenna is about 5%. The simulation result of the antenna’s gain is better than 30.6 dBi in working band. The beam width is about 4.0°×3.5° and the side lobe level is lower than –13 dB. Multi beam and phased array functions can be realized with the antenna array and the net.%设计了一个圆口径串并联混合馈电的毫米波微带天线阵列。该天线采用矩形微带工字型缝隙贴片耦合馈电的方法展宽带宽。为了有效利用天线口径面积,减小网络复杂度,选取串联微带天线阵列形式。同时为了展宽带宽,根据设计的圆形口径阵列,将部分子阵采用串并联混合馈电的形式,得到带宽为5%的毫米波微带天线阵列。仿真表明,该天线在工作频带内增益大于30.6 dBi,波束宽度为4.0°×3.5°,副瓣电平低于–13 dB。该天线阵面与网络配合,可以实现多波束或相控阵的功能。

  5. Design, development and evaluation of a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a 20×20 SiPM array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghai; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Meier, Joseph; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Chaowen; Zhu, Xiaorong; Shao, Yiping

    2016-04-01

    One technical challenge in developing a large-size scintillator detector with multiple Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is to read out a large number of detector output channels. To achieve this, different signal multiplexing circuits have been studied and applied with different performances and cost-effective tradeoffs. Resistor-based multiplexing circuits exhibit simplicity and signal integrity, but also present the disadvantage of timing shift among different channels. In this study, a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a large-sized SiPM array readout was developed and evaluated by simulation and experimental studies. Similarly to a multiplexing circuit used for multi-anode PMT, grounding and branching resistors were connected to each SiPM output channel. The grounding resistor was used to simultaneously reduce the signal crosstalk among different channels and to improve timing performance. Both grounding and branching resistor values were optimized to maintain a balanced performance of the event energy, timing, and positioning. A multiplexing circuit was implemented on a compact PCB and applied for a flat-panel detector which consisted of a 32×32 LYSO scintillator crystals optically coupled to 5×5 SiPM arrays for a total 20×20 output channels. Test results showed excellent crystal identification for all 1024 LYSO crystals (each with 2×2×30 mm3 size) with 22Na flood-source irradiation. The measured peak-to-valley ratio from typical crystal map profile is around 3:1 to 6.6:1, an average single crystal energy resolution of about 17.3%, and an average single crystal timing resolution of about 2 ns. Timing shift among different crystals, as reported in some other resistor-based multiplexing circuit designs, was not observed. In summary, we have designed and implemented a practical resistor-based multiplexing circuit that can be readily applied for reading out a large SiPM array with good detector performance.

  6. High-contrast pattern reconstructions using a phase-seeded point CGH method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Richard; Williams, Gavin L; Cowling, Joshua J; Seed, Nicholas L; Purvis, Alan

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge encountered in digital holography applications is the need to synthesize computer-generated holograms (CGHs) that are realizable as phase-only elements while also delivering high quality reconstruction. This trade-off is particularly acute in high-precision applications such as photolithography where contrast typically must exceed 0.6. A seeded-phase point method is proposed to address this challenge, whereby patterns composed of fine lines that intersect and form closed shapes are reconstructed with high contrast while maintaining a phase-only CGH. The method achieves superior contrast to that obtained by uniform or random seeded-phase methods while maintaining computational efficiency for large area exposures. It is also shown that binary phase modulation achieves similar contrast performance with benefits for the fabrication of simpler diffractive optical elements. PMID:26974633

  7. A New Design for Array Multiplier with Trade off in Power and Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a low power and low area array multiplier with carry save adder is proposed. The proposed adder eliminates the final addition stage of the multiplier than the conventional parallel array multiplier. The conventional and proposed multiplier both are synthesized with 16-T full adder. Among Transmission Gate, Transmission Function Adder, 14-T, 16-T full adder shows energy efficiency. In the proposed 4x4 multiplier to add carry bits with out using Ripple Carry Adder (RCA in the final stage, the carries given to the input of the next left column input. Due to this the proposed multiplier shows 56 less transistor count, then cause trade off in power and area. The proposed multiplier has shown 13.91% less power, 34.09% more speed and 59.91% less energy consumption for TSMC 0.18nm technology at a supply voltage 2.0V than the conventional multiplier.

  8. A New Design for Array Multiplier with Trade off in Power and Area

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, Nirlakalla; Prasad, T Jayachandra; Rao, T Subba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a low power and low area array multiplier with carry save adder is proposed. The proposed adder eliminates the final addition stage of the multiplier than the conventional parallel array multiplier. The conventional and proposed multiplier both are synthesized with 16-T full adder. Among Transmission Gate, Transmission Function Adder, 14-T, 16-T full adder shows energy efficiency. In the proposed 4x4 multiplier to add carry bits with out using Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) in the final stage, the carries given to the input of the next left column input. Due to this the proposed multiplier shows 56 less transistor count, then cause trade off in power and area. The proposed multiplier has shown 13.91% less power, 34.09% more speed and 59.91% less energy consumption for TSMC 0.18nm technology at a supply voltage 2.0V than the conventional multiplier.

  9. Studying nanostructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipples on the surface of moth eye facets exhibit almost perfect broadband anti-reflection properties. We have studied the facet surface micro-protuberances, known as corneal nipples, of the chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella by atomic force microscopy, and simulated the optics of the nipple arrays by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. The influence of the dimensions and shapes of the nipples on the optics was studied. In particular, the shape of the nipples has a major influence on the anti-reflection properties. Furthermore, we transferred the structure of the almost perfect broadband anti-reflection coatings to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. The coating that imitates the moth-eye array allows for an increase of the short circuit current and conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  10. Dynamic Experiment Design Regularization Approach to Adaptive Imaging with Array Radar/SAR Sensor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Santos; José Tuxpan; Yuriy Shkvarko

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel ...

  11. A software framework for microarray and gene expression object model (MAGE-OM) array design annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivens Alasdair; Qureshi Matloob

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The MIAME and MAGE-OM standards defined by the MGED society provide a specification and implementation of a software infrastructure to facilitate the submission and sharing of data from microarray studies via public repositories. However, although the MAGE object model is flexible enough to support different annotation strategies, the annotation of array descriptions can be complex. Results We have developed a graphical Java-based application (Adamant) to assist with submi...

  12. Application of the solubility parameter concept to the design of chemiresistor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.C.; Yelton, W.G.; Ricco, A.J.; Patel, S.V.; Jenkins, M.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eastman, M.P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    Arrays of unheated chemically sensitive resistors (chemiresistors) can serve as extremely small, low power consumption sensors with simple read out electronics. Most work has focused on the exotic polymeric organic metals, but here the authors report new results on carbon loaded polymer composites, as well as polymeric ionic conductors. They use the solubility parameter concept to understand and categorize the chemiresistor responses and, in particular, they compare chemiresistors fabricated from polyisobutylene (PIB) to results from PIB coated acoustic wave sensors.

  13. Optimum Design of a 4x4 Planar Butler Matrix Array for WLAN Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, Wriddhi; Srivastava, Shweta

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, high-speed wireless communication is in vogue. In wireless communication systems, multipath fading, delay and interference occurres by reflection or diffraction. In a high-speed wireless communication, it becomes a necessary to separate desired signal from delay or interference signal. Thus to overcome these problems Smart antenna systems have been developed. Basically there are two types of smart antenna systems, one is Switched beam system and another Adaptive array system....

  14. Problems on design of computer-generated holograms for testing aspheric surfaces: principle and calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishan Gao; Meimei Kong; Rihong Zhu; Lei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric optical testing using computer-generated hologram (CGH) has provided an approach to highly accurate measurement of aspheric surfaces. While designing the CGH null correctors, we should make them with as small aperture and low spatial frequency as possible, and with no zero slope of phase except at center, for the sake of insuring lowisk of substrate figure error and feasibility of fabrication. On the basis of classic optics, a set of equations for calculating the phase function of CGH are obtained. These equations lead us to find the dependence of the aperture and spatial frequency on the axial diszance from the tested aspheric surface for the CGH. We also simulatethe ptical path difference error of the CGH relative to the accuracy of controlling laser spot during fabrication. Meanwhile, we discuss the constraints used to avoid zero slope of phase except at center and give a design result of the CGH for the tested aspheric surface. The results ensure the feasibility of designing a useful CGH to test aspheric urface fundamentally.

  15. Design of crossed-mirror array to form floating 3D LED signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Bando, Hiroki; Kujime, Ryousuke; Suyama, Shiro

    2012-03-01

    3D representation of digital signage improves its significance and rapid notification of important points. Our goal is to realize floating 3D LED signs. The problem is there is no sufficient device to form floating 3D images from LEDs. LED lamp size is around 1 cm including wiring and substrates. Such large pitch increases display size and sometimes spoils image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop optical device to meet the three requirements and to demonstrate floating 3D arrays of LEDs. We analytically investigate image formation by a crossed mirror structure with aerial aperture, called CMA (crossed-mirror array). CMA contains dihedral corner reflectors at each aperture. After double reflection, light rays emitted from an LED will converge into the corresponding image point. We have fabricated CMA for 3D array of LEDs. One CMA unit contains 20 x 20 apertures that are located diagonally. Floating image of LEDs was formed in wide range of incident angle. The image size of focused beam agreed to the apparent aperture size. When LEDs were located three-dimensionally (LEDs in three depths), the focused distances were the same as the distance between the real LED and the CMA.

  16. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  17. Design of a Weighted-Rotor Energy Harvester Based on Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Circular Halbach Array Magnetic Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design of a weighted-rotor energy harvester (WREH in which the oscillation is caused by the periodic change of the tangential component of gravity, to harvest kinetic energy from a rotating wheel. When a WREH is designed with a suitable characteristic length, the rotor’s natural frequency changes according to the wheel rotation speed and the rotor oscillates at a wide angle and high angular velocity to generate a large amount of power. The magnetic disk is designed according to an optimized circular Halbach array. The optimized circular Halbach array magnetic disk provides the largest induced EMF for different sector-angle ratios for the same magnetic disk volume. This study examined the output voltage and power by considering the constant and accelerating plate-rotation speeds, respectively. This paper discusses the effects of the angular acceleration speed of a rotating wheel corresponding to the dynamic behaviors of a weighted rotor. The average output power is 399 to 535 microwatts at plate-rotation speeds from 300 to 500 rpm, enabling the WREH to be a suitable power source for a tire-pressure monitoring system.

