WorldWideScience

Sample records for cfrt summer high

  1. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty

  2. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-02-09

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty

  3. Final technical report. 1998 HU CFRT summer fusion high school workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center conducted its third High School Summer Fusion Science Workshop in Summer 1998. The center had only three faculty mentors available only for a part of Summer 1998, The center accepted four scholars in this workshop, Prof. Halima Ali coordinated this workshop. Each student was assigned to a research mentor according to the student's interest in a specific research area and problem. In the workshop in the center, the students received instructions and training in the basics of energy, plasma and fusion sciences. They also received one-on-one instructions and training by their mentors to further their understanding of the subject and to introduce to relevant concepts such as magnetic confinement fusion, tokamaks, diverters and area-preserving maps

  4. Final Technical Report 2000 HU CFRT Summer High School Fusion Workshop Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54586. Final Report, June 1, 2000 - May 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2000 summer fusion science high school workshop was held for eight weeks. Four rising senior/junior high school students participated in the workshop. Students were mentored by Drs. Ali and Punjabi. Based on their summer research projects, students presented contributed papers at the 2000 APS DPP meeting in Quebec City, Canada. Student posters were well-received by the fusion community

  5. Developing High School Geoscientists through Summer Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, J.

    2012-12-01

    High school students in the San Francisco Bay Area have the opportunity to contribute to Earth sciences research during the summer at Stanford University. The School of Earth Sciences hosts about 25 high school students each summer to support ongoing research, through more than just washing glassware. To increase diversity in the geosciences, we select students from diverse backgrounds through an application process which lessens the burden on busy faculty. The students work for 15-20 hours per week under the supervision of graduate students or postdoctoral fellows. The supervisors come to value the interns for a few reasons: not only are they getting some extra help with their research, but they are getting teaching experience in an informal but powerful way and supervising the interns' work over the summer. Another key part of the internship is bringing all of the interns together regularly. Whether it is for career talks, lab tours or field trip, high school students find kindred spirits in the group. Another important reason for weekly gatherings is to introduce the students to the wide field of Earth sciences and the different approaches and paths that scientists take. The summer ends with a culminating event where interns make short informal presentations about their research which give them an opportunity to articulate the big questions they have been helping to answer. Some interns are also invited to present a poster in a session for high school students at the Fall AGU meeting. These experiences of working in the laboratory and communicating about the research are part of the world of Earth sciences that are absent for most youth. The high school internships foster good will between Stanford and the local communities, help develop a more Earth and environmentally knowledgeable public and may have a long-term affect on diversifying the geosciences by exposing more young people to these fields.

  6. SHARP {Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasco, Deborah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Year 2002 was another successful year for SHARP. Even after 22 years of SHARP, the Program continues to grow. There were 12 NASA Field Installations with a total of 210 apprentices who participated in the summer 2002 Program supported by 215 mentors in the fields of science and engineering. The apprentices were chosen from a pool of 1,379 applicants. This was a record year for applications exceeding the previous year by over 60%. For the second consecutive year, the number of female participants exceeded the number of males with 53% female and 47% male participants in the program. The main thrust of our recruiting efforts is still focused on underrepresented populations; especially African American, Hispanic, and Native American. At the conclusion of the summer program, most SHARP Apprentices indicated on the EDCATS that they would be interested in pursuing careers in Aerospace (56.2%) while the second largest career choice was a job at NASA (45.7%). The smallest number (11.9%) were interested in careers in the government. The table of responses is listed in the Appendix. Once again this year we were fortunate in that the SHARP COTR, Ms. Deborah Glasco, gained the support of MURED funding sources at NASA to fully fund additional apprentices and boost the number of apprentices to 210.

  7. Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The summer of 1997 will not only be noted by NASA for the mission to Mars by the Pathfinder but also for the 179 brilliant apprentices that participated in the SHARP Program. Apprentice participation increased 17% over last year's total of 153 participants. As indicated by the End-of-the-Program Evaluations, 96% of the programs' participants rated the summer experience from very good to excellent. The SHARP Management Team began the year by meeting in Cocoa Beach, Florida for the annual SHARP Planning Conference. Participants strengthened their Education Division Computer Aided Tracking System (EDCATS) skills, toured the world-renowned Kennedy Space Center, and took a journey into space during the Alien Encounter Exercise. The participants returned to their Centers with the same goals and objectives in mind. The 1997 SHARP Program goals were: (1) Utilize NASA's mission, unique facilities and specialized workforce to provide exposure, education, and enrichment experiences to expand participants' career horizons and inspire excellence in formal education and lifelong learning. (2) Develop and implement innovative education reform initiatives which support NASA's Education Strategic Plan and national education goals. (3) Utilize established statistical indicators to measure the effectiveness of SHARP's program goals. (4) Explore new recruiting methods which target the student population for which SHARP was specifically designed. (5) Increase the number of participants in the program. All of the SHARP Coordinators reported that the goals and objectives for the overall program as well as their individual program goals were achieved. Some of the goals and objectives for the Centers were: (1) To increase the students' awareness of science, mathematics, engineering, and computer technology; (2) To provide students with the opportunity to broaden their career objectives; and (3) To expose students to a variety of enrichment activities. Most of the Center goals and

  8. An Astrobiology Summer Program for High School Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational summer program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to expose high school educators to the field of astrobiology and provide them with skills and classroom activities necessary to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. Astrobiology activities for a week-long summer enrichment program for high school students was developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty-four high school students were introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as gel electrophoresis, thin layer chromatography, and manual polymerase chain reaction. The impact of the astrobiology summer program on teachers and high school students will be discussed.

  9. Summer Academy: a Project for Highly Motivated High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, G.; Donner, B.

    2006-12-01

    No improvement yet: German school students, although initially curious about geo- and other natural sciences, often tend to drop these subjects as they grow older. Their argument: "the stuff is too hard". Other reasons could be: - instruction is too theoretical and therefore boring - students do not see the benefit, because natural science disciplines in school are isolated and the connection to real life is missing - for some students, the intellectual level of instruction is too low, because teachers have to orient their presentation to the average student. A good way to improve the attractiveness is to bring interdisciplinary, application, and/or global perspective aspects into the classroom. Geosciences have the enormous advantage of being interdisciplinary per se: All other natural sciences not only those taught in school find their implementation in this field. The Research Center Ocean Margins (RCOM), a geoscientific institute at Bremen University, focuses on paleoclimate as one of its research highlights. This subject is ideal for demonstrating interdisciplinary and global aspects that students can also work out for themselves. Another bonus is its inherent allure and fascination. Activities within the "Science and School" program at RCOM include training courses for teachers (Sommeruniversitaet), and lab courses for kids from elementary to high-school level (UNISchullabor), as well as lectures and courses for the younger school children (ages 8-12 years, KinderUniversitaet). All activities focus on (re-)motivating school kids for natural sciences and maintaining their interest by special initiatives like "Years of Science" or "Summer of Science". This year, for the first time, we offered a project for highly motivated and/or gifted high school students, the ones that often think of school as boring because they do not feel challenged. In a one-week initiation course we introduced them to science and research work. The focus lay on "Climate of the past

  10. 2nd International Summer School in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pak, N K; Serin, M; The Standard Model and Beyond

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the edited tutorial lectures given at The Second International Summer School in High Energy Physics in Mgla, Turkey, in September 2006 - an annual event with international participation and a special focus on work done in the regions of central Asia. With emphasis on the standard model and beyond, lectures were devoted to presenting an introduction and update to many of the relevant topics, such as chiral perturbation theory, the Higgs mechanism, heavy flavour and b physics, CP violation, the AdS/CFT correspondence, ideas on grand unification and neutrino physics and astrophysics

  11. Engaging with science: High school students in summer lab internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, Marjorie Bullitt

    Years of research and rhetoric have suggested that students should be given the opportunity to work with practicing scientists as a way to develop more sophisticated ideas about the nature of science, yet little research about these experiences exists. This project uses a case study approach to examine the experience of eight high school students working part-time during one summer as research assistants in biomedical laboratories. The students completed small research studies under the supervision of scientist-mentors. This dissertation explores questions related to how these students learned to work in a lab, in what ways they grew to understand this scientific context, and how their own relationships with science changed. The goal of looking at these young adults' summer experiences in science labs is to make suggestions for three settings: programs like this one, where high school students work closely with scientists in lab settings; other programs where scientists and students work together; and science education more generally. Analysis of pre- and post-interviews with students, and extensive observations of their laboratory work, suggests that students develop new ideas about the culture of science and the day-to-day workings of the labs. These ideas hold potential power for the students, and other participants in both similar and different educational settings, as they prepare for lives as scientifically engaged adults.

  12. Evaluation to Improve a High School Summer Science Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bakshian Chiappinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Young Scientist Program (YSP at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSM is to broaden science literacy and recruit talent for the scientific future. In particular, YSP seeks to expose underrepresented minority high school students from St. Louis public schools (SLPS to a wide variety of careers in the sciences. The centerpiece of YSP, the Summer Focus Program (SFP, is a nine-week, intensive research experience for competitively chosen rising high school seniors (Scholars. Scholars are paired with volunteer graduate student, medical student, or postdoctoral fellow mentors who are active members of the practicing scientific community and serve as guides and exemplars of scientific careers. The SFP seeks to increase the number of underrepresented minority students pursuing STEM undergraduate degrees by making the Scholars more comfortable with science and science literacy. The data presented here provide results of the objective, quick, and simple methods developed by YSP to assess the efficacy of the SFP from 2006 to 2013. We demonstrate that the SFP successfully used formative evaluation to continuously improve the various activities within the SFP over the course of several years and in turn enhance student experiences within the SFP. Additionally we show that the SFP effectively broadened confidence in science literacy among participating high school students and successfully graduated a high percentage of students who went on to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at the undergraduate level.

  13. Evaluation to Improve a High School Summer Science Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Moss, Britney L; Lenz, Devjanee Swain; Tonge, Natasha A; Joyce, Adam; Holt, Glen E; Holt, Leslie Edmonds; Woolsey, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the Young Scientist Program (YSP) at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSM) is to broaden science literacy and recruit talent for the scientific future. In particular, YSP seeks to expose underrepresented minority high school students from St. Louis public schools (SLPS) to a wide variety of careers in the sciences. The centerpiece of YSP, the Summer Focus Program (SFP), is a nine-week, intensive research experience for competitively chosen rising high school seniors (Scholars). Scholars are paired with volunteer graduate student, medical student, or postdoctoral fellow mentors who are active members of the practicing scientific community and serve as guides and exemplars of scientific careers. The SFP seeks to increase the number of underrepresented minority students pursuing STEM undergraduate degrees by making the Scholars more comfortable with science and science literacy. The data presented here provide results of the objective, quick, and simple methods developed by YSP to assess the efficacy of the SFP from 2006 to 2013. We demonstrate that the SFP successfully used formative evaluation to continuously improve the various activities within the SFP over the course of several years and in turn enhance student experiences within the SFP. Additionally we show that the SFP effectively broadened confidence in science literacy among participating high school students and successfully graduated a high percentage of students who went on to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at the undergraduate level. PMID:27158303

  14. Relation among Summer Rainfall in South Shandong and High Pressure in South Asia and Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relation among summer rainfall in south Shandong and high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation.[Method] Taking the precipitation in south Shandong along the Yellow River and Huaihe River,using the NCEP/NCAR data and summer rainfall data in south Shandong in summer from 1961 to 2005,the characteristics of high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation in drought year and flood year in summer in south Shandong Province were expounded.The mechanism of...

  15. Blogging about Summer Reading: The Learning and Engagement of High School Students Using Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Janice Becker

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what happened when grade 11 high school honors students blogged about their summer reading under the monitoring of a teacher during vacation. I proposed that an educational blog might serve as an effective tool during summer vacation to help students retain skills or learning while at a physical…

  16. Preparation for High School Chemistry: The Effects of a Summer School Course on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eva R.; Garland, Harry T.

    2006-01-01

    A summer course was developed with the goal of preparing girls to succeed in secondary school chemistry. Group work and mathematical, logical, and laboratory skills were stressed in the course, with minimal emphasis on memorization. Students who took the summer course ranked statistically higher during their first semester of high school chemistry…

  17. An Electrical Engineering Summer Academy for Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Peter G.; Manikas, Theodore W.; Kohlbeck, Jeff G.

    2010-01-01

    An Electrical Engineering Summer Academy for Pre-College Students was held at the University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, during the summers of 2007 and 2008. The Academy participants included students having just completed 7th to 11th grade and teachers from middle school through high school. The students and teachers participated in team-building,…

  18. The Forgotten Summer: Does the Offer of College Counseling after High School Mitigate Summer Melt among College-Intending, Low-Income High School Graduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.; Schooley, Korynn

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of policy intervention to increase college entry and success among low-income students, considerable gaps by socioeconomic status remain. To date, policymakers have overlooked the summer after high school as an important time period in students' transition to college, yet recent research documents high rates of summer…

  19. Origin of tropospheric ozone at remote high northern latitudes in summer

    OpenAIRE

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Fan, Sierra Qianying; Bradshaw, J. D.; Gregory, G. L.; G. W. Sachse; Blake, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    We quantify the tropospheric ozone budget over remote high northern latitudes in summer using chemical and meteorological measurements between 0 and 6-km made during the summer of 1990 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3B). We include all components of the ozone budget, both sinks (in situ photochemical loss and deposition); and sources (in situ photochemical production, advection of pollution ozone into the region, production in biomass wildfire plumes, and downwards transport from the ...

  20. High frequency, high amplitude and low energy earthquake study at V.C. Summer Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impoundment of Monticello Reservoir, adjacent to the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, produced a large number of small earthquakes in the near-field. Several of these earthquakes were recorded by a USGS strong motion accelerometer located on an earthen dam abutment approximately 1 mile from the nuclear station. The recorded earthquakes contained high frequency, high amplitude (maximum horizontal acceleration of 0.36 g), and low energy. To resolve Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB) and Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) concerns relative to these earthquakes, the Utility was requested to compare the response spectra of the recorded earthquakes to the plant design response spectra to verify that adequate safety margins exist for plant components necessary for shutdown and residual heat removal. (orig.)

  1. Everyday Electrical Engineering: A One-Week Summer Academy Course for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrizi-Sani, A.

    2012-01-01

    A summer academy is held for grade 9-12 high school students at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, every year. The academy, dubbed the Da Vinci Engineering Enrichment Program (DEEP), is a diverse program that aims to attract domestic and international high school students to engineering and sciences (and possibly recruit them). DEEP…

  2. Interannual variability of Mascarene high and Australian high and their influences on summer rainfall over East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR and other observational data, interannual variability of Mascarene high (MH) and Australian high (AH) from 1970 to 1999 is examined. It is shown that interannual variability of MH is dominated by the Antarctic oscillation (AAO), when the circumpolar low in the high southern latitudes deepens, the intensity of MH will be intensified. On the other hand, AH is correlated by AAO as well as El Nino and South Oscillation (ENSO), the intensity of AH will be intensified when El Nino occurs. Both correlation analysis and case study demonstrate that summer rainfall over East Asia is closely related to MH and AH. When MH intensifies from boreal spring to summer (i.e. from austral autumn to winter), there is more rainfall over regions from the Yangtze River valley to Japan, in contrast, less rainfall is found over southern China and western Pacific to the east of Taiwan, and most of regions in mid-latitudes of East Asia. Compared with MH, the effect of AH on summer rainfall in East Asia is limited to localized regions, there is more rainfall over southern China with the intensification of AH. The results in this study show that AAO is a strong signal on interannual timescale, which plays an important role in summer rainfall over East Asia. This discovery is of real importance to revealing the physical mechanism of interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon and prediction of summer precipitation in China.

  3. Climatology and trends of summer high temperature days in India during 1969–2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Jaswal; P C S Rao; Virendra Singh

    2015-02-01

    Based on the daily maximum air temperature data from 176 stations in India from 1969 to 2013, the climatological distribution of the number of days with high temperature (HT) defined as days with maximum temperature higher than 37°C during summer season (March–June) are studied. With a focus on the regional variability and long-term trends, the impacts of HT days are examined by dividing the country into six geographical regions (North, West, North-central, East, South-central and South). Although the long-term (1969–2013) climatological numbers of HT days display well-defined spatial patterns, there is clear change in climatological mean and coefficient of variation of HT days in a recent period (1991–2013). The long period trends indicate increase in summer HT days by 3%, 5%, and 18% in north, west, and south regions, respectively and decrease by 4% and 9% in north-central and east regions respectively. However, spatial variations in HT days exist across different regions in the country. The data analysis shows that 2010 was the warmest summer year and 2013 was the coolest summer year in India. Comparison of spatial distributions of trends in HT days for 1969–1990 and 1991–2013 periods reveal that there is an abrupt increase in the number of HT days over north, west and north-central regions of India probably from mid 1990s. A steep increase in summer HT days in highly populated cities of Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Jaipur, and Visakhapatnam is noticed during the recent period of 1991–2013. The summer HT days over southern India indicate significant positive correlation with Nino 3.4 index for three months’ running mean (December–January–February, January–March, February–April, March–May and April–June).

  4. Enhanced summer convective rainfall at Alpine high elevations in response to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Torma, Csaba; Coppola, Erika; Ban, Nikolina; Schär, Christoph; Somot, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Global climate projections consistently indicate a future decrease in summer precipitation over the European Alps. However, topography can substantially modulate precipitation change signals. For example, the shadowing effect by topographic barriers can modify winter precipitation change patterns, and orographic convection might also play an important role. Here we analyse summer precipitation over the Alpine region in an ensemble of twenty-first-century projections with high-resolution (~12 km) regional climate models driven by recent global climate model simulations. A broad-scale summer precipitation reduction is projected by both model ensembles. However, the regional models simulate an increase in precipitation over the high Alpine elevations that is not present in the global simulations. This is associated with increased convective rainfall due to enhanced potential instability by high-elevation surface heating and moistening. The robustness of this signal, which is found also for precipitation extremes, is supported by the consistency across models and future time slices, the identification of an underlying mechanism (enhanced convection), results from a convection-resolving simulation, the statistical significance of the signal and the consistency with some observed trends. Our results challenge the picture of a ubiquitous decrease of summer precipitation over the Alps found in coarse-scale projections.

  5. The UCI COSMOS Astronomy and Astrophysics Cluster: A Summer Program for Talented High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smecker-Hane, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    COSMOS is a month-long, summer residential program in science and engineering for high school students held each year at four University of California (UC) campuses. Its goals are to expand the scientific horizons of our most talented students by exposing them to exciting fields of research and encouraging them to pursue STEM careers. Students live on campus and choose to study one of seven or eight different subject areas called “clusters.” We run the extremely successful Astronomy & Astrophysics Cluster at UC Irvine (UCI). Over four weeks, students take lecture courses in astrophysics, perform computer lab experiments, and complete a research project conducted in a small group under the supervision of a faculty member or teaching assistant (TA). Here we discuss our curriculum, lessons learned, and quantify student outcomes. We find that putting on a summer program for high school students is highly rewarding for the students as well as the faculty and graduate students.

  6. Vegetation Feedbacks Explain Recent High-latitude Summer Warming in Alaskan Arctic and Boreal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S.; Beringer, J.; Copass, C.; Epstein, H.; Lloyd, A.; Lynch, A.; McGuire, A. D.; Sturm, M.

    2002-12-01

    Although General Circulation Models predict the observed winter and spring warming at high latitudes, there is no obvious physical mechanism in the climate system that can account for the significant increase in summer temperatures that has occurred at high latitudes during the past 30 years. We demonstrate that vegetation-induced feedbacks in snow properties and summer energy exchange with the atmosphere explain this recent summer warming. A combination of stand-age reconstructions, repeat photography, and satellite measures of vegetation greenness demonstrate an expansion of the distribution and an infilling of shrubs in moist tundra and of trees in forest tundra. These vegetation changes increase the depth and thermal resistance of the snow pack, causing a 3oC increase in winter soil temperature and an increase in winter decomposition and nutrient mineralization, which enhance plant growth. These vegetation changes also increase summer heat transport to the atmosphere by increasing radiation absorption (lower albedo) and the proportion of absorbed energy that is transferred to the atmosphere as sensible heat. The resulting increase in atmospheric heating, on a unit-area basis, is similar to effects of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide or a 2% change in solar constant, such as occurred at the last glacial-interglacial boundary. Simulations with the regional climate model ARCSyM indicate that a change from shrubless tundra to shrub-dominated tundra on the North Slope of Alaska would increase July mean temperature by 1.5 to 3.5 degrees C, with the warming effects extending south into the boreal forest of interior Alaska. If these vegetation feedbacks to regional warming are widespread, as suggested by indigenous knowledge and the satellite record, they are of sufficient magnitude to explain the summer warming that has recently been observed in northern Alaska and other regions of the circumpolar Arctic.

  7. Sleep and the endogenous melatonin rhythm of high arctic residents during the summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-03-15

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in high latitudes place particular strain on the human circadian system. Arctic residence has been associated with poor sleep in both summer and winter. The goal of the work reported here was to study the circadian rhythms of individuals living in the high Arctic by measuring sleep variables and the timing of melatonin production. Two research trials were conducted in the built environment of CFS Alert (82° 29' 58″ N). Participants wore motion logging devices (actigraphs), which measure ambient light as well as motion, for 1week to provide data on sleep quantity, quality and light exposure. On the penultimate day of each trial, the participants were maintained together in a gymnasium with lounge chairs and saliva was collected at regular intervals to measure melatonin and assess the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), offset (MelOFF), 50% rise and fall times of the whole profile and total production. In general, sleep duration was found to be significantly different between the January and June data collections at CFS Alert, with participants in June sleeping 50min on average less each day compared to their January counterparts. In June sleep was mistimed in many subjects relative to circadian phase as evidenced by the melatonin rhythm. Exposure to bright evening light was the most likely causal factor and should be avoided in the Arctic summer. The Arctic summer represents a particularly challenging environment for obtaining sufficient sleep. This has implications for the cognitive performance of staff during work hours. PMID:25615594

  8. Possible influence of South Asian high on summer rainfall variability in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Baek-Jo; Zhang, Renhe; Nam, Jae-Cheol; Park, Ki-Jun; Kim, Jeoung-Yun; Kim, Do-Woo

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the correlation between the South Asian High (SAH) shift and the summer (June-August) rainfall variability in Korea over the course of 45 years (1958-2002). It is found that the shift in the west-east direction is closely related to the summer rainfall variability in Korea. The atmospheric circulations in the east shift years showed that at 850 hPa, an intensification of the western North Pacific subtropical high allowed a sufficient amount of warm and humid air to be supplied to the lower atmosphere near Korea. On the other hand at 200 hPa, the SAH expanded toward the east, near the southern part of Korea, causing the intensification of the northwesterlies, and this allowed the supply of cold and dry air to the upper atmosphere near Korea. Meanwhile, in the latitudinal zone in which Korea is located, there were anomalous upward flows with warm and humid characteristics in the lower atmosphere and anomalous downward flows with cold and dry characteristics in the upper atmosphere. As such, the cold and warm air masses present in the upper and lower atmosphere near Korea led to thermal instability, and this was analyzed to be a major factor that could potentially increase the amount rainfall in Korea in summer in the east shift years. Moreover, a warm SST anomaly was formed in the mid-latitude zones of East Asia, and it heated the lower troposphere, thereby intensifying the thermal instability even further. Furthermore, TCs frequently had an impact on Korea in the east shift years, and were another factor that caused the increased rainfall in summer.

  9. Circadian clock of Drosophila montana is adapted to high variation in summer day lengths and temperatures prevailing at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Hannele; Ala-Honkola, Outi; Kankare, Maaria; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2016-06-01

    Photoperiodic regulation of the circadian rhythms in insect locomotor activity has been studied in several species, but seasonal entrainment of these rhythms is still poorly understood. We have traced the entrainment of activity rhythm of northern Drosophila montana flies in a climate chamber mimicking the photoperiods and day and night temperatures that the flies encounter in northern Finland during the summer. The experiment was started by transferring freshly emerged females into the chamber in early and late summer conditions to obtain both non-diapausing and diapausing females for the studies. The locomotor activity of the females and daily changes in the expression levels of two core circadian clock genes, timeless and period, in their heads were measured at different times of summer. The study revealed several features in fly rhythmicity that are likely to help the flies to cope with high variation in the day length and temperature typical to northern summers. First, both the non-diapausing and the diapausing females showed evening activity, which decreased towards the short day length as observed in the autumn in nature. Second, timeless and period genes showed concordant daily oscillations and seasonal shifts in their expression level in both types of females. Contrary to Drosophila melanogaster, oscillation profiles of these genes were similar to each other in all conditions, including the extremely long days in early summer and the cool temperatures in late summer, and their peak expression levels were not locked to lights-off transition in any photoperiod. Third, the diapausing females were less active than the non-diapausing ones, in spite of their younger age. Overall, the study showed that D. montana clock functions well under long day conditions, and that both the photoperiod and the daily temperature cycles are important zeitgebers for seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of this species. PMID:26993661

  10. Longitudinal Displacement of the Subtropical High in the Western Pacific in Summer and its Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 孙淑清

    2003-01-01

    Using the relative vorticity averaged over a certain area, a new index for measuring the longitudinal position of the subtropical high (SH) in the western Pacific is proposed to avoid the increasing trend of heights in the previous indices based on geopotential height. The years of extreme westward and eastward extension of SH using the new index are in good agreement with those defined by height index. There exists a distinct difference in large-scale circulation between the eastward and westward extension of SH under the new definition, which includes not only the circulation in the middle latitudes but also the flow in the lower latitudes. It seems that when the SH extends far to the east (west), the summer monsoon in the South China Sea is stronger (weaker) and established earlier (later). In addition, there exists a good relationship between the longitudinal position of SH and the summer rainfall in China. A remarkable negative correlation area appears in the Changjiang River valley, indicating that when the SH extends westward (eastward), the precipitation in that region increases (decreases). A positive correlation region is found in South China, showing the decrease of rainfall when the SH extends westward. On the other hand, the rainfall is heavier when the SH retreats eastward. However, the anomalous longitudinal position of SH is not significantly related to the precipitation in North China. The calculation of correlation coefficients between the index of longitudinal position of SH and surface temperature in China shows that a large area of positive values, higher than 0.6 in the center, covers the whole of North China, even extending eastward to the Korean Peninsula and Japan Islands when using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to do the correlation calculation. This means that when the longitudinal position of the SH withdraws eastward in summer, the temperature over North China is higher. On the other hand, when it moves westward, the temperature there is

  11. Physiological functions of the red leaves of Wedelia trilobata induced by high irradiance in summer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Shu; Lanlan Sun; Liying Song; Weihua Li; Changlian Peng

    2009-01-01

    Wedelia trilobata, a creeping herb native to Central and South America, is one of the world’s 100 worst invasive alien species. It was introduced into South China and has become a noxious invasive weed in agricultural fields, plantations and natural forests. In natural communities, it is observed that the leaves of W. trilobata turn from green to red under high irradiance in summer. The aims of this study were to explore what causes the leaf color change in W. trilobata and what the physiolog...

  12. Effects of Cage Density on the Performance of Laying Hens During High Summer Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Altan, Ali; ALTAN, Özge; ÖZKAN, Sezen; ÖZKAN, Kahraman; AKBAŞ, Yavuz; Ayhan, Veysel

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different cage densities on laying performance of white and brown hybrid layers during high summer temperatures. White layers, 68 weeks of age, were housed at a density of 3, 4 or 5 hens/cage (respectively 640, 480 and 384 cm2/hen); brown layers were housed at 3 or 4 hens/cage (respectively 640 and 480 cm2/hen). The results indicated that housing at 3 or 4 hens/cage did not affect egg production or egg quality significantly. Increasing t...

  13. Link between western Arabian sea surface temperature and summer monsoon strength and high-latitude abrupt climate events

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) based on quantitative analyses of planktic foraminifera. High seasonal SST contrast between winter and summer during the last glacial period indicates weak upwelling and strong cold northeasterly winds. Minimum seasonal SST...

  14. Diagnosis of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation in high resolution NCEP climate forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhik, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Krishna, R. P. M.; Salunke, Kiran D.; Dhakate, Ashish R.; Rao, Suryachandra A.

    2016-05-01

    The present study examines the ability of high resolution (T382) National Centers for Environmental Prediction coupled atmosphere-ocean climate forecast system version 2 (CFS T382) in simulating the salient spatio-temporal characteristics of the boreal summertime mean climate and the intraseasonal variability. The shortcomings of the model are identified based on the observation and compared with earlier reported biases of the coarser resolution of CFS (CFS T126). It is found that the CFS T382 reasonably mimics the observed features of basic state climate during boreal summer. But some prominent biases are noted in simulating the precipitation, tropospheric temperature (TT) and sea surface temperature (SST) over the global tropics. Although CFS T382 primarily reproduces the observed distribution of the intraseasonal variability over the Indian summer monsoon region, some difficulty remains in simulating the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) characteristics. The simulated eastward propagation of BSISO decays rapidly across the Maritime Continent, while the northward propagation appears to be slightly slower than observation. However, the northward propagating BSISO convection propagates smoothly from the equatorial region to the northern latitudes with observed magnitude. Moreover, the observed northwest-southeast tilted rain band is not well reproduced in CFS T382. The warm mean SST bias and inadequate simulation of high frequency modes appear to be responsible for the weak simulation of eastward propagating BSISO. Unlike CFS T126, the simulated mean SST and TT exhibit warm biases, although the mean precipitation and simulated BSISO characteristics are largely similar in both the resolutions of CFS. Further analysis of the convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) indicates that model overestimates the gravest equatorial Rossby waves and underestimates the Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. Based on analysis of CCEWs, the study further

  15. Influence of the Mascarene High and Australian High on the Summer Monsoon in East Asia: Ensemble Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛峰; 姜大膀; 郎咸梅; 王会军

    2003-01-01

    By using a nine-level atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of AtmosphericPhysics (IAP 9L AGCM), two sets of numerical experiments are carried out to investigate the influenceof the Mascarene high (MH) and Australian high (AH) over the southern subtropics upon the East Asiansummer monsoon circulation and summer precipitation in East Asia. The use of ensemble statistics isadopted to reduce the simulation errors. The result shows that with the intensification of MH, the Somalilow-level jet is significantly enhanced together with the summer monsoon circulation in the tropical Asiaand western Pacific region. Furthermore, the anticyclonic anomaly in the tropical western Pacific to theeast of the Philippines may induce a weak East-Asia-Pacific teleconnection pattern. In the meantime,geopotential height in the Tropics is enhanced while it is reduced over most regions of mid-high latitudes,thus the northwestern Pacific subtropical high at 500 hPa extends southwestward, resulting in more rainfallin southern China and less rainfall in northern China. A similar anomaly pattern of the atmosphericcirculation systems is found in the experiment of the intensification of AH. On the other hand, because thecross-equatorial currents associated with AH are much weaker than the Somali jet, the anomaly magnitudecaused by tihe intensification of AH is generally weak, and the influence of AH on summer rainfall in Chinaseems to be localized in southern China. Comparison between the two sets of experiments indicates thatMH plays a crucial role in the interactions of general atmospheric circulation between the two hemispheres.

