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Sample records for cftr anion channel

  1. Antibodies to the CFTR modulate the turgor pressure of guard cell protoplasts via slow anion channels.

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    Leonhardt, N; Bazin, I; Richaud, P; Marin, E; Vavasseur, A; Forestier, C

    2001-04-06

    The plasma membrane guard cell slow anion channel is a key element at the basis of water loss control in plants allowing prolonged osmolite efflux necessary for stomatal closure. This channel has been extensively studied by electrophysiological approaches but its molecular identification is still lacking. Recently, we described that this channel was sharing some similarities with the mammalian ATP-binding cassette protein, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel [Leonhardt, N. et al. (1999) Plant Cell 11, 1141-1151]. Here, using the patch-clamp technique and a bioassay, consisting in the observation of the change in guard cell protoplasts volume, we demonstrated that a functional antibody raised against the mammalian CFTR prevented ABA-induced guard cell protoplasts shrinking and partially inhibited the slow anion current. Moreover, this antibody immunoprecipitated a polypeptide from guard cell protein extracts and immunolabeled stomata in Vicia faba leaf sections. These results indicate that the guard cell slow anion channel is, or is closely controlled by a polypeptide, exhibiting one epitope shared with the mammalian CFTR.

  2. Transmembrane helical interactions in the CFTR channel pore.

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    Jhuma Das

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR gene affect CFTR protein biogenesis or its function as a chloride channel, resulting in dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs in cystic fibrosis (CF. Development of pharmaceutical strategies to treat CF requires understanding of the mechanisms underlying channel function. However, incomplete 3D structural information on the unique ABC ion channel, CFTR, hinders elucidation of its functional mechanism and correction of cystic fibrosis causing mutants. Several CFTR homology models have been developed using bacterial ABC transporters as templates but these have low sequence similarity to CFTR and are not ion channels. Here, we refine an earlier model in an outward (OWF and develop an inward (IWF facing model employing an integrated experimental-molecular dynamics simulation (200 ns approach. Our IWF structure agrees well with a recently solved cryo-EM structure of a CFTR IWF state. We utilize cysteine cross-linking to verify positions and orientations of residues within trans-membrane helices (TMHs of the OWF conformation and to reconstruct a physiologically relevant pore structure. Comparison of pore profiles of the two conformations reveal a radius sufficient to permit passage of hydrated Cl- ions in the OWF but not the IWF model. To identify structural determinants that distinguish the two conformations and possible rearrangements of TMHs within them responsible for channel gating, we perform cross-linking by bifunctional reagents of multiple predicted pairs of cysteines in TMH 6 and 12 and 6 and 9. To determine whether the effects of cross-linking on gating observed are the result of switching of the channel from open to close state, we also treat the same residue pairs with monofunctional reagents in separate experiments. Both types of reagents prevent ion currents indicating that pore blockage is primarily responsible.

  3. Rab4GTPase modulates CFTR function by impairing channel expression at plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Kaur, Simarna; George, Constantine

    2006-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or the function of a membrane cAMP-activated chloride channel, CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include recruitment of channel proteins to the cell surface from intracellular pools and by protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in regulated trafficking controlling vesicle docking and fusion. Rab4 controls recycling events from endosome to the plasma membrane, fusion, and degradation. The colorectal cell line HT-29 natively expresses CFTR and responds to cAMP stimulation with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. Rab4 over-expression in HT-29 cells inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated CFTR-mediated currents. GTPase-deficient Rab4Q67L and GDP locked Rab4S22N both inhibit channel activity, which appears characteristically different. Active status of Rab4 was confirmed by GTP overlay assay, while its expression was verified by Western blotting. The pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Rab4 physically interacts with CFTR through protein-protein interaction. Biotinylation with cell impermeant NHS-Sulfo-SS-Biotin implies that Rab4 impairs CFTR expression at cell surface. The enhanced cytosolic CFTR indicates that Rab4 expression restrains CFTR appearance at the cell membrane. The study suggests that Rab4 regulates the channel through multiple mechanisms that include protein-protein interaction, GTP/GDP exchange, and channel protein trafficking. We propose that Rab4 is a dynamic molecule with a significant role in CFTR function

  4. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J.; Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev ) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize tha...

  5. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions.

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    Hélène Klein

    Full Text Available In epithelia, Cl- channels play a prominent role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Of particular importance is the cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR with mutations of the CFTR encoding gene causing cystic fibrosis. The bulk transepithelial transport of Cl- ions and electrolytes needs however to be coupled to an increase in K+ conductance in order to recycle K+ and maintain an electrical driving force for anion exit across the apical membrane. In several epithelia, this K+ efflux is ensured by K+ channels, including KCa3.1, which is expressed at both the apical and basolateral membranes. We show here for the first time that CFTR and KCa3.1 can physically interact. We first performed a two-hybrid screen to identify which KCa3.1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3.1 calmodulin binding domain (residues L345-A400 interact with the NBD2 segment (G1237-Y1420 and C- region of CFTR (residues T1387-L1480, respectively. An association of CFTR and F508del-CFTR with KCa3.1 was further confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrating the formation of immunoprecipitable CFTR/KCa3.1 complexes in CFBE cells. Co-expression of KCa3.1 and CFTR in HEK cells did not impact CFTR expression at the cell surface, and KCa3.1 trafficking appeared independent of CFTR stimulation. Finally, evidence is presented through cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements that KCa3.1 and CFTR colocalize at the plasma membrane and that KCa3.1 channels tend to aggregate consequent to an enhanced interaction with CFTR channels at the plasma membrane following an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Altogether, these results suggest 1 that the physical interaction KCa3.1/CFTR can occur early during the biogenesis of both proteins and 2 that KCa3.1 and CFTR form a dynamic complex, the formation of which

  6. CFTR chloride channel as a molecular target of anthraquinone compounds in herbal laxatives

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    Yang, Hong; Xu, Li-na; He, Cheng-yan; Liu, Xin; Fang, Rou-yu; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To clarify whether CFTR is a molecular target of intestinal fluid secretion caused by the anthraquinone compounds from laxative herbal plants. Methods: A cell-based fluorescent assay to measure I− influx through CFTR chloride channel. A short-circuit current assay to measure transcellular Cl− current across single layer FRT cells and freshly isolated colon mucosa. A closed loop experiment to measure colon fluid secretion in vivo. Results: Anthraquinone compounds rhein, aloe-emodin and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAN) stimulated I− influx through CFTR chloride channel in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of physiological concentration of cAMP. In the short-circuit current assay, the three compound enhanced Cl− currents in epithelia formed by CFTR-expressing FRT cells with EC50 values of 73±1.4, 56±1.7, and 50±0.5μmol/L, respectively, and Rhein also enhanced Cl− current in freshly isolated rat colonic mucosa with a similar potency. These effects were completely reversed by the CFTR selective blocker CFTRinh-172. In in vivo closed loop experiments, rhein 2 mmol/L stimulated colonic fluid accumulation that was largely blocked by CFTRinh-172. The anthraquinone compounds did not elevate cAMP level in cultured FRT cells and rat colonic mucosa, suggesting a direct effect on CFTR activity. Conclusion: Natural anthraquinone compounds in vegetable laxative drugs are CFTR potentiators that stimulated colonic chloride and fluid secretion. Thus CFTR chloride channel is a molecular target of vegetable laxative drugs. PMID:21602836

  7. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Jorna, H; Verkade, HJ; Bot, AGM; Hofmann, F; Agellon, LB; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR

    2005-01-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal

  8. Steviol reduces MDCK Cyst formation and growth by inhibiting CFTR channel activity and promoting proteasome-mediated CFTR degradation.

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    Chaowalit Yuajit

    Full Text Available Cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD involves cAMP-activated proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells and transepithelial fluid secretion into the cyst lumen via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride channel. This study aimed to investigate an inhibitory effect and detailed mechanisms of steviol and its derivatives on cyst growth using a cyst model in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. Among 4 steviol-related compounds tested, steviol was found to be the most potent at inhibiting MDCK cyst growth. Steviol inhibition of cyst growth was dose-dependent; steviol (100 microM reversibly inhibited cyst formation and cyst growth by 72.53.6% and 38.2±8.5%, respectively. Steviol at doses up to 200 microM had no effect on MDCK cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. However, steviol acutely inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current in MDCK epithelia, measured with the Ussing chamber technique, in a dose-dependent manner. Prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM also strongly inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current, in part by reducing CFTR protein expression in MDCK cells. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, abolished the effect of steviol on CFTR protein expression. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM markedly reduced CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that steviol retards MDCK cyst progression in two ways: first by directly inhibiting CFTR chloride channel activity and second by reducing CFTR expression, in part, by promoting proteasomal degradation of CFTR. Steviol and related compounds therefore represent drug candidates for treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

  9. Cholesterol modulates CFTR confinement in the plasma membrane of primary epithelial cells.

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    Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Pandzic, Elvis; Goepp, Julie; Matthes, Elizabeth; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2015-07-07

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a plasma-membrane anion channel that, when mutated, causes the disease cystic fibrosis. Although CFTR has been detected in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction prepared from airway epithelial cells, suggesting that it may partition into cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts), its compartmentalization has not been demonstrated in intact cells and the influence of microdomains on CFTR lateral mobility is unknown. We used live-cell imaging, spatial image correlation spectroscopy, and k-space image correlation spectroscopy to examine the aggregation state of CFTR and its dynamics both within and outside microdomains in the plasma membrane of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. These studies were also performed during treatments that augment or deplete membrane cholesterol. We found two populations of CFTR molecules that were distinguishable based on their dynamics at the cell surface. One population showed confinement and had slow dynamics that were highly cholesterol dependent. The other, more abundant population was less confined and diffused more rapidly. Treatments that deplete the membrane of cholesterol caused the confined fraction and average number of CFTR molecules per cluster to decrease. Elevating cholesterol had the opposite effect, increasing channel aggregation and the fraction of channels displaying confinement, consistent with CFTR recruitment into cholesterol-rich microdomains with dimensions below the optical resolution limit. Viral infection caused the nanoscale microdomains to fuse into large platforms and reduced CFTR mobility. To our knowledge, these results provide the first biophysical evidence for multiple CFTR populations and have implications for regulation of their surface expression and channel function. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

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    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

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    Jessica LaRusch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF, a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002. Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005 and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001. WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in

  12. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J; Lewis, Michele D; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B; Amann, Stephen T; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-07-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  13. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  14. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

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    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  16. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

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    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Current insights into the role of PKA phosphorylation in CFTR channel activity and the pharmacological rescue of cystic fibrosis disease-causing mutants.

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    Chin, Stephanie; Hung, Maurita; Bear, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel gating is predominantly regulated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. In addition to regulating CFTR channel activity, PKA phosphorylation is also involved in enhancing CFTR trafficking and mediating conformational changes at the interdomain interfaces of the protein. The major cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutation is the deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del); it causes many defects that affect CFTR trafficking, stability, and gating at the cell surface. Due to the multiple roles of PKA phosphorylation, there is growing interest in targeting PKA-dependent signaling for rescuing the trafficking and functional defects of F508del-CFTR. This review will discuss the effects of PKA phosphorylation on wild-type CFTR, the consequences of CF mutations on PKA phosphorylation, and the development of therapies that target PKA-mediated signaling.

  18. A host defense mechanism involving CFTR-mediated bicarbonate secretion in bacterial prostatitis.

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    Chen Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis is associated with a characteristic increase in prostatic fluid pH; however, the underlying mechanism and its physiological significance have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study a primary culture of rat prostatic epithelial cells and a rat prostatitis model were used. Here we reported the involvement of CFTR, a cAMP-activated anion channel conducting both Cl(- and HCO(3(-, in mediating prostate HCO(3(- secretion and its possible role in bacterial killing. Upon Escherichia coli (E. coli-LPS challenge, the expression of CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II, along with several pro-inflammatory cytokines was up-regulated in the primary culture of rat prostate epithelial cells. Inhibiting CFTR function in vitro or in vivo resulted in reduced bacterial killing by prostate epithelial cells or the prostate. High HCO(3(- content (>50 mM, rather than alkaline pH, was found to be responsible for bacterial killing. The direct action of HCO(3(- on bacterial killing was confirmed by its ability to increase cAMP production and suppress bacterial initiation factors in E. coli. The relevance of the CFTR-mediated HCO(3(- secretion in humans was demonstrated by the upregulated expression of CFTR and CAII in human prostatitis tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CFTR and its mediated HCO(3(- secretion may be up-regulated in prostatitis as a host defense mechanism.

  19. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Than, B. L. N.; Linnekamp, J. F.; Starr, T. K.; Largaespada, D. A.; Rod, A.; Zhang, Y.; Bruner, V.; Abrahante, J.; Schumann, A.; Luczak, T.; Niemczyk, A.; O'Sullivan, M. G.; Medema, J. P.; Fijneman, R. J. A.; Meijer, G. A.; van den Broek, E.; Hodges, C. A.; Scott, P. M.; Vermeulen, L.; Cormier, R. T.

    2016-01-01

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid-base

  20. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

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    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. NM23 proteins: innocent bystanders or local energy boosters for CFTR?

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    Muimo, Richmond; Alothaid, Hani Mm; Mehta, Anil

    2018-03-01

    NM23 proteins NDPK-A and -B bind to the cystic fibrosis (CF) protein CFTR in different ways from kinases such as PKA, CK2 and AMPK or linkers to cell calcium such as calmodulin and annexins. NDPK-A (not -B) interacts with CFTR through reciprocal AMPK binding/control, whereas NDPK-B (not -A) binds directly to CFTR. NDPK-B can activate G proteins without ligand-receptor coupling, so perhaps NDPK-B's binding influences energy supply local to a nucleotide-binding site (NBD1) needed for CFTR to function. Curiously, CFTR (ABC-C7) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family that does not obey 'clan rules'; CFTR channels anions and is not a pump, regulates disparate processes, is itself regulated by multiple means and is so pleiotropic that it acts as a hub that orchestrates calcium signaling through its consorts such as calmodulin/annexins. Furthermore, its multiple partners make CFTR dance to different tunes in different cellular and subcellular locations as it recycles from the plasma membrane to endosomes. CFTR function in airway apical membranes is inhibited by smoking which has been dubbed 'acquired CF'. CFTR alone among family members possesses a trap for other proteins that it unfurls as a 'fish-net' and which bears consensus phosphorylation sites for many protein kinases, with PKA being the most canonical. Recently, the site of CFTR's commonest mutation has been proposed as a knock-in mutant that alters allosteric control of kinase CK2 by log orders of activity towards calmodulin and other substrates after CFTR fragmentation. This link from CK2 to calmodulin that binds the R region invokes molecular paths that control lumen formation, which is incomplete in the tracheas of some CF-affected babies. Thus, we are poised to understand the many roles of NDPK-A and -B in CFTR function and, especially lumen formation, which is defective in the gut and lungs of many CF babies.

  2. Clusters of Cl- channels in CFTR-expressing em>Sf>9 cells switch spontaneously between slow and fast gating modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Price, E. M.; Gabriel, S. E.

    1996-01-01

    channel. Excised outside-out patches of CFTR-infected and forskolin-stimulated cells exhibited wave-like gating kinetics of well-resolved current transitions. All-point Gaussian distributions revealed contributions from several (five to nine) identical channels. Such channels, in excised outside...

  3. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The CFTR-Associated Ligand Arrests the Trafficking of the Mutant ΔF508 CFTR Channel in the ER Contributing to Cystic Fibrosis

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    Emily Bergbower

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The CFTR-Associated Ligand (CAL, a PDZ domain containing protein with two coiled-coil domains, reduces cell surface WT CFTR through degradation in the lysosome by a well-characterized mechanism. However, CAL’s regulatory effect on ΔF508 CFTR has remained almost entirely uninvestigated. Methods: In this study, we describe a previously unknown pathway for CAL by which it regulates the membrane expression of ΔF508 CFTR through arrest of ΔF508 CFTR trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER using a combination of cell biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology. Results: We demonstrate that CAL is an ER localized protein that binds to ΔF508 CFTR and is degraded in the 26S proteasome. When CAL is inhibited, ΔF508 CFTR retention in the ER decreases and cell surface expression of mature functional ΔF508 CFTR is observed alongside of enhanced expression of plasma membrane scaffolding protein NHERF1. Chaperone proteins regulate this novel process, and ΔF508 CFTR binding to HSP40, HSP90, HSP70, VCP, and Aha1 changes to improve ΔF508 CFTR cell surface trafficking. Conclusion: Our results reveal a pathway in which CAL regulates the cell surface availability and intracellular retention of ΔF508 CFTR.

  5. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered.

  6. Two Salt Bridges Differentially Contribute to the Maintenance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channel Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; Freeman, Cody S.; Knotts, Taylor; Prince, Chengyu Z.; Kuang, Christopher; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two salt bridges in human CFTR chloride ion channels, Arg352-Asp993 and Arg347-Asp924, that are required for normal channel function. In the present study, we determined how the two salt bridges cooperate to maintain the open pore architecture of CFTR. Our data suggest that Arg347 not only interacts with Asp924 but also interacts with Asp993. The tripartite interaction Arg347-Asp924-Asp993 mainly contributes to maintaining a stable s2 open subconductance state. The Arg352-Asp993 salt bridge, in contrast, is involved in stabilizing both the s2 and full (f) open conductance states, with the main contribution being to the f state. The s1 subconductance state does not require either salt bridge. In confirmation of the role of Arg352 and Asp993, channels bearing cysteines at these sites could be latched into a full open state using the bifunctional cross-linker 1,2-ethanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate, but only when applied in the open state. Channels remained latched open even after washout of ATP. The results suggest that these interacting residues contribute differently to stabilizing the open pore in different phases of the gating cycle. PMID:23709221

  7. Stimulation of wild-type, F508del- and G551D-CFTR chloride channels by non toxic modified pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine derivatives

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    Luc eDannhoffer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis is a major inherited disorder involving abnormalities of fluid and electrolyte transport in a number of different organs due to abnormal function of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR protein. We recently identified a family of CFTR activators, which contains the hit: RP107 [7-n-butyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl[5H]-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine]. Here, we further evaluated the effect of the chemical modifications of the RP107-OH radical on CFTR activation. The replacement of the OH radical by a fluorine atom at position 2 (RP193 or 4 (RP185 significantly decreased the toxicity of the compounds without altering the ability to activate CFTR, especially for RP193. The non-toxic compound RP193 has no effect on cAMP production but stimulates the channel activity of wild-type CFTR in stably transfected CHO cells, in human bronchial epithelial NuLi-1 cells and in primary culture of human bronchial epithelial cells. Whole cell and single patch clamp recordings showed that RP193 induced a linear, time and voltage-independent current, which was fully inhibited by two different and selective CFTR inhibitors (CFTRinh-172 and GPinh-5a. Moreover, RP193 stimulates CFTR in temperature-rescued CuFi-1 (F508del/F508del human bronchial epithelial cells and in CHO cells stably expressing G551D-CFTR. This study shows that it is feasible to reduce cytotoxicity of chemical compounds without affecting their potency to activate CFTR and to rescue the class 2 F508del-CFTR and class 3 G551D-CFTR CF mutant activities.

  8. Purinergic regulation of CFTR and Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels and K+ channels in human pancreatic duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Haanes, Kristian A; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    mutated CFTR, basolateral ATP and UTP had negligible effects. In addition to Cl(-) transport in Capan-1 cells, the effects of 5,6-dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (DC-EBIO) and clotrimazole indicated functional expression of the intermediate conductance K(+) channels (IK, KCa3...

  9. Microparticle-mediated transfer of the viral receptors CAR and CD46, and the CFTR channel in a CHO cell model confers new functions to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Cell microparticles (MPs released in the extracellular milieu can embark plasma membrane and intracellular components which are specific of their cellular origin, and transfer them to target cells. The MP-mediated, cell-to-cell transfer of three human membrane glycoproteins of different degrees of complexity was investigated in the present study, using a CHO cell model system. We first tested the delivery of CAR and CD46, two monospanins which act as adenovirus receptors, to target CHO cells. CHO cells lack CAR and CD46, high affinity receptors for human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5, and serotype 35 (HAdV35, respectively. We found that MPs derived from CHO cells (MP-donor cells constitutively expressing CAR (MP-CAR or CD46 (MP-CD46 were able to transfer CAR and CD46 to target CHO cells, and conferred selective permissiveness to HAdV5 and HAdV35. In addition, target CHO cells incubated with MP-CD46 acquired the CD46-associated function in complement regulation. We also explored the MP-mediated delivery of a dodecaspanin membrane glycoprotein, the CFTR to target CHO cells. CFTR functions as a chloride channel in human cells and is implicated in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Target CHO cells incubated with MPs produced by CHO cells constitutively expressing GFP-tagged CFTR (MP-GFP-CFTR were found to gain a new cellular function, the chloride channel activity associated to CFTR. Time-course analysis of the appearance of GFP-CFTR in target cells suggested that MPs could achieve the delivery of CFTR to target cells via two mechanisms: the transfer of mature, membrane-inserted CFTR glycoprotein, and the transfer of CFTR-encoding mRNA. These results confirmed that cell-derived MPs represent a new class of promising therapeutic vehicles for the delivery of bioactive macromolecules, proteins or mRNAs, the latter exerting the desired therapeutic effect in target cells via de novo synthesis of their encoded proteins.

  10. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  11. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Andreas; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Bruns, Reimer; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann; Haeberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Duebbers, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl - ) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients

  12. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebner, Andreas; Hinterdorfer, Peter [Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Bruns, Reimer; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann [Institute of Physiology II, University of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Haeberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Duebbers, Angelika [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: schille@uni-muenster.de

    2008-09-24

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl{sup -}) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.

  13. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-24

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.

  14. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  15. Molecular Evolution of Slow and Quick Anion Channels (SLACs and QUACs/ALMTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Ingo; Gomez-Porras, Judith Lucia; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiological analyses conducted about 25 years ago detected two types of anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. One type of channel responds slowly to changes in membrane voltage while the other responds quickly. Consequently, they were named SLAC, for SLow Anion Channel, and QUAC, for QUick Anion Channel. Recently, genes SLAC1 and QUAC1/ALMT12, underlying the two different anion current components, could be identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the gene products in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the quick and slow current kinetics. In this study we provide an overview on our current knowledge on slow and quick anion channels in plants and analyze the molecular evolution of ALMT/QUAC-like and SLAC-like channels. We discovered fingerprints that allow screening databases for these channel types and were able to identify 192 (177 non-redundant) SLAC-like and 422 (402 non-redundant) ALMT/QUAC-like proteins in the fully sequenced genomes of 32 plant species. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the molecular evolution of these channel types. We also combined sequence alignment and clustering with predictions of protein features, leading to the identification of known conserved phosphorylation sites in SLAC1-like channels along with potential sites that have not been yet experimentally confirmed. Using a similar strategy to analyze the hydropathicity of ALMT/QUAC-like channels, we propose a modified topology with additional transmembrane regions that integrates structure and function of these membrane proteins. Our results suggest that cross-referencing phylogenetic analyses with position-specific protein properties and functional data could be a very powerful tool for genome research approaches in general.

  16. Molecular evolution of slow and quick anion channels (SLACs and QUACs/ALMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eDreyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological analyses conducted about 25 years ago detected two types of anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. One type of channel responds slowly to changes in membrane voltage while the other responds quickly. Consequently, they were named SLAC, for SLow Anion Channel, and QUAC, for QUick Anion Channel. Recently, genes SLAC1 and QUAC1/ALMT12, underlying the two different anion current components, could be identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the gene products in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the quick and slow current kinetics. In this study we provide an overview on our current knowledge on slow and quick anion channels in plants and analyze the molecular evolution of ALMT/QUAC-like and SLAC-like channels. We discovered fingerprints that allow screening databases for these channel types and were able to identify 192 (177 non-redundant SLAC-like and 422 (402 non-redundant ALMT/QUAC-like proteins in the fully sequenced genomes of 32 plant species. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the molecular evolution of these channel types. We also combined sequence alignment and clustering with predictions of protein features, leading to the identification of known conserved phosphorylation sites in SLAC1-like channels along with potential sites that have not been yet experimentally confirmed. Using a similar strategy to analyze the hydropathicity of ALMT/QUAC-like channels, we propose a modified topology with additional transmembrane regions that integrates structure and function of these membrane proteins. Our results suggest that cross-referencing phylogenetic analyses with position-specific protein properties and functional data could be a very powerful tool for genome research approaches in general.

  17. Mercury toxicity in the shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland: apical CFTR chloride channels are inhibited by mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Martha A; Decker, Sarah E; Aller, Stephen G; Weber, Gerhard; Forrest, John N

    2006-03-01

    In the shark rectal gland, basolateral membrane proteins have been suggested as targets for mercury. To examine the membrane polarity of mercury toxicity, we performed experiments in three preparations: isolated perfused rectal glands, primary monolayer cultures of rectal gland epithelial cells, and Xenopus oocytes expressing the shark cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In perfused rectal glands we observed: (1) a dose-dependent inhibition by mercury of forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated chloride secretion; (2) inhibition was maximal when mercury was added before stimulation with forskolin/IBMX; (3) dithiothrietol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) completely prevented inhibition of chloride secretion. Short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in monolayers of rectal gland epithelial cells were performed to examine the membrane polarity of this effect. Mercuric chloride inhibited Isc more potently when applied to the solution bathing the apical vs. the basolateral membrane (23 +/- 5% and 68 +/- 5% inhibition at 1 and 10 microM HgCl2 in the apical solution vs. 2 +/- 0.9% and 14 +/- 5% in the basolateral solution). This inhibition was prevented by pre-treatment with apical DTT or GSH; however, only the permeant reducing agent DTT reversed mercury inhibition when added after exposure. When the shark rectal gland CFTR channel was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and chloride conductance was measured by two-electrode voltage clamping, we found that 1 microM HgCl2 inhibited forskolin/IBMX conductance by 69.2 +/- 2.0%. We conclude that in the shark rectal gland, mercury inhibits chloride secretion by interacting with the apical membrane and that CFTR is the likely site of this action. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Computational design of a PDZ domain peptide inhibitor that rescues CFTR activity.

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    Kyle E Roberts

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. The most prevalent CFTR mutation, ΔF508, blocks folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent work has shown that some ΔF508-CFTR channel activity can be recovered by pharmaceutical modulators ("potentiators" and "correctors", but ΔF508-CFTR can still be rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway involving the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL, which binds CFTR via a PDZ interaction domain. We present a study that goes from theory, to new structure-based computational design algorithms, to computational predictions, to biochemical testing and ultimately to epithelial-cell validation of novel, effective CAL PDZ inhibitors (called "stabilizers" that rescue ΔF508-CFTR activity. To design the "stabilizers", we extended our structural ensemble-based computational protein redesign algorithm K* to encompass protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions. The computational predictions achieved high accuracy: all of the top-predicted peptide inhibitors bound well to CAL. Furthermore, when compared to state-of-the-art CAL inhibitors, our design methodology achieved higher affinity and increased binding efficiency. The designed inhibitor with the highest affinity for CAL (kCAL01 binds six-fold more tightly than the previous best hexamer (iCAL35, and 170-fold more tightly than the CFTR C-terminus. We show that kCAL01 has physiological activity and can rescue chloride efflux in CF patient-derived airway epithelial cells. Since stabilizers address a different cellular CF defect from potentiators and correctors, our inhibitors provide an additional therapeutic pathway that can be used in conjunction with current methods.

  19. Cytosolic nucleotides block and regulate the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-09-12

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al(3+) to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Cytosolic Nucleotides Block and Regulate the Arabidopsis Vacuolar Anion Channel AtALMT9*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al3+ to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell. PMID:25028514

  1. The human CFTR protein expressed in CHO cells activates aquaporin-3 in a cAMP-dependent pathway: study by digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2013-12-11

    The transmembrane water movements during cellular processes and their relationship to ionic channel activity remain largely unknown. As an example, in epithelial cells it was proposed that the movement of water could be directly linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity through a cAMP-stimulated aqueous pore, or be dependent on aquaporin. Here, we used digital holographic microscopy (DHM) an interferometric technique to quantify in situ the transmembrane water fluxes during the activity of the epithelial chloride channel, CFTR, measured by patch-clamp and iodide efflux techniques. We showed that the water transport measured by DHM is fully inhibited by the selective CFTR blocker CFTRinh172 and is absent in cells lacking CFTR. Of note, in cells expressing the mutated version of CFTR (F508del-CFTR), which mimics the most common genetic alteration encountered in cystic fibrosis, we also show that the water movement is profoundly altered but restored by pharmacological manipulation of F508del-CFTR-defective trafficking. Importantly, whereas activation of this endogenous water channel required a cAMP-dependent stimulation of CFTR, activation of CFTR or F508del-CFTR by two cAMP-independent CFTR activators, genistein and MPB91, failed to trigger water movements. Finally, using a specific small-interfering RNA against the endogenous aquaporin AQP3, the water transport accompanying CFTR activity decreased. We conclude that water fluxes accompanying CFTR activity are linked to AQP3 but not to a cAMP-stimulated aqueous pore in the CFTR protein.

  2. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  3. Involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR post-translational turnover and in its plasma membrane stability in airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ferru-Clément

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is a chloride channel that is expressed on the apical plasma membrane (PM of epithelial cells. The most common deleterious allele encodes a trafficking-defective mutant protein undergoing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD and presenting lower PM stability. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR turnover and trafficking in a human bronchiolar epithelial cell line (CFBE41o- expressing wild-type CFTR. Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family that fulfils numerous cell functions, one of which is endocytosis and recycling process via actin cytoskeleton remodelling. When we treated cells with chemical inhibitors such as ML141 against Cdc42 and wiskostatin against the downstream effector N-WASP, we observed that CFTR channel activity was inhibited, in correlation with a decrease in CFTR amount at the cell surface and an increase in dynamin-dependent CFTR endocytosis. Anchoring of CFTR to the cortical cytoskeleton was then presumably impaired by actin disorganization. When we performed siRNA-mediated depletion of Cdc42, actin polymerization was not impacted, but we observed actin-independent consequences upon CFTR. Total and PM CFTR amounts were increased, resulting in greater activation of CFTR. Pulse-chase experiments showed that while CFTR degradation was slowed, CFTR maturation through the Golgi apparatus remained unaffected. In addition, we observed increased stability of CFTR in PM and reduction of its endocytosis. This study highlights the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway at several levels of CFTR biogenesis and trafficking: (i Cdc42 is implicated in the first steps of CFTR biosynthesis and processing; (ii it contributes to the stability of CFTR in PM via its anchoring to cortical actin; (iii it promotes CFTR endocytosis and presumably its sorting toward lysosomal degradation.

  4. Optimizing nasal potential difference analysis for CFTR modulator development: assessment of ivacaftor in CF subjects with the G551D-CFTR mutation.

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    Steven M Rowe

    Full Text Available Nasal potential difference (NPD is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770 in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1 the average of both nostrils; (2 the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3 the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity, the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity, and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity. The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (± 2.8 mV. Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.

  5. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  6. From the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane: mechanisms of CFTR folding and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos M; Canato, Sara

    2017-01-01

    CFTR biogenesis starts with its co-translational insertion into the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum and folding of the cytosolic domains, towards the acquisition of a fully folded compact native structure. Efficiency of this process is assessed by the ER quality control system that allows the exit of folded proteins but targets unfolded/misfolded CFTR to degradation. If allowed to leave the ER, CFTR is modified at the Golgi and reaches the post-Golgi compartments to be delivered to the plasma membrane where it functions as a cAMP- and phosphorylation-regulated chloride/bicarbonate channel. CFTR residence at the membrane is a balance of membrane delivery, endocytosis, and recycling. Several adaptors, motor, and scaffold proteins contribute to the regulation of CFTR stability and are involved in continuously assessing its structure through peripheral quality control systems. Regulation of CFTR biogenesis and traffic (and its dysregulation by mutations, such as the most common F508del) determine its overall activity and thus contribute to the fine modulation of chloride secretion and hydration of epithelial surfaces. This review covers old and recent knowledge on CFTR folding and trafficking from its synthesis to the regulation of its stability at the plasma membrane and highlights how several of these steps can be modulated to promote the rescue of mutant CFTR.

  7. Putting the pieces together: a crystal clear window into CLC anion channel regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    CLC anion transport proteins function as Cl (-) channels and Cl (-) /H (+) exchangers and are found in all major groups of life including archaebacteria. Early electrophysiological studies suggested that CLC anion channels have two pores that are opened and closed independently by a "fast" gating process operating on a millisecond timescale, and a "common" or "slow" gate that opens and closes both pores simultaneously with a timescale of seconds (Figure 1A). Subsequent biochemical and molecular experiments suggested that CLC channels/transporters are homodomeric proteins ( 1-3) .

  8. Increased anion channel activity is an unavoidable event in ozone-induced programmed cell death.

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    Takashi Kadono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ozone is a major secondary air pollutant often reaching high concentrations in urban areas under strong daylight, high temperature and stagnant high-pressure systems. Ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant that is harmful to the plant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By exposing cells to a strong pulse of ozonized air, an acute cell death was observed in suspension cells of Arabidopsis thaliana used as a model. We demonstrated that O(3 treatment induced the activation of a plasma membrane anion channel that is an early prerequisite of O(3-induced cell death in A. thaliana. Our data further suggest interplay of anion channel activation with well known plant responses to O(3, Ca(2+ influx and NADPH-oxidase generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in mediating the oxidative cell death. This interplay might be fuelled by several mechanisms in addition to the direct ROS generation by O(3; namely, H(2O(2 generation by salicylic and abscisic acids. Anion channel activation was also shown to promote the accumulation of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes, a family of proteases previously reported to contribute to the disruption of vacuole integrity observed during programmed cell death. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our data indicate that anion efflux is an early key component of morphological and biochemical events leading to O(3-induced programmed cell death. Because ion channels and more specifically anion channels assume a crucial position in cells, an understanding about the underlying role(s for ion channels in the signalling pathway leading to programmed cell death is a subject that warrants future investigation.

  9. Characterization of nasal potential difference in cftr knockout and F508del-CFTR mice.

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    Emilie Lyne Saussereau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatments designed to correct cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR defects must first be evaluated in preclinical experiments in the mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF. Mice nasal mucosa mimics the bioelectric defect seen in humans. The use of nasal potential difference (V(TE to assess ionic transport is a powerful test evaluating the restoration of CFTR function. Nasal V(TE in CF mice must be well characterized for correct interpretation. METHODS: We performed V(TE measurements in large-scale studies of two mouse models of CF--B6;129 cftr knockout and FVB F508del-CFTR--and their respective wild-type (WT littermates. We assessed the repeatability of the test for cftr knockout mice and defined cutoff points distinguishing between WT and F508del-CFTR mice. RESULTS: We determined the typical V(TE values for CF and WT mice and demonstrated the existence of residual CFTR activity in F508del-CFTR mice. We characterized intra-animal variability in B6;129 mice and defined the cutoff points for F508del-CFTR chloride secretion rescue. Hyperpolarization of more than -2.15 mV after perfusion with a low-concentration Cl(- solution was considered to indicate a normal response. CONCLUSIONS: These data will make it possible to interpret changes in nasal V(TE in mouse models of CF, in future preclinical studies.

  10. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

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    Guido Veit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cystic fibrosis (CF causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del, results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR at the apical plasma membrane (PM of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670 in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  11. Targeting the intracellular environment in cystic fibrosis: restoring autophagy as a novel strategy to circumvent the CFTR defect

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    Valeria Rachela Villella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the plasma membrane even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1, a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the plasma membrane. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR plasma membrane stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent preclinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation.

  12. Targeting the Intracellular Environment in Cystic Fibrosis: Restoring Autophagy as a Novel Strategy to Circumvent the CFTR Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane (PM)-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the PM even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1), a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the PM. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR PM stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent pre-clinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation. PMID:23346057

  13. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

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    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  14. Biophysical characterisation of calumenin as a charged F508del-CFTR folding modulator.

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    Rashmi Tripathi

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR is a cyclic-AMP dependent chloride channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining various organs such as the respiratory tract. Defective processing and functioning of this protein caused by mutations in the CFTR gene results in loss of ionic balance, defective mucus clearance, increased proliferation of biofilms and inflammation of human airways observed in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The process by which CFTR folds and matures under the influence of various chaperones in the secretory pathway remains incompletely understood. Recently, calumenin, a secretory protein, belonging to the CREC family of low affinity calcium binding proteins has been identified as a putative CFTR chaperone whose biophysical properties and functions remain uncharacterized. We compared hydropathy, instability, charge, unfoldability, disorder and aggregation propensity of calumenin and other CREC family members with CFTR associated chaperones and calcium binding proteins, wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs. We observed that calumenin, along with other CREC proteins, was significantly more charged and less folded compared to CFTR associated chaperones. Moreover like IDPs, calumenin and other CREC proteins were found to be less hydrophobic and aggregation prone. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close link between calumenin and other CREC proteins indicating how evolution might have shaped their similar biophysical properties. Experimentally, calumenin was observed to significantly reduce F508del-CFTR aggregation in a manner similar to AavLEA1, a well-characterized IDP. Fluorescence microscopy based imaging analysis also revealed altered trafficking of calumenin in bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR, indicating its direct role in the pathophysiology of CF. In conclusion, calumenin is characterized as a charged protein exhibiting close similarity with

  15. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant.The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques o...

  16. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA does not rescue CFTR membrane expression in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Petit, Aurélie; Knabe, Lucie; Bribes, Estelle; Chiron, Raphaël; De Sario, Albertina; Claustres, Mireille; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Taulan-Cadars, Magali; Bourdin, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The development of suitable Cystic Fibrosis (CF) models for preclinical bench tests of therapeutic candidates is challenging. Indeed, the validation of molecules to rescue the p.Phe508del-CFTR channel (encoded by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator gene carrying the p.Phe508del mutation) requires taking into account their overall effects on the epithelium. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), was previously shown to be a CFTR corrector via proteostasis modulation in CFTR-deficient immortalized cells. Here, we tested SAHA effects on goblet cell metaplasia using an ex vivo model based on the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of differentiated airway epithelial cells obtained by nasal scraping from CF patients and healthy controls. Ex vivo epithelium grew successfully in ALI cultures with significant rise in the expression of CFTR and of markers of airway epithelial differentiation compared to monolayer cell culture. SAHA decreased CFTR transcript and protein levels in CF and non-CF epithelia. Whereas SAHA induced lysine hyperacetylation, it did not change histone modifications at the CFTR promoter. SAHA reduced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression and inhibited goblet epithelial cell differentiation. Similar effects were obtained in CF and non-CF epithelia. All the effects were fully reversible within five days from SAHA withdrawal. We conclude that, ex vivo, SAHA modulate the structure of airway epithelia without specific effect on CFTR gene and protein suggesting that HDACi cannot be useful for CF treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. CFTR-France, a national relational patient database for sharing genetic and phenotypic data associated with rare CFTR variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustres, Mireille; Thèze, Corinne; des Georges, Marie; Baux, David; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Thierry; Audrezet, Marie-Pierre; Dugueperoux, Ingrid; Férec, Claude; Lalau, Guy; Pagin, Adrien; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Gaston, Véronique; Bieth, Eric; Malinge, Marie-Claire; Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Fergelot, Patricia; Lemonnier, Lydie; Mekki, Chadia; Fanen, Pascale; Bergougnoux, Anne; Sasorith, Souphatta; Raynal, Caroline; Bareil, Corinne

    2017-10-01

    Most of the 2,000 variants identified in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gene are rare or private. Their interpretation is hampered by the lack of available data and resources, making patient care and genetic counseling challenging. We developed a patient-based database dedicated to the annotations of rare CFTR variants in the context of their cis- and trans-allelic combinations. Based on almost 30 years of experience of CFTR testing, CFTR-France (https://cftr.iurc.montp.inserm.fr/cftr) currently compiles 16,819 variant records from 4,615 individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) or CFTR-RD (related disorders), fetuses with ultrasound bowel anomalies, newborns awaiting clinical diagnosis, and asymptomatic compound heterozygotes. For each of the 736 different variants reported in the database, patient characteristics and genetic information (other variations in cis or in trans) have been thoroughly checked by a dedicated curator. Combining updated clinical, epidemiological, in silico, or in vitro functional data helps to the interpretation of unclassified and the reassessment of misclassified variants. This comprehensive CFTR database is now an invaluable tool for diagnostic laboratories gathering information on rare variants, especially in the context of genetic counseling, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. CFTR-France is thus highly complementary to the international database CFTR2 focused so far on the most common CF-causing alleles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. C-terminus-mediated voltage gating of Arabidopsis guard cell anion channel QUAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Patrick; Imes, Dennis; Martinoia, Enrico; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Geiger, Dietmar; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer

    2013-09-01

    Anion transporters in plants play a fundamental role in volume regulation and signaling. Currently, two plasma membrane-located anion channel families—SLAC/SLAH and ALMT—are known. Among the ALMT family, the root-expressed ALuminium-activated Malate Transporter 1 was identified by comparison of aluminum-tolerant and Al(3+)-sensitive wheat cultivars and was subsequently shown to mediate voltage-independent malate currents. In contrast, ALMT12/QUAC1 (QUickly activating Anion Channel1) is expressed in guard cells transporting malate in an Al(3+)-insensitive and highly voltage-dependent manner. So far, no information is available about the structure and mechanism of voltage-dependent gating with the QUAC1 channel protein. Here, we analyzed gating of QUAC1-type currents in the plasma membrane of guard cells and QUAC1-expressing oocytes revealing similar voltage dependencies and activation–deactivation kinetics. In the heterologous expression system, QUAC1 was electrophysiologically characterized at increasing extra- and intracellular malate concentrations. Thereby, malate additively stimulated the voltage-dependent QUAC1 activity. In search of structural determinants of the gating process, we could not identify transmembrane domains common for voltage-sensitive channels. However, site-directed mutations and deletions at the C-terminus of QUAC1 resulted in altered voltage-dependent channel activity. Interestingly, the replacement of a single glutamate residue, which is conserved in ALMT channels from different clades, by an alanine disrupted QUAC1 activity. Together with C- and N-terminal tagging, these results indicate that the cytosolic C-terminus is involved in the voltage-dependent gating mechanism of QUAC1.

  19. Evidence that CFTR is expressed in rat tracheal smooth muscle cells and contributes to bronchodilation

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    Mettey Yvette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF. CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease is caused by mutations of the CFTR gene, which normally encodes a multifunctional and integral membrane protein, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expressed in airway epithelial cells. Methods To demonstrate that CFTR is also expressed in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC, we used iodide efflux assay to analyse the chloride transports in organ culture of rat TSMC, immunofluorescence study to localize CFTR proteins and isometric contraction measurement on isolated tracheal rings to observe the implication of CFTR in the bronchodilation. Results We characterized three different pathways stimulated by the cAMP agonist forskolin and the isoflavone agent genistein, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by hypo-osmotic challenge. The pharmacology of the cAMP-dependent iodide efflux was investigated in detail. We demonstrated in rat TSMC that it is remarkably similar to that of the epithelial CFTR, both for activation (using three benzo [c]quinolizinium derivatives and for inhibition (glibenclamide, DPC and CFTRinh-172. Using rat tracheal rings, we observed that the activation of CFTR by benzoquinolizinium derivatives in TSMC leads to CFTRinh-172-sensitive bronchodilation after constriction with carbachol. An immunolocalisation study confirmed expression of CFTR in tracheal myocytes. Conclusion Altogether, these observations revealed that CFTR in the airways of rat is expressed not only in the epithelial cells but also in tracheal smooth muscle cells leading to the hypothesis that this ionic channel could contribute to bronchodilation.

  20. Crystallographic and single-particle analyses of native- and nucleotide-bound forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awayn, N H; Rosenberg, M F; Kamis, A B; Aleksandrov, L A; Riordan, J R; Ford, R C

    2005-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis, one of the major human inherited diseases, is caused by defects in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a cell-membrane protein. CFTR acts as a chloride channel which can be opened by ATP. Low-resolution structural studies of purified recombinant human CFTR are described in the present paper. Localization of the C-terminal decahistidine tag in CFTR was achieved by Ni2+-nitriloacetate nanogold labelling, followed by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The presence of the gold label appears to improve the single-particle-alignment procedure. Projection structures of CFTR from two-dimensional crystals analysed by electron crystallography displayed two alternative conformational states in the presence of nucleotide and nanogold, but only one form of the protein was observed in the quiescent (nucleotide-free) state.

  1. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl(-) channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl(-) channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. 2. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide ((125)I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1). CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2). human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3). human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. 3. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated (125)I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. (125)I efflux and Cl(-) currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl(-) current. 4. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. 5. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanoloctanoloctanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF.

  2. Functional interaction between CFTR and the sodium-phosphate co-transport type 2a in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

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    Naziha Bakouh

    Full Text Available A growing number of proteins, including ion transporters, have been shown to interact with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR. CFTR is an epithelial chloride channel that is involved in Cystic Fibrosis (CF when mutated; thus a better knowledge of its functional interactome may help to understand the pathophysiology of this complex disease. In the present study, we investigated if CFTR and the sodium-phosphate co-transporter type 2a (NPT2a functionally interact after heterologous expression of both proteins in Xenopus laevis oocytes.NPT2a was expressed alone or in combination with CFTR in X. laevis oocytes. Using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, the inorganic phosphate-induced current (IPi was measured and taken as an index of NPT2a activity. The maximal IPi for NPT2a substrates was reduced when CFTR was co-expressed with NPT2a, suggesting a decrease in its expression at the oolemna. This was consistent with Western blot analysis showing reduced NPT2a plasma membrane expression in oocytes co-expressing both proteins, whereas NPT2a protein level in total cell lysate was the same in NPT2a- and NPT2a+CFTR-oocytes. In NPT2a+CFTR- but not in NPT2a-oocytes, IPi and NPT2a surface expression were increased upon PKA stimulation, whereas stimulation of Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC had no effect. When NPT2a-oocytes were injected with NEG2, a short amino-acid sequence from the CFTR regulatory domain that regulates PKA-dependent CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane, IPi values and NPT2a membrane expression were diminished, and could be enhanced by PKA stimulation, thereby mimicking the effects of CFTR co-expression.We conclude that when both CFTR and NPT2a are expressed in X. laevis oocytes, CFTR confers to NPT2a a cAMPi-dependent trafficking to the membrane. This functional interaction raises the hypothesis that CFTR may play a role in phosphate homeostasis.

  3. Analysing destruction channels of interstellar hydrocarbon anions with a 22pol ion-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Eric; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Best, Thorsten; Hauser, Daniel; Kumar, Sunil; Wester, Roland [Universitaet Innsbruck, Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    In the interstellar medium (ISM), ion-molecule reactions are considered to play a key role in the formation of complex molecules. The detection of the first interstellar anions, which happen to be carbon chain anions, has raised new interest in the quantitative composition of the ISM and the underlying reaction network. To understand the observed abundance of these carbon chain anions, a detailed analysis of the possible destruction channels is indispensable. A cryogenic 22-pol radio frequency ion trap is an ideal tool to observe reactions that take place slowly, such as carbon chain anions with molecular hydrogen. Furthermore, measurements over a large temperature scale are feasible. Longitudinal optical access to the trap also provides the possibility to make precise photodetachment measurements. Temperature dependent measurements of the reaction rates for the reaction between hydrocarbon chain anions and H{sub 2} are presented.

  4. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Daniela; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  5. Phosphorylation of purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 modifies channel voltage-dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 (JNK3 was incorporated into the bilayer lipid membrane. Single-channel electrophysiological properties of the native and the phosphorylated VDAC were compared. The open probability versus voltage curve of the native VDAC displayed symmetry around the voltage axis, whereas that of the phosphorylated VDAC showed asymmetry. This result indicates that phosphorylation by JNK3 modifies voltage-dependence of VDAC.