  18. Conceptual design of a high resolution Ge array with tracking and imaging capabilities for the DESPEC (FAIR) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations for the conceptual design of the high-resolution DESPEC Germanium Array Spectrometer (DEGAS) proposed for the Facility for Ion and Antiproton Research (FAIR) under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. The project is carried out in three phases, although only results for the two first phases will be addressed in this work. The first phase will consist of a re-arrangement of the EUROBALL cluster detectors previously used in the RISING campaign at GSI. The second phase is based on coupling AGATA-type triple-cluster detectors with EUROBALL cluster detectors in a compact geometry around the active ion implantation target of DESPEC

  19. Cross-species comparison of aCGH data from mouse and human BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic gains and losses are a result of genomic instability in many types of cancers. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers are associated with increased amounts of chromosomal aberrations, presumably due their functions in genome repair. Some of these genomic aberrations may harbor genes whose absence or overexpression may give rise to cellular growth advantage. So far, it has not been easy to identify the driver genes underlying gains and losses. A powerful approach to identify these driver genes could be a cross-species comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from cognate mouse and human tumors. Orthologous regions of mouse and human tumors that are commonly gained or lost might represent essential genomic regions selected for gain or loss during tumor development. To identify genomic regions that are associated with BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers we compared aCGH data from 130 mouse Brca1Δ/Δ;p53Δ/Δ, Brca2Δ/Δ;p53Δ/Δ and p53Δ/Δ mammary tumor groups with 103 human BRCA1-mutated, BRCA2-mutated and non-hereditary breast cancers. Our genome-wide cross-species analysis yielded a complete collection of loci and genes that are commonly gained or lost in mouse and human breast cancer. Principal common CNAs were the well known MYC-associated gain and RB1/INTS6-associated loss that occurred in all mouse and human tumor groups, and the AURKA-associated gain occurred in BRCA2-related tumors from both species. However, there were also important differences between tumor profiles of both species, such as the prominent gain on chromosome 10 in mouse Brca2Δ/Δ;p53Δ/Δ tumors and the PIK3CA associated 3q gain in human BRCA1-mutated tumors, which occurred in tumors from one species but not in tumors from the other species. This disparity in recurrent aberrations in mouse and human tumors might be due to differences in tumor cell type or genomic organization between both species. The selection of the oncogenome during mouse and

  20. Design and fabrication of the thin-film micromirror array-actuated for large projection displays

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, K H; Kim, S G

    1998-01-01

    The Thin-film Micromirror Array-actuated (TMA) is a new reflective type light modulator that uses micromachined thin film piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with over 300,000 micromirrors. A working prototype of TMA display system with three TMA modules shows the world best light efficiency at the present time, which is more than 7 lumen per watt light efficiency. Projectors and projection TVs with TMAs will be the most promising device which will provide clear display of electronic image at normal room light condition.

  1. Analysis of Chinese women with primary ovarian insufficiency by high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Can; FU Fang; YANG Xin; SUN Yi-min; LI Dong-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. The etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency in human female patients is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential genetic causes in primary amenorrhea patients by high resolution array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis.Methods Following the standard karyotyping analysis, genomic DNA from whole blood of 15 primary amenorrhea patients and 15 normal control women was hybridized with Affymetrix cytogenetic 2.7M arrays following the standard protocol. Copy number variations identified by array-CGH were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction.Results All the 30 samples were negative by conventional karyotyping analysis. Microdeletions on chromosome 17q21.31-q21.32 with approximately 1.3 Mb were identified in four patients by high resolution array-CGH analysis. This included the female reproductive secretory pathway related factor N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) gene.Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that there may be critical regions regulating primary ovarian insufficiency in women with a 17q21.31-q21.32 microdeletion. This effect might be due to the loss of function of the NSF gene/genes within the deleted region or to effects on contiguous genes.

  2. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, James R.; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ˜20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex® 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification.

  3. LED array designing and its bactericidal effect researching on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Xing, Jin; Gao, Liucun; Shen, Benjian; Kang, Hongxiang; Jie, Liang; Peng, Chen

    2015-10-01

    Lights with some special waveband and output power density have a bactericidal effect to some special bacteria. In this paper, the bactericidal effect of light at wavelength of 470 nm on P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) is researched with different irradiation dose. The light source is a LED array which is obtained by incoherent combine of 36 LEDs with emitting wavelength of 470 nm. The P. aeruginosa suspension is exposed with the LED array at the light power density of 100 mW/cm2 with exposures time of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min, respectively. The numbers of CFU are then determined by serial dilutions on LB agar plates. The bactericidal effect research results of 470 nm LED on P. aeruginosa show that the killing ratio increases with increasing of the exposure time. For the 80 min irradiation, as much as 92.4% reduction of P. aeruginosa is achieved. The results indicate that, in vitro, 470-nm lights produce dose dependent bactericidal effects on P. aeruginosa.

  4. The design of a focused ultrasound transducer array for the treatment of stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Daniel; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-08-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is capable of mechanically disintegrating blood clots at high pressures. Safe thrombolysis may require frequencies higher than those currently utilized by transcranial HIFU. Since the attenuation and focal distortion of ultrasound in bone increases at higher frequencies, resulting focal pressures are diminished. This study investigated the feasibility of using transcranial HIFU for the non-invasive treatment of ischemic stroke. The use of large aperture, 1.1-1.5 MHz phased arrays in targeting four clinically relevant vessel locations was simulated. Resulting focal sizes decreased with frequency, producing a maximum -3 dB depth of field and lateral width of 2.0 and 1.2 mm, respectively. Mean focal gains above an order of magnitude were observed in three of four targets and transducer intensities required to achieve thrombolysis were determined. Required transducer element counts are about an order of magnitude higher than what currently exists and so, although technically feasible, new arrays would need to be developed to realize this as a treatment modality for stroke.

  5. The design of a focused ultrasound transducer array for the treatment of stroke: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is capable of mechanically disintegrating blood clots at high pressures. Safe thrombolysis may require frequencies higher than those currently utilized by transcranial HIFU. Since the attenuation and focal distortion of ultrasound in bone increases at higher frequencies, resulting focal pressures are diminished. This study investigated the feasibility of using transcranial HIFU for the non-invasive treatment of ischemic stroke. The use of large aperture, 1.1–1.5 MHz phased arrays in targeting four clinically relevant vessel locations was simulated. Resulting focal sizes decreased with frequency, producing a maximum –3 dB depth of field and lateral width of 2.0 and 1.2 mm, respectively. Mean focal gains above an order of magnitude were observed in three of four targets and transducer intensities required to achieve thrombolysis were determined. Required transducer element counts are about an order of magnitude higher than what currently exists and so, although technically feasible, new arrays would need to be developed to realize this as a treatment modality for stroke. (paper)

  6. Design and optimization of micro-semiconductor bridge used for solid propellant microthrusters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Chengbo; Dai, Ji; Xu, Jianbing; Ye, Yinghua; Zhu, Peng; Shen, Ruiqi

    2016-06-01

    Igniter is the basic component of MEMS-based solid propellant microthrusters (SPM) array, which should response fast with low dissipated energy. To satisfy the requirements, micro-semiconductor bridge (MSCB) with dual V-angles contributing to the reduction of dissipated energy is introduced into the array. The electrical explosion characteristics of MSCB investigated under constant voltage, in the considerations of the limit of power supply in the micro/nanosatellite, are similar to those under capacitive discharge. The bridge was completely vaporized and burst into the hot plasma under high-level voltage. While under low-level voltage, the bridge was partly vaporized without detected plasma. The 3#SCB (90° V-angle) with the smallest power density resulting in the lowest applied voltage (12.0 V) and the 2#SCB with the smallest narrow width (Wmin) leading to the lowest average power (11.3 W) were chosen to the further optimization. The ignition tests were implemented to examine the ignition reliability of the contractible igniters, which were optimized to satisfy the voltage limitation with sufficient ignition capacity. The results show that the effective SCB with lowest dissipated power is the 3#-3SCB, which function within 100 μ under 7.0 V, and the average power below 5.0 W.

  7. Fabrication and optimization of camptothecin loaded Eudragit S 100 nanoparticles by Taguchi L4 orthogonal array design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Manikandan; Krishnamoorthy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this investigation was to design and optimize the experimental conditions for the fabrication of camptothecin (CPT) loaded Eudragit S 100. Nanoparticles, and to understand the effect of various process parameters on the average particles size, particle size uniformity and surface area of the prepared polymeric nanoparticles using Taguchi design. Materials and Methods: CPT loaded Eudragit S 100 nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized by particles size analyzer. Taguchi orthogonal array design was implemented to study the influence of seven independent variables on three dependent variables. Eight experimental trials involving seven independent variables at higher and lower levels were generated by design expert. Results: Factorial design result has shown that (a) except, β-cyclodextrin concentration all other parameters do not significantly influenced the average particle size (R1); (b) except, sonication duration and aqueous phase volume, all other process parameters significantly influence the particle size uniformity; (c) all the process parameters does not significantly influence the surface area. Conclusion: The R1, particle size uniformity and surface area of the prepared drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles were found to be 120 nm, 0.237 and 55.7 m2 /g and the results were good correlated with the data generated by the Taguchi design method. PMID:26258056

  8. Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeter array for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TES X-ray microcalorimeter has better energy resolution compared to conventional silicon drift detector and STEM-EDS utilizing a TES detector makes it possible to map the distribution of elements on a specimen in addition to analyze the composition. The requirement for a TES detector is a high counting rate (>20 kcps), wide energy band (0.5-15 keV) and good energy resolution (<10 eV) full width at half maximum. The major improvement of this development is to increase the maximum counting rate. In order to accommodate the high counting rate, we adopted an 8 × 8 format, 64-pixel array and common biasing scheme for the readout method. We did all design and fabrication of the device in house. With the device we have fabricated most recently, the pulse decay time is 40 \\upmu s which is expected to achieve 50 kcps. For a single pixel, the measured energy resolution was 7.8 eV at 5.9 keV. This device satisfies the requirements of counting rate and energy resolution, although several issues remain where the performance must be confirmed.

  9. Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeter array for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TES X-ray microcalorimeter has better energy resolution compared to conventional silicon drift detector and STEM-EDS utilizing a TES detector makes it possible to map the distribution of elements on a specimen in addition to analyze the composition. The requirement for a TES detector is a high counting rate (> 20 kcps), wide energy band (0.5-15 keV) and good energy resolution (< 10 eV) full width at half maximum. The major improvement of this development is to increase the maximum counting rate. In order to accommodate the high counting rate, we adopted an 8 × 8 format, 64-pixel array and common biasing scheme for the readout method. We did all design and fabrication of the device in house. With the device we have fabricated most recently, the pulse decay time is 40 \\upmu s which is expected to achieve 50 kcps. For a single pixel, the measured energy resolution was 7.8 eV at 5.9 keV. This device satisfies the requirements of counting rate and energy resolution, although several issues remain where the performance must be confirmed.

  10. Design and Development of High Voltage Direct Current (DC) Sources for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibyk, Irene K.; Wald, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Two programmable, high voltage DC power supplies were developed as part of the flight electronics for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE). SAMPIE's primary objectives were to study and characterize the high voltage arcing and parasitic current losses of various solar cells and metal samples within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO). High voltage arcing can cause large discontinuous changes in spacecraft potential which lead to damage of the power system materials and significant Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Parasitic currents cause a change in floating potential which lead to reduced power efficiency. These primary SAMPIE objectives were accomplished by applying artificial biases across test samples over a voltage range from -600 VDC to +300 VDC. This paper chronicles the design, final development, and test of the two programmable high voltage sources for SAMPIE. The technical challenges to the design for these power supplies included vacuum, space plasma effects, thermal protection, Shuttle vibrations and accelerations.

  11. Gimbals Drive and Control Electronics Design, Development and Testing of the LRO High Gain Antenna and Solar Array Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakov, Boris; Thakore, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Launched June 18, 2009 on an Atlas V rocket, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration program and for a human return to the Moon. The spacecraft (SC) carries a wide variety of scientific instruments and provides an extraordinary opportunity to study the lunar landscape at resolutions and over time scales never achieved before. The spacecraft systems are designed to enable achievement of LRO's mission requirements. To that end, LRO's mechanical system employed two two-axis gimbal assemblies used to drive the deployment and articulation of the Solar Array System (SAS) and the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS). This paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) and Actuators for both the HGAS and SAS systems, as well as flight testing during the on-orbit commissioning phase and lessons learned.

  12. High-speed, automatic controller design considerations for integrating array processor, multi-microprocessor, and host computer system architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, S. A.; Leyland, J. A.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern control systems must typically perform real-time identification and control, as well as coordinate a host of other activities related to user interaction, online graphics, and file management. This paper discusses five global design considerations which are useful to integrate array processor, multimicroprocessor, and host computer system architectures into versatile, high-speed controllers. Such controllers are capable of very high control throughput, and can maintain constant interaction with the nonreal-time or user environment. As an application example, the architecture of a high-speed, closed-loop controller used to actively control helicopter vibration is briefly discussed. Although this system has been designed for use as the controller for real-time rotorcraft dynamics and control studies in a wind tunnel environment, the controller architecture can generally be applied to a wide range of automatic control applications.