  16. High sensitivity of Indian summer monsoon to Middle East dust absorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qinjian; Yang, Zong-Liang; Wei, Jiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    The absorptive properties of dust aerosols largely determine the magnitude of their radiative impacts on the climate system. Currently, climate models use globally constant values of dust imaginary refractive index (IRI), a parameter describing the dust absorption efficiency of solar radiation, although it is highly variable. Here we show with model experiments that the dust-induced Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall differences (with dust minus without dust) change from -9% to 23% of long-term climatology as the dust IRI is changed from zero to the highest values used in the current literature. A comparison of the model results with surface observations, satellite retrievals, and reanalysis data sets indicates that the dust IRI values used in most current climate models are too low, tending to significantly underestimate dust radiative impacts on the ISM system. This study highlights the necessity for developing a parameterization of dust IRI for climate studies. PMID:27465689

  17. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  18. State of particle accelerators and high energy physics (Fermilab Summer School, 1981). Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material gathered in this volume covers the seminars given at the Summer School on High Energy Particle Accelerators, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation, held at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, July 13 to 24, 1981. The school was organized as a response to a recent appeal by a subpanel of the DOE High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) for more scientists and more students to work in the field of high energy particle accelerators. The committee set a number of objectives for the school: (1) to present in a thorough and up-to-date manner the entire spectrum of knowledge relating to accelerators; (2) to disseminate that knowledge to audiences that can best make use of it; (3) to encourage, by providing text materials and training to potential instructors, the development of accelerator physics education as part of university programs in high-energy physics; and (4) to foster a more extensive dialogue between particle and accelerator physicists. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers included

  19. Evaluation to Improve a High School Summer Science Outreach Program †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Moss, Britney L.; Lenz, Devjanee Swain; Tonge, Natasha A.; Joyce, Adam; Holt, Glen E.; Holt, Leslie Edmonds; Woolsey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Young Scientist Program (YSP) at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSM) is to broaden science literacy and recruit talent for the scientific future. In particular, YSP seeks to expose underrepresented minority high school students from St. Louis public schools (SLPS) to a wide variety of careers in the sciences. The centerpiece of YSP, the Summer Focus Program (SFP), is a nine-week, intensive research experience for competitively chosen rising high school seniors (Scholars). Scholars are paired with volunteer graduate student, medical student, or postdoctoral fellow mentors who are active members of the practicing scientific community and serve as guides and exemplars of scientific careers. The SFP seeks to increase the number of underrepresented minority students pursuing STEM undergraduate degrees by making the Scholars more comfortable with science and science literacy. The data presented here provide results of the objective, quick, and simple methods developed by YSP to assess the efficacy of the SFP from 2006 to 2013. We demonstrate that the SFP successfully used formative evaluation to continuously improve the various activities within the SFP over the course of several years and in turn enhance student experiences within the SFP. Additionally we show that the SFP effectively broadened confidence in science literacy among participating high school students and successfully graduated a high percentage of students who went on to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at the undergraduate level. PMID:27158303

  20. Evaluating the Impact of a Summer Dropout Prevention Program for Incoming Freshmen Attending an Under-Resourced High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth; Shriberg, David; Alves, Alison; de Oca, Jessie Montes; Reker, Kassandra; Roche, Meghan; Salgado, Manuel; Stegmaier, Jessica; Viellieu, Lindsay; Karahalios, Vicky; Knoll, Michael; Adams, Kristen; Diaz, Yahaira; Rau, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Low high school completion rates are an ongoing challenge for educators. This study provides the results of an evaluation of a ninth-grade summer transition program offered at a large public school with a high freshman dropout rate. The evaluation consisted of preprogram and postprogram surveys and interviews with 64 incoming freshman…

  1. Summer energy balance and ablation of high elevation glaciers in the central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Benjamin; Rivera, Andres; Burger, Flavia; Bravo, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers of the semi-arid central Chilean Andes are an important freshwater source for the populous Central Valley region of Chile, but have been shrinking in recent decades. The surface energy balance of these glaciers is of high scientific interest as summer ablation occurs through both sublimation and melt. During the 2012-13 Austral Summer a glacio-meteorological monitoring programme was established on Olivares Alfa (3.9 km2, 4130-4800 m elevation) and Beta (8.3 km2, 3620-4850 m elevation) Glaciers and their forelands in the Upper Olivares Valley, 33°00'-33°11' S, 70°05'-70°15' W, approximately 50 km north-east of Santiago. This included complete automatic weather stations (AWSs) with sonic rangers to record surface ablation on the ablation zones of the two glaciers, and one AWS in the proglacial area of Olivares Alfa Glacier including precipitation gauge. To complement these point data, daily images of the glaciers were captured with fixed cameras in order to calculate snow cover and albedo distributions. To calculate the surface energy balance and rates of melt and sublimation, a model was developed which uses direct AWS measurements of the radiative fluxes and calculates the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat using the bulk aerodynamic approach. The model also calculates the subsurface heat flux and includes a simple scheme to estimate refreezing of melt water within surface snow or ice. Meteorological data and model results for the December to May period will be presented in this paper. Model calculations match closely the cumulative ablation curve of the sonic ranger at Olivares Alfa, with a slight overestimation, and overestimate cumulative ablation recorded by the sonic ranger at Olivares Beta, possibly due, at least in part, to uncertain snow density values. Modelled cumulative ablation in the December-April period is 2.2 m water equivalent (w.e.) at Olivares Alfa (0.10 m sublimation, 2.10 m melt) and 2.34 m w.e. at Olivares Beta (0.18 m

  2. Research directions for the decade: Proceedings of the 1990 summer study on high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the 1990 Summer Study was to examine the full spectrum of important scientific issues and opportunities in high energy particle physics in the decade of the 1990's, including research at existing and anticipated hadron-hadron, electron-positron, and electron-proton colliders; research at fixed target facilities; the scientific potential of possible new facilities such as B factories; particle astrophysics and non-accelerator based physics; and accelerator and detector initiatives. The book is divided into the following sections: electroweak studies; strong interaction physics; physics beyond the Standard Model: new quarks, leptons, gauge bosons, and new interactions; weak decays and the physics of the CKM matrix; particle astrophysics; experiments and detectors at future very high energy hadron colliders; electron-positron colliders at the Z and beyond; Tevatron collider experiments and detectors; electron-proton collider experiments and detectors; experiments and detectors at fixed target facilities; electron-positron factories; and performance potential of hadron and electron colliders. Separate abstracts were prepared for 115 papers of this conference

  3. Art Animates: Ideas Inspired by a University-Sponsored Summer Arts Academy for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker, Stephanie; French, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Art can provide a vehicle for animating learning. Teachers bring ideas to life through curriculum, while artists realize their ideas through images, often translating between forms, media and spaces. This paper describes the context, content and format of a residential Summer Arts Academy for gifted and talented middle and high school students,…

  4. A Summer Math and Physics Program for High School Students: Student Performance and Lessons Learned in the Second Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Nicholas; Baird, Michael; Bennett, Jake; Fry, Jason; Garrison, Lance; Maltese, Adam

    2013-01-01

    For the past two years, the Foundations in Physics and Mathematics (FPM) summer program has been held at Indiana University in order to fulfill two goals: provide additional physics and mathematics instruction at the high school level, and provide physics graduate students with experience and autonomy in designing curricula and teaching courses.…

  5. The American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) at UC Irvine: A Two-Week Residential Summer Program for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. R.; Polequaptewa, N.; Leon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Native Americans remain severely underrepresented in the geosciences, despite a clear need for qualified geoscience professionals within Tribal communities to address critical issues such as natural resource and land management, water and air pollution, and climate change. In addition to the need for geoscience professionals within Tribal communities, increased participation of Native Americans in the geosciences would enhance the overall diversity of perspectives represented within the Earth science community and lead to improved Earth science literacy within Native communities. To address this need, the Department of Earth System Science and the American Indian Resource Program at the University California have organized a two-week residential American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) for high-school students (grades 9-12) from throughout the nation. The format of the AISESS program is based on the highly-successful framework of a previous NSF Funded American Indian Summer Institute in Computer Science (AISICS) at UC Irvine and involves key senior personnel from the AISICS program. The AISESS program, however, incorporates a week of camping on the La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians reservation in Northern San Diego County, California. Following the week of camping and field projects, the students spend a week on the campus of UC Irvine participating in Earth System Science lectures, laboratory activities, and tours. The science curriculum is closely woven together with cultural activities, native studies, and communication skills programs The program culminates with a closing ceremony during which students present poster projects on environmental issues relevant to their tribal communities. The inaugural AISESS program took place from July 15th-28th, 2012. We received over 100 applications from Native American high school students from across the nation. We accepted 40 students for the first year, of which 34 attended the program. The

  6. Observations of PAN and its confinement in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungermann, Jörn; Ern, Mandfred; Kaufmann, Martin; Müller, Rolf; Spang, Reinhold; Ploeger, Felix; Vogel, Bärbel; Riese, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of trace gases in the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region on the basis of observations by the CRISTA infrared limb sounder taken in low-earth orbit in August 1997. The spatially highly resolved measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and O3 allow a detailed analysis of an eddy-shedding event of the ASM anticyclone. We identify enhanced PAN volume mixing ratios (VMRs) within the main anticyclone and within the eddy, which are suitable as a tracer for polluted air originating in India and China. Plotting the retrieved PAN VMRs against potential vorticity (PV) and potential temperature reveals that the PV value at which the PAN VMRs exhibit the strongest decrease with respect to PV increases with potential temperature. These PV values might be used to identify the extent of the ASM. Using temperature values also derived from CRISTA measurements, we also computed the location of the thermal tropopause according to the WMO criterion and find that it confines the PAN anomaly vertically within the main ASM anticyclone. In contrast, the shed eddy exhibits enhanced PAN VMRs for 1 to 2 km above the thermal tropopause. Using the relationship between PAN as a tropospheric tracer and O3 as a stratospheric tracer to identify mixed air parcels, we further found the anticyclone to contain few such air parcels, whereas the region between the anticyclone and the eddy as well as the eddy itself contains many mixed air parcels. In combination, this implies that while the anticyclone confines polluted air masses well, eddy shedding provides a very rapid horizontal transport pathway of Asian pollution into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere with a timescale of only a few days.

  7. 1999 Summer Research Program for High School Juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-10-09

    oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that

  8. Size-resolved morphological properties of the high Arctic summer aerosol during ASCOS-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher-Barth, Evelyne; Leck, Caroline; Jansson, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    The representation of aerosol properties and processes in climate models is fraught with large uncertainties. Especially at high northern latitudes a strong underprediction of aerosol concentrations and nucleation events is observed and can only be constrained by in situ observations based on the analysis of individual aerosol particles. To further reduce the uncertainties surrounding aerosol properties and their potential role as cloud condensation nuclei this study provides observational data resolved over size on morphological and chemical properties of aerosol particles collected in the summer high Arctic, north of 80° N. Aerosol particles were imaged with scanning and transmission electron microscopy and further evaluated with digital image analysis. In total, 3909 aerosol particles were imaged and categorized according to morphological similarities into three gross morphological groups: single particles, gel particles, and halo particles. Single particles were observed between 15 and 800 nm in diameter and represent the dominating type of particles (82 %). The majority of particles appeared to be marine gels with a broad Aitken mode peaking at 70 nm and accompanied by a minor fraction of ammonium (bi)sulfate with a maximum at 170 nm in number concentration. Gel particles (11 % of all particles) were observed between 45 and 800 nm with a maximum at 154 nm in diameter. Imaging with transmission electron microscopy allowed further morphological discrimination of gel particles in "aggregate" particles, "aggregate with film" particles, and "mucus-like" particles. Halo particles were observed above 75 nm and appeared to be ammonium (bi)sulfate (59 % of halo particles), gel matter (19 %), or decomposed gel matter (22 %), which were internally mixed with sulfuric acid, methane sulfonic acid, or ammonium (bi)sulfate with a maximum at 161 nm in diameter. Elemental dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of individual particles revealed a prevalence of the monovalent

  9. A controlled experiment to evaluate the impact of summer research experiences on attitudes towards science in high school aged students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. A.; Tcherednichenko, I.; Hamar, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Litizzette, L.

    2006-12-01

    United States funding agencies increasingly are supporting activities designed to increase the enrollment of United States high school students in science, math, or engineering careers. However, in many cases, the likely outcomes of educational activities are unknown. A common approach within the physical and natural sciences is to provide high school aged students with a summer research experience, with the expectation that such experiences will increase student interest in science, possibly as a career choice. With funding support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Investigator Grant program, we conducted a controlled experiment to test this assumption. In collaboration with Mountain Crest High School in Logan, UT, we recruited 40 students currently enrolled in science courses, assessed attitudes towards science (with informed consent), and randomly assigned 20 students to a control group and 20 students to an experimental group. Students in the experimental group were paired with faculty and graduate students in a wide range of field and laboratory research groups in natural resources and biology. Students were employed in at least two different research groups for an average of 30-40 hours per week for eight weeks in the summer of 2006. Following the completion of the summer work experience, we again assessed attitudes towards science in both groups and gathered additional information from the experimental group on satisfaction with the work experience and reasons for participating. Results are presented and discussed.

  10. Large-scale planetary disturbances in stratospheric temperature at high-latitudes in the Southern Summer Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Shepherd

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The global structure and propagation of large-scale (periods >5 days waves in the Southern Hemisphere summer (December 2006–February 2007 at 60° S–75° S latitude are examined using temperature data from GPS radio occultation measurements by COSMIC/FORMOSAT 3 satellite constellation from 10 to 40 km altitude. Spectral analysis has revealed eastward propagating planetary scale perturbations with wavenumbers 1 and 2 and periods of 10-, 16- and 23 days, zonally symmetric waves with the same periods and stationary waves with wavenumber 1 and 2. The presence of the zonally symmetric waves is interpreted as an indication of the coupling of the stationary and traveling waves. The results obtained show a very dynamically active Antarctic summer stratosphere. The novel aspect of the work is in the use of the GPS COSMIC data providing multiple local times each day, thus allowing large-scale wave analysis at high Southern latitudes and revealing planetary wave activity not normally observed in summer, but more consistent with late winter and spring conditions in the stratosphere.

  11. Turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat over land in the High-Arctic summer: the influence of observation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sjöblom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different observation techniques for atmospheric turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat were tested in a High-Arctic valley in Svalbard during two consecutive summers (June–August in 2010 and 2011. The gradient method (GM and the bulk method (BM have been compared to the more direct eddy covariance method (ECM in order to evaluate if relatively robust and cheap instrumentation with low power consumption can be used as a means to increase the number of observations, especially at remote locations where instruments need to be left unattended for extended periods. Such campaigns increase knowledge about the snow-free surface exchange processes, an area which is relatively little investigated compared to snow-covered ground. The GM agreed closely to the ECM, especially for momentum flux where the two methods agree within 5%. For sensible heat flux, the GM produces, on average, approximately 40% lower values for unstable stratification and 67% lower for stable stratification. However, this corresponds to only 20 and 12 W m−2, respectively. The BM, however, shows a greater scatter and larger differences for both parameters. In addition to testing these methods, radiation properties were measured and the surface albedo was found to increase through the summer, from approximately 0.1 to 0.2. The surface energy budget shows that the sensible heat flux is usually directed upwards for the whole summer, while the latent heat flux is upwards in June, but becomes downward in July and August.

  12. The ECVP/ESVP summer school in veterinary pathology: high-standard, structured training for young veterinary pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, Anja; Aleksandersen, Mona; Benazzi, Cinzia; Hodge, Thomas; Sukura, Antti; Wyers, Monique

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the ECVP/ESVP Summer School in Veterinary Pathology, a new annual two-week European training facility established by the European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP) in collaboration with the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP). The aim of the Summer Schools is to provide Europe-wide, harmonized, top-standard theoretical and practical post-graduate training for veterinarians specializing in veterinary pathology. In particular, it aims to support trainees in veterinary pathology in their individual preparation for the ECVP certifying examination. Ultimately, it aims to provide young pathologists with the skills and knowledge necessary to participate in international, high-quality research and the tools for applying international standards to their own research and for independent study for the ECVP certifying examination, even if they do not work in comparable academic environments and do not have the same level of local support and training. The ECVP/ESVP Summer Schools take place in European countries, with local organization from a university department of veterinary pathology. Each event comprises modules provided by internationally recognized specialists in their specific fields of expertise on different organ systems, diseases of specific species, specific techniques, and specific topics relevant to pathology, forming a cycle of four events to cover all major topics. Every two years a mock exam is organized as a tool to monitor individual progress in preparing for the ECVP certifying examination. PMID:18287477

  13. Methane Emissions from a Beef Cattle Feedyard during Winter and Summer on the Southern High Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W; Altman, Miriam B; Cole, N Andy; Waldrip, Heidi M

    2014-07-01

    Methane (CH) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle being the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, improve predictive models, and meet potential regulatory requirements. Our objective was to quantify CH emissions during winter and summer at a typical beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains in Texas. Methane emissions were quantified over 32 d in winter and 44 d in summer using open-path lasers and inverse dispersion analysis. Methane per capita emission rate (PCER) ranged from 71 to 118 g animal d in winter and from 70 to 130 g animal d in summer. Mean CH PCER was similar in January, February, and May (average, 85.0 ± 0.95 g animal d) and increased to 93.4 g animal d during the June-July period. This increase coincided with increased dietary fiber. Methane loss ranged from 9.2 to 11.4 g CH kg dry matter intake, with lower values during winter. Gross energy intake (GEI) ranged from 135.2 to 164.5 MJ animal d, and CH energy loss ranged from 4.5 to 4.9 MJ animal d. Fraction of GEI lost as CH (Y) averaged 2.8% in winter, 3.2% in summer, and 3.0% overall. These values confirm the Y value currently recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for Tier 2 estimates of enteric CH from feedlot fed cattle. PMID:25603061

  14. Summer Vacation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁静

    2008-01-01

    @@ For teachers: Summer Camp in the USA by Jerilyn Watson Millions of American children attend all kinds of summer camps.Some play sports.Others make music,learn to use a computer or take part in other activities.Traditional American summer camps offer young people a chance to play many sports.These camps may be in the mountains.Or they may be in the woods,or at a lake.Other camps teach activities like painting or music.Or they teach computer programming or foreign languages.Children at all kinds of camps meet new friends.They learn new skills and develop independence.

  15. Technical Training: ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Summer Term (May 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series.This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms. The last two Terms will run with the following schedule: Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) - now open for registration Autumn Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 10h00 to 12h30. The course will be in English, with questions and answers also possible in French. Separate registrati...

  16. Technical Training: ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Summer Term (May 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series. This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms. The Winter (Introduction to electronics in HEP) and Spring (Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics) Terms already took place; the next two Terms will run with the following schedule: Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) - now open for registration Autumn Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesday...

  17. Last Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan, We have been quite lucky last summer. lt has not been as hot and humid as it is mostsummers. We have only had two weeks of terrible weather. You know that I am not very fond ofthe summer. In fact, I hate it. I prefer the winter. I would rather be up to my neck in snow thanbe hot! So I guess you could say that Philadelphia is not a very good home for me. You know

  18. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  19. Detailed Analysis of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Processes with Modern/High-Quality Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2007-01-01

    We examine, in detail, Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall processes using modernhigh quality satellite precipitation measurements. The focus here is on measurements derived from three NASA cloud and precipitation satellite missionslinstruments (TRMM/PR&TMI, AQUNAMSRE, and CLOUDSATICPR), and a fourth TRMM Project-generated multi-satellite precipitation measurement dataset (viz., TRMM standard algorithm 3b42) -- all from a period beginning in 1998 up to the present. It is emphasized that the 3b42 algorithm blends passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-based precipitation estimates from LEO satellites with infi-ared (IR) precipitation estimates from a world network of CEO satellites (representing -15% of the complete space-time coverage) All of these observations are first cross-calibrated to precipitation estimates taken from standard TRMM combined PR-TMI algorithm 2b31, and second adjusted at the large scale based on monthly-averaged rain-gage measurements. The blended approach takes advantage of direct estimates of precipitation from the PMW radiometerequipped LEO satellites -- but which suffer fi-om sampling limitations -- in combination with less accurate IR estimates from the optical-infrared imaging cameras on GEO satellites -- but which provide continuous diurnal sampling. The advantages of the current technologies are evident in the continuity and coverage properties inherent to the resultant precipitation datasets that have been an outgrowth of these stable measuring and retrieval technologies. There is a wealth of information contained in the current satellite measurements of precipitation regarding the salient precipitation properties of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Using different datasets obtained from the measuring systems noted above, we have analyzed the observations cast in the form of: (1) spatially distributed means and variances over the hierarchy of relevant time scales (hourly I diurnally, daily, monthly, seasonally I intra-seasonally, and inter

  20. Low and high frequency Madden-Julian oscillations in austral summer: interannual variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Takeshi [Research Institute For Global Change (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); LOCEAN, IRD-CNRS-UPMC, Paris (France); Masson, Sebastien; Vialard, Jerome; Madec, Gurvan [LOCEAN, IRD-CNRS-UPMC, Paris (France); Boyer Montegut, Clement de [IFREMER, Brest (France); Behera, Swadhin K. [Research Institute For Global Change (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); Takahashi, Keiko [Earth Simulator Center (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, Toshio [Research Institute For Global Change (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the main component of intraseasonal variability of the tropical convection, with clear climatic impacts at an almost-global scale. Based on satellite observations, it is shown that there are two types of austral-summer MJO events (broadly defined as 30-120 days convective variability with eastward propagation of about 5 m/s). Equatorial MJO events have a period of 30-50 days and tend to be symmetric about the equator, whereas MJO events centered near 8 S tend to have a longer period of 55-100 days. The lower-frequency variability is associated with a strong upper-ocean response, having a clear signature in both sea surface temperature and its diurnal cycle. These two MJO types have different interannual variations, and are modulated by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Following a negative IOD event, the lower-frequency southern MJO variability increases, while the higher-frequency equatorial MJO strongly diminishes. We propose two possible explanations for this change in properties of the MJO. One possibility is that changes in the background atmospheric circulation after an IOD favour the development of the low-frequency MJO. The other possibility is that the shallower thermocline ridge and mixed layer depth, by enhancing SST intraseasonal variability and thus ocean-atmosphere coupling in the southwest Indian Ocean (the breeding ground of southern MJO onset), favour the lower-frequency southern MJO variability. (orig.)

  1. Aerosol cloud activation in summer and winter at puy-de-Dôme high altitude site in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN size distributions and numbers were measured for the first time at Puy-de-Dôme high altitude (1465 m a.s.l site in Central France. Majority of the measurements were done at constant supersaturation (SS of 0.24%, which was also deduced to be representative of the typical in-cloud SS at the site. CCN numbers during summer ranged from about 200 up to 2000 cm−3 and during winter from 50 up to 3000 cm−3. Variability of CCN number was explained by both particle chemistry and size distribution variability. The higher CCN concentrations were measured in continental, in contrast to marine, air masses. Aerosol CCN activity was described with a single hygroscopicity parameter κ. Range of this parameter was 0.29 ± 0.13 in summer and 0.43 ± 0.19 in winter. When calculated using SS of 0.51% during summer, κ of 0.22 ± 0.07 was obtained. The decrease with increasing SS is likely explained by the particle size dependent chemistry with smaller particles containing higher amounts of freshly emitted organic species. Higher κ values during winter were for the most part explained by the observed aged organics (analysed from organic m/z 44 ratio rather than from aerosol organic to inorganic volume fraction. The obtained κ values also fit well within the range of previously proposed global continental κ of 0.27 ± 0.21. During winter, the smallest κ values and the highest organic fractions were measured in marine air masses. CCN closure using bulk AMS chemistry led to positive bias of 5% and 2% in winter and summer, respectively. This is suspected to stem from size dependent aerosol organic fraction, which is underestimated by using AMS bulk mass composition. Finally, the results were combined with size distributions measured from interstitial and whole air inlets to obtain activated droplet size distributions. Cloud droplet number concentrations were shown to increase with accumulation mode

  2. Aerosol cloud activation in summer and winter at puy-de-Dôme high altitude site in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN size distributions and numbers were measured for the first time at Puy-de-Dôme high altitude (1465 m a.s.l site in Central France. Majority of the measurements were done at constant supersaturation (SS of 0.24%, which was also deduced to be representative of the typical in-cloud SS at the site. CCN numbers during summer ranged from about 200 up to 2000 cm−3 and during winter from 50 up to 3000 cm−3. Variability of CCN number was explained by both particle chemistry and size distribution variability. The higher CCN concentrations were measured in continental, in contrast to marine, air masses. Aerosol CCN activity was described with a single hygroscopicity parameter κ. Range of this parameter was 0.29 ± 0.13 in summer and 0.43 ± 0.19 in winter. When calculated using SS of 0.51% during summer, κ of 0.22 ± 0.07 was obtained. The decrease with increasing SS is likely explained by the particle size dependent chemistry with smaller particles containing higher amounts of freshly emitted organic species. Higher κ values during winter were for the most part explained by the observed aged organics (analysed from organic m/z 44 ratio rather than from aerosol organic to inorganic volume fraction. The obtained κ values also fit well within the range of previously proposed global continental κ of 0.27 ± 0.21. During winter, the smallest κ values and the highest organic fractions were measured in marine air masses. CCN closure using bulk AMS chemistry led to positive bias of 5% and 2% in winter and summer, respectively. This is suspected to stem from size dependent aerosol organic fraction, which is underestimated by using AMS bulk mass composition. Finally, the results were combined with size distributions measured from interstitial and whole air inlets to obtain activated droplet size distributions. Cloud droplet number concentrations were shown to increase with accumulation mode

  3. A high-resolved record of the Asian Summer Monsoon from Dongge Cave, China for the past 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kan; Wang, Yongjin; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Liu, Dianbing; Kong, Xinggong

    2015-08-01

    Two annually-laminated and 230Th-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from Dongge Cave, China, provided a high-resolution Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) history for the past 1200 years. A close similarity between annual band thickness and stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ18O) suggests the calcite δ18O is most likely a proxy associated with ASM precipitation. The two duplicated stalagmite δ18O records show that the ASM varies at a periodicity of ∼220 years, concordant with a dominant cycle of solar activity. A period of strong ASM activity occurred during the Spörer Minimum (1450-1550 A.D.), followed by a striking drop circa 1580 A.D., potentially consistent with the social unrest in the final decades of China's Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.). Centennial-scale changes in ASM precipitation over the last millennium match well with changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and South American summer monsoon precipitation. Our findings suggest that variations in low-latitude monsoon precipitation are probably driven by shifts in the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is further mediated by solar activity and tropical SSTs.

  4. The geographical distribution of meteorological parameters associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere and the boundary layer over the eastern Mediterranean (Cairo case)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalabokas, Pavlos D.; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Boulanger, Damien; Repapis, Christos C.

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of previous research for evaluation of the high ozone levels observed during summer time over the eastern Mediterranean, MOZAIC profiles collected at the airport of Cairo from 1994 to 2008 are analysed. Average profiles corresponding, respectively, to the highest and the lowest ozone mixing ratios for the 0–1.5 km layer over Cairo in summer (JJA) (94 profiles) are examined along with their corresponding composite maps of geopotential height (and anomalies), vertical velocity (...

  5. Nuclear science and technology, a four-week residential summer program for high school rising seniors at NCSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the North Carolina State University (NCSU) Department of Nuclear Engineering (NE Department) established a 2-week residential summer program on nuclear science and technology for high school rising seniors to stimulate their interest in nuclear engineering as a career. The program was designed with the following goals in mind: (1) to expose the students to mathematics and science fundamentals, which are essential for a career in science or engineering; (2) to demonstrate the use of nuclear energy and nuclear techniques in areas that affect the well being, technical progress, and the shape of our society; (3) to acquaint the students with the resources of NCSU when contemplating a career in science of engineering; and (4) to provide a relaxed setting for student-faculty interaction, which can provide motivation and guidance toward a career in science or engineering and ease the transition from high school to college

  6. Summer Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    During the evening hours of the summer of 2005, there will be numerous opportunities to observe several of the brighter planets as they move along their respective orbits, overtaking and passing one another, performing a planetary dance with the choreography set to orbital speeds. With the exception of Mars, the visible planets will all be in the…

  7. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer monsoon simulation using a regional climate model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C K Unnikrishnan; M Rajeevan; S Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2016-06-01

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climatemodel in recent years over Indian summer monsoon region is investigated. Two sets of regional climatemodel simulations are performed, one with a coarse resolution land surface initial conditions and secondone used a high resolution land surface data for initial condition. The results show that all monsoonyears respond differently to the high resolution land surface initialization. The drought monsoon year2009 and extended break periods were more sensitive to the high resolution land surface initialization.These results suggest that the drought monsoon year predictions can be improved with high resolutionland surface initialization. Result also shows that there are differences in the response to the land surfaceinitialization within the monsoon season. Case studies of heat wave and a monsoon depression simulationshow that, the model biases were also improved with high resolution land surface initialization. Theseresults show the need for a better land surface initialization strategy in high resolution regional modelsfor monsoon forecasting.

  8. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer monsoon simulation using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, C. K.; Rajeevan, M.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara

    2016-06-01

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years over Indian summer monsoon region is investigated. Two sets of regional climate model simulations are performed, one with a coarse resolution land surface initial conditions and second one used a high resolution land surface data for initial condition. The results show that all monsoon years respond differently to the high resolution land surface initialization. The drought monsoon year 2009 and extended break periods were more sensitive to the high resolution land surface initialization. These results suggest that the drought monsoon year predictions can be improved with high resolution land surface initialization. Result also shows that there are differences in the response to the land surface initialization within the monsoon season. Case studies of heat wave and a monsoon depression simulation show that, the model biases were also improved with high resolution land surface initialization. These results show the need for a better land surface initialization strategy in high resolution regional models for monsoon forecasting.

  9. Introducing SummerTime: A package for high-precision computation of sums appearing in DRA1 method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Mingulov, Kirill T.

    2016-06-01

    We present the Mathematica  package SummerTime  for arbitrary-precision computation of sums appearing in the results of DRA method (Lee, 2010). So far these results include the following families of the integrals: 3-loop onshell massless vertices, 3-loop onshell mass operator type integrals, 4-loop QED-type tadpoles, 4-loop massless propagators (Lee et al., 2010; Lee and Smirnov, 2011; Lee et al., 2011, 2012). The package can be used for high-precision numerical computation of the expansion of the integrals from the above families around arbitrary space-time dimension. In addition, this package contains convenient tools for the calculation of multiple zeta values, harmonic polylogarithms and other transcendental numbers expressed in terms of nested sums with factorized summand.

  10. Predictors of Summer Sun Safety Practice Intentions among Rural High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Sands, Laura P.; Wilson, Kari M.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the association between theoretically grounded psychosocial motivators and the sun safety practice intentions of rural youth. Method: A survey was given to 219 members of FFA (Future Farmers of America) at high schools in the rural Midwest (average age = 16). Results: Perceived self-efficacy, peer norms, response efficacy, and…

  11. Pathways to the Geosciences Summer High School Program: A Ten-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tina L.; Miller, Kate C.; Hagedorn, Eric A.; Smith-Konter, Bridget R.; Velasco, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    The high demand for scientists and engineers in the workforce means that there is a continuing need for more strategies to increase student completion in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. The challenge lies in finding and enacting effective strategies to increase students' completion of STEM degrees and in recruiting…

  12. A summer blender camp: modeling, rendering, and animation for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mike; Law, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    At Camp Blender, high-school students of varying backgrounds learned how to use the Blender software package to create computer graphics content. In a postclass survey, most of them indicated that the camp affected how they thought about their career path. PMID:24808169

  13. High-frequency transient and oscillation features related to wet and dry summer monsoons over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Ju, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using precipitation observations over China, the zonal wind of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of NOAA, the features of high-frequency transient (HFT) and oscillation for eight continuous summer monsoons from 1997 to 2004 are studied. (1) The standard deviation analysis reveals the large variability of precipitation is always located in the Yangtze River valley and/or South China. (2) With the wavelet analysis of precipitation, the 2-16-day HFT is most effective over both wet and dry regions of East China. Only in 1998, the 30-40-day oscillation plays an important part in heavy precipitation over the Yangtze River valley. (3) After filtering, the 2-16-day HFT of precipitation does not display northward propagation over East China in 1998 and 1999. The heavy precipitation is closely related with the phase locking of 2-16-day HFT and 30-40-day oscillation in 1998. However, the phase locking is not a necessary condition for the heavy precipitation. In the dry year (2001), the intensity of effective HFT is much weaker than in the wet year (1998 and 1999). (4) The 30-40-day/40-60-day oscillation of zonal wind presents over South China in 1998/the northern part of South China Sea in 1999 and the southern part of South China Sea in 2001. The comparison of locations between the anomalous rainband and the effective oscillation of zonal wind indicates that the south-north location of anomalous rainband is closely associated with the location of 30-40-day/40-60-day oscillation of zonal wind. (5) OLR cannot present the spatial discontinuity or break of precipitation anomalies over East China. Also, with the wavelet analysis of OLR departure time series, any relationship between the variabilities of OLR and wet or dry summer monsoon cannot be concluded over East China.

  14. PREP Program: High school urban engineering technical progress report, Summer 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Urban Engineering Program at the New Jersey Institute of Technology which as its primary objective is to introduce the students to the excitement of science and engineering as potential career opportunities, and to encourage the youngsters to adequately prepare in high school and in college for such an attainable endeavor. Through the course work, workshops, projects, guest speakers, and laboratory experiences, the students are not only introduced to the problems in urban areas, but also are introduced to the tools and analysis available to solve such problems.

  15. Highly Polar Organic Compounds in Summer Cloud Water from Whiteface Mountain, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, J. A.; Dukett, J. E.; Mazurek, M.

    2010-12-01

    Highly polar organic compounds (HPOC) containing multiple oxygen atoms are of interest due to the aerosol direct and indirect effects and uncertainty they may contribute to climate forcing. Atmospheric HPOC exist as particulate or dissolved chemical species depending on relative humidity. HPOC solid mixtures are thought to scatter and absorb light due to particle size and color (white to yellow). Understanding the chemical composition of HPOC in cloud water (CW) is important for modeling and predicting the direct and indirect influences of this organic aerosol component on the climate system. In this initial study we present a detailed molecular examination of 10 CW samples. CW samples were collected in September 2009 using an automated CW collector at Whiteface Mountain (elevation 1483 m) in the Adirondack Mountains in upstate NY. We performed QA/QC experiments for the CW samples and analyzed the HPOC mixtures by ultratrace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Diacids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid were major components of the CW HPOC with concentrations on the order of 15 ng/mL. Substituted diacids, monoacids, and sugars also were present. We discuss the possible sources of these compounds in light of back-trajectory analysis.

  16. Summer Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    One of the most famous parks to go to in Beijing is the Summer Palace.It is located in the western suburbs of Beijing.It is easy to go there by bus,by taxi of by bike.It is one of the most and biggest parks in Beijing.There is beautiful Kumming Lake in the park.It is a man-made lake.In front of the lake,there is the 700-meter Long Corridor.Behind it is the Longevity Hill.There are some magnificent halls and

  17. Preliminary Outcomes from a Week-Long Environmental Engineering Summer Camp for High School Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for environment engineers and sustainability managers to address global environmental, energy and health challenges. Environmental literacy programs at K-12 level provide a unique opportunity in motivating young minds in joining STEM and also provide additional value in learning about "saving planet earth". The Women in Engineering at the University of Illinois organize an annual week long camp, for female high school students with tracks corresponding to different fields of Engineering. The Environmental Engineering and Sustainability (EES) track is organized by faculty and graduate students of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department and introduces students to concepts in sustainability and systems thinking in connection with air and water quality, climate change and renewable energy. This study is a preliminary assessment of the relevance of the EES outreach track conducted in July 2014 in student learning. Specific goals include assessing (a) demographics of participants and their motivation to join this camp, (b) educational and enjoyability quotients of the modules and (c) learning and motivational outcomes using the Likert scale. A pre-camp survey indicated keen interest in learning about environmental engineering (4.56/5.0) and expected this camp to be a venue to learn about related career choices (4.9/5.0). Five days of instruction were divided thematically and included a mix of lectures, activity based learning, demonstrations and field visits. Overall modules were rated as educational (4.4/5.0) and enjoyable (4.5/5.0). Modules with hands-on learning were best received (4.67/5.0) and rated unique (4.7/5.0). Post camp, participants acknowledged the important contribution of environmental engineers to society (4.8/5.0) and could relate the different modules to the role engineer's play (4.06/5.0) for sustainability. On an average, the participants evinced interest in engineering as a career choice (4.0/5.0) but there was a broader

  18. 1991 Summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhofer, David D.

    1991-09-01

    Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student's parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.

  19. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 6 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. CERUTTI (CERN) Presentation of the Summer Student Programme D. Heagerty (CERN) Computer rules O. ULLALAND (CERN) Workshops presentation 10:15 - 11:00 D. SCHLATTER (CERN) Introduction to CERN 11:15 Film on CERN Thursday 7 July 09:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1-2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session 14:00 - 14:45 M. Lindroos (CERN) ISOLDE Facility 15:00 M. Lindroos (CERN) ISOLDE Visit Friday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Introduction to Nuclear Physics (2/3) 11:15 - 12:00 G. ROLANDI (CERN) How an experiment is designed (1/2) 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 11 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physi...

  20. The Ticosonde/NAME 2004 Experiment: A Program of High-Frequency Rawinsonde Observations over Costa Rica During Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Amador Astua, J.; Zárate Hernandez, E.; Fernández Rojas, W.; Valdés Gonzáles, J.; Diaz Diaz, J.; Pfister, L.; Miloshevich, L.; Stolz, W.; Heinrich Bettoni, K.

    2004-12-01

    Ticosonde/NAME 2004 is a collaboration between NASA, the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME), the Instituto Meteorológico Nacional and four other academic and scientific institutions in Costa Rica to characterize the vertical structure and temporal variability of the atmosphere over Central America during summer. The Ticosonde/NAME observations were made four times per day (00, 06, 12 and 18 UT) from Juan Santamaria International Airport (WMO station 78762) between June 16 and September 6, 2004. 318 successful ascents were made over the course of the 83-day campaign with Vaisala GPS rawinsondes, of which 220 were made with the RS-90 sonde equipped with a dual-humicap system for measuring relative humidity; the remaining ascents used the RS80-15G sonde. Despite the frequent presence of deep convective clouds locally, most of the sondes ascended well into the stratosphere, with an average burst altitude of over 23 km or ~30 hPa. Data every two seconds were archived from the sondes, permitting the application of corrections to remove the known time-lag errors in the RS-90 humicap system. Since ascents were routinely made within 90 minutes of both the ascending and descending nodes of the Aqua satellite, the corrected data will provide an opportunity to validate the AIRS water vapor measurements, particularly in the tropical tropopause layer, where accurate humidity measurements are not obtained on a routine basis. The temperature data through the first half of the experiment show a relatively weak cycle in the characteristics of the tropopause, with the time-mean tropopause potential temperature through the end of July ranging from a minimum of 360.6 K at 6 PM (00 UT) to a maximum of 364 K at local noon (18 UT). The tropopause through this same period had a mean pressure, temperature and potential temperature of 115.3 hPa, -78.1 °C and 362.4 K, respectively. Fluctuations about these means were substantial, with the tropopause as high as 88.9 hPa and as low as

  1. Recent ice cap snowmelt in Russian High Arctic and anti-correlation with late summer sea ice extent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glacier surface melt dynamics throughout Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) serve as a good indicator of ice mass ablation and regional climate change in the Russian High Arctic. Here we report trends of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) by combining multiple resolution-enhanced active and passive microwave satellite datasets and analyze the TMD correlations with local temperature and regional sea ice extent. The glacier surface snowpack on SevZ melted significantly earlier (−7.3 days/decade) from 1992 to 2012 and significantly longer (7.7 days/decade) from 1995 to 2011. NovZ experienced large interannual variability in MOD, but its annual mean TMD increased. The snowpack melt on NovZ is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than SevZ in recent decades. After ruling out the regional temperature influence using partial correlation analysis, the TMD on both archipelagoes is statistically anti-correlated with regional late summer sea ice extent, linking land ice snowmelt dynamics to regional sea ice extent variations. (letter)

  2. Discussion on High Yield Cultivation Techniques of Summer Corn without Tillage%夏玉米免耕高产高效栽培技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 王为联; 余福州

    2014-01-01

    Starting from introducing the advantages of machinery direct seeding summer corn without tillage, the high yield cultivation techniques of summer corn without tillage were elaborated from the following aspects, including stubble treatment, the choice of varieties and seed treatment, planting and field management, etc. The results provided technical references for summer corn production.%从介绍夏玉米免耕机械直播的优点出发,阐述了夏玉米免耕高产高效栽培技术,包括麦茬处理、选用品种及种子处理、播种及田间管理等方面,为夏玉米生产提供了技术参考。

  3. "I Actually Contributed to Their Research": The Influence of an Abbreviated Summer Apprenticeship Program in Science and Engineering for Diverse High-School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research…

  4. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 11 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (4/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Introduction to Nuclear Physics (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 G. ROLANDI (CERN) How an experiment is designed (2/2) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 12 July  09:15 - 11:00 O. BrÜning (CERN) Accelerators (1-2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 O. ULLALAND (CERN) Detectors (1/5) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 13 July 09:15 - 10:00 O. BrÜning (CERN) Accelerators (3/5) 10:15 - 11:00 R. LANDUA (CERN) Antimatter in the Lab (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 O. ULLALAND (CERN) Detectors (2/5) 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 14 July 09:15 - 10:00 O. ULLALAND (CERN) Detectors (3/5) 10:15 - 11:00 G. ROLANDI (CERN) Antimatter in the Lab (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 O. BrÜning (CERN) Accelerators (4/5) 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 1...