  6. Phosphorylation of purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 modifies channel voltage-dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2017-06-01

    Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 (JNK3) was incorporated into the bilayer lipid membrane. Single-channel electrophysiological properties of the native and the phosphorylated VDAC were compared. The open probability versus voltage curve of the native VDAC displayed symmetry around the voltage axis, whereas that of the phosphorylated VDAC showed asymmetry. This result indicates that phosphorylation by JNK3 modifies voltage-dependence of VDAC.

  7. Gap Junctions Are Involved in the Rescue of CFTR-Dependent Chloride Efflux by Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis CFBE41o- Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalucia Carbone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs in coculture with CF immortalised airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o- line, CFBE on Transwell® filters acquired an epithelial phenotype and led to the expression of a mature and functional CFTR protein. In order to explore the role of gap junction- (GJ- mediated intercellular communication (GJIC in this rescue, cocultures (hAMSC : CFBE, 1 : 5 ratio were studied for the formation of GJIC, before and after silencing connexin 43 (Cx43, a major component of GJs. Functional GJs in cocultures were inhibited when the expression of the Cx43 protein was downregulated. Transfection of cocultures with siRNA against Cx43 resulted in the absence of specific CFTR signal on the apical membrane and reduction in the mature form of CFTR (band C, and in parallel, the CFTR-dependent chloride channel activity was significantly decreased. Cx43 downregulation determined also a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an increase in paracellular permeability as compared with control cocultures, implying that GJIC may regulate CFTR expression and function that in turn modulate airway epithelium tightness. These results indicate that GJIC is involved in the correction of CFTR chloride channel activity upon the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype by hAMSCs in coculture with CF cells.

  8. Gap Junctions Are Involved in the Rescue of CFTR-Dependent Chloride Efflux by Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis CFBE41o- Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Annalucia; Zefferino, Roberto; Beccia, Elisa; Casavola, Valeria; Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante; Giannone, Valentina; Seia, Manuela; Angiolillo, Antonella; Colombo, Carla; Favia, Maria; Conese, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We previously found that human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in coculture with CF immortalised airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o- line, CFBE) on Transwell® filters acquired an epithelial phenotype and led to the expression of a mature and functional CFTR protein. In order to explore the role of gap junction- (GJ-) mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) in this rescue, cocultures (hAMSC : CFBE, 1 : 5 ratio) were studied for the formation of GJIC, before and after silencing connexin 43 (Cx43), a major component of GJs. Functional GJs in cocultures were inhibited when the expression of the Cx43 protein was downregulated. Transfection of cocultures with siRNA against Cx43 resulted in the absence of specific CFTR signal on the apical membrane and reduction in the mature form of CFTR (band C), and in parallel, the CFTR-dependent chloride channel activity was significantly decreased. Cx43 downregulation determined also a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an increase in paracellular permeability as compared with control cocultures, implying that GJIC may regulate CFTR expression and function that in turn modulate airway epithelium tightness. These results indicate that GJIC is involved in the correction of CFTR chloride channel activity upon the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype by hAMSCs in coculture with CF cells.

  9. Gq activity- and β-arrestin-1 scaffolding-mediated ADGRG2/CFTR coupling are required for male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Li, Rui-Rui; Liang, Zong-Lai; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Zhao; He, Dong-Fang; Lin, Amy; Mo, Hui; Lu, Yu-Jing; Li, Meng-Jing; Kong, Wei; Chung, Ka Young; Yi, Fan; Li, Jian-Yuan; Qin, Ying-Ying; Li, Jingxin; Thomsen, Alex R B; Kahsai, Alem W; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Mingyao

    2018-01-01

    Luminal fluid reabsorption plays a fundamental role in male fertility. We demonstrated that the ubiquitous GPCR signaling proteins Gq and β-arrestin-1 are essential for fluid reabsorption because they mediate coupling between an orphan receptor ADGRG2 (GPR64) and the ion channel CFTR. A reduction in protein level or deficiency of ADGRG2, Gq or β-arrestin-1 in a mouse model led to an imbalance in pH homeostasis in the efferent ductules due to decreased constitutive CFTR currents. Efferent ductule dysfunction was rescued by the specific activation of another GPCR, AGTR2. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that β-arrestin-1 acts as a scaffold for ADGRG2/CFTR complex formation in apical membranes, whereas specific residues of ADGRG2 confer coupling specificity for different G protein subtypes, this specificity is critical for male fertility. Therefore, manipulation of the signaling components of the ADGRG2-Gq/β-arrestin-1/CFTR complex by small molecules may be an effective therapeutic strategy for male infertility. PMID:29393851

  10. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Gout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFTR gene is unique within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein family, predominantly of transporters, by coding a chloride channel. The gating mechanism of ABC proteins has been characterized by the ATP Switch model in terms cycles of dimer formation and dissociation linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. It would be of interest to assess the extent that Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, a functional channel, fits the ATP Switch model for ABC transporters. Additional transporter mechanisms, namely those of Pgp and HlyB, are discussed for perspective. Literature search of databases selected key references in comparing and contrasting the gating mechanism. CFTR is a functional chloride channel facilitating transmembrane anion flow down electrochemical gradients. A dysfunctional CFTR protein results in cystic fibrosis, a fatal pleiotropic disease currently managed symptomatically. Understanding the gating mechanism will help target drug development aimed at alleviating and curing the disease.

  11. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  12. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of channel anion identity on the high-pressure crystal structure, compressibility, and stability of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Richard; Walker, Andrew M.

    2018-03-01

    The material properties of the common phosphate mineral apatite are influenced by the identity of the channel anion, which is usually F-, Cl-, or (OH)-. Density functional theory calculations have been used to determine the effect of channel anion identity on the compressibility and structure of apatite. Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are found to have similar zero pressure bulk moduli, of 79.2 and 82.1 GPa, respectively, while chlorapatite is considerably more compressible, with K 0 = 55.0 GPa. While the space groups of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite do not change between 0 and 25 GPa, symmetrization of the Cl- site in chlorapatite at 7.5 GPa causes the space group to change from P2 1 /b to P6 3 /m. Examination of the valence electron density distribution in chlorapatite reveals that this symmetry change is associated with a change in the coordination of the Cl- anion from threefold to sixfold coordinated by Ca. We also calculate the pressure at which apatite decomposes to form tuite, a calcium orthophosphate mineral, and find that the transition pressure is sensitive to the identity of the channel anion, being lowest for fluorapatite (13.8 GPa) and highest for chlorapatite (26.9 GPa). Calculations are also performed within the DFT-D2 framework to investigate the influence of dispersion forces on the compressibility of apatite minerals.

  14. Volume-regulated anion channel--a frenemy within the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Alexander A

    2016-03-01

    The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) is a ubiquitously expressed yet highly enigmatic member of the superfamily of chloride/anion channels. It is activated by cellular swelling and mediates regulatory cell volume decrease in a majority of vertebrate cells, including those in the central nervous system (CNS). In the brain, besides its crucial role in cellular volume regulation, VRAC is thought to play a part in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and release of physiologically active molecules. Although these roles are not exclusive to the CNS, the relative significance of VRAC in the brain is amplified by several unique aspects of its physiology. One important example is the contribution of VRAC to the release of the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate. This latter process is thought to have impact on both normal brain functioning (such as astrocyte-neuron signaling) and neuropathology (via promoting the excitotoxic death of neuronal cells in stroke and traumatic brain injury). In spite of much work in the field, the molecular nature of VRAC remained unknown until less than 2 years ago. Two pioneer publications identified VRAC as the heterohexamer formed by the leucine-rich repeat-containing 8 (LRRC8) proteins. These findings galvanized the field and are likely to result in dramatic revisions to our understanding of the place and role of VRAC in the brain, as well as other organs and tissues. The present review briefly recapitulates critical findings in the CNS and focuses on anticipated impact on the LRRC8 discovery on further progress in neuroscience research.

  15. Identification of a probable pore-forming domain in the multimeric vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Baetz, Ulrike; Krügel, Undine; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form an important family of anion channels involved in fundamental physiological processes in plants. Because of their importance, the role of ALMTs in plant physiology is studied extensively. In contrast, the structural basis of their functional properties is largely unknown. This lack of information limits the understanding of the functional and physiological differences between ALMTs and their impact on anion transport in plants. This study aimed at investigating the structural organization of the transmembrane domain of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) vacuolar channel AtALMT9. For that purpose, we performed a large-scale mutagenesis analysis and found two residues that form a salt bridge between the first and second putative transmembrane α-helices (TMα1 and TMα2). Furthermore, using a combination of pharmacological and mutagenesis approaches, we identified citrate as an "open channel blocker" of AtALMT9 and used this tool to examine the inhibition sensitivity of different point mutants of highly conserved amino acid residues. By this means, we found a stretch within the cytosolic moiety of the TMα5 that is a probable pore-forming domain. Moreover, using a citrate-insensitive AtALMT9 mutant and biochemical approaches, we could demonstrate that AtALMT9 forms a multimeric complex that is supposedly composed of four subunits. In summary, our data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence about the structural organization of an ion channel of the ALMT family. We suggest that AtALMT9 is a tetramer and that the TMα5 domains of the subunits contribute to form the pore of this anion channel.

  16. Opening up of plasmalemma type-1 VDAC to form apoptotic "find me signal" pathways is essential in early apoptosis - evidence from the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis resulting from failure of apoptotic cell clearance followed by sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnes, Friedrich P

    2014-04-01

    Cell membrane-standing type-1 VDAC is involved in cell volume regulation and thus apoptosis. The channel has been shown to figure as a pathway for osmolytes of varying classes, ATP included. An early event in apoptotic cell death is the release of "find me signals" by cells that enter the apoptotic process. ATP is one of those signals. Apoptotic cells this way attract phagocytes for an immunologically silent cell clearance. Thus, whenever apoptosis fails by a blockade of plasmalemma type-1 VDAC processes of sterile inflammation must be assumed for cell elimination. This is evident from a close look on the pathogenetic process of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, in normal airway epithelia two different anion channels cooperate to guarantee an appropriate volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) necessary for surface clearing: the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) and the outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC) complex also called "alternate chloride channel" and under the control of the CFTR. There are arguments, that type-1 VDAC forms the channel part of the ORCC complex, and it has been shown that CFTR and type-1 VDAC co-localize in the apical membranes of human surface respiratory epithelium. In cystic fibrosis, the central cAMP-dependent regulation of ion and water transport via functional CFTR is lost. Here, CFTR molecules do not reach the apical membranes of airway epithelia anymore or work in an insufficient way, respectively. In addition, type-1 VDAC is no longer available to work as a "find me signal" pathway. In consequence, clearing away of apoptotic cells is blocked. There are experimental data on the channel characteristics of type-1 VDAC under the anion channel blocker DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanato-stilbenedisulphonic acid) that argue in favor of this hypothesis. Together, type-1 VDAC should be kept as a "find me signal" pathway, which may give way to several classes of such signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to reacidification of alkalinized lysosomes in RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Lu, Wennan; Guha, Sonia; Baltazar, Gabriel C; Coffey, Erin E; Laties, Alan M; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Reenstra, William W; Mitchell, Claire H

    2012-07-15

    The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lysosomal acidification has been difficult to determine. We demonstrate here that CFTR contributes more to the reacidification of lysosomes from an elevated pH than to baseline pH maintenance. Lysosomal alkalinization is increasingly recognized as a factor in diseases of accumulation, and we previously showed that cAMP reacidified alkalinized lysosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. As the influx of anions to electrically balance proton accumulation may enhance lysosomal acidification, the contribution of the cAMP-activated anion channel CFTR to lysosomal reacidification was probed. The antagonist CFTR(inh)-172 had little effect on baseline levels of lysosomal pH in cultured human RPE cells but substantially reduced the reacidification of compromised lysosomes by cAMP. Likewise, CFTR activators had a bigger impact on cells whose lysosomes had been alkalinized. Knockdown of CFTR with small interfering RNA had a larger effect on alkalinized lysosomes than on baseline levels. Inhibition of CFTR in isolated lysosomes altered pH. While CFTR and Lamp1 were colocalized, treatment with cAMP did not increase targeting of CFTR to the lysosome. The inhibition of CFTR slowed lysosomal degradation of photoreceptor outer segments while activation of CFTR enhanced their clearance from compromised lysosomes. Activation of CFTR acidified RPE lysosomes from the ABCA4(-/-) mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease, whose lysosomes are considerably alkalinized. In summary, CFTR contributes more to reducing lysosomal pH from alkalinized levels than to maintaining baseline pH. Treatment to activate CFTR may thus be of benefit in disorders of accumulation associated with lysosomal alkalinization.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 enhances the protein expression of CFTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Won Lee

    Full Text Available Low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 have been observed in the serum of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. However, the effects of low serum IGF-1 on the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, whose defective function is the primary cause of cystic fibrosis, have not been studied. Here, we show in human cells that IGF-1 increases the steady-state levels of mature wildtype CFTR in a CFTR-associated ligand (CAL- and TC10-dependent manner; moreover, IGF-1 increases CFTR-mediated chloride transport. Using an acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assay, we have confirmed the binding of CAL and CFTR in the Golgi. We also show that CAL overexpression inhibits forskolin-induced increases in the cell-surface expression of CFTR. We found that IGF-1 activates TC10, and active TC10 alters the functional association between CAL and CFTR. Furthermore, IGF-1 and active TC10 can reverse the CAL-mediated reduction in the cell-surface expression of CFTR. IGF-1 does not increase the expression of ΔF508 CFTR, whose processing is arrested in the ER. This finding is consistent with our observation that IGF-1 alters the functional interaction of CAL and CFTR in the Golgi. However, when ΔF508 CFTR is rescued with low temperature or the corrector VRT-325 and proceeds to the Golgi, IGF-1 can increase the expression of the rescued ΔF508 CFTR. Our data support a model indicating that CAL-CFTR binding in the Golgi inhibits CFTR trafficking to the cell surface, leading CFTR to the degradation pathway instead. IGF-1-activated TC10 changes the interaction of CFTR and CAL, allowing CFTR to progress to the plasma membrane. These findings offer a potential strategy using a combinational treatment of IGF-1 and correctors to increase the post-Golgi expression of CFTR in cystic fibrosis patients bearing the ΔF508 mutation.

  19. Anion-sensitive regions of L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Babai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-type calcium currents (I(Ca are influenced by changes in extracellular chloride, but sites of anion effects have not been identified. Our experiments showed that CaV1.2 currents expressed in HEK293 cells are strongly inhibited by replacing extracellular chloride with gluconate or perchlorate. Variance-mean analysis of I(Ca and cell-attached patch single channel recordings indicate that gluconate-induced inhibition is due to intracellular anion effects on Ca(2+ channel open probability, not conductance. Inhibition of CaV1.2 currents produced by replacing chloride with gluconate was reduced from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% by omitting beta subunits but unaffected by omitting alpha(2delta subunits. Similarly, gluconate inhibition was reduced to approximately 50% by deleting an alpha1 subunit N-terminal region of 15 residues critical for beta subunit interactions regulating open probability. Omitting beta subunits with this mutant alpha1 subunit did not further diminish inhibition. Gluconate inhibition was unchanged with expression of different beta subunits. Truncating the C terminus at AA1665 reduced gluconate inhibition from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% whereas truncating it at AA1700 had no effect. Neutralizing arginines at AA1696 and 1697 by replacement with glutamines reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 60% indicating these residues are particularly important for anion effects. Expressing CaV1.2 channels that lacked both N and C termini reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 25% consistent with additive interactions between the two tail regions. Our results suggest that modest changes in intracellular anion concentration can produce significant effects on CaV1.2 currents mediated by changes in channel open probability involving beta subunit interactions with the N terminus and a short C terminal region.

  20. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu; Hu, Honghong; Ries, Amber; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  1. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  2. An S-type anion channel SLAC1 is involved in cryptogein-induced ion fluxes and modulates hypersensitive responses in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Saito, Katsunori; Horikoshi, Sonoko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Negi, Juntaro; Yagi, Chikako; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Iba, Koh; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological evidence suggests that anion channel-mediated plasma membrane anion effluxes are crucial in early defense signaling to induce immune responses and hypersensitive cell death in plants. However, their molecular bases and regulation remain largely unknown. We overexpressed Arabidopsis SLAC1, an S-type anion channel involved in stomatal closure, in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells and analyzed the effect on cryptogein-induced defense responses including fluxes of Cl(-) and other ions, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expression and hypersensitive responses. The SLAC1-GFP fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane in BY-2 cells. Overexpression of SLAC1 enhanced cryptogein-induced Cl(-) efflux and extracellular alkalinization as well as rapid/transient and slow/prolonged phases of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production, which was suppressed by an anion channel inhibitor, DIDS. The overexpressor also showed enhanced sensitivity to cryptogein to induce downstream immune responses, including the induction of defense marker genes and the hypersensitive cell death. These results suggest that SLAC1 expressed in BY-2 cells mediates cryptogein-induced plasma membrane Cl(-) efflux to positively modulate the elicitor-triggered activation of other ion fluxes, ROS as well as a wide range of defense signaling pathways. These findings shed light on the possible involvement of the SLAC/SLAH family anion channels in cryptogein signaling to trigger the plasma membrane ion channel cascade in the plant defense signal transduction network.

  3. Mapping of Residues Forming the Voltage Sensor of the Voltage-Dependent Anion-Selective Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lorie; Blachly-Dyson, Elizabeth; Colombini, Marco; Forte, Michael

    1993-06-01

    Voltage-gated ion-channel proteins contain "voltage-sensing" domains that drive the conformational transitions between open and closed states in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues affecting the voltage sensitivity of a mitochondrial channel, the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC). Although charge changes at many sites had no effect, at other sites substitutions that increased positive charge also increased the steepness of voltage dependance and substitutions that decreased positive charge decreased voltage dependance by an appropriate amount. In contrast to the plasma membrane K^+ and Na^+ channels, these residues are distributed over large parts of the VDAC protein. These results have been used to define the conformational transitions that accompany voltage gating of an ion channel. This gating mechanism requires the movement of large portions of the VDAC protein through the membrane.

  4. Study of the ion-channel behavior on glassy carbon electrode supported bilayer lipid membranes stimulated by perchlorate anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiquan; Shi, Jun; Huang, Weimin, E-mail: huangwm@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a kind of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) layer membranes was supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). We studied the ion channel behavior of the supported bilayer lipid membrane by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SCEM) in tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) solution. Perchlorate anion was used as a presence of stimulus and ruthenium(II) complex cations as the probing ions for the measurement of SECM, the lipid membrane channel was opened and exhibited the behavior of distinct SECM positive feedback curve. The channel was in a closed state in the absence of perchlorate anions while reflected the behavior of SECM negative feedback curve. The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected and it was dependant on the potential of SECM. - Highlights: • The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected. • Dynamic investigations of ion-channel behavior of supported bilayer lipid membranes by scanning electrochemical microscopy • A novel way to explore the interaction between molecules and supported bilayer lipid membranes.

  5. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Synergistic Malaria Parasite Killing by Two Types of Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Pain

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites increase their host erythrocyte's permeability to a broad range of ions and organic solutes. The plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC mediates this uptake and is an established drug target. Development of therapies targeting this channel is limited by several problems including interactions between known inhibitors and permeating solutes that lead to incomplete channel block. Here, we designed and executed a high-throughput screen to identify a novel class of PSAC inhibitors that overcome this solute-inhibitor interaction. These new inhibitors differ from existing blockers and have distinct effects on channel-mediated transport, supporting a model of two separate routes for solute permeation though PSAC. Combinations of inhibitors specific for the two routes had strong synergistic action against in vitro parasite propagation, whereas combinations acting on a single route produced only additive effects. The magnitude of synergism depended on external nutrient concentrations, consistent with an essential role of the channel in parasite nutrient acquisition. The identified inhibitors will enable a better understanding of the channel's structure-function and may be starting points for novel combination therapies that produce synergistic parasite killing.

  7. Emerging role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator- an epithelial chloride channel in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuning Hou; Xiaoqing Guan; Zhe Yang; Chunying Li

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR), a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids, has been well established as a chloride channel mainly expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues and organs such as lungs, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system, and reproductive organs. Although defective CFTR leads to cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, there is accumulating evidence that suggests a novel role of CFTR in various cancers, especially in gastroenterological cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging findings that link CFTR with various cancers, with focus on the association between CFTR defects and gastrointestinal cancers as well as the underlying mechanisms. Further study of CFTR in cancer biology may help pave a new way for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  8. Characterization of a light-controlled anion channel in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells of pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; Volkenburgh Van, E

    In leaf mesophyll cells of pea (Pisum sativum) light induces a transient depolarization that is at least partly due to an increased plasma membrane conductance for anions. Several channel types were identified in the plasma membrane of protoplasts from mesophyll cells using the patch-clamp

  9. An immortal cell line to study the role of endogenous CFTR in electrolyte absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C L; Quinton, P M

    1995-01-01

    The intact human reabsorptive sweat duct (RD) has been a reliable model for investigations of the functional role of "endogenous" CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) in normal and abnormal electrolyte absorptive function. But to overcome the limitations imposed by the use of fresh, intact tissue, we transformed cultured RD cells using the chimeric virus Ad5/SV40 1613 ori-. The resultant cell line, RD2(NL), has remained differentiated forming a polarized epithelium that expressed two fundamental components of absorption, a cAMP activated Cl- conductance (GCl) and an amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance (GNa). In the unstimulated state, there was a low level of transport activity; however, addition of forskolin (10(-5) M) significantly increased the Cl- diffusion potential (Vt) generated by a luminally directed Cl- gradient from -15.3 +/- 0.7 mV to -23.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 39; and decreased the transepithelial resistance (Rt) from 814.8 +/- 56.3 omega.cm2 to 750.5 +/- 47.5 omega.cm2, n = 39, (n = number of cultures). cAMP activation, anion selectivity (Cl- > I- > gluconate), and a dependence upon metabolic energy (metabolic poisoning inhibited GCl), all indicate that the GCl expressed in RD2(NL) is in fact CFTR-GCl. The presence of an apical amiloride-sensitive GNa was shown by the amiloride (10(-5) M) inhibition of GNa as indicated by a reduction of Vt and equivalent short circuit current by 78.0 +/- 3.1% and 77.9 +/- 2.6%, respectively, and an increase in Rt by 7.2 +/- 0.8%, n = 36. In conclusion, the RD2(NL) cell line presents the first model system in which CFTR-GCl is expressed in a purely absorptive tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firhan A Malik

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK, establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P's inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds, transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737 phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019 and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA attenuate S1P-stimluated (i AMPK phosphorylation, (ii CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508, the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure. S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking.

  11. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca 2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca 2+ - dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl - secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca 2+ -gated Cl - channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl - channel, the epithelial Na + channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl - secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl - secretion and Na + absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl - -dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Structures of a minimal human CFTR first nucleotide-binding domain as a monomer, head-to-tail homodimer, and pathogenic mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwell, Shane; Brouillette, Christie G.; Conners, Kris; Emtage, Spencer; Gheyi, Tarun; Guggino, William B.; Hendle, Jorg; Hunt, John F.; Lewis, Hal A.; Lu, Frances; Protasevich, Irina I.; Rodgers, Logan A.; Romero, Rich; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Weber, Patricia C.; Wetmore, Diana; Zhang, Feiyu F.; Zhao, Xun (Cystic); (UAB); (JHU); (Columbia); (Lilly)

    2010-04-26

    Upon removal of the regulatory insert (RI), the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be heterologously expressed and purified in a form that remains stable without solubilizing mutations, stabilizing agents or the regulatory extension (RE). This protein, NBD1 387-646({Delta}405-436), crystallizes as a homodimer with a head-to-tail association equivalent to the active conformation observed for NBDs from symmetric ATP transporters. The 1.7-{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure shows how ATP occupies the signature LSGGQ half-site in CFTR NBD1. The {Delta}F508 version of this protein also crystallizes as a homodimer and differs from the wild-type structure only in the vicinity of the disease-causing F508 deletion. A slightly longer construct crystallizes as a monomer. Comparisons of the homodimer structure with this and previously published monomeric structures show that the main effect of ATP binding at the signature site is to order the residues immediately preceding the signature sequence, residues 542-547, in a conformation compatible with nucleotide binding. These residues likely interact with a transmembrane domain intracellular loop in the full-length CFTR channel. The experiments described here show that removing the RI from NBD1 converts it into a well-behaved protein amenable to biophysical studies yielding deeper insights into CFTR function.

  13. Cysteamine re-establishes the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by macrophages bearing the cystic fibrosis-relevant F508del-CFTR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Saluzzo, Francesca; Rossin, Federica; D'Eletto, Manuela; Tosco, Antonella; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Izzo, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria C; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi

    2017-01-12

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing. Recent evidence indicates that a defective autophagy in CF macrophages leads to alterations of bacterial clearance upon infection. Here we use bone marrow-derived macrophages from transgenic mice to provide the genetic proof that defective CFTR compromises both uptake and clearance of internalized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that the proteostasis regulator cysteamine, which rescues the function of the most common F508del-CFTR mutant and hence reduces lung inflammation in CF patients, can also repair the defects of CF macrophages, thus restoring both bacterial internalization and clearance through a process that involves upregulation of the pro-autophagic protein Beclin 1 and re-establishment of the autophagic pathway. Altogether these results indicate that cysteamine restores the function of several distinct cell types, including that of macrophages, which might contribute to its beneficial effects on CF.

  14. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasini, Carlotta, E-mail: marasini@ge.ibf.cnr.it [Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar [Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and {beta}-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of {alpha}-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two

  15. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasini, Carlotta; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. ► Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. ► Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. ► Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and β-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of α-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two conditions, monitoring the changes of the mean residue ellipticity measured at 222 nm as a function of temperature

  16. A survey of detergents for the purification of stable, active human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Zhang, Qinghai; Cant, Natasha; Ding, Haitao; Dai, Qun; Peng, Lingling; Fu, Yu; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Ford, Robert; Kappes, John C; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2014-11-01

    Structural knowledge of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires developing methods to purify and stabilize this aggregation-prone membrane protein above 1mg/ml. Starting with green fluorescent protein- and epitope-tagged human CFTR produced in mammalian cells known to properly fold and process CFTR, we devised a rapid tandem affinity purification scheme to minimize CFTR exposure to detergent in order to preserve its ATPase function. We compared a panel of detergents, including widely used detergents (maltosides, neopentyl glycols (MNG), C12E8, lysolipids, Chaps) and innovative detergents (branched alkylmaltosides, facial amphiphiles) for CFTR purification, function, monodispersity and stability. ATPase activity after reconstitution into proteoliposomes was 2-3 times higher when CFTR was purified using facial amphiphiles. ATPase activity was also demonstrated in purified CFTR samples without detergent removal using a novel lipid supplementation assay. By electron microscopy, negatively stained CFTR samples were monodisperse at low concentration, and size exclusion chromatography showed a predominance of monomer even after CFTR concentration above 1mg/ml. Rates of CFTR aggregation quantified in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that detergents which best preserved reconstituted ATPase activity also supported the greatest stability, with CFTR monomer half-lives of 6-9days in MNG or Chaps, and 12-17days in facial amphiphile. Cryoelectron microscopy of concentrated CFTR in MNG or facial amphiphile confirmed mostly monomeric protein, producing low resolution reconstructions in conformity with similar proteins. These protocols can be used to generate samples of pure, functional, stable CFTR at concentrations amenable to biophysical characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CFTR Genotype and Maximal Exercise Capacity in Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Gallati, Sabina; Schneiderman, Jane E; Braun, Julia; Stevens, Daniel; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Takken, Tim; Boas, Steven R; Urquhart, Don S; Lands, Larry C; Tejero, Sergio; Sovtic, Aleksandar; Dwyer, Tiffany; Petrovic, Milos; Harris, Ryan A; Karila, Chantal; Savi, Daniela; Usemann, Jakob; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Ratjen, Felix; Kriemler, Susi

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with cystic fibrosis may be an important determinant of maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and maximal exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. This study was designed to explore factors influencing maximal exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak), with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. In an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study, we collected data on CFTR genotype and cardiopulmonary exercise tests in patients with cystic fibrosis who were ages 8 years and older. CFTR mutations were classified into functional classes I–V. The final analysis included 726 patients (45% females; age range, 8–61 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 16 to 123% predicted) from 17 cystic fibrosis centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, all of whom had both valid maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests and complete CFTR genotype data. Overall, patients exhibited exercise intolerance (V.O2peak, 77.3 ± 19.1% predicted), but values were comparable among different CFTR classes. We did not detect an association between CFTR genotype functional classes I–III and either V.O2peak (percent predicted) (adjusted β = −0.95; 95% CI, −4.18 to 2.29; P = 0.57) or maximum work rate (Wattmax) (adjusted β = −1.38; 95% CI, −5.04 to 2.27; P = 0.46) compared with classes IV–V. Those with at least one copy of a F508del-CFTR mutation and one copy of a class V mutation had a significantly lower V.O2peak (β = −8.24%; 95% CI, −14.53 to −2.99; P = 0.003) and lower Wattmax (adjusted β = −7.59%; 95% CI, −14.21 to −0.95; P = 0.025) than those with two copies of a class II mutation. On the basis of linear regression analysis adjusted for

  18. Osteoblast CFTR inactivation reduces differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis-related bone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Stalvey

    Full Text Available Low bone mass and increased fracture risk are recognized complications of cystic fibrosis (CF. CF-related bone disease (CFBD is characterized by uncoupled bone turnover--impaired osteoblastic bone formation and enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Intestinal malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory cytokines contribute to CFBD. However, epidemiological investigations and animal models also support a direct causal link between inactivation of skeletal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR, the gene that when mutated causes CF, and CFBD. The objective of this study was to examine the direct actions of CFTR on bone. Expression analyses revealed that CFTR mRNA and protein were expressed in murine osteoblasts, but not in osteoclasts. Functional studies were then performed to investigate the direct actions of CFTR on osteoblasts using a CFTR knockout (Cftr-/- mouse model. In the murine calvarial organ culture assay, Cftr-/- calvariae displayed significantly less bone formation and osteoblast numbers than calvariae harvested from wildtype (Cftr+/+ littermates. CFTR inactivation also reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured murine calvarial osteoblasts. Although CFTR was not expressed in murine osteoclasts, significantly more osteoclasts formed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ bone marrow cultures. Indirect regulation of osteoclastogenesis by the osteoblast through RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling was next examined. Although no difference in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl mRNA was detected, significantly less osteoprotegerin (Opg was expressed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ osteoblasts. Together, the Rankl:Opg ratio was significantly higher in Cftr-/- murine calvarial osteoblasts contributing to a higher osteoclastogenesis potential. The combined findings of reduced osteoblast differentiation and lower Opg expression suggested a possible defect in canonical Wnt signaling. In fact, Wnt3a and PTH-stimulated canonical Wnt

  19. Altered intestinal bile salt biotransformation in a cystic fibrosis (Cftr-/-) mouse model with hepato-biliary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Frank A J A; van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Beharry, Satti; Doktorova, Marcela; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; James Phillips, M; Durie, Peter R; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2015-07-01

    Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice develop progressive hepato-biliary pathology. We hypothesize that this liver pathology is related to alterations in biliary bile hydrophobicity and bile salt metabolism in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice. We determined bile production, biliary and fecal bile salt- and lipid compositions and fecal bacterial composition of C57BL/6J Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) and control mice. We found no differences between the total biliary bile salt or lipid concentrations of Cftr(-/-) and controls. Compared to controls, Cftr(-/-) mice had a ~30% higher bile production and a low bile hydrophobicity, related to a ~7 fold higher concentration of the choleretic and hydrophilic bile salt ursocholate. These findings coexisted with a significantly smaller quantity of fecal Bacteroides bacteria. Liver pathology in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) is not related to increased bile hydrophobicity. Cftr(-/-) mice do however display a biliary phenotype characterized by increased bile production and decreased biliary hydrophobicity. Our findings suggest Cftr dependent, alterations in intestinal bacterial biotransformation of bile salts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Phosphorylation of rat brain purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 modifies open-channel noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2017-09-02

    The drift kinetic energy of ionic flow through single ion channels cause vibrations of the pore walls which are observed as open-state current fluctuations (open-channel noise) during single-channel recordings. Vibration of the pore wall leads to transitions among different conformational sub-states of the channel protein in the open-state. Open-channel noise analysis can provide important information about the different conformational sub-state transitions and how biochemical modifications of ion channels would affect their transport properties. It has been shown that c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3) becomes activated by phosphorylation in various neurodegenerative diseases and phosphorylates outer mitochondrion associated proteins leading to neuronal apoptosis. In our earlier work, JNK3 has been reported to phosphorylate purified rat brain mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in vitro and modify its conductance and opening probability. In this article we have compared the open-state noise profile of the native and the JNK3 phosphorylated VDAC using Power Spectral Density vs frequency plots. Power spectral density analysis of open-state noise indicated power law with average slope value α ≈1 for native VDAC at both positive and negative voltage whereas average α value open-state noise arises due to coupling of ionic transport and conformational sub-states transitions in open-state and this coupling is perturbed as a result of channel phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device... Guidance Document: CFTR Gene Mutation Detection System.” See § 866.1(e) for the availability of this...

  2. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa; Thomas, Philip J. (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near position 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.

  3. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  4. Frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in Venezuelan patients with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Karen; Arcia, Orlando; Matute, Xiorama; Mindiola, Luz; Chaustre, Ismenia; Takiff, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CFTR gene in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients have geographic differences and there is scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in these patients. We amplified and sequenced exons 7, 10, 11, 19, 20 and 21, which contain the most common CFTR mutations, from 105 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program. Eleven different mutations were identified, four with frequencies greater than 1%: p.Phe508del...

  5. EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptor expression in human bronchi and their modification in cystic fibrosis: Impact of CFTR mutation (delF508).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Sylvain; Traboulsi, Wael; Thevenon, Laura; Kouadri, Amal; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Camara, Boubou; Alfaidy, Nadia; Benharouga, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Enhanced lung angiogenesis has been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, two highly homologous ligands, endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and mammalian Bv8, have been described as new angiogenic factors. Both ligands bind and activate two closely related G protein-coupled receptors, the prokineticin receptor (PROKR) 1 and 2. Yet, the expression, regulation, and potential role of EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptors in normal and CF lung are still unknown. The expression of the receptors and their ligands was examined using molecular, biochemical, and immunocytochemistry analyses in lungs obtained from CF patients vs. control and in normal and CF bronchial epithelial cells. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity was evaluated in relation to both ligands, and concentrations of EG-VEGF were measured by ELISA. At the mRNA level, EG-VEGF, BV8, and PROKR2 gene expression was, respectively, approximately five, four, and two times higher in CF lungs compared with the controls. At the cellular level, both the ligands and their receptors showed elevated expressions in the CF condition. Similar results were observed at the protein level. The EG-VEGF secretion was apical and was approximately two times higher in CF compared with the normal epithelial cells. This secretion was increased following the inhibition of CFTR chloride channel activity. More importantly, EG-VEGF and BV8 increased the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+) and cAMP and stimulated CFTR-chloride channel activity. Altogether, these data suggest local roles for epithelial BV8 and EG-VEGF in the CF airway peribronchial vascular remodeling and highlighted the role of CFTR activity in both ligand biosynthesis and secretion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. CFTR Modulators: Shedding Light on Precision Medicine for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disease afflicting Caucasian people. It affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, glandular and reproductive systems. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF is the respiratory disorder caused by a vicious cycle of obstruction of the airways, inflammation and infection that leads to epithelial damage, tissue remodeling and end-stage lung disease. Over the past decades, life expectancy of CF patients has increased due to early diagnosis and improved treatments; however, these patients still present limited quality of life. Many attempts have been made to rescue CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression, function and stability, thereby overcoming the molecular basis of CF. Gene and protein variances caused by CFTR mutants lead to different CF phenotypes, which then require different treatments to quell the patients’ debilitating symptoms. In order to seek better approaches to treat CF patients and maximize therapeutic effects, CFTR mutants have been stratified into six groups (although several of these mutations present pleiotropic defects). The research with CFTR modulators (read-through agents, correctors, potentiators, stabilizers and amplifiers) has achieved remarkable progress, and these drugs are translating into pharmaceuticals and personalized treatments for CF patients. This review summarizes the main molecular and clinical features of CF, emphasizes the latest clinical trials using CFTR modulators, sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying these new and emerging treatments, and discusses the major breakthroughs and challenges to treating all CF patients. PMID:27656143

  7. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Madsen, Steffen S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) alpha- and beta-subunit isoforms, Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, an...

  8. High Guanidinium Permeability Reveals Dehydration-Dependent Ion Selectivity in the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel

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    Abdullah A. B. Bokhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites grow within vertebrate erythrocytes and increase host cell permeability to access nutrients from plasma. This increase is mediated by the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC, an unusual ion channel linked to the conserved clag gene family. Although PSAC recognizes and transports a broad range of uncharged and charged solutes, it must efficiently exclude the small Na+ ion to maintain infected cell osmotic stability. Here, we examine possible mechanisms for this remarkable solute selectivity. We identify guanidinium as an organic cation with high permeability into human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, but negligible uptake by uninfected cells. Transport characteristics and pharmacology indicate that this uptake is specifically mediated by PSAC. The rank order of organic and inorganic cation permeabilities suggests cation dehydration as the rate-limiting step in transport through the channel. The high guanidinium permeability of infected cells also allows rapid and stringent synchronization of parasite cultures, as required for molecular and cellular studies of this pathogen. These studies provide important insights into how nutrients and ions are transported via PSAC, an established target for antimalarial drug development.

  9. Rescuing mutant CFTR: a multi-task approach to a better outcome in treating cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Margarida D; Farinha, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Correcting multiple defects of mutant CFTR with small molecule compounds has been the goal of an increasing number of recent Cystic Fibrosis (CF) drug discovery programmes. However, the mechanism of action (MoA) by which these molecules restore mutant CFTR is still poorly understood, in particular of CFTR correctors, i.e., compounds rescuing to the cells surface the most prevalent mutant in CF patients--F508del-CFTR. However, there is increasing evidence that to fully restore the multiple defects associated with F508del-CFTR, different small molecules with distinct corrective properties may be required. Towards this goal, a better insight into MoA of correctors is needed and several constraints should be addressed. The methodological approaches to achieve this include: 1) testing the combined effect of compounds with that of other (non-pharmacological) rescuing strategies (e.g., revertants or low temperature); 2) assessing effects in multiple cellular models (non-epithelial vs epithelial, non-human vs human, immortalized vs primary cultures, polarized vs non polarized, cells vs tissues); 3) assessing compound effects on isolated CFTR domains (e.g., compound binding by surface plasmon resonance, assessing effects on domain folding and aggregation); and finally 4) assessing compounds specificity in rescuing different CFTR mutants and other mutant proteins. These topics are reviewed and discussed here so as to provide a state-of-the art review on how to combine multiple ways of rescuing mutant CFTR to the ultimate benefit of CF patients.

  10. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na +/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Kaneko, T.

    2005-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) in the embryonic yolk-sac membrane. Triple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs into four types: type I, showing only basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase staining; type II, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and apical NKCC; type III, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and basolateral NKCC; type IV, basolateral Na +/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. In freshwater, type-I, type-II and type-III cells were observed. Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, type-IV cells appeared at 12 h and showed a remarkable increase in number between 24 h and 48 h, whereas type-III cells disappeared. When transferred from seawater back to freshwater, type-IV cells decreased and disappeared at 48 h, type-III cells increased, and type-II cells, which were not found in seawater, appeared at 12 h and increased in number thereafter. Type-I cells existed consistently irrespective of salinity changes. These results suggest that type I is an immature MRC, type II is a freshwater-type ion absorptive cell, type III is a dormant type-IV cell and/or an ion absorptive cell (with a different mechanism from type II), and type IV is a seawater-type ion secretory cell. The intracellular localization of the three ion transport proteins in type-IV cells is completely consistent with a widely accepted model for ion secretion by MRCs. A new model for ion absorption is proposed based on type-II cells possessing apical NKCC.

  11. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  12. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane recruiter the alter ego of CFTR as a multi-kinase anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anil

    2007-11-01

    This review focuses on a newly discovered interaction between protein kinases involved in cellular energetics, a process that may be disturbed in cystic fibrosis for unknown reasons. I propose a new model where kinase-mediated cellular transmission of energy provides mechanistic insight to a latent role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). I suggest that CFTR acts as a multi-kinase recruiter to the apical epithelial membrane. My group finds that, in the cytosol, two protein kinases involved in cell energy homeostasis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), bind one another. Preliminary data suggest that both can also bind CFTR (function unclear). The disrupted role of this CFTR-kinase complex as 'membrane transmitter to the cell' is proposed as an alternative paradigm to the conventional ion transport mediated and CFTR/chloride-centric view of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Chloride remains important, but instead, chloride-induced control of the phosphohistidine content of one kinase component (NDPK, via a multi-kinase complex that also includes a third kinase, CK2; formerly casein kinase 2). I suggest that this complex provides the necessary near-equilibrium conditions needed for efficient transmission of phosphate energy to proteins controlling cellular energetics. Crucially, a new role for CFTR as a kinase controller is proposed with ionic concentration acting as a signal. The model posits a regulatory control relay for energy sensing involving a cascade of protein kinases bound to CFTR.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of reduced glutathione transport: role of the MRP/CFTR/ABCC and OATP/SLC21A families of membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballatori, Nazzareno; Hammond, Christine L.; Cunningham, Jennifer B.; Krance, Suzanne M.; Marchan, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    The initial step in reduced glutathione (GSH) turnover in all mammalian cells is its transport across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space; however, the mechanisms of GSH transport are not clearly defined. GSH export is required for the delivery of its constituent amino acids to other tissues, detoxification of drugs, metals, and other reactive compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin, protection against oxidant stress, and secretion of hepatic bile. Recent studies indicate that some members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP/CFTR or ABCC) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, as well as some members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP or SLC21A) family of transporters contribute to this process. In particular, five of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR family appear to mediate GSH export from cells namely, MRP1, MRP2, MRP4, MRP5, and CFTR. Additionally, two members of the OATP family, rat Oatp1 and Oatp2, have been identified as GSH transporters. For the Oatp1 transporter, efflux of GSH may provide the driving force for the uptake of extracellular substrates. In humans, OATP-B and OATP8 do not appear to transport GSH; however, other members of this family have yet to be characterized in regards to GSH transport. In yeast, the ABC proteins Ycf1p and Bpt1p transport GSH from the cytosol into the vacuole, whereas Hgt1p mediates GSH uptake across the plasma membrane. Because transport is a key step in GSH homeostasis and is intimately linked to its biological functions, GSH export proteins are likely to modulate essential cellular functions

  14. Resveratrol increases F508del-CFTR dependent salivary secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dhooghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a fatal genetic disease associated with widespread exocrine gland dysfunction. Studies have suggested activating effects of resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein function. We assayed, in F508del-CFTR homozygous (CF and in wild-type mice, the effect of resveratrol on salivary secretion in basal conditions, in response to inhibition by atropine (basal β-adrenergic-dependent component and to stimulation by isoprenaline (CFTR-dependent component. Both components of the salivary secretion were smaller in CF mice than in controls. Two hours after intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (50 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO, the compound was detected in salivary glands. As in both CF and in wild-type mice, DMSO alone increased the response to isoprenaline in males but not in females, the effect of resveratrol was only measured in females. In wild-type mice, isoprenaline increased secretion by more than half. In CF mice, resveratrol rescued the response to isoprenaline, eliciting a 2.5-fold increase of β-adrenergic-stimulated secretion. We conclude that the salivary secretion assay is suitable to test DMSO-soluble CFTR modulators in female mice. We show that resveratrol applied in vivo to mice reaches salivary glands and increases β-adrenergic secretion. Immunolabelling of CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that the effect is associated with increased CFTR protein expression. Our data support the view that resveratrol is beneficial for treating CF. The salivary secretion assay has a potential application to test efficacy of novel CF therapies.

  15. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 constitutes for the 40 amino acid long PorACj, which forms a homooligomeric and anion-selective cell wall channel.

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    Narges Abdali

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed.

  16. CFTR-dependent defect in alternatively-activated macrophages in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Abdullah A; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G; Bosco, Anthony; Ware, Robert S; Logan, Jayden; Bell, Scott C; Wainwright, Claire E; Fantino, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls. In the absence of functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), either naturally in patients with CF or induced with CFTR inhibitors, monocyte-derived macrophages do not respond to IL-13/IL-4, fail to polarize into M2s associated with a post-transcriptional failure to produce and express IL-13Rα1 on the macrophage surface Polarization to the M1 phenotype was unaffected. CFTR-dependent imbalance of macrophage phenotypes and functions could contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response seen in CF lung disease. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cftr Modulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Stem Cell Proliferation in Murine Intestine

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    Ashlee M. Strubberg

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: CF intestine shows increased ISC proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Loss of Cftr increases pHi in ISCs, which stabilizes the plasma membrane association of the Wnt transducer Dvl, likely facilitating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Absence of Cftr-dependent suppression of ISC proliferation in the CF intestine may contribute to increased risk for intestinal tumors.