  13. Analysis and design of low noise column stage in CMOS ROIC for UV GaN focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yonggang; Xie, Jing; Wang, Jiqiang; Ma, Ding; Wang, Ling; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    A novel column-stage structure of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for GaN ultraviolet (UV) focal plane array (FPA) working in "solar-blind" band is proposed. The column stage has better drive capability, higher dynamic range, stable bias current and low impedance. The noise voltage of the column readout stage is discussed, which has been reduced by small-current driving, column-stage sample and hold and the technology of divided-output-bus. This research on low-noise ROIC is designed for weak-current UV FPA. It is designed, simulated and laid out using the 0.35um 2P4M CMOS 5V process. The clock rate operates at 8MHz. The simulation input current sets 0.01nA. The output swing is 2.6V and power consumption is 40 mW according to the measurement results.

  14. Comprehensive design and analysis of diode laser arrays with an integrated phase shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diode laser arrays integrated with a phase shifter are investigated systematically based on the beam propagation method. Device parameters have been varied to obtain expected mode conversion. The passive waveguide loss and two main factors accounting for varied far-field profiles at different driving conditions are analysed. We demonstrate that on-axis main-lobe emission can be maintained by reducing the phase-shifter length within a certain scope. The far-field angle under the thermal lensing effect is theoretically proved to be nearly diffraction-limited by two-step etching. These optimizations are promising for on-axis nearly diffraction-limited laser emission with a higher output power. (paper)

  15. Design and Implementation of Video Shot Detection on Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jharna Majumdar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Video has become an interactive medium of communication in everyday life. The sheer volume of video makes it extremely difficult to browse through and find the required data. Hence extraction of key frames from the video which represents the abstract of the entire video becomes necessary. The aim of the video shot detection is to find the position of the shot boundaries, so that key frames can be selected from each shot for subsequent processing such as video summarization, indexing etc. For most of the surveillance applications like video summery, face recognition etc., the hardware (real time implementation of these algorithms becomes necessary. Here in this paper we present the architecture for simultaneous accessing of consecutive frames, which are then used for the implementation of various Video Shot Detection algorithms. We also present the real time implementation of three video shot detection algorithms using the above mentioned architecture on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

  16. Design of a GaAs/Ge Solar Array for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

  17. Increasing Live Birth Rate by Preimplantation Genetic Screening of Pooled Polar Bodies Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Feichtinger; Tina Stopp; Christian Göbl; Elisabeth Feichtinger; Enrico Vaccari; Ulrike Mädel; Franco Laccone; Monika Stroh-Weigert; Markus Hengstschläger; Wilfried Feichtinger; Jürgen Neesen

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using arra...

  18. The Murchison Widefield Array 21cm Epoch of Reionization Experiment: Design, Construction, and First Season Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Adam

    The Cosmic Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) remain largely unexplored chapters in the history and evolution of the Universe. These periods hold the potential to inform our picture of the cosmos similar to what the Cosmic Microwave Background has done over the past several decades. A promising method to probe the neutral hydrogen gas between early galaxies is known as 21cm tomography, which utilizes the ubiquitous hyper-fine transition of HI to create 3D maps of the intergalactic medium. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an instrument built with a primary science driver to detect and characterize the EoR through 21cm tomography. In this thesis we explore the challenges faced by the MWA from the layout of antennas, to a custom analysis pipeline, to bridging the gap with probes at other wavelengths. We discuss many lessons learned in the course of reducing MWA data with an extremely precise measurement in mind, and conclude with the first deep integration from array. We present a 2-σ upper limit on the EoR power spectrum of Δ^2(k)<1.25×10^4 mK^2 at cosmic scale k=0.236 h Mpc^{-1} and redshift z=6.8. Our result is a marginal improvement over previous MWA results and consistent with the best published limits from other instruments. This result is the deepest imaging power spectrum to date, and is a major step forward for this type of analysis. While our limit is dominated by systematics, we offer strategies for improvement for future analysis.

  19. Genotype-phenotype correlation in 21 patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome using high resolution array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N. M. C.; Van Buggenhout, G.; Hannes, F.; Thienpont, B.; Sanlaville, D.; Kok, K.; Midro, A.; Andrieux, J.; Anderlid, B-M; Schoumans, J.; Hordijk, R.; Devriendt, K.; Fryns, J-P; Vermeesch, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is usually caused by terminal deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is phenotypically defined by growth and mental retardation, seizures, and specific craniofacial manifestations. Large variation is observed in phenotypic expression of these fe

  20. Array-CGH characterization and genotype-phenotype analysis in a patient with a ring chromosome 6

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Laura; Surace, Cecilia; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Sirleto, Pietro; Lombardo, Antonietta; Russo, Serena; Brizi, Valerio; Grotta, Simona; Cini, Claudio; Angioni, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Background Ring chromosome 6 is a rare constitutional abnormality that generally occurs de novo. The related phenotype may be highly variable ranging from an almost normal phenotype to severe malformations and mental retardation. These features are mainly present when genetic material at the end of the chromosome is lost. The severity of the phenotype seems to be related to the size of the deletion. About 25 cases have been described to date, but the vast majority reports only conventional cy...

  1. Genomic screening of ABCA4 and array CGH analysis underline the genetic variability of Greek patients with inherited retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tsipi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ABCA4 mutation spectrum in Greek patients differs from other populations. Bioinformatic tools, segregation analysis along with clinical data from the patients seemed to be crucial for the evaluation of genetic variants and particularly for the discrimination between causative and non-causative variants.

  2. Targeted Resequencing of 9p in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Yields Concordant Results with Array CGH and Reveals Novel Genomic Alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarhadi, V.K.; Lahti, L.M.; Scheinin, I.; Tyybäkinoja, A.; Savola, S.; Usvasalo, A.; Räty, R.; Elonen, E.; Saarinen-Pihkala, U.M.; Knuutila, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic alterations of the short arm of chromosome 9 are frequent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We performed targeted sequencing of 9p region in 35 adolescent and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and sought to investigate the sensitivity of detecting copy number alterations in comparis

  3. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  4. Analyses of Genotypes and Phenotypes of Ten Chinese Patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The combined use of MLPA and array CGH is an effective and specific means to diagnose WHS and allows for the precise identification of the breakpoints and sizes of deletions. The deletion of genes in the WHS candidate region is closely correlated with the core WHS phenotype.

  5. High frequency of submicroscopic genomic aberrations detected by tiling path array comparative genome hybridisation in patients with isolated congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, F; Larsen, Lars Allan; Zhang, L;

    2008-01-01

    . Chromosomal imbalances have been identified in many forms of syndromic CHD, but very little is known about the impact of DNA copy number changes in non-syndromic CHD. METHOD: A sub-megabase resolution array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) screen was carried out on 105 patients with CHD as the sole...

  6. Development of novel on-chip, customer-design spiral biasing adaptor on for Si drift detectors and detector arrays for X-ray and nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel on-chip, customer-design spiral biasing adaptor (SBA) has been developed. A single SBA is used for biasing a Si drift detector (SDD) and SDD array. The use of an SBA reduces the biasing current. This paper shows the calculation of the geometry of an SBA and an SDD to get the best drift field in the SDD and SDD array. Prototype SBAs have been fabricated to verify the concept. Electrical measurements on these SBAs are in agreement with the expectations. The new SDD array with an SBA can be used for X-ray detection and in nuclear physics experiments

  7. Design and simulation of a micromirror array for a projection TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bumkyoo; Lee, Junghoon; Jung, Kyuwon; Shin, Hyungjae

    1999-10-01

    The design of a micromirror for a projection TV is investigated. A static structural analysis is performed to give an optimal shape of the micromirror using the FEM commercial package, ANSYS. A solid modeling is created, and mapped meshes are applied to it in order to satisfy a symmetric condition. A stress analysis shows that maximum stress does not exceed an allowable stress, which is the yield strength. A modal analysis is also executed to find the approximate natural frequencies with different design parameters. The result can be utilized to see which design parameter is strongly dominant. The micromirror was fabricated by Samsung Electronics. Dynamic deflection experiments confirm the results of the simulation.

  8. Design and Benchmark Tests of a Multi-Channel Hydrophone Array System for Dolphin Echolocation Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Josefin Starkhammar; Mats Amundin; Johan Nilsson; Tomas Jansson; Monica Almqvist; Persson, Hans W

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes in depth the design and application considerations of a computer based measurement system enabling 1 MS/s simultaneous sampling of 47 hydrophones for cross sectional recordings of echolocation beams of toothed whales (Odontocetes). An earlier prototype version of the system has previously only been presented as a brief proof of principle that did not offer a complete description of the software and hardware solution. Crucial hardware and software design considerations of ...

  9. Multibeam Network Design and Measurement for Triangular Array of Three Radiating Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gasco Trujillo, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, more a more base stations are equipped with active conformal antennas. These antenna designs combine phase shift systems with multibeam networks providing multi-beam ability and interference rejection, which optimize multiple channel systems. GEODA is a conformal adaptive antenna system designed for satellite communications. Operating at 1.7 GHz with circular polarization, it is possible to track and communicate with several satellites at once thanks to its adaptive beam. The antenn...

  10. The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Broadband and Broad-beam Array: Design Overview and Sensitivity Forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Pober, Jonathan C; DeBoer, David R; McDonald, Patrick; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E; Ali, Zaki; Bradley, Richard F; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Morales, Miguel F

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new instrument optimized for a detection of the neutral hydrogen 21cm power spectrum between redshifts of 0.5-1.5: the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Broadband and Broad-beam (BAOBAB) Array. BAOBAB will build on the efforts of a first generation of 21cm experiments which are targeting a detection of the signal from the Epoch of Reionization at z ~ 10. At z ~ 1, the emission from neutral hydrogen in self-shielded overdense halos also presents an accessible signal, since the dominant, synchrotron foreground emission is considerably fainter than at redshift 10. The principle science driver for these observations are Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the matter power spectrum which have the potential to act as a standard ruler and constrain the nature of dark energy. BAOBAB will fully correlate dual-polarization antenna tiles over the 600-900MHz band with a frequency resolution of 300 kHz and a system temperature of 50K. The number of antennas will grow in staged deployments, and reconfigurations...

  11. Method to detect differentially methylated loci with case-control designs using Illumina arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang

    2011-11-01

    It is now understood that many human cancer types are the result of the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic changes. DNA methylation is a molecular modification of DNA that is crucial for normal development. Genes that are rich in CpG dinucleotides are usually not methylated in normal tissues, but are frequently hypermethylated in cancer. With the advent of high-throughput platforms, large-scale structure of genomic methylation patterns is available through genome-wide scans and tremendous amount of DNA methylation data have been recently generated. However, sophisticated statistical methods to handle complex DNA methylation data are very limited. Here, we developed a likelihood based Uniform-Normal-mixture model to select differentially methylated loci between case and control groups using Illumina arrays. The idea is to model the data as three types of methylation loci, one unmethylated, one completely methylated, and one partially methylated. A three-component mixture model with two Uniform distributions and one truncated normal distribution was used to model the three types. The mixture probabilities and the mean of the normal distribution were used to make inference about differentially methylated loci. Through extensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the feasibility and power of the proposed method. An application to a recently published study on ovarian cancer identified several methylation loci that are missed by the existing method. PMID:21818777

  12. Analysis of Reverse Phase Protein Array Data: From Experimental Design towards Targeted Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Wachter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastering the systematic analysis of tumor tissues on a large scale has long been a technical challenge for proteomics. In 2001, reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA were added to the repertoire of existing immunoassays, which, for the first time, allowed a profiling of minute amounts of tumor lysates even after microdissection. A characteristic feature of RPPA is its outstanding sample capacity permitting the analysis of thousands of samples in parallel as a routine task. Until today, the RPPA approach has matured to a robust and highly sensitive high-throughput platform, which is ideally suited for biomarker discovery. Concomitant with technical advancements, new bioinformatic tools were developed for data normalization and data analysis as outlined in detail in this review. Furthermore, biomarker signatures obtained by different RPPA screens were compared with another or with that obtained by other proteomic formats, if possible. Options for overcoming the downside of RPPA, which is the need to steadily validate new antibody batches, will be discussed. Finally, a debate on using RPPA to advance personalized medicine will conclude this article.