  5. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 25 July 09:15 - 11:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (2-3/8) 11:15 - 12:00 J. STACHEL Quark Gluon Plasma Physics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 26 July 09:15 - 10:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (4/8) 10:15 - 12:00 J. STACHEL Quark Gluon Plasma Physics (2-3/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 27 July 09:15 - 11:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (5-6/8) 11:15 - 12:00 J-P. DELAHAYE The CLIC Concept and Technology for an e+e-Collider at the Energy Frontier 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 28 July 09:15 - 10:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (7/8) 10:15 - 11:00 P. SPHICAS Data Acquisition Systems (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 R. JACOBSEN From Raw data to Physics Results (1/2) 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (8/8) 10:15 - 11:00 P. SPHICAS Data Acquisition Systems (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 R. JACOBSEN Fr...

  6. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Monday 8 August 09:15 - 10:00 A. Höcker CP Violation (3/4) 10:15 - 12:00 J-J. GOMEZ-CADENAS Neutrino Physics (1-2/4) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 9 August 09:15 - 10:00 A. Höcker CP Violation (4/4) 10:15 - 11:00 J-J. GOMEZ-CADENAS Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. GREY The GRID 12:00 Discussion Session 14:15 - 17:00 Student Sessions Wednesday 10 August 09:15 - 10:00 J-J. GOMEZ-CADENAS Neutrino Physics (4/4) 10:15 - 12:00 J. LESGOURGUES Introduction to Cosmology (1-2/5) 12:00 Discussion Session 14:15 - 17:00 Student Sessions Thursday 11 August 09:15 - 11:00 J. LESGOURGUES Introduction to Cosmology (3-4/5) 11:15 - 12:00 G. KALMUS The ILC Story 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 12 August 09:15 - 10:00 J. LESGOURGUES Introduction to Cosmology (5/5) 10:15 - 11:00 G. VENEZIANO String theory: has Einstein's dream come true? 11:00  Discussion...

  7. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 18 July 09:15 - 11:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (1-2/6) 11:15 - 12:00 N. PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE Astroparticle Physics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 19 July 09:15 - 10:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (3/6) 10:15 - 12:00 N. PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE Astroparticle Physics (2-3/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 20 July 09:15 - 10:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (4/6) 10:15 - 11:00 F. RADEMAKERS ROOT 11:15 - 12:00 L. ROSSI Super-conducting magnet technology for particle accelerators and detectors 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 21 July 09:15 - 10:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (5/6) 10:15 - 12:00 C. DE LA TAILLE Introduction to Electronics (1-2/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 22 July 09:15 - 10:00 C. DE LA TAILLE Introduction to Electronics (3/3) 10:15 -...

  8. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 P. WELLS The Higgs Saga at LEP 10:15 - 11:00 E. KIRITSIS Beyond the Standard Model (1/4) 11:15 - 12:00 G. COWAN Introduction to Statistics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 2 August 09:15 - 11:00 E. KIRITSIS Beyond the Standard Model (2-3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 G. COWAN Introduction to Statistics (2/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 3 August 09:15 - 10:00 G. COWAN Introduction to Statistics (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 E. KIRITSIS Beyond the Standard Model (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 K. JAKOBS Physics at Hadronic Colliders (1/4) 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 4 August 09:15 - 11:00 K. JAKOBS Physics at Hadronic Colliders (2-3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 A. WEINSTEIN Gravitation Waves 12:00 Discussion Session 16:30 - 18:00 Poster Session Friday 5 August 09:15 - 11:00 A. Höcker CP Violation (1-2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 K. JA...

  9. Publication of the proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF summer study on new directions for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of the Proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF Summer Study in High-Energy Physics built on the methods, lessons, and technology of the production process used for the Proceedings of the 1995 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC95). The Snowmass proceedings project started with a much smaller budget and a shorter production schedule, resulting in a much more ambitious plan. The goal was, as for PAC95, to produce both a paper and a CD version of the proceedings. This time, the goal was to complete the project in only 6 months, using half of a staff person from the SLAC Technical Publications Department (responsible for technical design and implementation as well as project management), along with 6 months of a full-time temporary employee to answer the phone and coordinate author support. The conference editors and the author decided on a strategy using the World Wide Web for submission and quality assurance testing. The resulting procedure allowed authors to check the quality of their own PDF files, prevented random browsing of papers before publication of the proceedings, and required minimal human intervention (though they easily could have used a few more bodies manning the help lines). To this end, they set up a Power Macintosh running FileMaker Pro 3.0 (a relational database application), WebSTAR (Macintosh Web server software), WEB/FM (CGI package for FileMaker Pro/WebSTAR interface), and NetPresenz (Macintosh ftp server) and created a gatewayed mailing list and newsgroup for authors needing technical support

  10. Proceedings of the 1996 DPF/DPB Summer Study on New Directions in High-energy Physics (Snowmass 96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of the Proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF Summer Study in High-Energy Physics built on the methods, lessons, and technology of the production process used for the Proceedings of the 1995 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC95). For PAC95, authors were asked to submit PostScript, source files, and hard copy. Producing the proceedings took 16 months of official FTE in addition to countless hours of volunteer work by two additional people--the entire production process was accomplished in just under 9 months. In that time, the PAC95 production team quality checked every file (1099 submissions, totaling 3429 pages) and rebuilt about two thirds of them to fix problems with fonts and figures, and various other problems. Needless to say, this was an expensive process. The Snowmass proceedings project started with a much smaller budget and a shorter production schedule, resulting in a much more ambitious plan. The goal was, as for PAC95, to produce both a paper and a CD version of the proceedings. This time, the goal was to complete the project in only 6 months, using half of a staff person from the SLAC Technical Publications Department (responsible for technical design and implementation as well as project management), along with 6 months of a full-time temporary employee to answer the phone and coordinate author support. The conference editors and I decided on a strategy using the World Wide Web for submission and quality assurance testing. The resulting procedure allowed authors to check the quality of their own PDF files, prevented random browsing of papers before publication of the proceedings, and required minimal human intervention (though we easily could have used a few more bodies manning the help lines). To this end, we set up a Power Macintosh running FileMaker Pro 3.0 (a relational database application), WebSTAR (Macintosh Web server software), WEB/FM (CGI package for FileMaker Pro/ WebSTAR interface), and NetPresenz (Macintosh ftp server) and created

  11. Denali Geographic 2012 : A University led scientific field experience for High School students at the Alaska Summer Research Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Burke, S.; Chebul, E.; Dempsey, A.; Hastings, H.; Terry, R.; Drake, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) annually provides the opportunity for ~150 exceptional high school students to engage in scientific exploration at the university level. In July 2012, University of Alaska Fairbanks instructors led a two-week long ASRA module, called 'Denali Geographic', where eight student participants from across the USA and Canada learned how to observe changes in the natural world and design their own experiments for a field expedition to Denali National Park and Preserve, with assistance from the National Park Service. Each student designed an experiment/observational project prior to the expedition to investigate changes across the expanse of the park. Projects included wildlife documentation; scat and track observations; soil ph and moisture with elevation and vegetation changes; wildflowers species distribution; waterborne insect populations; atmospheric pressure and temperature variations; construction of sustainable buildings to minimize human impact on the park; and park geology comparisons between outcrop and distal stream deposits. The students learned how to design experiments, purchase supplies needed to conduct the work, and select good locations in which to sample in the park. Students used equipment such as GPS to mark field locations; a range finder to determine distance from wildlife; a hygrometer for temperature and pressure; nets and sorting equipments to analyze insects; and the preparation of Plaster of Paris for creating casts of animal tracks. All observations were documented in their field notebooks and blog entries made to share their experiences. Day excursions as part of the module included Poker Flats Research Range, where students learned about the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in scientific exploration; Alaska Volcano Observatory, where students learned about volcanic hazards in Alaska and the North Pacific; Chena Hot Springs and the Ice Museum, where students learned about thermal imaging using a Forward

  12. Doppler-shifting effects on frequency spectra of gravity waves observed near the summer mesopause at high latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of radar observations of horizontal and vertical velocities near the summer mesopause at Poker Flat (Alaska), showing that the observed vertical velocity spectra were influenced strongly by Doppler-shifting effects. The horizontal velocity spectra, however, were relatively insensitive to horizontal wind speed. The observed spectra are compared with predicted spectra for various models of the intrinsic motion spectrum and degrees of Doppler shifting.

  13. The Summer School Alpbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitsch Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty young, highly qualified European science and engineering students converge annually for stimulating 10 days of work in the Austrian Alps. Four teams are formed, each of which designs a space mission, which are then judged by a jury of experts. Students learn how to approach the design of a satellite mission and explore new and startling ideas supported by experts. The Summer School Alpbach enjoys more than 30 years of tradition in providing in-depth teaching on different topics of space science and space technology, featuring lectures and concentrated working sessions on mission studies in self-organised working groups. The Summer School is organised by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG and co-sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA, the International Space Science Institute (ISSI, and the national space authorities of its member and cooperating states.

  14. Temporal Variations of the Spring Persistent Rains and South China Sea Sub-high and Their Correlations to the Circulation and Precipitation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Rijin; WANG Tongmei; WU Guoxiong

    2008-01-01

    National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) rainfall data and NCEP/NCAR dally circulation reanalysis data are employed to establish the onset-pentad time index of the spring persistent rains (SPR) and the decay-pentad time index of the South China Sea (SCS) sub-high. These indexes are used to study the relationship between the factors in SPR period and their relations to the circulation and precipitation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). Results show that, the summer rainfall over southeastern China decreases when SPR onset is late. For then EASM strengthens and the cyclonic circulation around the Tibetan Plateau (TP) strengthens, which makes abnormal anti-cyclonic circulation (cyclonic convergent circulation weakens) appear over southeastern China. When the decay of SCS sub-high delays, abnormal flood prevails over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) and to the south. That is mainly caused by EASM weakening while SCS sub-high strengthening, then the abnormal southwesterly over South China and the abnormal northerlies of anti-cyclonic circulation around the TP converge over the Yangtze Valley. The two indexes have high correlations with multivariate ENSO index (MEI) in March, indicating that the climate abnormity in East Asia is rclated to global climate abnormity tightly. The two time indexes are independent of each other, which is favorable for the prediction of the anomalies of the circulation and precipitation of EASM. From this point of view, we must take the global climate background into account when we analyze and predict the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation.

  15. Comparative analysis on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments before and after the adoption of metal bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Hayato; Mino, Yoshio; Babazono, Akira; Ogawa,Takanori; Aoyama, Hideyasu

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the influence of the introduction of metal bats on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments, a comparative analysis was conducted between height, body weight, body-weight ratio (body weight/height), batting average and home run average of the best four teams' players (n = 493) and those of the other teams' players (n = 4,590) in three periods: the period of the use of wooden bats, that of the use of both wooden and meta...

  16. Influence of high organic loads during the summer period on the performance of hybrid constructed wetlands (VSSF + HSSF) treating domestic wastewater in the Alps region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Ortigara, A R C; Ruaben, J; Andreottola, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the limits for the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) in mountain regions (such as the Alps) is associated with the considerable land area requirements. In some mountain areas, the treatment of domestic wastewater at popular tourist destinations is particularly difficult during the summer, when the presence of visitors increases hydraulic and organic loads. This paper aims to evaluate whether a hybrid CW plant designed on the basis of the resident population only, can treat also the additional load produced by the floating population during the tourist period (summer, when temperatures are favourable for biological treatment), without a drastic decrease of efficiency and without clogging problems. The research was carried out by considering two operational periods: the first one was based on literature indications (3.2 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit) and the second one assumed higher hydraulic and organic loads (1.3 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system decreased slightly from 94 to 88% for COD removal and from 78 to 75% for total N removal, even after applying a double hydraulic (from 55 to 123 L m(-2) d(-1)) and organic load (from 37 to 87 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and from 4.4 to 10.3 g TKN m(-2) d(-1)). The results showed that in the summer period the application of high loads did not affect the efficiency of the hybrid CW plant significantly, suggesting that it is possible to refer the CW design to the resident population only, with subsequent considerable savings in superficial area. PMID:22339024

  17. Slithering into Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The summer provides a unique opportunity for children to further their interests in science, especially science in the out-of-doors. Once school is out for the summer, there is seemingly unlimited time, with no strict curriculum guidelines to follow. For students with a passion for the out-of-doors, summer science camps and school-based summer…

  18. Slowing the Summer Slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that summer slide--the loss of learning over the summer break--is a huge contributor to the achievement gap between low-income students and their higher-income peers. In fact, some researchers have concluded that two-thirds of the 9th-grade reading achievement gap can be explained by unequal access to summer learning opportunities…

  19. High resolution Lateglacial and early-Holocene summer air temperature records from Scotland inferred from chironomid assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen J.; Matthews, Ian P.; Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.

    2012-05-01

    Lateglacial and early-Holocene mean July air temperatures have been reconstructed, using a chironomid-based inference model, from lake-sediment sequences from Abernethy Forest, in the eastern Highlands of Scotland, and Loch Ashik, on the Isle of Skye in north-west Scotland. Chronology for Abernethy Forest was derived from radiocarbon dates of terrestrial plant macrofossils deposited in the lake sediments. Chronology for Loch Ashik was derived from tephra layers of known ages, the first age-depth model of this kind. Chironomid-inferred temperatures peak early in the Lateglacial Interstadial and then gradually decline by about 1 °C to the beginning of the Younger Dryas (YD). At Abernethy Forest, the Lateglacial Interstadial is punctuated by three centennial-scale cold oscillations which appear to be synchronous with the Greenland Interstadial events GI-1d, when temperatures at Abernethy fell by 5.9 °C, GI-1c, when temperatures fell by 2.3 °C, and GI-1b, when temperatures fell by 2.8 °C. At Loch Ashik only the oscillation correlated with GI-1d is clearly defined, when temperatures fell by 3.8 °C. The start of the YD is clearly marked at both sites when temperatures fell by 5.5 °C at Abernethy Forest and 2.8 °C at Loch Ashik. A warming trend is apparent during the late-YD at Abernethy Forest but at Loch Ashik late-YD temperatures became very cold, possibly influenced by its close proximity to the Skye ice-field. The rapidly rising temperatures at the YD - Holocene transition occur about 300 years earlier at both sites than changes in sediment lithology and loss-on-ignition. The temperature trends at both sites are broadly similar, although between-site differences may result from the influence of local factors. Similar climate trends are found at other sites in the northern British Isles. However, the British summer temperature records differ in detail from trends in the oxygen-isotope records from the Greenland ice-cores and from other chironomid

  20. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical

  1. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salto, Lorena M; Riggs, Matt L; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A; De Leon, Marino

    2014-01-01

    An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce

  2. Beech trees exposed to high CO{sub 2} and to simulated summer ozone levels: Effects on photosynthesis, chloroplast components and leaf enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, C. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Inst. of Botany, Innsbruck (Austria); Anegg, S. [GFS. National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Gerant, D.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere, Vandauvre les Nancy cedex (France); Alaoui-Sosse, B. [Lab. de Biologie et Ecophysiologie, Besancon cedex (France)

    2000-07-01

    Young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were exposed in a phytotron to different levels of ozone and CO{sub 2} under the climatic simulation of one vegetation period. High ozone levels were simulated similar to high ozone concentration in the field (up to 110 ppb), while CO{sub 2} was added as 300 ppm to the present level of ca 380 ppm. Our study describes different aspects of photosynthesis from the leaf level to the reactions of selected thylakoid components at different harvest times during growth of the beech trees under the different fumigation regimes. Ozone effects appeared in the first weeks of the treatment as a stimulation of chlorophyll fluorescence (F{sub v}/F{sub m}), in oxygen production and in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, while the summer and early autumn harvests showed strong reductions in these parameters. Only phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) activity remained higher under high ozone. The effects of high CO{sub 2} appeared in general as a small stimulation in enzyme activity like PEPcase in spring. However, with increasing time of fumigation, reductions of all parameters were observed. Especially chlorophylls showed strong reductions under high CO{sub 2}. The combined treatment with high ozone plus high CO{sub 2} resulted mostly in an amelioration of the negative ozone effects, although control levels were not reached. (au)

  3. 1998 Complex Systems Summer School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-15

    For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.

  4. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  5. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  6. Direct gravimetric measurements of the mass of the antarctic aerosol collected by high volume sampler: PM10 summer seasonal variation at Terra Nova Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Lambertucci, Luca; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    An on-site procedure was set up for direct gravimetric measurement of the mass of aerosol collected using high volume impactors (aerodynamic size cut point of 10 microm, PM10); this knowledge has hitherto been unavailable. Using a computerized microbalance in a clean chemistry laboratory, under controlled temperature (+/-0.5 degrees C) and relative humidity (+/-1%), continuous, long time filter mass measurements (hours) were carried out before and after exposure, after a 48 h minimun equilibration at the laboratory conditions. The effect of the electrostatic charge was exhausted in 30-60 min, after which stable measurements were obtained. Measurements of filters exposed for 7-11 days (1.13 m3 min(-1)) in a coastal site near Terra Nova Bay (December 2000 - February 2001), gave results for aerosol mass in the order of 10-20 mg (SD approximately 2 mg), corresponding to atmospheric concentrations of 0.52-1.27 microg m(-3). Data show a seasonal behaviour in the PM10 content with an increase during December - early January, followed by a net decrease. The above results compare well with estimates obtained from proxy data for the Antarctic Peninsula (0.30 microg m(-3)), the Ronne Ice Shelf (1.49 microg m(-3)), and the South Pole (0.18 microg m(-3), summer 1974-1975, and 0.37 microg m(-3), average summer seasons 1975-1976 and 1977-1978), and from direct gravimetric measurements recently obtained from medium volume samplers at McMurdo station (downwind 3.39 microg m(-3), upwind 4.15 microg m(-3)) and at King George Island (2.5 microg m(-3), summer, particle diameter <20 microm). This finding opens the way to the direct measurement of the chemical composition of the Antarctic aerosol and, in turn, to a better knowledge of the snow/air relationships as required for the reconstruction of the chemical composition of past atmospheres from deep ice core data. PMID:16398350

  7. Summer freezing resistance decreased in high-elevation plants exposed to experimental warming in the central Chilean Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2010-05-01

    Alpine habitats have been proposed as particularly sensitive to climate change. Shorter snow cover could expose high-elevation plants to very low temperatures, increasing their risk of suffering damage by freezing, hence decreasing their population viability. In addition, a longer and warmer growing season could affect the hardening process on these species. Thus, understanding the ability of these species to withstand freezing events under warmer conditions is essential for predicting how alpine species may respond to future climate changes. Here we assessed the freezing resistance of 11 species from the central Chilean Andes by determining their low temperature damage (LT(50)) and freezing point (FP) after experimental warming in the field. Plants were exposed during two growing seasons to a passive increase in the air temperature using open top chambers (OTCs). OTCs increased by ca. 3 K the mean air and soil daytime temperatures, but had smaller effects on freezing temperatures. Leaf temperature of the different species was on average 5.5 K warmer inside OTCs at midday. While LT(50) of control plants ranged from -9.9 to -22.4, that of warmed plants ranged from -7.4 to -17.3 degrees C. Overall, high-Andean species growing inside OTCs increased their LT(50) ca. 4 K, indicating that warming decreased their ability to survive severe freezing events. Moreover, plants inside OTCs increased the FP ca. 2 K in some studied species, indicating that warming altered processes of ice crystal formation. Resistance of very low temperatures is a key feature of high-elevation species; our results suggest that current climate warming trends will seriously threaten the survival of high-elevation plants by decreasing their ability to withstand severe freezing events. PMID:20237942

  8. Summer Melts Immigrant Students' College Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Melissa M.; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Alvarado, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Many college-intending students find themselves dealing with the undermatch and summer melt phenomena. Undermatch refers to the situation where academically-successful high-school graduates choose not to go to any college or to go to a local community college not commensurate with their academic achievements. Summer melt describes how students may…

  9. Book Your Summer Vacation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Summer's the time for teachers to travel, not only physically from the confines of the classroom to exotic places, but vicariously, through the magic of books. Summer adventures help teachers expand their experience and enrich their store of context so that they can offer their students more when school resumes in the fall. That's why each year…

  10. Your Best Summer Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    "It must be nice to have summers off." Only other teachers know just how short summer is, with much of August devoted to planning for the new school year. This article offers 17 fresh ideas for exploring, making money, and preparing for next year. Plus, a reading list that hits all the marks!

  11. An explosive outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-8 infection in a highly vaccinated residential care home, England, summer 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H L; Gajraj, R; Slack, M P E; Sheppard, C; Hawkey, P; Gossain, S; Drew, C M; Pebody, R G

    2015-07-01

    In August 2012, an explosive outbreak of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-8 occurred in a highly vaccinated elderly institutionalized population in England. Fifteen of 23 residents developed LRTI over 4 days (attack rate 65%); 11 had confirmed S. pneumoniae serotype-8 disease, and two died. Following amoxicillin chemoprophylaxis and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) re-vaccination no further cases occurred in the following 2 months. No association was found between being an outbreak-associated case and age (P = 0.36), underlying comorbidities [relative risk (RR) 0.84 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-2.09], or prior receipt of PPV (RR 1.4, 95% CI 0.60-3.33). However, the median number of years since PPV was significantly higher for cases (n = 15, 10.2 years, range 7.3-17.9 years) than non-cases (n = 8, 7.2 years, range 6.8-12.8 years) (P = 0.045), provided evidence of waning immunity. Alternative vaccination strategies should be considered to prevent future S. pneumoniae outbreaks in institutionalized elderly populations. PMID:25298247

  12. 1991 Summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student`s parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization? and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.

  13. Increasing summer net CO2 uptake in high northern ecosystems inferred from atmospheric inversions and comparisons to remote-sensing NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Lisa R.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rödenbeck, Christian; Nemani, Rama; Bi, Jian; Piper, Stephen C.; Keeling, Ralph F.

    2016-07-01

    Warmer temperatures and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last several decades have been credited with increasing vegetation activity and photosynthetic uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere in the high northern latitude ecosystems: the boreal forest and arctic tundra. At the same time, soils in the region have been warming, permafrost is melting, fire frequency and severity are increasing, and some regions of the boreal forest are showing signs of stress due to drought or insect disturbance. The recent trends in net carbon balance of these ecosystems, across heterogeneous disturbance patterns, and the future implications of these changes are unclear. Here, we examine CO2 fluxes from northern boreal and tundra regions from 1985 to 2012, estimated from two atmospheric inversions (RIGC and Jena). Both used measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and wind fields from interannually variable climate reanalysis. In the arctic zone, the latitude region above 60° N excluding Europe (10° W-63° E), neither inversion finds a significant long-term trend in annual CO2 balance. The boreal zone, the latitude region from approximately 50-60° N, again excluding Europe, showed a trend of 8-11 Tg C yr-2 over the common period of validity from 1986 to 2006, resulting in an annual CO2 sink in 2006 that was 170-230 Tg C yr-1 larger than in 1986. This trend appears to continue through 2012 in the Jena inversion as well. In both latitudinal zones, the seasonal amplitude of monthly CO2 fluxes increased due to increased uptake in summer, and in the arctic zone also due to increased fall CO2 release. These findings suggest that the boreal zone has been maintaining and likely increasing CO2 sink strength over this period, despite browning trends in some regions and changes in fire frequency and land use. Meanwhile, the arctic zone shows that increased summer CO2 uptake, consistent with strong greening trends, is offset by increased fall CO2 release, resulting in a net neutral

  14. High Park burn in South Fork Cache la Poudre Basin: Preliminary findings from spring and summer 2013 hydrologic and sedimentation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. E.; Dixon, M.; Rathburn, S. L.; Shahverdian, S.

    2013-12-01

    The High Park fire burned over 35,000 ha within the Cache la Poudre basin in early summer 2012, including an eastern portion of the Little South Fork Cache la Poudre (SFCLP) watershed. Given the proximity of the burn and the implications for water quality supplied to Fort Collins and Greeley, CO, there is an expressed interest on the part of the cities for improved understanding of sediment loads in SFCLP and main stem Cache la Poudre River over the next few years. Prior to burning, data on sediment transport (suspended sediment and bedload) were collected by researchers from the US Forest Service, providing baseline information on sedimentation comparable to similar measurements taken after the High Park fire. In 2013, bedload was measured during snowmelt runoff using standard pressure-difference samplers identical to those used previously in 1989 and 1997. Turbidity sensors were deployed as a surrogate measure of suspended sediment concentration. This signal was calibrated using both grab samples (from a DH-48) and samples obtained from an automated water sampler triggered to collect during substantial increases in turbidity. Additional sampling stations were later established downstream of this site in conjunction with assessments of channel extension and sedimentation from severely burned hillslopes and gulches, one of which was mulched for erosion control in spring 2013. The primary source of post-fire sediment to the most upstream site is from Monument Gulch, located about 1 km upstream of the sampling location. Debris flows emanated from this gulch within a few weeks post-fire and delivered charcoal, ash, burned trees and inorganic sediment to the main stem SFCLP. Although snowmelt runoff was less than bankfull in 2013, there was a substantial amount of burned organic matter transported and collected in the bedload and suspended sediment samplers. Low intensity storms during summer caused a few sediment rich flows, though not to the extent of those in 2012

  15. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  16. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  17. Chemical Physics Summer School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-28

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Physics Summer School was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  18. High morphogenic activity in the permafrost-affected rock walls of the Mont Blanc massif during the 2015 summer heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Magnin, Florence; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    In order to test the geomorphological hypothesis on the link between permafrost degradation and rock wall destabilisation, we survey all the rockfalls that occur in the central part of the Mont-Blanc massif using a network of observers since 2007. 511 rockfalls (100 face against 2.9 m in average during the previous years). Before 2015, 90 % of the inventoried rockfalls occurred in areas where MARST is in the range -5 to 1°C, whereas only 50 % of the whole rock wall area above 2000 m a.s.l. covers this temperature range. With an air 0°C isotherm which sometimes exceeded the summit of Mont Blanc (4809 m a.s.l.) during the 2015 Summer, conditions were particularly unfavorable for mountaineering. Numerous rescues were carried out to climbers technically blocked by uncommon conditions or injured by rockfalls. On the normal route to the summit of Mont Blanc, two administrative closures of the Goûter hut (3835 m a.s.l.) were necessary to prevent climbers from the huge risk of rockfalls in the access couloir, known for its rockfall activity since its snow/ice cover thaws earlier and earlier in the hot season. This raises the question of the future of mountaineering in certain high altitude areas in the context of global warming.

  19. A Summer Camp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正This summer,I had some special days.I joined Dongzhou International Educational Exchange Summer Camp. First,I will tell you about our foreign teachers,they are Shrina and Rebecca. They are friendly and beautiful.They are students at Oxford University. We talked about many things:famous people,subjects in England,different jobs, our deal days,western star signs,what can we say in a restaurant and so on.

  20. Summer Steelhead Distribution [ds341

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Summer Steelhead Distribution October 2009 Version This dataset depicts observation-based stream-level geographic distribution of anadromous summer-run steelhead...

  1. An analysis of fast photochemistry over high northern latitudes during spring and summer using in-situ observations from ARCTAS and TOPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Olson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of chemical constituents and meteorological quantities obtained during the two Arctic phases of the airborne campaign ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites are analyzed using an observationally constrained steady state box model. Measurements of OH and HO2 from the Penn State ATHOS instrument are compared to model predictions. Forty percent of OH measurements below 2 km are at the limit of detection during the spring phase (ARCTAS-A. While the median observed-to-calculated ratio is near one, both the scatter of observations and the model uncertainty for OH are at the magnitude of ambient values. During the summer phase (ARCTAS-B, model predictions of OH are biased low relative to observations and demonstrate a high sensitivity to the level of uncertainty in NO observations. Predictions of HO2 using observed CH2O and H2O2 as model constraints are up to a factor of two larger than observed. A temperature-dependent terminal loss rate of HO2 to aerosol recently proposed in the literature is shown to be insufficient to reconcile these differences. A comparison of ARCTAS-A to the high latitude springtime portion of the 2000 TOPSE campaign (Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox shows similar meteorological and chemical environments with the exception of peroxides; observations of H2O2 during ARCTAS-A were 2.5 to 3 times larger than those during TOPSE. The cause of this difference in peroxides remains unresolved and has important implications for the Arctic HOx budget. Unconstrained model predictions for both phases indicate photochemistry alone is unable to simultaneously sustain observed levels of CH2O and H2O2; however when the model is constrained with observed CH2O, H2O2 predictions from a range of

  2. An analysis of fast photochemistry over high northern latitudes during spring and summer using in-situ observations from ARCTAS and TOPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Olson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations of chemical constituents and meteorological quantities obtained during the two Arctic phases of the airborne campaign ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites are analyzed using an observationally constrained steady state box model. Measurements of OH and HO2 from the Penn State ATHOS instrument are compared to model predictions. Forty percent of OH measurements below 2 km are at the limit of detection during the spring phase (ARCTAS-A. While the median observed-to-calculated ratio is near one, both the scatter of observations and the model uncertainty for OH are at the magnitude of ambient values. During the summer phase (ARCTAS-B, model predictions of OH are biased low relative to observations and demonstrate a high sensitivity to the level of uncertainty in NO observations. Predictions of HO2 using observed CH2O and H2O2 as model constraints are up to a factor of two larger than observed. A temperature-dependent terminal loss rate of HO2 to aerosol recently proposed in the literature is shown to be insufficient to reconcile these differences. A comparison of ARCTAS-A to the high latitude springtime portion of the 2000 TOPSE campaign (Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox shows similar meteorological and chemical environments with the exception of peroxides; observations of H2O2 during ARCTAS-A were 2.5 to 3 times larger than those during TOPSE. The cause of this difference in peroxides remains unresolved and has important implications for the Arctic HOx budget. Unconstrained model predictions for both phases indicate photochemistry alone is unable to simultaneously sustain observed levels of CH2O and H2O2; however when the model is constrained with observed CH2O, H2O2 predictions from a range of

  3. Effects of Water Temperature on Male Fertility Alternation of the Sensitive TGMS Lines in Rice under the Simulated Low Air Temperature in High Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of water temperature on male fertility alternation of TGMS lines in rice were studied under the simulated low air temperature conditions in summer. The results indicate that warm water with temperature higher than the critical temperature of TGMS lines is able to keep the lines' male sterility stable under the air temperature below the critical temperature. These results provide theoretic basis for applying warm water as an effective measure to prevent the lines from the negative effects of the low air temperature occuring in summer in the course of seed production.

  4. The two annual northward jumps of the West Pacific Subtropical High and their relationship with summer rainfall in Eastern China under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two northward jumps of summer West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) are defined based on the pentad-scale ridge data of the WPSH ridge in 1951 to 2012. The times of the northward jumps are found to have obvious inter-annual and decadal characteristics, i.e., the occurrence of the first northward jump of WPSH shows a “consistently early—consistently late” decadal pattern, with the transition around 1980; the occurrence of the second northward jump of WPSH shows a “consistently late—consistently early—consistently late” decadal pattern, with the transitions about 1955 and 1978, respectively, which is consistent with global warming. In the meantime, the times of the two northward jumps not only have a good correspondence to the beginning and ending dates of the rainy season, but also greatly influence the position of the main rain belt in Eastern China. When the first northward jump occurs early, the main rain belt is located from just north of 30° N to the south of North China, while the opposite situation appears when the first jump occurs late. When the second jump occurs early, more rain falls over North China and South China, but less falls in the Yangtze River region, while the opposite situation appears when the second jump occurs late. In the four cases when abnormalities occur in the same year as early or late northward jumps, the position of the main rain belt can be considered as a superposition of isolated abnormal effects of the two northward jumps. Moreover, the prophase and synchronous forces of the sea surface temperature in the Pacific has great influence on the times of the northward jumps, and the driving forces of the two jumps differ

  5. Biomass burning influence on high latitude tropospheric ozone and reactive nitrogen in summer 2008: a multi-model analysis based on POLMIP simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Arnold

    2014-09-01

    lead to large-scale photochemical enhancement in high latitude tropospheric ozone during summer.

  6. School Counselors' Experiences with a Summer Group Curriculum for High-Potential Children from Low-Income Families: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2013-01-01

    School counselors facilitated group guidance for children from low-income families and assisted in classrooms with a full economic range during a summer academic program for young gifted children in order to increase knowledge about giftedness. This qualitative study explored how the counselors experienced being immersed with gifted children. The…

  7. Impact of Urban Heat Island Effect on High Temperature in Summer-A Case of Ji'ning City%城市热岛效应对夏季高温的影响--以济宁市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓默; 董宁; 杨何著; 李莉

    2013-01-01

    With the globle warming development and propulsion of urbanization , the urban high temperature disaster in summer is becoming evident.In this paper, taking Ji'ning City as an example, the high temperature characters in summer and impact of urban heat island effect on high temperature disaster were analyzed.The results showed that the high temperature in summer of Ji'ning had the characters of wide range , more days and evident difference in years and months, the strength of extreme high temperature events and urban heat island effect in Ji'ning had evident character of increase, the high temperature in Ji'ning was mainly affected by urban heat island effect on the day, which was mainly occured in late spring and early summer , and the effect was more than 10%.%随着全球变暖趋势的加剧以及城市化的快速推进,城市夏季高温的危害越来越受到人们的重视。分析了济宁夏季高温特征及其城市热岛效应对高温灾害的影响。结果表明:济宁夏季高温期日数多、范围广,年、月际变化特征明显;极端高温事件强度和城市热岛效应明显增强;济宁城市高温主要受白天热岛效应的影响,且影响主要集中于春末夏初,作用超过10%。

  8. The impact of biogenic VOC emissions on photochemical ozone formation during a high ozone pollution episode in the Iberian Peninsula in the 2003 summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe the summer of 2003 was exceptionally warm, especially July and August. The European Environment Agency (EEA reported several ozone episodes, mainly in the first half of August. These episodes were exceptionally long-lasting, spatially extensive, and associated to high temperatures. In this paper, the 10$ndash;15 August 2003 ozone pollution event has been analyzed using meteorological and regional air quality modelling. During this period the threshold values of the European Directive 2002/3/EC were exceeded in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

    The aim of this paper is to computationally understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions in the formation of tropospheric ozone during this high ozone episode. Being able to differentiate how much ozone comes from biogenic emissions alone and how much comes from the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions would be helpful to develop a feasible and effective ozone control strategy. The impact on ozone formation was also studied in combination with various anthropogenic emission reduction strategies, i.e., when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NOx emissions are reduced. The results show a great dependency of the BVOC contribution to ozone formation on the antropoghenic reduction scenario. In rural areas, the impact due to a NOx and/or VOC reduction does not change the BVOC impact. Nevertheless, within big cities or industrial zones, a NOx reduction results in a decrease of the biogenic impact in ozone levels that can reach 85 μg/m3, whereas an Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compound (AVOC reduction results in a decrease of the BVOC contribution on ozone formation that varies from 0 to 30 μg/m3 with respect to the contribution at the same points in the 2003 base scenario. On the other hand, downwind of the big cities, a decrease in NOx produces

  9. Bed In Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In winter I get up at night And dress by yellow candle-light. In summer, quite the other way, I have to go to bed by day. I have to go to bed and see The birds still hopping on the tree, Or hear the grown-up people' s feet Still going past me in the stree

  10. ASHRAE Summer Meeting 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1998-01-01

    ASHRAE's (American Society for Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Condition Engineering) summer meeting was visited in June in Toronto. ASHRAE is an American organization dealing with American problems in HVAC, but many results can be used under Danish conditions. It is therefore essential that Danish...