  18. Genotype-phenotype correlation and functional studies in patients with cystic fibrosis bearing CFTR complex alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Vito; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Donatello; Lucarelli, Marco; Raia, Valeria; Angioni, Adriano; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Cirilli, Natalia; Casciaro, Rosaria; Colombo, Carla; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Elce, Ausilia; Iacotucci, Paola; Comegna, Marika; Scorza, Manuela; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Perfetti, Anna; Cimino, Roberta; Quattrucci, Serena; Seia, Manuela; Sofia, Valentina Maria; Zarrilli, Federica; Amato, Felice

    2017-04-01

    The effect of complex alleles in cystic fibrosis (CF) is poorly defined for the lack of functional studies. To describe the genotype-phenotype correlation and the results of either in vitro and ex vivo studies performed on nasal epithelial cells (NEC) in a cohort of patients with CF carrying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) complex alleles. We studied 70 homozygous, compound heterozygous or heterozygous for CFTR mutations: p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn], n=8; p.[Ile148Thr;Ile1023_Val1024del], n=5; p.[Arg117Leu;Leu997Phe], n=6; c.[1210-34TG[12];1210-12T[5];2930C>T], n=3; p.[Arg74Trp;Asp1270Asn], n=4; p.Asp1270Asn, n=2; p.Ile148Thr, n=6; p.Leu997Phe, n=36. In 39 patients, we analysed the CFTR gating activity on NEC in comparison with patients with CF (n=8) and carriers (n=4). Finally, we analysed in vitro the p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] complex allele. The p.[Ile148Thr;Ile1023_Val1024del] caused severe CF in five compound heterozygous with a class I-II mutation. Their CFTR activity on NEC was comparable with patients with two class I-II mutations (mean 7.3% vs 6.9%). The p.[Arg74Trp;Asp1270Asn] and the p.Asp1270Asn have scarce functional effects, while p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] caused mild CF in four of five subjects carrying a class I-II mutation in trans , or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RD) in three having in trans a class IV-V mutation. The p.[Arg74Trp;Val201Met;Asp1270Asn] causes significantly (pT] and a class I-II mutation had mild CF or CFTR-RD (gating activity: 18.5-19.0%). The effect of complex alleles partially depends on the mutation in trans . Although larger studies are necessary, the CFTR activity on NEC is a rapid contributory tool to classify patients with CFTR dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. CFTR depletion results in changes in fatty acid composition and promotes lipogenesis in intestinal Caco 2/15 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Mailhot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal fatty acid composition (FA in plasma and tissue lipids frequently occurs in homozygous and even in heterozygous carriers of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR mutations. The mechanism(s underlying these abnormalities remained, however, poorly understood despite the potentially CFTR contributing role.The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of CFTR depletion on FA uptake, composition and metabolism using the intestinal Caco-2/15 cell line. shRNA-mediated cftr gene silencing induced qualitative and quantitative modifications in FA composition in differentiated enterocytes as determined by gas-liquid chromatography. With the cftr gene disruption, there was a 1,5 fold increase in the total FA amount, largely attributable to monounsaturated and saturated FA compared to controls. The activity of delta-7 desaturase, estimated by the 16:1(n-7/16:0, was significantly higher in knockdown cells and consistent with the striking elevation of the n-7 FA family. When incubated with [14C]-oleic acid, CFTR-depleted cells were capable of quick incorporation and export to the medium concomitantly with the high protein expression of L-FABP known to promote intracellular FA trafficking. Accordingly, lipoprotein vehicles (CM, VLDL, LDL and HDL, isolated from CFTR knockdown cells, exhibited higher levels of radiolabeled FA. Moreover, in the presence of [14C]-acetate, knockdown cells exhibited enhanced secretion of newly synthesized phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters and free FA, thereby suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathway. Conformably, gene expression of SREBP-1c, a key lipogenic transcription factor, was increased while protein expression of the phosphorylated and inactive form of acetylCoA carboxylase was reduced, confirming lipogenesis induction. Finally, CFTR-depleted cells exhibited lower gene expression of transcription factors (PPARalpha, LXRalpha, LXRbeta and RXRalpha

  20. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taulan, M.; Lopez, E.; Guittard, C.; Rene, C.; Baux, D.; Altieri, J.P.; DesGeorges, M.; Claustres, M.; Romey, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USF nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter

  1. Analysis of Y chromosome microdeletions and CFTR gene mutations as genetic markers of infertility in Serbian men

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    Dinić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Impaired fertility of a male partner is the main cause of infertility in up to one half of all infertile couples. At the genetic level, male infertility can be caused by chromosome aberrations or gene mutations. The presence and types of Y chromosome microdeletions and cystic fybrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene mutations as genetic cause of male infertility was tested in Serbian men. The aim of this study was to analyze CFTR gene mutations and Y chromosome microdelations as potential causes of male infertility in Serbian patients, as well as to test the hypothesis that CFTR mutations in infertile men are predominantly located in the several last exons of the gene. Methods. This study has encompassed 33 men with oligo- or azoospermia. The screening for Y chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF region was performed by multiplex PCR analysis. The screening of the CFTR gene was performed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE method. Results. Deletions on Y chromosome were detected in four patients, predominantly in AZFc region (four of total six deletions. Mutations in the CFTR gene were detected on eight out of 66 analyzed chromosomes of infertile men. The most common mutation was F508del (six of total eight mutations. Conclusion. This study confirmed that both Y chromosome microdeletions and CFTR gene mutations played important role in etiology of male infertility in Serbian infertile men. Genetic testing for Y chromosome microdeletions and CFTR gene mutations has been introduced in routine diagnostics and offered to couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. Considering that both the type of Y chromosome microdeletion and the type of CFTR mutation have a prognostic value, it is recommended that AZF and CFTR genotyping should not only be performed in patients with reduced sperm quality before undergoing assisted reproduction, but also for the purpose of preimplantation and

  2. Prevention of secretory diarrhea by ethanol extract of Bistortae rhizoma through inhibition of chloride channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CaCC represents an attractive approach for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular basis of the anti-diarrheal effect of traditional Chinese herbal anti-diarrheal medicine Bistortae rhizoma. Fluorescence quenching assay indicated that the 40% methanol /water fraction (D5 dose-dependently inhibited both CFTR and CaCC function in transfected Fischer rat thyroid (FRT cells. Ex vivo studies indicated that D5 inhibited both forskolin (FSK-activated CFTR current and CCh-induced CaCC current in rat colonic mucosa. In the mouse closed-loop model, intraluminal application of D5 (200 µg/mL significantly reduced cholera toxin-stimulated fluid secretion. In the intestinal motility model, D5 significantly delayed intestinal peristalsis in mice. Our research suggests that CFTR and CaCC-mediated intestinal epithelial Cl- secretion inhibiting and gastrointestinal motility delaying may account for the anti-diarrheal activity of B. rhizoma.

  3. Anions mediate ligand binding in Adineta vaga glutamate receptor ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomash, Suvendu; Chittori, Sagar; Brown, Patrick; Mayer, Mark L

    2013-03-05

    AvGluR1, a glutamate receptor ion channel from the primitive eukaryote Adineta vaga, is activated by alanine, cysteine, methionine, and phenylalanine, which produce lectin-sensitive desensitizing responses like those to glutamate, aspartate, and serine. AvGluR1 LBD crystal structures reveal an unusual scheme for binding dissimilar ligands that may be utilized by distantly related odorant/chemosensory receptors. Arginine residues in domain 2 coordinate the γ-carboxyl group of glutamate, whereas in the alanine, methionine, and serine complexes a chloride ion acts as a surrogate ligand, replacing the γ-carboxyl group. Removal of Cl(-) lowers affinity for these ligands but not for glutamate or aspartate nor for phenylalanine, which occludes the anion binding site and binds with low affinity. AvGluR1 LBD crystal structures and sedimentation analysis also provide insights into the evolutionary link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic iGluRs and reveal features unique to both classes, emphasizing the need for additional structure-based studies on iGluR-ligand interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Brian; Xu, Danyun; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Dark respiration causes an increase in leaf CO2 concentration (Ci), and the continuing increases in atmospheric [CO2] further increases Ci. Elevated leaf CO2 concentration causes stomatal pores to close. Here, we demonstrate that high intracellular CO2/HCO3− enhances currents mediated by the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell S-type anion channel SLAC1 upon coexpression of any one of the Arabidopsis protein kinases OST1, CPK6, or CPK23 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Split-ubiquitin screening identified the PIP2;1 aquaporin as an interactor of the βCA4 carbonic anhydrase, which was confirmed in split luciferase, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. PIP2;1 exhibited CO2 permeability. Mutation of PIP2;1 in planta alone was insufficient to impair CO2- and abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing, likely due to redundancy. Interestingly, coexpression of βCA4 and PIP2;1 with OST1-SLAC1 or CPK6/23-SLAC1 in oocytes enabled extracellular CO2 enhancement of SLAC1 anion channel activity. An inactive PIP2;1 point mutation was identified that abrogated water and CO2 permeability and extracellular CO2 regulation of SLAC1 activity. These findings identify the CO2-permeable PIP2;1 as key interactor of βCA4 and demonstrate functional reconstitution of extracellular CO2 signaling to ion channel regulation upon coexpression of PIP2;1, βCA4, SLAC1, and protein kinases. These data further implicate SLAC1 as a bicarbonate-responsive protein contributing to CO2 regulation of S-type anion channels. PMID:26764375

  5. A New Targeted CFTR Mutation Panel Based on Next-Generation Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Marco; Porcaro, Luigi; Biffignandi, Alice; Costantino, Lucy; Giannone, Valentina; Alberti, Luisella; Bruno, Sabina Maria; Corbetta, Carlo; Torresani, Erminio; Colombo, Carla; Seia, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    Searching for mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) is a key step in the diagnosis of and neonatal and carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF), and it has implications for prognosis and personalized therapy. The large number of mutations and genetic and phenotypic variability make this search a complex task. Herein, we developed, validated, and tested a laboratory assay for an extended search for mutations in CFTR using a next-generation sequencing-based method, with a panel of 188 CFTR mutations customized for the Italian population. Overall, 1426 dried blood spots from neonatal screening, 402 genomic DNA samples from various origins, and 1138 genomic DNA samples from patients with CF were analyzed. The assay showed excellent analytical and diagnostic operative characteristics. We identified and experimentally validated 159 (of 188) CFTR mutations. The assay achieved detection rates of 95.0% and 95.6% in two large-scale case series of CF patients from central and northern Italy, respectively. These detection rates are among the highest reported so far with a genetic test for CF based on a mutation panel. This assay appears to be well suited for diagnostics, neonatal and carrier screening, and assisted reproduction, and it represents a considerable advantage in CF genetic counseling. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure Involves ALMT4, a Phosphorylation-Dependent Vacuolar Anion Channel of Arabidopsis[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetz, Ulrike; Huck, Nicola V.; Zhang, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed between a pair of guard cells and allow plant uptake of CO2 and water evaporation. Their aperture depends on changes in osmolyte concentration of guard cell vacuoles, specifically of K+ and Mal2−. Efflux of Mal2− from the vacuole is required for stomatal closure; however, it is not clear how the anion is released. Here, we report the identification of ALMT4 (ALUMINUM ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER4) as an Arabidopsis thaliana ion channel that can mediate Mal2− release from the vacuole and is required for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). Knockout mutants showed impaired stomatal closure in response to the drought stress hormone ABA and increased whole-plant wilting in response to drought and ABA. Electrophysiological data show that ALMT4 can mediate Mal2− efflux and that the channel activity is dependent on a phosphorylatable C-terminal serine. Dephosphomimetic mutants of ALMT4 S382 showed increased channel activity and Mal2− efflux. Reconstituting the active channel in almt4 mutants impaired growth and stomatal opening. Phosphomimetic mutants were electrically inactive and phenocopied the almt4 mutants. Surprisingly, S382 can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases in vitro. In brief, ALMT4 likely mediates Mal2− efflux during ABA-induced stomatal closure and its activity depends on phosphorylation. PMID:28874508

  7. Structural basis of control of inward rectifier Kir2 channel gating by bulk anionic phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Joo; Ren, Feifei; Zangerl-Plessl, Eva-Maria; Heyman, Sarah; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Yuan, Peng; Nichols, Colin G

    2016-09-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel activity is controlled by plasma membrane lipids. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding to a primary site is required for opening of classic inward rectifier Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels, but interaction of bulk anionic phospholipid (PL(-)) with a distinct second site is required for high PIP2 sensitivity. Here we show that introduction of a lipid-partitioning tryptophan at the second site (K62W) generates high PIP2 sensitivity, even in the absence of PL(-) Furthermore, high-resolution x-ray crystal structures of Kir2.2[K62W], with or without added PIP2 (2.8- and 2.0-Å resolution, respectively), reveal tight tethering of the C-terminal domain (CTD) to the transmembrane domain (TMD) in each condition. Our results suggest a refined model for phospholipid gating in which PL(-) binding at the second site pulls the CTD toward the membrane, inducing the formation of the high-affinity primary PIP2 site and explaining the positive allostery between PL(-) binding and PIP2 sensitivity. © 2016 Lee et al.

  8. F508del-CFTR rescue: a matter of cell stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Erika; Pollarolo, Benedetta; Merello, Luisa; Schenone, Silvia; Mazzei, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited fatal disease affecting 70,000 people worldwide, with a median predicted age of survival of approximately 38 years. The deletion of Phenylalanine in position 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (F508del-CFTR) is the most common mutation in CF patients: the deleted protein, not properly folded, is degraded. To date no commercial drugs are available. Low temperature, some osmolytes and conditions able to induce heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibition result in F508del-CFTR rescue, hence restoring its physiological function: this review sheds light on the correlation between these several evidences. Interestingly, all these approaches have a role in the cell stress response (CSR), a set of cell reactions to stress. In addition, unpredictably, F508del-CFTR rescue has to be considered in the frame of CSR: entities that induce - or are induced during - the CSR are, in general, also able to correct trafficking defect of CFTR. Specifically, the low temperature induces, by definition, a CSR; osmolytes, such as glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), are products of the CSR; pharmacological correctors, such as Matrine and 4-phenylbutirric acid (4PBA), down-regulate the constitutive Hsc70 in favor of an up-regulation of the inducible chaperone Hsp70, another component of the CSR. The identification of a common mechanism of action for different types of correctors could drive the discovery of new active molecules in CF, overcoming methods clinically inapplicable, such as the low temperature.

  9. Evaluation of potential regulatory elements identified as DNase I hypersensitive sites in the CFTR gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylactides, M.; Rowntree, R.; Nuthall, H.

    2002-01-01

    hypersensitive sites (DHS) within the locus. We previously identified at least 12 clusters of DHS across the CFTR gene and here further evaluate DHS in introns 2,3,10,16,17a, 18, 20 and 21 to assess their functional importance in regulation of CFTR gene expression. Transient transfections of enhancer/reporter...

  10. Evolution of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Function: From Molecular Sieve to Governator to Actuator of Ferroptosis

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    John J. Lemasters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is well known as the pathway for passive diffusion of anionic hydrophilic mitochondrial metabolites across the outer membrane, but a more complex functionality of the three isoforms of VDAC has emerged, as addressed in the Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on “Uncovering the Function of the Mitochondrial Protein VDAC in Health and Disease: from Structure-Function to Novel Therapeutic Strategies.” VDAC as the single most abundant protein in mitochondrial outer membranes is typically involved in isoform-specific interactions of the mitochondrion with its surroundings as, for example, during mitochondria-dependent pathways of cell death. VDAC closure can also act as an adjustable limiter (governator of global mitochondrial metabolism, as during hepatic ethanol metabolism to promote selective oxidation of membrane-permeant acetaldehyde. In cancer cells, high free tubulin inhibits VDAC1 and VDAC2, contributing to suppression of mitochondrial function in the Warburg phenomenon. Erastin, the canonical inducer of ferroptosis, opens VDAC in the presence of tubulin and hyperpolarizes mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death. Our understanding of VDAC function continues to evolve.

  11. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels.

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    Xuanmao Chen

    Full Text Available Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABA(A receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABA(A receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABA(A receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABA(A receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABA(A receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABA(A receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABA(A receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels.

  12. Analysis of cystic fibrosis gener product (CFTR) function in patients with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelrud, Andres; Sheth, Sunil; Banerjee, Subhas; Weed, Deborah; Shea, Julie; Chuttani, Ram; Howell, Douglas A; Telford, Jennifer J; Carr-Locke, David L; Regan, Meredith M; Ellis, Lynda; Durie, Peter R; Freedman, Steven D

    2004-08-01

    The mechanism by which pancreas divisum may lead to recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a subset of individuals is unknown. Abnormalities of the cystic fibrosis gene product (CFTR) have been implicated in the genesis of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine if CFTR function is abnormal in patients with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis (PD/RAP). A total of 69 healthy control subjects, 12 patients with PD/RAP, 16 obligate heterozygotes with a single CFTR mutation, and 95 patients with cystic fibrosis were enrolled. CFTR function was analyzed by nasal transepithelial potential difference testing in vivo. The outcomes of the PD/RAP patients following endoscopic and surgical treatments were concomitantly analyzed. Direct measurement of CFTR function in nasal epithelium in response to isoproterenol demonstrated that the values for PD/RAP were intermediate between those observed for healthy controls and cystic fibrosis patients. The median value was 13 mV for PD/RAP subjects, which was statistically different from healthy controls (22 mV, p= 0.001) and cystic fibrosis pancreatic sufficient (-1 mV, p < 0.0001) and pancreatic insufficient (-3 mV, p < 0.0001) patients. These results suggest a link between CFTR dysfunction and recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum and may explain why a subset of patients with pancreas divisum develops recurrent acute pancreatitis. Copyright 2004 American College of Gastroenterology

  13. The effect of NO-donors on chloride efflux, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and mRNA expression of CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Igor; Hussain, Rashida; Amin, Ahmad; Johannesson, Marie; Roomans, Godfried M

    2013-06-01

    the effect of GSNO on Cl(-) efflux is, at least in part, due to its properties as an NO-donor, and the effect is likely to be mediated by CFTR, not by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. CFTR mutations spectrum and the efficiency of molecular diagnostics in Polish cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ziętkiewicz

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR. In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone. The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported

  15. CDPKs CPK6 and CPK3 function in ABA regulation of guard cell S-type anion- and Ca(2+-permeable channels and stomatal closure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi C Mori

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA signal transduction has been proposed to utilize cytosolic Ca(2+ in guard cell ion channel regulation. However, genetic mutants in Ca(2+ sensors that impair guard cell or plant ion channel signaling responses have not been identified, and whether Ca(2+-independent ABA signaling mechanisms suffice for a full response remains unclear. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs have been proposed to contribute to central signal transduction responses in plants. However, no Arabidopsis CDPK gene disruption mutant phenotype has been reported to date, likely due to overlapping redundancies in CDPKs. Two Arabidopsis guard cell-expressed CDPK genes, CPK3 and CPK6, showed gene disruption phenotypes. ABA and Ca(2+ activation of slow-type anion channels and, interestingly, ABA activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+-permeable channels were impaired in independent alleles of single and double cpk3cpk6 mutant guard cells. Furthermore, ABA- and Ca(2+-induced stomatal closing were partially impaired in these cpk3cpk6 mutant alleles. However, rapid-type anion channel current activity was not affected, consistent with the partial stomatal closing response in double mutants via a proposed branched signaling network. Imposed Ca(2+ oscillation experiments revealed that Ca(2+-reactive stomatal closure was reduced in CDPK double mutant plants. However, long-lasting Ca(2+-programmed stomatal closure was not impaired, providing genetic evidence for a functional separation of these two modes of Ca(2+-induced stomatal closing. Our findings show important functions of the CPK6 and CPK3 CDPKs in guard cell ion channel regulation and provide genetic evidence for calcium sensors that transduce stomatal ABA signaling.

  16. Is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens a primary form of cystic fibrosis? Analyses of the CFTR gene in 67 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, B.; Verlingue, C.; Audrezet, M.P.; Ferec, C. [Centre de Biogenetique C.D.T.S., Brest (France); Lissens, W.; Bonduelle, M. [University Hospital VUB, Brussels (United Kingdom); Silber, S.J. [St. Luke`s Hospital, St. Louis, MO (United States); Novelli, G. [Catholic Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    1995-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is an important cause of sterility in men. Although the genetic basis of this condition is still unclear, it has been shown recently that some of these patients carry mutations in their cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genes. To extend this observation, we have analyzed the entire coding sequence of the CFTR gene in a cohort of 67 men with CBAVD, who are otherwise healthy. We have identified four novel missense mutations (A800G, G149R, R258G, and E193K). We have shown that 42% of subjects were carriers of one CFTR allele and that 24% are compound heterozygous for CFTR alleles. Thus, we have been unable to identify 76% of these patients as carrying two CFTR mutations. Furthermore, we have described the segregation of CFTR haplotypes in the family of one CBAVD male; in this family are two male siblings, with identical CFTR loci but displaying different phenotypes, one of them being fertile and the other sterile. The data presented in this family, indicating a discordance between the CBAVD phenotype and a marked carrier ({delta}F508) chromosome, support the involvement of another gene(s), in the etiology of CBAVD. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Distribution of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Mutations in a Cohort of Patients Residing in Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Siryani

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype

  18. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  19. Emission channeling studies on transition-metal doped GaN and ZnO: Cation versus anion substitution

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070176; Wahl, Ulrich; Martins Correia, Joao; Amorim, Lígia; Silva, Daniel; Decoster, Stefan; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and electric properties of impurities in semiconductors are strongly dependent on the lattice sites which they occupy. While the majority site can often be predicted based on chemical similarities with the host elements and is usually simple to confirm experimentally, minority sites are far more complicated to predict, detect and identify. We have carried out extensive beta− emission channeling studies on the lattice location of transition metal impurities in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors, namely Co and Mn in GaN and ZnO, making use of radioactive 61Co and 56Mn implanted at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. In addition to the majority occupation of cation (Ga, Zn) sites, we located significant fractions (of the order of 20%) of the Co and Mn impurities in anion (N, O) sites, which are virtually unaffected by thermal annealing up to 900 °C. Here, we present the beta− emission channeling experiments on 61Co-implanted GaN. We discuss these results in the context of our recent reports of mi...

  20. Combined Bicarbonate Conductance-Impairing Variants in CFTR and SPINK1 Are Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis in Patients without Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexander; LaRusch, Jessica; Sun, Xiumei; Aloe, Amy; Lamb, Janette; Hawes, Robert; Cotton, Peter; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Lewis, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; George, Ryan; Kassabian, Sirvart; Martinson, Jeremy; Slivka, Adam; Yadav, Dhiraj; Oruc, Nevin; Barmada, M. Michael; Frizzell, Raymond; Whitcomb, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) is a complex inflammatory disorder associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. In individuals without cystic fibrosis (CF), variants of CFTR that inhibit bicarbonate conductance but maintain chloride conductance might selectively impair secretion of pancreatic juice, leading to trypsin activation and pancreatitis. We investigated whether sequence variants in the gene encoding the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, SPINK1, further increase the risk of pancreatitis in these patients. Methods We screened patients with ICP (sporadic or familial) and controls for variants in SPINK1 associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) risk (in exon 3) and in all 27 exons of CFTR. The final study group included 53 patients with sporadic ICP, 27 probands with familial ICP, and 150 unrelated controls, plus 503 controls for limited genotyping. CFTR wild-type (wt) and p.R75Q were cloned and expressed in HEK293 cells and relative conductances of HCO3− and Cl− were measured. Results SPINK1 variants were identified in 36% of subjects and 3% controls (odds ratio [OR]=16.5). One variant of CFTR that has not been associated with CF, p.R75Q, was found in 16% of subjects and 5.4% controls (OR=3.4). Co-inheritance of CFTR p.R75Q and SPINK1 variants occurred in 8.75% of patients and 0.15% controls (OR=62.5). Patch-clamp recordings of cells that expressed CFTR p.R75Q demonstrated normal chloride currents but significantly reduced bicarbonate currents (P=0.0001). Conclusions The CFTR variant p.R75Q causes a selective defect in bicarbonate conductance and increases risk for pancreatitis. Co-inheritance of CF-associated, and some not associated, CFTR variants with SPINK1 variants significantly increase risk of ICP. PMID:20977904

  1. Glial and Neuronal Glutamate Transporters Differ in the Na+ Requirements for Activation of the Substrate-Independent Anion Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Divito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs are secondary active transporters of L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate. These carriers also mediate a thermodynamically uncoupled anion conductance that is gated by Na+ and substrate binding. The activation of the anion channel by binding of Na+ alone, however, has only been demonstrated for mammalian EAAC1 (EAAT3 and EAAT4. To date, no difference has been observed for the substrate dependence of anion channel gating between the glial, EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the neuronal isoforms EAAT3, EAAT4 and EAAT5. Here we describe a difference in the Na+-dependence of anion channel gating between glial and neuronal isoforms. Chloride flux through transporters without glutamate binding has previously been described as substrate-independent or “leak” channel activity. Choline or N-methyl-D-glucamine replacement of external Na+ ions significantly reduced or abolished substrate-independent EAAT channel activity in EAAT3 and EAAT4 yet has no effect on EAAT1 or EAAT2. The interaction of Na+ with the neuronal carrier isoforms was concentration dependent, consistent with previous data. The presence of substrate and Na+-independent open states in the glial EAAT isoforms is a novel finding in the field of EAAT function. Our results reveal an important divergence in anion channel function between glial and neuronal glutamate transporters and highlight new potential roles for the EAAT-associated anion channel activity based on transporter expression and localization in the central nervous system.

  2. Important role of platelets in modulating endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    Full Text Available Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator leads to cystic fibrosis (CF. Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels. Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients.

  3. Lipoxin A4 and platelet activating factor are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiya Wu

    Full Text Available CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2 or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation.

  4. Dendrimer-based selective autophagy-induction rescues ΔF508-CFTR and inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Mackenzie Brockman

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a genetic disorder caused by mutation(s in the CF-transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr gene. The most common mutation, ΔF508, leads to accumulation of defective-CFTR protein in aggresome-bodies. Additionally, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa, a common CF pathogen, exacerbates obstructive CF lung pathology. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a novel strategy to improve the bioavailability and potentially achieve targeted drug delivery of cysteamine, a potent autophagy-inducing drug with anti-bacterial properties, by developing a dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN-based cysteamine analogue.We first evaluated the effect of dendrimer-based cysteamine analogue (PAMAM-DENCYS on the intrinsic autophagy response in IB3-1 cells and observed a significant reduction in Ub-RFP and LC3-GFP co-localization (aggresome-bodies by PAMAM-DENCYS treatment as compared to plain dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN control. Next, we observed that PAMAM-DENCYS treatment shows a modest rescue of ΔF508-CFTR as the C-form. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy of HEK-293 cells transfected with ΔF508-CFTR-GFP showed that PAMAM-DENCYS is able to rescue the misfolded-ΔF508-CFTR from aggresome-bodies by inducing its trafficking to the plasma membrane. We further verified these results by flow cytometry and observed significant (p<0.05; PAMAM-DEN vs. PAMAM-DENCYS rescue of membrane-ΔF508-CFTR with PAMAM-DENCYS treatment using non-permeabilized IB3-1 cells immunostained for CFTR. Finally, we assessed the autophagy-mediated bacterial clearance potential of PAMAM-DENCYS by treating IB3-1 cells infected with PA01-GFP, and observed a significant (p<0.01; PAMAM-DEN vs. PAMAM-DENCYS decrease in intracellular bacterial counts by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Also, PAMAM-DENCYS treatment significantly inhibits the growth of PA01-GFP bacteria and demonstrates potent mucolytic properties.We demonstrate here the efficacy of dendrimer-based autophagy

  5. S737F is a new CFTR mutation typical of patients originally from the Tuscany region in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Vito; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Comegna, Marika; Centrone, Claudia; Pelo, Elisabetta; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Raia, Valeria; Braggion, Cesare

    2018-01-03

    An increasing number of patients have been described as having a number of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) variants for which it lacks a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. We assesses the clinical features of patients bearing the S737F (p.Ser737Phe) CFTR missense variant and evaluated the residual function of CFTR protein on nasal epithelial cells (NEC). A retrospective database was performed from individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for the S737F variant followed in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centre of Florence. We performed a nasal brushing in cooperating patients and compared the results with those of patients followed in the pediatric CF Centre of Naples. 9/295 (3%) subjects carrying at least S737F CFTR variant on one allele were identified. Patients were diagnosed in 7/9 cases by newborn screening and in two cases for dehydration with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis; at diagnosis sweat chloride levels (SCL) were in the pathological range in only one case. After a mean follow up of 8,6 years (range 0,5-15,8), SCL were in the pathological range in 8/9 cases (mean age at CF diagnosis: 1,5 years), all patients were pancreatic sufficiency and respiratory function was normal. The gating activity on NEC was 15.6% and 12.7% in two patients compound heterozygous for W1282X and DelE22_24, while it was ranged between 6,2% and 9,8% in CF patients. S737F is a CFTR mutation associated to hypochloremic alkalosis in childhood, mild CF phenotype in teenage years and a residual function of CFTR protein.

  6. Triple-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with individual background electrolytes for the concurrent separations of anionic and cationic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Le, Minh Duc [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sáiz, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Duong, Hong Anh [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Koenka, Israel Joel [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pham, Hung Viet, E-mail: phamhungviet@hus.edu.vn [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hauser, Peter C., E-mail: Peter.Hauser@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-03-10

    The portable capillary electrophoresis instrument is automated and features three independent channels with different background electrolytes to allow the concurrent optimized determination of three different categories of charged analytes. The fluidic system is based on a miniature manifold which is based on mechanically milled channels for injection of samples and buffers. The planar manifold pattern was designed to minimize the number of electronic valves required for each channel. The system utilizes pneumatic pressurization to transport solutions at the grounded as well as the high voltage side of the separation capillaries. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 (w) × 35 (d) × 15 cm (h) and a weight of about 15 kg. It can operate continuously for 8 h in the battery-powered mode if only one electrophoresis channel is in use, or for about 2.5 h in the case of simultaneous employment of all three channels. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, rinsing of the interfaces at both capillary ends, sample injection and electrophoretic separation, are activated automatically with a control program featuring a graphical user interface. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the concurrent separation of different inorganic cations and anions, organic preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners in various beverage and food matrices. - Highlights: • The use of parallel channels allows the concurrent separation of different classes of analytes. • Separate background electrolytes allow individual optimization. • The instrument is compact and field portable.

  7. Triple-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with individual background electrolytes for the concurrent separations of anionic and cationic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Le, Minh Duc; Sáiz, Jorge; Duong, Hong Anh; Koenka, Israel Joel; Pham, Hung Viet; Hauser, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    The portable capillary electrophoresis instrument is automated and features three independent channels with different background electrolytes to allow the concurrent optimized determination of three different categories of charged analytes. The fluidic system is based on a miniature manifold which is based on mechanically milled channels for injection of samples and buffers. The planar manifold pattern was designed to minimize the number of electronic valves required for each channel. The system utilizes pneumatic pressurization to transport solutions at the grounded as well as the high voltage side of the separation capillaries. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 (w) × 35 (d) × 15 cm (h) and a weight of about 15 kg. It can operate continuously for 8 h in the battery-powered mode if only one electrophoresis channel is in use, or for about 2.5 h in the case of simultaneous employment of all three channels. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, rinsing of the interfaces at both capillary ends, sample injection and electrophoretic separation, are activated automatically with a control program featuring a graphical user interface. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the concurrent separation of different inorganic cations and anions, organic preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners in various beverage and food matrices. - Highlights: • The use of parallel channels allows the concurrent separation of different classes of analytes. • Separate background electrolytes allow individual optimization. • The instrument is compact and field portable.

  8. A new compound heterozygous CFTR mutation in a Chinese family with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingjun; Huang, Xueqiong; Liang, Yujian; Xu, Lingling; Pei, Yuxin; Cheng, Yucai; Zhang, Lidan; Tang, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease among Caucasians but is rarer in the Chinese population, because mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To elucidate the causative role of a novel compound heterozygous mutation of CF. In this study, clinical samples were obtained from two siblings with recurrent airway infections, clubbed fingers, salt-sweat and failure to gain weight in a non-consanguineous Chinese family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the 27 coding exons of CFTR in both children, with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing showed the same compound heterozygous CFTR mutation (c.865A>T p.Arg289X and c.3651_3652insAAAT p.Tyr1219X) in both children. As this mutation is consistent with the clinical manifestations of CF and no other mutations were detected after scanning the gene sequence, we suggest that the CF phenotype is caused by compound heterozygosity for c.865A>T and c.3651_3652insAAAT. As c865A>T is not currently listed in the "Cystic Fibrosis Mutation Database", this information about CF in a Chinese population is of interest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators expression and decreased epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits expression in early abortion: findings from a mouse model and clinical cases of abortion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated. Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.

  10. Association between F508 deletion in CFTR and chronic pancreatitis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Xu, Yanzhen; Li, Jiatong; Fu, Shien; Xiao, Feifan; Song, Xiaowei; Xie, Zhibin; Jiang, Min; He, Yan; Liu, Chengwu; Wen, Qiongxian; Yang, Xiaoli

    2017-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been reported to influence individual susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis (CP), but the results of previous studies are controversial. We performed a study to demonstrate the relationship between CFTR and CP. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for studies of patients with CP. Seven studies from 1995 to 2016 were identified, and included 64,832 patients. Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. F508 deletion in CFTR was significantly positively associated with CP risk in the overall analysis (odds ratio [OR]=3.20, 95% CI: 2.30-4.44, I 2 =31.7%). In subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, F508 deletion was significantly associated with CP risk in Indian populations, using a fixed effects model (ORs=5.45, 95% CI: 2.52-11.79, I 2 =0.0%), and in non-Indian populations, using a random effects model (ORs=3.59, 95% CI: 1.73-7.48, I 2 =60.9%). At the same time, we found that Indians with F508 deletion had much higher CP prevalence than non-Indians. Interestingly, F508 deletion was also associated with CP and idiopathic CP risk in subgroup analysis stratified by aeitiology, using the fixed effects model. Based on current evidence, F508 deletion is a risk factor for CP, and Indians with F508 deletion have much higher CP morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The ichthyotoxic alga Chattonella marina induces Na+, K+-ATPase, and CFTR proteins expression in fish gill chloride cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Janet Y.M.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Au, Doris W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the ichthyotoxic Chattonella marina stimulated proliferation of branchial chloride cell (CC) and induced osmotic distress akin to hyperactive elimination of ions in fish (Rhabdosargus sarba). To ascertain the in vivo effects of C. marina on key CC ion transporters, the localization and expression of Na + , K + -ATPase (NKA) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins in response to C. marina exposure were investigated, using a quantitative immunocytochemical approach. The polarized distributions of NKA (α subunit) and CFTR proteins in branchial CCs of R. sarba remained unchanged under C. marina exposure. However, significant inductions of these two ion-transporters were detected in CCs of fish after 6 h exposure. By real-time PCR, no significant changes in gill NKA and CFTR mRNA expressions were detected, suggesting a post-transcriptional pathway is likely involved in regulating the ion transporters abundance. This study is the first to demonstrate the in vivo effects of harmful algal toxin on NKA and CFTR protein expressions in gill transepithelial cells. Taken together, an augmentation of branchial CCs together with hyper-stimulation of NKA and CFTR in CCs attribute to the rapid development of osmotic distress in C. marina susceptible fish

  12. Funciones de los canales iónicos CFTR y ENAC en la fibrosis quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra G. Palma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La fibrosis quística se debe a la ausencia o defecto del canal transmembrana regulador de la fibrosis quística (CFTR, un canal de cloruro codificado en el gen cftr que juega un papel clave en la homeostasis del agua e iones. El CFTR es activado por el AMPc y se localiza en las membranas apicales y basolaterales de las vías aéreas, intestino y glándulas exocrinas. Una de sus funciones primarias en los pulmones es mantener la capa de líquido superficial a través de su función de canal y regular el canal epitelial de sodio sensible al amiloride (ENaC. Se han identificado más de 1900 mutaciones en el gen cftr. La enfermedad se caracteriza por secreciones viscosas en las glándulas exocrinas y por niveles elevados de cloruro de sodio en el sudor. En la fibrosis quística el CFTR no funciona y el ENaC está desregulado; el resultado es un aumento en la reabsorción de sodio y agua con la formación de un líquido viscoso. En las glándulas sudoríparas tanto el Na+ como el Cl- se retienen en el lumen causando una pérdida de electrolitos durante la sudoración y el NaCl se elimina al sudor. Así, los niveles elevados de NaCl son la base del test del sudor inducido por pilocarpina, un método de diagnóstico para la enfermedad. En esta revisión se discuten los movimientos de Cl- y Na+ en las glándulas sudoríparas y pulmón así como el papel del ENaC en la patogénesis de la enfermedad.

  13. Development of allele-specific multiplex PCR to determine the length of poly-T in intron 8 of CFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene mutation analysis has been implemented for Cystic Fibrosis (CF carrier screening, and molecular diagnosis of CF and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Although poly-T allele analysis in intron 8 of CFTR is required when a patient is positive for R117H, it is not recommended for routine carrier screening. Therefore, commercial kits for CFTR mutation analysis were designed either to mask the poly-T allele results, unless a patient is R117H positive, or to have the poly-T analysis as a standalone reflex test using the same commercial platform. There are other standalone assays developed to detect poly-T alleles, such as heteroduplex analysis, High Resolution Melting (HRM curve analysis, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR and Sanger sequencing. In this report, we developed a simple and easy-to-implement multiplex AS-PCR assay using unlabeled standard length primers, which can be used as a reflex or standalone test for CFTR poly-T track analysis. Out of 115 human gDNA samples tested, results from our new AS-PCR matched to the previous known poly-T results or results from Sanger sequencing.

  14. CFTR-dependent chloride efflux in cystic fibrosis mononuclear cells is increased by ivacaftor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Lorenzo; D'Oria, Susanna; Favia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela M; Mariggiò, Maria A; Gallo, Crescenzio; Casavola, Valeria; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) potentiator ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) improves clinical outcome in G551D cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we have investigated whether ivacaftor has a clinical impact on non-G551D gating mutations and function of circulating leukocytes as well. Seven patients were treated with ivacaftor and evaluated at baseline, and at 1-3 and 6 months. Besides clinical and systemic inflammatory parameters, circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for CFTR-dependent chloride efflux by spectrofluorimetry, neutrophils for oxidative burst by cytofluorimetry and HVCN1 mRNA expression by real time PCR. Ivacaftor determined a significant decrease in sweat chloride concentrations at all time points during treatment. Body mass index (BMI), FEV 1 , and FVC showed an increasing trend. While C-reactive protein decreased significantly at 2 months, the opposite behavior was noticed for circulating monocytes. CFTR activity in MNC was found to increase significantly at 3 and 6 months. Neutrophil oxidative burst peaked at 2 months and then decreased to baseline. HVCN1 mRNA expression was significantly higher than baseline at 1-3 months and decreased after 6 months of treatment. The chloride efflux in MNC correlated positively with both FEV 1 and FVC. On the other hand, sweat chloride correlated positively with CRP and WBC, and negatively with both respiratory function tests. A cluster analysis confirmed that sweat chloride, FEV 1 , FVC, BMI, and MNC chloride efflux behaved as a single entity over time. In patients with non-G551D mutations, ivacaftor improved both chloride transport in sweat ducts and chloride efflux in MNC, that is, functions directly imputed to CFTR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Calcium homeostasis modulator (CALHM) ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhongming; Tanis, Jessica E; Taruno, Akiyuki; Foskett, J Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), formerly known as FAM26C, was recently identified as a physiologically important plasma membrane ion channel. CALHM1 and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, CLHM-1, are regulated by membrane voltage and extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]o). In the presence of physiological [Ca(2+)]o (∼1.5 mM), CALHM1 and CLHM-1 are closed at resting membrane potentials but can be opened by strong depolarizations. Reducing [Ca(2+)]o increases channel open probability, enabling channel activation at negative membrane potentials. Together, voltage and Ca(2+) o allosterically regulate CALHM channel gating. Through convergent evolution, CALHM has structural features that are reminiscent of connexins and pannexins/innexins/LRRC8 (volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC)) gene families, including four transmembrane helices with cytoplasmic amino and carboxyl termini. A CALHM1 channel is a hexamer of CALHM1 monomers with a functional pore diameter of ∼14 Å. CALHM channels discriminate poorly among cations and anions, with signaling molecules including Ca(2+) and ATP able to permeate through its pore. CALHM1 is expressed in the brain where it plays an important role in cortical neuron excitability induced by low [Ca(2+)]o and in type II taste bud cells in the tongue that sense sweet, bitter, and umami tastes where it functions as an essential ATP release channel to mediate nonsynaptic neurotransmitter release. CLHM-1 is expressed in C. elegans sensory neurons and body wall muscles, and its genetic deletion causes locomotion defects. Thus, CALHM is a voltage- and Ca(2+) o-gated ion channel, permeable to large cations and anions, that plays important roles in physiology.

  16. Physiology and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Christoph; Fischer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ClC-K channels form a subgroup of anion channels within the ClC family of anion transport proteins. They are expressed predominantly in the kidney and in the inner ear, and are necessary for NaCl resorption in the loop of Henle and for K+ secretion by the stria vascularis. Subcellular distribution as well as the function of these channels are tightly regulated by an accessory subunit, barttin. Barttin improves the stability of ClC-K channel protein, stimulates the exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and insertion into the plasma membrane and changes its function by modifying voltage-dependent gating processes. The importance of ClC-K/barttin channels is highlighted by several genetic diseases. Dysfunctions of ClC-K channels result in Bartter syndrome, an inherited human condition characterized by impaired urinary concentration. Mutations in the gene encoding barttin, BSND, affect the urinary concentration as well as the sensory function of the inner ear. Surprisingly, there is one BSND mutation that causes deafness without affecting renal function, indicating that kidney function tolerates a reduction of anion channel activity that is not sufficient to support normal signal transduction in inner hair cells. This review summarizes recent work on molecular mechanisms, physiology, and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels.

  17. Physiology and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eFahlke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ClC-K channels form a subgroup of anion channels within the ClC family of anion transport proteins. They are expressed predominantly in the kidney and in the inner ear, and are necessary for NaCl resorption in the loop of Henle and for K+ secretion by the stria vascularis. Subcellular distribution as well as the function of these channels are tightly regulated by an accessory subunit, barttin. Barttin improves the stability of ClC-K channel protein, stimulates the exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and insertion into the plasma membrane and changes its function by modifying voltage-dependent gating processes. The importance of ClC-K/barttin channels is highlighted by several genetic diseases. Dysfunctions of ClC-K channels result in Bartter syndrome, an inherited human condition characterized by impaired urinary concentration. Mutations in the gene encoding barttin, BSND, affect the urinary concentration as well as the sensory function of the inner ear. Surprisingly, there is one BSND mutation that causes deafness without affecting renal function, indicating that kidney function tolerates a reduction of anion channel activity that is not sufficient to support normal signal transduction in inner hair cells. This review summarizes recent work on molecular mechanisms, physiology and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels.

  18. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1994-01-01

    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2......,2 -disulfonic acid (DIDS; anion channel and anion exchange blocker) and by depolarization of the cell membrane. This is taken to indicate that taurine does not leave the osmotically swollen Ehrlich cells in exchange for extracellular Cl–, i.e., via the anion exchanger but via a MK196- and DIDS-sensitive channel...... that is potential dependent. An additional stimulation of the swelling-activated taurine efflux is seen after addition of arachidonic acid and oleic acid. Cell swelling also activates a Mini Cl– channel. The Cl– efflux via this Cl– channel, in contrast to the swelling-activated taurine efflux, is unaffected by DIDS...

  19. Polymeric microchip for the simultaneous determination of anions and cations by hydrodynamic injection using a dual-channel sequential injection microchip electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Nai, Yi Heng; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    A dual-channel sequential injection microchip capillary electrophoresis system with pressure-driven injection is demonstrated for simultaneous separations of anions and cations from a single sample. The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchips feature integral in-plane contactless conductivity detection electrodes. A novel, hydrodynamic "split-injection" method utilizes background electrolyte (BGE) sheathing to gate the sample flows, while control over the injection volume is achieved by balancing hydrodynamic resistances using external hydrodynamic resistors. Injection is realized by a unique flow-through interface, allowing for automated, continuous sampling for sequential injection analysis by microchip electrophoresis. The developed system was very robust, with individual microchips used for up to 2000 analyses with lifetimes limited by irreversible blockages of the microchannels. The unique dual-channel geometry was demonstrated by the simultaneous separation of three cations and three anions in individual microchannels in under 40 s with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 1.5 to 24 μM. From a series of 100 sequential injections the %RSDs were determined for every fifth run, resulting in %RSDs for migration times that ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 (n = 20) and 2.3 to 4.5 for peak area (n = 20). This system offers low LODs and a high degree of reproducibility and robustness while the hydrodynamic injection eliminates electrokinetic bias during injection, making it attractive for a wide range of rapid, sensitive, and quantitative online analytical applications.

  20. Novel CFTR missense mutations in Brazilian patients with congenital absence of vas deferens: counseling issues Mutações novas no gene CFTR de pacientes brasileiros portadores de agenesia dos vasos deferentes: dificuldades no aconselhamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Campos Pieri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Screening for mutations in the entire Cystic Fibrosis gene (CFTR of Brazilian infertile men with congenital absence of vas deferens, in order to prevent transmission of CFTR mutations to offspring with the use of assisted reproductive technologies. METHOD: Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were designed to each of the 27 exons and splicing sites of interest followed by single strand conformational polymorphism and Heteroduplex Analysis (SSCP-HA in precast 12.5% polyacrylamide gels at 7ºC and 20ºC. Fragments with abnormal SSCP migration pattern were sequenced. RESULTS: Two novel missense mutations (S753R and G149W were found in three patients (two brothers together with the IVS8-5T allele in hetrozygosis. CONCLUSION: The available screenings for CF mutations do not include the atypical mutations associated to absence of vas deferens and thus, when these tests fail to find mutations, there is still a genetic risk of affected children with the help of assisted reproduction. We recommend the screening of the whole CFTR gene for these infertile couples, as part of the work-up before assisted reproduction.OBJETIVO: Pesquisar mutações em toda a extensão do gene que causa a Fibrose Cística (CFTR de homens brasileiros inférteis por agenesia congênita dos vasos deferentes, com a finalidade de prevenir a transmissão de mutações em CFTR à prole com o uso das tecnologias de reprodução assistida. MÉTODOS: Foram desenhados oligonucleotídeos específicos para realização de reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR para cada um dos 27 exons e sítios de processamento de interesse no gene CFTR. O PCR foi seguido pela técnica de SSCP-HA (polimorfismos de conformação no DNA de fita simples e na formação de heteroduplexes em géis pré-fabricados de poliacrilamida a 12,5% em duas temperaturas, 7ºC e 20ºC. Os fragmentos com padrão alterado na migração do SSCP foram submetidos a seqüenciamento automatizado

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Schippa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF. CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. METHODS: Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. RESULTS: Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1 presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2 disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  2. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippa, Serena; Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Stamato, Antonella; Bertasi, Serenella; Lucarelli, Marco; Conte, Maria Pia; Quattrucci, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common) lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1) presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2) disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme) were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum) were reduced. This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  3. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an antidiarrheal Chinese herb Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim reveals (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate as inhibitors of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Yaofang; Gao, Xin; Zhu, Liang; Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the principal apical route for transepithelial fluid transport induced by enterotoxin. Inhibition of CFTR has been confirmed as a pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. Many traditional Chinese herbal medicines, like Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim, have long been used for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. However, the active ingredients responsible for their therapeutic effectiveness remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify CFTR inhibitors from Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim via bioactivity-directed isolation strategy. We first identified fractions of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim that inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity. Further bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the identification of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as CFTR Cl- channel inhibitor. Analysis of 5 commercially available EGCG analogs including (+)-catechins (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and EGCG revealed that ECG also had CFTR inhibitory activity. EGCG dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity in transfected FRT cells with an IC50 value around 100 μM. In ex vivo studies, EGCG and ECG inhibited CFTR-mediated short-circuit currents in isolated rat colonic mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. In an intestinal closed-loop model in mice, intraluminal application of EGCG (10 μg) and ECG (10 μg) significantly reduced cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. CFTR Cl- channel is a molecular target of natural compounds EGCG and ECG. CFTR inhibition may account, at least in part, for the antidiarrheal activity of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim. EGCG and ECG could be new lead compounds for development of CFTR-related diseases such as secretory diarrhea.

  4. CFTR mutation analysis and haplotype associations in CF patients☆

    OpenAIRE

    Cordovado, S.K.; Hendrix, M.; Greene, C.N.; Mochal, S.; Earley, M.C.; Farrell, P.M.; Kharrazi, M.; Hannon, W.H.; Mueller, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Most newborn screening (NBS) laboratories use second-tier molecular tests for cystic fibrosis (CF) using dried blood spots (DBS). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s NBS Quality Assurance Program offers proficiency testing (PT) in DBS for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection. Extensive molecular characterization on 76 CF patients, family members or screen positive newborns was performed for quality assurance. The coding, regulatory regions and por...

  5. Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin/subunit p34: targeting of an anion channel to the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Domańska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolating toxin VacA, released by Helicobacter pylori, is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. VacA contains two subunits: The p58 subunit mediates entry into target cells, and the p34 subunit mediates targeting to mitochondria and is essential for toxicity. In this study we found that targeting to mitochondria is dependent on a unique signal sequence of 32 uncharged amino acid residues at the p34 N-terminus. Mitochondrial import of p34 is mediated by the import receptor Tom20 and the import channel of the outer membrane TOM complex, leading to insertion of p34 into the mitochondrial inner membrane. p34 assembles in homo-hexamers of extraordinary high stability. CD spectra of the purified protein indicate a content of >40% beta-strands, similar to pore-forming beta-barrel proteins. p34 forms an anion channel with a conductivity of about 12 pS in 1.5 M KCl buffer. Oligomerization and channel formation are independent both of the 32 uncharged N-terminal residues and of the p58 subunit of the toxin. The conductivity is efficiently blocked by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylaminobenzoic acid (NPPB, a reagent known to inhibit VacA-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that p34 essentially acts as a small pore-forming toxin, targeted to the mitochondrial inner membrane by a special hydrophobic N-terminal signal.

  6. Longevity and plasticity of CFTR provide an argument for noncanonical SNP organization in hominid DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey E Hill

    Full Text Available Like many other ancient genes, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR has survived for hundreds of millions of years. In this report, we consider whether such prodigious longevity of an individual gene--as opposed to an entire genome or species--should be considered surprising in the face of eons of relentless DNA replication errors, mutagenesis, and other causes of sequence polymorphism. The conventions that modern human SNP patterns result either from purifying selection or random (neutral drift were not well supported, since extant models account rather poorly for the known plasticity and function (or the established SNP distributions found in a multitude of genes such as CFTR. Instead, our analysis can be taken as a polemic indicating that SNPs in CFTR and many other mammalian genes may have been generated--and continue to accrue--in a fundamentally more organized manner than would otherwise have been expected. The resulting viewpoint contradicts earlier claims of 'directional' or 'intelligent design-type' SNP formation, and has important implications regarding the pace of DNA adaptation, the genesis of conserved non-coding DNA, and the extent to which eukaryotic SNP formation should be viewed as adaptive.