  13. Design and characterization of a CMOS MEMS capacitive resonant sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant sensing has been used to detect various physical or chemical quantities, however many reported sensing systems are still bulky and expensive as they rely on external instruments to conduct measurements. For practical applications, it is often desirable to have a low-cost miniaturized sensor chip with multiple sensing devices. This paper presents the first attempt to implement a capacitive resonant sensor array in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor process. The damping loss of all sensors is compensated by placing them in an oscillator loop that contains a phase-locked loop (PLL) driving circuit. The inclusion of a PLL is beneficial for sustaining the oscillation of various resonant frequencies due to the manufacturing tolerance and detected quantity within the PLL capture range. The fabricated micromechanical resonators have a resonant frequency near 200 kHz. To evaluate the sensor performance, a parylene-D thin film was deposited on microstructures and the corresponding frequency shift of 12 devices was on average 33.87 kHz. The resolution for mass detection was estimated to be 23 pg. (paper)

  14. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  15. Study on solder joint reliability of ceramic ball grid array component based on design of experiment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhaohua; Huang Chunyue; Zhou Dejian

    2006-01-01

    Four process parameters, pad diameter, stencil thickness, ball diameter and stand-off were chosen as four control factors.By using an L25 ( 56 ) orthogonal array the ceramic ball grid array ( CBGA ) solder joints which have 25 different combinations of process parameters were designed.The numerical models of all the 25 CBGA solder joints were developed using the Surface Evolver.Utilizing the surface coordinate exported from the 25 CBGA solder joints numerical models, the finite element analysis models were set up and the nonlinear finite element analysis of the CBGA solder joints under thermal cycles were performed by ANSYS.The thermal fatigne life of CBGA solder joint was calculated using Coffin-Manson equation.Based on the calculated thermal fatigue life results, the range analysis and the variance analysis were performed.The results show that the fatigue life of CBGA solder joint is affected by the pad diameter, the stencil thickness, the ball diameter and the standoff in a descending order, the best combination of process parameters results in the longest fatigue life is 0.07 mm stand-off,0.125 mm stencil thickness of, 0.85 mm ball diameter and 0.89 mm pad diameter.With 95% confidence the pad diameter has a significant effect on the reliability of CBGA solder joints whereas the stand-off, the stencil thickness and the ball diameter have little effect on the reliability of CBGA solder joints.

  16. The characteristic analysis and optimization design for HgCdTe TDI infrared detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mei-feng; Chen, Xing; Qiu, Guang-yin; Xie, Xiao-hui

    2011-08-01

    Time Delay Integration (TDI) is an effective approach for high sensitive infrared detectors. According to the principle of the TDI, the central distance of pixel along the time delay integral direction is closely linked with the specific application requirements. So the optimization design, such as the area of pixels and their distance, plays an important role to improve the performance of TDI detectors. The crosstalk between pixels is a crucial factor that results in the decline of detector Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), and then affects the imaging quality. In this paper the optimization design rule for the arrangement of pixel has been investigated. The results show that the main method to appreciate it is reducing the crosstalk between pixels and enhancing detectivity. Chips of which pixel areas and edge intervals are different but with same distance were designed for the experiments. The optical and electrical measurements were carried out for these chips and the optimized structure was obtained. In addition, relationships between the crosstalk and parameters of material, pixel structure were analyzed based on the experiment data. According to the comprehensive analysis of the measurement data, we obtained the optimum design for specific HgCdTe TDI infrared detector. Meanwhile it is also a well reference for other HgCdTe TDI detector structure design.

  17. Design for strong absorption in a nanowire array tandem solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Anttu, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are a promising candidate for next-generation solar cells. However, the optical response of nanowires is, due to diffraction effects, complicated to optimize. Here, we optimize through optical modeling the absorption in a dual-junction nanowire-array solar cell in terms of the Shockley-Quessier detailed balance efficiency limit. We identify efficiency maxima that originate from resonant absorption of photons through the HE11 and the HE12 waveguide modes in the top cell. An efficiency limit above 40% is reached in the band gap optimized Al0.10Ga0.90As/In0.34Ga0.66As system when we allow for different diameter for the top and the bottom nanowire subcell. However, for experiments, equal diameter for the top and the bottom cell might be easier to realize. In this case, we find in our modeling a modest 1–2% drop in the efficiency limit. In the Ga0.51In0.49P/InP system, an efficiency limit of η = 37.3% could be reached. These efficiencies, which include reflection losses and sub-optimal absorption, are well above the 31.0% limit of a perfectly-absorbing, idealized single-junction bulk cell, and close to the 42.0% limit of the idealized dual-junction bulk cell. Our results offer guidance in the choice of materials and dimensions for nanowires with potential for high efficiency tandem solar cells. PMID:27574019

  18. Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xingzhen; Liang, Jingqiu; Liang, Zhongzhu; Wang, Weibiao; Tian, Chao; Qin, Yuxin; Lü, Jinguang

    2016-04-01

    An integrated high-resolution (individual pixel size 80 μm×80 μm) solid-state self-emissive active matrix programmed with 320×240 micro-light-emitting-diode arrays structure was designed and fabricated on an AlGaInP semiconductor chip using micro electro-mechanical systems, microstructure and semiconductor fabricating techniques. Row pixels share a p-electrode and line pixels share an n-electrode. We experimentally investigated GaAs substrate thickness affects the electrical and optical characteristics of the pixels. For a 150-μm-thick GaAs substrate, the single pixel output power was 167.4 μW at 5 mA, and increased to 326.4 μW when current increase to 10 mA. The device investigated potentially plays an important role in many fields.

  19. A comparative design view for accurate control of servos using a field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions. Altera DSP Builder presents designers and users with an alternate approach when creating their systems by employing a blockset similar to that already used in Simulink. The application considered in this paper is the design of a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) system for use in stereo vision. PWM can replace a digital-to-analogue converter to control audio speakers, LED intensity, motor speed, and servo position. Rather than the conventional HDL coding approach this Simulink approach provides an easy understanding platform to the PWM design. This paper includes a comparison between two approaches regarding resource usage and flexibility etc. Included is how DSP Builder manipulates an onboard clock signal, in order to create the control pulses to the 'raw' coding of a PWM generator in VHDL. Both methods were shown to a selection of people and their views on which version they would subsequently use in their relative fields is discussed.

  20. Automated imitating-measuring complex for designing and measuring characteristics of phased antenna arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Usin, V.; Markov, V.; Pomazanov, S.; Usina, A.; Filonenko, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers design principles, structure and technical characteristics of automated imitating-measuring complex, contains variants of its hardware and software implementation for selecting APD, tolerance justification, estimation of manufacturing errors’ influence, discrete nature of control and mutual influence of radiating elements on PAA parameters.

  1. Housing Arrays Following Disasters: Social Vulnerability Considerations in Designing Transitional Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokane, Arnold R.; Mori, Yoko; Martinez, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Displacement and dislocation from homes disrupt fundamental social processes necessary for optimal community functioning. Neighborhood and community social capital, collective efficacy and place attachment are social processes that may be compromised following disaster, conflict, and upheaval. A collaborative approach to the preplanning, design,…

  2. Structural Design Considerations for a 50 kW-Class Solar Array for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Yim, John T.; Le, Dzu K.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is planning an Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) to take place in the 2020s. To enable this multi-year mission, a 40 kW class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system powered by an advanced 50 kW class solar array will be required. Powered by the SEP module (SEPM), the ARM vehicle will travel to a large near-Earth asteroid, descend to its surface, capture a multi-metric ton (t) asteroid boulder, ascend from the surface and return to the Earth-moon system to ultimately place the ARM vehicle and its captured asteroid boulder into a stable distant orbit. During the years that follow, astronauts flying in the Orion multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) will dock with the ARM vehicle and conduct extra-vehicular activity (EVA) operations to explore and sample the asteroid boulder. This paper will review the top structural design considerations to successfully implement this 50 kW class solar array that must meet unprecedented performance levels. These considerations include beyond state-of-the-art metrics for specific mass, specific volume, deployed area, deployed solar array wing (SAW) keep in zone (KIZ), deployed strength and deployed frequency. Analytical and design results are presented that support definition of stowed KIZ and launch restraint interface definition. An offset boom is defined to meet the deployed SAW KIZ. The resulting parametric impact of the offset boom length on spacecraft moment of inertias and deployed SAW quasistatic and dynamic load cases are also presented. Load cases include ARM spacecraft thruster plume impingement, asteroid surface operations and Orion docking operations which drive the required SAW deployed strength and damping. The authors conclude that to support NASA's ARM power needs, an advanced SAW is required with mass performance better than 125 W/kg, stowed volume better than 40 kW/cu m, a deployed area of 200 sq m (100 sq m for each of two SAWs), a deployed SAW offset distance of nominally 3-4 m, a deployed SAW quasistatic strength

  3. Development of an accelerated test design for predicting the service life of the solar array at Mead, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1979-06-07

    This report describes an accelerated test which is designed to predict the life of the 25-kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. Emphasis is placed on the power-output degradation at the module level and on long-term degradation modes, as appropriate for life prediction of mature devices for which infant failures are few. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses is used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation is then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented for determining the predicted life of the modules in service at Mead. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and uv types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field. It is recommended that as a first step in test implementation, the model be selectively validated using identified portions of the accelerated test design.

  4. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  5. Design of a ROIC for scanning type HgCdTe LWIR focal plane arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Yazıcı, Melik; Yazici, Melik; Kayahan, Hüseyin; Kayahan, Huseyin; Ceylan, Ömer; Ceylan, Omer; Gürbüz, Yaşar; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2010-01-01

    Design of a silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for LWIR HgCdTe Focal Plane is presented. ROIC incorporates time delay integration (TDI) functionality over seven elements with a supersampling rate of three, increasing SNR and the spatial resolution. Novelty of this topology is inside TDI stage; integration of charges in TDI stage implemented in current domain by using switched current structures that reduces required area for chip and improves linearity performance. ROIC, in terms of...