  11. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  12. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    variables and local shrub dominance. We found that establishment of shrub ramets was positively related to summer precipitation, which implies that the current high dominance of B. nana at our study site could be related to high summer precipitation in the period from 1960 to 1990. The results confirmed...... that early summer temperature is most influential to annual growth rates of B. nana. In addition, summer precipitation stimulated shrub growth in years with warm summers, suggesting that B. nana growth may be co-limited by summer moisture supply. The dual controlling role of temperature and summer...

  13. 利用MODIS数据反演气温监测夏季高温热害%Monitoring of Summer High Temperature by Using MODIS Data to Estimate Air Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴亮; 王和斌; 延昊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to monitor the hot damage of high temperature on rice in summer by using MODIS data to estimate air temperature. [Method] A new statistical algorithm was introduced for daytime air temperature (Ta) retrievals over east China by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS) data, and the high temperature monitoring for rice in south China in 2007 summer was used to demonstrate. [Result] High temperature plays a key role in rice production during rice heading stage in summer in southern China. Using MODIS data to monitor the hot damage of high temperature is a feasible way to relieve agricultural disasters. [ Conclusion ] The result of this study provides a method to monitor hot damage of high temperature tn rice in summer of China.%[目的]研究利用MODIS数据反演气温来监测夏季水稻高温热害.[方法]介绍了一种新的反演我国东部地区白天气温的统计算法,并给出了一个监测2007年我国东部夏季水稻高温热害的例子.[结果]夏季在我国南部水稻的抽穗期期间,高温对水稻的产量起着关键性的影响.利用MODIS数据监测高温热害是减轻农业灾害的一个可行办法.[结论]该研究结果为我国夏季水稻高温热害的监测提供了方法.

  14. Monitoring of Summer High Temperature Damage by Using MODIS Data to Estimate Air Temperature%利用MODIS数据反演气温监测夏季高温热害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴亮; 王和斌; 延昊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to monitor the hot damage of high temperature on rice in summer by using MODIS data to estimate air temperature. [Method] A new statistical algorithm was introduced for daytime air temperature (Ta) retrievals over east China by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and the high temperature monitoring for rice in south China in 2007 summer was used to demonstrate. [Result] High temperature plays a key role in rice production during rice heading stage in summer in southern China. Using MODIS data to monitor the hot damage of high temperature is a feasible way to relieve agricultural disasters. [Conclusion] The result of this study provided a method to monitor hot damage of high temperature tn rice in summer of China.%[目的]研究利用MODIS数据反演气温来监测夏季水稻高温热害。[方法]介绍了一种新的反演我国东部地区白天气温的统计算法,并给出了一个监测2007年我国东部夏季水稻高温热害的例子。[结果]夏季在我国南部水稻的抽穗期期间,高温对水稻的产量起着关键性的影响。利用MODIS数据监测高温热害是减轻农业灾害的一个可行办法。[结论]该研究结果为我国夏季水稻高温热害的监测提供了方法.

  15. Hot European summers: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, E.; Vidale, P.; Verhoef, A.; Schiemann, R.; Demory, M.

    2013-12-01

    Hot summers, such as occurred in Europe in 2003, and Russia in 2010 have a devastating societal impact. In 2003, for example, there were over 14,000 heat related deaths in France alone. Predicting how the frequency of such events will change in a changing climate is therefore critically important for planning and adaptation. This study presents a modelling and observational analysis of how the large-scale circulation interacts with terrestrial processes to cause hot summers in Europe. We use an offline land-surface model, in combination with a very high resolution (25 km) global climate model, to investigate how changes in bio-physical processes, land-atmosphere interactions and the large-scale circulation will affect the frequency of hot summers in the future. This study suggests that, not only do changes in climate strongly impact terrestrial ecosystems, but that plant processes have a significant impact on future summer climate in Europe.

  16. NEWS: AAPT Summer Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, Steve

    2000-11-01

    The 2000 Summer Meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) was held from 28~July-2~August at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. Despite somewhat rainy weather throughout the week, the annual gathering was an enjoyable one, filled with interesting talks on the state of physics education in North America. Using a new scheduling format for the summer meeting, all of the paid workshops and tutorials were held on Saturday and Sunday 29-30 July. The invited and contributed papers for the main AAPT meeting were then presented on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. As had been done in 1999 in San Antonio, a two-day tandem meeting dedicated to Physics Education Research (PER) was held on Wednesday and Thursday 2-3 August, immediately after the main AAPT meeting. Over the three days of the main meeting, 60 sessions were held under the sponsorship of various AAPT committees. These included sessions (numbers in parentheses) organized by the committees on Apparatus (1), Astronomy Education (3), Awards (2), Computers (5), Graduate Education (2), High Schools (1), History and Philosophy (1), Instructional Media (3), International Education (1), Laboratories (2), Pre-High School Education (2), Programs (4), Professional Concerns (6), Research in Physics Education (8), Science Education for the Public (2), Two-Year Colleges (5), Undergraduate Education (7) and Women in Physics (4). Figure 1. Guelph Church of Our Lady. The main meeting opened on Sunday evening with an invited lecture by Dr John J Simpson from the host institution, the University of Guelph, describing the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. At the ceremonial session that began the activities on Monday morning, recognition was given to Clifford Swartz for his almost 30 years of service as Editor of the AAPT journal, The Physics Teacher. This was followed by an invited talk by Jim Nelson from Seminole County Public School in Florida, who received the Excellence in Pre-College Teaching Award. The

  17. SAAPMB summer school and congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical and health physics are greatly stimulated by the exchange of personal experiences and research results among scientists working in their particular fields of interests. Individual contact is of exceptional importance in those rapidly developing areas of high technology which we find in hospitals and industry and therefor the social exchange of ideas at the Summer School and Congress is very important. Research in the fields of medical and health physics is covered by the papers and posters presented. 53 articles have been indexed (27 papers and 26 poster presentations), and 14 articles have been considered to be out of scope for INIS

  18. Summer Reading Summer Not: How Project READS Can Advance Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three goals. First, it describes the broader research on summer reading loss. Second, it discusses how research and development efforts informed the key components of Project READS (Reading Enhances Achievement During Summer), a scaffolded voluntary summer reading intervention for children in grades 3 to 5. The second part of the…

  19. Making Summer Count: How Summer Programs Can Boost Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Augustine, Catherine; Schwartz, Heather; Bodilly, Susan; McInnis, Brian; Lichter, Dahlia; Cross, Amanda Brown

    2012-01-01

    During summer vacation, many students lose knowledge and skills. By the end of summer, students perform, on average, one month behind where they left off in the spring. Participation in summer learning programs should mitigate learning loss and could even produce achievement gains. Indeed, educators and policymakers increasingly promote summer…

  20. Summer 2014 Pathways Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Over the summer I had the exciting opportunity to work for NASA at the Kennedy Space Center as a Mission Assurance Engineering intern. When I was offered a position in mission assurance for the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate's Launch Services Division, I didn't really know what I would be doing, but I knew it would be an excellent opportunity to learn and grow professionally. In this report I will provide some background information on the Launch Services Division, as well as detail my duties and accomplishments during my time as an intern. Additionally, I will relate the significance of my work experience to my current academic work and future career goals. This report contains background information on Mission Assurance Engineering, a description of my duties and accomplishments over the summer of 2014, and relates the significance of my work experience to my school work and future career goals. It is a required document for the Pathways program.

  1. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  2. Summer and Autumn activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Time to recharge the batteries, and much more… The summer holidays are an ideal opportunity to spend more time with the family, to discover new countries, make new friends, in other words to take time away from the daily grind. This recharging is essential to your work-life balance, and CERN, as a modern and socially responsible employer, has recognized this as a central part of its human resources policy.Nevertheless we should not forget that, while many of you enjoy a well-deserved summer break, some of our colleagues are hard at work making LS1 (first Long Shutdown) a success in order to guarantee that at the beginning of 2015 the LHC will be able to start physics in an energy range never before reached by mankind. Preparing the questionnaire and the elections to the Staff Council During this summer your delegates in the Staff Council are hard at work preparing for the upcoming five-yearly review whose content will be decided by CERN Council in June 2014. Therefore, as every five years, to ...

  3. The 'Year without summer 1816

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfeuille, F.; Rozanov, E.; Peter, T.; Weisenstein, D.; Hadorn, G.; Bodenmann, T.; Brönnimann, S.

    2010-09-01

    One famous example of an extreme climatic event is the cold summer of 1816 in Europe and North America. This specific year, which was later called the "Year without summer 1816", had profound social and environmental effects. The cataclysmic eruption of Mt Tambora is now commonly known to have largely contributed to the negative temperature anomalies of the summer 1816, but some uncertainties remain. The eruption which occurred in April 1815 is the largest within the last 500 years and this extreme climatic forcing provides a real test for climate models. A crucial parameter to assess in order to simulate this eruption is the aerosol size distribution, which strongly influences the radiative impact of the aerosols (through changes in albedo and residence time in the stratosphere, among others) and the impacts on dynamics and chemistry. The representation of this major forcing is done by using the AER-2D aerosol model which calculates the size distribution of the aerosols formed after the eruption. The modeling of the climatic impacts is then done by the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate model (CCM) SOCOL. The characteristics of the Tambora eruption and results from simulations made using the aerosol model/CCM, with an emphasis on the radiative and chemical implications of the large aerosol, will be shown. For instance, the specific absorption/scattering ratio of Mt.Tambora aerosols induced a large stratospheric warming which will be analyzed. The climatic impacts will also be discussed in regards of the high sedimentation rate of Mt. Tambora aerosols, leading to a fast decrease of the atmospheric optical depth in the first two years after the eruption. The link will be made between the modeling results and proxy-reconstructions as well as with available historical daily data from Geneva, Switzerland. Finally, insights on the contemporary response to this climatic extreme will be shown.

  4. Next Generation Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2013-04-01

    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  5. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  6. Communities Can Work Together to Strengthen Summer Learning for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willse, Katie

    2015-01-01

    High-quality summer learning programs in a given city are often only able to address a fraction of the need. Lack of access to program data and absence of stakeholder coordination compounds the problem. Working together to systematically increase program quality and provide more high-quality summer learning opportunities where families need them…

  7. Late summer and fall use of stream margins by young-of year brown trout in a high-elevation stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Voie, W. J., IV; Hubert, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the relative abundance of young-of-year (YOY) brown trout (Salmo trutta) from late summer to fall during day and night in stream margin habitats of Douglas Creek, Wyoming. No significant differences in relative abundance were observed from August 14 through October 26. Few YOY brown trout were observed during the day over the entire sampling period, but significantly greater numbers were seen at night. Within stream margins, YOY brown trout of 36-75 mm total length primarily resided in concealment cover among interstices of cobbie during the day and emerged at night. Because no significant change in relative abundance was observed throughout the study period, we conclude that a shift to winter habitat did not occur up until three days prior to ice formation when the diurnal range in water temperature was 2.5-7.5??C.

  8. Surface forcing of the infrared cooling profile over the Tibetan Plateau. I - Influence of relative longwave radiative heating at high altitude. II - Cooling-rate variation over large-scale plateau domain during summer monsoon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Shi, Lei

    1992-01-01

    The role of the Tibetan Plateau on the behavior of the surface longwave radiation budget is investigated, and the behavior of the vertical profile of longwave cooling over the plateau, including its diurnal variation, is quantified. A medium spectral-resolution IR radiative transfer model utilizing a simple modification for applications in idealized complex (valley) terrain is developed for the investigation. An understanding of how surface and elevation biophysical factors, which are highly variable over the large-scale plateau domain, regulate the spatial distribution of clear-sky IR cooling during the transition phase of the summer monsoon, is described.

  9. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  10. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  11. Evaluation of a Summer Reading Program to Reduce Summer Setback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica; Riley, Jessica; Ryan, Carey; Kelly-Vance, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Summer setback, which is defined as a decline in academic achievement over the summer months, occurs in many academic areas but seems especially problematic in reading. We assessed students from a midwestern parochial school serving predominantly students from a low--socioeconomic status background for their reading achievement before they left…

  12. Rapidly Deglaciating and Uplifting Landscapes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve GBNPP Provide Alaskan High School Students with Summer Field Research Experiences in Paleoclimate Disciplines and Exposure to Active Researchers in Synergistic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C. L.; Hekkers, M.; Schaller, S.; Parks, R.

    2011-12-01

    During summer 2011, ten Alaska high school students enrolled in a summer college introductory field science course through the Design Discover Research Program (DDR) at University Alaska Southeast, with support from the Juneau Economic Development Council, the University Alaska Fairbanks Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA), the National Park Service, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-Interdisciplinary Scientific Environmental Technology (ISET) Cooperative Science Center (CSC). They conducted field surveys in Glacier Bay National Park and across the adjacent Gustavus glacier forefield landscape. This was the 4th summer for this program. Following a 2-1/2 day orientation on the UAS campus, students traveled by a newly established (2011) Alaska Marine Highway service from Juneau to Gustavus. They utilized bicycles and hiking to access the Dude Creek Critical Habitat, Good Creek watershed, and the Nagoonberry Trail built by the Nature Conservancy along the emerging shoreline of Icy Strait. This region is currently experiencing uplift rates of 20-28 mm/year as a result of Little Ice Age deglaciation and isostatic rebound, rates much higher than eustatic sea level rise. North of the Gustavus ferry dock, roughly 19 acres of emergent land is now a 9-hole golf course, raised from the sea since the 1950s. DDR-students interacted with wildlife biologists, ornithologists, quaternary geologists, glaciologists, and botanists to integrate their understanding of the response of plants and animals to this dynamic landscape. Radio-collared moose populations, which migrated into this area from Haines since the mind-1960s, are being studied to asses their impacts to local vegetation and the behavior of local predators (bears, wolves, and coyotes). Sitka spruce forest expansion onto Icy Strait uplifting salt marshes, now threaten Sandhill Crane habitat and their flyover stops along the Pacific Flyway. Intertidal areas in Bartlett Cove in GBNPP feature

  13. The Effect of a Summer Academy on Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a summer enrichment math program on mathematics achievement and academic achievement in a comprehensive suburban high school. The program was designed to remediate the mathematical shortcomings of at-risk 9th graders. The students who experienced success in the summer program were placed in…

  14. Trends in University Summer Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Raymond J.; McDougall, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Data from a nationwide study of the summer term for all public and nonpublic research, doctoral granting, and comprehensive universities are presented. The extent to which summer operations are part of university structure is examined, trends are noted, and recommendations are presented. (Author/MLW)

  15. Branislav Jenco Summer Student Report

    CERN Document Server

    Jenco, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Summer student project report by Branislav Jenco. The document starts with some general opinions on the summer student program as well as the lectures, continues with a detailed work log and finally finishes with several appendices of technical documentation which make up the bulk of the material.

  16. Summer music festivals

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Although July is set to be a crucial time in the working life of the Laboratory, the CERN clubs have organised musical events to make sure that there’s also a chance to chill out and relax. The group Blend at the 2007 Hardronic Festival. From left to right (on stage): Eric Pfirsch, Stephan Petit, Frédéric Lejal, Niklaus Hirt, Paulo Dos Santos with Laurent Tarrano filming.If you have a strong appetite for music the ‘Monts Jura Jazz Festival’, might tempt you this summer. Sponsored by both the CERN Administration and the Staff Association, it is an established highlight of the local arts calendar and will this year be held on 4 and 5 July in Crozet, France. For the third year running established musicians, stars of the jazz scene, and rising talent from France, Switzerland and Brazil will be joining forces to perform an exiting mixture of jazz music. A ‘master class’ in improvisation methods will also be held on Saturda...

  17. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  18. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 3 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. FAYARD, O. ULLALAND Presentation of the Summer Student Programm 10:15 - 12:00 L. MAIANI Introduction to CERN (1&2/2) 14:00 - 15:00 G. Stevenson Radiation Protection (Council Chamber, bldg.503) Thursday 4 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (1&2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (1/5) Friday 5 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (3&4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (1/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 M. FRANKLIN Classic Experiments (1/3) 14:00 - 15:00 M. LINDROOS Isolde 15:30 - 16:30 M. LINDROOS Visit of the Experiment Tuesday 9 july 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (2/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Part...

  19. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  20. Summer School on Spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Stuart; Idzerda, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Stuart Wolf This book originated as a series of lectures that were given as part of a Summer School on Spintronics in the end of August, 1998 at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. It has taken some time to get these lectures in a form suitable for this book and so the process has been an iterative one to provide current information on the topics that are covered. There are some topics that have developed in the intervening years and we have tried to at least alert the readers to them in the Introduction where a rather complete set of references is provided to the current state of the art. The field of magnetism, once thought to be dead or dying, has seen a remarkable rebirth in the last decade and promises to get even more important as we enter the new millennium. This rebirth is due to some very new insight into how the spin degree of freedom of both electrons and nucleons can play a role in a new type of electronics that utilizes the spin in addition to or in place of the charge. For this new field to mature and prosper, ...

  1. Summer student final report

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    During my time spent at CERN I worked under the Technology Department of CERN, in the Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity (MPE) Group. The MPE Group supports LHC operations and maintains state of the art technology for magnet circuit protection and interlock systems for the present and future accelerators, magnet test facilities and CERN hosted experiments[1]. As a member of Magnet Powering Interlocks & Software (TE-MPE-MS) section I was involved in three different projects and used not only CERN developed tools like FESA Framework, but also open source C++ frameworks, Google Test and Google Mock. I had a chance to work with Programmable Logic Controllers and real-time devices known as Front End Computers. I was part of a software developer team, and familiarized myself with the Scrum agile software development methodology. The description and results of my work are presented in three parts of this report. Each part describes a separate project created during my participation in the CERN Summer St...

  2. 高强度混凝土渡槽夏季施工防裂措施研究%Crack Prevention Measures for High Strength Concrete Aqueduct Constructed in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨; 邬爱清; 何磊

    2011-01-01

    In spite of high carrying capacity, it involves great difficulty to control the temperature and prevent cracking during the construction of high strength concrete aqueduct in summer because of high heat of hydration. The finite element method for unsteady temperature field and stress field is applied to simulate the construction process in summer for a typical aqueduct structure. The cause of cracking at dangerous positions is analyzed based on the calculation results of temperature field and stress field in different cases. Corresponding measures of pipe cooling and surface thermal insulation are put forward, which will be beneficial for the design and construction of such high strength concrete structure.%高强度混凝土渡槽结构承载能力高,但水化放热量也大,在夏季浇筑时混凝土温控防裂难度较大.采用非稳定温度场及应力场的有限元计算方法,对夏季施工的典型渡槽结构进行了施工过程的仿真计算.根据不同工况的温度场和应力场计算结果,分析了易裂部位的开裂原因,提出了相应的水管冷却和表面保温措施,可为类似高强度混凝土结构的设计和施工提供有益的参考.

  3. Making Summer Matter: The Impact of Youth Employment on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Ellen Schwartz; Jacob Leos-Urbel; Matthew Wiswall

    2015-01-01

    Holding a summer job is a rite of passage in American adolescence, a first rung towards adulthood and self-sufficiency. Summer youth employment has the potential to benefit high school students’ educational outcomes and employment trajectories, especially for low-income youth. This paper examines New York City’s Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP). SYEP provides jobs to youth ages 14-24, and due to high demand for summer jobs, allocates slots through a random lottery system. We match stude...

  4. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  5. The extreme European summer 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan; Woollings, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The European summer of 2012 was marked by strongly contrasting rainfall anomalies, which led to flooding in northern Europe and droughts and wildfires in southern Europe. This season was not an isolated event, rather the latest in a string of summers characterized by a southward shifted Atlantic storm track as described by the negative phase of the SNAO. The degree of decadal variability in these features suggests a role for forcing from outside the dynamical atmosphere, and preliminary numer...

  6. Relationship between the zonal displacement of the western Pacific subtropical high and the dominant modes of low-tropospheric circulation in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riyu Lu; Ying Li; Chan-Su Ryu

    2008-01-01

    The zonal displacement of the western Pacific subtropical high remarkably influences the climate anomalies in China. In this paper, a new zonal index of the subtropical high is defined by modifying previous indices, and is used to investigate the relationship between the zonal displacement of the subtropical high and the dominant modes of 850-hPa circulations. It is found that the zonal displacement of the subtropical high is significantly correlated with the first two leading modes of circulations. In particular, the correlation coefficient between the index and the time series associated with the second mode is as high as 0.78 in 1958-2003 (46 years). Since the second mode is not associated with significant anomalies of sea surface temperatures, the above results imply the difficulty in seasonal forecasting of the zonal displacement of the subtropical high. In addition, the interannual variability in the zonal displacement of the subtropical high has been considerably enhanced since 1978, due to the effects of both dominant modes, especially the second mode. This is likely to account for the frequent occurrence of anomalous climate in China during the recent two decades.

  7. Summer Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidi, Nitou

    2012-01-01

    The summer of 2012 has been filled with many memorable events and activities. As an intern, I had responsibilities that had to be fulfilled. My tour of duty was completed as an administrative student trainee in the Information Technology and Communications Services Business Office (IT-A). In accordance with the Business Objectives and Agreement of the Business Office and my performance plan, I was to provide business office support, improve business, project management, and technical work processes. With this being stated, I supported a project called "The Big Move Project" (TBMP), which will take course over the next several years. The Big Move Project is the planning of the Information Technology (IT) Directorate's relocation to various buildings in the course of upcoming years, when designs and the building of Central Campus have been completed. Working directly with my supervisor and the project manager, I was responsible for gathering both administrative and operational area requirements for the Information Technology (IT) Directorate, along with its outsourced support and contractors, such as IMCS, NICS, and ACES. My first action was to create rubrics that will serve as a guideline for the information that should be given by each branch of IT. After receiving that information via a few KAITS actions, I was able to start the consolidation process, and begin working on a presentation. A SharePoint was created shortly after for others to view the progression of the project, which I managed. During the consolidation ofthis information, I would occasionally present to the IT Deputy Director and IT Chiefs. The draft of this presentation was shown to employees of Center Operations (T A) and stakeholders-IT Chief Officers and contractor managers-in the relocation of IT to make them aware of what requirements must be met that will enable IT to be accommodated appropriately in the design of Central Campus Phase 11-the time in which IT and its contractors are scheduled

  8. Examination of the atmospheric conditions associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    P. D. Kalabokas; J.-P. Cammas; Thouret, V.; A. Volz-Thomas; D. Boulanger; Repapis, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the observed high rural ozone levels in the Eastern Mediterranean area during summertime, vertical profiles of ozone measured in the period 1994–2008 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft) over the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Cairo, Tel-Aviv, Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya) were analysed, focusing in the lower troposphere (1.5–5 km). At first, vertical profiles collected during extreme days with very high o...

  9. Annual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions from the middle taiga in West Siberian Lowland (2005-2009): a case of high CH{sub 4} flux and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakawa, M.; Ito, A.; Machida, T. (Center for Global Environmental Research, National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)), Email: sasakawa.motoki@nies.go.jp; Tsuda, N. (Global Environmental Forum, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo (Japan)); Niwa, Y. (Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)); Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Arshinov, M. (V.E. Zuev Inst. of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk (Russian Federation))

    2012-03-15

    We described continuous measurements of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} concentration obtained at two sites placed in the middle taiga, Karasevoe (KRS) and Demyanskoe (DEM), in West Siberian Lowland (WSL) from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} accumulation (DELTACH{sub 4} and DELTACO{sub 2}) during night-time at KRS in June and July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, higher ratios of DELTACH{sub 4}/DELTACO{sub 2} compared with those in other years indicated that a considerably higher CH{sub 4} flux occurred relative to the CO{sub 2} flux. The daily CH{sub 4} flux calculated with the ratio of DELTACH{sub 4}/DELTACO{sub 2} and terrestrial biosphere CO{sub 2} flux from an ecosystem model showed a maximum in July at the both sites. Although anomalously high flux was observed in June and July 2007 at KRS, only a small flux variation was observed at DEM. The high regional CH{sub 4} flux in June and July 2007 at KRS was reproduced using a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT), in response to high water table depth caused by the anomalously high precipitation during the summer of 2007

  10. Signal and distribution of volatile Mercury (Hg0) in the Marine High Arctic During Polar Summer in the Sequel of Enhanced Atmospheric Deposition of HgⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonas O. Sommar; Maria E. Andersson

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It has been elucidated that high levels of neurotoxic mercury (Hg) in the Arctic is related to a rapid, near-compete depletion of Hg0 (MDE) in the atmospheric boundary-layer occurring episodically during the Polar spring[1].

  11. Making Summer Matter: The Impact of Youth Employment on Academic Performance. Working Paper #03-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Silander, Megan; Wiswall, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Holding a summer job is a rite of passage in American adolescence, a first rung towards adulthood and self-sufficiency. However, over the past decade, youth employment during the summer has decreased significantly. Summer youth employment has the potential to benefit high school students' educational outcomes and employment trajectories,…

  12. European summer temperatures since Roman times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial context is critical when assessing present-day climate anomalies, attributing them to potential forcings and making statements regarding their frequency and severity in a long-term perspective. Recent international initiatives have expanded the number of high-quality proxy-records and developed new statistical reconstruction methods. These advances allow more rigorous regional past temperature reconstructions and, in turn, the possibility of evaluating climate models on policy-relevant, spatio-temporal scales. Here we provide a new proxy-based, annually-resolved, spatial reconstruction of the European summer (June–August) temperature fields back to 755 CE based on Bayesian hierarchical modelling (BHM), together with estimates of the European mean temperature variation since 138 BCE based on BHM and composite-plus-scaling (CPS). Our reconstructions compare well with independent instrumental and proxy-based temperature estimates, but suggest a larger amplitude in summer temperature variability than previously reported. Both CPS and BHM reconstructions indicate that the mean 20th century European summer temperature was not significantly different from some earlier centuries, including the 1st, 2nd, 8th and 10th centuries CE. The 1st century (in BHM also the 10th century) may even have been slightly warmer than the 20th century, but the difference is not statistically significant. Comparing each 50 yr period with the 1951–2000 period reveals a similar pattern. Recent summers, however, have been unusually warm in the context of the last two millennia and there are no 30 yr periods in either reconstruction that exceed the mean average European summer temperature of the last 3 decades (1986–2015 CE). A comparison with an ensemble of climate model simulations suggests that the reconstructed European summer temperature variability over the period 850–2000 CE reflects changes in both internal variability and external forcing on multi-decadal time

  13. Impact of the exceptionally high flood from the Changjiang River on the aquatic chemical distributions on the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea shelves in the summer of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the field observation in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in the summer of 1998, a rare event of exceptionally high discharge from the Changjiang River was described and how this high discharge altered water masses as well as chemical distributions on the shelves of the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The maximal extending ranges of the Changjiang diluted water and the nutrients in the freshwater from the Changjiang River were recorded for the first time. It was also found that there was a closed area with high oxygen and pH values in the offshore area of the southern Huanghai Sea and the northern East China Sea, indicating that the extensive spreading of nutrients due to the high discharge led to photosynthesis of phytoplankton mostly taking place in the offshore area far from the river mouth. The presence of "excess nitrogen" in almost all the northern East China Sea and the south of the Huanghai Sea suggests that these areas are potentially phosphorus-limited rather than nitrogen-limited, manifesting more like an estuarine ecosystem rather than a common marine ecosystem.

  14. iUTAH Summer Research Institutes: Supporting the STEM Pipeline Through Engagement of High School, Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Secondary Teachers, and University Faculty in Authentic, Joint Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, L. A.; Malone, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple types of programs are needed to support the STEM workforce pipeline from pre-college through graduate school and beyond. Short-term, intensive programs provide opportunities to participate in authentic scientific research for students who may not be sure of their interest in science and for teachers who may be unable to devote an entire summer to a research experience. The iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-Systainability) Summer Research Institute utilizes an innovative approach for a 5-day program that engages high school and undergraduate students as well as middle and high school teachers in conducting research projects led by graduate students and faculty members. Each Institute involves 3-4 half to full-day research projects. Participants collect (usually in the field) and analyze data for use in on-going research or that is related to a current research project. The participants work in groups with the graduate students to create a poster about each research project. They present their posters on the last day of the Institute at the state-wide meeting of all researchers and involved in this EPSCoR-funded program. In addition to introducing participants to research, one of the Institute's goals is to provide opportunities for meaningful near-peer interactions with students along the STEM pipeline from high school to undergraduate to graduate school. On the end-of-Institute evaluations, almost all students have reported that their discussions with other participants and with graduate students and faculty were a "Highly effective" or "Effective" part of the Institute. In response to a question about how the Institute will impact their course choices or their plans to pursue a career in science, many high school and undergraduate students have noted that they plan to take more science courses. Each year several undergraduates who were previously unsure about a career in science have indicated that they now intend to pursue a

  15. Examination of the atmospheric conditions associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    P. D. Kalabokas; Cammas, J.-P.; Thouret, V.; A. Volz-Thomas; D. Boulanger; Repapis, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the observed high rural ozone levels in the eastern Mediterranean area during summertime, vertical profiles of ozone measured in the period 1994–2008 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft) over the eastern Mediterranean basin (Cairo, Tel Aviv, Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya) were analyzed, focusing in the lower troposphere (1.5–5 km). At first, vertical profiles collected during...

  16. Ventures in science status report, Summer 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The Ventures in Science summer program is directed towards students who are from underrepresented minority groups in mathematics and science professions. The target group of 40 was drawn from eligible students who will be entering high school freshman in the fall of 1992. 450 students applied. The theme for the summer is Chicago as an Ecosystem. The students are instructed in integrated math and science (2 hours), English/ESL (1 1/2 hrs.), counseling (1 hr.) and, physical education (1 hr.) each day four days a week. Integrated math and science are team taught. Parents are invited to participate in two workshops that will be presented based on their input. Parents may also visit the program at any time and participate in any field trip.

  17. 2015 CERN-Fermilab HCP Summer School

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN and Fermilab are jointly offering a series of "Hadron Collider Physics Summer Schools", to prepare young researchers for these exciting times. The school has alternated between CERN and Fermilab, and will return to CERN for the tenth edition, from 24 June to 3 July 2015. The CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer School is an advanced school targeted particularly at young postdocs and senior PhD students working towards the completion of their thesis project, in both Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) and phenomenology. Lecture Topics include: Statistics in HEP, Heavy Flavour, Heavy Ion, Standard Model, Higgs searches and measurements, BSM theory, BSM searches, Top physics, QCD and Monte Carlos, Accelerators, Detectors for the future, Trigger and DAQ, Dark Matter Astroparticle, and two special lectures on Future Colliders, and 20 years after the top discovery. Calendar and Details: Mark your calendar for  24 June - 3 July 2015, when CERN will welcome students to t...

  18. High morphogenic activity in the permafrost-affected rock walls of the Mont Blanc massif during the 2015 summer heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Magnin, Florence; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    In order to test the geomorphological hypothesis on the link between permafrost degradation and rock wall destabilisation, we survey all the rockfalls that occur in the central part of the Mont-Blanc massif using a network of observers since 2007. 511 rockfalls (100 administrative closures of the Goûter hut (3835 m a.s.l.) were necessary to prevent climbers from the huge risk of rockfalls in the access couloir, known for its rockfall activity since its snow/ice cover thaws earlier and earlier in the hot season. This raises the question of the future of mountaineering in certain high altitude areas in the context of global warming.

  19. The Summer Robotic Autonomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    2002-01-01

    We offered a first Robotic Autonomy course this summer, located at NASA/Ames' new NASA Research Park, for approximately 30 high school students. In this 7-week course, students worked in ten teams to build then program advanced autonomous robots capable of visual processing and high-speed wireless communication. The course made use of challenge-based curricula, culminating each week with a Wednesday Challenge Day and a Friday Exhibition and Contest Day. Robotic Autonomy provided a comprehensive grounding in elementary robotics, including basic electronics, electronics evaluation, microprocessor programming, real-time control, and robot mechanics and kinematics. Our course then continued the educational process by introducing higher-level perception, action and autonomy topics, including teleoperation, visual servoing, intelligent scheduling and planning and cooperative problem-solving. We were able to deliver such a comprehensive, high-level education in robotic autonomy for two reasons. First, the content resulted from close collaboration between the CMU Robotics Institute and researchers in the Information Sciences and Technology Directorate and various education program/project managers at NASA/Ames. This collaboration produced not only educational content, but will also be focal to the conduct of formative and summative evaluations of the course for further refinement. Second, CMU rapid prototyping skills as well as the PI's low-overhead perception and locomotion research projects enabled design and delivery of affordable robot kits with unprecedented sensory- locomotory capability. Each Trikebot robot was capable of both indoor locomotion and high-speed outdoor motion and was equipped with a high-speed vision system coupled to a low-cost pan/tilt head. As planned, follow the completion of Robotic Autonomy, each student took home an autonomous, competent robot. This robot is the student's to keep, as she explores robotics with an extremely capable tool in the

  20. Summer Ice and Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

    1981-10-01

    The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and research ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55 degrees and 80 degrees N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

  1. Examination of the atmospheric conditions associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabokas, P. D.; Cammas, J.-P.; Thouret, V.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Boulanger, D.; Repapis, C. C.

    2013-10-01

    In order to evaluate the observed high rural ozone levels in the eastern Mediterranean area during summertime, vertical profiles of ozone measured in the period 1994-2008 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft) over the eastern Mediterranean basin (Cairo, Tel Aviv, Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya) were analyzed, focusing in the lower troposphere (1.5-5 km). At first, vertical profiles collected during extreme days with very high or very low tropospheric ozone mixing ratios have been examined together with the corresponding back-trajectories. Also, the average profiles of ozone, relative humidity, carbon monoxide, temperature gradient and wind speed corresponding to the 7% highest and the 7% lowest ozone mixing ratios for the 1500-5000 m height layer for Cairo and Tel Aviv have been examined and the corresponding composite maps of geopotential heights at 850 hPa have been plotted. Based on the above analysis, it turns out that the lower-tropospheric ozone variability over the eastern Mediterranean area is controlled mainly by the synoptic meteorological conditions, combined with local topographical and meteorological features. In particular, the highest ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere and subsequently in the boundary layer are associated with large-scale subsidence of ozone-rich air masses from the upper troposphere under anticyclonic conditions while the lowest ozone concentrations are associated with low pressure conditions inducing uplifting of boundary-layer air, poor in ozone and rich in relative humidity, to the lower troposphere.

  2. Examination of the atmospheric conditions associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the observed high rural ozone levels in the Eastern Mediterranean area during summertime, vertical profiles of ozone measured in the period 1994–2008 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft over the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Cairo, Tel-Aviv, Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed, focusing in the lower troposphere (1.5–5 km. At first, vertical profiles collected during extreme days with very high or very low tropospheric ozone mixing ratios have been examined together with the corresponding back-trajectories. Also, the average profiles of ozone, relative humidity, carbon monoxide, temperature gradient and wind speed corresponding to the 7% highest and the 7% lowest ozone mixing ratios for the 1500–5000 m height layer for Cairo and Tel-Aviv have been examined and the corresponding composite maps of geopotential heights at 850 hPa have been plotted. Based on the above analysis, it turns out that the lower-tropospheric ozone variability over the Eastern Mediterranean area is controlled mainly by the synoptic meteorological conditions, combined with local topographical and meteorological features. In particular, the highest ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere and subsequently in the boundary layer are associated with large scale subsidence of ozone rich air masses from the upper troposphere under anticyclonic conditions while the lowest ozone concentrations are associated with low pressure conditions inducing uplifting of boundary layer air, poor in ozone and rich in relative humidity, to the lower troposphere.