  7. A novel outer-membrane anion channel (porin) as part of a putatively two-component transport system for 4-toluenesulphonate in Comamonas testosteroni T-2

    OpenAIRE

    Mampel, Jörg; Maier, Elke; Tralau, Tewes; Ruff, Jürgen; Benz, Roland; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2004-01-01

    Inducible mineralization of TSA (4-toluenesulphonate) by Comamonas testosteroni T-2 is initiated by a secondary transport system, followed by oxygenation and oxidation by TsaMBCD to 4-sulphobenzoate under the regulation of TsaR and TsaQ. Evidence is presented for a novel, presumably two-component transport system (TsaST). It is proposed that TsaT, an outer-membrane porin, formed an anion-selective channel that works in co-operation with the putative secondary transporter, TsaS, located in the...

  8. Plant ion channels: gene families, physiology, and functional genomics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John M; Mäser, Pascal; Schroeder, Julian I

    2009-01-01

    Distinct potassium, anion, and calcium channels in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of plant cells have been identified and characterized by patch clamping. Primarily owing to advances in Arabidopsis genetics and genomics, and yeast functional complementation, many of the corresponding genes have been identified. Recent advances in our understanding of ion channel genes that mediate signal transduction and ion transport are discussed here. Some plant ion channels, for example, ALMT and SLAC anion channel subunits, are unique. The majority of plant ion channel families exhibit homology to animal genes; such families include both hyperpolarization- and depolarization-activated Shaker-type potassium channels, CLC chloride transporters/channels, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptor homologs. These plant ion channels offer unique opportunities to analyze the structural mechanisms and functions of ion channels. Here we review gene families of selected plant ion channel classes and discuss unique structure-function aspects and their physiological roles in plant cell signaling and transport.

  9. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVDAC2 Is Involved in ABA-Mediated Early Seedling Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is the major transport protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria and plays crucial roles in energy metabolism, apoptosis, and metabolites transport. In plants, the expression of VDACs can be affected by different stresses, including drought, salinity and pathogen defense. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of AtVDAC2 in A. thaliana and found ABA suppressed the accumulation of AtVDAC2 transcripts. Further, phenotype analysis of this VDAC deregulated-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants indicated that AtVDAC2 anti-sense line showed an ABA-insensitivity phenotype during the early seedling development under ABA treatment. The results suggested that AtVDAC2 might be involved in ABA signaling in A. thaliana.

  10. Cloning and functional expression of a plant voltage-dependent chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurin, C; Geelen, D; Barbier-Brygoo, H; Guern, J; Maurel, C

    1996-01-01

    Plant cell membrane anion channels participate in basic physiological functions, such as cell volume regulation and signal transduction. However, nothing is known about their molecular structure. Using a polymerase chain reaction strategy, we have cloned a tobacco cDNA (CIC-Nt1) encoding a 780-amino acid protein with several putative transmembrane domains. CIC-Nt1 displays 24 to 32% amino acid identity with members of the animal voltage-dependent chloride channel (CIC) family, whose archetype is CIC-0 from the Torpedo marmorata electric organ. Injection of CIC-Nt1 complementary RNA into Xenopus oocytes elicited slowly activating inward currents upon membrane hyperpolarization more negative than -120 mV. These currents were carried mainly by anions, modulated by extracellular anions, and totally blocked by 10 mM extracellular calcium. The identification of CIC-Nt1 extends the CIC family to higher plants and provides a molecular probe for the study of voltage-dependent anion channels in plants. PMID:8624442

  11. Resveratrol enhances airway surface liquid depth in sinonasal epithelium by increasing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator open probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis engenders enormous morbidity in the general population, and is often refractory to medical intervention. Compounds that augment mucociliary clearance in airway epithelia represent a novel treatment strategy for diseases of mucus stasis. A dominant fluid and electrolyte secretory pathway in the nasal airways is governed by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The objectives of the present study were to test resveratrol, a strong potentiator of CFTR channel open probability, in preparation for a clinical trial of mucociliary activators in human sinus disease.Primary sinonasal epithelial cells, immortalized bronchoepithelial cells (wild type and F508del CFTR, and HEK293 cells expressing exogenous human CFTR were investigated by Ussing chamber as well as patch clamp technique under non-phosphorylating conditions. Effects on airway surface liquid depth were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Impact on CFTR gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Resveratrol is a robust CFTR channel potentiator in numerous mammalian species. The compound also activated temperature corrected F508del CFTR and enhanced CFTR-dependent chloride secretion in human sinus epithelium ex vivo to an extent comparable to the recently approved CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor. Using inside out patches from apical membranes of murine cells, resveratrol stimulated an ~8 picosiemens chloride channel consistent with CFTR. This observation was confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous CFTR. Treatment of sinonasal epithelium resulted in a significant increase in airway surface liquid depth (in µm: 8.08+/-1.68 vs. 6.11+/-0.47,control,p<0.05. There was no increase CFTR mRNA.Resveratrol is a potent chloride secretagogue from the mucosal surface of sinonasal epithelium, and hydrates airway surface liquid by increasing CFTR channel open probability. The foundation for a

  12. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Photophysics and Photochemistry of 2-Aminobenzoic Acid Anion in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, Ivan P.; Plyusnin, Victor F.; Grivin, Vjacheslav P.

    2009-11-01

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study photochemical processes of 2-aminobenzoic acid anion (ABA-) in aqueous solutions. Excitation of this species gives rise to the ABA- triplet state to the ABA• radical and to the hydrated electron (eaq-). The last two species result from two-photon processes. In a neutral medium, the main decay channels of ABA- triplet state, the ABA• radical, and eaq- are T-T annihilation, recombination, and capture by the ABA- anion, respectively.

  15. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  16. Dynamic [Cl-]i measurement with chloride sensing quantum dots nanosensor in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuchi; Mao Hua; Wong, Lid B

    2010-01-01

    We have synthesized a chloride sensing quantum dots (QD) nanosensor, Cl-QD, for the dynamic measurements of chloride ion concentration in the millimolar range, a sensitivity that is applicable to most physiological intracellular chloride ion concentration ([Cl - ] i ) measurements in epithelial cells. The Cl-QD is synthesized by conjugating an anion receptor, 1-(2-mercapto-ethyl)-3-phenyl-thiourea (MEPTU) to a water soluble CdSe/ZnS QD at an emission wavelength of 620 nm. Upon binding of chloride ions to the Cl-QD, a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism caused the fluorescence of the QD to quench. This resulted in an inversely proportional relationship between the chloride ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity of the Cl-QD. We have utilized this Cl-QD to measure [Cl - ] i in T84 and CF-PAC cultured cells, with either the C1C-2 or CFTR chloride channels being manipulated by pharmacological chloride channel activators and inhibitors. Activations of C1C-2 and CFTR chloride channels in T84 by the respective lubiprostone and genistein caused predictive increases in the fluorescence of the Cl-QD, i.e., a decrease of [Cl - ] i . Conversely, glibenclamide, a chloride channel inhibitor, applied to the CF-PAC cells caused a predictable decrease in the fluorescence of Cl-QD due to the increase of [Cl - ] i . These are the first data in using QD-based chloride ion sensors for dynamic measurements of intracellular chloride ion concentrations in epithelial cells.

  17. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored...... during cell cycle progression, under three conditions: (i) after osmotic swelling (i.e., VRAC), (ii) after an increase in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration (i.e., the Ca2+-activated Cl- current, CaCC), and (iii) under steady-state isotonic conditions. The maximal swelling-activated VRAC current......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle...

  18. Nutritional Status Improved in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with the G551D Mutation After Treatment with Ivacaftor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borowitz, Drucy; Lubarsky, Barry; Wilschanski, Michael; Munck, Anne; Gelfond, Daniel; Bodewes, Frank; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating mutation G551D prevents sufficient ion transport due to reduced channel-open probability. Ivacaftor, an oral CFTR potentiator, increases the channel-open probability. To further analyze improvements in weight and body mass

  19. Dynamics of anion-molecule reactions at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, J.

    2007-11-01

    Anion-molecule reactions must find their way through deeply bound entrance and exit channel complexes separated by a central barrier. This results in low reaction rates and rich dynamics since direct pathways compete with the formation of transient intermediates. In this thesis we examine the probability of proton transfer to a small anion and transient lifetimes of a thermoneutral bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) reaction at well defined variable temperature down to 8 Kelvin in a multipole trap. The observed strong inverse temperature dependence is attributed to the deficit of available quantum states in the entrance channel at decreasing temperature. Furthermore we investigate scattering dynamics of S N 2 reactions at defined relative energy between 0.4 and 10 eV by crossed beam slice imaging. A weakly exothermic reaction with high central barrier proceeds via an indirect, complex-mediated mechanism at low relative energies featuring high internal product excitation in excellent quantitative agreement with a statistical model. In contrast, direct backward scattering prevails for higher energies with product velocities close to the kinematical cutoff. For a strongly exothermic reaction, competing S N 2-, dihalide- and proton transfer-channels are explored which proceed by complex mediation for low energy and various rebound-, grazing- and collision induced bond rupture-mechanisms at higher energy. From our data and a collaboration with theory we identify a new indirect roundabout S N 2 mechanism involving CH 3 -rotation. (orig.)

  20. Dynamics of anion-molecule reactions at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, J.

    2007-11-15

    Anion-molecule reactions must find their way through deeply bound entrance and exit channel complexes separated by a central barrier. This results in low reaction rates and rich dynamics since direct pathways compete with the formation of transient intermediates. In this thesis we examine the probability of proton transfer to a small anion and transient lifetimes of a thermoneutral bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S{sub N}2) reaction at well defined variable temperature down to 8 Kelvin in a multipole trap. The observed strong inverse temperature dependence is attributed to the deficit of available quantum states in the entrance channel at decreasing temperature. Furthermore we investigate scattering dynamics of S{sub N}2 reactions at defined relative energy between 0.4 and 10 eV by crossed beam slice imaging. A weakly exothermic reaction with high central barrier proceeds via an indirect, complex-mediated mechanism at low relative energies featuring high internal product excitation in excellent quantitative agreement with a statistical model. In contrast, direct backward scattering prevails for higher energies with product velocities close to the kinematical cutoff. For a strongly exothermic reaction, competing S{sub N}2-, dihalide- and proton transfer-channels are explored which proceed by complex mediation for low energy and various rebound-, grazing- and collision induced bond rupture-mechanisms at higher energy. From our data and a collaboration with theory we identify a new indirect roundabout S{sub N}2 mechanism involving CH{sub 3}-rotation. (orig.)

  1. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor, a novel agent for the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients who are homozygous for the F580del CFTR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Hanna, Cameron; Giovane, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting up to 90,000 people worldwide. Approximately 73% of patients are homozygous for the F508del cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR] mutation. Traditionally treatment has only included supportive care. Therefore, there is a need for safe and effective novel therapies targeting the underlying molecular defects seen with CF. Areas covered: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission approved LUM/IVA (Orkambi), a CFTR modulator that includes both a CFTR corrector and potentiator, for CF patients homozygous for the F508del CFTR mutation. This article reviews the pharmacologic features, clinical efficacy, and safety of LUM/IVA and summarize the available pre-clinical and clinical data of LUM/IVA use. Expert commentary: LUM/IVA showed modest, but significant improvements from baseline in percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) as well as a reduction in pulmonary exacerbations by 35% It was shown to be safe for short- and long-term use. Currently, LUM/IVA is the only oral agent in its class available and represents a milestone the development of therapies for the management of CF. Nonetheless, pharmacoeconomic data are necessary to justify its high cost before is use becomes standard of care.

  2. Stimulation of Intestinal Cl- Secretion Through CFTR by Caffeine Intake in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption. Methods: Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed 8% NaCl chow and 0.1% caffeine in their drinking water for 15 days. The blood pressure and fecal sodium content were measured. The effect of caffeine on the movement of Cl- in enterocyte cells was determined with the Ussing chamber assay. Results: Rats that were treated with caffeine displayed significantly lower mean blood pressure and higher fecal sodium content than the controls. Consistent with these findings, caffeine intake decreased fluid absorption by the intestine in the fluid perfusion experiment. Further, the results from the Ussing chamber assay indicated that caffeine promoted Cl- secretion through enterocyte apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and thus inhibited sodium absorption. Moreover, depletion of cAMP or inhibition of CFTR completely abolished the effect of caffeine on Cl- secretion. Conclusion: The results indicate that chronic caffeine consumption reduces sodium absorption by promoting CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in the intestine, which contributes to the anti-hypertensive effect of caffeine in salt-sensitive rats.

  3. Interaction between a novel TGFB1 haplotype and CFTR genotype is associated with improved lung function in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Lindsay A; Blackman, Scott M; Vanscoy, Lori L; McDougal, Kathryn E; Bowers, Amanda; Naughton, Kathleen M; Cutler, David J; Cutting, Garry R

    2008-07-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal single gene disorder in Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Twin and sibling analysis indicates that modifier genes, rather than allelic variation in CFTR, are responsible for most of the variability in severity of lung disease, the major cause of mortality in CF patients. We used a family-based approach to test for association between lung function and two functional SNPs (rs1800469, '-509' and rs1982073, 'codon 10') in the 5' region of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1), a putative CF modifier gene. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing of 472 CF patient-parent-parent trios revealed that both TGFB1 SNPs showed significant transmission distortion when patients were stratified by CFTR genotype. Although lung function and nutritional status are correlated in CF patients, there was no evidence of association between the TGFB1 SNPs and variation in nutritional status. Additional tagging SNPs (rs8179181, rs2278422, rs8110090, rs4803455 and rs1982072) that capture most of the diversity in TGFB1 were also typed but none showed association with variation in lung function. However, a haplotype composed of the -509 C and codon 10 T alleles along with the C allele of the 3' SNP rs8179181 was highly associated with increased lung function in patients grouped by CFTR genotype. These results demonstrate that TGFB1 is a modifier of CF lung disease and reveal a previously unrecognized beneficial effect of TGFB1 variants upon the pulmonary phenotype.

  4. CLC Chloride Channels and Transporters: Structure, Function, Physiology, and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Thomas J; Pusch, Michael

    2018-07-01

    CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Structures of these two CLC protein classes are surprisingly similar. Extensive structure-function analysis identified residues involved in ion permeation, anion-proton coupling and gating and led to attractive biophysical models. In mammals, ClC-1, -2, -Ka/-Kb are plasma membrane Cl - channels, whereas ClC-3 through ClC-7 are 2Cl - /H + -exchangers in endolysosomal membranes. Biological roles of CLCs were mostly studied in mammals, but also in plants and model organisms like yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. CLC Cl - channels have roles in the control of electrical excitability, extra- and intracellular ion homeostasis, and transepithelial transport, whereas anion/proton exchangers influence vesicular ion composition and impinge on endocytosis and lysosomal function. The surprisingly diverse roles of CLCs are highlighted by human and mouse disorders elicited by mutations in their genes. These pathologies include neurodegeneration, leukodystrophy, mental retardation, deafness, blindness, myotonia, hyperaldosteronism, renal salt loss, proteinuria, kidney stones, male infertility, and osteopetrosis. In this review, emphasis is laid on biophysical structure-function analysis and on the cell biological and organismal roles of mammalian CLCs and their role in disease.

  5. Les vésicules extracellulaires comme vecteurs de macromolécules bioactives : modèle du transporteur ABCC7 (CFTR) et application à la biothérapie de la mucoviscidose

    OpenAIRE

    Vituret , Cyrielle

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in which its prognosis depends on the lung damage. It is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), resulting in a dysfunctional CFTR protein normally located at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. This thesis is a study of a novel therapeutic approach to use extracellular vesicles (EVs), microvesicles and exosomes, as transfer vectors for CFTR mRNA and protein to target cells. The proof of concept for ...

  6. Incidence and Carrier Frequency of CFTR Gene Mutations in Pregnancies With Echogenic Bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle E; Allen, Victoria M; Brock, Jo-Ann K

    2018-03-01

    Fetal echogenic bowel (echogenic bowel) is associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), with a reported incidence ranging from 1% to 13%. Prenatal testing for CF in the setting of echogenic bowel can be done by screening parental or fetal samples for pathogenic CFTR variants. If only one pathogenic variant is identified, sequencing of the CFTR gene can be undertaken, to identify a second pathogenic variant not covered in the standard screening panel. Full gene sequencing, however, also introduces the potential to identify variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) that can create counselling challenges and cause parental anxiety. To provide accurate counselling for families in the study population, the incidence of CF associated with echogenic bowel and the carrier frequency of CFTR variants were investigated. All pregnancies for which CF testing was undertaken for the indication of echogenic bowel (from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island) were identified (January 2007-July 2017). The CFTR screening and sequencing results were reviewed, and fetal outcomes related to CF were assessed. A total of 463 pregnancies with echogenic bowel were tested. Four were confirmed to be affected with CF, giving an incidence of 0.9% in this cohort. The carrier frequency of CF among all parents in the cohort was 5.0% (1 in 20); however, when excluding parents of affected fetuses, the carrier frequency for the population was estimated at 4.1% (1 in 25). CFTR gene sequencing identified an additional VUS in two samples. The incidence of CF in pregnancies with echogenic bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is 0.9%, with an estimated population carrier frequency of 4.1%. These results provide the basis for improved counselling to assess the risk of CF in the pregnancy, after parental carrier screening, using Bayesian probability. Counselling regarding VUSs should be undertaken before gene sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by

  7. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...... and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K channels may be of importance....

  8. The voltage-dependent anion selective channel 1 (VDAC1 topography in the mitochondrial outer membrane as detected in intact cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna F Tomasello

    Full Text Available Voltage-Dependent Anion selective Channel maintains the permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane and is relevant in bioenergetic metabolism and apoptosis. The structure of the protein was shown to be a β-barrel formed by 19 strands. The topology or sideness of the pore has been predicted with various approaches but a general consensus was never reached. This is an important issue since VDAC is considered receptor of Hexokinase and Bcl-2. We fused at VDAC1 C-terminus two tags separated by a caspase cleavage site. Activation in cellulo of caspases was used to eventually separate the two reporters. This experiment did not require the isolation of mitochondria and limited the possibility of outer membrane rupture due to similar procedures. Our results show that the C-terminus end of VDAC faces the mitochondrial inter-membrane space.

  9. Compounds that correct F508del-CFTR trafficking can also correct other protein trafficking diseases: an in vitro study using cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many genetic diseases are due to defects in protein trafficking where the mutant protein is recognized by the quality control systems, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and degraded by the proteasome. In many cases, the mutant protein retains function if it can be trafficked to its proper cellular location. We have identified structurally diverse correctors that restore the trafficking and function of the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, F508del-CFTR. Most of these correctors do not act directly as ligands of CFTR, but indirectly on other pathways to promote folding and correction. We hypothesize that these proteostasis regulators may also correct other protein trafficking diseases. Methods To test our hypothesis, we used stable cell lines or transient transfection to express 2 well-studied trafficking disease mutations in each of 3 different proteins: the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2, also known as V2R, the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (KCNH2, also known as hERG, and finally the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (ABCC8, also known as SUR1. We treated cells expressing these mutant proteins with 9 structurally diverse F508del-CFTR correctors that function through different cellular mechanisms and assessed whether correction occurred via immunoblotting and functional assays. Results were deemed significantly different from controls by a one-way ANOVA (p  Results Here we show that F508del-CFTR correctors RDR1, KM60 and KM57 also correct some mutant alleles of other protein trafficking diseases. We also show that one corrector, the cardiac glycoside ouabain, was found to alter the glycosylation of all mutant alleles tested. Conclusions Correctors of F508del-CFTR trafficking might have broader applications to other protein trafficking diseases.

  10. The role of the UPS in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyr Douglas M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CF is an inherited autosomal recessive disease whose lethality arises from malfunction of CFTR, a single chloride (Cl- ion channel protein. CF patients harbor mutations in the CFTR gene that lead to misfolding of the resulting CFTR protein, rendering it inactive and mislocalized. Hundreds of CF-related mutations have been identified, many of which abrogate CFTR folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. More than 70% of patients harbor the ΔF508 CFTR mutation that causes misfolding of the CFTR proteins. Consequently, mutant CFTR is unable to reach the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells that line the lungs and gut, and is instead targeted for degradation by the UPS. Proteins located in both the cytoplasm and ER membrane are believed to identify misfolded CFTR for UPS-mediated degradation. The aberrantly folded CFTR protein then undergoes polyubiquitylation, carried out by an E1-E2-E3 ubiquitin ligase system, leading to degradation by the 26S proteasome. This ubiquitin-dependent loss of misfolded CFTR protein can be inhibited by the application of ‘corrector’ drugs that aid CFTR folding, shielding it from the UPS machinery. Corrector molecules elevate cellular CFTR protein levels by protecting the protein from degradation and aiding folding, promoting its maturation and localization to the apical plasma membrane. Combinatory application of corrector drugs with activator molecules that enhance CFTR Cl- ion channel activity offers significant potential for treatment of CF patients. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  11. Sweat chloride and immunoreactive trypsinogen in infants carrying two CFTR mutations and not affected by cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Carlo; Tridello, Gloria; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-07-01

    Newborns with raised immunotrypsinogen levels who have non-pathological sweat chloride values and carry two cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator ( CFTR ) mutations of which at least one is not acknowledged to be cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing are at risk of developing clinical manifestations consistent with CFTR-related disorders or even CF. It is not known whether newborns with similar genotypes and normal immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) may share the same risk. This study found that newborns with these characteristics and normal IRT have lower sweat chloride values than those with raised IRT (p=0.007). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Genomic sequencing in cystic fibrosis newborn screening: what works best, two-tier predefined CFTR mutation panels or second-tier CFTR panel followed by third-tier sequencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert J; Sciortino, Stan; Liu, Ruiling; Bishop, Tracey; Alikhani Koupaei, Rasoul; Feuchtbaum, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to model the performance of several known two-tier, predefined mutation panels and three-tier algorithms for cystic fibrosis (CF) screening utilizing the ethnically diverse California population.MethodsThe cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations identified among the 317 CF cases in California screened between 12 August 2008 and 18 December 2012 were used to compare the expected CF detection rates for several two- and three-tier screening approaches, including the current California approach, which consists of a population-specific 40-mutation panel followed by third-tier sequencing when indicated.ResultsThe data show that the strategy of using third-tier sequencing improves CF detection following an initial elevated immunoreactive trypsinogen and detection of only one mutation on a second-tier panel.ConclusionIn a diverse population, the use of a second-tier panel followed by third-tier CFTR gene sequencing provides a better detection rate for CF, compared with the use of a second-tier approach alone, and is an effective way to minimize the referrals of CF carriers for sweat testing. Restricting screening to a second-tier testing to predefined mutation panels, even broad ones, results in some missed CF cases and demonstrates the limited utility of this approach in states that have diverse multiethnic populations.

  13. Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Karen; de Mendonca, Elizabeth; Matute, Xiorama; Chaustre, Ismenia; Villalón, Marlene; Takiff, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mutations in the CFTR gene found in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have geographic differences, but there are scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in a group of Venezuelan patients with CF. The 27 exons of the CFTR gene from 110 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program were amplified and sequenced. A total of 36 different mutations were identified, seven with frequencies greater than 1%: p.Phe508del (27.27%), p.Gly542* (3.18%), c.2988+1G>A (3.18%), p.Arg334Trp (1.36%), p.Arg1162* (1.36%), c.1-8G>C (1.36%), and p.[Gly628Arg;Ser1235Arg](1.36). In 40% of patients, all with a clinical diagnosis of CF, no mutations were found. This report represents the largest cohort of Venezuelan patients with CF ever examined, and includes a wider mutation panel than has been previously studied in this population. Mutations common in Southern European populations predominate, and several new mutations were discovered, but no mutations were found in 40% of the cohort.

  14. Structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Morales

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Mutations in the CFTR gene may result in a defective processing of its protein and alter the function and regulation of this channel. Mutations are associated with different symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bile duct obstruction, infertility in males, high sweat Cl-, intestinal obstruction, nasal polyp formation, chronic sinusitis, mucus dehydration, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus lung infection, responsible for 90% of the mortality of CF patients. The gene responsible for the cellular defect in CF was cloned in 1989 and its protein product CFTR is activated by an increase of intracellular cAMP. The CFTR contains two membrane domains, each with six transmembrane domain segments, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, and a cytoplasmic domain. In this review we discuss the studies that have correlated the role of each CFTR domain in the protein function as a chloride channel and as a regulator of the outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs.

  15. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  16. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (pcervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  18. Extracellular determinants of anion discrimination of the Cl-/H+ antiporter protein CLC-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Silvia; Pusch, Michael; Zifarelli, Giovanni

    2011-12-23

    Mammalian CLC proteins comprise both Cl- channels and Cl-/H+ antiporters that carry out fundamental physiological tasks by transporting Cl- across plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. The NO3- over Cl- preference of a plant CLC transporter has been pinpointed to a conserved serine residue located at Scen and it is generally assumed that the other two binding sites of CLCs, Sext and Sin, do not substantially contribute to anion selectivity. Here we show for the Cl-/H+ antiporter CLC-5 that the conserved and extracellularly exposed Lys210 residue is critical to determine the anion specificity for transport activity. In particular, mutations that neutralize or invert the charge at this position reverse the NO3- over Cl- preference of WT CLC-5 at a concentration of 100 mm, but do not modify the coupling stoichiometry with H+. The importance of the electrical charge is shown by chemical modification of K210C with positively charged cysteine-reactive compounds that reintroduce the WT preference for Cl-. At saturating extracellular anion concentrations, neutralization of Lys210 is of little impact on the anion preference, suggesting an important role of Lys210 on the association rate of extracellular anions to Sext.

  19. Molecular properties of mammalian proteins that interact with cGMP: protein kinases, cation channels, phosphodiesterases, and multi-drug anion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sharron H; Blount, Mitsi A; Zoraghi, Roya; Corbin, Jackie D

    2005-09-01

    Cyclic GMP is a critical second messenger signaling molecule in many mammalian cell types. It is synthesized by a family of guanylyl cyclases that is activated in response to stimuli from hormones such as natriuretic peptides, members of the guanylin family, and chemical stimuli including nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. The resulting elevation of cGMP modulates myriad physiological processes. Three major groups of cellular proteins bind cGMP specifically at allosteric sites; interaction of cGMP with these sites modulates the activities and functions of other domains within these protein groups to bring about physiological effects. These proteins include the cyclic nucleotide (cN)-dependent protein kinases, cN-gated cation channels, and cGMP-binding phosphodiesterases (PDE). Cyclic GMP also interacts with the catalytic sites of many cN PDEs and with some members of the multi-drug anion transporter family (MRPs) which can extrude nucleotides from cells. The allosteric cN-binding sites in the kinases and the cN-gated channels are evolutionarily and biochemically related, whereas the allosteric cGMP-binding sites in PDEs (also known as GAF domains), the catalytic sites of PDEs , and the ligand-binding sites in the MRPs are evolutionarily and biochemically distinct from each other and from those in the kinase and channel families. The sites that interact with cGMP within each of these groups of proteins have unique properties that provide for cGMP binding. Within a given cell, cGMP can potentially interact with members of all these groups of proteins if they are present. The relative abundance and affinities of these various cGMP-binding sites in conjunction with their subcellular compartmentation, proximity to cyclases and PDEs, and post-translational modification contribute importantly in determining the impact of these respective proteins to cGMP signaling within a particular cell.

  20. Cl- channels of the gastric parietal cell that are active at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppoletti, J; Baker, A M; Malinowska, D H

    1993-06-01

    HCl secretion across mammalian gastric parietal cell apical membrane may involve Cl- channels. H(+)-K(+)-ATPase-containing membranes isolated from gastric mucosa of histamine-stimulated rabbits were fused to planar lipid bilayers. Channels were recorded with symmetric 800 mM CsCl solutions, pH 7.4. A linear current-voltage (I-V) relationship was obtained, and conductance was 28 +/- 1 pS at 800 mM CsCl. Conductance was 6.9 +/- 2 pS at 150 mM CsCl. Reversal potential was +22 mV with a fivefold cis-trans CsCl concentration gradient, indicating that the channel was anion selective with a discrimination ratio of 6:1 for Cl- over Cs+. Anion selectivity of the channel was I- > Cl- > or = Br- > NO3-, and gluconate was impermeant. Channels obtained at pH 7.4 persisted when pH of medium bathing the trans side of the bilayer (pHtrans) was reduced to pH 3, without a change in conductance, linearity of I-V relationship, or ion selectivity. In contrast, asymmetric reduction of pH of medium bathing the cis side of the bilayer from 7.4 to 3 always resulted in loss of channel activity. At pH 7.4, open probability (Po) of the channel was voltage dependent, i.e., predominantly open at +80 mV but mainly closed at -80 mV. In contrast, with low pHtrans, channel Po at -80 mV was increased 3.5-fold. The Cl- channel was Ca2+ indifferent. In absence of ionophores, ion selectivity for support of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and H+ transport was consistent with that exhibited by the channel and could be limited by substitution with NO3-, whereas maximal H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was indifferent to anion present, demonstrating that anion transport can be rate limiting. Cl- channels with similar characteristics (conductance, linear I-V relationship, and ion selectivity) were also present in H(+)-K(+)-ATPase-containing vesicles isolated from resting (cimetidine-treated) gastric mucosa, exhibiting at -80 mV a pH-independent approximately 3.5-fold lower Po than stimulated vesicle channels. At -80 m

  1. Structure of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the inward-facing conformation revealed by single particle electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeq Al-Zahrani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common inherited disease in European populations is cystic fibrosis. Mutations in the gene lead to loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR. CFTR is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of membrane proteins that mostly act as active transporters using ATP to move substances across membranes. These proteins undergo large conformational changes during the transport cycle, consistent with an inward-facing to outward-facing translocation mechanism that was originally proposed by Jardetzky. CFTR is the only member of this family of proteins that functions as an ion channel, and in this case ATP and phosphorylation of a regulatory domain controls the opening of the channel. In this article we describe the inward-facing conformation of the protein and show it can be modulated by the presence of a purified recombinant NHERF1-PDZ1 domain that binds with high affinity to the CFTR C-terminal PDZ motif (-QDTRL. ATP hydrolysis activity of CFTR can also be modulated by glutathione, which we postulate may bind to the inward-facing conformation of the protein. A homology model for CFTR, based on a mitochondrial ABC transporter of glutathione in the inward-facing configuration has been generated. The map and the model are discussed with respect to the biology of the channel and the specific relationship between glutathione levels in the cell and CFTR. Finally, disease-causing mutations are mapped within the model and discussed in terms of their likely physiological effects.

  2. Extracellular Determinants of Anion Discrimination of the Cl−/H+ Antiporter Protein CLC-5*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Silvia; Pusch, Michael; Zifarelli, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian CLC proteins comprise both Cl− channels and Cl−/H+ antiporters that carry out fundamental physiological tasks by transporting Cl− across plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. The NO3− over Cl− preference of a plant CLC transporter has been pinpointed to a conserved serine residue located at Scen and it is generally assumed that the other two binding sites of CLCs, Sext and Sin, do not substantially contribute to anion selectivity. Here we show for the Cl−/H+ antiporter CLC-5 that the conserved and extracellularly exposed Lys210 residue is critical to determine the anion specificity for transport activity. In particular, mutations that neutralize or invert the charge at this position reverse the NO3− over Cl− preference of WT CLC-5 at a concentration of 100 mm, but do not modify the coupling stoichiometry with H+. The importance of the electrical charge is shown by chemical modification of K210C with positively charged cysteine-reactive compounds that reintroduce the WT preference for Cl−. At saturating extracellular anion concentrations, neutralization of Lys210 is of little impact on the anion preference, suggesting an important role of Lys210 on the association rate of extracellular anions to Sext. PMID:21921031

  3. A family of fluoride-specific ion channels with dual-topology architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Randy B; Robertson, Janice L; Kolmakova-Partensky, Ludmila; Miller, Christopher

    2013-08-27

    Fluoride ion, ubiquitous in soil, water, and marine environments, is a chronic threat to microorganisms. Many prokaryotes, archea, unicellular eukaryotes, and plants use a recently discovered family of F(-) exporter proteins to lower cytoplasmic F(-) levels to counteract the anion's toxicity. We show here that these 'Fluc' proteins, purified and reconstituted in liposomes and planar phospholipid bilayers, form constitutively open anion channels with extreme selectivity for F(-) over Cl(-). The active channel is a dimer of identical or homologous subunits arranged in antiparallel transmembrane orientation. This dual-topology assembly has not previously been seen in ion channels but is known in multidrug transporters of the SMR family, and is suggestive of an evolutionary antecedent of the inverted repeats found within the subunits of many membrane transport proteins. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01084.001.

  4. Cystic fibrosis: a mucosal immunodeficiency syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a channel that regulates the transport of ions and the movement of water across the epithelial barrier. Mutations in CFTR, which form the basis for the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis, affect the epithelial innate immune function in the lung, resulting in exaggerated and ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens. Compounding the effects of excessive neutrophil recruitment, the mutant CFTR channel does not transport antioxidants to counteract neutrophil-associated oxidative stress. Whereas mutant CFTR expression in leukocytes outside of the lung does not markedly impair their function, the expected regulation of inflammation in the airways is clearly deficient in cystic fibrosis. The resulting bacterial infections, which are caused by organisms that have substantial genetic and metabolic flexibility, can resist multiple classes of antibiotics and evade phagocytic clearance. The development of animal models that approximate the human pulmonary phenotypes—airway inflammation and spontaneous infection—may provide the much-needed tools to establish how CFTR regulates mucosal immunity and to test directly the effect of pharmacologic potentiation and correction of mutant CFTR function on bacterial clearance. PMID:22481418

  5. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  6. A possible CO2 conducting and concentrating mechanism in plant stomata SLAC1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant SLAC1 is a slow anion channel in the membrane of stomatal guard cells, which controls the turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought, high levels of carbon dioxide, and bacterial invasion. Recent study demonstrated that bicarbonate is a small-molecule activator of SLAC1. Higher CO(2 and HCO(3(- concentration activates S-type anion channel currents in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells. Based on the SLAC1 structure a theoretical model is derived to illustrate the activation of bicarbonate to SLAC1 channel. Meanwhile a possible CO(2 conducting and concentrating mechanism of the SLAC1 is proposed. METHODOLOGY: The homology structure of Arabidopsis thaliana SLAC1 (AtSLAC1 provides the structural basis for study of the conducting and concentrating mechanism of carbon dioxide in SLAC1 channels. The pK(a values of ionizable amino acid side chains in AtSLAC1 are calculated using software PROPKA3.0, and the concentration of CO(2 and anion HCO(3(- are computed based on the chemical equilibrium theory. CONCLUSIONS: The AtSLAC1 is modeled as a five-region channel with different pH values. The top and bottom layers of channel are the alkaline residue-dominated regions, and in the middle of channel there is the acidic region surrounding acidic residues His332. The CO(2 concentration is enhanced around 10(4 times by the pH difference between these regions, and CO(2 is stored in the hydrophobic region, which is a CO(2 pool. The pH driven CO(2 conduction from outside to inside balances the back electromotive force and maintain the influx of anions (e.g. Cl(- and NO(3(- from inside to outside. SLAC1 may be a pathway providing CO(2 for photosynthesis in the guard cells.

  7. Anions in Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  8. Lowest auto-detachment state of the water anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houfek, K.; Cizek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the abundance of water in living tissue the reactive low-energy electron collisions with the water molecule represent an important step in the radiation damage of cells. In this paper, the potential energy surface of the ground state of the water anion H_2O"- is carefully mapped using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations for a large range of molecular geometries. Particular attention is paid to a consistent description of both the O"-+H_2 and OH"-+H asymptotes and to a relative position of the anion energy to the ground state energy of the neutral molecule. The auto-detachment region, where the anion state crosses to the electronic continuum is identified. The local minimum in the direction of the O"- + H_2 channel previously reported by Werner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2913 (1987)] is found to be slightly off the linear geometry and is separated by a saddle from the auto-detachment region. The auto-detachment region is directly accessible from the OH"-+H asymptote. For the molecular geometries in the auto-detachment region and in its vicinity we also performed fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering calculations using the R-matrix method. Tuning of consistency of a description of the correlation energy in both the multireference CI and R-matrix calculations is discussed. Two models of the correlation energy within the R-matrix method that are consistent with the quantum chemistry calculations are found. Both models yield scattering quantities in a close agreement. The results of this work will allow a consistent formulation of the nonlocal resonance model of the water anion in a future publication

  9. Spectrum of CFTR gene mutations in Ecuadorian cystic fibrosis patients: the second report of the p.H609R mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sofía C; Aguirre, Santiago J; Flores, Sofía; Maldonado, Claudio; Mejía, Juan; Salinas, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    High heterogeneity in the CFTR gene mutations disturbs the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). In order to improve the diagnosis of CF in our country, the present study aims to define a panel of common CFTR gene mutations by sequencing 27 exons of the gene in Ecuadorian Cystic Fibrosis patients. Forty-eight Ecuadorian individuals with suspected/confirmed CF diagnosis were included. Twenty-seven exons of CFTR gene were sequenced to find sequence variations. Prevalence of pathogenic variations were determined and compared with other countries' data. We found 70 sequence variations. Eight of these are CF-causing mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. Also this study is the second report of p.H609R in Ecuadorian population. Mutation prevalence differences between Ecuadorian population and other Latin America countries were found. The panel of mutations suggested as an initial screening for the Ecuadorian population with cystic fibrosis should contain the mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. © 2017 NETLAB Laboratorios Especializados. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of calcium-activated chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin

    2018-02-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are a family of anionic transmembrane ion channels. They are mainly responsible for the movement of Cl - and other anions across the biological membranes, and they are widely expressed in different tissues. Since the Cl - flow into or out of the cell plays a crucial role in hyperpolarizing or depolarizing the cells, respectively, the impact of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration on these channels is attracting a lot of attentions. After summarizing the molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of CaCCs, the role of CaCCs in normal cellular functions will be discussed, and I will emphasize how dysregulation of CaCCs in pathological conditions can account for different diseases. A better understanding of CaCCs and a pivotal regulatory role of Ca 2+ can shed more light on the therapeutic strategies for different neurological disorders that arise from chloride dysregulation, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and neuropathic pain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Borthwick

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2 forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A. Overlay (Far-Western and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727. Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.

  12. Breakthrough Therapies: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Potentiators and Correctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, George M.; Marshall, Susan G.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in abnormal protein function. Recent advances of targeted molecular therapies and high throughput screening have resulted in multiple drug therapies that target many important mutations in the CFTR protein. In this review, we provide the latest results and current progress of CFTR modulators for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, focusing on potentiators of CFTR channel gating and Phe508del processing correctors for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular basis underlying these new therapies and emerging results from the latest clinical trials. The future directions for augmenting the rescue of Phe508del with CFTR modulators is also emphasized. PMID:26097168

  13. Volume regulated anion channel currents of rat hippocampal neurons and their contribution to oxygen-and-glucose deprivation induced neuronal death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiu Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are widely expressed chloride channels that are critical for the cell volume regulation. In the mammalian central nervous system, the physiological expression of neuronal VRAC and its role in cerebral ischemia are issues largely unknown. We show that hypoosmotic medium induce an outwardly rectifying chloride conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The induced chloride conductance was sensitive to some of the VRAC inhibitors, namely, IAA-94 (300 µM and NPPB (100 µM, but not to tamoxifen (10 µM. Using oxygen-and-glucose deprivation (OGD to simulate ischemic conditions in slices, VRAC activation appeared after OGD induced anoxic depolarization (AD that showed a progressive increase in current amplitude over the period of post-OGD reperfusion. The OGD induced VRAC currents were significantly inhibited by inhibitors for glutamate AMPA (30 µM NBQX and NMDA (40 µM AP-5 receptors in the OGD solution, supporting the view that induction of AD requires an excessive Na(+-loading via these receptors that in turn to activate neuronal VRAC. In the presence of NPPB and DCPIB in the post-OGD reperfusion solution, the OGD induced CA1 pyramidal neuron death, as measured by TO-PRO-3-I staining, was significantly reduced, although DCPIB did not appear to be an effective neuronal VRAC blocker. Altogether, we show that rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons express functional VRAC, and ischemic conditions can initial neuronal VRAC activation that may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage.

  14. Targeting autophagy as a novel strategy for facilitating the therapeutic action of potentiators on ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luciani (Alessandro); V.R. Villella (Valeria Rachela); S. Esposito (Susanna); M. Gavina (Manuela); I. Russo (Ilaria); M. Silano (Marco); S. Guido (Stefano); M. Pettoello-Mantovani (Massimo); R. Carnuccio (Rosa); B.J. Scholte (Bob); A. de Matteis (Antonella); M.C. Maiuri (Maria Chiara); V. Raia (Valeria); A. Luini (Alberto); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); L. Maiuri (Luigi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractChannel activators (potentiators) of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), can be used for the treatment of the small subset of CF patients that carry plasma membrane-resident CFTR mutants. However, approximately 90% of CF patients carry the misfolded

  15. Cryo-EM structures of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shangyu; Feng, Shengjie; Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Bulkley, David; Lolicato, Marco; Zhao, Jianhua; Zuberbühler, Kathrin; Ye, Wenlei; Qi, Lijun; Chen, Tingxu; Craik, Charles S; Jan, Yuh Nung; Minor, Daniel L; Cheng, Yifan; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2017-12-21

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. Here we present de novo atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A in nanodiscs and in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol as determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. These structures reveal the ion permeation pore and represent different functional states. The structure in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol has one Ca 2+ ion resolved within each monomer with a constricted pore; this is likely to correspond to a closed state, because a CaCC with a single Ca 2+ occupancy requires membrane depolarization in order to open (C.J.P. et al., manuscript submitted). The structure in nanodiscs has two Ca 2+ ions per monomer and its pore is in a closed conformation; this probably reflects channel rundown, which is the gradual loss of channel activity that follows prolonged CaCC activation in 1 mM Ca 2+ . Our mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies, prompted by analyses of the structures, identified ten residues distributed along the pore that interact with permeant anions and affect anion selectivity, as well as seven pore-lining residues that cluster near pore constrictions and regulate channel gating. Together, these results clarify the basis of CaCC anion conduction.

  16. cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Hugo R.; Tilly, Ben C.; Hogema, Boris M.; Pfau, Daniel J.; Kelley, Catherine A.; Kelley, Megan H.; Melita, August M.; Morris, Montana T.; Viola, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro perfused rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and filter-grown monolayers of primary cultures of shark rectal gland (SRG) epithelial cells were used to analyze the signal transduction pathway by which C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates chloride secretion. CNP binds to natriuretic receptors in the basolateral membrane, elevates cellular cGMP, and opens cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in the apical membrane. CNP-provoked chloride secretion was completely inhibitable by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the PKA inhibitor H89 but insensitive to H8, an inhibitor of type I and II isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI and cGKII). CNP-induced secretion could not be mimicked by nonhydrolyzable cGMP analogs added alone or in combination with the protein kinase C activator phorbolester, arguing against a role for cGK or for cGMP-induced PKC signaling. We failed to detect a dogfish ortholog of cGKII by molecular cloning and affinity chromatography. However, inhibitors of the cGMP-inhibitable isoform of phosphodiesterase (PDE3) including milrinone, amrinone, and cilostamide but not inhibitors of other PDE isoenzymes mimicked the effect of CNP on chloride secretion in perfused glands and monolayers. CNP raised cGMP and cAMP levels in the SRG epithelial cells. This rise in cAMP as well as the CNP and amrinone-provoked chloride secretion, but not the rise in cGMP, was almost completely blocked by the Gαi-coupled adenylyl cyclase inhibitor somatostatin, arguing against a role for cGMP cross-activation of PKA in CNP action. These data provide molecular, functional, and pharmacological evidence for a CNP/cGMP/PDE3/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade coupled to CFTR in the SRG. PMID:24259420

  17. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  18. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Rodney W.; Valentine, Holly L.; Valentine, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H 2 S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H 2 S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H 2 S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H 2 S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may

  19. [Frequency of the most common mutations of the CFTR gene in peruvian patients with cystic fibrosis using the ARMS-PCR technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Ruth; Protzel, Ana; Rivera, Juan; Abarca, Hugo; Dueñas, Milagros; Nestarez, Cecilia; Purizaga, Nestor; Diringer, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of the ten most common mutations of the CFTR gene reported in Latin Americausing amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in two referral hospitals in Peru during the year 2014. The frequency of the ten most common mutations of the CFTR gene was assessed in patients of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins and the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, both located in Lima, Peru. Blood samples were collected from 36 patients with CF, and the ARMS-PCR technique was used to determine the presence of these mutations. The study group included 73.5% of patients with a known diagnosis of CF in the country when the study was carried out. ARMS-PCR allowed three of the mutations to be identified in a combined 30.6% of the alleles from patients with CF, and 64.9% of the mutated alleles were not identified. The mutations found were p.Phe508del (22,2%), p.Gly542* (6,9%), and p.Arg1162* (1,4%). There is significant variability in both the frequency and type of mutations present in our study population and in what has been reported in other Latin American countries. It is necessary to perform studies that use complete sequencing technology for the CFTR gene to identify other mutations present in our population.

  20. The importance of functional tests to assess the effect of a new CFTR variant when genotype-phenotype correlation is not possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Callebaut, Isabelle; Zordan, Cécile; Costes, Bruno; Guichoux, Julie; Iron, Albert; Lacombe, Didier; Martin, Natacha; Arveiler, Benoit; Fanen, Pascale; Fergelot, Patricia; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2017-05-01

    In vitro functional tests aimed to investigate CFTR dysfunction appear critical to help elucidate the functional impact of new variants of uncertain clinical significance and solve inconclusive cases, especially in early deceased newborns.