  6. Design and performance of a low noise, 128-channel ASIC preamplifier for readout of active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design architecture and performance measurements of a low noise, 128-channel application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC) preamplifier are reported. The ASIC was designed for readout of active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) arrays. Such arrays, which presently can be made as large as 41 cmx41 cm and with pixel-to-pixel pitches down to ∼70 μm, require large numbers of low noise, high density, custom integrated readout circuits. The design of this new chip is specifically tailored for research and development of active matrix flat-panel arrays for various medical imaging applications. The design architecture includes the following features: (1) Programmable signal gain which allows acquisition of a wide range of signal sizes from various array designs so as to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio; (2) Correlated double sampling (CDS) which significantly reduces certain noise components; (3) Pipelined readout (simultaneously sampling and multiplexing signals) which reduces image acquisition time; (4) Programmable bandwidth controls which balance noise and acquisition speed; and (5) Two selectable modes of output multiplexing (64:1, 16:1) for slow or fast readout. In this paper, detailed measurements of various performance parameters are presented. These measurements include noise characteristics, the relationship between bandwidth and noise, signal response linearity, channel-to-channel and pipeline cross-talk, signal gain and gain variation across channels, and the effect of sampling methods on noise. These characterizations indicate that the performance of the ASIC has achieved the original design goals

  7. Kombinierte Translokations- und Aneuploidieuntersuchungen nach Polkörperbiopsie und array-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation

    OpenAIRE

    Montag M; Köster K; van der Ven K; Bohlen U; Bender F; van der Ven H

    2010-01-01

    Eizelle. Es kann festgestellt werden, ob die Eizelle bezüglich der an der Translokation beteiligten Chromosomen unbalanciert oder balanciert/normal ist. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde an 3 Fällen die Polkörperbiopsie in Verbindung mit der array-Comparativen Genomischen Hybridisierung (CGH) durchgeführt. Damit können neben den translokationsbedingten Aberrationen gleichzeitig numerische Fehlverteilungen aller Chromosomen untersucht werden. Bei Patientin 1 (Alter 33; Robertsonsche Translok...

  8. On the VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder using systolic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Howard M.; Reed, Irving S.

    1988-10-01

    A new very large scale integration (VLSI) design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The transform decoding technique used in a previous article is replaced by a time domain algorithm through a detailed comparison of their VLSI implementations. A new architecture that implements the time domain algorithm permits efficient pipeline processing with reduced circuitry. Erasure correction capability is also incorporated with little additional complexity. By using multiplexing technique, a new implementation of Euclid's algorithm maintains the throughput rate with less circuitry. Such improvements result in both enhanced capability and significant reduction in silicon area.

  9. Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frickland, P.O.; Repar, J.

    1982-04-06

    A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full-size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

  10. Design of Experiments: Useful Orthogonal Arrays for Number of Experiments from 4 to 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Jäntschi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for the design of an experiment is proposed in order to find asmany schemes as possible with the maximum number of factors with different levels for thesmallest number of experimental runs. An algorithm was developed and homemadesoftware was implemented. The abilities in generation of the largest groups of orthogonalarrays were analyzed for experimental runs of 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, and 16. The resultsshow that the proposed method permits the construction of the largest groups of orthogonalarrays with the maximum number of factors.

  11. Design, fabrication and characterization of an arrayable all-polymer microfluidic valve employing highly magnetic rare-earth composite polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mona; Shannon, Lesley; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new magnetically actuated microfluidic valve that employs a highly magnetic composite polymer (M-CP) containing rare-earth hard-magnetic powder for its actuating element and for its valve seat. The M-CP offers much higher magnetization compared to the soft-magnetic, ferrite-based composite polymers typically used in microfluidic applications. Each valve consists of a permanently magnetized M-CP flap and valve seat mounted on a microfluidic channel system fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Each valve is actuated under a relatively small external magnetic field of 80 mT provided by a small permanent magnet mounted on a miniature linear actuator. The performance of the valve with different flap thicknesses is characterized. In addition, the effect of the magnetic valve seat on the valve’s performance is also characterized. It is experimentally shown that a valve with a 2.3 mm flap thickness, actuated under an 80 mT magnetic field, is capable of completely blocking liquid flow at a flow rate of 1 ml min‑1 for pressures up to 9.65 kPa in microfluidic channels 200 μm wide and 200 μm deep. The valve can also be fabricated into an array for flow switching between multiple microfluidic channels under continuous flow conditions. The performance of arrays of valves for flow routing is demonstrated for flow rates up to 5 ml min‑1 with larger microfluidic channels of up to 1 mm wide and 500 μm deep. The design of the valves is compatible with other commonly used polymeric microfluidic components, as well as other components that use the same novel permanently magnetic composite polymer, such as our previously reported cilia-based mixing devices.

  12. On the VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder using systolic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.M. (Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (US)); Reed, I.S. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (US))

    1988-10-01

    A new VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The transform decoding technique used in a previous paper is replaced by a time domain algorithm through a detailed comparison of their VLSI implementations. A new architecture that implements the time domain algorithm permits efficient pipeline processing with reduced circuitry. Erasure correction capability is also incorporated with little additional complexity. By using a multiplexing technique, a new implementation of Euclid's algorithm maintains the throughput rate with less circuitry. Such improvements result in both enhanced capability and significant reduction in silicon area, therefore making it possible to build a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder on a single VLSI chip.

  13. A new method for the design of slot antenna arrays: Theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Clauzier, Sebastien

    2016-04-10

    The present paper proposes and validates a new general design methodology that can be used to automatically find proper positions and orientations of waveguide-based radiating slots capable of realizing any given radiation beam profile. The new technique combines basic radiation theory and waveguide propagation theory in a novel analytical model that allows the prediction of the radiation characteristics of generic slots without the need to perform full-wave numerical solution. The analytical model is then used to implement a low-cost objective function within a global optimization scheme (here genetic algorithm.) The algorithm is then deployed to find optimum positions and orientations of clusters of radiating slots cut into the waveguide surface such that any desired beam pattern can be obtained. The method is verified using both full-wave numerical solution and experiment.

  14. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Cheol-Ha [Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Hyun, E-mail: ychung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-21

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  15. Design of thin-film filters for resolution improvements in filter-array based spectrometers using DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Kim, Cheolsun; Ju, Gun Wu; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-05-01

    Miniature spectrometers have been widely developed in various academic and industrial applications such as bio-medical, chemical and environmental engineering. As a family of spectrometers, optical filter-array based spectrometers fabricated using CMOS or Nano technology provide miniaturization, superior portability and cost effectiveness. In filterarray based spectrometers, the resolution which represents the ability how closely resolve two neighboring spectra, depends on the number of filters and the characteristics of the transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. In practice, due to the small-size and low-cost fabrication, the number of filters is limited and the shape of the TF of each filter is nonideal. As a development of modern digital signal processing (DSP), the spectrometers are equipped with DSP algorithms not only to alleviate distortions due to unexpected noise or interferences among filters but also reconstruct the original signal spectrum. For a high-resolution spectrum reconstruction by the DSP, the TFs of the filters need to be sufficiently uncorrelated with each other. In this paper, we present a design of optical thin-film filters which have the uncorrelated TFs. Each filter consists of multiple layers of high- and low-refractive index materials deposited on a substrate. The proposed design helps the DSP algorithm to improve resolution with a small number of filters. We demonstrate that a resolution of 5 nm within a range from 500 nm to 1100 nm can be achieved with only 64 filters.

  16. Design and study of a coplanar grid array CdZnTe detector for improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplanar grid (CPG) CdZnTe detectors have been used as gamma-ray spectrometers for years. Comparing with pixelated CdZnTe detectors, CPG CdZnTe detectors have either no or poor spatial resolution, which directly limits its use in imaging applications. To address the issue, a 2×2 CPG array CdZnTe detector with dimensions of 7×7×5 mm3 was fabricated. Each of the CPG pairs in the detector was moderately shrunk in size and precisely designed to improve the spatial resolution while maintaining good energy resolution, considering the charge loss at the surface between the strips of each CPG pairs. Preliminary measurements were demonstrated at an energy resolution of 2.7–3.9% for the four CPG pairs using 662 keV gamma rays and with a spatial resolution of 3.3 mm, which is the best spatial resolution ever achieved for CPG CdZnTe detectors. The results reveal that the CPG CdZnTe detector can also be applied to imaging applications at a substantially higher spatial resolution. - Highlights: • A novel structure of coplanar grid CdZnTe detector was designed to evaluate the possibility of applying the detector to gamma-ray imaging applications. • The best spatial resolution of coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors ever reported has been achieved, along with good spectroscopic performance. • Depth correction of the energy spectra using a new algorithm is presented

  17. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  18. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM RECEIVER IN FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY WITH SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraju Kavya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, survival rate from myocardial infarction and bundle branch block has been increased due to the advancements in medical field. Continuous monitoring and location management of these patients becomes an essential task. Hence this study aims in design and development of GPS in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and interfaced with a GSM modem to transmit the location of a civilian or a patient to the mobile of the caretaker .The digital blocks like code acquisition, carrier tracking, code tracking and data processing are modeled in VHDL and validation of the blocks were done using MODELSIM simulator. The analog front end of the GPS receiver have been designed and integrated with Altera DE1 FPGA board which has software defined digital baseband GPS receiver. Quartus II software is used to integrate the analog front end and digital back end of the GPS receiver. The GPS output from the FPGA is given to the GSM that transmits the location to a mobile. The proposed implementation has the advantage that various blocks of the processor can be reconfigured to support multiple signal processing tasks and also can be retargeted to any family of FPGA device.

  19. Field Programmable Gate Array Based Parallel Strapdown Algorithm Design for Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Hua Ma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new generalized optimum strapdown algorithm with coning and sculling compensation is presented, in which the position, velocity and attitude updating operations are carried out based on the single-speed structure in which all computations are executed at a single updating rate that is sufficiently high to accurately account for high frequency angular rate and acceleration rectification effects. Different from existing algorithms, the updating rates of the coning and sculling compensations are unrelated with the number of the gyro incremental angle samples and the number of the accelerometer incremental velocity samples. When the output sampling rate of inertial sensors remains constant, this algorithm allows increasing the updating rate of the coning and sculling compensation, yet with more numbers of gyro incremental angle and accelerometer incremental velocity in order to improve the accuracy of system. Then, in order to implement the new strapdown algorithm in a single FPGA chip, the parallelization of the algorithm is designed and its computational complexity is analyzed. The performance of the proposed parallel strapdown algorithm is tested on the Xilinx ISE 12.3 software platform and the FPGA device XC6VLX550T hardware platform on the basis of some fighter data. It is shown that this parallel strapdown algorithm on the FPGA platform can greatly decrease the execution time of algorithm to meet the real-time and high precision requirements of system on the high dynamic environment, relative to the existing implemented on the DSP platform.

  20. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth; Kim, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  1. Report: Optimization study of the preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule based on hybrid-level orthogonal array design via SPSS modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Chun; Liu, Mingshi; Jin, Yuanbao; Yang, Dongsheng

    2014-11-01

    To optimize the preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule using complex coacervation of chitosan cross-linked with gelatin based on hybrid-level orthogonal array design via SPSS modeling. Eight relatively significant factors were firstly investigated and selected as calculative factors for the orthogonal array design from the total of ten factors effecting the preparation of argan oil microcapsule by utilizing the single factor variable method. The modeling of hybrid-level orthogonal array design was built in these eight factors with the relevant levels (9, 9, 9, 9, 7, 6, 2 and 2 respectively). The preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule were investigated and optimized according to the results of hybrid-level orthogonal array design. The priorities order and relevant optimum levels of preparation factors standard to base on the percentage of microcapsule with the diameter of 30~40 μm via SPSS. Experimental data showed that the optimum factors were controlling the chitosan/gelatin ratio, the systemic concentration and the core/shell ratio at 1:2, 1.5% and 1:7 respectively, presetting complex coacervation pH at 6.4, setting cross-linking time and complex coacervation at 75 min and 30 min, using the glucose-delta lactone as the type of cross-linking agent, and selecting chitosan with the molecular weight of 2000~3000. PMID:25410084

  2. Design and Implementation of Co-Array Fortran Compiler Based on Software Shared Memory%基于软件共享存储的Co-Array Fortran编译器实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春

    2012-01-01

    Co-Array Fortran (CAF) has become part of Fortran Programming Language Standard,and has been widely accepted in scientific computing community. The paper presented the design and implementation of a CAF Compiler based on software shared memory. Several techniques were presented to improve the performance of CAF programs,including Co-array data communication by direct array assignment, Data Padding for raising locality and reducing false share. The benchmark testing shows that the performance of CAF programs is similar to that of MPI programs, with our CAF compiler.%Co-Array Fortran(CAF)已经成为Fortran语言标准的一部分,在科学计算领域逐渐被接受.基于软件共享存储实现了一个CAF编译器,其通过直接的数组赋值实现Co-array数据通信,利用数据垫塞技术提高数据局部性,减少伪共享,优化CAF程序性能.典型科学计算程序测试表明,CAF能够获得和MPI相当的性能.