  3. Summer Schools In Nuclear Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This the report for the 5 year activities for the ACS Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. The American Chemical Society's Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry were held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY) and San Jose State University (San Jose, CA) during the award period February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2007. The Summer Schools are intensive, six-week program involving both a lecture component covering fundamental principles of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry and a laboratory component allowing hands-on experience for the students to test many of the basic principles they learn about in lecture. Each site hosted 12 undergraduate students annually, and students received coursework credits towards their undergraduate degrees. Up to 7 student credit hours were earned at San Jose State University, and Brookhaven students received up to 6 college credits through BNL's management partner, SUNY Stony Brook. Funding from the award period covered travel, housing, educational expenses, and student stipends, for the 24 undergraduate participants. Furthermore, funding was also used to cover expenses for lecturers and staff to run the programs at the two facilities. The students were provided with nuclear and radiochemistry training equivalent to a three-hour upper-level undergraduate course along with a two-hour hands-on laboratory experience within the six-week summer period. Lectures were held 5 days per week. Students completed an extensive laboratory sequence, as well as radiation safety training at the start of the Summer Schools. The summer school curriculum was enhanced with a Guest Lecture series, as well as through several one-day symposia and organized field trips to nuclear-related research and applied science laboratories. This enrichment afforded an opportunity for students to see the broader impacts of nuclear science in today's world, and to experience some of the future challenges through formal and informal discussions with

  4. Think Summer: Early Planning, Teacher Support Boost Summer Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem that continues to plague educators is the achievement gap between low-income and higher-income students. In the ongoing search for solutions, one of the more promising approaches is expanding opportunities for learning, particularly in the summer. This article describes a project funded by The Wallace Foundation that offers…

  5. CERN Summer Student

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project, which aims for increasing the performance of the LHC, requires a review and upgrade of the existing machine protection and interlock systems. One of these interlock systems is the Fast Magnet Current Change Monitor (FMCM), which protects accelerator equipment from being damaged by the beam in case of powering failures in normal conducting magnets. Considering the HL-LHC project, a new batch production of FMCMs has been launched. The goal of the project was to design a test-bench platform to program, configure and functionally test the new FMCM interlock devices after their factory assembly to validate the functioning of these.

  6. Summer 2015 Internship Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) visually shows the expression of proteins by fluorescing when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. The GFP in this experiment was used to identify cells actively releasing viruses. The experiment focused on the effect of microgravity on the GFP expression of Akata B-cells infected with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Two flasks were prepared with 30 million cells each and two bioreactors were prepared with 50 million cells each. All four cultures were incubated for 16 days and fed every four days. Cellometer readings were taken on the feeding days to find cell size, viability, and GFP expression. In addition, the cells were treated with Propodium monoazide (PMA) and run through real time PCR to determine viral load on the feeding days. On the International Space Station air samples are taken to analyze the bacterial and fungal organisms in the air. The Sartorius Portable Airport is being investigated for potential use on the ISS to analyze for viral content in the air. Multiple samples were taken around Johnson Space Center building 37 and in Clear Lake Pediatric Clinic. The filter used was the gelatin membrane filter and the DNA was extracted directly from the filter. The DNA was then run through real time PCR for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and EBV as well as GAPDH to test for the presence of DNA. The results so far have shown low DNA yield and no positive results for VZV or EBV. Further inquiry involves accurately replicating an atmosphere with high viral load from saliva as would be found on the ISS to run the air sampler in. Another line of research is stress hormones that may be correlated to the reactivation of latent viruses. The stress hormones from saliva samples are analyzed rather than blood samples. The quantity found in saliva shows the quantity of the hormones actually attached to cells and causing a reaction, whereas in the blood the quantity of hormones is the total amount released to cause a reaction. The particular

  7. Guide for the preparation of proposals for faculty development projects in energy education, 1980. I. Summer workshops: 4-year college, community college, and 2-year postsecondary technical education teachers. II. Summer workshops: high school teachers. III. In-service workshops: elementary teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A program announcement to support Faculty Development Projects in Energy is presented. The project supported will include summer or in-service workshops for groups of teachers conducted by the grantee institution and staffed by faculty or others selected for their appropriate expertise. Eligible organizations include any accredited 4-year college, university, community college, or 2-year postsecondary technical institution.

  8. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  9. The Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Denise

    1982-01-01

    Programs were offered for fine arts students, 14-18 years old, in nine areas: orchestra, ballet, modern dance, acting, creative writing, mime, painting, printmaking, and photography. Guest artists also participated. The effect of the summer session upon the work of the students is easily recognizable. (RM)

  10. Summer Student Programme – Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bellora, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is the report on the studies about radiation damage on silicon strips detectors I've performed during my Summer Student Programme. A parameter to describe the damage amount has been defined, as well as his behaviour over time and absorbed dose.

  11. Summer Coursework and Completing College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attewell, Paul; Jang, Sou Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The summer school sessions that colleges offer their undergraduates are sometimes considered supplementary activities and are rarely perceived as central to a college's mission or effectiveness. However, analyses of college transcript data that tracked a nationally-representative sample of undergraduates for several years and through multiple…

  12. Summer Student Report - Project Kryolize

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work and results obtained by the author during his summer student internship at CERN. The author of this document was attached to the project Kryolize as a software developer, overtaking the job from a recently departed technical student.

  13. A River Summer on the Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Selleck, B.; Son, L.; Land, M.; Cronin, J.

    2006-12-01

    River Summer is a month-long faculty development program extending from the continental shelf off New York City to the headwaters of the Hudson in the Adirondack Mountains. During the program, faculty from the Environmental Consortium of Hudson Valley Colleges and Universities teach each other about the Hudson environment, using innovative methods of teaching and learning, with a focus on incorporation of hands-on approaches from the perspective of multiple disciplines. Over four weeks, faculty from research universities, community colleges, liberal arts institutions, and middle and high schools work and live together, on board a research vessel or in a remote tent campsite, for several days at a time. Using the geology, hydrology, and landscape of the River as a foundation, River Summer focuses on understanding development of the Hudson within the context of its natural resources and cultural history. Participants conduct field sampling and analyses and consider issues through approaches that are common to many disciplines: scaling for problem solving; sampling and assessing bias and representation; observing and documenting; representing and depicting; interpretation and assessing relationships and causality; and evaluation. They also get a chance to experience, first-hand, the complexity and often open-ended nature of doing science. By allowing individuals, many of whom come from non-science disciplines, to experience these methods and processes in a safe learning environment, science is made more meaningful and accessible. The program's pedagogy is based on the principles of cognitive psychology and immersive field-, place- and inquiry-based learning. Field programs have been found to provide memorable, transformative experiences for undergraduate students, and our experience with River Summer 2005 and 2006 suggests they are equally effective with faculty. Evaluation shows that River Summer has a significant impact on its participants. Participants develop new

  14. The Summer Leadership Program 1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dolores M.; And Others

    The 1987 Summer Leadership Program was a new initiative of the Division of High Schools for all incoming high school students and their parents. In essence, the program served as an orientation to high school. Most schools organized 12 hours of activities, spread over a period of 2 to 4 days. The program was implemented at 108 New York City high…

  15. Summer Mini Atomiade June 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Atomiade are coming to CERN! Members of Clubs supported by the CERN Staff Association and in conjunction with ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes) will be organising the summer games at the beginning of June. ASCERI aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sports meetings, bringing together members of public Research Institutes at European level. The Association's members come from over 40 Research Institutes spanning 16 countries. Numerous sports and leisure activities are represented at regular events and each tournament is organised by a different research institute. Clubs in conjunction with the CERN Staff Association have sent teams to previous winter and summer games and now, the CERN Club’s Coordination Committee (CCC) has now taken on the challenge of organising a Mini Atomiade from Friday June 3rd to Monday June 6th 2016 in Divonne-les-Bains. The games are made up of four different tournaments/competitions: Small Fi...

  16. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  17. Huijia School Summer Camp Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As an open and international educational institution, Beijing Huijia Private School is located in Changping, a scenic district in Beijing's northern suburb. In order to strengthen international cultural exchanges, promote the study of Chinese language and the spread of Chinese culture, and make the world know more about China, Huijia School regularly organizes various summer camps for students of different ages every year. Until now, we have already successfully received more than 1,000 students from hom...

  18. The link between interannual variation of the South China Sea summer monsoon onset and summer precipitation in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Relationship between the onset date of South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon and the summer rainfall in Shandong Province was examined by comprehensive analysis to establish a conceptual model of the link. If the summer monsoon occurs earlier, the 500 hPa level would induce the teleconnection of Eurasian pattern in the summer (June-August), which indicates that the western Pacific subtropical high is displaced northward further than usual, the Siberian high is intensified and the Okhotsk low is deepened. Under such circumstance, Shandong, located in the west side of the subtropical high and in front of the mid-Siberia high, would be expected to have a wet summer because it is quite possible for cold and warm air to meet and interact with each other in Shandong. Statistical analysis revealed that the 500 hPa anomalies over Korea and Japan were sensitive to the SCS monsoon onset date and very important to precipitation in Shandong, and that the convective activities over the deep water basin in the SCS in 24-26 pentads significantly influenced the position of the ridge lineof the western Pacific subtropical high. These findings yielded better understanding of the causative mechanisms involved in the precipitation generation, so that the knowledge gained can possibly be applied for long-lead forecast.

  19. Orbital control of the western North Pacific summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Hua; Chiang, John C. H.; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Orbital forcing exerts a strong influence on global monsoon systems, with higher summer insolation leading to stronger summer monsoons in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the associated regional and seasonal changes, particularly the interaction between regional monsoon systems, remain unclear. Simulations using the Community Earth System Model demonstrate that the western North Pacific (WNP) summer monsoon responds to orbital forcing opposite to that of other major Northern Hemisphere monsoon systems. Compared with its current climate state, the simulated WNP monsoon and associated lower-tropospheric trough is absent in the early Holocene when the precession-modulated Northern Hemisphere summer insolation is higher, whereas the summer monsoons in South and East Asia are stronger and shift farther northward. We attribute the weaker WNP monsoon to the stronger diabatic heating of the summer Asian monsoon—in particular over the southern Tibetan Plateau and Maritime Continent—that in turn strengthens the North Pacific subtropical high through atmospheric teleconnections. By contrast, the impact of the midlatitude circulation changes on the WNP monsoon is weaker when the solar insolation is higher. Prior to the present WNP monsoon onset, the upper-tropospheric East Asian jet stream weakens and shifts northward; the monsoon onset is highly affected by the jet-induced high potential vorticity intrusion. In the instance of the extreme perihelion-summer, the WNP monsoon is suppressed despite a stronger midlatitude precursor than present-day, and the midlatitude circulation response to the enhanced South Asian precipitation is considerable. These conditions indicate internal monsoon interactions of an orbital scale, implying a potential mechanistic control of the WNP monsoon.

  20. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  1. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  2. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  3. The Vulcano 1994 summer campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of measurements from various sources was collected for the island of Vulcano (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian sea) during summer 1994 with the scope of characterising the circulation pattern and the volcanic emission of the island. Ground meteorological stations were activated, wind profiles from pilot balloons were obtained, ground temperature measurements were produced. Furthermore, temperature and humidity data from satellite (Landsat TM) were also derived. A critical analysis of the data on the gathered information was performed to quantify the volcanic risk related to the toxic-volcanic-gas release in foreseeable paroxysmal events

  4. Study on High-Efficiency Nitrogen Application Technology for Summer-Planting Peanut after Wheat Harvest%麦后夏直播花生高效施氮技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中旭; 李秋芝; 张晗; 王士红; 李海涛; 尹会会; 李彤; 商娜

    2016-01-01

    [目的]确立麦后夏直播花生栽培模式下的氮肥高效施用技术。[方法]以花生品种花育25号为试验材料,采用随机区组排列,设常规施肥、包膜控释尿素、混合施肥3个处理,研究不同施肥方式及施肥量对麦后夏直播花生生长及产量的影响。[结果]混合施肥处理的花生生育期较常规施肥、缓控释肥处理的花生生育期分别长6、4 d,且混合施肥处理的花生成熟期叶色较深绿、生长稳健。混合施肥处理的花生主茎高较常规施肥、缓控释肥处理分别减少了4.43%、2.10%;混合施肥处理的花生侧枝长较常规施肥处理减少了2.42%,与缓控释肥处理差异较小;3个处理间总分枝数差异较小。混合施肥处理较缓控释肥、常规施肥处理的单株果数分别多1.1、1.6个;百果重分别重10.1、14.0 g;果数分别减少7.5、8.6个/kg;出米率分别高1.4、2.0个百分点。不同施肥处理间,混合施肥处理的荚果产量最高,较缓控释肥和常规施肥处理分别提高了7.03%、12.58%,3个处理间荚果产量差异显著。[结论]混合施肥可延长夏花生的有效生长期,促进花生生长稳健,防止早衰;可改善花生植株性状,塑造高光效的株型结构;可促进果实发育,粒大,粒饱;可显著提高花生产量,具有明显的节肥增产效果。%Objective] The aim was to establish nitrogen application technology which is high-efficiency for summer-planting peanut after wheat harvest.[Method] With Huayu 25 as test material, using random group arrangement, setting up conventional fertilization, coated controlled-re-lease urea and mixed fertilization, effects of different fertilization ways and quantity on growth and yield of summer-planting peanut after wheat harvest were studied.[Result] The growth period of peanut in mixed fertilization treatment was respectively 6 days and 4 days longer than

  5. 冗余器官去除对高产夏玉米产量形成的影响%Effects of Removing Redundant Organs on Yield Formation of High-yielding Summer Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 杜雄; 崔彦宏; 党红凯; 李科江; 贺振营; 于秀艳

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the actual conflict between "population"and "individual quality"on increasing the maize yield,during summer maize seasons from 201 3 to 201 4 (June -early October)a field experiment was con-ducted to study the effects of removing redundant organs on yield and photosynthesis of high-yielding summer maize,and the objectives of this study was to search out a new method to harmonize the relationship between maize"population"and "individual quality",conventional maize planting as control.The results showed that removing tassel and lower leaves increased the net photosynthetic rate and maximum grain-filling rate,and promoted matter transport from vegetative organs to grains.Tassel removal could improve light distribution in canopy.Lower leaves removal may prolong grain-filling period and decrease water consumption or relief water-stress in dry year.Compared with the control,in 201 3(rainy year)tassel removal,leaves removal and tassel &leaves removal could increase grain yield by 1 2.3%,2.6% and 3.0% respectively;in 201 4 (dry year)leaves removal and tassel &leaves removal in-creased yield by 6.1 % and 8.8%,but tassel removal had no effect on yield.Furthermore,with redundant leaves re-moval the water consumption was decreased by 34.5 -42.5 mm,water use efficiency was increased by 1 4.3% -1 7.2% compared with the control.So tassel removal and lower leaves removal should be regarded as a new method to further increase grain yield of high-yielding summer maize.%针对高产夏玉米进一步提高产量存在的“群体数量”和“个体质量”的现实矛盾,于2013-2014年度采用大田试验,以常规种植为对照,研究了不同冗余器官去除对夏玉米产量和光合特性的影响,旨在探索在“群体数量”的基础上进一步提高“个体质量”的方法。结果表明,去除雄穗和下部叶片提高了玉米穗位叶净光合速率和最大籽粒灌浆速率,促进了营养器官干物质向籽粒的转移,

  6. The long hot summer of the tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Kendl, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    What have the probability for fine weather in summer and the possibility for a future use of nuclear fusion as a practically unlimited and clean energy source got in common? The answer is in the particular nature underlying both physical systems: both the atmosphere and hot magnetized fusion plasmas are determined by similar processes of structure formation in quasi-two-dimensional periodic nonlinear dynamical systems. Self-organization of waves and vortices on small scales in both cases leads to large-scale flows, which are, depending on conditions, either stable for a long time - or can break apart intermittently and expel large vortex structures. In the case of earth's atmosphere, a potential stabilization of the polar jet stream over northern Europe by warming in early summer leads to a high probability for stable hot midsummer weather in central Europe. The efficient utilization of nuclear fusion in a power plant also depends if a stabilization of such zonal flows ("H mode") may be sustained by heating o...

  7. Analysis of extreme high temperature events in summer during 1980-2010 over North China%1980-2010年华北地区极端高温天气气候事件特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 栗晗; 叶培龙; 朱昌权

    2014-01-01

    Based on the daily data at 84 stations of North China and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1980 to 2010, temporal and spatial characteristics of extreme high temperature events (EHTE) in summer were studied by using the centesimal threshold value method. The formative circumfluent background was also analyzed and the results show that, during 1980-2010 the number of days or mean/maximum of the EHTE increased significantly, and especially the days of the EHTE increased significantly with a linear trend coefficient of 0.261 in North China. As for the space distribution, the period of increased EHTE was focused particularly on the recent ten years, and the days of the EHTE increased more in the north than in the south parts of Northern China. Thus the distribution of the days of the EHTE changed from a ’more in the south and less in the north’ state to an opposite situation. A composite analysis showed that the western Pacific subtropical high was stronger with a westward ridge point, two high pressures and one low pressure systems located in the middle and high latitude. The eastern high pressure of the two was the circulation system that caused more EHTE in Northern China. This system was especially strong in the lower layers of the troposphere. For example, at 850 hPa the value of the geopotential height anomaly was above 5 gpm.%基于1980−2010年共31年NCEP再分析资料和华北地区地面台站资料,采用百分位阈值法研究了华北地区夏季极端高温天气事件的时空特征,并对其环流成因进行了分析.结果表明,1980−2010年华北地区极端高温日数和极端高温事件发生时的日平均、最高温度都有明显的增加趋势,其中极端高温日数的增加趋势尤为显著,线性趋势系数达到0.261,通过了0.01的显著性水平检验.空间分布上,近10年华北地区的极端高温日数显著增加,并且北部地区增加大于南部,极端高温多发区由20世纪80年代的“南多北少”

  8. CERN Summer Student Internship Report

    CERN Document Server

    Gheorghiu, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the work I have done as part of this two month long summer student internship. My work primarily consisted of two tasks: parallel merging with HADD and developing a package manager for ROOT. The first task was intended to get me familiarized with the working environment. Its purpose was to parallelize the merging of ROOT files using PROOF-Lite. The second task, which represented my main objective, was concerned with developing a package manager for ROOT, using the PROOF package managing system as a starting point. This report will show that the tasks have been completed successfully and will illustrate the main results. In the future, the ROOT package manager will be extended to also work in the PROOF setting.

  9. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny;

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  10. The Computational Phyloinformatics Summer Course wikis

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Rutger; Piel, William; Balhoff, Jim; Butler, Marguerite; Cranston, Karen; Jobe, Todd; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei; Lapp, Hilmar; London, Darin; Maddison, David; Muse, Spencer; Oliver, Jeff; O'Meara, Brian; Scherle, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    These are snapshots of the 2008-2012 course wikis for the Computational Phyloinformatics Summer Courses. (There was no course wiki for the 2007 course.) Computational Phyloinformatics Summer Course Computational Phyloinformatics is an 10 to 14-day intensive summer workshop established at NESCent, but often co-sponsored and hosted at other institutions. The workshop aims to give biologists practical knowledge and hands-on programming skills in phyloinformatics. The curriculum chan...

  11. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  12. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...

  13. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  14. Summer Learning Programs and Student Success in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States and around the rest of the world, there is a renewed focus on ensuring that schools are providing students with the skills necessary to compete in the global economy. High-quality summer learning programs are an ideal vehicle to help students gain content knowledge and develop innovative skills: they provide time for…

  15. AN EAST ASIAN SUBTROPICAL SUMMER MONSOON INDEX DEFINED BY MOISTURE TRANSPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ping; TANG Xu; HE Jin-hai; CHEN Long-xun

    2008-01-01

    Using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset and observation rainfall data in China for the 1971- 2000 period, a subtropical summer monsoon index has been defined by meridional moisture transport of the total atmosphere column. Results show that the subtropical summer monsoon index defined by the difference of meridional moisture transport between South China and North China can be used to describe the intensity of the subtropical summer monsoon. High (low) index is corresponding to strong (weak) subtropical summer monsoon. And the new index is well related to the summer rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. In addition, the convergence of moisture transport from the west Pacific via the South China Sea and that from the North China may be responsible for the anomalously excessive summer rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River.

  16. IMPACTS OF ANTARCTIC OSCILLATION ON SUMMER MOISTURE TRANSPORT AND PRECIPITATION IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jun; WANG Pan-xing; GONG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and monthly precipitation over 160 conventional stations in China,analyses of moisture transport characteristics and corresponding precipitation variation in the east part of China in summer are made, and studies are carried out on possible influence on moisture transport and precipitation in summer by the variation of Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). The results show that the abnormal variation of the AAO affected the summer precipitation in China significantly. The variation of AAO can cause the variation ofintension and location of Northwestern Pacific High, which in turn cause the variation of summer monsoon rainfall in the eastern China.

  17. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  18. Dimensions of Flow in Academic and Social Activities among Summer Music Camp participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of flow experiences among high school music students attending a two-week summer instrumental music camp. Specifically, the study sought to determine if: (1) students do indeed experience flow in summer camp settings; (2) what activities are conducive to flow; (3) what is the relationship…

  19. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  20. Did You Go to a Summer School?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠琳; 李娜; 刘东; 李伦; 李明

    2007-01-01

    Yes,I did. And I learned a lot from the school. It was right of me to choose a summer school to study at,or I’d have wasted a lot of time on TV or computer games. I hope my summer school study will make the new school year much easier.

  1. Sizzling Summer Reading Programs for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Katharine L.

    A summer reading program can be designed to attract not just those teenagers who love to read, but also nonreaders who have yet to experience the joy of reading. This book gathers from library literature and previously unpublished accounts of recent programs and provides information about different kinds of summer reading programs designed…

  2. Good-bye Summer Students 2009!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In its 47th edition, the CERN Summer Student programme has welcomed almost 200 young students from around the world. As it proves to do each year, the programme has provided a unique experience for all participants. CERN Summer Students 2009 in the Microcosm garden.During the summer months between June and August, your normal lunchtime routine is inevitably disrupted by the small stampede of students that leaves the Main Auditorium just around midday and starts queuing in Restaurant 1. When this happens, you can’t help but notice that the CERN Summer Students have arrived! With its rich lecture series, inspirational visits and actual work experience, the Summer Student programme provides a real chance to get acquainted with a career in particle physics, engineering and computation. The programme includes a morning lecture series that covers a large variety of topics, from particle physics to engineering, information technology and ...

  3. Polar mesospheric summer echoes above Antarctica in summer 2007/2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. When PMSE were first observed at Wasa, Antarctica in the austral summer of 2007/2008 they appeared at an unusually high altitude, 3-5 km above the typical altitude. Simultaneous Aura microwave limb sounder temperature estimates showed the mesopause to be approximately 3 km higher than usual. The mesopause was thus located in between the typical winter altitude of 100 km and the typical summer altitude of 88 km. This indicates that the view of just two mesopause levels worldwide need to be somewhat refined. During this early part of the season the southern polar vortex had not broken up yet, and stratospheric eastward winds were about as strong as westward winds in the upper stratosphere. This would lead to strongly limited gravity wave forcing from below of the mesopause region. Interhemisphere coupling may instead provide the dynamics leading to the formation of the early cold summer mesopause for this season. This could be a fairly common situation for the southern hemisphere, whereas similar conditions have so far not been observed in the northern hemisphere. Comparison between PMSE above Wasa and above the Australian Davis station located north of Wasa allows for a study of latitude dependence of the PMSE occurrence, including signatures of planetary wave influence on the PMSE occurrence. Comparison of PMSE strength and occurrence at both Wasa and Davis with Aura MLS temperature and water vapor estimates allows for a study of how much of the PMSE variability is due to the presence of aerosols and how much is due to other limiting factors such as turbulence and ionization. We will show comparisons between the two sites, as well as for different parts of the 2007/2008 season to determine if the early season stands out in more ways than in the altitude distribution.

  4. Oscillation characteristics of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley and relevant climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the summer precipitation data from the Huaihe River valley and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River from 1922 to 2007,we analyzed the interannual and interdecadal oscillation and probability distribution characteristics of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley during the same period,using the wavelet transform and generalized extreme distribution methods.Whereby,we studied the climate background of East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM),Sea Surface Temperature (SST),East Asia telecorrelation circulation,and their relationship with the interannual and interdecadal oscillation of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley.We further compared the difference of interdecadal oscillation of summer precipitation and the relevant climate background between the Huaihe River valley and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.The results show that:1) The intensity change of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley is consistent with that of interdecadal oscillation.The summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley has been more than normal since the end of the 1990s,and the QBO is very significant.Meanwhile,the probability of occurrence of extreme heavy rainfall increased obviously.2) The interdecadal oscillation of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley has a close relationship with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and interdecadal oscillation of EASM.When PDO is in the cold phase and EASM weakens,the summer precipitation will be greater than normal.3) QBO of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley is mainly controlled by that of EASM,and it has a relationship with a circulation pattern of "positive-negative-positive" from the high to the low latitudes in East Asia.4) There is interdecadal phase difference in summer precipitation between the Huaihe River valley and the middle and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River,which is mainly related to the intensity and

  5. Summer Students: getting professional at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The summer season at CERN is known for the traditional visit of Summer Students coming from Member and non-Member States. This time, a total of 176 future scientists are spending part of their summer with us, learning and working in the laboratory. Summer Students enjoying a lecture on particle physics by Ronald Kleiss. Now that summer has finally arrived, you'll have noticed some changes at CERN: longer queues at the bar, faces you don't recognise in the corridors, and a breath of fresh air, but where is it coming from? The answer is easy: the Summer Students are here! Aged between 20 and 27, this group of 176 future scientists has been selected from 600 candidates to spend their summer at the Laboratory. This year, there are 24 more 'Summies' than last following a recommendation in the 2000 5-yearly review to increase the number of students. The Summies mainly come from Member States, but this year there are also 11 Americans, two Mexicans, an Armenian, a Turk, a Pakistani and two South Africans. Judith N...

  6. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  7. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  8. Investigation of summer monsoon rainfall variability in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mian Sabir; Lee, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability in Pakistan using daily rainfall data during the summer monsoon season (June to September) recorded from 1980 to 2014. The variability in inter-annual monsoon rainfall ranges from 20 % in northeastern regions to 65 % in southwestern regions of Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the transition of the negative and positive anomalies was not uniform in the investigated dataset. In order to acquire broad observations of the intra-seasonal variability, an objective criterion, the pre-active period, active period and post-active periods of the summer monsoon rainfall have demarcated. The analysis also reveals that the rainfall in June has no significant contribution to the increase in intra-seasonal rainfall in Pakistan. The rainfall has, however, been enhanced in the summer monsoon in August. The rainfall of September demonstrates a sharp decrease, resulting in a high variability in the summer monsoon season. A detailed examination of the intra-seasonal rainfall also reveals frequent amplitude from late July to early August. The daily normal rainfall fluctuates significantly with its maximum in the Murree hills and its minimum in the northwestern Baluchistan.

  9. What will you do next summer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Zach Bond spent his summer building an interferometer for a quantum-optics laboratory at the University of Oregon. Roko Mijic designed a heat exchanger for Oxford Instruments and wrote software that the firm "probably still uses" years after he was a trainee cryogenic engineer there during the summers of 2002-2006. And Cacey Stevens enjoyed her summer project at the University of Chicago so much that she is now doing PhD research on viscous splashing in the same group where she worked as an undergraduate.

  10. My Summer Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Hobert Leon

    2011-01-01

    During my summer internship at Kennedy Space Center, I worked on several projects with my mentor Grace Johnson in the Education Programs Office. My primary project was the CubeSat project in which my job was to help mentor Merritt Island High School students in the building of a CubeSat. CubeSats are picosatellites that are used to carry out auxiliary missions; they "piggy back" into orbit on launch vehicles launching primary missions. CubeSats come in the sizes of 1U (10 by 10 by 10 cm) 2U (1Ux2) and 3U (1Ux3). The Cube Sats are housed in a protective deploying device called a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deplored (P-POD). I also participated in a Balloon Workshop with the MIHS students. This was an intense 4-day project in which we constructed a balloon satellite equipped with a camera whose main goal was to obtain video images of the curvature of the earth at high altitudes and relay it back down to our ground station. I also began developing my own science research program for minority serving institutions to be implemented when funding becomes available. In addition to the projects that I completed during my internship, I got the opportunity to go on various tours of the technological facilities here at Kennedy Space Center.

  11. Summer institute for the teaching of psychology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycek, R.F.; Miller, R.L. [Univ. of Nebraska, Kearney, NE (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This presentation will focus on the development of a summer institute to enhance high school and post-secondary teaching in psychology. The purpose of the institute is to provide an intensive teaching seminar in a specific content area of psychology presented by notable researchers and textbook authors in the field. The goal of the institute is to: (1) update participants in a particular content area, (2) introduce participants to new methods and technologies for teaching the content area at the high school and college level, and (3) provide attendees with a set of curriculum materials including classroom exercises and demonstrations which will allow students to conduct scientific experiments in psychology as well as to relate their findings to real world issues. The actual institute is staffed by at least three nationally known experts in a particular topic area of psychology. Over a five-day period, each expert gives at least three major presentations followed by appropriate breakout session which include demonstrations and discussions. The experts supply lecture outlines and supporting materials for their topics area which participants receive as a part of their learning packet. Participants also have the opportunity to share their teaching experiences and expertise.

  12. A SWOT Analysis for Organizing a Summer School: Case Study for Advanced Summer School in Analyzing Market Data 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Herman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The economics scholars agree that investment in education is a competitive advantage. After participating and graduating the “Advanced Summer School in Analyzing Market Data 2013”, the students will gain some formal competences is applied knowledge in Statistics with the IBM SPSS Statistics software. Studies show that the employers seek also practical competences in the undergraduate students, along with the theoretical knowledge. The article focuses on a SWOT analysis for organizing a Summer School in order to compose lists of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The purpose of the “Advanced Summer School in Analyzing Market Data 2013“ is to train undergraduate students from social-human sciences to gain competences which are valued in the market and a certificate for attendance, to develop an appropriate training program which combines applied knowledge, statistics and IBM SPSS software and to create a „Summer School quality brand” with high-quality training programs for the Faculty of Administration and Business.

  13. Summer võistleb jalgpalli MMil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Rocklaulja Indrek Raadik (Summer) on sooloprojektiga tuuril koos bändidega Traffic ja Mees, juuni lõpul aga koos ansamblitega esindamas Eestit Sotšis toimuval artistide esimesel maailmameistrivõistlusel jalgpallis

  14. Summer birth and deficit schizophrenia: Cantabria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Herrera Castanedo, Sara; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose L

    2002-08-01

    An association between deficit schizophrenia and summer birth has previously been reported. The authors attempted to replicate this association in a population-based study of incident cases of psychosis in the autonomous region of Cantabria, in northern Spain. Schizophrenia patients were categorized into deficit (N = 22) and nondeficit (N = 55) groups, and the pattern in the two groups was compared. After accounting for the variance due to disorganization, hallucinations and delusions, and demographic variables, deficit schizophrenia had a significant association with summer birth; this association did not depend on a single definition of summer. For instance, among the deficit patients, 59% were born from May to August, in contrast to 18% of nondeficit patients and 34% of the general population. These results confirm the association between summer birth in the Northern Hemisphere and deficit as opposed to nondeficit schizophrenia. The existence of a different risk factor for the two groups suggests a difference in etiology and pathophysiology. PMID:12193837

  15. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: Summer Fishing Regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes the summer fishing regulation for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge as submitted to the Federal Register. This regulation defines areas...

  16. Essentials for Keeping Kids Safe This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159318.html Essentials for Keeping Kids Safe This Summer Expert shares tips for injury-free outdoor play To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will ...

  17. Summary of summer's field work, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of field work done on the Chickaloon Flats during the summer of 1970. Objectives of this field work were to: 1 determine the utilization of...

  18. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  19. Work Project Report - Summer Internship 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Alampounti, Chantif Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    The report summarizes the work undertaken during the summer internship 2013. It involves both practical and theoretical work in the context of the ALPHA experiment, which is involved with the trapping and spectroscopic analysis of antihydrogen.

  20. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  1. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  2. 1895: Dr W G Grace's golden summer.

    OpenAIRE

    Toghill, P.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred years ago there was another wonderful summer. Dr. W G Grace, England's greatest cricketer, in his 47th year, completed his "century of centuries" and scored 2346 runs. This remarkable achievement was celebrated with enthusiasm and affection by the Victorian public. In more practical terms generous testimonials raised 9073 pound sterling 8s 6d, which made it a golden summer in more ways than one.

  3. Summer Events at the Scientific Library | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exciting events are coming this summer from the Scientific Library—the annual Student Science Jeopardy Tournament and the Summer Video Series. This year, the 10th Annual Student Science Jeopardy Tournament will be held on Wednesday, July 20, beginning at 10 a.m. in the auditorium of Building 549. The event will also be streamed live to the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), room E1203.

  4. On the lack of southern hemisphere polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; RodríGuez, R.; Urbina, J.; Ragaini, E.; Carey, J.; Huaman, M.; Giraldez, A.

    1995-06-01

    We report VHF radar observations of the southern high-latitude mesopause region using wind profilers that were installed recently on King George Island, Antarctica, and Ushuaia, Argentina. Briefly, our observations, which were made during January and February 1993, show almost no evidence of so-called polar mesosphere summer echoes, or PMSE. Since these echoes are a predominant feature of the northern high-latitude mesosphere in summer, their absence in the southern hemisphere is both surprising and intriguing. In this paper we present evidence demonstrating the virtual absence of the echoes and demonstrate that our systems were capable of detecting them had they been present. We also outline some of the consequences of this intriguing result, which are supported by observed hemispheric differences in polar mesospheric clouds, mesospheric temperatures, upper atmospheric gravity wave activity, and mean circulation patterns.

  5. Summer 1994 Computational Science Workshop. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report documents the work performed by the University of New Mexico Principal Investigators and Research Assistants while hosting the highly successful Summer 1994 Computational Sciences Workshop in Albuquerque on August 6--11, 1994. Included in this report is a final budget for the workshop, along with a summary of the participants` evaluation of the workshop. The workshop proceeding have been delivered under separate cover. In order to assist in the organization of future workshops, we have also included in this report detailed documentation of the pre- and post-workshop activities associated with this contract. Specifically, we have included a section that documents the advertising performed, along with the manner in which applications were handled. A complete list of the workshop participants in this section. Sample letters that were generated while dealing with various commercial entities and departments at the University are also included in a section dealing with workshop logistics. Finally, we have included a section in this report that deals with suggestions for future workshops.

  6. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  7. P24 Plasma Physics Summer School 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory Summer lecture series for students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Bruno [Univ Nevada, Reno; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weber, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Awe, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yong Ho [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-07

    This report covers the 2012 LANL summer lecture series for students. The lectures were: (1) Tom Intrator, P24 LANL: Kick off, Introduction - What is a plasma; (2) Bruno Bauer, Univ. Nevada-Reno: Derivation of plasma fluid equations; (3) Juan Fernandez, P24 LANL Overview of research being done in p-24; (4) Tom Intrator, P24 LANL: Intro to dynamo, reconnection, shocks; (5) Bill Daughton X-CP6 LANL: Intro to computational particle in cell methods; (6) Kirk Flippo, P24 LANL: High energy density plasmas; (7) Thom Weber, P24 LANL: Energy crisis, fission, fusion, non carbon fuel cycles; (8) Tom Awe, Sandia National Laboratory: Magneto Inertial Fusion; and (9) Yongho Kim, P24 LANL: Industrial technologies.