  1. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  2. The Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 1 Mediates Amyloid β Toxicity and Represents a Potential Target for Alzheimer Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilansky, Angela; Dangoor, Liron; Nakdimon, Itay; Ben-Hail, Danya; Mizrachi, Dario; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), found in the mitochondrial outer membrane, forms the main interface between mitochondrial and cellular metabolisms, mediates the passage of a variety of molecules across the mitochondrial outer membrane, and is central to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. VDAC1 is overexpressed in post-mortem brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. The development and progress of AD are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the cytotoxic effects of accumulated amyloid β (Aβ). In this study we demonstrate the involvement of VDAC1 and a VDAC1 N-terminal peptide (VDAC1-N-Ter) in Aβ cell penetration and cell death induction. Aβ directly interacted with VDAC1 and VDAC1-N-Ter, as monitored by VDAC1 channel conductance, surface plasmon resonance, and microscale thermophoresis. Preincubated Aβ interacted with bilayer-reconstituted VDAC1 and increased its conductance ∼ 2-fold. Incubation of cells with Aβ resulted in mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. However, the presence of non-cell-penetrating VDAC1-N-Ter peptide prevented Aβ cellular entry and Aβ-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Likewise, silencing VDAC1 expression by specific siRNA prevented Aβ entry into the cytosol as well as Aβ-induced toxicity. Finally, the mode of Aβ-mediated action involves detachment of mitochondria-bound hexokinase, induction of VDAC1 oligomerization, and cytochrome c release, a sequence of events leading to apoptosis. As such, we suggest that Aβ-mediated toxicity involves mitochondrial and plasma membrane VDAC1, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induction. The VDAC1-N-Ter peptide targeting Aβ cytotoxicity is thus a potential new therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The inhibitor of volume-regulated anion channels DCPIB activates TREK potassium channels in cultured astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minieri, L.; Pivoňková, Helena; Caprini, M.; Harantová, Lenka; Anděrová, Miroslava; Ferroni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 5 (2013), s. 1240-1254 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : two-pore-domain potassium channels * patch clamp * neuroprotection Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.990, year: 2013

  4. Altered Expression of a Malate-Permeable Anion Channel, OsALMT4, Disrupts Mineral Nutrition1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a family of anion channels in plants, but little is known about most of its members. This study examined the function of OsALMT4 from rice (Oryza sativa). We show that OsALMT4 is expressed in roots and shoots and that the OsALMT4 protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing (OX) OsALMT4 released malate from the roots constitutively and had 2-fold higher malate concentrations in the xylem sap than nulls, indicating greater concentrations of malate in the apoplast. OX lines developed brown necrotic spots on the leaves that did not appear on nulls. These symptoms were not associated with altered concentrations of any mineral element in the leaves, although the OX lines had higher concentrations of Mn and B in their grain compared with nulls. While total leaf Mn concentrations were not different between the OX and null lines, Mn concentrations in the apoplast were greater in the OX plants. The OX lines also displayed increased expression of Mn transporters and were more sensitive to Mn toxicity than null plants. We showed that the growth of wild-type rice was unaffected by 100 µm Mn in hydroponics but, when combined with 1 mm malate, this concentration inhibited growth. We conclude that increasing OsALMT4 expression affected malate efflux and compartmentation within the tissues, which increased Mn concentrations in the apoplast of leaves and induced the toxicity symptoms. This study reveals new links between malate transport and mineral nutrition. PMID:29101278

  5. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The major thrust of this project, led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-James), entails an exploration of the basic determinants of anion recognition and their application to the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key scientific inspiration for the work comes from the need, codified in simple-to-appreciate terms by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory component of the team (viz. Dr. Bruce Moyer), for chemical entities that can help in the extractive removal of species that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Among such species, sulfate anion, has been identified as particularly insidious. Its presence interferes with the vitrification process, thus rendering the remediation of tank waste from, e.g., the Hanford site far more difficult and expensive. The availability of effective extractants, that would allow for the separation of separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate, could allow for pre-vitrification removal of sulfate via liquid-liquid extraction. The efforts at The University of Texas, the subject of this report, have thus concentrated on the development of new sulfate receptors. These systems are designed to increase our basic understanding of anion recognition events and set the stage for the development of viable sulfate anion extractants. In conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) members of the research team, several of these new receptors were studied as putative extractants, with two of the systems being shown to act as promising synergists for anion exchange.

  6. Curcumin/poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline-b-tetrahydrofuran-b-2-methyl-2-oxazoline) formulation: An improved penetration and biological effect of curcumin in F508del-CFTR cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristine; Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Même, William; Rasolonjatovo, Bazoly; Gosset, David; Nedellec, Steven; Hulin, Philippe; Huin, Cécile; Le Gall, Tony; Montier, Tristan; Lehn, Pierre; Pichon, Chantal; Guégan, Philippe; Cheradame, Hervé; Midoux, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Neutral amphiphilic triblock ABA copolymers are of great interest to solubilize hydrophobic drugs. We reported that a triblock ABA copolymer consisting of methyl-2-oxazoline (MeOx) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (MeOx 6 -THF 19 -MeOx 6 ) (TBCP2) can solubilize curcumin (Cur) a very hydrophobic molecule exhibiting multiple therapeutic effects but whose insolubility and low stability in water is a major drawback for clinical applications. Here, we provide evidences by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy that Cur penetration in normal and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelial cell lines is facilitated by TBCP2. When used on ΔF508-CFTR cell lines, the Cur/TBCP2 formulation promotes the restoration of the expression of the CFTR protein in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, patch-clamp and MQAE fluorescence experiments show that this effect is associated with a correction of a Cl - selective current at the membrane surface of F508del-CFTR cells. The results show the great potential of the neutral amphiphilic triblock copolymer MeOx 6 -THF 19 -MeOx 6 as carrier for curcumin in a Cystic Fibrosis context. We anticipate that other MeOx n -THF m -MeOx n copolymers could have similar behaviours for other highly insoluble therapeutic drugs or cosmetic active ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracellular long-chain acyl CoAs activate TRPV1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available TRPV1 channels are an important class of membrane proteins that play an integral role in the regulation of intracellular cations such as calcium in many different tissue types. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 is a known positive modulator of TRPV1 channels and the negatively charged phosphate groups interact with several basic amino acid residues in the proximal C-terminal TRP domain of the TRPV1 channel. We and other groups have shown that physiological sub-micromolar levels of long-chain acyl CoAs (LC-CoAs, another ubiquitous anionic lipid, can also act as positive modulators of ion channels and exchangers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 channel activity is similarly regulated by LC-CoAs. Our results show that LC-CoAs are potent activators of the TRPV1 channel and interact with the same PIP2-binding residues in TRPV1. In contrast to PIP2, LC-CoA modulation of TRPV1 is independent of Ca2+i, acting in an acyl side-chain saturation and chain-length dependent manner. Elevation of LC-CoAs in intact Jurkat T-cells leads to significant increases in agonist-induced Ca2+i levels. Our novel findings indicate that LC-CoAs represent a new fundamental mechanism for regulation of TRPV1 channel activity that may play a role in diverse cell types under physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter fatty acid transport and metabolism such as obesity and diabetes.

  8. Frecuencia de las mutaciones más comunes del gen CFTR en pacientes peruanos con fibrosis quística mediante la técnica ARMS-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Ruth; Protzel, Ana; Rivera, Juan; Abarca, Hugo; Dueñas, Milagros; Nestarez, Cecilia; Purizaga, Nestor; Diringer, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia de las diez mutaciones más comúnmente reportadas en América Latina del gen CFTR mediante Sistema de Mutación Refractario a la amplificación por PCR (ARMS-PCR) en los pacientes con fibrosis quística (FQ) de dos instituciones hospitalarias de referencia en el Perú durante el año 2014. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la frecuencia de las diez comúnmente reportadas más comúnmente reportadas del gen CFTR en los pacientes del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati ...

  9. Targeting a genetic defect: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Derichs

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by genetic mutations that affect the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein. These mutations can impact the synthesis and transfer of the CFTR protein to the apical membrane of epithelial cells, as well as influencing the gating or conductance of chloride and bicarbonate ions through the channel. CFTR dysfunction results in ionic imbalance of epithelial secretions in several organ systems, such as the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, liver and the respiratory system. Since discovery of the CFTR gene in 1989, research has focussed on targeting the underlying genetic defect to identify a disease-modifying treatment for CF. Investigated management strategies have included gene therapy and the development of small molecules that target CFTR mutations, known as CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators are typically identified by high-throughput screening assays, followed by preclinical validation using cell culture systems. Recently, one such modulator, the CFTR potentiator ivacaftor, was approved as an oral therapy for CF patients with the G551D-CFTR mutation. The clinical development of ivacaftor not only represents a breakthrough in CF care but also serves as a noteworthy example of personalised medicine.

  10. Role of endolymphatic anion transport in forskolin-induced Cl- activity increase of scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, I; Mori, N; Matsunaga, T

    1995-03-01

    To determine the role of anion transport in the forskolin-induced Cl- increase of scala media (SM), effects of forskolin on the EP (endocochlear potential) and Cl- activity (ACl) in SM were examined with double-barrelled Cl(-)-selective microelectrodes. The experiments were carried out on guinea pig cochleae, using a few anion transport inhibitors: IAA-94 for a Cl- channel blocker, bumetanide (BU) for an Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport blocker, and SITS and DIDS for Cl-/HCO3- exchange blockers. The application of forskolin (200 microM) into scala vestibuli (SV) caused a 20 mEq increase of endolymphatic ACl and a 15 mV elevation of EP, and IAA-94 with forskolin completely abolished these responses. Although each application of BU, SITS or DIDS did not completely suppress EP elevation, the concurrent application of these inhibitors completely suppressed EP with endolymphatic ACl increase. The results indicate the involvement of Cl- channels, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport and Cl-/HCO3- exchange in forskolin-induced increase of ACl and EP. The role of adenylate cyclase activation and Cl- transport in endolymph homeostasis was discussed.

  11. Anion-Controlled Architecture and Photochromism of Naphthalene Diimide-Based Coordination Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new cadmium coordination polymers, namely [Cd(NO32(DPNDI(CH3OH]·CH3OH (1, [Cd(SCN2(DPNDI] (2, and [Cd(DPNDI2(DMF2]·2ClO4 (3 (DPNDI = N,N-di(4-pyridyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide have been synthesized by reactions of DPNDI with Cd(NO32, Cd(SCN2, and Cd(ClO42, respectively. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional coordination polymer with strong lone pair-π interactions between the coordinated NO3− anions and the imide ring of DPNDI; while 2 is a two-dimensional network with a (4, 4 net topology. In the case of 3, due to the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate counter ions, it exhibits a non-interpenetrated square-grid coordination polymer containing one-dimensional rhomboid channels. The structural diversity in these compounds is attributed to different coordination abilities and geometries of counter anions. Due to the presence of electron-deficient NDI moiety, the photochromic behavior of these compounds was studied. Interestingly, only compounds 1 and 3 exhibit color changes under light irradiation. The influence of the anions on the photochromism process of the NDI-based materials has been discussed.

  12. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange ...

  13. Hypercapnia modulates cAMP signalling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid secretion in airway epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark J.; Saint‐Criq, Vinciane; Patel, Waseema; Ibrahim, Salam H.; Verdon, Bernard; Ward, Christopher; Garnett, James P.; Tarran, Robert; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Raised arterial blood CO2 (hypercapnia) is a feature of many lung diseases.CO2 has been shown to act as a cell signalling molecule in human cells, notably by influencing the levels of cell signalling second messengers: cAMP and Ca2+.Hypercapnia reduced cAMP‐stimulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid transport in Calu‐3 cells and primary human airway epithelia but did not affect cAMP‐regulated HCO3 − transport via pendrin or Na+/HCO3 − cotransporters.These results further support the role of CO2 as a cell signalling molecule and suggests CO2‐induced reductions in airway anion and fluid transport may impair innate defence mechanisms of the lungs. Abstract Hypercapnia is clinically defined as an arterial blood partial pressure of CO2 of above 40 mmHg and is a feature of chronic lung disease. In previous studies we have demonstrated that hypercapnia modulates agonist‐stimulated cAMP levels through effects on transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activity. In the airways, cAMP is known to regulate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)‐mediated anion and fluid secretion, which contributes to airway surface liquid homeostasis. The aim of the current work was to investigate if hypercapnia could modulate cAMP‐regulated ion and fluid transport in human airway epithelial cells. We found that acute exposure to hypercapnia significantly reduced forskolin‐stimulated elevations in intracellular cAMP as well as both adenosine‐ and forskolin‐stimulated increases in CFTR‐dependent transepithelial short‐circuit current, in polarised cultures of Calu‐3 human airway cells. This CO2‐induced reduction in anion secretion was not due to a decrease in HCO3 − transport given that neither a change in CFTR‐dependent HCO3 − efflux nor Na+/HCO3 − cotransporter‐dependent HCO3 − influx were CO2‐sensitive. Hypercapnia also reduced the volume of forskolin‐stimulated fluid

  14. Applicability and Efficiency of NGS in Routine Diagnosis: In-Depth Performance Analysis of a Complete Workflow for CFTR Mutation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Pagin

    Full Text Available Actually, about 2000 sequence variations have been documented in the CFTR gene requiring extensive and multi-step genetic testing in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders. We present a two phases study, with validation and performance monitoring, of a single experiment methodology based on multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing that allows detection of all variants, including large rearrangements, affecting the coding regions plus three deep intronic loci.A total of 340 samples, including 257 patients and 83 previously characterized control samples, were sequenced in 17 MiSeq runs and analyzed with two bioinformatic pipelines in routine diagnostic conditions. We obtained 100% coverage for all the target regions in every tested sample.We correctly identified all the 87 known variants in the control samples and successfully confirmed the 62 variants identified among the patients without observing false positive results. Large rearrangements were identified in 18/18 control samples. Only 17 patient samples showed false positive signals (6.6%, 12 of which showed a borderline result for a single amplicon. We also demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect allele specific dropout of amplicons when a sequence variation occurs at a primer binding site thus limiting the risk for false negative results.We described here the first NGS workflow for CFTR routine analysis that demonstrated equivalent diagnostic performances compared to Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. This study illustrates the advantages of NGS in term of scalability, workload reduction and cost-effectiveness in combination with an improvement of the overall data quality due to the simultaneous detection of SNVs and large rearrangements.

  15. Photoaffinity labeling with cholesterol analogues precisely maps a cholesterol-binding site in voltage-dependent anion channel-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelier, Melissa M; Cheng, Wayland W L; Bergdoll, Lucie; Chen, Zi-Wei; Janetka, James W; Abramson, Jeff; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Covey, Douglas F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Evers, Alex S

    2017-06-02

    Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) is a highly regulated β-barrel membrane protein that mediates transport of ions and metabolites between the mitochondria and cytosol of the cell. VDAC1 co-purifies with cholesterol and is functionally regulated by cholesterol, among other endogenous lipids. Molecular modeling studies based on NMR observations have suggested five cholesterol-binding sites in VDAC1, but direct experimental evidence for these sites is lacking. Here, to determine the sites of cholesterol binding, we photolabeled purified mouse VDAC1 (mVDAC1) with photoactivatable cholesterol analogues and analyzed the photolabeled sites with both top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and bottom-up MS paired with a clickable, stable isotope-labeled tag, FLI -tag. Using cholesterol analogues with a diazirine in either the 7 position of the steroid ring (LKM38) or the aliphatic tail (KK174), we mapped a binding pocket in mVDAC1 localized to Thr 83 and Glu 73 , respectively. When Glu 73 was mutated to a glutamine, KK174 no longer photolabeled this residue, but instead labeled the nearby Tyr 62 within this same binding pocket. The combination of analytical strategies employed in this work permits detailed molecular mapping of a cholesterol-binding site in a protein, including an orientation of the sterol within the site. Our work raises the interesting possibility that cholesterol-mediated regulation of VDAC1 may be facilitated through a specific binding site at the functionally important Glu 73 residue. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Li-Wei [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Min [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 107, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lu, Kuang-Lieh [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    A Cd(II)–organic framework {[Cd_2(tpim)_4(SO_4)(H_2O)_2]·(SO_4)·21H_2O}{sub n} (1) was synthesized by reacting CdSO{sub 4}·8/3H{sub 2}O and 2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)imidazole (tpim) under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 adopts a layered structure in which the [Cd(tpim){sub 2}]{sub n} chains are linked by sulfate anions. These 2D layers are further packed into a 3D supramolecular framework via π–π interactions. The structure contains two types of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, i.e., bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, the latter of which are included in the large channels of the framework. Compound 1 exhibits interesting anion exchange behavior. In the presence of SCN{sup −} anions, both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in 1 were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands to form a 1D species [Cd(tpim){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}] (1A), in which the SCN{sup –} moieties function as a monodentate ligand. On the other hand, when compound 1 was ion exchanged with N{sub 3}{sup −} anions in aqueous solution, the bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} moieties remained intact, and only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were replaced by N{sub 3}{sup −} anions. The gas adsorption behavior of the activated compound 1 was also investigated. - Highlights: • An interesting anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework is reported. • The sulfate-incorporated 2D layer compound exhibits very different anion exchange behavior with respect to SCN{sup −} and N{sub 3}{sup −}. • Both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in the 2D structure were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands, resulting in the formation of a 1D species. However, in the case of N{sub 3}{sup −} anions, only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in the structure was replaced.

  17. Supramolecular Chemistry of Environmentally Relevant Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, Kristin; Moyer, B.A.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of highly selective extractants for anions targeting important and timely problems of critical interest to the EMSP mission. In particular, sulfate poses a special problem in cleaning up the Hanford waste tanks in that it interferes with vitrification, but available technologies for sulfate removal are limited. The basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions have been probed. Key findings include: (1) some of the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Receptor design, structural influences on anion binding affinities, and findings from liquid-liquid extraction studies will be discussed

  18. Hydration of a Large Anionic Charge Distribution - Naphthalene-Water Cluster Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mathias; Adams, Christopher L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of anionic clusters of naphthalene with up to three water molecules. Comparison of the experimental infrared spectra with theoretically predicted spectra from quantum chemistry calculations allow conclusions regarding the structures of the clusters under study. The first water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with the π electron system of the naphthalene moiety. Subsequent water ligands interact with both the naphthalene and the other water ligands to form hydrogen bonded networks, similar to other hydrated anion clusters. Naphthalene-water anion clusters illustrate how water interacts with negative charge delocalized over a large π electron system. The clusters are interesting model systems that are discussed in the context of wetting of graphene surfaces and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

  20. Assembly and misassembly of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: folding defects caused by deletion of F508 occur before and after the calnexin-dependent association of membrane spanning domain (MSD) 1 and MSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Meredith F N; Grove, Diane E; Chen, Liling; Cyr, Douglas M

    2008-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a Cl(-) channel and consists of two membrane spanning domains (MSDs), two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), and a cytosolic regulatory domain. Cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70), and endoplasmic reticulum-localized calnexin are chaperones that facilitate CFTR biogenesis. Hsp70 functions in both the cotranslational folding and posttranslational degradation of CFTR. Yet, the mechanism for calnexin action in folding and quality control of CFTR is not clear. Investigation of this question revealed that calnexin is not essential for CFTR or CFTRDeltaF508 degradation. We identified a dependence on calnexin for proper assembly of CFTR's membrane spanning domains. Interestingly, efficient folding of NBD2 was also found to be dependent upon calnexin binding to CFTR. Furthermore, we identified folding defects caused by deletion of F508 that occurred before and after the calnexin-dependent association of MSD1 and MSD2. Early folding defects are evident upon translation of the NBD1 and R-domain and are sensed by the RMA-1 ubiquitin ligase complex.

  1. Haplotype block structure study of the CFTR gene. Most variants are associated with the M470 allele in several European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, Fiorenza; Ciminelli, Bianca Maria; Bombieri, Cristina; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Koudova, Monika; Giorgi, Silvia; Belpinati, Francesca; Begnini, Angela; Cerny, Milos; Des Georges, Marie; Claustres, Mireille; Ferec, Claude; Macek, Milan; Modiano, Guido; Pignatti, Pier Franco

    2006-01-01

    An average of about 1700 CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) alleles from normal individuals from different European populations were extensively screened for DNA sequence variation. A total of 80 variants were observed: 61 coding SNSs (results already published), 13 noncoding SNSs, three STRs, two short deletions, and one nucleotide insertion. Eight DNA variants were classified as non-CF causing due to their high frequency of occurrence. Through this survey the CFTR has become the most exhaustively studied gene for its coding sequence variability and, though to a lesser extent, for its noncoding sequence variability as well. Interestingly, most variation was associated with the M470 allele, while the V470 allele showed an 'extended haplotype homozygosity' (EHH). These findings make us suggest a role for selection acting either on the M470V itself or through an hitchhiking mechanism involving a second site. The possible ancient origin of the V allele in an 'out of Africa' time frame is discussed.

  2. Voltage dependent anion channel-1 regulates death receptor mediated apoptosis by enabling cleavage of caspase-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, Alex D; Liberante, Fabio; Paul, Ian; Longley, Daniel B; Fennell, Dean A

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway by tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cancer that is currently under clinical evaluation. Identification of molecular biomarkers of resistance is likely to play an important role in predicting clinical anti tumour activity. The involvement of the mitochondrial type 1 voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC1) in regulating apoptosis has been highly debated. To date, a functional role in regulating the extrinsic apoptosis pathway has not been formally excluded. We carried out stable and transient RNAi knockdowns of VDAC1 in non-small cell lung cancer cells, and stimulated the extrinsic apoptotic pathway principally by incubating cells with the death ligand TRAIL. We used in-vitro apoptotic and cell viability assays, as well as western blot for markers of apoptosis, to demonstrate that TRAIL-induced toxicity is VDAC1 dependant. Confocal microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation were used to determine the importance of mitochondria for caspase-8 activation. Here we show that either stable or transient knockdown of VDAC1 is sufficient to antagonize TRAIL mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Specifically, VDAC1 is required for processing of procaspase-8 to its fully active p18 form at the mitochondria. Loss of VDAC1 does not alter mitochondrial sensitivity to exogenous caspase-8-cleaved BID induced mitochondrial depolarization, even though VDAC1 expression is essential for TRAIL dependent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, expression of exogenous VDAC1 restores the apoptotic response to TRAIL in cells in which endogenous VDAC1 has been selectively silenced. Expression of VDAC1 is required for full processing and activation of caspase-8 and supports a role for mitochondria in regulating apoptosis signaling via the death receptor pathway

  3. Voltage-gated proton channel is expressed on phagosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channel has been suggested to help NADPH oxidase activity during respiratory burst of phagocytes through its activities of compensating charge imbalance and regulation of pH. In phagocytes, robust production of reactive oxygen species occurs in closed membrane compartments, which are called phagosomes. However, direct evidence for the presence of voltage-gated proton channels in phagosome has been lacking. In this study, the expression of voltage-gated proton channels was studied by Western blot with the antibody specific to the voltage-sensor domain protein, VSOP/Hv1, that has recently been identified as the molecular correlate for the voltage-gated proton channel. Phagosomal membranes of neutrophils contain VSOP/Hv1 in accordance with subunits of NADPH oxidases, gp91, p22, p47 and p67. Superoxide anion production upon PMA activation was significantly reduced in neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1 knockout mice. These are consistent with the idea that voltage-gated proton channels help NADPH oxidase in phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species.

  4. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad; Mohammed, Omar F.; Aly, Shawkat M.; Alarousu, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  5. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2016-08-18

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  6. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  7. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

    2017-09-04

    The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Structure and Dynamics of NBD1 from CFTR Characterized Using Crystallography and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, H.A.; Wang, C.; Zhao, X.; Hamuro, Y.; Conners, K.; Kearins, M.C.; Lu, F.; Sauder, J.M.; Molnar, K.S.; Coales, S.J.; Maloney, P.C.; Guggino, W.B.; Wetmore, D.R.; Weber, P.C.; Hunt, J.F. (SGX); (ExSAR); (Cystic); (JHU-MED); (Columbia)

    2012-04-30

    The {Delta}F508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and {Delta}F508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because {Delta}F508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs, and the {Delta}F508 structure contained additional mutations that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide {sup 1}H/{sup 2}H exchange rates in matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs reveal that {Delta}F508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the {Delta}F508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-{Delta}F508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all {Delta}F508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation {Delta}F508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that increased

  9. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar H. Flood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures.

  10. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator intracellular processing, trafficking, and opportunities for mutation-specific treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogan, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in basic science have greatly expanded our understanding of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the chloride and bicarbonate channel that is encoded by the gene, which is mutated in patients with CF. We review the structure, function, biosynthetic processing, and intracellular trafficking of CFTR and discuss the five classes of mutations and their impact on the CF phenotype. The therapeutic discussion is focused on the significant progress toward CFTR mutation-specific therapies. We review the results of encouraging clinical trials examining orally administered therapeutics, including agents that promote read-through of class I mutations (premature termination codons); correctors, which overcome the CFTR misfolding that characterizes the common class II mutation F508del; and potentiators, which enhance the function of class III or IV mutated CFTR at the plasma membrane. Long-term outcomes from successful mutation-specific treatments could finally answer the question that has been lingering since and even before the CFTR gene discovery: Will therapies that specifically restore CFTR-mediated chloride secretion slow or arrest the deleterious cascade of events leading to chronic infection, bronchiectasis, and end-stage lung disease?

  11. Crystallization and Preliminary Diffraction Analysis of the CAL PDZ Domain in Complex with a Selective Peptide Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Amacher; P Cushing; J Weiner; D Madden

    2011-12-31

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which regulates epithelial fluid and ion homeostasis. The CFTR cytoplasmic C-terminus interacts with a number of PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) proteins that modulate its intracellular trafficking and chloride-channel activity. Among these, the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL) has a negative effect on apical-membrane expression levels of the most common disease-associated mutant {Delta}F508-CFTR, making CAL a candidate target for the treatment of CF. A selective peptide inhibitor of the CAL PDZ domain (iCAL36) has recently been developed and shown to stabilize apical expression of {Delta}F508-CFTR, enhancing net chloride-channel activity, both alone and in combination with the folding corrector corr-4a. As a basis for structural studies of the CAL-iCAL36 interaction, a purification protocol has been developed that increases the oligomeric homogeneity of the protein. Here, the cocrystallization of the complex in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.9, b = 47.7, c = 97.3 {angstrom}, is reported. The crystals diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (1.96 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains two complexes.

  12. Anion concurrence and anion selectivity in the sorption of radionuclides by organotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnsen, Julia G.

    2007-01-01

    Some long-lived and radiologically important nuclear fission products, such as I-129 (half-life t 1/2 = 1,6 . 10 7 a), Tc-99 (t 1/2 = 2,1 . 10 5 a), and Se-79 (t 1/2 = 6,5 . 10 4 a) are anionic in aqueous environments. This study focuses on the adsorption of such anions to organoclays and the understanding of the selectivity of the process. The organoclays used in this study were prepared from a bentonite (MX-80) and a vermiculite clay, and the cationic surfactants hexadcylpyridium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, and benzethonium. Surfactant adsorption to the bentonite exceeds the cation exchange capacity of the clay, with the surplus positive charge being balanced by the co-adsorption of chloride. The interlayer distance of the bentonites is increased sufficiently to contain bi- and pseudotrimolecular structures of the surfactants. Adsorption experiments were carried out using the batch technique. Anion adsorption of iodide, perrhenate, selenite, nitrate, and sulphate is mainly due to ion exchange with chloride. As an additional adsorption mechanism, the incorporation of inorganic ion pairs into the interlayer space of the clay is proposed as a result of experiments showing differences in the adsorption levels of sodium and potassium iodide. Anion adsorption results show a clear selectivity of the organoclays, with the affinity sequence being: ReO - 4 > I - > NO - 3 > Cl - > SO 2- 4 > SeO 2- 3 . This sequence corresponds to the sequence of increasing hydration energies of the anions, thus selectivity could be due to the process of minimization of free energy of the system. (orig.)

  13. Ion Permeation and Mechanotransduction Mechanisms of Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Wu, Kun; Geng, Jie; Chi, Shaopeng; Wang, Yanfeng; Zhi, Peng; Zhang, Mingmin; Xiao, Bailong

    2016-03-16

    Piezo proteins have been proposed as the long-sought-after mechanosensitive cation channels in mammals that play critical roles in various mechanotransduction processes. However, the molecular bases that underlie their ion permeation and mechanotransduction have remained functionally undefined. Here we report our finding of the miniature pore-forming module of Piezo1 that resembles the pore architecture of other trimeric channels and encodes the essential pore properties. We further identified specific residues within the pore module that determine unitary conductance, pore blockage and ion selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations and anions. The non-pore-containing region of Piezo1 confers mechanosensitivity to mechano-insensitive trimeric acid-sensing ion channels, demonstrating that Piezo1 channels possess intrinsic mechanotransduction modules separate from their pore modules. In conclusion, this is the first report on the bona fide pore module and mechanotransduction components of Piezo channels, which define their ion-conducting properties and gating by mechanical stimuli, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of mud crab reovirus VP12 and its interaction with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Su, Hong-Jun; Zou, Wei-Bin; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yan, Wen-Rui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Li-Li; Chan, Siuming Francis; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a severe disease in cultured mud crab (Scylla paramamosain), which has caused huge economic losses in China. MCRV is a double-stranded RNA virus with 12 genomic segments. In this paper, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses revealed that the VP12 protein encoded by S12 gene is a structural protein of MCRV. Immune electron microscopy assay indicated that MCRV VP12 is a component of MCRV outer shell capsid. Yeast two hybrid cDNA library of mud crab was constructed and mud crab voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (mcVDAC) was obtained by MCRV VP12 screening. The full length of mcVDAC was 1180 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp encoding a 282 amino acid protein. The mcVDAC had a constitutive expression pattern in different tissues of mud crab. The interaction between MCRV VP12 and mcVDAC was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The results of this study have provided an insight on the mechanisms of MCRV infection and the interactions between the virus and mud crab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.

    2003-01-01

    and the expulsion of anions; a broad anodic peak centered at ca. - 0.5 V representing the expulsion of cations; and a second broad peak at +0.2 to +0.5 V corresponding to anions being inserted. Although the motion of cations is the most important, as expected, there is a significant anion contribution, thereby...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  16. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  17. Channels formed by botulinum, tetanus, and diphtheria toxins in planar lipid bilayers: relevance to translocation of proteins across membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, D H; Romero-Mira, M; Ehrlich, B E; Finkelstein, A; DasGupta, B R; Simpson, L L

    1985-01-01

    The heavy chains of both botulinum neurotoxin type B and tetanus toxin form channels in planar bilayer membranes. These channels have pH-dependent and voltage-dependent properties that are remarkably similar to those previously described for diphtheria toxin. Selectivity experiments with anions and cations show that the channels formed by the heavy chains of all three toxins are large; thus, these channels could serve as "tunnel proteins" for translocation of active peptide fragments. These f...

  18. El Tor hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1 forms channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Ono, T; Iwata, M; Nakae, T; Shimamura, T

    1997-05-15

    We investigated the channel formation by El Tor hemolysin (molecular mass, 65 kDa) of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in planar lipid bilayers. The El Tor hemolysin channel exhibited asymmetric and hyperbolic membrane current with increasing membrane potential, meaning that the channel is voltage dependent. The zero-current membrane potential measured in KCI solution showed that permeability ratio PK+/PCl- was 0.16, indicating that the channel is 6-fold more anion selective over cation. The hemolysin channel frequently flickered in the presence of divalent cations, suggesting that the channel spontaneously opens and closes. These data imply that the El Tor hemolysin damages target cells by the formation of transmembrane channels and, consequently, is the cause of osmotic cytolysis.

  19. The assessment of pellicular anion-exchange resins for the determination of anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1981-01-01

    Because pellicular anion-exchange resins suitable for the determination, by ion chromatography, of anions with alkaline eluents were unavailable in South Africa at the inception of this work, an attempt was made to prepare such resins. In this study it is shown that the pellicular resins produced are more efficient than the surface-aminated resins used previously. The simultaneous separation and determination of five common anions is demonstrated. The method was applied to the analysis of uranium leach liquors, effluent samples, and a solid sample of ferric oxide (goethite)

  20. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. Objective To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Design Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Results Screening of ~150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ~1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Conclusions Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. PMID:24052273

  1. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES

  2. Orphan missense mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: A three-step biological approach to establishing a correlation between genotype and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquet, Fleur; Clement, Romain; Norez, Caroline; Sterlin, Adélaïde; Melin, Patricia; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Bilan, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    More than 1860 mutations have been found within the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene sequence. These mutations can be classified according to their degree of severity in CF disease. Although the most common mutations are well characterized, few data are available for rare mutations. Thus, genetic counseling is particularly difficult when fetuses or patients with CF present these orphan variations. We describe a three-step in vitro assay that can evaluate rare missense CFTR mutation consequences to establish a correlation between genotype and phenotype. By using a green fluorescent protein-tagged CFTR construct, we expressed mutated proteins in COS-7 cells. CFTR trafficking was visualized by confocal microscopy, and the cellular localization of CFTR was determined using intracellular markers. We studied the CFTR maturation process using Western blot analysis and evaluated CFTR channel activity by automated iodide efflux assays. Of six rare mutations that we studied, five have been isolated in our laboratory. The cellular and functional impact that we observed in each case was compared with the clinical data concerning the patients in whom we encountered these mutations. In conclusion, we propose that performing this type of analysis for orphan CFTR missense mutations can improve CF genetic counseling. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Channel-forming activities in the glycosomal fraction from the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gualdron-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycosomes are a specialized form of peroxisomes (microbodies present in unicellular eukaryotes that belong to the Kinetoplastea order, such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasitic protists causing severe diseases of livestock and humans in subtropical and tropical countries. The organelles harbour most enzymes of the glycolytic pathway that is responsible for substrate-level ATP production in the cell. Glycolysis is essential for bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei and enzymes comprising this pathway have been validated as drug targets. Glycosomes are surrounded by a single membrane. How glycolytic metabolites are transported across the glycosomal membrane is unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that glycosomal membrane, similarly to membranes of yeast and mammalian peroxisomes, contains channel-forming proteins involved in the selective transfer of metabolites. To verify this prediction, we isolated a glycosomal fraction from bloodstream-form T. brucei and reconstituted solubilized membrane proteins into planar lipid bilayers. The electrophysiological characteristics of the channels were studied using multiple channel recording and single channel analysis. Three main channel-forming activities were detected with current amplitudes 70-80 pA, 20-25 pA, and 8-11 pA, respectively (holding potential +10 mV and 3.0 M KCl as an electrolyte. All channels were in fully open state in a range of voltages ±150 mV and showed no sub-conductance transitions. The channel with current amplitude 20-25 pA is anion-selective (P(K+/P(Cl-∼0.31, while the other two types of channels are slightly selective for cations (P(K+/P(Cl- ratios ∼1.15 and ∼1.27 for the high- and low-conductance channels, respectively. The anion-selective channel showed an intrinsic current rectification that may suggest a functional asymmetry of the channel's pore. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the membrane of glycosomes

  4. Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Karen; De Mendonca,Elizabeth; Matute,Xiorama; Chaustre,Ismenia; Villalon,Marlene; Takiff,Howard

    2016-01-01

    Karen Sánchez,1 Elizabeth de Mendonca,1 Xiorama Matute,2 Ismenia Chaustre,2 Marlene Villalón,3 Howard Takiff4 1Unit of Genetic and Forensic Studies, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), 2Hospital JM de los Ríos, 3Hospital José Ignacio Baldo, Algodonal, National Reference Unit, 4Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela. Abstract: The mutations in the CFTR gene found in ...

  5. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  6. Recent progress in translational cystic fibrosis research using precision medicine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholon, Deborah M; Gentzsch, Martina

    2018-03-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in developing precision therapies for cystic fibrosis; however, highly effective treatments that target the ion channel, CFTR, are not yet available for many patients. As numerous CFTR therapeutics are currently in the clinical pipeline, reliable screening tools capable of predicting drug efficacy to support individualized treatment plans and translational research are essential. The utilization of bronchial, nasal, and rectal tissues from individual cystic fibrosis patients for drug testing using in vitro assays such as electrophysiological measurements of CFTR activity and evaluation of fluid movement in spheroid cultures, has advanced the prediction of patient-specific responses. However, for precise prediction of drug effects, in vitro models of CFTR rescue should incorporate the inflamed cystic fibrosis airway environment and mimic the complex tissue structures of airway epithelia. Furthermore, novel assays that monitor other aspects of successful CFTR rescue such as restoration of mucus characteristics, which is important for predicting mucociliary clearance, will allow for better prognoses of successful therapies in vivo. Additional cystic fibrosis treatment strategies are being intensively explored, such as development of drugs that target other ion channels, and novel technologies including pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, and gene editing. The multiple therapeutic approaches available to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis combined with relevant precision medicine models provide a framework for identifying optimal and sustained treatments that will benefit all cystic fibrosis patients. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Holger; Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the structural motifs of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory. Our calculations show that all fluorobenzene anions under investigation are strongly distorted from the neutral planar molecular geometries. In the anions, different F atoms are no longer equivalent, providing structurally different binding sites for water molecules and giving rise to a multitude of low-lying isomers. The absorption bands for hexa- and pentafluorobenzene show that only one isomer for the respective monohydrate complexes is populated in our experiment. For C 6 F 6 - ·H 2 O, we can assign these bands to an isomer where water forms a weak double ionic hydrogen bond with two F atoms in the ion, in accord with the results of Bowen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 014312 (2007), following paper.] The spectroscopic motif of the binary complexes changes slightly with decreasing fluorination of the aromatic anion. For dihydrated hexafluorobenzene anions, several isomers are populated in our experiments, some of which may be due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  8. The Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (AtVDAC1 Negatively Regulates Plant Cold Responses during Germination and Seedling Development in Arabidopsis and Interacts with Calcium Sensor CBL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, a highly conserved major mitochondrial outer membrane protein, plays crucial roles in energy metabolism and metabolite transport. However, knowledge about the roles of the VDAC family in plants is limited. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of VDAC1 in Arabidopsis and found that cold stress promoted the accumulation of VDAC1 transcripts in imbibed seeds and mature plants. Overexpression of VDAC1 reduced tolerance to cold stress in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis of VDAC1 T-DNA insertion mutant plants indicated that a vdac1 mutant line had faster germination kinetics under cold treatment and showed enhanced tolerance to freezing. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that VDAC1 interacts with CBL1, a calcium sensor in plants. Like the vdac1, a cbl1 mutant also exhibited a higher seed germination rate. We conclude that both VDAC1 and CBL1 regulate cold stress responses during seed germination and plant development.

  9. N-acetylglyoxylic amide bearing a nitrophenyl group as anion receptors: NMR and X-ray investigations on anion binding and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-10-01

    N-Nitrophenylglyoxylic amides 1 and 2 in presence of tetrabutylammonium cation (TBA) act as receptors for anions HSO4-, Cl-, Br- and NO3- as investigated by NMR studies. The receptors formed 1:1 host-guest complexes in solution. X-ray structure of 1 along with TBA that bind a chloride anion is reported. Molecule 1 showed the highest selectivity for HSO4- anion over others measured. X-ray structure of the bound Cl- revealed a pocket containing the anion making strong (Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and weak hydrogen bonds (Csbnd H⋯Cl) that contribute to the recognition of the chloride anion. Nsbnd H and Csbnd H hydrogen bonds resulted in a relatively strong binding for chloride ions.

  10. On conduction in a bacterial sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Furini

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Na⁺-channels are transmembrane proteins that are responsible for the fast depolarizing phase of the action potential in nerve and muscular cells. Selective permeability of Na⁺ over Ca²⁺ or K⁺ ions is essential for the biological function of Na⁺-channels. After the emergence of the first high-resolution structure of a Na⁺-channel, an anionic coordination site was proposed to confer Na⁺ selectivity through partial dehydration of Na⁺ via its direct interaction with conserved glutamate side chains. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations, a low-energy permeation pathway for Na⁺ ion translocation through the selectivity filter of the recently determined crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel from Arcobacter butzleri is characterised. The picture that emerges is that of a pore preferentially occupied by two ions, which can switch between different configurations by crossing low free-energy barriers. In contrast to K⁺-channels, the movements of the ions appear to be weakly coupled in Na⁺-channels. When the free-energy maps for Na⁺ and K⁺ ions are compared, a selective site is characterised in the narrowest region of the filter, where a hydrated Na⁺ ion, and not a hydrated K⁺ ion, is energetically stable.

  11. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce a.; Bostick, Debra A.; Fowler, Christopher J.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Ruas, Alexandre; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Llinares, Jose M.; Hossain, Alamgir; Kang, S. O.; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2005-01-01

    The major thrust of this project led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-Jones) entails the exploration of the principles of recognition and separation of sulfate by the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key science need for the cleanup of tank wastes at Hanford has been identified in developing methods to separate those bulk waste components that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Sulfate has been identified as a particularly difficult and expensive problem in that its concentration in the waste is relatively high, its solubility in glass is especially low, and it interferes with the performance of both vitrification equipment and the glass waste form. The new extractants will be synthesized by the University of Kansas and the University of Texas, Austin. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is subjecting the new extractants to experiments that will determine their properties and effectiveness in separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate. Such experiments will entail primarily liquid-liquid extraction. Current efforts focus on exciting new systems in which the anion receptors act as synergists for anion exchange

  12. Gas-Grain Models for Interstellar Anion Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnely, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain hydrocarbon anions C(sub n) H(-) (n = 4, 6, 8) have recently been found to be abundant in a variety of interstellar clouds. In order to explain their large abundances in the denser (prestellar/protostellar) environments, new chemical models are constructed that include gas-grain interactions. Models including accretion of gas-phase species onto dust grains and cosmic-ray-induced desorption of atoms are able to reproduce the observed anion-to-neutral ratios, as well as the absolute abundances of anionic and neutral carbon chains, with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Due to their destructive effects, the depletion of oxygen atoms onto dust results in substantially greater polyyne and anion abundances in high-density gas (with n(sub H2) approx > / cubic cm). The large abundances of carbon-chain-bearing species observed in the envelopes of protostars such as L1527 can thus be explained without the need for warm carbon-chain chemistry. The C6H(-) anion-to-neutral ratio is found to be most sensitive to the atomic O and H abundances and the electron density. Therefore, as a core evolves, falling atomic abundances and rising electron densities are found to result in increasing anion-to-neutral ratios. Inclusion of cosmic-ray desorption of atoms in high-density models delays freeze-out, which results in a more temporally stable anion-to-neutral ratio, in better agreement with observations. Our models include reactions between oxygen atoms and carbon-chain anions to produce carbon-chain-oxide species C6O, C7O, HC6O, and HC7O, the abundances of which depend on the assumed branching ratios for associative electron detachment

  13. HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Tyerman, Stephen D; Ramesh, Sunita; Hebb, Diane M; Howitt, Susan M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al(3+) resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al(3+) resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated with Al(3+) resistance in barley. The relatively low levels of HvALMT1 expression detected in root and shoot tissues were independent of external aluminium or phosphorus supply. Transgenic barley plants transformed with the HvALMT1 promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that expression of HvALMT1 was relatively high in stomatal guard cells and in root tissues containing expanding cells. GFP fused to the C-terminus of the full HvALMT1 protein localized to the plasma membrane and motile vesicles within the cytoplasm. HvALMT1 conferred both inward and outward currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were bathed in a range of anions including malate. Both malate uptake and efflux were confirmed in oocyte assays using [(14)C]malate as a radiotracer. It is suggested that HvALMT1 functions as an anion channel to facilitate organic anion transport in stomatal function and expanding cells.

  14. Ab initio theoretical study of dipole-bound anions of molecular complexes: (HF)3- and (HF)4- anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Riet; Smith, Dayle M. A.; Smets, Johan; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1997-12-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed to determine structures and vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) of the hydrogen fluoride trimer and tetramer anions, (HF)3- and (HF)4-. In these systems the excess electron is bound by the dipole field of the complex. It was determined that, unlike the neutral complexes which prefer the cyclic structures, the equilibrium geometries of the anions have "zig-zag" shapes. For both complexes the predicted VDEs are positive [210 meV and 363 meV for (HF)3- and (HF)4-, respectively], indicating that the anions are stable systems with respect to the vertical electron detachment. These results were obtained at the coupled-cluster level of theory with single, double and triple excitations [CCSD(T) method; the triple-excitation contribution in this method is calculated approximately using the perturbation approach] with the anion geometries obtained using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. The same approach was also used to determine the adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of (HF)3 and (HF)4. In addition to the electronic contribution, we also calculated the contributions (using the harmonic approximation) resulting from different zero-point vibration energies of the neutral and anionic clusters. The calculations predicted that while the AEA of (HF)3 is positive (44 meV), the AEA for (HF)4 is marginally negative (-16 meV). This suggests that the (HF)3- anion should be a stable system, while the (HF)4- is probably metastable.

  15. Novel short chain fatty acids restore chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Toan D.; Kim, Ug-Sung; Perrine, Susan P.

    2006-01-01

    Phenylalanine deletion at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ΔF508-CFTR), the most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), causes a misfolded protein exhibiting partial chloride conductance and impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane. 4-Phenylbutyrate corrects defective ΔF508-CFTR trafficking in vitro, but is not clinically efficacious. From a panel of short chain fatty acid derivatives, we showed that 2,2-dimethyl-butyrate (ST20) and α-methylhydrocinnamic acid (ST7), exhibiting high oral bioavailability and sustained plasma levels, correct the ΔF508-CFTR defect. Pre-incubation (≥6 h) of CF IB3-1 airway cells with ≥1 mM ST7 or ST20 restored the ability of 100 μM forskolin to stimulate an 125 I - efflux. This efflux was fully inhibited by NPPB, DPC, or glibenclamide, suggesting mediation through CFTR. Partial inhibition by DIDS suggests possible contribution from an additional Cl - channel regulated by CFTR. Thus, ST7 and ST20 offer treatment potential for CF caused by the ΔF508 mutation

  16. Ameloblast Modulation and Transport of Cl⁻, Na⁺, and K⁺ during Amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckers, A L J J; Lyaruu, D; Jalali, R; Medina, J F; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; DenBesten, P K

    2015-12-01

    Ameloblasts express transmembrane proteins for transport of mineral ions and regulation of pH in the enamel space. Two major transporters recently identified in ameloblasts are the Na(+)K(+)-dependent calcium transporter NCKX4 and the Na(+)-dependent HPO4 (2-) (Pi) cotransporter NaPi-2b. To regulate pH, ameloblasts express anion exchanger 2 (Ae2a,b), chloride channel Cftr, and amelogenins that can bind protons. Exposure to fluoride or null mutation of Cftr, Ae2a,b, or Amelx each results in formation of hypomineralized enamel. We hypothesized that enamel hypomineralization associated with disturbed pH regulation results from reduced ion transport by NCKX4 and NaPi-2b. This was tested by correlation analyses among the levels of Ca, Pi, Cl, Na, and K in forming enamel of mice with null mutation of Cftr, Ae2a,b, and Amelx, according to quantitative x-ray electron probe microanalysis. Immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction analysis, and Western blotting confirmed the presence of apical NaPi-2b and Nckx4 in maturation-stage ameloblasts. In wild-type mice, K levels in enamel were negatively correlated with Ca and Cl but less negatively or even positively in fluorotic enamel. Na did not correlate with P or Ca in enamel of wild-type mice but showed strong positive correlation in fluorotic and nonfluorotic Ae2a,b- and Cftr-null enamel. In hypomineralizing enamel of all models tested, 1) Cl(-) was strongly reduced; 2) K(+) and Na(+) accumulated (Na(+) not in Amelx-null enamel); and 3) modulation was delayed or blocked. These results suggest that a Na(+)K(+)-dependent calcium transporter (likely NCKX4) and a Na(+)-dependent Pi transporter (potentially NaPi-2b) located in ruffle-ended ameloblasts operate in a coordinated way with the pH-regulating machinery to transport Ca(2+), Pi, and bicarbonate into maturation-stage enamel. Acidification and/or associated physicochemical/electrochemical changes in ion levels in enamel fluid near the apical ameloblast membrane may

  17. Metal-Oxide Film Conversions Involving Large Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretty, S.; Zhang, X.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Wren, J.C. [The University of Western Ontario, Chemistry Department, 1151 Richmond St., N6A 5B7, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of my research is to establish the mechanism and kinetics of metal-oxide film conversions involving large anions (I{sup -}, Br{sup -}, S{sup 2-}). Within a given group, the anions will provide insight on the effect of anion size on the film conversion, while comparison of Group 6 and Group 7 anions will provide insight on the effect of anion charge. This research has a range of industrial applications, for example, hazardous radioiodine can be immobilized by reaction with Ag to yield AgI. From the perspective of public safety, radioiodine is one of the most important fission products from the uranium fuel because of its large fuel inventory, high volatility, and radiological hazard. Additionally, because of its mobility, the gaseous iodine concentration is a critical parameter for safety assessment and post-accident management. A full kinetic analysis using electrochemical techniques has been performed on the conversion of Ag{sub 2}O to (1) AgI and (2) AgBr. (authors)

  18. Metal-Oxide Film Conversions Involving Large Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretty, S.; Zhang, X.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Wren, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of my research is to establish the mechanism and kinetics of metal-oxide film conversions involving large anions (I - , Br - , S 2- ). Within a given group, the anions will provide insight on the effect of anion size on the film conversion, while comparison of Group 6 and Group 7 anions will provide insight on the effect of anion charge. This research has a range of industrial applications, for example, hazardous radioiodine can be immobilized by reaction with Ag to yield AgI. From the perspective of public safety, radioiodine is one of the most important fission products from the uranium fuel because of its large fuel inventory, high volatility, and radiological hazard. Additionally, because of its mobility, the gaseous iodine concentration is a critical parameter for safety assessment and post-accident management. A full kinetic analysis using electrochemical techniques has been performed on the conversion of Ag 2 O to (1) AgI and (2) AgBr. (authors)

  19. Specificity of anion-binding in the substrate-pocket ofbacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facciotti, Marc T.; Cheung, Vincent S.; Lunde, Christopher S.; Rouhani, Shahab; Baliga, Nitin S.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2003-08-30

    The structure of the D85S mutant of bacteriorhodopsin with a nitrate anion bound in the Schiff-base binding site, and the structure of the anion-free protein have been obtained in the same crystal form. Together with the previously solved structures of this anion pump, in both the anion-free state and bromide-bound state, these new structures provide insight into how this mutant of bacteriorhodopsin is able to bind a variety of different anions in the same binding pocket. The structural analysis reveals that the main structural change that accommodates different anions is the repositioning of the polar side-chain of S85. On the basis of these x-ray crystal structures, the prediction is then made that the D85S/D212N double mutant might bind similar anions and do so over a broader pH range than does the single mutant. Experimental comparison of the dissociation constants, K{sub d}, for a variety of anions confirms this prediction and demonstrates, in addition, that the binding affinity is dramatically improved by the D212N substitution.