  3. 利用Fine-tiling aCGH分析TCR基因重排鉴定T细胞白血病克隆%Analysis of TCR gene rearrangement for identification of T cell leukemia clone by using Fine-tiling aCGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海涛; 叶铁真; 陈少华; 杨力建; 卢育洪; 李扬秋

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new method which analyzes T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement for identification of T cells acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)clone, it will provide the basis for the study of T-ALL including the chromosome translocation involving TCR loci.METHODS: Total DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of one case with T-ALL. Using the fine-tiling array comparative genomic hybridization (finetiling aCGH) to analyze the genomic DNA differences of the case and control group, we could find the breakpoints and their position in the chromosomes. According to the preliminary results, we could design the specific primers for the positions of the breakpoints relative to sequence. Furthermore, the ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR) and sequence analysis were used to identify the TCR gene rearrangement.And TCR gene expression was detected by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The fine-tiling aCGH results of the T-ALL showed that the TCRα/δ locus of chromosome 14 appeared four breakpoints, corresponding to TCR Vδ1, Vδ2, Jδl and Jδ2.By LM-PCR, sequencing and sequence analysis, TCR gene of the case of T-ALL was involved in Vδ1Dδ2Dδ3Jδl,Vδ2Dδ3Jδ2 rearrangement. RT-PCR results also confirmed the expression of these TCR gene rearrangements. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that fine-tiling aCGH and LM-PCR techniques could be used to identify the TCR gene rearrangement as one of the best perfect methods.And it was also a way to find some fusion genes involving in TCR gene.%目的:建立基于分析T细胞受体(TCR)基因重排而确定T细胞-急性淋巴细胞白血病(T-ALL)克隆的新方法,为研究T-ALL中涉及TCR基因位点的染色体易位提供基础.方法:提取1例T-ALL患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)的总DNA,利用精细定位的寡核苷酸阵列比较基因组杂交(fine-tiling aCGH)分析样本与对照组基因组DNA的差异,了解不同染色体上可能的断裂点和具体的位点,根据所提供的初步结果,

  4. Concept and design of a genome-wide association genotyping array tailored for transplantation-specific studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yun R.; van Setten, Jessica; Verma, Shefali S.;

    2015-01-01

    genome-wide genotyping array, the 'TxArray', comprising approximately 782,000 markers with tailored content for deeper capture of variants across HLA, KIR, pharmacogenomic, and metabolic loci important in transplantation. To test concordance and genotyping quality, we genotyped 85 HapMap samples on the...

  5. Investigation of the Design Boundaries of a 3,072 X 2,048 Image Sensor Pixel Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, El-Sayed I.

    2002-09-01

    The practical boundaries surrounding the design of very high resolution image sensors have been studied. The case study used to analyze these practical boundaries is a CMOS photodiode active pixel sensor (APS) image sensor with pixel array format of 3,072 (H) X 2,048 (V). The frame rate of the image sensor is variable up to 30 frames per second (fps), leading to a maximum image data throughput of 180 M pixels per second. The pixel size is 6.0 im, resulting in a pixel fill factor of approximately 48% (implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS fabrication process) and a 4/3 inch optical format. The resultant die fill factor is approximately 54%. The column-parallel approach, which works well for both the on-chip analog signal processing and analog-to-digital conversion, is adopted. The 10-bit successive approximation ADC was deemed suitable for on-chip integration. The projected total power consumption of the case study image sensor chip is below 200 mW at 3.3-V power supply and below 100 mW at 1.5-V power supply. These power estimates were made for operation at full resolution (6 M pixels per frame) and at maximum frame rate (30 fps), leading to a maximum digital image data throughput of 1.8 G bits per second.

  6. Design and Imaging Application of Room-Temperature Terahertz Detector with Micro-Bolometer Focal Plane Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jun Gou; Zhi-Ming Wu; Ya-Dong Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract'Room-temperature terahertz (THz) detectors indicate a great potential in the imaging application because of their real-time, compact bulk, and wide spectral band responding characteristics. THz detectors with different dimensions based on a micro-bridge structure have been designed and fabricated to get optimized micro-bolometer parameters from the test results of membrane deformation. A nanostructured titanium (Ti) thin film absorber is integrated in the micro-bridge structure of the VOx micro-bolometer by a combined process of magnetron sputtering and reactive ion etching (RIE), and its improvement of THz absorption is verified by an optical characteristics mesurement. Continuous-wave THz detection and imaging are demonstrated by using a 2.52 THz far infrared CO2 laser and a 320×240 vanadium oxide micro-bolometer focal plane array with an optimized cell structure. With this detecting system, THz imaging of metal concealed in a wiping cloth and an envelope is demonstrated, respectively.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Low-Impedance 3D Electrode Array System for Neuro-Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Kusko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in patterned microelectrode manufacturing technology and microfluidics has opened the way to a large variety of cellular and molecular biosensor-based applications. In this extremely diverse and rapidly expanding landscape, silicon-based technologies occupy a special position, given their statute of mature, consolidated, and highly accessible areas of development. Within the present work we report microfabrication procedures and workflows for 3D patterned gold-plated microelectrode arrays (MEA of different shapes (pyramidal, conical and high aspect ratio, and we provide a detailed characterization of their physical features during all the fabrication steps to have in the end a reliable technology. Moreover, the electrical performances of MEA silicon chips mounted on standardized connector boards via ultrasound wire-bonding have been tested using non-destructive electrochemical methods: linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy. Further, an experimental recording chamber package suitable for in vitro electrophysiology experiments has been realized using custom-design electronics for electrical stimulus delivery and local field potential recording, included in a complete electrophysiology setup, and the experimental structures have been tested on newborn rat hippocampal slices, yielding similar performance compared to commercially available MEA equipments.

  8. System-on-chip field-programmable gate array design for onboard real-time hyperspectral unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, José M. P.; Véstias, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral instruments have been incorporated in satellite missions, providing large amounts of data of high spectral resolution of the Earth surface. This data can be used in remote sensing applications that often require a real-time or near-real-time response. To avoid delays between hyperspectral image acquisition and its interpretation, the last usually done on a ground station, onboard systems have emerged to process data, reducing the volume of information to transfer from the satellite to the ground station. For this purpose, compact reconfigurable hardware modules, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), are widely used. This paper proposes an FPGA-based architecture for hyperspectral unmixing. This method based on the vertex component analysis (VCA) and it works without a dimensionality reduction preprocessing step. The architecture has been designed for a low-cost Xilinx Zynq board with a Zynq-7020 system-on-chip FPGA-based on the Artix-7 FPGA programmable logic and tested using real hyperspectral data. Experimental results indicate that the proposed implementation can achieve real-time processing, while maintaining the methods accuracy, which indicate the potential of the proposed platform to implement high-performance, low-cost embedded systems, opening perspectives for onboard hyperspectral image processing.

  9. Prototype of a front-end readout ASIC designed for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array in LHAASO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory is in the R and D phase, in which the Water Cherenkov Detector Array is an important part. The signals of Photo-Multiplier Tubes would vary from single photo electron to 4000 photo electrons, and both high precision charge and time measurement is required. To simplify the signal processing chain, the charge-to-time conversion method is employed. A prototype of the front-end readout ASIC is designed and fabricated in Chartered 0.35 μ m CMOS technology, which integrates time disctrimination and converts the input charge information to pulse widths. With Time-to-Digital Converters, both time and charge can be digitized at the same time. We have conducted initial tests on this chip, and the results indicate that a time resolution better than 0.5 ns is achieved over the full dynamic range (1 ∼ 4000 photo electrons, corresponding to 0.75 ∼ 3000 pC with the threshold of 0.188 pC); the charge resolution is better than 1% with large input amplitudes (500 ∼ 4000 photo electrons), and remains better than 15% with a 1 photo electron input amplitude, which is beyond the application requirement

  10. A MIMO Reversed Antenna Array Design for gsm1800/td-scdma/lte/wi-max/wiLan/wifi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A triband MIMO antenna used for gsm1800/td-scdma/lte/wi-max/wiLan/wifi has been proposed in this paper. The design with the size of 32 m ∗ 73.6 mm is fabricated on FR4 substrate (thickness is 1.6 mm. This antenna consists of two reversed monopole meandered radiators and defected ground structure which work together to achieve impedance match and enhance isolation for all operating bands. According to the subsequent measured results, the working frequency domains are at gsm1800 (1.71 GHz–1.88 GHz, td-scdma (1.88 GHz–2.025 GHz, lte (2.1–2.35, 2.48–2.51, wi-max (3.5 GHz, 5.5 GHz, wiLan (5.725 GHz–5.8 GHz, and wifi (5.8 GHz–5.88 GHz approximately. Besides, the measured radiation patterns (gain total are also well at these working frequency domains and the omnidirectional performance has been achieved for the reversed MIMO antenna array. Furthermore, the realized isolation is more than 15 dB, 24.2 dB, and 22 dB at the first, the second, and the third working frequency band, respectively.

  11. Design and fabrication of antireflective GaN subwavelength grating structures using periodic silica sphere monolayer array patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-01

    We designed and fabricated gallium nitride (GaN) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures on GaN/sapphire via patterning using the periodic silica sphere monolayer array as an etch mask and a subsequent dry etching for efficient antireflection coatings. Theoretical optimization of GaN SWG structures was performed in terms of their geometrical parameters by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation using a theoretical structural model. The bullet-like parabola-shaped SWGs with a large height-to-diameter ratio ( R H/D) yielded good broadband and wide-angle antireflective surface properties. Considering the R H/D, the GaN SWG structure using 320-nm silica spheres theoretically and experimentally exhibited the most efficient antireflection property because it provided a linearly graded effective refractive index profile with relatively long relaxation length. For various geometries of the fabricated GaN SWGs on GaN/sapphire, the calculated reflectance results showed a similar tendency with the experimental results.

  12. Conceptual design and optimization of a plastic scintillator array for 2D tomography using a compact D-D fast neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Zboray, Robert; Cortesi, Marco; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2014-04-01

    A conceptual design optimization of a fast neutron tomography system was performed. The system is based on a compact deuterium-deuterium fast neutron generator and an arc-shaped array of individual neutron detectors. The array functions as a position sensitive one-dimensional detector allowing tomographic reconstruction of a two-dimensional cross section of an object up to 10 cm across. Each individual detector is to be optically isolated and consists of a plastic scintillator and a Silicon Photomultiplier for measuring light produced by recoil protons. A deterministic geometry-based model and a series of Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the design geometry parameters affecting the reconstructed image resolution. From this, it is expected that with an array of 100 detectors a reconstructed image resolution of ~1.5mm can be obtained. Other simulations were performed in order to optimize the scintillator depth (length along the neutron path) such that the best ratio of direct to scattered neutron counts is achieved. This resulted in a depth of 6-8 cm and an expected detection efficiency of 33-37%. Based on current operational capabilities of a prototype neutron generator being developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, planned implementation of this detector array design should allow reconstructed tomograms to be obtained with exposure times on the order of a few hours. PMID:24495568

  13. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electro-mechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as the characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on the design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis of the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for the mechanical characterization of tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0 μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make them conducting. The electro-mechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers a 180 μm  ×  180 μm area and the size of the complete device is 20 mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1 mm and the thickness was 8 μm. The region of interest was 200 μm  ×  200 μm. A microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancers breast tissue specimens. (paper)

  14. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electro-mechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as the characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on the design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis of the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for the mechanical characterization of tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0 μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make them conducting. The electro-mechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers a 180 μm  ×  180 μm area and the size of the complete device is 20 mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1 mm and the thickness was 8 μm. The region of interest was 200 μm  ×  200 μm. A microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancers breast tissue specimens.