  8. Combining drought survival via summer dormancy and annual biomass productivity in Dactylis glomerata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajae eKallida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Under Mediterranean climates, the best strategy to produce rain-fed fodder crops is to develop perennial drought resistant varieties. Summer dormancy present in native germplasm has been shown to confer a high level of survival under severe drought. Nevertheless it has also been shown to be negatively correlated with annual biomass productivity. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlations between summer dormancy and annual biomass productivity related traits and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits in a progeny of a summer dormant cocksfoot parent (Kasbah and a summer active parent (Medly. A total of 283 offspring and the parents were phenotyped for summer dormancy, plant growth rate and heading date in Morocco and for maximum leaf elongation rate (LERm in France. The individuals were genotyped with a total of 325 markers including 59 AFLP, 64 SSR and 202 DArT markers. The offspring exhibited a large quantitative variation for all measured traits. Summer dormancy showed a negative correlation with both plant growth rate (-0.34 p<0.005 and LERm (-0.27 p<0.005. However, genotypes with both a high level of summer dormancy and a high level of plant growth rate were detected in the progeny. One genetic map per parent was built with a total length of 377 and 423 cM for Kasbah and Medly, respectively. Both different and co-localised QTL for summer dormancy and plant growth rate were identified. These results demonstrate that it should be possible to create summer dormant cocksfoot varieties with a high annual biomass productivity.

  9. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  10. THE CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SUMMER MONSOON ONSET OVER THE SOUTH CHINA SEA I.40-YEAR AVERAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞权; 王安宇; 吴池胜; 林建恒; 古志明; 林文实; 谭志文

    2002-01-01

    By using 40-year NCEP reanalysis daily data (1958-1997),we have analyzed the climatic characteristics of summer monsoon onset in the South China Sea (105(E ~120(E,5(N~20(N,to be simplified as SCS in the text followed) pentad by pentad (5 days).According to our new definition,in the monsoon area of the SCS two of the following conditions should be satisfied:1) At 850hPa,the southwest winds should be greater than 2m/s.2) At 850 hPa,should be greater than 335(K.The new definition means that the summer monsoon is the southwest winds with high temperature and high moisture.The onset of the SCS summer monsoon is defined to start when one half of the SCS area (105(E~120(E,5(N~20(N) is controlled by the summer monsoon.The analyzed results revealed the following:1) The summer monsoon in the SCS starts to build up abruptly in the 4th pentad in May.2) The summer monsoon onset in the SCS is resulted from the development and intensification of southwesterly monsoon in the Bay of Bengal.3) The onset of the summer monsoon and establishment of the summer monsoon rainfall season in the SCS occur simultaneously.4) During the summer monsoon onset in the SCS,troughs deepen and widen quickly in the lower troposphere of the India;the subtropical high in the Western Pacific moves eastward off the SCS in the middle troposphere;the easterly advances northward over the SCS in the upper troposphere.

  11. Arctic Climate during Eocene Hyperthermals: Wet Summers on Ellesmere Island?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, D. R.; West, C. K.; Basinger, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work has shown that during the late Paleocene to middle Eocene, mesothermal conditions (i.e., MAT ~12-15° C) and high precipitation (MAP > 150cm/yr) characterized Arctic climates - an Arctic rain forest. Recent analyses of Arctic Eocene wood stable isotope chemistry are consistent with the annual and seasonal temperature estimates from leaf physiognomy and nearest living relative analogy from fossil plants, including the lack of freezing winters, but is interpreted as showing that there was a summer peak in precipitation - modern analogs are best sought on the summer-wet east coasts (e.g., China, Japan, South Korea) not the winter-wet west coasts of present-day northern temperate continents (e.g., Pacific northwest of North America). Highly seasonal 'monsoon-type' summer-wet precipitation regimes (i.e., summer precip./winter precip. > 3.0) seem to characterize Eocene hyperthermal conditions in several regions of the earth, including the Arctic and Antarctic, based on both climate model sensitivity experiments and the paleoclimate proxy evidence. The leaf physiognomy proxy previously applied to estimate Arctic Paleogene precipitation was leaf area analysis (LAA), a correlation between mean leaf size in woody dicot vegetation and annual precipitation. New data from modern monsoonal sites, however demonstrates that for deciduous-dicot dominated vegetation, summer precipitation determines mean leaf size, not annual totals, and therefore that under markedly seasonal precipitation and/or light regimes that summer precipitation is being estimated using LAA. Presented here is a new analysis of a leaf macrofloras from 3 separate florules of the Margaret Formation (Split Lake, Stenkul Fiord and Strathcona Fiord) from Ellesmere Island that are placed stratigraphically as early Eocene, and likely fall within Eocene thermal maximum 1 (ETM1; = the 'PETM') or ETM2. These floras are each characterized by a mix of large-leafed and small-leafed dicot taxa, with overall

  12. CERN Summer Student Webfest: a cradle of creativity

    CERN Multimedia

    François Grey

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Summer Student Webfest has garnered a reputation for launching creative projects in fields as diverse as online games and cryptographic software, using the popular format of a hackfest. This year, the annual weekend event will celebrate its fourth year between 31 July and 2 August.   What unites Webfest projects is that they are conceived and developed by teams of CERN summer students, with some advice and guidance provided by mentors drawn from CERN and several partners. The event is organised by the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, a partnership between CERN, the UN Institute of Training and Research, and the University of Geneva. Event partners also include Mozilla Foundation, the EC Citizen Cyberlab project and THE Port hackathon. In 2014, one of the winning teams developed Particle Clicker, a spoof on a simple game called Cookie Clicker. Particle Clicker humorously illustrated the sociological aspects of the high-energy physics community through the rewards it provided players for clic...

  13. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-01-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is 'are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?' To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls=120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for ...

  14. Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silber, Herbert B. [San Jose State University

    2013-06-20

    The ACS Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry (herein called “Summer Schools”) were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and held at San Jose State University (SJSU) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Summer Schools offer undergraduate students with U.S. citizenship an opportunity to complete coursework through ACS accredited chemistry degree programs at SJSU or the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SBU). The courses include lecture and laboratory work on the fundamentals and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. The number of students participating at each site is limited to 12, and the low student-to-instructor ratio is needed due to the intense nature of the six-week program. To broaden the students’ perspectives on nuclear science, prominent research scientists active in nuclear and/or radiochemical research participate in a Guest Lecture Series. Symposia emphasizing environmental chemistry, nuclear medicine, and career opportunities are conducted as a part of the program. The Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) renewed the five-year proposal for the Summer Schools starting March 1, 2007, with contributions from Biological and Environmental Remediation (BER) and Nuclear Physics (NP). This Final Technical Report covers the Summer Schools held in the years 2007-2011.

  15. Summer Training and Education Program (STEP): Report on the 1985 Summer Experience. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Alvia Y.

    The Summer Training and Education Program (STEP) provides 14 and 15 year olds with a paid summer experience that combines work, remediation in reading and math, and life skills instruction. This national, federally funded program is a response to data which show that poor academic performance and teenage pregnancy are important contributors to…

  16. Mean annual variation of frosty and summer days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heating period in the Slovak Republic is, according to the STN 38 3350 Standard concerning the heat supply derived of the decrease of the man daily temperature of the exterior air under 13 grad C during two consecutive days. The shortest mean duration of the heating period (below 210 days) occurs in the south of the Podunajska nizina Lowland. Short heating period (in average 210 - 220 days) occurs in the lowland positions of Slovakia, namely the Podunajska and Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland. Heating is not necessary in these areas in the period between June and August. In the sub-mountain and northern area of Slovakia several days with properties characterising the heating period occur also during the summer months. In the high-mountain areas of the Nizke Tatry Mts. and Vysoke Tatry Mts. mountain ranges the heating period lasts during the whole year. The warm half-year is characterised by number of summer days when the maximum air temperature raises above 25 grad C. The highest number of summer days (in average 70 - 75 days) occurs in the south of the Podunajska nizina Lowland. Summer days do not occur in the mountain positions (approximately from 1,400 m above sea level). The cold half of the year is characterised by the number of frost days i.e. the days when the minimum air temperature drops below 0 grad C. They occur in the high-mountain positions of the Nizke Tatry Mts. and Vysoke Tatry Mts. mountain ranges, i.e. in average more than 200 frost days a year. Night frost is also frequent in closed basins and mountain valleys. The least number of such days (in average less than 90 frost days a year) occur in the south of the Podunajska nizina Lowland

  17. Lynch Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  18. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  19. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  20. International Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  1. Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  2. Arabian Peninsula-North Pacific Oscillation and its association with the Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using correlation and EOF analyses on sea level pressure from 57-year NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data, the Arabian Peninsula-North Pacific Oscillation (APNPO) is identified. The APNPO reflects the co-variability between the North Pacific high and South Asian summer monsoon low. This teleconnec- tion pattern is closely related to the Asian summer monsoon. On interannual timescale, it co-varies with both the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and South Asian summer monsoon (SASM); on decadal timescale, it co-varies with the EASM: both exhibit two abrupt climate changes in the middle 1960s and the late 1970s respectively. The possible physical process for the connections between the APNPO and Asian summer monsoon is then explored by analyzing the APNPO-related atmospheric circulations. The results show that with a strong APNPO, the Somali Jet, SASM flow, EASM flow, and South Asian high are all enhanced, and an anomalous anticyclone is produced at the upper level over northeast China via a zonal wave train. Meanwhile, the moisture transportation to the Asian monsoon regions is also strengthened in a strong APNPO year, leading to a strong moisture convergence over India and northern China. All these changes of circulations and moisture conditions finally result in an anoma- lous Asian summer monsoon and monsoon rainfall over India and northern China. In addition, the APNPO has a good persistence from spring to summer. The spring APNPO is also significantly corre- lated with Asian summer monsoon variability. The spring APNPO might therefore provide valuable in- formation for the prediction of Asian summer monsoon.

  3. The World Nuclear University Summer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Nuclear University (WNU) Summer Institute is a six weeks intensive training program aimed to develop a global leadership in the field of nuclear sciences and technologies. The topics covered include global setting, international regimes, technology innovation and nuclear industry operations. This event has been held annually since 2005. Mark McIntyre and Dominic Rivard attended this activity as a personal initiative. In this paper they will present the WNU and its Summer Institute, share their participation experience and discuss as well of some technical content covered during the Institute, highlighting the benefits this brought to their careers. (author)

  4. Audi cars Sponsored to Summer Davos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong

    2009-01-01

    @@ During the upcoming Summer Davos in Asia this year,it is not only the grand affair to Dalian city,but also for the Audi cars,as the exclusive vehicle sunnlier for the event The Vehicle Handover Ceremony of the Faw Volkswagen Audi was held at Xinghai Square,Dalian,China,September 3,2009. Faw Volkswa,vehicle sponsor of the Summer Davos 2009,provides a total of 85 new Audi cars to be running for the distinguished guests during the meeting.

  5. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  6. Characteristics of Carbonaceous Particles in Beijing During Winter and Summer 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianhua; CHEN Tian; Benjamin GUINOT; Helene CACHIER; YU Tong; LIU Wenqing; WANG Xin

    2006-01-01

    Campaigns were conducted to measure Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) in PM2.5 during winter and summer 2003 in Beijing. Modest differences of PM2.5 and PM10 mean concentrations were observed between the winter and summer campaigns. The mean PM2.5/PM10 ratio in both seasons was around 60%, indicating PM2.5 contributed significantly to PM10. The mean concentrations of OC and EC in PM2.5 were 11.2±7.5 and 6.0±5.0μg m-3 for the winter campaign, and 9.4±2.1 and 4.3±3.0 μg m-3 for the summer campaign, respectively. Diurnal concentrations of OC and EC in PM2.5 were found high at night and low during the daytime in winter, and characterized by an obvious minimum in the summer afternoon. The mean OC/EC ratio was 1.87±0.09 for winter and Z39±0.49 for summer. The higher OC/EC ratio in summer indicates some formation of Secondary Organic Carbon (SOC). The estimated SOC was 2.8 μg m-3 for winter and 4.2μg m-3 for summer.

  7. CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer School

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Applications are now open for the 2nd CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer School, which will take place at CERN from 6 to 15 June 2007. The school web site is http://cern.ch/hcpss with links to the academic program and application procedure. The application deadline is 9 March 2007. The results of the selection process will be announced shortly thereafter. The goal of the CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer Schools is to offer students and young researchers in high energy physics a concentrated syllabus on the theory and experimental challenges of hadron collider physics. The first school in the series, held last summer at Fermilab, covered extensively the physics at the Tevatron collider experiments. The second school to be held at CERN, will focus on the technology and physics of the LHC experiments. Emphasis will be given on the first years of data-taking at the LHC and on the discovery potential of the programme. The series of lectures will be  supported by in-depth discussion sess...

  8. Outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules during summer in Taxila, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out to measure the performance of commercially available photovoltaic modules during summer months in the climate of Taxila, near the capital of Pakistan. The modules used in the study are monocrystalline silicon (c-Si, polycrystalline silicon (p-Si and single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si. The analysis has been focused on the measurement of module efficiency, performance ratio and temperature of each module at actual operating conditions using outdoor monitoring facility. The measured results are compared with the already published data of peak winter month at the same site. Overall, the monocrystalline module showed high average module efficiency while amorphous silicon module was better in term of average performance ratio. Furthermore, the module efficiency and performance ratio has shown decreasing trend with increase of module temperature. It was found that modules have much higher temperature in summer months (about 20°C higher and showed low efficiency and performance ratio than peak winter month. The average ambient temperature varied from 18.1°C to 38.6°C from winter to summer.

  9. Source and transportation of summer dust over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Yuzhi; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhijuan; Huang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Satellite observational evidences (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations, CALIPSO) have presented that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is subject to heavy loading of dust aerosols during summer. Combining back trajectory and weather system analyses, the source and transportation of summer Tibetan dust from 2007 to 2014 were investigated. The Tibetan dust is mainly from the Taklimakan Desert and partially from the Gurbantunggut Desert and Great Indian Thar Desert. Case study indicates that the meteorological conditions together with the topography benefit the dust emission adjacent to the TP and the transport toward the plateau. When a cold advection or front developed by strong cold advection passes, dust particles are emitted into the atmosphere from the Taklimakan and Gurbantunggut deserts and then transported to the northern slope of the TP with northeasterly wind induced by the Altai and Tian Shan mountains. For the period from 2007 to 2014, the correlation coefficient of the monthly frequencies of summer dust events over the TP and cold advection passing the Taklimakan and Gurbantunggut deserts were as high as 0.68 and 0.34, respectively. Differently, although the correlation is limited, much TP dust mobilized from the Great Indian Thar Desert is associated with the passing low-pressure system activity and generally polluted by anthropogenic aerosols. The polluted dust is further transported to the southern slope of the TP by the prevailing westerly wind. Investigations on the source and transportation of summer dust over the TP provide a solid foundation of data that can be used to reveal the role of TP dust in the radiation balance, hydrological cycle, and monsoon cycle in India and East Asia.

  10. The development of creativity of hig school students during a summer camp

    OpenAIRE

    ČEJKOVÁ, Iva

    2010-01-01

    This work is monitored from a professional point of view the area of creativity and its development on students during a summer camp. The theoretical part deals with the problems of creativity, its development and leisure activities. Research section includes a comprehensive weekly program that uses various methods to develop creativity, applied on the high school students during the summer camp activities. The aim of this study was to compare the methods used in terms of their impact on huma...

  11. Discussion on the Causes of Drought in Summer in Alashan League in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The causes of drought in summer in Alashan League in 2010 were discussed. [Method] Through the discussion of climate background, circulation characteristics, subtropical high and ocean temperature of the severe drought in Alashan League in Inner Mongolia during the flooding time, the potential causes of drought in Alashan League in summer in 2010 were discussed. [Result] The circulation around Alashan League and surroundings in 850 hPa was weak. Especially the southerly was extremely weak and it...

  12. Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Pardos M; Calama R; Mayoral C; Madrigal G; Sánchez-González M

    2015-01-01

    In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 20...

  13. LLNL Summer 2007 Internship Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, A A

    2007-08-21

    Since the 2001 anthrax attacks involving the US postal service, there have been increased efforts to study more advanced methods of decontamination and detection of viable Bacillus anthracis before and after decontamination efforts. Current methods for sample processing and viability analysis are low throughput ({approx}30-40 per day) requiring several manual steps, with confirmed results obtained days later. The group I am working with has developed more rapid, high throughput methods using automation to process surface samples combined with a time-course real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) approach to determine the presence of viable B. anthracis spores. This process is referred to as Rapid Viability (RV)-PCR. These methods based on an observable change in PCR response during culturing showed detection of low numbers of bacterial pathogens in hours compared to days required for conventional culture analysis. In this project, we are studying detection limits, growth inhibition and PCR inhibition of a modified real-time PCR-based automated method of detecting B. anthracis Sterne (non-infectious variant) in various environmental samples containing levels of background debris expected during sampling. In order to decrease the detection limit, additional clean-up steps are employed. Since B. anthracis spores are very resilient to solvents, ethanol treatment can also be used to kill other bacteria (vegetative cells) in the sample. Finally, dilution of the sample may be useful to dilute out contaminants. Using commercially available robotics (Figure 1), each of these treatment steps can be automated, allowing processing of 100-200 swabs per day, with quantitative results obtained within 24 hours. Automation also reduces the risk of pathogens since no manual liquid handling steps and no plating or centrifugation is required. Traditional viability analysis uses manual steps for sample processing including performing dilutions, plating onto solid media, counting

  14. Winter wheat and summer shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  15. Report on Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Charles Elroy

    This resource packet was compiled by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia. The materials provide information for teaching about the diaspora of Hinduism and Islamic beliefs throughout the southeast Asia archipelagoes and their influence on art and culture. The handouts supplement information on Indonesia as part of an Asian…

  16. Footloose: The 1994 Iowa Summer Library Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Library, Des Moines.

    This document is the 1994 manual for the Iowa Summer Library Program. The 1994 theme will take children and librarians on adventures and journeys featuring the following themes and subtopics: shoes, feet, socks, giants and giant steps, nature trails, dancing, movement, travel and vacation trips, and fairy tale adventures, especially those that…

  17. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  18. Summer-Time Fun and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1988-01-01

    The newsletter for parents of handicapped children focuses on summer activities which provide fun and learning without undue expense or effort. Suggestions include encouraging reading activities (including visiting the library, reading out loud, selective television viewing, making a book, and writing letters). Activities to encourage the child's…

  19. Beijing Getaways to Soak Up the Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ With summer well and truly on its way,many people will be thinking about coming out of labernaticn,casting then DVD boosets and take away pizza boxes aside and taking a weekend break,International Talent Monthly brings you some of the best getaway bcations around Beijing.

  20. Summer Session: A Time for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Monty

    2013-05-01

    Summer is almost here (at least for those of us who teach semesters). Many of us are taking a well-deserved break to spend time with our families, conduct research, travel, and myriad other activities. Some of us, however, will be teaching summer school. For those of us lucky enough to be teaching this summer, we have one suggestion: Be bold! Summer is the ideal time to try something new with your teaching. We have known for some time that alternative pedagogies and engaging teaching strategies can be more effective than traditional lectures as student learning environments. However, even with headlines in The Washington Post proclaiming that the lecture is dead,2 inroads of physics education research-based curricula have been slow to diffuse into the classrooms for the greater population of college physics instructors.3 Many instructors of traditional physics courses see the use of research-based instructional strategies (RBIS) as desirable but risky and time consuming.3 Assuming a traditional physics course structure, both the where and the when each component takes place can also limit the types of engaging pedagogies used.4

  1. The importance of the Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    As every year, the summer months see the arrival at CERN of summer students. Over a seven-week period beginning on the first Tuesday in June, students arrive at CERN for stays that will last from 8 to 13 weeks. This means that some of them are already coming to the end of their stay.   The 2010 Summer Students gathered in front of the Globe for the souvenir picture. For 2010, a total of almost 1 650 applications was received: 950 from students coming from Member States and 700 from other countries. Of these, 237 applications were accepted: 127 from the Member States,10  from the USA, 5 from Japan and 4 from Israel, and 91 from other countries. Each year, there are students from new countries, and this year CERN is welcoming students from the Philippines for the first time. “The number of applications has been growing steadily since the programme started in 1962,” reports Sharon Hobson, coordinator of the Summer Student Programme in the Recruitment Service. &ldqu...

  2. DHS Summer Student Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, S

    2005-08-19

    Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins are among the most potent toxins known to man (Montecucco et al. al., 1995). Produced by the Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum bacteria, respectively, these toxins concentrate in presynaptic axons and inhibit the release of neurotransmitters leading to paralysis and possibly death. Due to the potency of this lethal class of neurotoxins, we have undertaken a project to develop high affinity ligands that specifically bind to these toxins. Such compounds can have significant implications in both the design of detection systems to monitor for the possible release of these neurotoxins into the public and also the design of possible therapeutics to treat individuals exposed to tetanus or botulinum neurotoxins. The Clostridial neurotoxins are synthesized as 150 kDa proteins that are post-translationally cleaved into N- and C-terminal fragments held together by a single disulfide bond. The tetanus C-terminal fragment (TetC) has been shown to bind specifically to gangliosides present on the neuronal membrane surface and facilitate endocytosis of the toxin (Morris et al., 1980). Once the toxin is internalized in a membrane-bound vesicle, the light chain (N-terminal fragment) translocates to the cytosol where it interferes with neurotransmitter release. Previous work has demonstrated that various small molecule and peptide-based compounds bind to TetC, albeit in different locations. Among these molecules are the anticancer agent doxorubicin (Dox) and the tripeptides WEY and YEW (Figure 1; Cosman et al. al., 2002). The crystal structure of botulinum toxin and Dox (PDB code: 1I1E) demonstrates that Dox binds in a surface groove of in C-terminal fragment that is conserved in both botulinum and tetanus toxins. Similarly, YEW has been shown to bind to a second binding site that is highly conserved and also relatively close to the binding site of Dox. Thus, in our quest to design and synthesize high affinity ligands, we proposed to link

  3. Associated Western Universities summer participant program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Summer 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.

    1997-08-01

    The Associated Western Universities, Inc. (AWU) supports a student summer program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This program is structured so that honors undergraduate students may participate in the Laboratory`s research program under direct supervision of senior Laboratory scientists. Included in this report is a list of the AWU participants for the summer of 1997. All students are required to submit original reports of their summer activities in a format of their own choosing. These unaltered student reports constitute the major portion of this report.

  4. Using Science Camps to Develop Understandings about Scientific Inquiry--Taiwanese Students in a U.S. Summer Science Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Bartos, Stephen; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of middle and high school students from Asian countries participating in U.S.-based summer experiences (Perlez & Gao, 2013). Although summer science camps have been shown to improve students' attitudes and interests related to science and science learning (Bhattacharyya, Mead &…

  5. The spring soil moisture and the summer rainfall in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the soil moisture in spring and the rainfall in summer in eastern China is investigated. Results show that the summer rainfall in eastern China is closely related to the spring soil moisture in the area from North China to the lower reaches of Yangtze River (NCYR). When spring soil moisture anomalies over NCYR are positive, the summer precipitation exhibits positive anomalies in Northeast China and the lower reaches of Yangtze River, and negative anomalies in southern China and North China. The higher soil moisture over NCYR cools land surface and reduces the land-sea temperature gradient, which weakens East Asian summer monsoon. The western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) is located to the south and shifts westward, resulting in more rainfall in the lower reaches of Yangtze River and less in southern China and North China.

  6. Summer air temperature anomalies in Europe during the century 1811-1910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar cycle, volcanic eruptions, sea surface temperature anomalies (ENSO) and increase of the concentration of the greenhouse gases are the main forcing factors in the evolution of the Earth climate. In the present work a study concerning the behaviour of the summer temperatures over Europe during the century 1811-1910 is carried out. The results show the presence of a volcanic signal in the summer temperature during the year following an eruption, even if the anomalous coldest summers do not seem to be driven by the volcanic activity. Finally, the anomalous summers - both very cold and very warm - can be explained in terms of the atmospheric circulation, since cold events seem to be associated to persistent blocking systems and warm events are associated to persistent high-pressure patterns

  7. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEAST CHINA UNDER WARMING BACKGROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; GONG Qiang; ZHAO Lian-wei

    2005-01-01

    By using, summer temperature data in 26 stations from 1951 to 2003, the variation characteristics of summer temperature in Northeast China (NET) were analyzed based on the background of climate warming. The results showed that the warming in summer was 0.15℃/10a in Northeast China, which was higher than that on the global, Northern Hemisphere or Northeast Asia scale in the recent 50 years. The responses of NET to global warming were shown in 3 aspects mainly. Firstly, it became warm and the average temperature increased in summer;secondly,the temperature variability increased, which displayed the increase of climatic instability;thirdly, the disaster of low temperature decreased and high temperature damage increased obviously, but the disaster of low temperature still existed in some areas under global warming background, which would be worthy of notice further.

  8. Large Holocene summer temperature oscillations and impact on the peopling of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juzhi; Huang, Yongsong; Zhao, Jiangtao; Liu, Zhonghui; Colman, Steve; An, Zhisheng

    2016-02-01

    Summer temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) significantly affect stability of glaciers that provide steady water resources to nearly half of the world population. However, lack of reliable, long-term proxy records greatly impedes understanding of regional temperature sensitivity to climate forcings. Here we present a 16 ka long, alkenone-based summer temperature record from Lake Qinghai, northeastern TP that demonstrates major regional temperature response to changes in summer insolation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the Holocene and late glacial. Importantly, we find a period of sustained summer temperature decline (>4°C) between 5 and 3.5 ka, which coincides with expansion of Barents Sea ice coverage and is likely driven by intensification of the Westerlies. This unusually long and pronounced regional cooling event likely delayed permanent human settlements on the high-altitude regions (>3000 m) of the TP by at least 500 years.

  9. Tropical influence on boreal summer mid-latitude stationary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Bielli, S.; Deque, M.; Tyteca, S.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Cassou, C. [CNRS-Cerfacs, Toulouse (France); Hall, N.M.J. [CNES/LEGOS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    While organized tropical convection is a well-known source of extratropical planetary waves, state-of-the-art climate models still show serious deficiencies in simulating accurately the atmospheric response to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the associated teleconnections. In the present study, the remote influence of the tropical atmospheric circulation is evaluated in ensembles of global boreal summer simulations in which the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) is nudged towards 6-h reanalyses. The nudging is applied either in the whole tropical band or in a regional summer monsoon domain. Sensitivity tests to the experimental design are first conducted using prescribed climatological SST. They show that the tropical relaxation does not improve the zonal mean extratropical climatology but does lead to a significantly improved representation of the mid-latitude stationary waves in both hemispheres. Low-pass filtering of the relaxation fields has no major effect on the model response, suggesting that high-frequency tropical variability is not responsible for extratropical biases. Dividing the nudging strength by a factor 10 only decreases the magnitude of the response. Model errors in each monsoon domain contribute to deficiencies in the model's mid-latitude climatology, although an exaggerated large-scale subsidence in the central equatorial Pacific appears as the main source of errors for the representation of stationary waves in the Arpege-Climat model. Case studies are then conducted using either climatological or observed SST. The focus is first on summer 2003 characterized by a strong and persistent anticyclonic anomaly over western Europe. This pattern is more realistic in nudging experiments than in simulations only driven by observed SST, especially when the nudging domain is centred over Central America. Other case studies also show a significant tropical forcing of the summer mid-latitude stationary waves

  10. Fallout radiocaesium in Mackellar Inlet during the 2013 austral summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocaesium activity in soil samples and lichens collected during the austral summer were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the amount of radiocaesium, retained by the lichen samples, is a function of the altitude of the sampling areas, and values in surface soil show that the amount of radiocaesium, retained by the soil, is an inverse function of the altitude of the sampling areas. Although in 2013, atmospheric radiocaesium inventory has decreased with the suspension of nuclear tests, it is still possible to register small concentrations in the air thanks to the study of lichens as bio-monitors. (authors).

  11. Cargese Summer Institute on Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Maurice René Michel; Lévy, M; Speiser, David

    1987-01-01

    The 1981 Cargese Summer Institute on Fundamental Interactions was organized by the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (M. LEVY and J-L. BASDEVANT), CERN (M. JACOB), the Universite Catholique de Louvain (D. SPEISER and J. WEYERS), and the Kotholieke Universiteit te Leuven (R. GASTMANS), which, since 1975 have joined their efforts and worked in common. It was the 24th Summer Institute held at Cargese and the 8th one organized by the two institutes of theoretical physics at Leuven and Louvain-Ia-Neuve. The 1985 school was centered around two main themes : the standard model of the fundamental interactions (and beyond) and astrophysics. The remarkable advances in the theoretical understanding and experimental confirmation of the standard model were reviewed in several lectures where the reader will find a thorough analysis of recent experiments as well as a detailed comparaison of the standard model with experiment. On a more theoretical side, supersymmetry, supergravity and strings were discussed as...

  12. Pilot ETSON/JSP Summer School succeeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ETSON Summer School on 'nuclear reactor safety assessment' took place on 25 to 29 August 2008 at the GRS premises in Garching near Munich. The lecturers, coming from IRSN, GRS, Bel V and NNL, brought the participants insights in the similarities, as well as differences in European reactor concepts and their safety assessments. The most technical presentations dealt with the safety of nuclear reactors, nuclear accidents and their analysis, safety assessment and multilateral tools. 45 participants attended this summer school. Besides the lectures and group work, an optional technical visit of the new research reactor FRM-II (Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source) or a presentation of the GRS Simulation Centre was offered

  13. Summer Mini Atomiade in June 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Atomiade are coming to CERN! Members of Clubs supported by the CERN Staff Association and in conjunction with ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes) will be organising the summer games at the beginning of June.   ASCERI aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sports meetings, bringing together members of public Research Institutes at European level. The Association's members come from over 40 Research Institutes spanning 16 countries. Numerous sports and leisure activities are represented at regular events and each tournament is organised by a different research institute.  Clubs in conjunction with the CERN Staff Association have sent teams to previous winter and summer games and now, the CERN Club’s Coordination Committee (CCC) has taken on the challenge of organising a Mini Atomiade from Friday 3 June to Monday 6 June 2016 in Divonne-les-Bains. The ga...

  14. Wetting and greening Tibetan Plateau in early summer since the late 1970s due to advanced Asian summer monsoon onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-04-01

    Known as the "the world water tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is the origin of the ten largest rivers in Asia, breeding more than 1.4 billion people, and exerts substantial influences on water resources, agriculture, and ecosystems in downstream countries. This region is one of the most susceptible areas around the world to changing climate due to the high elevation. Observed evidence have shown significant climate changes over the TP, including surface air warming and moistening, glaciers shrinking, winds stilling, solar dimming, and atmospheric heat source weakening. However, as an essential part of the hydrological cycle, precipitation changes on the TP remain an ambiguous picture. Changes in precipitation vary largely with different seasons, time periods and climate zones considered. This study shows a robust increase in precipitation amount over the TP in May, when the rainy season starts, over the period 1979-2014 (31% relative to the climatology). The wetting trend is spatially consistent over the south-eastern TP, to which both precipitation frequency and intensity contribute. Circulation trends show that the wetting TP in May is resulted from the advanced onset of Asian summer monsoon, which onsets 1~2 pentads earlier since 1979. It intensified water vapor transport from the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to south of the TP in May and local anomalous convection. This relationship is further validated by the significant correlation coefficient (0.47) between the onset dates of Asian summer monsoon (particularly the BOB summer monsoon, 0.68) and precipitation over the south-eastern TP in May. The wetting TP in May has further exerted profound impacts on the hydrological cycle and ecosystem, such as moistening the soil and animating vegetation activities throughout early summer. Both decadal variations of soil moisture (from May to June) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (from May to July) coincide well with that of precipitation over the south

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Summer Employment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A J

    2002-08-06

    This document will serve as a summary of my work activities as a summer employee for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The intent of this document is to provide an overview of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, to explain the role of the department that I am working for, and to discuss my specific assigned tasks and their impact on the NIF project as a whole.

  16. The FORMAT campaign in summer 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, C.; Steinbacher, M.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A.S.H.

    2003-03-01

    Within the framework of the EC project FORMAT (Formaldehyde as a Tracer of Photooxidation in the Troposphere) the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry participated in a field campaign in the Milan area dur-ing summer 2002. Ground and airborne based measurements of formaldehyde and other trace gases were performed in order to enhance the knowledge of the tropospheric distribution of formaldehyde and its influence in photochemical processes. (author)

  17. A Study on Summer Pharmaceutical Industrial Training

    OpenAIRE

    Saurbh; Aarti Garg; Rajat Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Practical exposure of industrial operation, set up and management is very crucial part in learning and to be skilled for competitive and global demand in pharmaceutical industry. To fulfill these objectives industrial training is mandatory for the award of B. Pharm. Degree. Being a student who wants to mark in industrial field, the best place to gain practical understanding of production is to do summer training in the production department of Pharmaceutical Industry which can be regarded as ...

  18. CERN Summer Student Program 2016 Report

    CERN Document Server

    Kolstoe, Haakon Midthun

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a description of the work done during my stay at CERN as a part of the Summer Student Program 2016. I was assigned to work at the NA61/SHINE collaboration which covers the search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter, study the onset of deconfinement and precise hadron production measurements in hadron–nucleus collisions for cosmic ray and neutrino physics applications.

  19. C.I.M.E. Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Behrend, Kai; Tarasov, Vitaly; Tian, Gang; Quantum Cohomology

    2002-01-01

    The book gathers the lectures given at the C.I.M.E. summer school "Quantum Cohomology" held in Cetraro (Italy) from June 30th to July 8th, 1997. The lectures and the subsequent updating cover a large spectrum of the subject on the field, from the algebro-geometric point of view, to the symplectic approach, including recent developments of string-branes theories and q-hypergeometric functions.

  20. A Study on Summer Pharmaceutical Industrial Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurbh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Practical exposure of industrial operation, set up and management is very crucial part in learning and to be skilled for competitive and global demand in pharmaceutical industry. To fulfill these objectives industrial training is mandatory for the award of B. Pharm. Degree. Being a student who wants to mark in industrial field, the best place to gain practical understanding of production is to do summer training in the production department of Pharmaceutical Industry which can be regarded as one of the most dynamic industry in India. The student have proud to work as an internee in pharmaceutical industry and the experience will surely help me in future assignments as a marketing professional. The absolute guidance and concern of higher management of the staff of all departments especially the marketing department facilitated in making my summer Training a wonderful learning experience in all aspects. Summer training is given for six weeks was based on industrial project. Through these projects, the trainee become able to get direct interaction with different chemists along with staff of Production, Q.A., Q.C. and Logistics, Administration and Human Resources Departments of pharmaceutical industry.

  1. What drives the global summer monsoon over the past millennium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Nanjing (China); Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yim, So-Young; Lee, June-Yi [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jhun, Jong-Ghap [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences/Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The global summer monsoon precipitation (GSMP) provides a fundamental measure for changes in the annual cycle of the climate system and hydroclimate. We investigate mechanisms governing decadal-centennial variations of the GSMP over the past millennium with a coupled climate model's (ECHO-G) simulation forced by solar-volcanic (SV) radiative forcing and greenhouse gases (GHG) forcing. We show that the leading mode of GSMP is a forced response to external forcing on centennial time scale with a globally uniform change of precipitation across all monsoon regions, whereas the second mode represents internal variability on multi-decadal time scale with regional characteristics. The total amount of GSMP varies in phase with the global mean temperature, indicating that global warming is accompanied by amplification of the annual cycle of the climate system. The northern hemisphere summer monsoon precipitation (NHSMP) responds to GHG forcing more sensitively, while the southern hemisphere summer monsoon precipitation (SHSMP) responds to the SV radiative forcing more sensitively. The NHSMP is enhanced by increased NH land-ocean thermal contrast and NH-minus-SH thermal contrast. On the other hand, the SHSMP is strengthened by enhanced SH subtropical highs and the east-west mass contrast between Southeast Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean. The strength of the GSMP is determined by the factors controlling both the NHSMP and SHSMP. Intensification of GSMP is associated with (a) increased global land-ocean thermal contrast, (b) reinforced east-west mass contrast between Southeast Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean, and (c) enhanced circumglobal SH subtropical highs. The physical mechanisms revealed here will add understanding of future change of the global monsoon. (orig.)