  20. Solution and gas phase evidence of anion binding through the secondary bonding interactions of a bidentate bis-antimony(iii) anion receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Song, B; Li, X; Cozzolino, A F

    2017-12-20

    The solution and gas phase halide binding to a bis-antimony(iii) anion receptor was studied. This new class of anion receptors utilizes the strong Sb-centered secondary bonding interactions (SBIs) that are formed opposite to the polar Sb-O primary bond. 1 H NMR titration data were fitted statistically to binding models and solution-phase binding energetics were extracted, while the formation of anion-to-receptor complexes was observed using ESI-MS. Density functional theory calculations suggest that their affinity towards binding halide anions is mitigated by the strong explicit solvation effect in DMSO, which gives insights into future designs that circumvent direct solvent binding and are anticipated to yield tighter and perhaps more selectivity in anion binding.

  1. Zero-point energy effects in anion solvation shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott

    2014-05-21

    By comparing classical and quantum-mechanical (path-integral-based) molecular simulations of solvated halide anions X(-) [X = F, Cl, Br and I], we identify an ion-specific quantum contribution to anion-water hydrogen-bond dynamics; this effect has not been identified in previous simulation studies. For anions such as fluoride, which strongly bind water molecules in the first solvation shell, quantum simulations exhibit hydrogen-bond dynamics nearly 40% faster than the corresponding classical results, whereas those anions which form a weakly bound solvation shell, such as iodide, exhibit a quantum effect of around 10%. This observation can be rationalized by considering the different zero-point energy (ZPE) of the water vibrational modes in the first solvation shell; for strongly binding anions, the ZPE of bound water molecules is larger, giving rise to faster dynamics in quantum simulations. These results are consistent with experimental investigations of anion-bound water vibrational and reorientational motion.

  2. The chemistry of molecular anions in circumstellar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, Marcelino [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Cernicharo, José [Departamento de Astrofísica, CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Guélin, Michel [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Héres (France)

    2015-01-22

    The detection of negatively charged molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium in the past four years has been one of the most impacting surprises in the area of molecular astrophysics. It has motivated the interest of astronomers, physicists, and chemists on the study of the spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and prevalence of molecular anions in the different astronomical regions. Up to six different molecular anions have been discovered in space to date, the last one being the small ion CN{sup −}, which has been observed in the envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216 and which contrary to the other larger anions is not formed by electron attachment to CN, but through reactions of large carbon anions with nitrogen atoms. Here we briefly review the current status of our knowledge of the chemistry of molecular anions in space, with particular emphasis on the circumstellar source IRC +10216, which to date is the astronomical source harboring the largest variety of anions.

  3. Regulation of ACh release from guinea pig bladder urothelial cells: potential role in bladder filling sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLatchie, L M; Young, J S; Fry, C H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize the mechanism of non-neuronal ACh release from bladder urothelial cells and to determine if urothelial cells could be a site of action of anti-muscarinic drugs. A novel technique was developed whereby ACh could be measured from freshly isolated guinea pig urothelial cells in suspension following mechanical stimulation. Various agents were used to manipulate possible ACh release pathways in turn and to study the effects of muscarinic receptor activation and inhibition on urothelial ATP release. Minimal mechanical stimulus achieved full ACh release, indicating a small dynamic range and possible all-or-none signal. ACh release involved a mechanism dependent on the anion channel CFTR and intracellular calcium concentration, but was independent of extracellular calcium, vesicular trafficking, connexins or pannexins, organic cation transporters and was not affected by botulinum-A toxin. Stimulating ACh receptors increased ATP production and antagonizing them reduced ATP release, suggesting a link between ACh and ATP release. These results suggest that release of non-neuronal ACh from the urothelium is large enough and well located to act as a modulator of ATP release. It is hypothesized that this pathway may contribute to the actions of anti-muscarinic drugs in reducing the symptoms of lower urinary tract syndromes. Additionally the involvement of CFTR in ACh release suggests an exciting new direction for the treatment of these conditions. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. The cystic fibrosis of exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilschanski, Michael; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acina...... (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas....

  5. The molecular analysis of mutations in exons 4, 11 and 21 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis patients in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Karimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a common genetic disorder in white populations with an autosomal recessive pattern, caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The frequency of more than 1950 various mutations reported in the CFTR gene significantly varies in different populations. ∆F508 is a common mutation in exon 10, which is first addressed in the molecular analysis of the disease. Other exons are required to be investigated owing to failing to identify mutations in the patients. The present study was conducted to investigate mutations in exons 4, 11 and 21 of the CFTR gene using the sequencing method in CF patients in Kermanshah province, Iran. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on all patients with CF presenting to the medical genetics center in Kermanshah in 2010-2011. After taking blood samples and extracting DNA using saturated NaCl solution, sequences of exons were amplified using PCR and sequenced for identifying mutations. Results: The frequency of mutations was found to be respectively 0, 0 and 5.5% in exon 11, 21 and 4. The D110H mutation was found to be homozygous in one subject and heterozygous in another. Moreover, the 4029A>G polymorphism (12.9% was found to be homozygous in two subjects and heterozygous in three others. Conclusion: The D110H mutation is recommended to be included in the screening programs of the study population. The results obtained support the effects of ethnic and geographical factors on the distribution of CF mutations.

  6. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Anions in Water Based on a Redox-Active Monolayer Incorporating an Anion Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balwinder; Erdmann, Cristiane Andreia; Daniëls, Mathias; Dehaen, Wim; Rafiński, Zbigniew; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2017-12-05

    In the present work, gold electrodes were modified using a redox-active layer based on dipyrromethene complexes with Cu(II) or Co(II) and a dipodal anion receptor functionalized with dipyrromethene. These modified gold electrodes were then applied for the electrochemical detection of anions (Cl - , SO 4 2- , and Br - ) in a highly diluted water solution (in the picomolar range). The results showed that both systems, incorporating Cu(II) as well as Co(II) redox centers, exhibited highest sensitivity toward Cl - . The selectivity sequence found for both systems was Cl - > SO 4 2- > Br - . The high selectivity of Cl - anions can be attributed to the higher binding constant of Cl - with the anion receptor and the stronger electronic effect between the central metal and anion in the complex. The detection limit for the determination of Cl - was found at the 1.0 pM level for both sensing systems. The electrodes based on Co(II) redox centers displayed better selectivity toward Cl - anion detection than those based on Cu(II) centers which can be attributed to the stronger electronic interaction between the receptor-target anion complex and the Co(II)/Co(III) redox centers in comparison to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) system. Applicability of gold electrodes modified with DPM-Co(II)-DPM-AR for the electrochemical determination of Cl - anions was demonstrated using the artificial matrix mimicking human serum.

  7. A Soluble Fluorescent Binding Assay Reveals PIP2 Antagonism of TREK-1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerrone Cabanos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid regulation of ion channels by low-abundance signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 and phosphatidic acid (PA has emerged as a central cellular mechanism for controlling ion channels and the excitability of nerves. A lack of robust assays suitable for facile detection of a lipid bound to a channel has hampered the probing of the lipid binding sites and measuring the pharmacology of putative lipid agonists for ion channels. Here, we show a fluorescent PIP2 competition assay for detergent-purified potassium channels, including TWIK-1-related K+-channel (TREK-1. Anionic lipids PA and phosphatidylglycerol (PG bind dose dependently (9.1 and 96 μM, respectively and agonize the channel. Our assay shows PIP2 binds with high affinity (0.87 μM but surprisingly can directly antagonize TREK-1 in liposomes. We propose a model for TREK-1 lipid regulation where PIP2 can compete with PA and PG agonism based on the affinity of the lipid for a site within the channel.

  8. Green sample preparation for liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis of anionic and cationic analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Alain; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2015-04-21

    A sample preparation device for the simultaneous enrichment and separation of cationic and anionic analytes was designed and implemented in an eight-channel configuration. The device is based on the use of an electric field to transfer the analytes from a large volume of sample into small volumes of electrolyte that was suspended into two glass micropipettes using a conductive hydrogel. This simple, economical, fast, and green (no organic solvent required) sample preparation scheme was evaluated using cationic and anionic herbicides as test analytes in water. The analytical figures of merit and ecological aspects were evaluated against the state-of-the-art sample preparation, solid-phase extraction. A drastic reduction in both sample preparation time (94% faster) and resources (99% less consumables used) was observed. Finally, the technique in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis was applied to analysis of quaternary ammonium and phenoxypropionic acid herbicides in fortified river water as well as drinking water (at levels relevant to Australian guidelines). The presented sustainable sample preparation approach could easily be applied to other charged analytes or adopted by other laboratories.

  9. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  10. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  11. Fluorescence anisotropy of tyrosinate anion using one-, two- and three-photon excitation: tyrosinate anion fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdaszuk, Borys

    2013-03-01

    We examined the emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy of tyrosinate anion fluorescence with one-photon (250-310 nm), two-photon (570-620 nm) and three-photon (750-930 nm) excitation. Similar emission spectra of the neutral (pH 7.2) and anionic (pH 13) forms of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATyrA) (pKa 10.6) were observed for all modes of excitation, with the maxima at 302 and 352 nm, respectively. Two-photon excitation (2PE) and three-photon excitation (3PE) spectra of the anionic form were the same as that for one-photon excitation (1PE). In contrast, 2PE spectrum from the neutral form showed ~30-nm shift to shorter wavelengths relative to 1PE spectrum (λmax 275 nm) at two-photon energy (550 nm), the latter being overlapped with 3PE spectrum, both at two-photon energy (550 nm). Two-photon cross-sections for NATyrA anion at 565-580 nm were 10 % of that for N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATrpA), and increased to 90 % at 610 nm, while for the neutral form of NATyrA decreased from 2 % of that for NATrpA at 570 nm to near zero at 585 nm. Surprisingly, the fundamental anisotropy of NATyrA anion in vitrified solution at -60 °C was ~0.05 for 2PE at 610 nm as compared to near 0.3 for 1PE at 305 nm, and wavelength-dependence appears to be a basic feature of its anisotropy. In contrast, the 3PE anisotropy at 900 nm was about 0.5, and 3PE and 1PE anisotropy values appear to be related by the cos(6) θ to cos(2) θ photoselection factor (approx. 10/6) independently of excitation wavelength. Attention is drawn to the possible effect of tyrosinate anions in proteins on their multi-photon induced fluorescence emission and excitation spectra as well as excitation anisotropy spectra.

  12. Channels Formed by Botulinum, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Toxins in Planar Lipid Bilayers: Relevance to Translocation of Proteins across Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, David H.; Romero-Mira, Miryam; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; Finkelstein, Alan; Dasgupta, Bibhuti R.; Simpson, Lance L.

    1985-03-01

    The heavy chains of both botulinum neurotoxin type B and tetanus toxin form channels in planar bilayer membranes. These channels have pH-dependent and voltage-dependent properties that are remarkably similar to those previously described for diphtheria toxin. Selectivity experiments with anions and cations show that the channels formed by the heavy chains of all three toxins are large; thus, these channels could serve as ``tunnel proteins'' for translocation of active peptide fragments. These findings support the hypothesis that the active fragments of botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, like that of diphtheria toxin, are translocated across the membranes of acidic vesicles.

  13. Ivacaftor: A Novel Gene-Based Therapeutic Approach for Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Condren, Michelle E.; Bradshaw, Marquita D.

    2013-01-01

    Ivacaftor is a new therapeutic agent that acts at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel to alter activity. It is approved for use in patients 6 years and older with cystic fibrosis who have at least 1 G551D mutation in the CFTR gene. It is unlike any other current pharmacologic agent for cystic fibrosis in that it specifically targets the gene defect associated with cystic fibrosis as opposed to treating resulting symptomology. Mucoactive agents, antibiotics, ...

  14. New anion-exchange polymers for improved separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Objective is to improve the understanding of how the structure of a new class of anion-exchange polymers controls the binding of anionic actinide complexes from solution. This is needed to develop practical separation systems that will reduce the cost of actinide processing operations within the DOE complex. In addition anion exchange is widely used in industry. Several new series of bifunctional anion- exchange polymers have been designed, synthesized, and tested for removing Pu(IV), Am(III), and U(VI) from nitric acid. The polymers contain a pyridinium site derived from the host poly(4-vinylpyridine) and a second cationic site attached through a chain of 2 to 6 methylene groups. The new polymers removed Pu four to ten times more efficiently than the best commercial materials

  15. A computational study of anion-modulated cation-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2012-05-24

    The interaction of anions with cation-π complexes formed by the guanidinium cation and benzene was thoroughly studied by means of computational methods. Potential energy surface scans were performed in order to evaluate the effect of the anion coming closer to the cation-π pair. Several structures of guanidinium-benzene complexes and anion approaching directions were examined. Supermolecule calculations were performed on ternary complexes formed by guanidinium, benzene, and one anion and the interaction energy was decomposed into its different two- and three-body contributions. The interaction energies were further dissected into their electrostatic, exchange, repulsion, polarization and dispersion contributions by means of local molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis. The results confirm that, besides the electrostatic cation-anion attraction, the effect of the anion over the cation-π interaction is mainly due to polarization and can be rationalized following the changes in the anion-π and the nonadditive (three-body) terms of the interaction. When the cation and the anion are on the same side of the π system, the three-body interaction is anticooperative, but when the anion and the cation are on opposite sides of the π system, the three-body interaction is cooperative. As far as we know, this is the first study where this kind of analysis is carried out with a structured cation as guanidinium with a significant biological interest.

  16. The Role of Coulomb Interactions for Spin Crossover Behaviors and Crystal Structural Transformation in Novel Anionic Fe(III Complexes from a π-Extended ONO Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Murata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the π-extension effect on an unusual negative-charged spin crossover (SCO FeIII complex with a weak N2O4 first coordination sphere, we designed and synthesized a series of anionic FeIII complexes from a π-extended naphthalene derivative ligand. Acetonitrile-solvate tetramethylammonium (TMA salt 1 exhibited an SCO conversion, while acetone-solvate TMA salt 2 was in a high-spin state. The crystal structural analysis for 2 revealed that two-leg ladder-like cation-anion arrays derived from π-stacking interactions between π-ligands of the FeIII complex anion and Coulomb interactions were found and the solvated acetone molecules were in one-dimensional channels between the cation-anion arrays. A desolvation-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to desolvate compound 2’ may be driven by Coulomb energy gain. Furthermore, the structural comparison between quasi-polymorphic compounds 1 and 2 revealed that the synergy between Coulomb and π-stacking interactions induces a significant distortion of coordination structure of 2.

  17. Heterometallic modular metal-organic 3D frameworks assembled via new tris-β-diketonate metalloligands: nanoporous materials for anion exchange and scaffolding of selected anionic guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Lucia; Ciani, Gianfranco; Maggini, Simona; Proserpio, Davide M; Visconti, Marco

    2010-11-02

    -48% of the cell volume and include the anions and many guest solvent molecules. The guest solvent molecules can be reversibly removed by thermal activation with retention of the framework structure, which proved to be stable up to about 270°C, as confirmed by TGA and powder XRD monitoring. The anions could be easily exchanged in single-crystal to single-crystal processes, thereby allowing the insertion of selected anions into the framework channels.

  18. Probing electron density of H-bonding between cation-anion of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different anions by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yong; Li, Haoran

    2010-03-04

    Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation have been employed to study the spectral properties of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different anions. ILs based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with different anions, OH(-), CF(3)CO(2)(-), HSO(4)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), PF(6)(-), and BF(4)(-), are investigated in the present work. It has been shown that the C(2)-H stretching vibration of the imidazolium ring is closely related to the electron density of H-bonding between the two closest cations and anions for pure ILs. The electron density of H-bonding between cation and anion with different anions decreases in the order [OH](-) > [H(2)PO(4)](-) > [HSO(4)](-) > [CF(3)CO(2)](-) > [Cl](-) > [BF(4)](-) > [PF(6)](-). For aqueous ILs, with increasing water content, the aromatic C-H stretching vibration of the imidazolium cation showed systematic blue-shifts. Especially for BmimOH, the nu(C(2))(-H) undergoes a drastic blue-shift by 58 cm(-1), suggesting that the formation of the strong hydrogen bonds O-H...O may greatly weaken the electron density of H-bonding between the cation and anion of ILs.

  19. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Jiaen; Henderson, Sam W; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J; Gilliham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  20. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Jiaen

    2016-06-23

    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the 6-azauracil anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Buonaugurio, Angela; Dolgounitcheva, Olga; Zakrzewski, V G; Bowen, Kit H; Ortiz, J V

    2013-02-14

    We report the photoelectron spectrum of the 6-azauracil anion. The spectrum is dominated by a broad band exhibiting a maximum at an electron binding energy (EBE) of 1.2 eV. This spectral pattern is indicative of a valence anion. Our calculations were carried out using ab initio electron propagator and other many-body methods. Comparison of the anion and corresponding neutral of 6-azauracil with those of uracil shows that substituting a nitrogen atom for C-H at the C6 position of uracil gives rise to significant changes in the electronic structure of 6-azauracil versus that of uracil. The adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of the canonical 6-azauracil tautomer is substantially larger than that of canonical uracil. Among the five tautomeric, 6-azauracil anions studied computationally, the canonical structure was found to be the most stable. The vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the canonical, valence-bound anion of 6-azauracil and its closest "very-rare" tautomer have been calculated. Electron propagator calculations on the canonical anion yield a VDE value that is in close agreement with the experimentally determined VDE value of 1.2 eV. The AEA value of 6-azauracil, assessed at the CCSD(T) level of theory to be 0.5 eV, corresponds with the EBE value of the onset of the experimental spectrum.

  2. Anion Gap Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/aniongapbloodtest.html Anion Gap Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? An anion gap blood test is a way ...

  3. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang

    2018-03-13

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  4. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang; Fei, Zhuping; Lin, Yen-Hung; Martin, Jaime; Tuna, Floriana; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Heeney, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  5. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) mediates L-glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release via swelling-activated anion channels in cultured neonatal rodent astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Darius J R; Lawen, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory roles in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are crucially involved in brain ascorbate homeostasis and may assist in regenerating extracellular ascorbate from its oxidised forms. Ascorbate accumulated by astrocytes can be released rapidly by a process that is stimulated by the excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate. This process is thought to be neuroprotective against excitotoxicity. Although of potential clinical interest, the mechanism of this stimulated ascorbate-release remains unknown. Here, we report that primary cultures of mouse and rat astrocytes release ascorbate following initial uptake of dehydroascorbate and accumulation of intracellular ascorbate. Ascorbate-release was not due to cellular lysis, as assessed by cellular release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, and was stimulated by L-glutamate and L-aspartate, but not the non-excitatory amino acid L-glutamine. This stimulation was due to glutamate-induced cellular swelling, as it was both attenuated by hypertonic and emulated by hypotonic media. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was also sensitive to inhibitors of volume-sensitive anion channels, suggesting that the latter may provide the conduit for ascorbate efflux. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was not recapitulated by selective agonists of either ionotropic or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, but was completely blocked by either of two compounds, TFB-TBOA and UCPH-101, which non-selectively and selectively inhibit the glial Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporter, GLAST, respectively. These results suggest that an impairment of astrocytic ascorbate-release may exacerbate neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and acute brain injury in which excitotoxicity and/or GLAST deregulation have been implicated.

  6. Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Cara L; Boitano, Scott

    2016-05-17

    that the increases in ion conductance evoked by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were largely attributed to a protein kinase A-dependent (PKA) activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. Data from our high-capacity screening assays demonstrates that individual e-cigarette liquid flavoring chemicals vary in their cytotoxicity profiles and that some constituents evoke a cellular physiological response on their own independent of cell death. The activation of CFTR by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine may have detrimental consequences for airway surface liquid homeostasis in individuals that use e-cigarettes habitually.

  7. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine modulates a wide variety of biological processes via adenosine receptors. In the exocrine pancreas, adenosine regulates transepithelial anion secretion in duct cells and is considered to play a role in acini-to-duct signaling. To identify the functional adenosine receptors and Cl......− channels important for anion secretion, we herein performed experiments on Capan-1, a human pancreatic duct cell line, using open-circuit Ussing chamber and gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp techniques. The luminal addition of adenosine increased the negative transepithelial potential difference (Vte......) in Capan-1 monolayers with a half-maximal effective concentration value of approximately 10 μM, which corresponded to the value obtained on whole-cell Cl− currents in Capan-1 single cells. The effects of adenosine on Vte, an equivalent short-circuit current (Isc), and whole-cell Cl− currents were inhibited...

  8. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  9. The gecko visual pigment: the anion hypsochromic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1991-01-01

    The 521-pigment in the retina of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) readily responds to particular physical and chemical changes in its environment. When solubilized in chloride deficient state the addition of Class I anions (Cl-, Br-) induces a bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum. Class II anions (NO3-, IO3-, N3-, OCN-, SCN-, SeCN-, N(CN)2-), which exhibit ambidental properties, cause an hypsochromic shift. Class III anions (F-, I-, NO2-, CN-, AsO3-, SO2(4-), S2O2(3-) have no spectral effect on the 521-pigment. Cations appear to have no influence on the pigment absorption and Class I anions prevent or reverse the hypsochromic shift caused by Class II anions. It is suggested that the spectral displacements reflect specific changes in the opsin conformation, which alter the immediate (dipolar) environment of the retinal chromophore. The protein conformation seems to promote excited-state processes most in the native 521-pigment state and least in the presence of Class II anions. This in turn suggests that the photosensitivity of the 521-pigment is controlled by the excited rather than by the ground-state properties of the pigment.

  10. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  11. Dehydroabiethylamine acetate as metal-containing anion precipitant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Borisov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation is studied of vanadate, tungstate-, molybdate- and chromate-ions by dehydroabiethylamine acetate. The degree of precipitation of metal-bearing anions is a function of the anion and of pH of the treated solutions. There exists a predetermined value of pH for each anion, at which the content of metal-bearing anion in the ultra-filtrate is at a minimum. For vanadate-ions, this pH is 5.0; for tungstate-ions, 3.0; for molybdate-ions, 4.0; for chrommate-ions, 8.0. The heats of solution of methavanadate, paratungstate, paramolybdate and dehydroabiethylamine chromate, calculated in accordance with the Vant-Hoff equation, range between 3.5 and 8.3 kJ/mole; free energy varies between 45.8 and 137.5 kJ/mole; and entropy varies between 110 and 371 J/degree mole

  12. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  13. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  14. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  15. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  16. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  17. The Thermodynamics of Anion Complexation to Nonpolar Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Matthew R; Yao, Wei; Tang, Du; Ashbaugh, Henry S; Gibb, Bruce C

    2018-02-08

    The interactions between nonpolar surfaces and polarizable anions lie in a gray area between the hydrophobic and Hofmeister effects. To assess the affinity of these interactions, NMR and ITC were used to probe the thermodynamics of eight anions binding to four different hosts whose pockets each consist primarily of hydrocarbon. Two classes of host were examined: cavitands and cyclodextrins. For all hosts, anion affinity was found to follow the Hofmeister series, with associations ranging from 1.6-5.7 kcal mol -1 . Despite the fact that cavitand hosts 1 and 2 possess intrinsic negative electrostatic fields, it was determined that these more enveloping hosts generally bound anions more strongly. The observation that the four hosts each possess specific anion affinities that cannot be readily explained by their structures, points to the importance of counter cations and the solvation of the "empty" hosts, free guests, and host-guest complexes, in defining the affinity.

  18. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  19. Determination of arsenate in water by anion selective membrane electrode using polyurethane–silica gel fibrous anion exchanger composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Asif Ali, E-mail: asifkhan42003@yahoo.com; Shaheen, Shakeeba, E-mail: shakeebashaheen@ymail.com

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • PU–Si gel is new anion exchanger material synthesized and characterized. • This material used as anion exchange membrane is applied for electroanalytical studies. • The method for detection and determination of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in traces amounts discussed. • The results are also verified from arsenic analyzer. -- Abstract: Polyurethane (PU)–silica (Si gel) based fibrous anion exchanger composites were prepared by solid–gel polymerization of polyurethane in the presence of different amounts of silica gel. The formation of PU–Si gel fibrous anion exchanger composite was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. The membrane having a composition of 5:3 (PU:Si gel) shows best results for water content, porosity, thickness and swelling. Our studies show that the present ion selective membrane electrode is selective for arsenic, having detection limit (1 × 10{sup −8} M to 1 × 10{sup −1} M), response time (45 s) and working pH range (5–8). The selectivity coefficient values for interfering ions indicate good selectivity for arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) over interfering anions. The accuracy of the detection limit results was compared by PCA-Arsenomat.

  20. Compounds that correct F508del-CFTR trafficking can also correct other protein trafficking diseases: an in vitro study using cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson Heidi M; Lam Hung; Chen Pei-Chun; Zhang Donglei; Mottillo Cristina; Mirza Myriam; Qasim Karim; Shrier Alvin; Shyng Show-Ling; Hanrahan John W; Thomas David Y

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Many genetic diseases are due to defects in protein trafficking where the mutant protein is recognized by the quality control systems, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and degraded by the proteasome. In many cases, the mutant protein retains function if it can be trafficked to its proper cellular location. We have identified structurally diverse correctors that restore the trafficking and function of the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, F508del-CFTR...

  1. The CFTR Met 470 allele is associated with lower birth rates in fertile men from a population isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülüm Kosova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD-associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TGm and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029. The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency = 0.51 in HapMap CEU, whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI. In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of -1.93 in HapMap CEU. The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations.

  2. Invariant TAD Boundaries Constrain Cell-Type-Specific Looping Interactions between Promoters and Distal Elements around the CFTR Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily M; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Dekker, Job

    2016-01-07

    Three-dimensional genome structure plays an important role in gene regulation. Globally, chromosomes are organized into active and inactive compartments while, at the gene level, looping interactions connect promoters to regulatory elements. Topologically associating domains (TADs), typically several hundred kilobases in size, form an intermediate level of organization. Major questions include how TADs are formed and how they are related to looping interactions between genes and regulatory elements. Here we performed a focused 5C analysis of a 2.8 Mb chromosome 7 region surrounding CFTR in a panel of cell types. We find that the same TAD boundaries are present in all cell types, indicating that TADs represent a universal chromosome architecture. Furthermore, we find that these TAD boundaries are present irrespective of the expression and looping of genes located between them. In contrast, looping interactions between promoters and regulatory elements are cell-type specific and occur mostly within TADs. This is exemplified by the CFTR promoter that in different cell types interacts with distinct sets of distal cell-type-specific regulatory elements that are all located within the same TAD. Finally, we find that long-range associations between loci located in different TADs are also detected, but these display much lower interaction frequencies than looping interactions within TADs. Interestingly, interactions between TADs are also highly cell-type-specific and often involve loci clustered around TAD boundaries. These data point to key roles of invariant TAD boundaries in constraining as well as mediating cell-type-specific long-range interactions and gene regulation. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of a PKA-activated gastric Cl- channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, D H; Kupert, E Y; Bahinski, A; Sherry, A M; Cuppoletti, J

    1995-01-01

    cDNA encoding a Cl- channel was isolated from a rabbit gastric library, sequenced, and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The predicted protein (898 amino acids, relative molecular mass 98,433 Da) was overall 93% similar to the rat brain ClC-2 Cl- channel. However, a 151-amino acid stretch toward the COOH-terminus was 74% similar to ClC-2 with six amino acids deleted. Two new potential protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites (also protein kinase C phosphorylation sites) were introduced. cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes expressed a Cl- channel that was active at pHtrans 3 and had a linear current-voltage (I-V) curve and a slope conductance of 29 +/- 1 pS at 800 mM CsCl. A fivefold Cl- gradient caused a rightward shift in the I-V curve with a reversal potential of +30 +/- 3 mV, indicating anion selectivity. The selectivity was I- > Cl- > NO3-. The native and recombinant Cl- channel were both activated in vitro by PKA catalytic subunit and ATP. The electrophysiological and regulatory properties of the cloned and the native channel were similar. The cloned protein may be the Cl- channel involved in gastric HCl secretion.

  4. Anion effect on the retention of recoil atom of coordination crystalline compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimotakis, P.N.; Papadopoulos, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    The anion effect of various cobaltic crystalline compounds - having the same cation and differing in anion -on the retention of neutron activated central cobalt atom has been studied. The cation was trans-dichloro(bis)ethylenediamine cobalt(III) and the anions were simple spherical anions (Cl - , Br - , I - ), planar anions (NO 3 - ), trigonal pyramidal anions (ClO 3 - , BrO 3 - ), tetrahedral anions (SO 4 2- , CrO 4 2- , MnO 4 - ) and linear anions (SCN - ). The cobalt-60 activity after reactor irradiation either in simple Co 2+ cation or in cobaltic complex cation determined the retention values. In all irradiations at ordinary temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature the results showed an effect of the different anions, depending on the geometry, volume and charge, on the recombination of the recoil cobalt with the ligands in the coordination sphere. (author)

  5. Benzonitrile: Electron affinity, excited states, and anion solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Andrew R.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    We report a negative-ion photoelectron imaging study of benzonitrile and several of its hydrated, oxygenated, and homo-molecularly solvated cluster anions. The photodetachment from the unsolvated benzonitrile anion to the X ˜ 1 A 1 state of the neutral peaks at 58 ± 5 meV. This value is assigned as the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the valence anion and the upper bound of adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of benzonitrile. The EA of the lowest excited electronic state of benzonitrile, a ˜ 3 A 1 , is determined as 3.41 ± 0.01 eV, corresponding to a 3.35 eV lower bound for the singlet-triplet splitting. The next excited state, the open-shell singlet A ˜ 1 A 1 , is found about an electron-volt above the triplet, with a VDE of 4.45 ± 0.01 eV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations for neutral benzonitrile and its valence anion but do not preclude the existence of a dipole-bound state of similar energy and geometry. The step-wise and cumulative solvation energies of benzonitrile anions by several types of species were determined, including homo-molecular solvation by benzonitrile, hydration by 1-3 waters, oxygenation by 1-3 oxygen molecules, and mixed solvation by various combinations of O2, H2O, and benzonitrile. The plausible structures of the dimer anion of benzonitrile were examined using density functional theory and compared to the experimental observations. It is predicted that the dimer anion favors a stacked geometry capitalizing on the π-π interactions between the two partially charged benzonitrile moieties.

  6. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianqian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Liu, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China); Cao, Duxia, E-mail: duxiacao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Guan, Ruifang, E-mail: mse_guanrf@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-01

    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin.

  7. Assessment of linear anionic polyacrylamide application to irrigation canals for seepage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamil Uribe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available South- central area of Chile area has a Mediterranean climate and high crop water requirements. Irrigation water is distributed through long channels which have low water conveyance efficiency (Ec, difficult to improve by conventional techniques. The objective of this study was to quantify Ec and to evaluate the use of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide (LA-PAM to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in south-central area of Chile, (UTM Coordinate N 5745000; E 725000 m, datum is WGS-84, zone 18S in 250 km of channels whose flow varied between 0.12 and 24.6 m3 s–1. Water users indicated channel reaches with potential low Ec, which were selected for LA-PAM application. In 11 reaches between 0.51 and 3 km in length, 1 to 3 LAPAM applications were performed at rates of 10 kg ha–1, considering the wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Thirty-one LA-PAM applications were performed over a 30.5 km length. Most of the channels were large enough to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP at both ends of selected reaches before and after granular LAPAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect duration. Water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable Ec from 87% to 94%. Two reaches showed 6% water gains. In more than 80% cases LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving loss reductions of 15 to 760 L s–1. In other cases LA-PAM had a negative effect since it mainly affected water entry into the channel. It was determined that field conditions referred by users as indicators of Ec are not always correct and vary in time according to climatic conditions. Ec was estimated and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications. This allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

  8. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Microsolvated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte Linde

    the gas-phase α-effect. The experimental studies are performed by means of the flowing after glow selected ion flow tube technique, and these are supplemented by electronic structure calculations. The α-nucleophile employed is the microsolvated hydrogen peroxide anion whose reactivity is compared......Gas-phase studies of ion-molecule reactions shed light on the intrinsic factors that govern reactivity; and even solvent effects can be examined in the gasphase environment by employing microsolvated ions. An area that has received considerable attention with regard to the interplay between...... to that of a series of microsolvated oxygen centered anions. The association of the nucleophiles with a single water or methanol molecule allows the α-effect to be observed in the SN2 reaction with methyl chloride; this effect was not apparent in the reactions of the unsolvated anions. The results suggest...

  9. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  10. Zn-Al LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE PILLARED BY DIFFERENT DICARBOXYLATE ANIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gago

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated by terephthalate (TPH and biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate (BPH anions have been synthesized by direct co-precipitation from aqueous solution. The Zn/Al ratio in the final materials was 1.8. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopy, and MAS NMR spectroscopy. The basal spacing for the TPH-LDH intercalate was 14.62 Å, indicating that the guest anions stack to form a monolayer with the aromatic rings perpendicular to the host layers. For the LDH intercalate containing BPH anions, a basal spacing of at least 19.2 Å would be expected if the anions adopted an arrangement similar to that for the TPH anions. The observed spacing was 18.24 Å, suggesting that the anions are tilted slightly with respect to the host layers.

  11. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  12. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  13. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congdon, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans, supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions, however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. N1303K (c.3909C>G) Mutation and Splicing: Implication of Its c.[744-33GATT(6); 869+11C>T] Complex Allele in CFTR Exon 7 Aberrant Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Raëd; Puissesseau, Géraldine; El-Seedy, Ayman; Pasquet, Marie-Claude; Adolphe, Catherine; Corbani, Sandra; Megarbané, André; Kitzis, Alain; Ladeveze, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is the most common recessive autosomal rare disease found in Caucasians. It is caused by mutations on the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) that encodes a protein located on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. c.3909C>G (p.Asn1303Lys, old nomenclature: N1303K) is one of the most common worldwide mutations. This mutation has been found at high frequencies in the Mediterranean countries with the highest frequency in the Lebanese population. Therefore, on the genetic level, we conducted a complete CFTR gene screening on c.3909C>G Lebanese patients. The complex allele c.[744-33GATT(6); 869+11C>T] was always associated with the c.3909C>G mutation in cis in the Lebanese population. In cellulo splicing studies, realized by hybrid minigene constructs, revealed no impact of the c.3909C>G mutation on the splicing process, whereas the associated complex allele induces minor exon skipping. PMID:26075213

  15. Identification of eight novel mutations in a collaborative analysis of a part of the second transmembrane domain of the CFTR gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, B.; Audrezet, M.P.; Guillermit, H.; Quere, I.; Verlingue, C.; Ferec, C. (CDTS, Brest (France)); Lissens, W.; Bonduelle, M.; Liebaers, I. (University Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium)); Novelli, G.; Sangiuolo, F.; Dallapiccola, B. (IRCCS, Rotondo (Italy)); Kalaydjieva, L. (Inst. of Obstetrics, Sofia (Bulgaria)); Arce, M. De; Cashman, S. (Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)); Kapranov, N. (NRC of medical Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Canki Klain, N. (Tozd Univerzitetna Ginekoloska Klinika, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)); Lenoir, G. (Hopital des Enfants Malades Necker, Paris (France)); Chauveau, P. (Centre Hospitalier General, Le Havre (France)); Lanaerts, C. (Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire, Amiens (France)); Rault, G. (Centre Helio-Marin, Roscoff (France))

    1993-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the gene responsible, when mutated, for cystic fibrosis (CF), spans over 230 kb on the long arm of chromosome 7 and is composed of 27 exons. The most common mutation responsible for CF worldwide is the deletion of a phenylalanine amino acid at codon 508 in the first nucleotide-binding fold and accounts for approximately 70% of CF chromosomes studied. More than 250 other mutations have been reported through the CF Genetic Analysis Consortium. The majority of the mutations previously described lie in the two nucleotide-binding folds. To explore exhaustively other regions of the gene, particularly exons coding for transmembrane domains, the authors have initiated a collaborative study between different laboratories to screen 369 non-[Delta]F508 CF chromosomes of seven ethnic European populations (Belgian, French, Breton, Irish, Italian, Yugoslavian, Russian). Among these chromosomes carrying an unidentified mutation, 63 were from Brittany, 50 of various French origin, 45 of Irish origin, 56 of Italian origin, 41 of Belgian origin, 2 of Turkish origin, 38 of Yugoslavian origin, 22 of Russian origin, and 52 of Bulgarian origin. Diagnostic criteria for CF included at least one positive sweat test and pulmonary disease with or without pancreatic disease. Using a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) assay, they have identified eight novel mutations in exon 17b coding for part of the second transmembrane domain of the CFTR and they describe them in this report. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Vertical detachment energies of anionic thymidine: Microhydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-10-14

    Density functional theory has been employed to investigate microhydration effects on the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the thymidine anion by considering the various structures of its monohydrates. Structures were located using a random searching procedure. Among 14 distinct structures of the anionic thymidine monohydrate, the low-energy structures, in general, have the water molecule bound to the thymine base unit. The negative charge developed on the thymine moiety increases the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the water and base units. The computed VDE values of the thymidine monohydrate anions are predicted to range from 0.67 to 1.60 eV and the lowest-energy structure has a VDE of 1.32 eV. The VDEs of the monohydrates of the thymidine anion, where the N(1)[Single Bond]H hydrogen of thymine has been replaced by a 2(')-deoxyribose ring, are greater by ∼0.30 eV, compared to those of the monohydrates of the thymine anion. The results of the present study are in excellent agreement with the accompanying experimental results of Bowen and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144304 (2010)].

  17. Copper(I) coordination compounds with closododecaborate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinina, E.A.; Drozdova, V.V.; Mustyatsa, V.N.; Goeva, L.V.; Polyakova, I.N.; Votinova, N.A.; Zhizhin, K.Yu.; Kuznetsov, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    Cu(I) Complexes with closo-dodecaborate anion Cat[CuB 12 H 12 ], where Cat= Cs + , Ph 4 P + , Ph 4 As + , R x NH 4-x + (R=Me, Et, Pr, Bu, X=3-4) are synthesized. Synthesis of complexes was conducted in the copper(II) salt-salt of dodecaborate anion-sulfur dioxide (sodium sulfite) system. Structure of the complex [Cu 2 (NCCH 3 ) 4 B 12 H 12 ] assigned by X-ray structural analysis discloses that B 12 H 12 2- anion enters into the inner sphere of metal-complexing agent, and connection of closo-borate ligand with the metal is caused by the formation of three-centric metal-hydrogen-boron bonds [ru

  18. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria - An amazing defence tool against hyperosmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTrono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about fifteen years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP. Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous and tissues/organs (etiolated and green have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane towards the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ, the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate

  19. Unusual structures of MgF5- superhalogen anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    The vertical electron detachment energies (VDE) of three MgF5- anions were calculated at the outer valence Green function level with the 6-311 + G(3df) basis sets. This species was found to form unusual geometrical structures each of which corresponds to an anionic state exhibiting superhalogen nature. The global minimum structure was described as a system in which two central magnesium atoms are linked via symmetrical triangle formed by three fluorine atoms. Extremely large electron binding energies of these anions (exceeding 8.5 eV in all cases) were predicted and discussed.

  20. Regulation of organic anion transport in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM

    1997-01-01

    In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter

  1. Impact of the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor on airway microbiota in cystic fibrosis patients carrying a G551D mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Bernarde

    Full Text Available Airway microbiota composition has been clearly correlated with many pulmonary diseases, and notably with cystic fibrosis (CF, an autosomal genetic disorder caused by mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Recently, a new molecule, ivacaftor, has been shown to re-establish the functionality of the G551D-mutated CFTR, allowing significant improvement in lung function.The purpose of this study was to follow the evolution of the airway microbiota in CF patients treated with ivacaftor, using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, in order to identify quantitative and qualitative changes in bacterial communities. Three G551D children were followed up longitudinally over a mean period of more than one year covering several months before and after initiation of ivacaftor treatment.129 operational taxonomy units (OTUs, representing 64 genera, were identified. There was no significant difference in total bacterial load before and after treatment. Comparison of global community composition found no significant changes in microbiota. Two OTUs, however, showed contrasting dynamics: after initiation of ivacaftor, the relative abundance of the anaerobe Porphyromonas 1 increased (p<0.01 and that of Streptococcus 1 (S. mitis group decreased (p<0.05, possibly in relation to the anti-Gram-positive properties of ivacaftor. The anaerobe Prevotella 2 correlated positively with the pulmonary function test FEV-1 (r=0.73, p<0.05. The study confirmed the presumed positive role of anaerobes in lung function.Several airway microbiota components, notably anaerobes (obligate or facultative anaerobes, could be valuable biomarkers of lung function improvement under ivacaftor, and could shed light on the pathophysiology of lung disease in CF patients.

  2. An unusual mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based 3D framework with 24-membered macrocycles as linker units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Haijun; Ma Huiyuan; Yu Yan; Yang Ming; Xun Ye; Liu Bo

    2012-01-01

    A new compound, [Cu I (H 2 O)(Hbpp) 2 ]⊂{[Cu I (bpp)] 2 [PW 11 Cu II O 39 ]} (1) (bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, the unusual –A–B–A–B– array mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains and 24-membered (Cubpp) 2 cation-macrocycles are linked together to form a (2, 4) connected 3D framework with channels of ca. 9.784×7.771 Å 2 along two directions, in which the [Cu(H 2 O)(Hbpp) 2 ] coordination fragments as guest components are trapped. The photocatalytic experiments of compound 1 were performed, which show a good catalytic activity of compound 1 for photodegradation of RhB. Furthermore, the IR, TGA and electrochemical properties of compound 1 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: An unusual example of mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based hybrid compound that possesses a 3D structure has been synthesized, which offers a feasible route for synthesis of such compounds. Highlights: ► The first example of –A–B–A–B– array mono-substituted Keggin chain is observed. ► An unusual three dimensional structure based mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains. ► The photocatalysis and electrochemical properties of the title compound were studied.

  3. Experimental evidence for interactions between anions and electron-deficient aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Johnson, Darren W

    2009-06-14

    This feature article summarizes our research aimed at using electron-deficient aromatic rings to bind anions in the context of complementary research in this active field. Particular attention is paid to the different types of interactions exhibited between anions and electron-deficient arenes in solution. The 120+ references cited in this article underscore the flurry of recent activity by numerous researchers in this field, which was relatively nascent when our efforts began in 2005. While the interaction of anions with electron-deficient aromatic rings has recently garnered much attention by supramolecular chemists, the observation of these interactions is not a recent discovery. Therefore, we begin with a historical perspective on early examples of anions interacting with electron-deficient arenes. An introduction to recent (and not so recent) computational investigations concerning anions and electron-deficient aromatic rings as well as a brief structural survey of crystalline examples of this interaction are provided. Finally, the limited solution-based observations of anions interacting with electron-deficient aromatic rings are summarized to introduce our current investigations in this area. We highlight three different systems from our lab where anion-arene interactions have been investigated. First, we show that tandem hydrogen bonds and anion-arene interactions augment halide binding in solution. Second, a crystallographic and computational study highlights the multiple types of interactions possible between anions and electron-deficient arenes. Third, we summarize the first example of a class of designed receptors that emphasize the different types of anion-arene interactions possible in solution.

  4. Preparation of Cationic MOFs with Mobile Anions by Anion Stripping to Remove 2,4-D from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A cationic porous framework with mobile anions (MIL-101(Cr-Cl was easily and successfully synthesized by utilizing the stronger affinity of F− to Al3+ than Cr3+ in the charge-balanced framework of MIL-101(Cr. The structure, morphology and porosity of MIL-101(Cr-Cl were characterized. The obtained new materials retain the high surface area, good thermostability, and structure topology of MIL-101(Cr. With the mobile Cl− anion, MIL-101(Cr-Cl can be used as an ion-exchange material for anionic organic pollutions. In this work, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D was used as a model to test the absorption performance of this new material. This new material exhibited improved adsorbability compared to that of the original metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. At the same time, this material also shows high anti-interference performance with changing solution pH.

  5. Dissociative electron attachment to DNA-diamine thin films: Impact of the DNA close environment on the OH{sup −} and O{sup −} decay channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Mavon, Christophe [UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Rayonnements – Alain Chambaudet, LRC CEA, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon cedex (France); Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Département de Médecine Nucléaire et de Radiobiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2013-08-07

    We measure the desorption of anions stimulated by the impact of 0–20 eV electrons on highly uniform thin films of plasmid DNA-diaminopropane. The results are accurately correlated with film thickness and composition by AFM and XPS measurements, respectively. Resonant structures in the H{sup −}, O{sup −}, and OH{sup −} yield functions are attributed to the decay of transient anions into the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) channel. The diamine induces ammonium-phosphate bridges along the DNA backbone, which suppresses the DEA O{sup −} channel and in counter-part increases considerably the desorption of OH{sup −}. The close environment of the phosphate groups may therefore play an important role in modulating the rate and type of DNA damages induced by low energy electrons.

  6. Novel Fragmentation Pathways of Anionic Adducts of Steroids Formed by Electrospray Anion Attachment Involving Regioselective Attachment, Regiospecific Decompositions, Charge-Induced Pathways, and Ion-Dipole Complex Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannulu, Nalaka S.; Cole, Richard B.

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of several bifunctional neutral steroids, 5-α-pregnane diol (5-α-pregnane-3α-20βdiol), estradiol (3,17α-dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratriene), progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione), lupeol (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene), pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one), and pregnenolone acetate (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one acetate) was accomplished by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) employing adduct formation with various anions: fluoride, bicarbonate, acetate, and chloride. Fluoride yielded higher abundances of anionic adducts and more substantial abundances of deprotonated molecules compared with other investigated anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor [M + anion]- adducts of these steroids revealed that fluoride adduct [M + F]- precursors first lose HF to produce [M - H]- and then undergo consecutive decompositions to yield higher abundances of structurally-informative product ions than the other tested anions. In addition to charge-remote fragmentations, the majority of CID pathways of estradiol are deduced to occur via charge-induced fragmentation. Most interestingly, certain anions exhibit preferential attachment to a specific site on these bifunctional steroid molecules, which we are calling "regioselective anion attachment." Regioselective anion attachment is evidenced by subsequent regiospecific decomposition. Regioselective attachment of fluoride (and acetate) anions to low (and moderate) acidity functional groups of pregnenolone, respectively, is demonstrated using deuterated compounds. Moreover, the formation of unique intermediate ion-dipole complexes leading to novel fragmentation pathways of fluoride adducts of pregnenolone acetate, and bicarbonate adducts of d4-pregnenolone, are also discussed.