  15. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  16. CGH analysis of secondary genetic changes in Ewing tumors: correlation with metastatic disease in a series of 43 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, S; Schleiermacher, G; Peter, M; Mairal, A; Oberlin, O; Delattre, O; Aurias, A

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of secondary chromosome changes is frequent in Ewing tumors, in particular trisomies for chromosomes 8 and 12, and unbalanced (1;16) translocations leading to gains of 1q and losses of 16q. The prognostic value of these secondary aberrations has not been statistically demonstrated. We report here a CGH analysis of a series of 43 primary tumors corresponding to 21 localized and 22 metastatic tumors. For five of them, a sufficient amount of DNA for the CGH analysis was available from the frozen samples. For 19 samples, a preliminary step of DOP-PCR amplification of the DNA was necessary. For the last 19 tumors, DNA was obtained after DOP-PCR amplification of small amount of DNA contaminating the RNA. As a whole, the main chromosome imbalances previously described, such as trisomies for 1q, 8, and 12, were observed. It is noteworthy that the mean number of imbalances was more frequent in localized versus metastatic tumors. Gain of 1q was more frequent in metastatic than in localized tumors. Nevertheless, these two results do not reach statistical significance. Conversely, a statistically significant excess of copy number of chromosome 2 was observed in non-metastatic tumors, suggesting that this imbalance, which has never been previously reported, could be associated with more favorable tumor behavior. PMID:11672775

  17. Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

    2014-07-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of B1+ field and SAR with a new transmit array design for 7 T breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan; Krishnamurthy, Narayan; Santini, Tales; Zhao, Yujuan; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty; Ibrahim, Tamer S.

    2016-08-01

    Developing a radiofrequency (RF) coil system that produces a uniform B1+ field (circularly polarized component of the transverse magnetic field responsible for excitation) and low specific absorption rate (SAR) is critical for high performance ultrahigh field human imaging. In this study, we provide the design of a new eight channel radiofrequency (RF) transmit (Tx) array for breast MRI at 7 T. A numerical analysis utilizing an in-house finite difference time domain (FDTD) package was carried out in (1) four breast models, (2) homogeneous spherical model and (3) full body model to calculate the B1+ intensity (μT) and homogeneity represented by coefficient of variation (CoV = standard deviation/mean) in the proposed RF array design. The numerical results were compared with that measured in breast phantom (Bphantom) and homogeneous spherical phantom at 7 T MRI and showed very good agreement. Average and peak SARs were also calculated in the four breast models and the temperature rises due to the operation of the RF array were also measured in the Bphantom. The proposed RF array; which can operate in a single or multi transmit modes, demonstrates homogeneous RF field excitation with acceptable local/average SAR levels for breast MRI at 7 T.

  19. Multi-frequency response from a designed array of micromechanical cantilevers fabricated using a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate arrays of cantilevers with different lengths, fabricated by focused ion beam milling. The arrays of oscillators generate a spectrum of different resonant frequencies, where each frequency correlates to the corresponding individual cantilever. The frequency response from all the cantilevers is collected from a single measurement under the same environment and conditions for the entire array. The mass response of the system generated the same Δf/f0 for the cantilevers, within 0.1% accuracy. We denote the method MFSAC: multi-frequency signal analysis from an array of cantilevers. The simultaneous detection of several frequencies in one spectrum has great benefits in mass sensor applications, offering the possibility for true label-free detection

  20. Analytical approach to transforming filter design for sound field recording and reproduction using circular arrays with a spherical baffle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shoichi; Furuya, Ken'ichi; Wakayama, Keigo; Shimauchi, Suehiro; Saruwatari, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A sound field recording and reproduction method using circular arrays of microphones and loudspeakers with a spherical baffle is proposed. The spherical baffle is an acoustically rigid object on which the microphone array is mounted. The driving signals of the loudspeakers must be obtained from the signals received by the microphones. A transform filter for this signal conversion is analytically derived, which is referred to as the wave field reconstruction filter. The proposed method using a spherical baffle is compared with methods using an array of directional microphones and a microphone array mounted on a cylindrical baffle. Numerical simulations indicated that the proposed method is advantageous for sound field recording and reproduction compared with the other two methods. The results of measurement experiments in a real environment are also demonstrated. PMID:27036240

  1. Design and Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the Addition of an Antenna Array (WIOBSS-AA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin; Song, Huan; Gong, Wanlin

    2016-01-01

    The Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the addition of an antenna array (WIOBSS-AA) is the newest member of the WIOBSS family. It is a multi-channel radio system using phased-array antenna technology. The transmitting part of this radio system applies an array composed of five log-periodic antennas to form five beams that span an area to the northwest of the radar site. The hardware and the antenna array of the first multi-channel ionosonde in the WIOBSS family are introduced in detail in this paper. An ionospheric detection experiment was carried out in Chongyang, Hubei province, China on 16 March 2015 to examine the performance of WIOBSS-AA. The radio system demonstrated its ability to obtain ionospheric electron density information over a wide area. The observations indicate that during the experiment, the monitored large-area ionospheric F2-layer was calm and electron density increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:27314360

  2. Design and Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the Addition of an Antenna Array (WIOBSS-AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin; Song, Huan; Gong, Wanlin

    2016-01-01

    The Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the addition of an antenna array (WIOBSS-AA) is the newest member of the WIOBSS family. It is a multi-channel radio system using phased-array antenna technology. The transmitting part of this radio system applies an array composed of five log-periodic antennas to form five beams that span an area to the northwest of the radar site. The hardware and the antenna array of the first multi-channel ionosonde in the WIOBSS family are introduced in detail in this paper. An ionospheric detection experiment was carried out in Chongyang, Hubei province, China on 16 March 2015 to examine the performance of WIOBSS-AA. The radio system demonstrated its ability to obtain ionospheric electron density information over a wide area. The observations indicate that during the experiment, the monitored large-area ionospheric F2-layer was calm and electron density increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:27314360

  3. Analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization: a comparison of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaret, Valérie; Iacono, Isabelle; Bréjon, Stéphanie; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Pierron, Gäelle; Couturier, Jérôme; Bergeron, Christophe; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2012-12-01

    In cases of neuroblastoma, recurring genetic alterations--losses of the 1p, 3p, 4p, and 11q and/or gains of 1q, 2p, and 17q chromosome arms--are currently used to define the therapeutic strategy in therapeutic protocols for low- and intermediate-risk patients. Different genome-wide analysis techniques, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), have been suggested for detecting chromosome segmental abnormalities. In this study, we compared the results of the two technologies in the analyses of the DNA of tumor samples from 91 neuroblastoma patients. Similar results were obtained with the two techniques for 75 samples (82%). In five cases (5.5%), the MLPA results were not interpretable. Discrepancies between the aCGH and MLPA results were observed in 11 cases (12%). Among the discrepancies, a 18q21.2-qter gain and 16p11.2 and 11q14.1-q14.3 losses were detected only by aCGH. The MLPA results showed that the 7p, 7q, and 14q chromosome arms were affected in six cases, while in two cases, 2p and 17q gains were observed; these results were confirmed by neither aCGH nor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Because of the higher sensitivity and specificity of genome-wide information, reasonable cost, and shorter time of aCGH analysis, we recommend the aCGH procedure for the analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma. PMID:23265803

  4. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  5. Design and implementation of a space domain spherical microphone array with application to source localization and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Yao, Yueh Hua; Lai, Chang-Sheng; Lo, Yi-Yang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, four delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformers formulated in the modal domain and the space domain for open and solid spherical apertures are examined through numerical simulations. The resulting beampatterns reveal that the mainlobe of the solid spherical DAS array is only slightly narrower than that of the open array, whereas the sidelobes of the modal domain array are more significant than those of the space domain array due to the discrete approximation of continuous spherical Fourier transformation. To verify the theory experimentally, a three-dimensionally printed spherical array on which 32 micro-electro-mechanical system microphones are mounted is utilized for localization and separation of sound sources. To overcome the basis mismatch problem in signal separation, source localization is first carried out using minimum variance distortionless response beamformer. Next, Tikhonov regularization (TIKR) and compressive sensing (CS) are employed to extract the source signal amplitudes. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate the proposed spherical array system. Objective perceptual evaluation of speech quality test and a subjective listening test are undertaken in performance evaluation. The experimental results demonstrate better separation quality achieved by the CS approach than by the TIKR approach at the cost of computational complexity. PMID:27036243

  6. Concept, design and implementation of a cardiovascular gene-centric 50 k SNP array for large-scale genomic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J Keating

    Full Text Available A wealth of genetic associations for cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in humans has been accumulating over the last decade, in particular a large number of loci derived from recent genome wide association studies (GWAS. True complex disease-associated loci often exert modest effects, so their delineation currently requires integration of diverse phenotypic data from large studies to ensure robust meta-analyses. We have designed a gene-centric 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array to assess potentially relevant loci across a range of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory syndromes. The array utilizes a "cosmopolitan" tagging approach to capture the genetic diversity across approximately 2,000 loci in populations represented in the HapMap and SeattleSNPs projects. The array content is informed by GWAS of vascular and inflammatory disease, expression quantitative trait loci implicated in atherosclerosis, pathway based approaches and comprehensive literature searching. The custom flexibility of the array platform facilitated interrogation of loci at differing stringencies, according to a gene prioritization strategy that allows saturation of high priority loci with a greater density of markers than the existing GWAS tools, particularly in African HapMap samples. We also demonstrate that the IBC array can be used to complement GWAS, increasing coverage in high priority CVD-related loci across all major HapMap populations. DNA from over 200,000 extensively phenotyped individuals will be genotyped with this array with a significant portion of the generated data being released into the academic domain facilitating in silico replication attempts, analyses of rare variants and cross-cohort meta-analyses in diverse populations. These datasets will also facilitate more robust secondary analyses, such as explorations with alternative genetic models, epistasis and gene-environment interactions.

  7. Conceptual design and optimization of a plastic scintillator array for 2D tomography using a compact D–D fast neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design optimization of a fast neutron tomography system was performed. The system is based on a compact deuterium–deuterium fast neutron generator and an arc-shaped array of individual neutron detectors. The array functions as a position sensitive one-dimensional detector allowing tomographic reconstruction of a two-dimensional cross section of an object up to 10 cm across. Each individual detector is to be optically isolated and consists of a plastic scintillator and a Silicon Photomultiplier for measuring light produced by recoil protons. A deterministic geometry-based model and a series of Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the design geometry parameters affecting the reconstructed image resolution. From this, it is expected that with an array of 100 detectors a reconstructed image resolution of ∼1.5 mm can be obtained. Other simulations were performed in order to optimize the scintillator depth (length along the neutron path) such that the best ratio of direct to scattered neutron counts is achieved. This resulted in a depth of 6–8 cm and an expected detection efficiency of 33–37%. Based on current operational capabilities of a prototype neutron generator being developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, planned implementation of this detector array design should allow reconstructed tomograms to be obtained with exposure times on the order of a few hours. - Highlights: • Conceptual design and optimization of a 2D fast neutron tomography system were performed. • Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate ∼1.5 mm resolution and negligible scattering effects. • Geometry-based deterministic model was developed and used to verify the Monte Carlo results

  8. 3-D Imaging Using Row–Column-Addressed Arrays With Integrated Apodization. Part I: Apodization Design and Line Element Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    2015-01-01

    –column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row–column-addressed array...... ghost echo intensity of a scatterer at (x,y, z) = (8, 3, 30) mm was decreased by 43 dB by integrating roll-off apodization into the array. The main lobe was unaffected by the apodization. Simulations of a 3-mm-diameter anechoic blood vessel at 30 mm depth showed that applying the transducer...