  2. Interannual Meridional Displacement of the East Asian Upper-tropospheric Jet Stream in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhongda; LU Riyu

    2005-01-01

    On the interannual timescale, the meridional displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream (EAJS) is significantly associated with the rainfall anomalies in East Asia in summer. In this study, using the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP/DOE) reanalysis-2 from 1979 to 2002, the authors investigate the interannual variations of the EAJS's meridional displacement in summer and their associations with the variations of the South Asian high (SAH) and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which are dominant circulation features in the upper and lower troposhere, respectively. The result from an EOF analysis shows that the meridional displacement is the most remarkable feature of the interannual variations of the EAJS in each month of summer and in summer as a whole. A composite analysis indicates that the summer (June-JulyAugust, JJA) EAJS index, which is intended to depict the interannual meridional displacement of the EAJS, is not appropriate because the anomalies of the zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200) in July and August only, rather than in June, significantly contribute to the summer EAJS index. Thus, the index for each month in summer is defined according to the location of the EAJS core in each month. Composite analyses based on the monthly indexes show that corresponding to the monthly equatorward displacement of the EAJS, the South Asian high (SAH) extends southeastward clearly in July and August, and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) withdraws southward in June and August.

  3. Center for Computing Research Summer Research Proceedings 2015.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Andrew Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-18

    The Center for Computing Research (CCR) at Sandia National Laboratories organizes a summer student program each summer, in coordination with the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) and Cyber Engineering Research Institute (CERI).

  4. Summer workshop on money, banking, payments and finance: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nosal, Ed; Wright, Randall

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Summer Workshop on Money, Banking, Payments and Finance met at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago this summer, for the second year. The following document summarizes and ties together the papers presented.

  5. Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159369.html Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer Conditions ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus could spread in southern Europe this summer ...

  6. Provost's Summer Sessions Grants awarded to 14 Virginia Tech faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen Virginia Tech faculty have been awarded $5,000 grants to deliver individual courses in the 2007 summer sessions. Grants totaling $75,000 were awarded through the Provost Office Summer Sessions Grant Program.

  7. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study into seasonal variations in the number of Summer Shamal days in the southern Arabian Gulf. The Shamal wind is a north-westerly wind, which has acquired the local name of Shamal. It is the primary ambient wind in the Arabian Gulf and persists most of the year over the area, but with varying characteristics ( Godvina et al, 2001). The study is focused on the parameters of the wind cycles. The wind data are collected over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010) from Bahrain airport data set (Al Aali, 2011) as it is less affected by surrounding topography and the meteorological charts were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis -II data set (NCEP, 2013). The wind data is analyzed to show variations in the number of summer Shamal days over the southern Arabian Gulf. The synoptic conditions which help to understand the wind cycles are analyzed using NCEP Charts. A Shamal Day is defined when the prevailing wind over the Arabian Gulf is from the North-West sector and the strength of the daily mean Shamal wind is 11 knots and more. The condition for the existence of Summer Shamal days is the deepening of the thermal Monsoon Low or the ridging from the Mediterranean High or both (Govinda et al, 2003). A key finding is that the Summer Shamal days start in May and end in October of each year and the number of the Summer Shamal days is decreasing over the study period. During the months of May, June and July the number of Shamal days is the highest. Out of these three months, June has the highest number of Shamal day's. The analysis shows that the reduction in the number of Summer Shamal days over the thirty year period is potentially related to the variations in the parameters of the summer monsoon and the longitudinal location of the Azores High. Furthermore, in the summer there are two global systems: (i) El Nino, which effects the Summer Monsoon (Nazemosadat et al, 2003) and (ii) the Azores High, which have an indirect

  8. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  9. Summer School Effects in a Randomized Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvoch, Keith; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school…

  10. Effects of Parent-Administered Summer Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Howard J.; Labeaune, Carol

    The Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) has developed and initially field tested during summer 1969 a Summer Reading Program (SRP) designed to prevent the decrement in kindergarten children's academic achievement caused by the lack of instruction and practice during the summer. Each parent supervised his child at home in structured reading…

  11. 22 CFR 62.32 - Summer work travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Summer work travel. 62.32 Section 62.32 Foreign... Provisions § 62.32 Summer work travel. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern program participation in summer work travel programs conducted by Department of State-designated sponsors pursuant to...

  12. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  13. A Large Scale Index to Characterize the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, F. G.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Bookhagen, B.

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal rainfall associated with the Indian summer monsoon is the primary water source for the central and eastern Himalaya, while the western Himalaya receives significant amounts of precipitation during the winter season. Typically, the monsoon season begins in the eastern lowlands during June, migrates northwest across the Ganges plains, is bounded by the Himalayan orographic barrier to the north, and lasts until approximately mid-October. By the end of the monsoon season, the accumulated rainfall contributes to over 80% of the total annual precipitation in the central and eastern Himalayan regions. Consequently, the seasonal variability of mountain runoff depends on the onset, duration, and intensity of the monsoon and short-to-long term variations in these factors play a fundamental role in the region's hydrologic cycle. The objective task of this research is to develop detailed diagnostic analyses to characterize climatological variability of the summer monsoon system over high Asian mountains during 1979-present. Primarily, we apply a combined empirical orthogonal function to seasonal variations in circulation, temperature and moisture. Previous research has shown that important mechanisms of monsoonal variability include low level (surface - 850 hPa) specific humidity, temperature, zonal and meridional wind components, and precipitation. This project utilizes daily CFSR reanalysis data for the aforementioned variables from 1979 to 2010 at a one-degree spatial resolution over the Indian sub-continent (5°-45°N and 60°-90°E). We also employ precipitation data from various sources including APHRODITE, TRMM, GPCP, and station data to comprehensively investigate the validity of our index through various precipitation data acquisition methods. Based on the time coefficient of the second EOF of surface level humidity, temperature, and zonal and meridional wind, we construct the proposed monsoon index and define the onset, demise, and intraseasonal variations

  14. Fourfold higher tundra volatile emissions due to arctic summer warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Frida; Schollert, Michelle; Michelsen, Anders; Blok, Daan; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-03-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are mainly emitted by vegetation, may create either positive or negative climate forcing feedbacks. In the Subarctic, BVOC emissions are highly responsive to temperature, but the effects of climatic warming on BVOC emissions have not been assessed in more extreme arctic ecosystems. The Arctic undergoes rapid climate change, with air temperatures increasing at twice the rate of the global mean. Also, the amount of winter precipitation is projected to increase in large areas of the Arctic, and it is unknown how winter snow depth affects BVOC emissions during summer. Here we examine the responses of BVOC emissions to experimental summer warming and winter snow addition—each treatment alone and in combination—in an arctic heath during two growing seasons. We observed a 280% increase relative to ambient in BVOC emissions in response to a 4°C summer warming. Snow addition had minor effects on growing season BVOC emissions after one winter but decreased BVOC emissions after the second winter. We also examined differences between canopy and air temperatures and found that the tundra canopy surface was on average 7.7°C and maximum 21.6°C warmer than air. This large difference suggests that the tundra surface temperature is an important driver for emissions of BVOCs, which are temperature dependent. Our results demonstrate a strong response of BVOC emissions to increasing temperatures in the Arctic, suggesting that emission rates will increase with climate warming and thereby feed back to regional climate change.

  15. Winter/summer transition in the Antarctic mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Höffner, J.; Viehl, T. P.; Becker, E.; Latteck, R.; Kaifler, B.; Murphy, D. J.; Morris, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new set of temperature data with unprecedented resolution and accuracy has been obtained from Fe lidar measurements at Davis, Antarctica (69°S). Here we concentrate on the months of the winter/summer transition (November to February) where we have collected a total of 1305 h of observations in the three seasons 2010/2011, 2011/2012, and 2012/2013. The temporal development of temperatures around the mesopause in 2012/2013 is rather similar to the Northern Hemisphere (NH), whereas the other seasons are significantly different, exhibiting, e.g., an unusual higher and colder mesopause around solstice (elevated summer mesopause). During this exceptional period mean daily mesopause heights and temperatures are approximately 92.0 ± 0.5 km and 125 K, respectively. The seasonal variation of temperatures in the mesopause region is closely related to the circulation in the stratosphere which exhibits an early (late) vortex breakdown in 2012/2013 (2010/2011). The situation is more complicated in 2011/2012. The early (late) transition in the mesopause region is accompanied by an early (late) appearance of polar mesosphere summer echoes. Zonal winds as measured by an MF radar also show systematic differences with westward winds reaching up to very high altitudes (nearly 100 km) for the late transition in 2010/2011 and to more common heights (˜90 km) for the early transition in 2012/2013. A mesopause being higher and colder compared to the NH (as occasionally observed at Davis) cannot be achieved by standard models. More sophisticated characterization of gravity wave forcing might be required.

  16. Inverse correlation between ancient winter and summer monsoons in East Asia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; ZHAO Ping

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific debate on the relationship between ancient winter and summer monsoons in East Asia. Some scholars think that East Asian winter and summer monsoons are anti-correlated, and oth-ers think not. For this reason, this study is motivated to assess their linkage from the paleoclimate simulation perspective, through analyzing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene (MH) climate simulated by CCSM3 model. Compared to the present climate, the Aleutian low is found to be deepened and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is stronger during the LGM winter. The Pacific high in summer is noticed to be weakened and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is weaker at the LGM. During the MH, the Aleutian low and the Asian high in winter are intensified, and the Asian low and the Pacific high in summer are enhanced, indicating that the EAWM and EASM are both stronger than today. Therefore, the EAWM is not always negatively correlated to the EASM. Their relationship may be different at different geological stages. It can be obtained at least from the numerical simulation results that the EAWM and the EASM is negatively correlated during the cooling period, while positively correlated during the warming period.

  17. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  18. Tailoring Summer Research Experiences to Diverse Student Cohorts: Lessons Learned from Teaching Scientific Communication to Summer Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, R. L.; Haacker, R.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific posters, presentations and papers are frequently assigned outputs for students participating in summer research experiences, yet previous exposure to any form of scientific communication is not a given. Providing training in scientific communication in some form is thus a necessity for many internship programs, especially those aimed towards academically younger students. In this presentation, we will share some of the experiences we've gained from teaching scientific communication workshops to summer interns who range from high school to graduate school. Building on the many years of experience learned through the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research Science (SOARS) program, course material has been adapted and tailored to students participating in the National Center for Atmospheric Research High-School Internship Research Opportunity (HIRO, now the NCAR PreCollege Internship) and Research Experiences for Community College Students (RECCS, based with Colorado University's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science). SOARS also has experience supporting graduate students towards publication. Weekly communications workshops have served not only to provide necessary scientific skills, but also as a place to gather, reflect, discuss and build community. The unique opportunities and challenges in working with each of these groups will be discussed as part of the larger community discussion of how we can increase diversity in STEM through providing genuine research experiences to diverse and academically young students.

  19. CERN summer experience benefits US students

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, S

    2003-01-01

    Northeastern University's programme of research experience for US undergraduates at CERN is five years old. While at CERN, the US summer students work with an assigned research group, supervised by a physicist who works with them and assigns them various tasks, allowing them to see what work as a particle physicist is like. Students perform research, take measurements, write computer programs, papers and reports, learn to use specialized software, build and test equipment, and inevitably do manual work. In short, they are expected to cover the entire range of activities that makes up experimental particle physics.

  20. Summer Fair in the Ice City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 19th International China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic Cooperation reaped a lot in terms of China-foreign trade contracts Harbin, the provincial capital of northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province, has long been well known to the world for its cold cli- mate, and especially for its annual ice festival in December. But each summer from June 15 to 19, the city has another mission: to hold an international trade fair-the International China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic Cooperation (Harbin Trade Fair).

  1. Summer Student Report Paula Aschenbrenner VITO

    CERN Document Server

    Aschenbrenner, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The L’APOLLINE (LAser POLarized LINE) is set up at VITO (Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques Online) beam line at ISOLDE. It will provide laser-induced spin-polarized beams of atoms or ions to an end station. In this report the L’APOLLINE setup is explained and the current status is stated. Furthermore the summer student work and the most important results are summarized. The project was mainly connected to the generation of the magnetic field in the drift tube for optical polarization. The field is created by a set of Helmholtz Coils.

  2. Mathias Luidor Heltberg Summer Student Report

    CERN Document Server

    Heltberg, Mathias Luidor

    2014-01-01

    This report describes my work at the Summer Student Programme, where I have worked on the ATLAS detector, in the luminosity group, under the supervision of Eric Torrence. Throughout the program, my project has focussed on working with the actual scripts for storing the online data from ATLAS, and making ready for the start of RUN 2. \\\\ I have succeded in making different programs work for different storage modes of the online data, and comparing the output of these to the results for run 1, it should be possible to implement the for the dataanalysis for Run 2.

  3. Qinhuangdao:Where to Spend your Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ If we compare the Great Wall to a dragon then Qinhuangdao is located at the dragon's head facing the sea. This wonderful summer resort is laurelled as the back garden of Beijing and Tianjin, boasting a beautiful coastline and perfect ecological environment. Qinhuangdao lies in northeastern Hebei Province, bordered on the north by Mount Yan, on the south by the Bohai Sea, on the east by Liaoning Province and on the west by Beijing and Tianjin. It is also an Olympic city for this August, as a football competition site.

  4. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  5. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian;

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which is the...... summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year and the...

  6. Design and testing of a compact X-ray diode. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omega, the University of Rochester's high powered laser dedicated to fusion research gives off x-rays with different energy levels. Measuring the number of x-rays and the energy of each is important in understanding what happens in the target chamber when Omega is fired. Existing x-ray detectors are expensive, big, and cumbersome. Imaging detectors such as x-ray pinhole cameras which record onto film, x-ray framing cameras which make videos, and most often, x-ray streak cameras which measure time dependences of x-rays. They require a lot of maintenance and are difficult to keep operational. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed the Dante Diode. The Dante diode array on Omega functions as a group of 12 diodes which take up a 24 inch port in the target chamber, making it space-consuming and difficult to move for alternate views. In designing a new detector, space was the main issue. The smallest possible functional diode, without losing accuracy was desired. Since the laser pulse only lasts a few nanoseconds it is important that the x-ray detector have a response time of a few tenths of a nanosecond. Other criteria include that it be easy to use for measuring the energy and number of x-ray photons and that cost be kept down. This report discusses the design process and testing of the new diode

  7. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3 were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB and the other in the historical city centre (CC. Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m−3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m−3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv. This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm, gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42− daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4

  8. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB and the other in the historical city centre (CC. Levels of ammonia were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m−3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m−3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv. This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of ammonia well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm, gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42− daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3+NH4+ revealed that the gas

  9. Characteristics of the Onset of the Asian Summer Monsoon and the Importance of Asian-Australian "Land Bridge"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on summarizing previous achievements and using data as long and new as possible, the onset characteristics of Asian summer monsoon and the role of Asian-Australian "land bridge" in the onset of summer monsoon are further discussed. In particular, the earliest onset area of Asian summer monsoon is comparatively analyzed, and the sudden and progressive characteristics of the onset of summer monsoon in different regions are discussed. Furthermore, the relationships among such critical events during the onset of Asian summer monsoon as the splitting of subtropical high belt over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the initiation of convection over Indo-China Peninsula, the westward advance, reestablishment of South Asian High, and the rapid northward progression of convection originated from Sumatra in early summer are studied. The important impact of the proper collocation of the latent heating over Indo-China Peninsula and the sensible heating over Indian Peninsula on the splitting of the subtropical high belt, the deepening of BOB trough, the activating of Sri Lanka vortex (twin vortexes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres),and the subsequent onset of South China Sea summer monsoon are emphasized.

  10. Ray tracing through the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Omega laser is a system with many different parts that may cause imperfections. There are a multitude of lenses and mirrors, for example, that may not be polished correctly and can cause the laser wave front to have aberrations. The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (L.C.P.D.I.) is a device whose main purpose is to read the wave front of the laser and measure any aberrations that may be on it. The way the L.C.P.D.I. reads the laser wave front and measures these aberrations is very complicated and has yet to be perfected. A ray-tracing model of the L.C.P.D.I. has been built, which calculates and models the ray trajectories, the optical paths of the rays, the O.P.D. between the object and reference beams, the absorption of the rays in the liquid crystal, and the intensities of each beam. It can predict an actual experiment by manipulating the different parameters of the program. It will be useful in optimization and further development of the L.C.P.D.I. Evidently, it is necessary to develop a liquid crystal solution with an O.D. greater than 0.3, and possibly as high as 2.0. This new solution would be able to reduce the intensity of the object beam sufficiently to make it comparable with the reference beam intensity. If this were achieved, the contrast, or visibility of the fringes would be better, and the interferogram could be used to diagnose the aberrations in the laser beam front. Then the cause of the aberrations could be fixed. This would result in a near-perfect laser front. If this were achieved, then it is possible that laser fusion could be made more efficient and possibly used as an energy source

  11. Ray tracing through the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A. [Churchville-Chili High School, NY (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Omega laser is a system with many different parts that may cause imperfections. There are a multitude of lenses and mirrors, for example, that may not be polished correctly and can cause the laser wave front to have aberrations. The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (L.C.P.D.I.) is a device whose main purpose is to read the wave front of the laser and measure any aberrations that may be on it. The way the L.C.P.D.I. reads the laser wave front and measures these aberrations is very complicated and has yet to be perfected. A ray-tracing model of the L.C.P.D.I. has been built, which calculates and models the ray trajectories, the optical paths of the rays, the O.P.D. between the object and reference beams, the absorption of the rays in the liquid crystal, and the intensities of each beam. It can predict an actual experiment by manipulating the different parameters of the program. It will be useful in optimization and further development of the L.C.P.D.I. Evidently, it is necessary to develop a liquid crystal solution with an O.D. greater than 0.3, and possibly as high as 2.0. This new solution would be able to reduce the intensity of the object beam sufficiently to make it comparable with the reference beam intensity. If this were achieved, the contrast, or visibility of the fringes would be better, and the interferogram could be used to diagnose the aberrations in the laser beam front. Then the cause of the aberrations could be fixed. This would result in a near-perfect laser front. If this were achieved, then it is possible that laser fusion could be made more efficient and possibly used as an energy source.

  12. Group velocity effects in broadband frequency conversion on OMEGA. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, P. [Wilson Magnet High School, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The powerful lasers needed for ICF can only produce light in the infrared wavelengths. However, the one micron wavelength produced by the neodymium glass that powers OMEGA and other lasers used for fusion research does not efficiently compress the fuel pellet. This happens because the infrared light is not well absorbed by the target, and because of the creation of suprathermal electrons. These suprathermal electrons preheat the fuel, adding extra resistance to compression. To eliminate these problems associated with longer wavelengths of light, the process of frequency converting the laser beam was invented. This process efficiently converts the initial beam to a beam which has three times the frequency and one third the wavelength. The third-harmonic beam, in the UV range, has a better absorption rate. The PV-WAVE computer program that the author has written has shown that increasing the frequency of SSD (Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion) on OMEGA to approximately 10 GHz as planned will not hurt the third harmonic generation conversion efficiency significantly. The increased bandwidth and increased frequency of SSD will make the laser beams that strike the target on OMEGA much smoother and more uniform than ever before. Therefore it is both safe and advisable to add a second tripler crystal to the OMEGA system and decrease the SSD time cycle to around 100 picoseconds. Since the conversion efficiency remains high up to approximately 30 GHz, more experiments on OMEGA may be carried out with even higher modulation frequencies. These modifications to the existing OMEGA laser should make target irradiation more uniform, leading to more uniform compression and hopefully, a higher energy yield.

  13. 2nd CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer School

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    June 6-15, 2007, CERN The school web site is http://cern.ch/hcpss with links to the academic programme and the application procedure. The APPLICATION DEADLINE IS 9 MARCH 2007 The results of the selection process will be announced shortly thereafter. The goal of the CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer Schools is to offer students and young researchers in high energy physics a concentrated syllabus on the theory and experimental challenges of hadron collider physics. The first school in the series, held last summer at Fermilab, extensively covered the physics at the Tevatron collider experiments. The second school, to be held at CERN, will focus on the technology and physics of the LHC experiments. Emphasis will be placed on the first years of data-taking at the LHC and on the discovery potential of the programme. The series of lectures will be supported by in-depth discussion sessions and will include the theory and phenomenology of hadron collisions, discovery physics topics, detector and analysis t...

  14. 3rd CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer School

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    August 12-22, 2008, Fermilab The school web site is http://cern.ch/hcpss with links to the academic programme and the application procedure. The APPLICATION DEADLINE IS 29 FEBRUARY 2008. The goal of the CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer Schools is to offer students and young researchers in high-energy physics a concentrated syllabus on the theory and experimental challenges of hadron collider physics. The third session of the summer school will focus on exposing young post-docs and advanced graduate students to broader theories and real data beyond what they’ve learned at their home institutions. Experts from across the globe will lecture on the theoretical and experimental foundations of hadron collider physics, host parallel discussion sessions and answer students’ questions. This year’s school will also have a greater focus on physics beyond the Standard Model, as well as more time for questions at the end of each lecture. The 2008 School will be held at ...

  15. Fish distribution studies near N Reactor, Summer 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes field studies that were initiated in July 1983 to provide estimates of the relative distribution of late-summer outmigrant juvenile salmonids and juvenile resident fish upstream of the N Reactor 009 Outfall. Chinook salmon are among the fish species most sensitive to thermal effects, and impacts to the juvenile outmigrant populations are of particular concern to state and federal regulatory and fisheries management agencies. Therefore, the distribution studies were conducted from late July through September, a period when high ambient river temperatures and low river flows make these salmonid populations most susceptible to thermal effects. In addition, data were not available on the spatial distribution of outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon in late summer. Information on the relative distribution of resident fish populations was also gathered. Previous studies of midstream distribution of juvenile resident fish were limited to a description of ichthyoplankton populations (Beak Consultants, Inc. 1980 Page et al. 1982), and no data were available on vertical or horizontal distribution of juvenile resident fish species near N Reactor. Relative densities and spatial distribution estimates of juvenile salmonid and resident fish species will be used in conjunction with laboratory thermal effects studies (Neitzel et al. 1984) and with plume characterization studies (Ecker et al. 1983) to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge on fish populations near N Reactor.

  16. A geohydrologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safeeq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most assessments of the impacts of a changing climate to streamflow make use of downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from General Circulation Models (GCMs. Projected climate simulations from these GCMs are often too coarse for planning purposes, as they do not capture smaller scale topographic controls and other important watershed processes. This uncertainty is further amplified when downscaled climate predictions are coupled to macroscale hydrologic models that fail to capture streamflow contributions from deep groundwater. Deep aquifers play an important role in mediating streamflow response to climate change, and groundwater needs to be explicitly incorporated into sensitivity assessments. Here we develop and apply an analytical framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to a change in the timing and magnitude of recharge in a spatially-explicit fashion. Two patterns emerge from this analysis: first, areas with high streamflow sensitivity also have higher summer streamflows as compared to low sensitivity areas. Second, the level of sensitivity and spatial extent of highly sensitive areas diminishes over time as the summer progresses. Results of this analysis point to a robust, practical, and scalable approach that can help assess risk at the landscape scale, complement the downscaling approach, be applied to any climate scenario of interest, and provide a framework to assist land and water managers adapt to an uncertain and potentially challenging future.

  17. INSTABILITY OF THE TELECONNECTION OF SUMMER RAINFALLS BETWEEN NORTH CHINA AND INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian-bin; WANG Shao-wu

    2007-01-01

    Summer rainfall variations in North China closely relate to that in India. It seems that an alternation of signs of"+, -, +" exists in the geographical pattern of the correlation in summer rainfall from North China to India through the Tibetan Plateau. However, it appears that the teleconnection of summer rainfall variations between North China and India is unstable. Over 1945 - 1974, the correlation coefficient (hereafter as CC) is as large as 0.7. In contrast, the CC is about -0.3 over 1827-1856. Further studies, based on observations starting from 1813, showed that the correlation is strong when summer rainfalls in both North China and India are large, and vice versa. In order to find what induce the change of the teleconnection, variations of summer rainfall in both North China and India, mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific and the frequency of ENSO events were examined in relation to the change of the teleconnection. The result showed that the teleconnection appears weak when the mean SST is high and the frequency of La Ni(n)a events is low; the teleconnection is strong when the mean SST is low and the frequency of La Ni(n)a events is high. At last, it is notable that La Ni(n)a happens in only 3 years during the recent 30 years from 1976 to 2005 and the teleconnection becomes weak too.

  18. Variation and future trends in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Zhou, Xiuhua; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed the changes in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region of China, and undertook a composite analysis of the atmospheric circulations in the troposphere, which included an analysis of the interannual and interdecadal variations. This paper examines in detail the circulation backgrounds of the wet and dry periods in summer and autumn and their correlations with the sea surface temperature. The results indicated that the summer and autumn precipitation across Yunnan has significantly decreased over the past 50 years. Furthermore, since the beginning of the century, the summer and autumn precipitation cycle has been in a low precipitation phase. The overlap of two extremely low rain phases has caused frequent droughts in the region. In addition, the atmospheric circulation fields during these wet and dry periods are very different. These are mainly shown as a meridional wind anomaly in eastern China in the low atmosphere, as a cross-equatorial airflow anomaly, a tropical zonal wind anomaly over the Indian Ocean, and as a related South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High. Further analysis suggested that the SST over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific warm pool critically affect the anomalous summer and autumn precipitation over Yunnan by impacting the monsoon circulations. Future projections for greenhouse gas warming suggest a potential anomalous circulation background between 2010 and 2020 which may result in less precipitation during the wet season or even drought events across the Yunnan region.

  19. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  20. LHC Report: Summer temperatures in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The LHC experiments have finished their data-taking period before the summer conferences. The machine has already delivered substantially more collisions to the experiments this year than in the whole of 2011. The LHC has now started a six-day Machine Development period, which will be followed by the second Technical Stop of the year.   The number of collisions delivered to the experiments is expressed in integrated luminosity. In 2011, the integrated luminosity delivered to both ATLAS and CMS was around 5.6 fb-1. On Monday 18 June, experiments finished taking data before the summer conferences and the integrated luminosity for 2012 so far is about 6.6 fb-1, well above the unofficial target of 5 fb-1. The LHC’s performance over the last week of running was so efficient that the injection kicker magnets – which heat up due to the circulating beam – did not have time to cool down between the subsequent fills. As the time constants for warming up and cooli...

  1. LS1 Report: A cold, cold summer

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The cooling of the LHC is advancing quickly, with the second sector having now reached 200 K (about -73°C). By the end of the summer, four of the sectors will have been cooled. To achieve this, trucks carrying around 20 tonnes of nitrogen each are clocking up the miles to bring the cryogenic liquid to CERN. When the whole process is complete, almost four times the mass of the Eiffel Tower will have been cooled, using more than 10,000 tonnes of nitrogen and 140 tonnes of helium.   Liquid nitrogen, arriving to CERN on trucks, is injected into exchangers that pre-cool the helium flow used to cool the magnets. Cooling a sector (about 3 kilometres long) of the LHC is a fairly complex operation involving several stages. This summer, for the first time, the first two sectors will be cooled to 20 K (and not directly to the nominal temperature of 1.9 K) and will be maintained at this temperature for two weeks. “This plateau is necessary to allow the teams to carry out check...

  2. Cosmic vibes: CERN raves at summer festivals

    CERN Document Server

    Connie Potter

    2016-01-01

    This summer, CERN appeared at various festivals in the UK.   The inaugural Physics Pavilion at the 2016 WOMAD festival received over 3600 visitors. (Image: CERN) This summer, CERN’s outreach efforts took a step in a completely new direction as the group participated at various festivals. Following an invitation from the European Science Open Forum 2016 held in Manchester, UK, to be part of the Bluedot Festival, we produced an hour-long musical presentation with a physics theme. This featured the “Cosmic Piano”, created by Arturo Fernandez Tellez and Guillermo Tejeda Muñoz of ALICE, and a piece created from the sonification of LHC data by Domenico Vicinanza and Genevieve Williams, of Anglia Ruskin University. On a much bigger scale, we (the outreach team) collaborated with the WOMAD Festival, to host its first World of Physics in the middle of the English countryside. The result was a three-day programme of talks including “What’s the Ma...

  3. Radiation-use efficiency in summer rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-use efficiency (RUE) is a parameter that represents a crop canopy's ability to convert intercepted solar energy to dry matter. The RUE is used in simulation models and can vary with crop type and environment. The objective was to examine the effects of varying row width and seeding rate on the amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and the RUE in summer rape (Brassica napus L.). 'Westar' summer rape was seeded at rates of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 kg ha-1 in rows spaced 15 or 30 cm apart. Plant sampling was done at key growth stages, and the leaf and pod areas and total plant dry weights were determined. After flowering, plants intercepted more PAR when grown in 15-cm-wide rows than 30-cm-wide rows. For both row widths, as seeding rate increased from 1.5 to 12.0 kg ha-1, IPAR increased. The RUE was greater for plants grown in 15-cm-wide rows than for those grown in 30-cm rows; however, RUE decreased with increasing seeding rate. The mean RUE value was 2.83 g MJ-1 PAR. When the pod area was added to the leaf area, the IPAR increased and the RUE decreased

  4. CERN SUMMER SCHOOL 2015 PROJECT REPORT

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Zizhuo Tony

    2015-01-01

    The context of this internship is the CERN summer student program for the year 2015. As a member of the CERN summer school, I have been assigned, in addition to the classes I attended in the morning, a scientific project within the BE-ABP-HSC section. This work was done under the directions of Benoit Salvant and Nicolo Biancacci whom I thank greatly for their help, patience and teaching. The project consisted in observing the effects generated by the beam passing through various devices. We focused mainly on the electromagnetic waves generated by beams of particles travelling along two of the accelerator's devices: A wire scanner and the TDI (LHC injection beam stopper). These Simulations are of importance to estimate the effect of the beam onto the surrounding apparatus and ensuring both that the latter doesn't get damaged and that the beam doesn't lose too much energy. All the models and simulations were done using c CST STUDIO SUITE software developed by the c CST company.

  5. Making Summer Count: How Summer Programs Can Boost Children's Learning. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan McCombs, Jennifer; Augustine, Catherine H.; Schwartz, Heather L.; Bodilly, Susan J.; McInnis, Brian; Lichter, Dahlia S.; Brown Cross, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-term and ongoing efforts to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and advantaged students, low-income students continue to perform at considerably lower levels than their higher-income peers in reading and mathematics. Research has shown that students' skills and knowledge often deteriorate during the summer months, with…

  6. Possible Impacts of the Arctic Oscillation on the Interdecadal Variation of Summer Monsoon Rainfall in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Jianhua; L(U) Junmei; CAO Jie; REN Juzhang

    2005-01-01

    The influences of the wintertime AO (Arctic Oscillation) on the interdecadal variation of summer monsoon rainfall in East Asia were examined. An interdecadal abrupt change was found by the end of the 1970s in the variation of the AO index and the leading principal component time series of the summer rainfall in East Asia. The rainfall anomaly changed from below normal to above normal in central China, the southern part of northeastern China and the Korean peninsula around 1978. However,the opposite interdecadal variation was found in the rainfall anomaly in North China and South China.The interdecadal variation of summer rainfall is associated with the weakening of the East Asia summer monsoon circulation. It is indicated that the interdecadal variation of the AO exerts an influence on the weakening of the monsoon circulation. The recent trend in the AO toward its high-index polarity during the past two decades plays important roles in the land-sea contrast anomalies and wintertime precipitation anomaly. The mid- and high-latitude regions of the Asian continent are warming, while the low-latitude regions are cooling in winter and spring along with the AO entering its high-index polarity after the late 1970s. In the meantime, the precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and South China is excessive, implying an increase of soil moisture. The cooling tendency of the land in the southern part of Asia will persist until summer because of the memory of soil moisture. So the warming of the Asian continent is relatively slow in summer. Moreover, the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, which are located southward and eastward of the Asian land, are warming from winter to summer. This suggests that the contrast between the land and sea is decreased in summer. The interdecadal decrease of the land-sea heat contrast finally leads to the weakening of the East Asia summer monsoon circulation.

  7. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James K; Walker, Nathan R; Young, Carolyn A

    2016-06-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  8. Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) vs. conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) in children with Group III rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: Five hundred fifty-nine children were enrolled into the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV with Group III RMS. Sixty-nine were ineligible for the analysis because of incorrect group or pathologic findings. Of the 490 remaining, 239 were randomized to HFRT (59.4 Gy in 54 1.1-Gy twice daily fractions) and 251 to CFRT (50.4 Gy in 28 1.8-Gy daily fractions). The age range was <1-21 years. All patients received chemotherapy. RT began at Week 9 after induction chemotherapy for all but those with high-risk parameningeal tumors who received RT during induction chemotherapy. The patient groups were equally balanced. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Results: Analysis by randomized treatment assignment (intent to treat) revealed an estimated 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate of 70% and overall survival (OS) of 75%. In the univariate analysis, the factors associated with the best outcome were age 1-9 years at diagnosis; noninvasive tumors; tumor size <5 cm; uninvolved lymph nodes; Stage 1 or 2 disease; primary site in the orbit or head and neck; and embryonal histologic features (p=0.001 for all factors). No differences in the FFS or OS between the two RT treatment methods and no differences in the FFS or OS between HFRT and CFRT were found when analyzed by age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasiveness, nodal status, histologic features, stage, or primary site. Treatment compliance differed by age. Of the children <5 years, 57% assigned to HFRT received HFRT and 77% assigned to CFRT received CFRT. Of the children ≥5 years, 88% assigned to both HFRT and CFRT received their assigned treatment. The reasons for not receiving the appropriate randomized treatment were progressive disease, early death, parent or physician refusal, young age, or surgery. The

  9. ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SUMMER RAINFALL IN CHINA AND THE ATMOSPHERIC HEAT SOURCES OVER THE EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU AND THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简茂球; 罗会邦; 乔云亭

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between the summer rainfall in China and the atmospheric heat sources over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific warm pool were analyzed comparatively, using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily data. The strong (weak) heat source in summer over the eastern Tibetan Plateau will lead to abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the Yangtze River basin, and scarce/abundant summer rainfall in the eastern part of Southern China. While the strong (weak) heat source in summer over the western Pacific warm pool will lead to another pattern of abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and scarce (abundant) summer rainfall in Southern China and in the region of northern Jiangsu to southern Shandong. Comparatively, the heat source over the eastern Tibetan Plateau affects a larger area of summer rainfall than the heat source over the western Pacific. In both cases of the heat source anomalies over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and over the western Pacific, there exist EAP-like teleconnection patterns in East Asia. The summer rainfall in China is influenced directly by the abnormal vertical motion, which is related closely to the abnormal heat sources in the atmosphere. The ridge line of the western Pacific High locates far south (north) in summer in the case of strong (weak) heat sources over the two areas mentioned above.

  10. Damped summer warming accompanied with cloud cover increase over Eurasia from 1982 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between summer temperature, total cloud cover and precipitation over Eurasia was investigated using observation-based products of temperature and precipitation, and satellite-derived cloud cover and radiation products. We used a partial least squares regression approach to separate the local influences of cloud cover and precipitation on temperature variations. Our results suggest that the variance of summer temperature is partly explained by changes in summer cloudiness. The summer temperature dependence on cloud cover is strong at the high latitudes and in the middle latitude semi-humid area, while the dependence on precipitation is strong in the Central Asia arid area and the southern Asia humid area. During the period 1982–2009, the damped warming in extended West Siberia was accompanied with increases in cloud cover, and the pronounced warming in Europe and Mongolia was associated with a decrease in cloud cover and precipitation. Our results suggest that cloud cover may be the important local factor influencing the summer temperature variation in Eurasia while precipitation plays an important role at the middle latitudes. (letter)

  11. An Index Measuring the Interannual Variation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon--The EAP Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刚

    2004-01-01

    Based on the EAP (East Asia/Pacific) teleconnection in the summer circulation anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere,an index measuring the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon,i.e.,the socalled EAP index,is defined in this paper.From the analyses of observed data,it is clearly shown that the EAP index defined in this study can well describe the interannual variability of summer rainfall and surfaceair temperature in East Asia,especially in the Yangtze River valley and the Hualhe River valley,Korea,and Japan.Moreover,this index can also reflect the interannual variability of the East Asian summer monsoon system including the monsoon horizontal circulation and the vertical-merldional circulation cell over East Asia.From the composite analyses of climate and monsoon circulation anomalies for high EAP index and for low EAP index,respectively,it is well demonstrated that the EAP index proposed in this study can well measure the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon.