  7. Clinical expression of patients with the D1152H CFTR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Vito; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cirilli, Natalia; Colombo, Carla; Corti, Fabiola; Cresta, Federico; D'Adda, Alice; Lucarelli, Marco; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Macchiaroli, Annamaria; Madarena, Elisa; Padoan, Rita; Quattrucci, Serena; Salvatore, Donatello; Zarrilli, Federica; Raia, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Discordant results were reported on the clinical expression of subjects bearing the D1152H CFTR mutation, and also for the small number of cases reported so far. A retrospective review of clinical, genetic and biochemical data was performed from individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for the D1152H mutation followed in 12 Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) centers. 89 subjects carrying at least D1152H on one allele were identified. 7 homozygous patients had very mild clinical expression. Over half of the 74 subjects compound heterozygous for D1152H and a I-II-III class mutation had borderline or pathological sweat test and respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms; one third had pulmonary bacteria colonization and 10/74 cases had complications (i.e. diabetes, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and hemoptysis). However, their clinical expression was less severe as compared to a group of CF patients homozygous for the F508del mutation. Finally, 8 subjects compound heterozygous for D1152H and a IV-V class mutation showed very mild disease. The natural history of subjects bearing the D1152H mutation is widely heterogeneous and is influenced by the mutation in trans. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diffuse neutron scattering from anion-excess strontium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Clausen, K.N.; Fåk, B.

    1992-01-01

    The defect structure and diffusional processes have been studied in the anion-excess fluorite (Sr, Y)Cl2.03 by diffuse neutron scattering techniques. Static cuboctahedral clusters found at ambient temperature break up at temperatures below 1050 K, where the anion disorder is highly dynamic. The a...

  9. Anion binding by biotin[6]uril in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke; Nielsen, Bjarne Enrico; Milhøj, Birgitte Olai

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we show that the newly discovered 6 + 6 biotin-formaldehyde macrocycle Biotin[6]uril binds a variety of anionic guest molecules in water. We discuss how and why the anions are bound based on data obtained using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, isothermal titration...

  10. Role of Anions Associated with the Formation and Properties of Silver Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan-Ming; Lin, Yu-Mei; Liu, Kuan-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Metal clusters have been very attractive due to their aesthetic structures and fascinating properties. Different from nanoparticles, each cluster of a macroscopic sample has a well-defined structure with identical composition, size, and shape. As the disadvantages of polydispersity are ruled out, informative structure-property relationships of metal clusters can be established. The formation of a high-nuclearity metal cluster involves the organization of metal ions into a complex entity in an ordered way. To achieve controllable preparation of metal clusters, it is helpful to introduce a directing agent in the formation process of a cluster. To this end, anion templates have been used to direct the formation of high nuclearity clusters. In this Account, the role of anions played in the formation of a variety of silver clusters has been reviewed. Silver ions are positively charged, so anionic species could be utilized to control the formation of silver clusters on the basis of electrostatic interactions, and the size and shape of the resulted clusters can be dictated by the templating anions. In addition, since the anion is an integral component in the silver clusters described, the physical properties of the clusters can be modulated by functional anions. The templating effects of simple inorganic anions and polyoxometales are shown in silver alkynyl clusters and silver thiolate clusters. Intercluster compounds are also described regarding the importance of anions in determining the packing of the ion pairs and making contribution to electron communications between the positive and negative counterparts. The role of the anions is threefold: (a) an anion is advantageous in stabilizing a cluster via balancing local positive charges of the metal cations; (b) an anion template could help control the size and shape of a cluster product; (c) an anion can be a key factor in influencing the function of a cluster through bringing in its intrinsic properties. Properties

  11. Indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions electrophoretically separated in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítová, Lada; Fojt, Lukáš; Vespalec, Radim

    2014-04-18

    3,5-Dinitrobenzoate and picrate are light absorbing anions pertinent to indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions in buffered methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs). Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and morpholine have been used as buffering bases, which eliminated baseline steps, and minimized the baseline noise. In methanolic BGEs, mobilities of boron cluster anions depend on both ionic constituents of the BGE buffer. This dependence can be explained by ion pair interaction of detected anions with BGE cations, which are not bonded into ion pairs with the BGE anions. The former ion pair interaction decreases sensitivity of the indirect photometric detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiative capture reactions and spectroscopy of multipolar anions in the framework of Gamow Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossez, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Small open quantum systems, whose properties are profoundly affected by the environment of continuum states, are intensely studied in various fields of Physics: nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, etc. These different many-body systems, in spite of their specific features, have generic properties which are common to all weakly bound or unbound systems close to the threshold. Coupling to the continuum is essential to describe the low-energy nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest, the formation of halo states in nuclei, atomic clusters and dipolar anions, or the near-threshold two neutron and alpha particle correlations (clustering). Recently, the open quantum system extension of the nuclear shell model, the Gamow shell model (GSM), based on the Berggren ensemble, has been applied successfully for the description of resonant states spectra in atomic nuclei. The coupled-channel formulation of the GSM (GSM-CC) allows to describe various low-energy nuclear reactions. In this work, the GSM-CC is formulated and applied for the description of proton/neutron radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest, such as: 17 F(p, γ) 18 Ne, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B and 7 Li(n, γ) 8 Li. Moreover, for the first time, the GSM has been applied in atomic physics for the description of spectra of dipolar anions. Systematic investigation of the hydrogen cyanide dipolar anion (HCN - ) allowed to identify the collective bands of states both in the strong coupling regime, for weakly bound halo states, and in the weak coupling regime above the dissociation threshold. In the strong coupling regime, K J = 0 anion a rotational band has been found. Above the threshold, K J quantum number is not conserved. Resonances in this regime form rotational bands according to the angular momentum of the rotating molecule, whereas the band head energies and the lifetimes depend predominantly on the external electron wave function. (author) [fr

  13. Anion analysis in uranium more concentrates by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaut, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present exploratory study, the applicability of anionic impurities or attributing nuclear material to a certain chemical process or origin has been investigated. Anions (e.g., nitrate, sulphate, fluoride, chloride) originate from acids or salt solutions that are used for processing of solutions containing uranium or plutonium. The study focuses on uranium ore concentrates ('yellow cakes') originating from different mines. Uranium is mined from different types of ore body and depending on the type of rock, different chemical processes for leaching, dissolving and precipitating the uranium need to be applied. Consequently, the anionic patterns observed in he products of these processes (the 'ore concentrates') are different. The concentrations of different anionic species were measured by ion chromatography using conductivity detection. The results show clear differences of anion concentrations and patterns between samples from different uranium mines. Besides this, differences between sampling campaigns n a same mine were also observed indicating that the uranium ore is not homogeneous in a mine. These within-mine variations, however, were smaller than the between-mine variations. (author)

  14. Separation of transfer ribonucleic acids on polystyrene anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.P.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.

    1976-11-16

    The transfer RNA separation by chromatography on strong-base-polystyrene exchange materials is examined and compared with the widely used reversed-phase chromatography. Results indicate important differences in some transfer RNA (tRNA) elution patterns by the anion-exchange chromatography, as compared with the reversed-phase chromatography. Transfer RNAs containing hydrophobic groups are adsorbed more strongly. The anion exchanger has twice the number of theoretical plates. Single peaks of tRNA/sub 2//sup Glu/ and tRNA/sub 1//sup Phe/ obtained from the reversed-phase column give multiple peaks on polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography. All six leucine tRNAs (Escherichia coli) and differences in tRNA populations synthesized during early and late stages of the dividing lymphocytes from normal human blood can be characterized by the anion-exchange chromatography. Different separation profiles are obtained by two separation systems for tyrosine tRNAs from mouse liver and mouse-plasma-cell tumor. The results indicate that, in contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, strong-base-polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography is capable of separating tRNAs with minor structural differences.

  15. Exterior Site Occupancy Infers Chloride-Induced Proton Gating in a Prokaryotic Homolog of the ClC Chloride Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, David L.; Berkowitz, Max L.

    2004-01-01

    The ClC family of anion channels mediates the efficient, selective permeation of Cl− across the biological membranes of living cells under the driving force of an electrochemical gradient. In some eukaryotes, these channels are known to exhibit a unique gating mechanism, which appears to be triggered by the permeant Cl− anion. We infer details of this gating mechanism by studying the free energetics of Cl− occupancy in the pore of a prokaryotic ClC homolog. These free energetics were gleaned from 30 ns of molecular dynamics simulation on an ∼133,000-atom system consisting of a hydrated membrane embedded StClC transporter. The binding sites for Cl− in the transporter were determined for the cases where the putative gating residue, Glu148, was protonated and unprotonated. When the glutamate gate is protonated, Cl− favorably occupies an exterior site, Sext, to form a queue of anions in the pore. However, when the glutamate gate is unprotonated, Cl− cannot occupy this site nor, consequently, pass through the pore. An additional, previously undetected, site was found in the pore near the outer membrane that exists regardless of the protonation state of Glu148. Although this suggests that, for the prokaryotic homolog, protonation of Glu148 may be the first step in transporting Cl− at the expense of H+ transport in the opposite direction, an evolutionary argument might suggest that Cl− opens the ClC gate in eukaryotic channels by inducing the conserved glutamate's protonation. During an additional 20 ns free dynamics simulation, the newly discovered outermost site, Sout, and the innermost site, Sint, were seen to allow spontaneous exchange of Cl− ions with the bulk electrolyte while under depolarization conditions. PMID:15345547

  16. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  17. Growth and Filling Regularities of Filamentary Channels in Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings Under Anodic Oxidation of Valve Metals. Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical models are developed for growth and filling processes in filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings produced by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. Graphical concentration distributions are obtained for channel-reacting anions, cations, and sparingly soluble reaction products depending on the time of electric current transmission and the length of the filamentary channel. Graphical distributions of the front moving velocity for the sparingly soluble compound are presented. The resulting model representation increases the understanding of the anodic process nature and can be used for a description and prediction of porous anodic film growth and filling. It is shown that the character of the filamentary channel growth and filling causes a variety of processes determining the textured metal - nonmetallic inorganic coating phase boundary formation.

  18. Formation of interstellar anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Maria Luisa

    2012-05-01

    Formation of interstellar anions: M.L. Senent. The recent detection of negative charged species in the ISM1 has instigated enthusiasm for anions in the astrophysical community2. Many of these species are new and entail characterization. How they are formed in astrophysical sources is a question of major relevance. The anion presence in ISM was first predicted theoretically on the basis of electron affinities and on the negative linear chain molecular stabilities. Although very early, they were considered in astrochemical models3-4, their discovery is so recent because their abundances seem to be relatively low. These have to be understood in terms of molecular stabilities, reaction probabilities and radiative and collisional excitations. Then, we present our theoretical work on even carbon chains type Cn and CnH (n=2,4,6) focused to the understanding of anion abundances. We use highly correlated ab initio methods. We performed spectroscopic studies of various isomers that can play important roles as intermediates5-8. In previous papers9-10, we compared C2H and C2H- collisional rates responsible for observed line intensities. Actually, we study hydrogen attachment (Cn +H → CnH and Cn- +H → CnH-) and associative detachment processes (Cn- +H → CnH +e-) for 2, 4 and 6 carbon atom chains11. [1] M.C.McCarthy, C.A.Gottlieb, H.Gupta, P.Thaddeus, Astrophys.J, 652, L141 (2006) [2] V.M.Bierbaum, J.Cernicharo, R.Bachiller, eds., 2011, pp 383-389. [3] A. Dalgarno, R.A. Mc Cray, Astrophys.J,, 181, 95 (1973) [4] E. Herbst E., Nature, 289, 656 (1981); [5] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, P.Rosmus, M.Hochlaf, J.Chem.Phys., 124, 234304 (2006) [6] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, Astrophys. J. , 708, 1452(2010) [7] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, J.Phys.Chem.A, 113, 12404 (2009) [8] D. Hammoutene, M.Hochlaf, M.L.Senent, submitted. [9] A. Spielfiedel, N. Feautrier, F. Najar, D. ben Abdallah, F. Dayou, M.L. Senent, F. Lique, Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc., 421, 1891 (2012) [10] F.Dumouchel, A, Spielfieldel , M

  19. The triel bond: a potential force for tuning anion-π interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Mousavian, Parisasadat

    2018-02-01

    Using ab-initio calculations, the mutual influence between anion-π and B···N or B···C triel bond interactions is investigated in some model complexes. The properties of these complexes are studied by molecular electrostatic potential, noncovalent interaction index, quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses. According to the results, the formation of B···N or B···C triel bond interactions in the multi-component systems makes a significant shortening of anion-π distance. Such remarkable variation in the anion-π distances has not been reported previously. The strengthening of the anion-π bonding in the multi-component systems depend significantly on the nature of the anion, and it becomes larger in the order Br- > Cl- > F-. The parameters derived from the QTAIM and NBO methodologies are used to study the mechanism of the cooperativity between the anion-π and triel bond interactions in the multi-component complexes.

  20. Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Center for Complex Molecular Systems and Biomolecules, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mikael.lund@uochb.cas.cz

    2008-12-10

    We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions are attracted to non-polar residues due to several solvent assisted mechanisms. Incorporating ion and surface specificity into a mesoscopic model for protein-protein interactions we calculate the free energy of interaction between lysozyme molecules in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. In agreement with experiment, our finding is that 'salting out' follows the reverse Hofmeister series for pH below the iso-electric point and the direct series for pH above pI.

  1. New borohydride anion B6H7-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Vinitskij, D.M.; Solntsev, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The [Ni(Bipy) 3 ] (B 6 H 7 ) 2 , (Ph 4 P)B 6 H 7 , [Ni(Phen) 3 ](B 6 H 7 ) 2 crystals (where Bipy = bipyridine, Phen = phenathroline, Ph = phenyl) are obtained via the exchange reaction with a subsequent recrystallization from aqua-acetonic and acetonic solutions. The structure is studied of a new borohydride anion B 6 H 7 - possessing a four-valence bond unique for polyhedral borohydride anions. A triangular face of boride skeleton coordinating a hydrogen atom is considerably larger than other faces, and the electron density on this hydrogen atom is evidently much higher than at the end hydride hydrogen atoms. The trend of B 6 H 7 - anion to form statistically disordered structurs testifies to a rather slight effect of the seventh hydrogen atom position on the structure pattern of the ionic crystal lattice

  2. Reducing nitrogen crossover in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells by using adjacent anion exchange membranes and anion exchange resin

    KAUST Repository

    Wallack, Maxwell J.; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial reverse electrodialysis cells (MRECs) combine power generation from salinity gradient energy using reverse electrodialysis (RED), with power generation from organic matter using a microbial fuel cell. Waste heat can be used to distill ammonium bicarbonate into high (HC) and low salt concentration (LC) solutions for use in the RED stack, but nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber must be minimized to avoid ammonia loses, and foster a healthy microbial community. To reduce nitrogen crossover, an additional low concentration (LC) chamber was inserted before the anode using an additional anion exchange membrane (AEM) next to another AEM, and filled with different amounts of anion or cation ion exchange resins. Addition of the extra AEM increased the ohmic resistance of the test RED stack from 103 Ω cm2 (1 AEM) to 295 Ω cm2 (2 AEMs). However, the use of the anion exchange resin decreased the solution resistance of the LC chamber by 74% (637 Ω cm2, no resin; 166 Ω cm2 with resin). Nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber was reduced by up to 97% using 50% of the chamber filled with an anion exchange resin compared to the control (no additional chamber). The added resistance contributed by the use of the additional LC chamber could be compensated for by using additional LC and HC membrane pairs in the RED stack.

  3. Anion induced conformational preference of Cα NN motif residues in functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Mahua; Banerjee, Raja; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb

    2017-12-01

    Among different ligand binding motifs, anion binding C α NN motif consisting of peptide backbone atoms of three consecutive residues are observed to be important for recognition of free anions, like sulphate or biphosphate and participate in different key functions. Here we study the interaction of sulphate and biphosphate with C α NN motif present in different proteins. Instead of total protein, a peptide fragment has been studied keeping C α NN motif flanked in between other residues. We use classical force field based molecular dynamics simulations to understand the stability of this motif. Our data indicate fluctuations in conformational preferences of the motif residues in absence of the anion. The anion gives stability to one of these conformations. However, the anion induced conformational preferences are highly sequence dependent and specific to the type of anion. In particular, the polar residues are more favourable compared to the other residues for recognising the anion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. REACTIVITY OF ANIONS IN INTERSTELLAR MEDIA: DETECTABILITY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Quimica y Fisica Teoricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Universite Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2013-05-01

    We propose a general rule to distinguish between detectable and undetectable astronomical anions. We believe that only few anions live long enough in the interstellar medium and thus can be detected. Our method is based on quantum mechanical calculations capable of describing accurately the evolution of electronic states during chemical processes. The still not fully understood reactivity at low temperatures is discussed considering non-adiabatic effects. The role of excited states has usually been neglected in previous works which basically focused on the ground electronic state for interpretations of experimental observations. Here, we deal with unsaturated carbon chains (e.g., C{sub n} H{sup -}), which show a high density of electronic states close to their corresponding ground electronic states, complex molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic phenomena. Our general rule shows that it is not sufficient that anions exist in the gas phase (in the laboratory) to be present in media such as astrophysical media, since formation and decomposition reactions of these anions may allow the population of anionic electronic states to autodetach, forming neutrals. For C{sub n} H, reactivity depends strongly on n, where long and short chains behave differently. Formation of linear chains is relevant.

  5. A colorimetric tetrathiafulvalene-calix 4 pyrrole anion sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and colorimetric sensing properties of a tetrathiafulvalene substituted calix[4]pyrrole sensor with anions were investigated using H-1 NMR and absorption spectroscopic techniques. Visual color changes were observed upon addition of different anions (Cl-, Br-, CN-, and Ac......O-) to a solution of the sensor. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  7. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization reactor, it is the best way to avoid any termination of living polymers during the number of steps for the synthesis of polymers with complex structure. In this chapter, we describe the different polymerization reactors and HVTs for the purification of monomers, solvents, and other reagents for anionic polymerization as well as few model reactions for the synthesis of polymers with simple to complex structure.

  8. Effect of chemical retention on anionic species diffusion in compacted clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazer-Bachi, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    Anionic radioisotopes are of particular importance within the framework of the calculated health risk associated with high-level and long-lived intermediate-level underground radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, the objective of this work is the construction of a transport model coupled with chemistry in order to quantify the behaviour of anionic solutes in the Callovo-Oxfordian (CO_x) argillite, the argillaceous host rock of the ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory. An experimental methodology was defined to characterize this migration, several experimental methods being implemented: batch experiments, laboratory columns and through-diffusion cells. The study of the diffusion of the non-sorbing anionic tracer "3"6Cl"- highlighted the fact that, due to anionic exclusion, anions only had access to a part of the porosity. The retention of "3"5SO_4"2"- and "1"2"5I- on CO_x argillite was then characterized, quantified by batch experiments and confirmed by other experimental methods. Nevertheless, their migration was less retarded than expected by a model based on batch experiments and on "3"6Cl"- diffusive data. This difference was explained by anion exclusion which reduced sorption site accessibility. Thus, the intensity of this phenomenon has to be considered to model anion migration in compacted clays. (author) [fr

  9. Derivatives of Dodecahalo-Closo-Dodecaborate Di-Anion

    OpenAIRE

    Avelar, Amy Cindy

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONDerivatives of the Dodecahalo-Closo-Dodecaborate Di-AnionbyAmy AvelarDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in ChemistryUniversity of California, Riverside, December 2009Dr. Christopher A. Reed, ChairpersonThe di-anion, dodecahalo-closo-dodecaborate, B12X122-, where the X = Cl or Br, has been determined to be a useful weakly coordinating anion, WCA. Despite the di- negative charge, several elusive and reactive cationic species were stabilized with B12X122- as the c...

  10. Determination of Anionic Detergent Concentration of Karasu Stream in Sinop (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gündoğdu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was achieved between May 2014 and April 2015 at the Karasu Creek located in the province of Sinop. It was conducted to determine anionic detergent pollution and some physicochemical properties (pH, temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate PO4-3, total nitrogen. The anionic detergent concentration of the stations was determined on a monthly basis. Seasonally averaged values of the anionic detergent was measured as the highest value in the autumn season. The lowest values of anionic detergent were found in stations in winter and spring. The increase in the concentration of anionic detergent is caused by population growth in residential areas, increased agricultural activities and rains, and that chemicals move to riverbed from terrestrial areas with rain water.

  11. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju [Dept. of Chemistry, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN{sup -} selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation.

  12. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN"- selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation

  13. Diminished self-chaperoning activity of the DeltaF508 mutant of CFTR results in protein misfolding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W R Serohijos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a functional ATP Binding Cassette (ABC protein called the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR from apical membranes of epithelial cells is responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF. Over 90% of CF patients carry at least one mutant allele with deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 located in the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD1. Biochemical and cell biological studies show that the DeltaF508 mutant exhibits inefficient biosynthetic maturation and susceptibility to degradation probably due to misfolding of NBD1 and the resultant misassembly of other domains. However, little is known about the direct effect of the Phe508 deletion on the NBD1 folding, which is essential for rational design strategies of cystic fibrosis treatment. Here we show that the deletion of Phe508 alters the folding dynamics and kinetics of NBD1, thus possibly affecting the assembly of the complete CFTR. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we find that meta-stable intermediate states appearing on wild type and mutant folding pathways are populated differently and that their kinetic accessibilities are distinct. The structural basis of the increased misfolding propensity of the DeltaF508 NBD1 mutant is the perturbation of interactions in residue pairs Q493/P574 and F575/F578 found in loop S7-H6. As a proof-of-principle that the S7-H6 loop conformation can modulate the folding kinetics of NBD1, we virtually design rescue mutations in the identified critical interactions to force the S7-H6 loop into the wild type conformation. Two redesigned NBD1-DeltaF508 variants exhibited significantly higher folding probabilities than the original NBD1-DeltaF508, thereby partially rescuing folding ability of the NBD1-DeltaF508 mutant. We propose that these observed defects in folding kinetics of mutant NBD1 may also be modulated by structures separate from the 508 site. The identified structural determinants of increased misfolding propensity of

  14. AT base pair anions versus (9-methyl-A)(1-methyl-T) base pair anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H; Dabkowska, Iwona; Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej

    2005-05-04

    The anionic base pairs of adenine and thymine, (AT)(-), and 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine, (MAMT)(-), have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in a complementary, synergistic study. Calculations on (AT)(-) found that it had undergone a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) similar to that seen in other dimer anion systems and that its structural configuration was neither Watson-Crick (WC) nor Hoogsteen (HS). The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of (AT)(-) was determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with the VDE value predicted by theory for the BFPT mechanism. An AT pair in DNA is structurally immobilized into the WC configuration, in part, by being bonded to the sugars of the double helix. This circumstance was mimicked by methylating the sites on both A and T where these sugars would have been tied, viz., 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine. Calculations found no BFPT in (MAMT)(-) and a resulting (MAMT)(-) configuration that was either HS or WC, with the configurations differing in stability by ca. 2 kcal/mol. The photoelectron spectrum of (MAMT)(-) occurred at a completely different electron binding energy than had (AT)(-). Moreover, the VDE value of (MAMT)(-) was in agreement with that predicted by theory. The configuration of (MAMT)(-) and its lack of electron-induced proton transfer are inter-related. While there may be other pathways for electron-induced DNA alterations, BFPT in the WC/HS configurations of (AT)(-) is not feasible.

  15. AT Base Pair Anions vs. (9-methyl-A)(1-methyl-T) Base Pair Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H.; Dabkowska, Iwona; Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2005-01-01

    The anionic base pairs of adenine and thymine, (AT)-, and 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine, (MAMT)-, have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in a complementary, synergistic study. Calculations on (AT)- found that it had undergone a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) similar to that seen in other dimer anion systems and that its structural configuration that was neither Watson-Crick (WC) nor Hoogsteen (HS). The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of (AT)- was determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with the VDE value predicted by theory for the BFPT mechanism. An AT pair in DNA is structurally immobilized into the WC configuration, in part, by being bonded to the sugars of the double helix. This circumstance was mimicked by methylating the sites on both A and T where these sugars would have been tied, viz., 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine. Calculations found no BFPT in (MAMT)- and a resulting (MAMT)- configuration that wa s either HS or WC, with the configurations differing in stability by ca. 2 kcal/mol. The photoelectron spectrum of (MAMT)- occurred at a completely different electron binding energy than had (AT)-. Moreover, the VDE value of (MAMT)- was in agreement with that predicted by theory. The configuration of (MAMT)- and its lack of electron-induced proton transfer are inter-related. While there may be other pathways for electron-induced damage, BFPT in the WC/HS configurations of (AT)- is not feasible

  16. Identification of inorganic anions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayanagi, Masataka; Yamada, Yaeko; Sakabe, Chikako; Watanabe, Kunio; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2006-03-10

    Inorganic anions were identified by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Derivatization of the anions was achieved with pentafluorobenzyl p-toluenesulphonate (PFB-Tos) as the reaction reagent and a crown ether as a phase transfer catalyst. When PFB-Br was used as the reaction reagent, the retention time of it was close to those of the derivatized inorganic anions and interfered with the analysis. In contrast, the retention time of PFB-Tos differed greatly from the PFB derivatives of the inorganic anions and the compounds of interest could be detected without interference. Although the PFB derivatives of SO4, S2O3, CO3, ClO4, and ClO3 could not be detected, the derivatives of F, Cl, Br, I, CN, OCN, SCN, N3, NO3, and NO2 were detected using PFB-Tos as the derivatizing reagent. The inorganic anions were detectable within 30 ng approximately, which is of sufficient sensitivity for use in forensic chemistry. Accurate mass number was measured for each PFB derivative by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) within a measurement error of 2 millimass units (mmu), which allowed determination of the compositional formula from the mass number. In addition, actual analysis was performed successively by our method using trial samples of matrix.

  17. Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Objective: To determine the relationship of mortality to plasma osmolality and anion gap inpatients on haemodialysis.

  18. Investigation of Electrochemical and Morphological Properties of Mixed Matrix Polysulfone-Silica Anion Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed matrix anion exchange membranes (AEMs were synthesized using dry-wet phase inversion. The casting solutions were prepared by dispersing finely ground anion-exchange resin particles in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc solutions of polysulfone (PSf. Subsequently, nanosilica particles were introduced into the membranes. The results show that evaporation time (tev and solution composition contributed to membrane properties formation. A longer tev produces membranes with reduced void fraction inside the membranes, thus the amount of water adsorbed and membrane conductivity are reduced. Meanwhile, the permselectivity was improved by increasing tev, since a longer tev produces membranes with a narrower channel for ion migration and more effective Donnan exclusion. The incorporation of 0.5 %-wt nanosilica particles into the polymer matrix led to conductivity improvement (from 2.27 to 3.41 mS.cm-1. This may be associated with additional pathway formation by hydroxyl groups on the silica surface that entraps water and assists ion migration. However, at further silica loading (1.0 and 1.5 %-wt, these properties decreased (to 1.9 and 1.4 mS.cm-1 respectively, which attributed to inaccessibility of ion-exchange functional groups due to membrane compactness. It was found from the results that nanosilica contributes to membrane formation (increases casting solution viscosity then reduces void fraction and membrane functional group addition (provides hydroxyl groups.

  19. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Hefeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands

  20. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  1. Mutations in CFTR gene and clinical correlation in Argentine patients with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens Correlación de las características clínicas con mutaciones del gen CFTR en pacientes argentinos con ausencia bilateral congénita de vasos deferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella M Levy

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD is a form of male infertility in which mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene have been identified. Here we identify different mutations of CFTR and the poly-T variant of intron 8 (IVS8 in Argentine patients and analyze sweat test values and clinical characteristic related to Cystic Fibrosis (CF. For counseling purposes the two most frequent mutations in Argentine CF population: DF508 and G542X were screened in wives. In all cases, it was possible to reduce the risk of CF/CBAVD descendants in these couples because none of the mutation were found in the 36 samples. Eight patients (23% showed abnormal chloride values (> 60 mmol/l. A second group of 6 patients (18% had borderline values of sweat chloride (40-59 mmol/l. We defined another group with 6 patients (18%, with normal sweat chloride levels (30-39 mmo/l and a fourth group of 14 (41% patients with sweat chloride below 30 mmol/l. DF508, the most frequent CF mutation in the Argentine population, was found on 15 of the 72 chromosomes (21%, R117H mutation was detected on 2 of 62 chromosomes (3%. Only one R347P allele was found on 28 chromosomes analyzed (2%. On a sample of 27 patients, IVS8 analysis showed a frequency of 6/56 chromosomes (11% of 5T allele. Even though these findings present an improvement in the detection of mutations related to clinical correlations in Argentine CBAVD population, the search for other common and uncommon mutations should be continued.La ausencia bilateral congénita de vasos deferentes (CBAVD es una forma de infertilidad masculina en la que se han identificado mutaciones en el gen de la conductancia transmembrana de la fibrosis quística (CFTR. Hemos estudiado en pacientes argentinos diferentes mutaciones en el CFTR y la variante poli T del intron 8 (IVS8 y analizado los valores de test del sudor y las características clínicas relacionadas a la Fibrosis Qu

  2. Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Elshani, S.; Zhao, W.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of K d values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins

  3. Zinc-dependent multi-conductance channel activity in mitochondria isolated from ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Laura; Chachar, Mushtaque; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Li, Hongmei; Jones, Adrienne; Yokota, Hidenori; Ofengeim, Dimitry; Flannery, Richard J; Miyawaki, Takahiro; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Polster, Brian M; Pypaert, Marc; Hardwick, J Marie; Sensi, Stefano L; Zukin, R Suzanne; Jonas, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-21

    Transient global ischemia is a neuronal insult that induces delayed cell death. A hallmark event in the early post-ischemic period is enhanced permeability of mitochondrial membranes. The precise mechanisms by which mitochondrial function is disrupted are, as yet, unclear. Here we show that global ischemia promotes alterations in mitochondrial membrane contact points, a rise in intramitochondrial Zn2+, and activation of large, multi-conductance channels in mitochondrial outer membranes by 1 h after insult. Mitochondrial channel activity was associated with enhanced protease activity and proteolytic cleavage of BCL-xL to generate its pro-death counterpart, deltaN-BCL-xL. The findings implicate deltaN-BCL-xL in large, multi-conductance channel activity. Consistent with this, large channel activity was mimicked by introduction of recombinant deltaN-BCL-xL to control mitochondria and blocked by introduction of a functional BCL-xL antibody to post-ischemic mitochondria via the patch pipette. Channel activity was also inhibited by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, indicative of a role for the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In vivo administration of the membrane-impermeant Zn2+ chelator CaEDTA before ischemia or in vitro application of the membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine attenuated channel activity, suggesting a requirement for Zn2+. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which ischemic insults disrupt the functional integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane and implicate deltaN-BCL-xL and VDAC in the large, Zn2+-dependent mitochondrial channels observed in post-ischemic hippocampal mitochondria.

  4. Sorption of vanillin on highly basic anion exchanger under static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholokhova, A. Yu.; Eliseeva, T. V.; Voronyuk, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of vanillin by a granulated anion exchanger is studied under static conditions. A comparison of the kinetic curves of the uptake of hydroxybenzaldehyde by gel and macroporous anion exchanger shows that macroporous sorbent has better kinetic characteristics. The effect temperature has on the capacity of an anion exchanger and the time needed to establish sorption equilibrium is found, and the activation energy of vanillin uptake is determined. Studying the effect experimental factors have on the rate of sorption and using the formal kinetics approach, it is established that in the investigated range of concentrations, the limiting stage of the uptake of vanillin by an anion exchanger with the functional groups of a quaternary ammonium base is that of external diffusion. Vanillin sorption by a highly basic anion exchanger in hydroxyl form is characterized by polymolecular uptake best described by a BET isotherm; at the same time, the uptake of sorbate by a chloride form is of a monomolecular character and can be described by a Freindlich isotherm. Structural changes in the anion exchanger sorbed hydroxybenzaldehyde are identified via FTIR spectroscopy.

  5. Cell wall bound anionic peroxidases from asparagus byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; López, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2014-10-08

    Asparagus byproducts are a good source of cationic soluble peroxidases (CAP) useful for the bioremediation of phenol-contaminated wastewaters. In this study, cell wall bound peroxidases (POD) from the same byproducts have been purified and characterized. The covalent forms of POD represent >90% of the total cell wall bound POD. Isoelectric focusing showed that whereas the covalent fraction is constituted primarily by anionic isoenzymes, the ionic fraction is a mixture of anionic, neutral, and cationic isoenzymes. Covalently bound peroxidases were purified by means of ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. In vitro detoxification studies showed that although CAP are more effective for the removal of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, anionic asparagus peroxidase (AAP) is a better option for the removal of hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenol present in olive mill wastewaters.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrocyanides loaded on organic anion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)], E-mail: tpvalsala@yahoo.co.in; Joseph, Annie [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Shah, J.G. [Back End Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Raj, Kanwar [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Transition metal ferrocyanides have important applications in the selective removal of radioactive caesium from low level and intermediate level radioactive liquid waste streams. The microcrystalline nature of these materials renders them useless for application in column mode operations. Special preparation procedures have been developed to prepare granular solids by in situ precipitation of metal ferrocyanides on organic anion exchangers, which is suitable for column mode operations. The elemental compositions of the metal ferrocyanides precipitated inside the pores of anion exchanger were determined by analysing the dissolved samples using ICP-AES system and flame photometer. From the XRD and EDX analyses and the elemental composition of the synthesized materials, the nature of the compound formed inside the anion exchanger was found to be cobalt ferrocyanide. From SEM analysis of the samples, the particle size of the cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated inside the anion exchanger was found to be much less than that of cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated outside. The efficiency of these materials for removal of Cs was evaluated by measuring the distribution coefficient (Kd), ion exchange capacity and kinetics of Cs uptake. The Kd of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was found to be of the order of 10{sup 5} ml/g. The Cs uptake kinetics of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was slower than that of precipitated materials. The ion exchange capacity of the cobalt ferrocyanide loaded on anion exchanger was found to be much higher than that of the precipitated cobalt ferrocyanide.

  7. (100) faceted anion voids in electron irradiated fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1979-01-01

    High fluence electron irradiation of fluorite crystals in the temperature range 150 to 320 K results in formation of a simple cubic anion void superlattice. Above 320 K the damage structure changes to a random distribution of large [001] faceted anion voids. This voidage behaviour, similar to that observed in a range of irradiated metals, is discussed in terms points defect rather than conventional colour centre terminology. (Auth.)

  8. Dibromine radical anion reactions with heme enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicka, L.; Gebicki, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of Br 2 radical anion with heme enzymes, catalase horseradish peroxidase, have been studied by pulse radiolysis. It has been found that Br 2 - does not react with the heme centre of investigated enzymes. Dibromine radical anion reacts with tryptophan residues of catalase without any influence on the activity of catalase. It is suggested that in pulse radiolysis studies, where horseradish peroxidase is at about tenfold excess toward Br 2 - , the enzyme is modified rather by Br 2 , than by Br 2 - . (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  9. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  10. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  11. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  12. Migratory Insertion of Hydrogen Isocyanide in the Pentacyano(methyl)cobaltate(III) Anion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Harris, Pernille Hanne; Larsen, Sine

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of the pentacyano(iminiumacetyl)cobaltate(III) anion and its N-methyl and N,N-dimethyl derivatives is reported. The iminiumacetyl group is formed by migratory insertion of cis hydrogen isocyanide in the pentacyano(methyl)cobaltate(III) anion. The new compounds have been spectrosco......The preparation of the pentacyano(iminiumacetyl)cobaltate(III) anion and its N-methyl and N,N-dimethyl derivatives is reported. The iminiumacetyl group is formed by migratory insertion of cis hydrogen isocyanide in the pentacyano(methyl)cobaltate(III) anion. The new compounds have been...

  13. Anionic solid lipid nanoparticles supported on protamine/DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jiesheng; Liu Chunxi; Chen Zhijin; Zhang Na; Wang Aihua

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design novel anionic ternary nanoparticles for gene delivery. These ternary nanoparticles were equipped with protamine/DNA binary complexes (150-200 nm) as the support, and the anionic formation was achieved by absorption of anionic solid lipid nanoparticles (≤20 nm) onto the surface of the binary complexes. The small solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a modified film dispersion-ultrasonication method, and adsorption of the anionic SLNs onto the binary complexes was typically carried out in water via electrostatic interaction. The formulated ternary nanoparticles were found to be relatively uniform in size (257.7 ± 10.6 nm) with a 'bumpy' surface, and the surface charge inversion from 19.28 ± 1.14 mV to -17.16 ± 1.92 mV could be considered as evidence of the formation of the ternary nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity measurements from three batches of the ternary nanoparticles gave a mean adsorption efficiency of 96.75 ± 1.13%. Circular dichroism spectra analysis showed that the protamine/DNA complexes had been coated by small SLNs, and that the anionic ternary nanoparticles formed did not disturb the construction of the binary complexes. SYBR Green I analysis suggested that the ternary nanoparticles could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation, and cell viability assay results showed that they exhibit lower cytotoxicity to A549 cells compared with the binary complexes and lipofectamine. The transfection efficiency of the ternary nanoparticles was better than that of naked DNA and the binary complexes, and almost equal to that of lipofectamine/DNA complexes, as revealed by inversion fluorescence microscope observation. These results indicated that the anionic ternary nanoparticles could facilitate gene transfer in cultured cells, and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vector/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo

  14. Deciphering the mode of action of clinically relevant next generation c2 corrector compounds GLPG2737 and GLPG3221

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, F.; Sahasrabudhe, P.; Gross-Wilde, H.; Kleizen, Bertrand; Conrath, K.; Braakman, I.

    2017-01-01

    The current therapeutic strategy to repair cystic fibrosis-causing defects in the chloride channel CFTR is to develop novel and better correctors (to improve folding) and potentiators (to improve function). Galapagos- AbbVie identified C2 correctors by high-throughput compound screening and Med Chem

  15. Dynamics of anion exchange of lanthanides in aqueous-organic complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheveleva, I.V.; Bogatyrev, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on change in kinetic parameters of the anion exchange process (anion-exchange column chromatography) of r.e.e. (europium and gadolinium) in complexing nitric acid media has been studied. It is established that complex LnA 4 anion is the only sorbing form of europium and gadolinium on anionite. When the organic component content of the solution being the same, the dynamic parameters of lanthanide exchange have higher values in aqueous-acetonitrile and aqueous-acetone media in comparison with aqueous-enthanol solutions of nitric acid. Lesser mobility of complex lanthanide anions in aqueous-alcoholic solutions can be explained by stronger solvation in the presence of solvents with higher acceptor properties

  16. Formation of zeolite-like zinc 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonate open-frameworks by topotactic pillaring of anionic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takamatsu, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Miki; Kawawa, Kanako; Kondo, Atsushi

    2013-08-07

    An ab initio powder X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that layered zinc 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates containing interlayer tetramethylammonium (ZBP-TMA) or 4,4'-bipyridinium cations (ZBP-bpy) are transformed to novel isomorphous 3D open-framework compounds ZBP-M (M: K, Rb, and Cs) by treatment in aqueous alkali metal chloride solutions. ZBP-Ms have a pillared layer-type of anionic framework containing 2D zigzag channels connected with cage-like spaces. The potassium atoms in ZBP-K are located near 8MR windows in the 2D zigzag channels, and the potassium cations are successfully exchanged with ammonium cations retaining the open-framework structure. The ammonium form (ZBP-NH4) showed remarkable cation exchange selectivity for Rb(+) and Cs(+) in a mixture of alkali metal cations. It is assumed that zinc ions partially dissolved from the starting layered ZBP precursors are intercalated in ZBP layers to form pillared layered 3D open-frameworks. These results clearly show that topotactic pillared layer approaches are applicable not only to zeolite-related materials but also to novel open-framework metal organophosphonates.

  17. Research on the Microstructure and Property of an Anion Rubber Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anion rubber modified asphalt (ARMA mixture was first successfully developed with a unique process. In the development process, rubber and asphalt were mixed in the same proportion. Furthermore, the microstructure and modification mechanism of the material were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TG, and XRD tests. The mechanical property of the mixture was also tested in accordance with the relevant standards. In the end, the material’s capacity of releasing anion was measured by DLY-6A232 atmospheric ion gauge. The results indicated that the addition of anion additive into the rubber modified asphalt (RMA was a mere physical mixture, and the anion additives and rubber particles uniformly dispersed in the ARMA. The addition of anion additive could improve the thermal stability of the RMA. Compared with the traditional asphalt pavement material, the ARMA material shows excellent mechanical properties as well as the ability of releasing anion. Moreover, the material has enormous economic and social benefits by taking full advantage of a large amount of waste tires, thus improving the road surrounding environment.

  18. Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W F W; Armstrong, David K; Ashby, Deborah; Bayfield, Katie J; Bilton, Diana; Bloomfield, Emily V; Boyd, A Christopher; Brand, June; Buchan, Ruaridh; Calcedo, Roberto; Carvelli, Paula; Chan, Mario; Cheng, Seng H; Collie, D David S; Cunningham, Steve; Davidson, Heather E; Davies, Gwyneth; Davies, Jane C; Davies, Lee A; Dewar, Maria H; Doherty, Ann; Donovan, Jackie; Dwyer, Natalie S; Elgmati, Hala I; Featherstone, Rosanna F; Gavino, Jemyr; Gea-Sorli, Sabrina; Geddes, Duncan M; Gibson, James S R; Gill, Deborah R; Greening, Andrew P; Griesenbach, Uta; Hansell, David M; Harman, Katharine; Higgins, Tracy E; Hodges, Samantha L; Hyde, Stephen C; Hyndman, Laura; Innes, J Alastair; Jacob, Joseph; Jones, Nancy; Keogh, Brian F; Limberis, Maria P; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Maclean, Alan W; Manvell, Michelle C; McCormick, Dominique; McGovern, Michael; McLachlan, Gerry; Meng, Cuixiang; Montero, M Angeles; Milligan, Hazel; Moyce, Laura J; Murray, Gordon D; Nicholson, Andrew G; Osadolor, Tina; Parra-Leiton, Javier; Porteous, David J; Pringle, Ian A; Punch, Emma K; Pytel, Kamila M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Rivellini, Gina; Saunders, Clare J; Scheule, Ronald K; Sheard, Sarah; Simmonds, Nicholas J; Smith, Keith; Smith, Stephen N; Soussi, Najwa; Soussi, Samia; Spearing, Emma J; Stevenson, Barbara J; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Turkkila, Minna; Ureta, Rosa P; Waller, Michael D; Wasowicz, Marguerite Y; Wilson, James M; Wolstenholme-Hogg, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic fibrosis centres with patients recruited from 18 sites in the UK. Patients (aged ≥12 years) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50-90% predicted and any combination of CFTR mutations, were randomly assigned, via a computer-based randomisation system, to receive 5 mL of either nebulised pGM169/GL67A gene-liposome complex or 0.9% saline (placebo) every 28 days (plus or minus 5 days) for 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by % predicted FEV1 (<70 vs ≥70%), age (<18 vs ≥18 years), inclusion in the mechanistic substudy, and dosing site (London or Edinburgh). Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the relative change in % predicted FEV1. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01621867. Between June 12, 2012, and June 24, 2013, we randomly assigned 140 patients to receive placebo (n=62) or pGM169/GL67A (n=78), of whom 116 (83%) patients comprised the per-protocol population. We noted a significant, albeit modest, treatment effect in the pGM169/GL67A group versus placebo at 12 months' follow-up (3.7%, 95% CI 0.1-7.3; p=0.046). This outcome was associated with a stabilisation of lung function in the pGM169/GL67A group compared with a decline in the placebo group. We recorded no significant difference in treatment-attributable adverse events between groups. Monthly application of the pGM169/GL67A gene therapy formulation was associated with a significant, albeit modest, benefit in FEV1 compared with placebo at 1 year, indicating a stabilisation of lung function in the treatment group. Further improvements in

  19. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate, but replac......The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate...

  20. Using remote substituents to control solution structure and anion binding in lanthanide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tropiano, Manuel; Blackburn, Octavia A.; Tilney, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the anion-binding properties of three structurally related lanthanide complexes, which all contain chemically identical anion-binding motifs, has revealed dramatic differences in their anion affinity. These arise as a consequence of changes in the substitution pattern on the periphery ...

  1. Ultra-small and anionic starch nanospheres: formation and vitro thrombolytic behavior study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinjuan; Ding, Shenglong; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xinjie; Ding, Bin

    2013-07-25

    This paper is considered as the first report on the investigation of nattokinase (NK) release from anionic starch nanospheres. The ultra-small and anionic starch nanospheres were prepared by the method of reverse micro-emulsion crosslinking in this work. Starch nanospheres were characterized through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Effects of preparation conditions on particle size were studied. The cytotoxicity, biodegradable and vitro thrombolytic behaviors of nattokinase (NK) loaded anionic starch nanospheres were also studied. The results showed that the anionic starch nanospheres are non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. Moreover, the anionic starch nanospheres can protect NK from fast biodegradation hence prolongs the circulation in vivo and can reduce the risk of acute hemorrhage complication by decreasing the thrombolysis rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Wan; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    TMEM16A was found recently to be a calcium-activated Cl− channel (CaCC). CaCCs perform important functions in cell physiology, including regulation of epithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, and smooth muscle contraction. CaCC modulators are of potential utility for treatment of hypertension, diarrhea, and cystic fibrosis. Screening of drug and natural product collections identified tannic acid as an inhibitor of TMEM16A, with IC50 ∼ 6 μM and ∼100% inhibition at higher concentrations. Tannic acid inhibited CaCCs in multiple cell types but did not affect CFTR Cl− channels. Structure-activity analysis indicated the requirement of gallic or digallic acid substituents on a macromolecular scaffold (gallotannins), as are present in green tea and red wine. Other polyphenolic components of teas and wines, including epicatechin, catechin, and malvidin-3-glucoside, poorly inhibited CaCCs. Remarkably, a 1000-fold dilution of red wine and 100-fold dilution of green tea inhibited CaCCs by >50%. Tannic acid, red wine, and green tea inhibited arterial smooth muscle contraction and intestinal Cl− secretion. Gallotannins are thus potent CaCC inhibitors whose biological activity provides a potential molecular basis for the cardioprotective and antisecretory benefits of red wine and green tea.—Namkung, W., Thiagarajah, J. R., Phuan, P.-W., Verkman, A. S. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea. PMID:20581223

  3. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  4. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  5. Partitioning of hydrophobic pesticides within a soil-water-anionic surfactant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A

    2009-02-01

    Surfactants can be added to pesticide-contaminated soils to enhance the treatment efficiency of soil washing. Our results showed that pesticide (atrazine and diuron) partitioning and desorbability within a soil-water-anionic surfactant system is soil particle-size dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of anionic surfactant. Anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, LAS) sorption was influenced by its complexation with both the soluble and exchangeable divalent cations in soils (e.g. Ca2+, Mg2+). In this study, we propose a new concept: soil system hardness which defines the total amount of soluble and exchangeable divalent cations associated with a soil. Our results showed that anionic surfactant works better with soils having lower soil system hardness. It was also found that the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) sorbed onto the LAS-divalent cation precipitate, resulting in a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of HOC. Our results showed that the effect of exchangeable cations and sorption of HOC onto the surfactant precipitates needs to be considered to accurately predict HOC behavior within soil-water-anionic surfactant systems.

  6. Preparation and characterization of novel anion phase change heat storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Lil, Qingshan; Sun, Jing; Di, Youbo; Zhao, Zhou; Yu, Wei'an; Qu, Yuan; Jiao, TiFeng; Wang, Guowei; Xing, Guangzhong

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, polyurethane phase change material was successfully prepared with TDI with BDO for hard segments and PEG for soft segments. Moreover, based on this the solid-solid phase change material, A-PCM1030 which can release anions was prepared with the successful addition of anion additives A1030 for the first time. Then the test of the above material was conducted utilizing FT-IR, DSC, TEM, WAXD and Air Ion Detector. The Results indicated that the polyurethane phase change material possesses excellent thermal stability since there was no appearance of liquid leakage and phase separation after 50 times warming-cooling thermal cycles. It also presented reversibility on absorbing and releasing heat. In addition, adding a little A1030 can increase the thermal stability and reduce phase transition temperatures, as well as reduce the undercooling of the polyurethane phase change material. In addition, the anion test results suggested that the supreme amount of anion released by A-PCM1030 could reach 2510 anions/cm3 under dynamic conditions, which is beneficial for human health.