  9. BRCA1-mutated and basal-like breast cancers have similar aCGH profiles and a high incidence of protein truncating TP53 mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) are aggressive breast cancers for which, so far, no targeted therapy is available because they typically lack expression of hormone receptors and HER2. Phenotypic features of BLBCs, such as clinical presentation and early age of onset, resemble those of breast tumors from BRCA1-mutation carriers. The genomic instability of BRCA1-mutated tumors can be effectively targeted with DNA-damaging agents and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors. Molecular similarities between BLBCs and BRCA1-mutated tumors may therefore provide predictive markers for therapeutic response of BLBCs. There are several known molecular features characteristic for BRCA1-mutated breast tumors: 1) increased numbers of genomic aberrations, 2) a distinct pattern of genomic aberrations, 3) a high frequency of TP53 mutations and 4) a high incidence of complex, protein-truncating TP53 mutations. We compared the frequency of TP53 mutations and the pattern and amount of genomic aberrations between BRCA1-mutated breast tumors, BLBCs and luminal breast tumors by TP53 gene sequencing and array-based comparative genomics hybridization (aCGH) analysis. We found that the high incidence of protein truncating TP53 mutations and the pattern and amount of genomic aberrations specific for BRCA1-mutated breast tumors are also characteristic for BLBCs and different from luminal breast tumors. Complex, protein truncating TP53 mutations in BRCA1-mutated tumors may be a direct consequence of genomic instability caused by BRCA1 loss, therefore, the presence of these types of TP53 mutations in sporadic BLBCs might be a hallmark of BRCAness and a potential biomarker for sensitivity to PARP inhibition. Also, our data suggest that a small subset of genomic regions may be used to identify BRCA1-like BLBCs. BLBCs share molecular features that were previously found to be specific for BRCA1-mutated breast tumors. These features might be useful for the identification of tumors with

  10. “Distributed hybrid” MH–CGH2 system for hydrogen storage and its supply to LT PEMFC power modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Prototype hydrogen storage and supply system for LTPEMFC applications was developed. • Combination of MH and CGH2 tanks with common gas manifold was used. • Thermal coupling of fuel cell stack and MH tank was applied. • The system uses AB2-type MH; H2 equilibrium pressure ∼10 bar at room temperature. • Shorter H2 charge time and stable H2 supply at a fluctuating load were observed. - Abstract: This paper describes the layout and presents the results of the testing of a novel prototype “distributed hybrid” hydrogen storage and supply system that has the potential to be used for Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (LT-PEMFC) applications. The system consists of individual Metal Hydride (MH) and Compressed Gas (CGH2) tanks with common gas manifold, and a thermal management system where heat exchanger of the liquid heated-cooled MH tank is integrated with the cooling system of the LT-PEMFC BoP. The MH tank is filled with a medium-stability AB2-type MH material (H2 equilibrium pressure of about 10 bar at room temperature). This innovative solution allows for (i) an increase in hydrogen storage capacity of the whole gas storage system and the reduction of H2 charge pressure; (ii) shorter charging times in the refuelling mode and smoother peaks of H2 consumption during its supply to the fuel cell stack; (iii) the use of standard parts with simple layout and lower costs; and (iv) adding flexibility in the layout and placement of the components of the hydrogen storage and supply system

  11. “Distributed hybrid” MH–CGH2 system for hydrogen storage and its supply to LT PEMFC power modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: mlototskyy@uwc.ac.za [HySA Systems Competence Centre, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Tolj, I.; Davids, M.W.; Bujlo, P. [HySA Systems Competence Centre, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Smith, F. [Impala Platinum Ltd, Springs (South Africa); Pollet, B.G. [HySA Systems Competence Centre, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Prototype hydrogen storage and supply system for LTPEMFC applications was developed. • Combination of MH and CGH2 tanks with common gas manifold was used. • Thermal coupling of fuel cell stack and MH tank was applied. • The system uses AB2-type MH; H2 equilibrium pressure ∼10 bar at room temperature. • Shorter H2 charge time and stable H2 supply at a fluctuating load were observed. - Abstract: This paper describes the layout and presents the results of the testing of a novel prototype “distributed hybrid” hydrogen storage and supply system that has the potential to be used for Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (LT-PEMFC) applications. The system consists of individual Metal Hydride (MH) and Compressed Gas (CGH2) tanks with common gas manifold, and a thermal management system where heat exchanger of the liquid heated-cooled MH tank is integrated with the cooling system of the LT-PEMFC BoP. The MH tank is filled with a medium-stability AB{sub 2}-type MH material (H{sub 2} equilibrium pressure of about 10 bar at room temperature). This innovative solution allows for (i) an increase in hydrogen storage capacity of the whole gas storage system and the reduction of H{sub 2} charge pressure; (ii) shorter charging times in the refuelling mode and smoother peaks of H{sub 2} consumption during its supply to the fuel cell stack; (iii) the use of standard parts with simple layout and lower costs; and (iv) adding flexibility in the layout and placement of the components of the hydrogen storage and supply system.

  12. Design of a prototype device to calibrate the Large Size Telescope camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, M; De Persio, F; Chatterjee, A; Ferrarotto, F; Nagesh, B K; Saha, L; Singh, B B

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is a project that aims to exploring the highest energy region of electromagnetic spectrum. Two arrays, one for each hemisphere, will cover the full sky in a range from few tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV improving the sensitivity and angular resolution of the present operating arrays. A prototype of the Large Size Telescope (LST) for the study of gamma ray astronomy above some tens of GeV will be installed at the Canary Island of La Palma in 2016. The LST camera, made by an array of photomultipliers (PMTs), requires an accurate and systematic calibration over a wide dynamic range. In this contribution, we present an optical calibration system made by a 355 nm wavelength laser with 400 ps pulse width, 1 muJ output energy, up to 4k Hz repetition rate and a set of neutral density filters to obtain a wide range of photon intensities, up to 1000 photoelectrons/PMT, to be sent to the camera plane 28 m away. The number of photons after the diffuser of the calibration box, located in the ...

  13. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  14. Initial analysis of copy number variation in the cow genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a complement to the Bovine HapMap Consortium project, we initiated a systematic study of the CNV within the same cattle population using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to cover all chromosomes with an average interval ...

  15. A high-resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a systematic study of the cattle copy number variation (CNV) using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to provide a genome-wide coverage with an average interval of 6 kb using the Bta3.1 genome assembly. Dual-lab...

  16. Analysis of copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We initiated a systematic study of the copy number variation (CNV) within the Bovine HapMap cattle population using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to provide a genome-wide coverage with an average interval of 6 kb using t...

  17. Design method of multidimensional dynamic arrays based on linked lists%基于链表结构的多维动态数组设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫沫; 王瑜

    2011-01-01

    To cope with problems such as the created dynamic arrays can not meet any dimension, any data type and also can not access data flexibly.A design method of multidimensional dynamic arrays is proposed.This method use linked lists to access data by pointer, and use variable-length argument lists technology to create any dimensional dynamic arrays.It is proved in practice that the method can be used in any data types and produce any dimensional arrays.One can both access an element from the created arrays with subscripts and access elements with linear order.The method can be extended easily and is more flexible than traditional methods.%针对动态数组生成中难以适应任意维数、任意数据类型、索引数据不够灵活等问题,提出一种基于链表结构的多维动态数组设计方法.该方法通过链表进行索引,采用变长参数列表技术动态生成数组.结果表明,该方法能够生成任意维动态数组;适用任意的数据类型;既能够直接利用数组下标索引数据,也能够对数据进行线性访问.与以往动态数组生成方法相比,更易于扩展.使用更加灵活.

  18. Design and construction of wall-less nano-electrophoretic and nano in micro array high throughput devices for single cell ‘omics' single molecule detection analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misevic, Gradimir N.; BenAssayag, Gerard; Rasser, Bernard; Sales, Philippe; Simic-Krstic, Jovana; Misevic, Nikola J.; Popescu, Octavian

    2014-09-01

    Single cell ‘omics' requires a technological platform with reliable and high throughput single cell analyses with single molecular detection and quantification. Presently available options are to either to detect many different macromolecules and metabolites extracted from many cells, thus obtaining partial ‘omics' of an average cell or to study only few single cells and be limited to semi-quantitative analyses and detection of a few abundant molecules. Here we present a new design and prototype proof of concept construction of high throughput nano-electrophoretic separation (NEA) device and nano in micro array (NiMA) affinity probe device for a complete single cell ‘omics' single bio-molecule polymers detection and quantification analyses. Prototype devices were constructed using gallium ion Focus Ion Beam (FIB), Gas Injection System (GIS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) crossbeam instruments. The NEA device accommodates 100 different cell samplings per 1 cm2 chip with arrays of open nano-electrophoretic guides. The NiMA bio-sensor device on 1 cm2 can accommodate 2500 cells in a micro-well array which consists of 250,000 probe markers in nano-well array located in each micro-well. Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) we have demonstrated the direct detection of a single protein molecule and proved the feasibility of single bio-molecular detection and quantification concept for NEA and NIMA. Our concept validates high throughput and complete and quantitative single cell ‘omics' with single molecular detection analyses without labeling. Thus, it is superior to commonly used microfluidics, capillary electrophoresis and micro-arrays using mass spectrometry and fluorescent labeling for molecular detection.

  19. Design of a 7m Davies-Cotton Cherenkov telescope mount for the high energy section of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Vallejo, G; Supanitsky, A D; Actis, M; Botani, A; Ochoa, I; Hughes, G

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is the next generation ground-based observatory for the study of very-high-energy gamma-rays. It will provide an order of magnitude more sensitivity and greater angular resolution than present systems as well as an increased energy range (20 GeV to 300 TeV). For the high energy portion of this range, a relatively large area has to be covered by the array. For this, the construction of ~7 m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is an option under study. We have proposed an innovative design of a Davies-Cotton mount for such a telescope, within Cherenkov Telescope Array specifications, and evaluated its mechanical and optical performance. The mount is a reticulated-type structure with steel tubes and tensioned wires, designed in three main parts to be assembled on site. In this work we show the structural characteristics of the mount and the optical aberrations at the focal plane for three options of mirror facet size caused by mount deformations due to wind and gravity.

  20. Design studies for a multi-TeV gamma-ray telescope array : PeX (PeV eXplorer)

    CERN Document Server

    Denman, Jarrad

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) This thesis presents work towards the design of a new array of Image Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) to detect multi-TeV gamma-ray sources. The array consists of 5 telescopes in a square layout with one central telescope, known as the Pevatron eXplorer or PeX. PeX is a PeV (10^{15} eV) cosmic ray explorer that aims to study and discover gamma-ray sources in the 1 to 500 TeV range. The initial PeX design has been influenced by the HEGRA CT-System and H.E.S.S. configurations. One important feature of multi-TeV air showers is their ability to trigger telescopes at large core distance (>400m). PeX will utilise large core distance events to improve the performance and illustrate the viability of a sparse array for multi-TeV gamma-ray astronomy. One important aspect of the thesis (Chapter 6) was the investigation of a new time-based image cleaning method. The arrival time between photons in two adjacent pixels in the camera is used to apply an extra cut which helps mitigate night sky background....