  7. A large-scale study of the random variability of a coding sequence: a study on the CFTR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Guido; Bombieri, Cristina; Ciminelli, Bianca Maria; Belpinati, Francesca; Giorgi, Silvia; Georges, Marie des; Scotet, Virginie; Pompei, Fiorenza; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Guittard, Caroline; Audrézet, Marie Pierre; Begnini, Angela; Toepfer, Michael; Macek, Milan; Ferec, Claude; Claustres, Mireille; Pignatti, Pier Franco

    2005-02-01

    Coding single nucleotide substitutions (cSNSs) have been studied on hundreds of genes using small samples (n(g) approximately 100-150 genes). In the present investigation, a large random European population sample (average n(g) approximately 1500) was studied for a single gene, the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator). The nonsynonymous (NS) substitutions exhibited, in accordance with previous reports, a mean probability of being polymorphic (q > 0.005), much lower than that of the synonymous (S) substitutions, but they showed a similar rate of subpolymorphic (q < 0.005) variability. This indicates that, in autosomal genes that may have harmful recessive alleles (nonduplicated genes with important functions), genetic drift overwhelms selection in the subpolymorphic range of variability, making disadvantageous alleles behave as neutral. These results imply that the majority of the subpolymorphic nonsynonymous alleles of these genes are selectively negative or even pathogenic.

  8. Expanding frontiers in materials chemistry and physics with multiple anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Attfield, J Paul; Hiroi, Zenji; Rondinelli, James M; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2018-02-22

    During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials. We devote attention to the crucial roles that multiple anions play during synthesis, characterization, and in the physical properties of these materials. We discuss the opportunities enabled by recent advances in synthetic approaches for design of both local and overall structure, state-of-the-art characterization techniques to distinguish unique structural and chemical states, and chemical/physical properties emerging from the synergy of multiple anions for catalysis, energy conversion, and electronic materials.

  9. Preparation of Acrylamide-based Anionic Polyelectrolytes for Soil Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rabiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic water soluble acrylamide-based polymers have wide range of ap-plications  in  the  feld  of  soil  establishment  and  non-desertifcation.  In  this research, the acrylamide-based anionic polyelectrolytes were prepared by  solution polymerization. The polymerization was carried out using AIBN as a radical initiator and at different degrees of anionic charges ranging between 10% and 30% using sodium hydroxide as hydrolyzing agents. The chemical structure of the  synthetic polymers was studied and confrmed by FTIR technique. The charge density on polymer backbone was determined by titration method. The rheological behavior of polymer solutions was evaluated by Brookfeld viscometer. The results show that the viscosity decreases with increasing the shear rate of solutions. Molecular weights of samples were measured by laser light scattering analyzer. The morphology of the polymer was studied by SEM and the EDX was used for elemental analysis determination. The anionic polymers with 10-30% negative charges were mixed with clay in order to evaluate the soil establishment. The results show that an anionic polyelectro-lyte can make soil particles more cohesive and improve soil physical properties.

  10. A study of model systems in anionic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, R.; Boeyens, J.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the preparation and characterization of anionic sulphate and chloride complexes of UO 2+ 2 and iron(III), benzyl-trimethylammonium cation being used as a model substance for the simulation of positive sites in an anionic-exchange resin. The structure of (BTMA) 4 [UO 2 CL 3 -O 2 -CL 3 UO 2 ], a binuclear uranyl-peroxocomplex that has not been reported in the literature, was elucidated by single-crystal x-ray examination, and is described and discussed [af

  11. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization

  12. Separation of anionic oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed methods for rapid fractionation of anionic oligosaccharides containing sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ion-exchange HPLC on amine-bearing columns (Micropak AX-10 and AX-5) at pH 4.0 is utilized to separate anionic oligosaccharides bearing zero, one, two, three, or four charges, independent of the identity of the anionic moieties (sulfate and/or sialic acid). Ion-exchange HPLC at pH 1.7 allows separation of neutral, mono-, di-, and tetrasialylated, monosulfated, and disulfated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides containing three sialic acid residues and those bearing one each of sulfate and sialic acid, however, coelute at pH 1.7. Since the latter two oligosaccharide species separate at pH 4.0, analysis at pH 4.0 followed by analysis at pH 1.7 can be utilized to completely fractionate complex mixtures of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. Ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC has previously been shown to separate anionic oligosaccharides on the basis of net carbohydrate content (size). In this study they demonstrate the utility of ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC for resolving sialylated oligosaccharide isomers which differ only in the linkages of sialic acid residues (α2,3 vs α2,6) and/or location of α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid moieties on the peripheral branches of oligosaccharides. These two methods can be used in tandem to separate oligosaccharides, both analytically and preparatively, based on their number, types, and linkages of anionic moieties

  13. Water permeation through anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Wright, Andrew; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

  14. An Anthracene-Based Tripodal Chemosensor for Anion Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney A. Quinn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for its anion binding ability toward fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate and nitrate by the fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The addition of an anion to the ligand resulted in an enhancement in fluorescence intensity at the excitation of 310 nm. Analysis of the spectral changes suggested that the ligand formed a 1:1 complex with each of the anions, showing strong affinity for fluoride and sulfate in DMSO. The unsubstituted tren was reacted with sulfuric acid to form a sulfate complex and the structure was determined by the X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the complex revealed that three sulfates are held between two ligands by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions with protonated amines.

  15. The CF-CIRC study: a French collaborative study to assess the accuracy of Cystic Fibrosis diagnosis in neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellon Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein, which acts as a chloride channel after activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. Newborn screening programs for CF usually consist of an immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT assay, followed when IRT is elevated by testing for a panel of CF-causing mutations. Some children, however, may have persistent hypertrypsinogenemia, only one or no identified CFTR gene mutation, and sweat chloride concentrations close to normal values. In vivo demonstration of abnormal CFTR protein function would be an important diagnostic aid in this situation. Measurements of transepithelial nasal potential differences (NPD in adults accurately characterize CFTR-related ion transport. The aim of the present study is to establish reference values for NPD measurements for healthy children and those with CF aged 3 months to 3 years, the age range of most difficult-to-diagnose patients with suspected CF. The ultimate goal of our study is to validate NPD testing as a diagnostic tool for children with borderline results in neonatal screening. Methods/Design We adapted the standard NPD protocol for young children, designed a special catheter for them, used a slower perfusion rate, and shortened the protocol to include only measurement of basal PD, transepithelial sodium (Na+ transport in response to the Na+ channel inhibitor amiloride, and CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl- secretion in response to isoproterenol, a β-agonist in a Cl- free solution. The study will include 20 children with CF and 20 healthy control children. CF children will be included only if they carry 2 CF-causing mutations in the CFTR gene or have sweat chloride concentrations > 60 mEq/L or both. The healthy children will be recruited among the siblings of the CF patients, after verification that they do not carry the familial mutation. Discussion A preliminary study of 3 adult control

  16. Anionic surface binders

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja; Hočevar Nežka

    2004-01-01

    The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When opt...

  17. Cellular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of flufenamic acid on chloride secretion in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawin Pongkorpsakol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Cl− secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas including cholera. We recently demonstrated that flufenamic acid (FFA suppressed Vibrio cholerae El Tor variant-induced intestinal fluid secretion via mechanisms involving AMPK activation and NF-κB-suppression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FFA on transepithelial Cl− secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84 cells. FFA inhibited cAMP-dependent Cl− secretion in T84 cell monolayers with IC50 of ∼8 μM. Other fenamate drugs including tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid and mefenamic acid exhibited the same effect albeit with lower potency. FFA also inhibited activities of CFTR, a cAMP-activated apical Cl− channel, and KCNQ1/KCNE3, a cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channel. Mechanisms of CFTR inhibition by FFA did not involve activation of its negative regulators. Interestingly, FFA inhibited Ca2+-dependent Cl− secretion with IC50 of ∼10 μM. FFA inhibited activities of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels and KCa3.1, a Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels, but had no effect on activities of Na+–K+–Cl− cotransporters and Na+–K+ ATPases. These results indicate that FFA inhibits both cAMP and Ca2+-dependent Cl− secretion by suppressing activities of both apical Cl− channels and basolateral K+ channels. FFA and other fenamate drugs may be useful in the treatment of secretory diarrheas.

  18. Controlled Release Kinetics in Hydroxy Double Salts: Effect of Host Anion Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Majoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs and hydroxy double salts (HDSs can undergo anion exchange reactions releasing intercalated anions. Because of this, these metal hydroxides have found applications in controlled release delivery of bioactive species such as drugs and pesticides. In this work, isomers of hydroxycinnamate were used as model compounds to systematically explore the effects of anion structure on the rate and extent of anion release in HDSs. Following intercalation and subsequent release of the isomers, it has been demonstrated that the nature and position of substituent groups on intercalated anions have profound effects on the rate and extent of release. The extent of release was correlated with the magnitude of dipole moments while the rate of reaction showed strong dependence on the extent of hydrogen bonding within the layers. The orthoisomer showed a more sustained and complete release as compared to the other isomers.

  19. A photoelectron imaging and quantum chemistry study of the deprotonated indole anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Michael A; Crellin, Jonathan; Henley, Alice; Fielding, Helen H

    2018-05-29

    Indole is an important molecular motif in many biological molecules and exists in its deprotonated anionic form in the cyan fluorescent protein, an analogue of green fluorescent protein. However, the electronic structure of the deprotonated indole anion has been relatively unexplored. Here, we use a combination of anion photoelectron velocity-map imaging measurements and quantum chemistry calculations to probe the electronic structure of the deprotonated indole anion. We report vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of 2.45 ± 0.05 eV and 3.20 ± 0.05 eV, respectively. The value for D0 is in agreement with recent high-resolution measurements whereas the value for D1 is a new measurement. We find that the first electronically excited singlet state of the anion, S1(ππ*), lies above the VDE and has shape resonance character with respect to the D0 detachment continuum and Feshbach resonance character with respect to the D1 continuum.

  20. Probing Intermolecular Electron Delocalization in Dimer Radical Anions by Vibrational Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Grills, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Delocalization of charges is one of the factors controlling charge transport in conjugated molecules. It is considered to play an important role in the performance of a wide range of molecular technologies, including organic solar cells and organic electronics. Dimerization reactions are well-suited as a model to investigate intermolecular spatial delocalization of charges. And while dimerization reactions of radical cations are well investigated, studies on radical anions are still scarce. Upon dimerization of radical anions with neutral counterparts, an electron is considered to delocalize over the two molecules. By using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection coupled with pulse radiolysis, we show that radical anions of 4-n-hexyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (6CB) undergo such dimerization reactions, with an electron equally delocalized over the two molecules. We have recently demonstrated that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrations respond to the degree of electron localization of nitrile-substituted anions: we can quantify the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles by monitoring the ν(C≡N) IR shifts. In the first part of this article, we show that the sensitivity of the ν(C≡N) IR shifts does not depend on solvent polarity. In the second part, we describe how probing the shifts of the nitrile IR vibrational band unambiguously confirms the formation of dimer radical anions, with K dim = 3 × 10 4 M –1 . IR findings are corroborated by electronic absorption spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations. We find that the presence of a hexyl chain and the formation of π–π interactions are both crucial for dimerization of radical anions of 6CB with neutral 6CB. Our study provides clear evidence of spatial delocalization of electrons over two molecular fragments.

  1. Sensitization of microorganisms and enzymes by radiation-induced selective inorganic radical anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.; Stegeman, H.

    1981-01-01

    Bacterial survival and enzymatic inactivation were examined following exposure to radiolytically-generated radical anions, X - 2 , where X=Cl, Br, I or CNS - . Depending on pH, radical anions react selectively or specifically with cysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine. Consequently, when one or more of these amino acids is crucial for enzymatic activity or bacterial survival and is attacked by a radical anion, a high degree or radiosensitization may be realized. Halide radical anions can form free chlorine, bromine or iodine. However, these bactericidal halogens are destroyed by reaction with the hydrated electron, e - sub(aq), or at pHs>9, as occurs, for example, when a medium saturated with nitrous oxide, N 2 O, and e - sub(aq) scavenger, is replaced by nitrogen or oxygen. Increasing concentration of other e - sub(aq) scavengers, such as phosphate buffer, promotes formation of halogen from halides. The conditions producing formation and elimination of halogens in irradiated media must be appreciated to avoid confusing radiosensitization by X 2 to X - 2 . Radiosensitization by radical anions of several microorganisms: S. faecalis, S. typhimurium, E. coli, and M. radiodurens is described. A crucial amino acid for survival of S. faecalis appears to be tyrosine, while both tyrosine and tryptophan seem essential for recovery of S. typhimurium from effects of ionizing radiation. It is postulated that the radiosensitizing action of radical anions involves inhibition of DNA repair of strand-breaks by depriving the cells of energy. In view of the high OH scavenging power of foods, it is concluded that the radiosensitization of bacteria and enzymes in foods by radical anions, except for special cases, is not practical. Rather, radical anions serve to identify crucial amino acids to radiosensitization mechanisms in model systems, and possibly in radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  3. Sensing mechanism for a fluorescent off–on chemosensor for cyanide anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Junsheng; Chu, Tian-Shu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the sensing mechanism of cyanide anion chemosensor 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1) has been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The theoretical results demonstrate that the reaction barrier of 13.02 kcal/mol means a favorable response speed of the chemosensor M1 for cyanide anion. Cyanide anion attacks C=C double bond and hinders the ICT process from the malononitrile moiety to the fluorophore phenyl ring. The high viscosity of DMSO restrains the twisting of the group, inhibits the formation of the ICT state in the first excited state. Due to weak ICT character, the nucleophilic addition product shows the dramatic “off–on” fluorescence enhancement. Meanwhile, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism accounts for how different solvents influence the fluorescence spectra. That is, more obvious ICT character of product in EtOH causes fluorescence quenching. The “reaction-based” recognition mode and large bond energy between M1 and cyanide anion minimize the interference by other anions, such as F − , AcO − . Thus, the chemosensor M1 has a high selectivity for cyanide.

  4. The Anion Paradox in Sodium Taste Reception: Resolution by Voltage-Clamp Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Heck, Gerard L.; Desimone, John A.

    1991-11-01

    Sodium salts are potent taste stimuli, but their effectiveness is markedly dependent on the anion, with chloride yielding the greatest response. The cellular mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are not known. This "anion paradox" has been resolved by considering the field potential that is generated by restricted electrodiffusion of the anion through paracellular shunts between taste-bud cells. Neural responses to sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium gluconate were studied while the field potential was voltage-clamped. Clamping at electronegative values eliminated the anion effect, whereas clamping at electropositive potentials exaggerated it. Thus, field potentials across the lingual epithelium modulate taste reception, indicating that the functional unit of taste reception includes the taste cell and its paracellular microenvironment.

  5. Development of Preparation Methods for Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Sohn, Joon Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to contribute to the environmentally friendly fuel cell system by developing a radiation grafting method for the preparation of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell and finally to the radiation technology industry. In this project, the preparation methods for the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films using radiation have been developed and anion exchange membranes have been prepared via the reaction between the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films and amines. The prepared anion exchange membranes were characterized and the performance of the membranes were evaluated

  6. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2011-04-01

    Specific adsorption of anions to electrode surfaces may alter the rates of electrocatalytic reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) methods are used to predict the adsorption free energy of acetate and phosphate anions as a function of Pt(1 1 1) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep voltammogram (LSV) due to anion adsorption is simulated using the DFT results. The inclusion of solvation at the electrochemical interface is necessary for accurately predicting the adsorption peak position. The Langmuir model is sufficient for predicting the adsorption peak shape, indicating coverage effects are minor in altering the LSV for acetate and phosphate adsorption. Anion adsorption peak positions are determined for solution phase anion concentrations present in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells and discussion is provided as to the impact of anion adsorption on oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reaction rates in these devices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ionic liquids comprising heteraromatic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William F.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Maginn, Edward J.; Mindrup, Elaine; Gurkan, Burcu; Price, Erica; Goodrich, Brett

    2018-04-24

    Some embodiments described herein relate to ionic liquids comprising an anion of a heteraromatic compound such as optionally substituted pyrrolide, optionally substituted pyrazolide, optionally substituted indolide, optionally substituted phospholide, or optionally substituted imidazolide. Methods and devices for gas separation or gas absorption related to these ionic liquids are also described herein.

  8. Protonation Reaction of Benzonitrile Radical Anion and Absorption of Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, Jerzy; Sehested, Knud

    1975-01-01

    The rate constant for the protonation of benzonitrile radical anions formed in pulse radiolysis of aqueous benzonitrile solutions is (3.5 ± 0.5)× 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1. A new 270 nm absorption band is attributed to the protonated benzonitrile anion. The pK of the protonation reaction is determined t...

  9. Apparent intermediate K conductance channel hyposmotic activation in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Misri, Sandeep; Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C

    2008-03-01

    This study explores the nature of K fluxes in human lens epithelial cells (LECs) in hyposmotic solutions. Total ion fluxes, Na-K pump, Cl-dependent Na-K-2Cl (NKCC), K-Cl (KCC) cotransport, and K channels were determined by 85Rb uptake and cell K (Kc) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and cell water gravimetrically after exposure to ouabain +/- bumetanide (Na-K pump and NKCC inhibitors), and ion channel inhibitors in varying osmolalities with Na, K, or methyl-d-glucamine and Cl, sulfamate, or nitrate. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analyses, and immunochemistry were also performed. In isosmotic (300 mosM) media approximately 90% of the total Rb influx occurred through the Na-K pump and NKCC and approximately 10% through KCC and a residual leak. Hyposmotic media (150 mosM) decreased K(c) by a 16-fold higher K permeability and cell water, but failed to inactivate NKCC and activate KCC. Sucrose replacement or extracellular K to >57 mM, but not Rb or Cs, in hyposmotic media prevented Kc and water loss. Rb influx equaled Kc loss, both blocked by clotrimazole (IC50 approximately 25 microM) and partially by 1-[(2-chlorophenyl) diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34) inhibitors of the IK channel KCa3.1 but not by other K channel or connexin hemichannel blockers. Of several anion channel blockers (dihydro-indenyl)oxy]alkanoic acid (DIOA), 4-2(butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl)oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), and phloretin totally or partially inhibited Kc loss and Rb influx, respectively. RT-PCR and immunochemistry confirmed the presence of KCa3.1 channels, aside of the KCC1, KCC2, KCC3 and KCC4 isoforms. Apparently, IK channels, possibly in parallel with volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl channels, effect regulatory volume decrease in LECs.

  10. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  11. Anionic Redox Chemistry in Polysulfide Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Ekaterina D; Pazhetnov, Egor M; Kozlova, Mariia N; Artemkina, Sofya B; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2017-12-22

    Classical Li-ion battery technology is based on the insertion of lithium ions into cathode materials involving metal (cationic) redox reactions. However, this vision is now being reconsidered, as many new-generation electrode materials with enhanced reversible capacities operate through combined cationic and anionic (non-metal) reversible redox processes or even exclusively through anionic redox transformations. Anionic participation in the redox reactions is observed in materials with more pronounced covalency, which is less typical for oxides, but quite common for phosphides or chalcogenides. In this Concept, we would like to draw the reader's attention to this new idea, especially, as it applies to transition-metal polychalcogenides, such as FeS 2 , VS 4 , TiS 3 , NbS 3 , TiS 4 , MoS 3 , etc., in which the key role is played by the (S-S) 2- /2 S 2- redox reaction. The exploration and better understanding of the anion-driven chemistry is important for designing advanced materials for battery and other energy-related applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. ESR study of the anion radicals of 5-nitropyrimidines: conversion to iminoxy radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Clark, C.; Failor, R.

    1976-01-01

    The anion radicals of a number of 5-nitropyrimidines have been investigated by ESR spectroscopy. The anions are formed by electrolysis in dimethylformamide and by electron attachment in aqueous glasses, 12 M LiCl--D 2 O and 8 M NaOD. The electrolysis of 5-nitrouracil and 5-nitro-6-methyluracil results in relatively stable anion radicals. The results for 5-nitrouracil give evidence for two or perhaps three anions which differ only by the degree of ring nitrogen protonation. The results for 5-nitro-6-methyluracil suggest that the nitro group of the anion is twisted so that it is coupled only weakly to the ring π-electron system. The anions of 5-nitrouracil, 5-nitroorotic acid, 5-nitrobarbituric acid, and 5-nitro-6-methyluracil have been produced in the alkaline and neutral aqueous glasses. The anisotropic spectra found have been analyzed with the aid of computer simulations which assume axial symmetry. For example, the analysis of the spectrum of 5-nitrouracil anion in 12 M LiCl yields A/sub parallel//sup N/ = 33; A/sub perpendicular to//sup N/ = 5, a 6 /sup H/ = 5.5 G, g/sub parallel/ = 2.0016, and g/sub perpendicular to/ = 2.0059. A concentration dependence in the splittings is noted and discussed. Ultraviolet photolysis of the anions of 5-nitro-6-methyluracil and 5-nitrobarbituric acid results in the formation of iminoxy radicals. Mechanisms of formation of the iminoxy radicals are discussed and results found in this work are compared to results found in single crystals and aqueous solution

  13. Anion-based approaches to tunable functionality in oxide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The ability to control the position and composition of the anion site is emerging as a promising route to tune properties in epitaxial perovskites. This talk will focus on recent and ongoing efforts aimed at developing anion-based approaches to tailor electronic and magnetic properties in oxide films. First, I will discuss how the position of the oxygen anions can be tailored to stabilize non-bulk-like bond angles and lengths, thereby altering electronic bandwidth. Recent work on La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 will be presented in which ultrathin films under the same strain state exhibit dramatically different electronic and magnetic properties when grown on substrates with different symmetries. In the second half of the talk, I will describe efforts focused on altering the composition of the anion site. In La1/3Sr2/3FeO3-δ films, a reversible change in oxygen content leads to dramatic changes in electrical, optical, and structural properties. Finally, the synthesis of oxyfluoride ferrite and nickelate perovskite films via topotactic reactions carried out following thin film deposition will be described. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research (N00014-11-1-0664) and the U. S. Army Research Office (W911NF-12-1-0132).

  14. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekierka Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  15. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka, Anna; Bryjak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  16. Intermolecular proton transfer in anionic complexes of uracil with alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Radisic, Dunja; Stokes, Sarah T.; Bowen, Kit H.

    2005-01-01

    A series of eighteen alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation (H DP ) in a range of 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH...U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with three alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV only the ROH...U - minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in a range of 14.3-14.8 eV two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO - ...HU . and ROH...U - structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH...U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO - ...HU . . A driving force for the intermolecular proton transfer is to stabilize the excess negative charge localized on a orbital of uracil. Therefore, these complexes with proton transferred to the anionic uracil are characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy (VDE). The values of VDE for anionic complexes span a range from 1.0 to 2.3 eV and roughly correlate with the acidity of alcohols. However, there is a gap of ∼0.5 eV in the values of VDE, which separates the two families, ROH...U - and RO - ...HU . , of anionic complexes. The energy of stabilization for the anionic complexes spans a range from 0.6 to 1.7 eV and roughly correlates with the acidity of alcohols. The measured photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions

  17. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of sodium and potassium chlorate anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dain, R. P.; Leavitt, C. M.; Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.; Groenewold, G. S.; van Stipdonk, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The structures of gas-phase, metal chlorate anions with the formula [M(ClO3)(2)](-), M = Na and K, were determined using tandem mass spectrometry and infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Structural assignments for both anions are based on comparisons of the experimental

  18. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  19. Effect of Structure on Charge Distribution in the Isatin Anions in Aprotic Environment: Spectral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tisovský

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Five isatin anions were prepared by deprotonation of initial isatins in aprotic solvents using basic fluoride and acetate anions (F− and CH3COO−. The F− basicity is sufficient to deprotonate isatin NH hydrogen from all the studied compounds. This process is reversible. In the presence of proton donor solvents, the anions form the corresponding isatins. The isatin hydrogen acidity depends on the overall structure of the isatin derivatives. The anions were characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the anions form aggregates at concentrations above 10−3 mol·dm−3. Further, the effect of cations on the UV–Vis spectra of the studied anions was studied. Charge transfer and its distribution in the anion depends on the radius and the cation electron configuration. The alkali metal cations, tetrabutylammonium (TBA+, Mg2+ and Ag+, interact with the C-2 carbonyl oxygen of the isatin anion. The interaction has a coulombic character. On the other hand, Cd2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, Co2+, and Cu+ cations form a coordinate bond with the isatin nitrogen.

  20. Sensing mechanism for a fluorescent off–on chemosensor for cyanide anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Junsheng [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Chu, Tian-Shu, E-mail: tschu@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber, Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this article, the sensing mechanism of cyanide anion chemosensor 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1) has been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The theoretical results demonstrate that the reaction barrier of 13.02 kcal/mol means a favorable response speed of the chemosensor M1 for cyanide anion. Cyanide anion attacks C=C double bond and hinders the ICT process from the malononitrile moiety to the fluorophore phenyl ring. The high viscosity of DMSO restrains the twisting of the group, inhibits the formation of the ICT state in the first excited state. Due to weak ICT character, the nucleophilic addition product shows the dramatic “off–on” fluorescence enhancement. Meanwhile, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism accounts for how different solvents influence the fluorescence spectra. That is, more obvious ICT character of product in EtOH causes fluorescence quenching. The “reaction-based” recognition mode and large bond energy between M1 and cyanide anion minimize the interference by other anions, such as F{sup −}, AcO{sup −}. Thus, the chemosensor M1 has a high selectivity for cyanide.

  1. Refeeding syndrome as an unusual cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Manish; Perry, Alexandra; Lavery, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by hypophosphatemia in the setting of malnutrition. It is commonly seen in patients with anorexia, alcoholism, or malignancy, and it is often a missed diagnosis. Because of the potential morbidity associated with missing the diagnosis of refeeding syndrome, it is important to monitor for this disease in any malnourished patient. We present a case of a 49-year-old male with chronic alcohol abuse who presented for alcohol detoxification and was found to have low phosphate, potassium, and magnesium on presentation, in addition to an elevated anion gap of unclear etiology. After extensive workup to evaluate the cause of his elevated anion gap and worsening of his electrolyte abnormalities despite replenishment, it was felt his symptoms were a result of refeeding syndrome. After oral intake was held and aggressive electrolyte replenishment was performed for 24 hours, the patient's anion gap closed and his electrolyte levels stabilized. This case demonstrates a unique presentation of refeeding syndrome given the patient's profound metabolic acidosis that provided a clue toward his eventual diagnosis. The standard workup for an anion gap metabolic acidosis was negative, and it was not until his refeeding syndrome had been treated that the anion gap closed.

  2. Quantum mechanics of toroidal anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    We consider a toroidal solenoid with an electric charge attached to it. It turns out that statistical properties of the wave function describing interacting toroidal anions depend on both their relative position and orientation. The influence of the particular gauge choice on the exchange properties of the wave function is studied. 30 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Assessing the reactivation efficacy of hydroxylamine anion towards VX-inhibited AChE: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2012-05-01

    Oximate anions are used as potential reactivating agents for OP-inhibited AChE because of they possess enhanced nucleophilic reactivity due to the α-effect. We have demonstrated the process of reactivating the VX-AChE adduct with formoximate and hydroxylamine anions by applying the DFT approach at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The calculated results suggest that the hydroxylamine anion is more efficient than the formoximate anion at reactivating VX-inhibited AChE. The reaction of formoximate anion and the VX-AChE adduct is a three-step process, while the reaction of hydroxylamine anion with the VX-AChE adduct seems to be a two-step process. The rate-determining step in the process is the initial attack on the VX of the VX-AChE adduct by the nucleophile. The subsequent steps are exergonic in nature. The potential energy surface (PES) for the reaction of the VX-AChE adduct with hydroxylamine anion reveals that the reactivation process is facilitated by the lower free energy of activation (by a factor of 1.7 kcal mol(-1)) than that of the formoximate anion at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The higher free energy of activation for the reverse reactivation reaction between hydroxylamine anion and the VX-serine adduct further suggests that the hydroxylamine anion is a very good antidote agent for the reactivation process. The activation barriers calculated in solvent using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the reactivation of the VX-AChE adduct with hydroxylamine anion were also found to be low. The calculated results suggest that V-series compounds can be more toxic than G-series compounds, which is in accord with earlier experimental observations.

  4. In Situ formation of pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion stabilizes high-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradanawati, Sylvia Ayu; Wang, Fu-Ming; Rick, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion was formed by Lewis acid-base reaction. • This pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion is fabricated with the benzimidazole anion and PF 5 . • This pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion avoids the ominous side reactions that PF 5 reacts SEI to form LiF and HF at high temperature. • The additional pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion formation well maintains the battery performance at 60 °C measurement compares to the electrolyte only with contains the salt, LiPF 6 . - Abstract: Lithium salts play a critical role in initiating electrochemical reactions in Li-ion batteries. Single Li ions dissociate from bulk-salt and associate with carbonates to form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) during the first charge-discharge of the battery. SEI formation and the chemical stability of salt must both be controlled and optimized to minimize irreversible reactions in SEI formation and to suppress the decomposition of the salt at high temperatures. This study synthesizes a new benzimidazole-based anion in the electrolyte. This anion, pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole, results from a Lewis acid-base reaction between the benzimidazole anion and PF 5 . The new pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion inhibits the decomposition of LiPF 6 by inhibiting PF 5 side reactions, which degrade the SEI, and lead to the formation of LiF and HF at high temperatures. In addition, the use of the pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion results in the formation of a modified SEI that is able to modify the battery's performance. Cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as charge-discharge and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have been used to characterize the materials in this study. The formation of the pentafluorophosphate benzimidazole anion in the electrolyte caused a 14% decrease in the activation energy

  5. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovar, Bryan S [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  6. Vibrational Fano resonances in the photodetachment of dipole-bound anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Stephen T; Tully, John C; Johnson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    A simple model for the photodetachment of dipole-bound anions is proposed where non-adiabatic coupling of vibrational states leads to a Fano resonance in the spectrum. It is found that the shape of the photodetachment spectrum depends significantly on the parameter representing molecular polarizability. The model is also applied to a Fano profile observed in the photodetachment of small water cluster anions.

  7. Determination of nitrate by anion exchange with ultraviolet detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    A weak base anion exchange resin is synthesized by surface bonding 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to silica gel. This silylated silica gel is used to separate nitrate from interferences. The nitrate is then determined by measuring its absorbance at 220 nm. An interference study was performed and no anions commonly found in potable water interferes. A comparison of this method was made with the brucine method on real samples and satisfactory agreement was obtained between the two methods.

  8. Effect of superoxide anion scavenger on rat hearts with chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Peiying; Lai, Ching Jung; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Liou, Yi-Fan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da

    2016-04-15

    Only very limited information regarding the protective effects of the superoxide anion scavenger on chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiac apoptosis is available. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the superoxide anion scavenger on cardiac apoptotic and prosurvival pathways in rats with sleep apnea. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, rats with normoxic exposure (Control, 21% O2, 1 mo), rats with chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure (Hypoxia, 3-7% O2vs. 21% O2per 40 s cycle, 8 h per day, 1 mo), and rats with pretreatment of the superoxide anion scavenger and chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure (Hypoxia-O2 (-)-Scavenger, MnTMPyP pentachloride, 1 mg/kg ip per day; 3-7% O2vs. 21% O2per 40 s cycle, 8 h per day, 1 mo) at 5-6 mo of age. After 1 mo, the protein levels and apoptotic cells of excised hearts from three groups were measured by Western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The superoxide anion scavenger decreased hypoxia-induced myocardial architecture abnormalities, left ventricular hypertrophy, and TUNEL-positive apoptosis. The superoxide anion scavenger decreased hypoxia-induced Fas ligand, Fas death receptors, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptotic pathway) as well as Bad, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway), endonuclease G (EndoG), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and TUNEL-positive apoptosis. The superoxide anion scavenger increased IGF-1, IGF-1R, p-PI3k, p-Akt, p-Bad, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL (survival pathway). Our findings imply that the superoxide anion scavenger might prevent cardiac Fas-mediated and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and enhance the IGF-1-related survival pathway in chronic intermittent hypoxia. The superoxide anion scavenger may prevent chronic sleep apnea-enhanced cardiac apoptotic pathways and enhances

  9. Anion embedded sol-gel films on Al for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffer, Mari; Groysman, Alec; Starosvetsky, David; Savchenko, Natali; Mandler, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We report here on the successful incorporation of organic anions into a sol-gel film on Al as a means of enhancing the protection against corrosion. Following our previous study where we showed that hydrophobic sol-gel films provided pronounced corrosion inhibition, we studied the corrosion inhibition that phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) has when embedded inside a thin sol-gel coating on Al. The anion of this organic anion tends to stay inside a phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) based sol-gel film due to π-interactions. Our findings, which are derived primarily from potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical noise, scanning electron microscopy measurements and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), clearly show that the organic phosphonate adds to the protection efficiency of the sol-gel film

  10. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of anionic uranyl. beta. -ketoenolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, G; Paolucci, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi; Graziani, R; Celon, E

    1978-01-01

    New classes of anionic uranyl ..beta..-ketoenolates of formula (UO/sub 2/L/sub 2/X)/sup -/ (where L = 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate (dppd), 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dionate (tfpbd), or 1-phenylbutane-1,3-dionate (pbd); X = Cl/sup -/, Br/sup -/, I/sup -/, (NO/sub 3/)/sup -/, (O/sub 2/CMe)/sup -/, or (NCS)/sup -/) and (L/sub 2/O/sub 2/U(..mu..-X) UO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup -/ (where X = F/sup -/, and also Cl/sup -/ only in the case of L = dppd) have been synthesized and characterized by a number of physical measurements. The different ability of the various anionic ligands to enter into the co-ordination sphere of the uranyl ion, their potentially different bonding modes, and the possible correlations between physical parameters and the nature of either the chelate substituents or the anionic ligand are discussed.

  11. Removal of 125I from radioactive experimental waste with an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kagoshima, Mayumi

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive iodide and chloride ions through an anion exchange paper membrane to remove 125 I from radioactive experimental waste has been studied with nonequilibrium thermodynamic analyses. Anion exchange paper membrane was found to be electroconductively more permeable to iodide ion than to chloride ion. The iodide ion bound more strongly to the anion exchange site within a membrane phase than the chloride ion by more than twice. The results suggested that an anion exchange paper membrane was appropriate for the filtration removal system

  12. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  13. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl-/SO42- separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl-/SO42- permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  14. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs

  15. The effect of interlayer anion on the reactivity of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: improving and extending the customization capacity of anionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ricardo; Bruna, Felipe; de Pauli, Carlos P; Ulibarri, M Ángeles; Giacomelli, Carla E

    2011-07-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) reactivity and interfacial behavior are closely interconnected and control particle properties relevant to the wide range of these solids' applications. Despite their importance, their relationship has been hardly described. In this work, chloride and dodecylsulfate (DDS(-)) intercalated LDHs are studied combining experimental data (electrophoretic mobility and contact angle measurements, hydroxyl and organic compounds uptake) and a simple mathematical model that includes anion-binding and acid-base reactions. This approach evidences the anion effect on LDHs interfacial behavior, reflected in the opposite particle charge and the different surface hydrophobic/hydrophilic character. LDHs reactivity are also determined by the interlayer composition, as demonstrated by the cation uptake capability of the DDS(-) intercalated sample. Consequently, the interlayer anion modifies the LDHs interfacial properties and reactivity, which in turn extends the customization capacity of these solids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific anion effects on copper surface through electrochemical treatment: Enhanced photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction activity of derived nanostructures induced by chaotropic anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2018-05-01

    Copper derivatives are the most prominent CO2 reduction electrocatalyst. Herein, the metallic copper has been electrochemically treated with some of common ionic salts such as N3bar, HPO2bar, S2bar, Fbar, Clbar, Brbar and Ibar based on the dissolution of a metallic working electrode in an aqueous solution to derive the surface roughness incorporated with nanostructures. Diverse surface morphology can be obtained when the ionic radii of anions are changed. Surface study reveals various roughness shapes based on the size and polarity of the anions, where the ions with higher ionic radii have higher impact on the Cu surface. In comparison, polyatomic oxyanion such as HPO2bar even with large ionic radii do not have enough strength to create the surface roughness than that of oxygen-free anions with large ionic radii. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the modified surfaces toward CO2 reduction is studied at a wide potential window in bicarbonate aqueous solution. Based on our investigations, treated surfaces by Ibar, Clbar and S2bargive a more surface roughness, while Ibar and N3bar offer higher catalytic activity toward CO2 reduction due to possible complexing ability of these anions with Cu cations, followed by formation of the co-catalyst semiconductor and facilitate electron transfer. This methodology can be applied to investigate the effect of ions on transition metals along with obtaining different surface morphologies tailored to different applications.

  17. Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Homogenous 2-Hydroxypyridine Dimer Electron Induced Proton Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, Alexandra; Stokes, Sarah; Wang, Yi; Hicks, Zachary; Zhang, Xinxing; Blando, Nicolas; Frock, Andrew; Marquez, Sara; Bowen, Kit; Bowen Lab JHU Team

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopic (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) studies on the dimer anion of (2-hydroxypyridine)2-are reported. The experimentally measured vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 1.21eV compares well with the theoretically predicted values. The 2-hydroxypyridine anionic dimer system was investigated because of its resemblance to the nitrogenous heterocyclic pyrimidine nucleobases. Experimental and theoretical results show electron induced proton transfer (EIPT) in both the lactim and lactam homogeneous dimers. Upon electron attachment, the anion can serve as the intermediate between the two neutral dimers. A possible double proton transfer process can occur from the neutral (2-hydroxypyridine)2 to (2-pyridone)2 through the dimer anion. This potentially suggests an electron catalyzed double proton transfer mechanism of tautomerization. Research supported by the NSF Grant No. CHE-1360692.

  18. Ca2+ and Mg2+-enhanced reduction of arsenazo III to its anion free radical metabolite and generation of superoxide anion by an outer mitochondrial membrane azoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S N; Mason, R P; Docampo, R

    1984-12-10

    At the concentrations usually employed as a Ca2+ indicator, arsenazo III underwent a one-electron reduction by rat liver mitochondria to produce an azo anion radical as demonstrated by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. Either NADH or NADPH could serve as a source of reducing equivalents for the production of this free radical by intact rat liver mitochondria. Under aerobic conditions, addition of arsenazo III to rat liver mitochondria produced an increase in electron flow from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen, generating superoxide anion. NAD(P)H generated from endogenous mitochondrial NAD(P)+ by intramitochondrial reactions could not be used for the NAD(P)H azoreductase reaction unless the mitochondria were solubilized by detergent or anaerobiosis. In addition, NAD(P)H azoreductase activity was higher in the crude outer mitochondrial membrane fraction than in mitoplasts and intact mitochondria. The steady-state concentration of the azo anion radical and the arsenazo III-stimulated cyanide-insensitive oxygen consumption were enhanced by calcium and magnesium, suggesting that, in addition to an enhanced azo anion radical-stabilization by complexation with the metal ions, enhanced reduction of arsenazo III also occurred. Accordingly, addition of cations to crude outer mitochondrial membrane preparations increased arsenazo III-stimulated cyanide-insensitive O2 consumption, H2O2 formation, and NAD(P)H oxidation. Antipyrylazo III was much less effective than arsenazo III in increasing superoxide anion formation by rat liver mitochondria and gave a much weaker electron spin resonance spectrum of an azo anion radical. These results provide direct evidence of an azoreductase activity associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane and of a stimulation of arsenazo III reduction by cations.

  19. The Arabidopsis vacuolar malate channel is a member of the ALMT family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovermann, Peter; Meyer, Stefan; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Picco, Cristiana; Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Ravera, Silvia; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2007-12-01

    In plants, malate is a central metabolite and fulfills a large number of functions. Vacuolar malate may reach very high concentrations and fluctuate rapidly, whereas cytosolic malate is kept at a constant level allowing optimal metabolism. Recently, a vacuolar malate transporter (Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter, AttDT) was identified that did not correspond to the well-characterized vacuolar malate channel. We therefore hypothesized that a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) gene family could code for a vacuolar malate channel. Using GFP fusion constructs, we could show that AtALMT9 (A. thaliana ALMT9) is targeted to the vacuole. Promoter-GUS fusion constructs demonstrated that this gene is expressed in all organs, but is cell-type specific as GUS activity in leaves was detected nearly exclusively in mesophyll cells. Patch-clamp analysis of an Atalmt9 T-DNA insertion mutant exhibited strongly reduced vacuolar malate channel activity. In order to functionally characterize AtALMT9 as a malate channel, we heterologously expressed this gene in tobacco and in oocytes. Overexpression of AtALMT9-GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves strongly enhanced the malate current densities across the mesophyll tonoplasts. Functional expression of AtALMT9 in Xenopus oocytes induced anion currents, which were clearly distinguishable from endogenous oocyte currents. Our results demonstrate that AtALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel. Deletion mutants for AtALMT9 exhibit only slightly reduced malate content in mesophyll protoplasts and no visible phenotype, indicating that AttDT and the residual malate channel activity are sufficient to sustain the transport activity necessary to regulate the cytosolic malate homeostasis.

  20. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents

  1. Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, R. T.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; González-Caniulef, D.; Jones, G. H.; Lewis, G. R.; Taylor, S. A.; Kataria, D. O. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Vuitton, V. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Crary, F. J. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Waite, J. H. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute (SWRI), 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Cordiner, M.; Sittler, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Edberg, N. J. T., E-mail: r.t.desai@ucl.ac.uk [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 537, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-08-01

    Cassini discovered a plethora of neutral and ionized molecules in Titan’s ionosphere including, surprisingly, anions and negatively charged molecules extending up to 13,800 u q{sup −1}. In this Letter, we forward model the Cassini electron spectrometer response function to this unexpected ionospheric component to achieve an increased mass resolving capability for negatively charged species observed at Titan altitudes of 950–1300 km. We report on detections consistently centered between 25.8 and 26.0 u q{sup −1} and between 49.0–50.1 u q{sup −1} which are identified as belonging to the carbon chain anions, CN{sup −}/C{sub 3}N{sup −} and/or C{sub 2}H{sup −}/C{sub 4}H{sup −}, in agreement with chemical model predictions. At higher ionospheric altitudes, detections at 73–74 u q{sup −1} could be attributed to the further carbon chain anions C{sub 5}N{sup −}/C{sub 6}H{sup −} but at lower altitudes and during further encounters extend over a higher mass/charge range. This, as well as further intermediary anions detected at >100 u, provide the first evidence for efficient anion chemistry in space involving structures other than linear chains. Furthermore, at altitudes below <1100 km, the low-mass anions (<150 u q{sup −1}) were found to deplete at a rate proportional to the growth of the larger molecules, a correlation that indicates the anions are tightly coupled to the growth process. This study adds Titan to an increasing list of astrophysical environments where chain anions have been observed and shows that anion chemistry plays a role in the formation of complex organics within a planetary atmosphere as well as in the interstellar medium.

  2. Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, R. T.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; González-Caniulef, D.; Jones, G. H.; Lewis, G. R.; Taylor, S. A.; Kataria, D. O.; Vuitton, V.; Crary, F. J.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H.; Cordiner, M.; Sittler, E. C.; Edberg, N. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Cassini discovered a plethora of neutral and ionized molecules in Titan’s ionosphere including, surprisingly, anions and negatively charged molecules extending up to 13,800 u q"−"1. In this Letter, we forward model the Cassini electron spectrometer response function to this unexpected ionospheric component to achieve an increased mass resolving capability for negatively charged species observed at Titan altitudes of 950–1300 km. We report on detections consistently centered between 25.8 and 26.0 u q"−"1 and between 49.0–50.1 u q"−"1 which are identified as belonging to the carbon chain anions, CN"−/C_3N"− and/or C_2H"−/C_4H"−, in agreement with chemical model predictions. At higher ionospheric altitudes, detections at 73–74 u q"−"1 could be attributed to the further carbon chain anions C_5N"−/C_6H"− but at lower altitudes and during further encounters extend over a higher mass/charge range. This, as well as further intermediary anions detected at >100 u, provide the first evidence for efficient anion chemistry in space involving structures other than linear chains. Furthermore, at altitudes below <1100 km, the low-mass anions (<150 u q"−"1) were found to deplete at a rate proportional to the growth of the larger molecules, a correlation that indicates the anions are tightly coupled to the growth process. This study adds Titan to an increasing list of astrophysical environments where chain anions have been observed and shows that anion chemistry plays a role in the formation of complex organics within a planetary atmosphere as well as in the interstellar medium.

  3. IMPROVING OF ANION EXCHANGERES REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inthis study, Different basis [NaOH and KOH] of variable concentration are usedto reactivate Anion exchangers employing different schemes .The Laboratoryresults showed large improvement in efficiency of these exchangers ( i.eoperating time was increased from 12 to 42 hours .The results of this work showed that the environmentalload (waste water can be reduced greatly when using the proposed regenerationscheme .

  4. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Siekierka Anna; Bryjak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity an...

  5. Contribution of various metabolites to the "unmeasured" anions in critically ill patients with metabolic acidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Terpstra, A.M.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The physicochemical approach, described by Stewart to investigate the acid-base balance, includes the strong ion gap (SIG), a quantitative measure of "unmeasured" anions, which strongly correlates to the corrected anion gap. The chemical nature of these anions is for the most part

  6. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of sodium and potassium chlorate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Ryan P; Leavitt, Christopher M; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeffrey D; Groenewold, Gary S; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The structures of gas-phase, metal chlorate anions with the formula [M(ClO(3))(2)](-), M = Na and K, were determined using tandem mass spectrometry and infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Structural assignments for both anions are based on comparisons of the experimental vibrational spectra for the two species with those predicted by density functional theory (DFT) and involve conformations that feature either bidentate or tridentate coordination of the cation by chlorate. Our results strongly suggest that a structure in which both chlorate anions are bidentate ligands is preferred for [Na(ClO(3))(2)](-). However, for [K(ClO(3))(2)](-) the best agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra is obtained from a composite of predicted spectra for which the chlorate anions are either both bidentate or both tridentate ligands. In general, we find that the overall accuracy of DFT calculations for prediction of IR spectra is dependent on both functional and basis set, with best agreement achieved using frequencies generated at the B3LYP/6-311+g(3df) level of theory. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, R. T.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Vuitton, V.; Crary, F. J.; González-Caniulef, D.; Shebanits, O.; Jones, G. H.; Lewis, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Cordiner, M.; Taylor, S. A.; Kataria, D. O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Sittler, E. C.

    2017-08-01

    Cassini discovered a plethora of neutral and ionized molecules in Titan’s ionosphere including, surprisingly, anions and negatively charged molecules extending up to 13,800 u q-1. In this Letter, we forward model the Cassini electron spectrometer response function to this unexpected ionospheric component to achieve an increased mass resolving capability for negatively charged species observed at Titan altitudes of 950-1300 km. We report on detections consistently centered between 25.8 and 26.0 u q-1 and between 49.0-50.1 u q-1 which are identified as belonging to the carbon chain anions, CN-/C3N- and/or C2H-/C4H-, in agreement with chemical model predictions. At higher ionospheric altitudes, detections at 73-74 u q-1 could be attributed to the further carbon chain anions C5N-/C6H- but at lower altitudes and during further encounters extend over a higher mass/charge range. This, as well as further intermediary anions detected at >100 u, provide the first evidence for efficient anion chemistry in space involving structures other than linear chains. Furthermore, at altitudes below environments where chain anions have been observed and shows that anion chemistry plays a role in the formation of complex organics within a planetary atmosphere as well as in the interstellar medium.

  8. Preparation of anionic clay–birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulraj, James; Rajamathi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni 3 Zn 2 (OH) 8 (OAc) 2 ·2H 2 O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: ► Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. ► Ni–Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO 4 to deposit MnO 2 in the interlayer. ► Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. ► Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO 4 used and reaction time