  12. Summer Synthesis Institutes: A Novel Approach for Transformative Research and Student Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.; Hermans, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    It is believed that breakthroughs tend to occur when small groups of highly motivated scientists are driven by challenges encountered in real problem-solving situations and given the freedom to experiment with new ideas. Summer synthesis institutes provide a mechanism to facilitiate these breakthroughs and by which graduate students may engage in interdisciplinary research in a way that is not often available in their normal course of study. In this presentation we examine two complementary models of summer synthesis institutes in hydrology, how these intensive programs facilitate scientific outcomes and the impact of synthesis and the summer institute model on student perceptions of academic roles, collaboration opportunities and team science. Five summer synthesis institutes were held over three years, sharing similar duration and structure but different degrees of participant interdisciplinarity and focus questions. Through informal assessments, this presentation will demonstrate how these programs offered a unique opportunity for the development of student-student and student-mentor relationships and facilitated deeper understanding of a student’s own research as well as new techniques, perspective and disciplines. Additionally, though the summer synthesis institute model offers a unique ability to leverage limited funding (on the order of a single graduate student) to advance earth sciences, the model also presents specific challenges for research follow-through and may require specific content and interpersonal dynamics for optimum success.

  13. Significant relationship between spring AO and the summer rainfall along the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of spring AO on the summer rainfall along the Yangtze River is investigated. The long-term rainfall observations are filtered to remove the low-frequency variations longer than 10 years. The inter-annual components show a high correlation to AO in the last hundred years. The strongest correlation appears for May AO and summer rainfall with a value of ?0.39, significant above the 99% confidence level. Associated with one standard deviation stronger May AO index, the rainfall over the Yangtze River to the southern Japan decreases by about 3%-9%, while, at the same time increases by about 3%-6% in the northern China and far-eastern Russia. The coherent changes in rainfall are significantly related to the East Asian summer jet stream in the upper troposphere. When there is stronger AO in spring, the jet stream tends to move polarward in summer, and leads the rainfall-belt to move northward too. That gives rise to a drier condition in the Yangtze River valley, wetter anomalies in northern China. This signal would be helpful for the summer rainfall prediction in China.

  14. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F; Fisher, Joshua B; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Richardson, Andrew D; Scott, Russell L; Law, Beverly E; Litvak, Marcy E; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Peters, Wouter; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T

    2016-05-24

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inverse modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. PMID:27114518

  15. Phytoplankton communities and its controlling factors in summer and autumn in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haijiao; HUANG Yajie; ZHAI Weidong; GUO Shujin; JIN Hualong; SUN Jun

    2015-01-01

    The phytoplankton water samples were collected in two multidisciplinary investigations which were carried out during summer (June) and autumn (November to December) of 2011. Phytoplankton species composition and abun-dance data were accomplished by Utermöhl method. The phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates in the southern Yellow Sea (YS) in summer and autumn. In summer, Paralia sulcata and Prorocen-trum dentatum were the predominated species, the cell abundance ranged from 0.074 to 107.733×103 cells/L with an average of 9.057×103 cells/L. Two phytoplankton high abundance appeared in northwest part of the survey area and the Changjiang River Estuary, respectively. In autumn, Par. sulcata became the predominant species, and the phyto-plankton cell abundance ranged from 1.035×103 to 8.985×103 cells/L, the average was 3.263×103 cells/L. The phytopl-ankton abundance in surface layer presented the homogeneous distributions. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) method was applied for discovering the relationship between environmental factors and the common found phytoplankton species. The responses of phytoplankton to nutrients were varied between summer and autumn. The abundance of most predominant species, Par. sulcata was strongly correlated to temperature and salinity in autumn, but not the case in summer.

  16. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  17. Summer Student takes ISOLDE by surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Two weeks ago, the Collinear Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE performed some of the world’s most sensitive measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, one of the rarest and least-understood elements. Gathered in record time and with excellent background resolution, the results are in good agreement with model predictions. The developer of their model? 2012 Summer Student, Ruben de Groote.   When student Ruben de Groote arrived at CERN this June, he joined one of CERN’s smallest experiments: CRIS. With a team of just 8 people at CERN, the CRIS experiment has become the world’s best facility to study the nuclear structure of light francium isotopes. By using a combination of resonant ionization spectroscopy and collinear laser spectroscopy, the experiment can select francium beams in a specific nuclear state with little background noise. As part of his thesis, Ruben has been developing a model – based on work by his Univers...

  18. C.I.M.E. Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic Geometry is the mathematical discipline which studies mathematical models for random geometric structures, as they appear frequently in almost all natural sciences or technical fields. Although its roots can be traced back to the 18th century (the Buffon needle problem), the modern theory of random sets was founded by D. Kendall and G. Matheron in the early 1970's. Its rapid development was influenced by applications in Spatial Statistics and by its close connections to Integral Geometry. The volume "Stochastic Geometry" contains the lectures given at the CIME summer school in Martina Franca in September 1974. The four main lecturers covered the areas of Spatial Statistics, Random Points, Integral Geometry and Random Sets, they are complemented by two additional contributions on Random Mosaics and Crystallization Processes. The book presents an up-to-date description of important parts of Stochastic Geometry.

  19. Undergraduate Research Summer Fellowships Undergo Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgren, Timothy E.

    2000-09-01

    At the 22nd Annual Council Meeting of Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR), held this past June at the College of Wooster, the general council voted to make fundamental changes to the Undergraduate Research Summer Fellowship Program. The most important change is that awards will no longer be made to individual students. Instead, awards will be made to individual faculty member on the basis of applications written by faculty members comprised of a curriculum vitae, a description of the proposed research project, and the role of undergraduate collaborators in the proposed research activities. This change brings the program more in line with the overall CUR objective to support faculty in their efforts to provide research experiences for undergraduate students. Faculty members selected for awards will be asked to designate a student recipient at the time the funds are awarded, a key change to the fellowship program.

  20. Summer institute of sustainability and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George W. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The vision for the Summer Institute on Sustainability and Energy (SISE) is to integrate advancements in basic energy sciences with innovative energy technologies to train the next generation of interdisciplinary scientists and policy makers for both government and industry. Through BES related research, these future leaders will be equipped to make educated decisions about energy at the personal, civic, and global levels in energy related fields including science, technology, entrepreneurship, economics, policy, planning, and behavior. This vision explicitly supports the 2008 report by the Department of Energy’s Basic Energy Science Advisory Committee (2), which outlines scientific opportunities and challenges to achieve energy security, lower CO2 emissions, reduce reliance on foreign oil and create enduring economic growth through discovery, development and the marketing of new technologies for sustainable energy production, delivery, and use (3).

  1. Summer 2014 Marketing Intern Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Ramos, Marlee

    2014-01-01

    As a summer 2014 Marketing Intern for NASA Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Center Planning and Development directorate, I have gained much experience and knowledge of what is expected of me in any work environment. Throughout my time at KSC, I have had a number of responsibilities and duties, many of which involved collaborating with other directorates in order to acquire guidance and information from other NASA experts, attending and participating in meetings, and also editing and providing input to a collective project. My goal in this paper is to summarize my experience at KSC by explaining my responsibilities in detail and the skills I am able to take away as a result that will further aid me in my career path for the future.

  2. Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon in Recent Decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bingyi

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of 43 years of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data and station observations reveals the connections between tropospheric temperature variations and the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon circulation. The Indian summer monsoon variation is strongly linked to tropospheric temperature over East Asia, showing significant positive correlations of mean tropospheric temperature with all-Indian summer rainfall and the monsoon circulation intensity. The result shows that Indian summer monsoon circulation underwent two weakening processes in recent decades. The first occurred in circa the mid-1960s, and the other occurred in circa the late 1970s. The finding indicates that the mean tropospheric temperature may play a crucial role in the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon intensity via changing land-sea thermal contrast. The role of the tropospheric temperature contrast between East Asia and the tropical area from the eastern Indian Ocean to the tropical western Pacific is to weaken the Indian summer monsoon circulation.

  3. Nuclear theory summer meeting on ERHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.; Venugopalan, R.

    2000-06-26

    The eRHIC BNL summer meeting was held at BNL from June 26 to July 14, 2000. The meeting was very informal with only two talks a day and with ample time for discussions and collaborations. Several of the theory talks focused on the issue of saturation of parton distributions at small x--whether screening effects have already been seen at HERA, the relation of saturation to shadowing, and on the various signatures of a proposed novel state of matter--the Colored Glass Condensate--that may be observed at eRHIC. A related topic that was addressed was that of quantifying twist four effects, and on the relevance of these for studies of energy loss. Other issues addressed were coherence effects in vector meson production, anti-quark distributions in nuclei, and the relevance of saturation for heavy ion collisions. There were, also, talks on the Pomeron--the relevance of instantons and the non-perturbative gluon condensate to constructing a Pomeron. On the spin physics side, there were talks on predictions for inclusive distributions at small x. There were also talks on Skewed Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering. Though most of the talks were theory talks, there were also several important experimental contributions. A preliminary detector design for eRHIC was presented. Studies for semi-inclusive measurements at eRHIC were also presented. The current status of pA scattering studies at RHIC was also discussed. The eRHIC summer meeting provided a vigorous discussion of the current status of eRHIC studies. It is hoped that this document summarizing these discussions will be of use to all those interested in electron nucleus and polarized electron-polarized proton studies.

  4. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  5. Nuclear theory summer meeting on ERHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eRHIC BNL summer meeting was held at BNL from June 26 to July 14, 2000. The meeting was very informal with only two talks a day and with ample time for discussions and collaborations. Several of the theory talks focused on the issue of saturation of parton distributions at small x--whether screening effects have already been seen at HERA, the relation of saturation to shadowing, and on the various signatures of a proposed novel state of matter--the Colored Glass Condensate--that may be observed at eRHIC. A related topic that was addressed was that of quantifying twist four effects, and on the relevance of these for studies of energy loss. Other issues addressed were coherence effects in vector meson production, anti-quark distributions in nuclei, and the relevance of saturation for heavy ion collisions. There were, also, talks on the Pomeron--the relevance of instantons and the non-perturbative gluon condensate to constructing a Pomeron. On the spin physics side, there were talks on predictions for inclusive distributions at small x. There were also talks on Skewed Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering. Though most of the talks were theory talks, there were also several important experimental contributions. A preliminary detector design for eRHIC was presented. Studies for semi-inclusive measurements at eRHIC were also presented. The current status of pA scattering studies at RHIC was also discussed. The eRHIC summer meeting provided a vigorous discussion of the current status of eRHIC studies. It is hoped that this document summarizing these discussions will be of use to all those interested in electron nucleus and polarized electron-polarized proton studies

  6. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yuwen; HE Lingyan; HU Min; ZHANG Jing; ZHAO Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  7. The Decadal Shift of the Summer Climate in the Late 1980s over Eastern China and Its Possible Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Renhe; WU Bingyi; ZHAO Ping; HAN Jinping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that a notable decadal shift of the summer climate in eastern China occurred in the late 1980s. In association with this decadal climate shift, after the late 1980s more precipita-tion appeared in the southern region of eastern China (namely South China), the western Pacific subtropical high stretched farther westward with a larger south-north extent, and a strengthened anticyclone at 850 hPa appeared in the northwestern Pacific. The decadal climate shift of the summer precipitation in South China was accompanied with decadal changes of the Eurasian snow cover in boreal spring and sea surface temperature (SST) in western North Pacific in boreal summer in the late 1980s. After the late 1980s, the spring Eurasian snow cover apparently became less and the summer SST in western North Pacific increased obviously, which were well correlated with the increase of the South China precipitation. The physical pro-cesses are also investigated on how the summer precipitation in China was affected by the spring Eurasian snow cover and summer SST in western North Pacific. The change of the spring Eurasian snow cover could excite a wave-train in higher latitudes, which lasted from spring to summer. Because of the wave-train, an abnormal high appeared over North China and a weak depression over South China, leading to more precip-itation in South China. The increase of the summer SST in the western North Pacific reduced the land-sea thermal contrast and thus weakened the East Asian summer monsoon, also leading to more precipitation in South China.

  8. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broström Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  9. Customer satisfaction at Summer Sound Festival 2015 : Evaluating festival quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hannonen, Linda; Väänänen, Noora

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was commissioned by an event production company Events 365 Oy. The company focuses on electronic dance music events including the Summer Sound Festival. The Summer Sound festival is a three day EDM festival held at the Helsinki Exhibition and Convention Centre. The commissioner will receive the final report for future developments. The objective of this research based thesis is to evaluate the festival quality at Summer Sound Festival 2015 through a customer satisfaction re...

  10. Strong release of methane on Mars in northern summer 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J; Villanueva, Geronimo L; Novak, Robert E; Hewagama, Tilak; Bonev, Boncho P; Disanti, Michael A; Mandell, Avi M; Smith, Michael D

    2009-02-20

    Living systems produce more than 90% of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. On Mars, methane could be a signature of either origin. Using high-dispersion infrared spectrometers at three ground-based telescopes, we measured methane and water vapor simultaneously on Mars over several longitude intervals in northern early and late summer in 2003 and near the vernal equinox in 2006. When present, methane occurred in extended plumes, and the maxima of latitudinal profiles imply that the methane was released from discrete regions. In northern midsummer, the principal plume contained approximately 19,000 metric tons of methane, and the estimated source strength (>/=0.6 kilogram per second) was comparable to that of the massive hydrocarbon seep at Coal Oil Point in Santa Barbara, California. PMID:19150811

  11. Indian Summer: A "Hands-On, Feet-Wet" Approach to Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Ed; Barta, Jim

    2001-01-01

    A summer fish recovery program along the Salmon River (Idaho) involves Native American high school students in science, technology, and research within a cultural and environmental context. The positive attitudes and work ethic of Native students and the research and study skills they acquired demonstrate that Native students succeed when their…

  12. CEBAF/SURA [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility]/[Southeastern Universities Research Association] 1987 summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers from the CEBAF accelerator facility summer workshop. Some topics covered are: baryon-baryon interactions, deuteron form factors; neutron detection; high resolution spectrometers; nuclear strangeness; parity violation; photon-deuteron interactions; chemical reactions in ion sources; quantum chromodynamics; hypernuclear magnetic moments; and photoproduction of π+ from 14N

  13. Financial Management and Job Social Skills Training Components in a Summer Business Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were…

  14. An evaluation of the 1997 JPL Summer Teacher Enhancement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovacek, Simeon P.; Doyle-Nichols, Adelaide R.

    1997-10-20

    There were two major components in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Summer Teacher Enhancement Project (STEP). First, the Summer Institute was structured as a four-week, 4-credit-unit University course for middle school science teachers, and consisted of workshops, lectures, labs, and tours as activities. The second component consists of follow-up activities related to the summer institute's contents, and again is structured as a University credit-bearing course for participants to reinforce their summer training. Considerable information from the comments and course ratings as given by the participants is included.

  15. Latvia as a Summer Festival Destination to Finnish Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Balode, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the Bachelor’s thesis is Latvia as a Summer Festival Destination to Finnish tourists. The aim of this thesis is to find out if Latvia is known for its summer Festivals and how to improve their marketing. Marketing, social media and mobile applications are important promotion for the festivals. Three of the biggest and well known Latvian summer festivals were chosen as Positivus, Summer Sound and Laba Daba. All of the festivals offer wide range of local and international artists...

  16. Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Ahlers

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of droughts and intensity of seasonal precipitation in many regions. Semiaquatic mammals should be vulnerable to this increased variability in precipitation, especially in human-modified landscapes where dispersal to suitable habitat or temporary refugia may be limited. Using six years of presence-absence data (2007-2012 spanning years of record-breaking drought and flood conditions, we evaluated regional occupancy dynamics of American mink (Neovison vison and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus in a highly altered agroecosystem in Illinois, USA. We used noninvasive sign surveys and a multiseason occupancy modeling approach to estimate annual occupancy rates for both species and related these rates to summer precipitation. We also tracked radiomarked individuals to assess mortality risk for both species when moving in terrestrial areas. Annual model-averaged estimates of occupancy for mink and muskrat were correlated positively to summer precipitation. Mink and muskrats were widespread during a year (2008 with above-average precipitation. However, estimates of site occupancy declined substantially for mink (0.56 and especially muskrats (0.09 during the severe drought of 2012. Mink are generalist predators that probably use terrestrial habitat during droughts. However, mink had substantially greater risk of mortality away from streams. In comparison, muskrats are more restricted to aquatic habitats and likely suffered high mortality during the drought. Our patterns are striking, but a more mechanistic understanding is needed of how semiaquatic species in human-modified ecosystems will respond ecologically in situ to extreme weather events predicted by climate-change models.

  17. SUNYA Regional Climate Model Simulations of East Asia Summer Monsoon: Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on the Surface Energy Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gong and Wei-Chyung Wang

    2007-01-01

    We used the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA) regional climate model to study the effect of cloud vertical distribution in affecting the surface energy balance of the East Asia summer monsoon (EASM). Simulations were conducted for the summers of 1988 and 1989, during which large contrast in the intra-seasonal cloud radiative forcing (CRF) was observed at the top of the atmosphere. The model results indicate that both the high and low clouds are persistent throughout the summe...

  18. Delayed responses of an Arctic ecosystem to an extreme summer: impacts on net ecosystem exchange and vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, D.; Lipson, D. A.; Richards, J. H.; Phoenix, G. K.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Ueyama, M.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oechel, W. C.

    2014-10-01

    The importance and consequences of extreme events on the global carbon budget are inadequately understood. This includes the differential impact of extreme events on various ecosystem components, lag effects, recovery times, and compensatory processes. In the summer of 2007 in Barrow, Arctic Alaska, there were unusually high air temperatures (the fifth warmest summer over a 65-year period) and record low precipitation (the lowest over a 65-year period). These abnormal conditions were associated with substantial desiccation of the Sphagnum layer and a reduced net Sphagnum CO2 sink but did not affect net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from this wet-sedge arctic tundra ecosystem. Microbial biomass, NH4+ availability, gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were generally greater during this extreme summer. The cumulative ecosystem CO2 sink in 2007 was similar to the previous summers, suggesting that vascular plants were able to compensate for Sphagnum CO2 uptake, despite the impact on other functions and structure such as desiccation of the Sphagnum layer. Surprisingly, the lowest ecosystem CO2 sink over a five summer record (2005-2009) was observed during the 2008 summer (~70% lower), directly following the unusually warm and dry summer, rather than during the extreme summer. This sink reduction cannot solely be attributed to the potential damage to mosses, which typically contribute ~40% of the entire ecosystem CO2 sink. Importantly, the return to a substantial cumulative CO2 sink occurred two summers after the extreme event, which suggests a substantial resilience of this tundra ecosystem to at least an isolated extreme event. Overall, these results show a complex response of the CO2 sink and its sub-components to atypically warm and dry conditions. The impact of multiple extreme events requires further investigation.

  19. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  20. Dehumidification of Iberia by enhanced summer upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, P. M.; Costa, V.; Nogueira, M.; Semedo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dehumidification of Iberia by enhanced summer upwelling Miranda PMA, Costa V, Semedo AIDL, Faculdade de Ciências, University of LisbonA 24-year simulation of the recent Iberian climate, using the WRF model at 9km resolution forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis (1989-2012), is analysed for the decadal evolution of the upwelling forcing coastal wind and for column integrated Precipitable water vapour (PWV). Results indicate that, unlike what was found by Bakun et al. (2009) for the Peruvian region, a statistically significant trend in the upwelling favourable (northerly) wind has been accompanied by a corresponding decrease in PWV, not only inland but also over the coastal waters. Such increase is consistent with a reinforced northerly coastal jet in the maritime boundary layer contributing to atmospheric Ekman pumping of dry continental air into the coastal region. Diagnostics of the prevalence of the Iberian thermal low following Hoinka and Castro (2003) also show a positive trend in its frequency during an extended summer period (April to September). These results are consistent with recent studies indicating an upward trend in the frequency of upwelling in SW Iberia (Alves and Miranda 2013), and may be relevant for climate change applications as an increase in coastal upwelling (Miranda et al 2013) may lead to substantial regional impacts in the subtropics. Aknowledgements: Study supported by FCT Grant RECI/GEO-MET/0380/2012Alves JMR, Miranda PMA (2013) Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses, Tellus A 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v65i0.19245.Bakun et al (2010) Greenhouse gas, upwelling-favorable winds, and the future of coastal ocean upwelling ecosystems, Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02094.xHoinka KP, Castro M (2003) The Iberian Peninsula thermal low. QJRMS, 129, 1491- 1511, doi: 10.1256/qj.01.189.Miranda et al (2013) Climate change and upwelling: response of Iberian upwelling to atmospheric

  1. THE CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SUMMER MONSOON ONSET OVER THE SOUTH CHINA SEA Ⅰ40—YEAR AVERAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞权; 林建恒

    2002-01-01

    By using 40-year NCEP reanalysis daily data91958-1997),we have analyzed the climatic characteristics of summer monsoon onset in the South China Sea(1050°E-120°E,5°N-20°N,to be simplified as SCS in the text followed) pentad y pentad(5 days),According to our new definition,in the monsoon area of the SCS two of the following conditions should be satistied:1)At 850hPa,the southwest winds should be greater than 2m/s.2)At 850 hPa.θse should e greater than 335°K.The new definition means that the summermonsoon is the southwest winds high temperature and high moisture.The onset of the SCS summer monsoon is defined to start when one half of the SCS area(105°E-120°E,5°N-20°N)is controlled by the summer monsoon.The analyzed results revealed the following:1) The summer monsoon in the SCS starts to build up abruptly in the 4th pentad in May.2) The summer monsoon onset in the SCS is resulted from the development and intensification of southwesterly monsoon in the Bay of Bengal.3) The onset of the summer monsoon and establishment of the summer monsoon rainfall season in the SCS occur simultaneously.4) During the summer monsoon onset in the SCS,troughs deepen and widen quickly in the lower troposphere of the India:the subtropical high in the Western pacific moves eastward off the SCS in the middle troposphere:the easterly advances northward over the SCS in the upper troposphere.

  2. An "H-index" for summer heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuling, Ryan; Vautard, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Heat waves are among the most severely impacting natural disasters with which we contend. Recent summer "mega-heatwave" extremes in France (2003) and Russia (2010) lead to impacts on ecosystems and economic sectors, as well as increased mortality rates. Appropriate adaptation measures and improved early warning systems are necessary to cope with more frequent phenomena such as those that occurred in the last decade. A simple scale, that allows both identification, definition and ranking of individual heat wave events based on environmental conditions and potential for societal impact, is lacking. Such magnitude scale could also help to evaluate the evolution of heat waves in multi-model climate projections as compared to current climate. A simple index, easy to calculate and communicate, is designed to capture both the intensity and duration of summer heat waves. The index, analogous to the Hirsch index for citations, expresses the magnitude of a heat wave event (H) by the number of subsequent days H over which the daily average apparent temperature anomaly exceeds H K. It accounts for the magnitude of the day- and night-time temperature anomalies, humidity and wind, as well as for the duration of the heat wave episode. As a preliminary application, we calculated H over a 36 year-long global set of meteorological station data, after a careful quality check procedure. We show that these events, as characterised by H, have doubled in number over the past few decades. We also show that large magnitude heat waves (say H≥8) occur essentially in mid to high latitudes and over continental areas.

  3. Multiproxy summer precipitation reconstructions for Asia during the past 530 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.; Hu, Q. S.; Wu, Q.

    2011-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoons and the monsoon circulation affect the weather and climate in most of the tropics and extra-tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere, where more than 60% of the earth's population live. Thus it is of paramount importance to understand variations of the Asian summer monsoons from a long-term perspective. This study reconstructed a 0.5°×0.5° gridded summer (June-August) precipitation in Asia (5°-55°N, 60°-135°E) during the past 530 years based on annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives. There are 221 proxy records with temporally stable and significant correlations with the summer precipitation in the study region. Most of the proxy records only cover the last 300-400 years, and a few proxy records were available before 1470AD. The missing values in the proxy data were infilled using analogue techniques. Then the regularized expectation maximization method is used to reconstruct the summer precipitation back to 1470AD. The reduction of error (RE) between the reconstructed values and observations suggests that the reconstructions are reliable, with RE>0.0 on all grid points for the study region. The reconstruction skill is very high (RE>0.4) over regions with denser proxy records (e.g. East China, Mongolia and Central Asia), and slightly lower in northeastern and southeastern Asia with RE usually less than 0.2. The reconstructed gridded summer precipitation data allow us to identify and analyze the regional variations of drought and flood during the last 530 years. These analysis results show that the severe droughts that affected China during the Little Ice Age (e.g. the mega-drought during the late 1630s to early 1640s that triggered the collapse of the Ming Dynasty) shared a similar spatial extent with the modern droughts in northern and central China.

  4. Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardos M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea and holm oak (Quercus ilex seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 200 planting holes in an area of 1.1 ha. Mulch was added in June; irrigation started in July and was repeated every week until mid-September. The severity of the 2011 summer drought constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics, mainly in the non-irrigated seedlings, whose survival at the end of the year after planting was approximately 2.5%. Stone pine and holm oak seedlings responded more to irrigation than to mulching in terms of shoot growth, biomass and survival. Furthermore, stone pine seedlings were found to be more responsive to the partial alleviation of summer drought than holm oak seedlings. Irrigation alone produced similar results to those obtained when both irrigation and mulching were employed. In conclusion, first year summer irrigation should be considered as a planned adaptation measure in the management of outplanted Mediterranean ecosystems, because once a gravimetrically measured soil moisture level as low as 2% is achieved seedling survival and physiological performance can be guaranteed. However, the repercussions for the potential persistence of both species in the area will not only be related to the recurrence and intensity of summer droughts but also to drought duration.

  5. Summer hot snaps and winter conditions: modelling white syndrome outbreaks on Great Barrier Reef corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Heron

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under increasing pressure in a changing climate, one such threat being more frequent and destructive outbreaks of coral diseases. Thermal stress from rising temperatures has been implicated as a causal factor in disease outbreaks observed on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and elsewhere in the world. Here, we examine seasonal effects of satellite-derived temperature on the abundance of coral diseases known as white syndromes on the Great Barrier Reef, considering both warm stress during summer and deviations from mean temperatures during the preceding winter. We found a high correlation (r(2 = 0.953 between summer warm thermal anomalies (Hot Snap and disease abundance during outbreak events. Inclusion of thermal conditions during the preceding winter revealed that a significant reduction in disease outbreaks occurred following especially cold winters (Cold Snap, potentially related to a reduction in pathogen loading. Furthermore, mild winters (i.e., neither excessively cool nor warm frequently preceded disease outbreaks. In contrast, disease outbreaks did not typically occur following warm winters, potentially because of increased disease resistance of the coral host. Understanding the balance between the effects of warm and cold winters on disease outbreak will be important in a warming climate. Combining the influence of winter and summer thermal effects resulted in an algorithm that yields both a Seasonal Outlook of disease risk at the conclusion of winter and near real-time monitoring of Outbreak Risk during summer. This satellite-derived system can provide coral reef managers with an assessment of risk three-to-six months in advance of the summer season that can then be refined using near-real-time summer observations. This system can enhance the capacity of managers to prepare for and respond to possible disease outbreaks and focus research efforts to increase understanding of environmental impacts on coral disease in

  6. A Innovative Engineering Summer School V2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a summer school which focuses on a conceive-design project. The summer school has been run three times; each of the implementations is described. The last implementation (v2.0) is discussed and four challenges are identified and discussed in detail: assignments, the role of...

  7. Summer Spectacular: Children's Literature Workshops, Institutes, and Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Karen; Pavonetti, Linda; Roser, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    No matter how long teachers have been out of school, or how many children's literature classes they have taught, when summer comes, most of them long to "go back to class." It is because of the intriguing, exciting, reinvigorating institutes and conferences their colleagues offer in summer. In this interview, two veteran planners of summer…

  8. Upcoming Summer Programs for Students and Staff | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer This summer, the Scientific Library is hosting three programs for students and NCI at Frederick staff: the Summer Video Series, Mini Science Film & Discussion Series, and Eighth Annual Student Science Jeopardy Tournament. Complete information on the programs is available on the Scientific Library’s website.

  9. Interviews with Students Enrolled in Academic CPR Workshops, Summer 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Chelley

    This study focuses on students enrolled in academic CPR workshops in the summer of 2002. The goal of the study is to examine changes in the population of students with academic problems. The CPR workshops are a requirement for students that are subject to dismissal. The study was conducted in the summer of 2003 on the telephone with a random…

  10. An Interactive Analytical Chemistry Summer Camp for Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mary E.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    A summer outreach program, which was implemented for the first time in the summer of 2004, that provided middle school girls with an opportunity to conduct college-level analytical chemistry experiments under the guidance of female graduate students is explained. The program proved beneficial to participants at each level.

  11. Summer Food Service Program. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) is to provide nutritious meals to children in low-income areas when school is not in session. This issue of "Nourishing News" focuses on SFSPs. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) Is Your Summer Food Program Financially Fit? (Jean Zaske); (2) Keeping the "Bugs" Away: An Ounce of…

  12. Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting

    2011-08-01

    A previous study revealed a close relationship between interannual variations of northeast China (NEC) summer temperature and a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern in the North Atlantic in preceding spring. The present study investigates the change in the above relationship and the plausible causes for the change. A tripole SST index is defined with its positive value corresponding to positive SST anomalies in the tropics and midlatitudes and negative SST anomalies in the subtropics. The tripole SST anomaly pattern has a weak correlation with NEC summer temperature during the 1950s through the mid-1970s, in sharp contrast to the 1980s and 1990s. This change is related to the difference in the persistence of the tripole SST pattern. Before the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern weakened from spring to summer, and thus, the spring North Atlantic tripole SST pattern had a weak connection with NEC summer temperature. On the contrary, after the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern displayed a tendency of persistence from spring to summer, contributing to circulation changes that affected NEC summer temperature. There are two factors for the persistence of the tripole SST pattern from spring to summer. One is the North Atlantic air-sea interaction, and the other is the persistence of SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the decay of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that the North Atlantic SST anomalies can have an impact on NEC summer temperature independent of ENSO.

  13. CEBAF/SURA 1985 Summer Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1985 Summer Workshop began a new phase of planning for the experimental program at CEBAF. One goal of the Workshop was to define and describe options for equipping the CEBAF and stations with experimental equipment. Starting with an initial list of options which grew out of discussions during the Winter of 1984 and the Spring of 1985, the five working groups met during the Workshop and developed their final reports, included in these proceedings. The program of the Workshop consisted of invited talks on both theoretical and experimental topics, and working group meetings. The five working groups, include: Magnetic Spectrometers; Large Acceptance Detectors and Low Intensity Beams; Internal Targets; Positrons; Theory. These proceedings begin with an overview of CEBAF, and a report on progress made by the Magnetic Spectrometer and Internal Target Working Groups prior to the Workshop. The next part contains the invited talks, presented in the order which they were given during the week. The final reports of the five working groups follow this, and the proceedings conclude with papers contributed to the Workshop

  14. Spin Glasses : Statics and Dynamics : Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, spin glass theory has turned from a fascinating part of t- oretical physics to a ?ourishing and rapidly growing subject of probability theory as well. These developments have been triggered to a large part by the mathem- ical understanding gained on the fascinating and previously mysterious “Parisi solution” of the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick mean ?eld model of spin glasses, due to the work of Guerra, Talagrand, and others. At the same time, new aspects and applications of the methods developed there have come up. The presentvolumecollects a number of reviewsaswellas shorterarticlesby lecturers at a summer school on spin glasses that was held in July 2007 in Paris. These articles range from pedagogical introductions to state of the art papers, covering the latest developments. In their whole, they give a nice overview on the current state of the ?eld from the mathematical side. The review by Bovier and Kurkova gives a concise introduction to mean ?eld models, starting with the Curie–...

  15. Summer Institute for Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Calloway, Cliff

    2007-04-01

    A summer institute for physical science teachers was conducted at Winthrop University, June 19-29, 2006. Ninth grade physical science teachers at schools within a 50-mile radius from Winthrop were targeted. We developed a graduate level physics professional development course covering selected topics from both the physics and chemistry content areas of the South Carolina Science Standards. Delivery of the material included traditional lectures and the following new approaches in science teaching: hands-on experiments, group activities, computer based data collection, computer modeling, with group discussions & presentations. Two experienced master teachers assisted us during the delivery of the course. The institute was funded by the South Carolina Department of Education. The requested funds were used for the following: faculty salaries, the University contract course fee, some of the participants' room and board, startup equipment for each teacher, and indirect costs to Winthrop University. Startup equipment included a Pasco stand-alone, portable Xplorer GLX interface with sensors (temperature, voltage, pH, pressure, motion, and sound), and modeling software (Wavefunction's Spartan Student and Odyssey). What we learned and ideas for future K-12 teacher preparation initiatives will be presented.

  16. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  17. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  18. Second Multiflow Summer School on Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Multiflow is a research program, funded by the European Research Council, whose goal is to improve our understanding of the multiscale dynamics of turbulence in fluids. Its second Summer School on Turbulence took place at the School of Aeronautics of the Technical University of Madrid from May 25 to June 26, 2015, with the goal of providing a meeting place for theoreticians, experimentalists and simulators, in which to develop and test new ideas on turbulence physics and structure. Around forty, mostly young, participants from twenty international groups met for five weeks of collaborative work, primarily using the computational data archived in the receiving institution but, in many cases, also contributing their own. Although the format included a few invited formal seminars and periodic plenary meetings, most of the work took place in small groups that, in many cases, changed their composition during the workshop. The papers in these proceedings reflect the results of the work of these groups which, in many cases, later continued in the form of new collaborations.

  19. cptnHook - Summer Student Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Asimakopoulou, Eleni - Myrto

    2015-01-01

    The present is a report of the work that was conducted during my 8-week summer school internship at CERN. The project was centered on the development of an instrumentation tool for the usage of mathematical functions in a scientific application. More specifically, $\\textbf{cptnHook}$ addresses a current issue that arises from the the extensive use of very time-consuming mathematical functions (such as transcendental functions) that results in them accounting for a big portion of their run-time. It is believed that the problem can be addressed with ad-hoc approximations of mathematical functions, for which a clear overview of the usage of the functions in the program is required. $\\textbf{cptnHook}$ approaches this problem by providing a measurement of the use of mathematical functions in a program by hooking into the machine code and probing the arguments of the functions, without modifying the application's source code. The outputs of the tool are provided in ROOT format for further on analysis.

  20. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (letter)

  1. Short Term Inlfuence of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Microbial Biomass and DNA in Summer and Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erinle Kehinda Olajide

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to see the short term impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial biomass both in spring and summer. Also aimed to observe the correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA. The study concluded that type of fertilizer might alter the soil microbial biomass and DNA contents. In soil treated with organic fertilizers resulted in higher concentrations of microbial biomass and DNA contents in summer as compared to spring dute to increase in temperature. Correspondingly, in case of inorganic fertilizer, concentrations of soil microbial biomass and DNA detected higher in summer instead of spring. The statistical correlation between soil microbial biomass, DNA and ODR in spring and summer along with organic and inorganic fertilizers were calculated highly significant (p>0.01). This study demonstrated the impact of fertilizers and seasonal variations on soil microbial biomass and also revealed significant correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA.

  2. Air quality in Europe during the summer of 2003 as a prototype of air quality in a warmer climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely warm summer of 2003, with its August heat wave, is taken as a prototype of future summer weather in Europe. The stagnant circulation led to accumulation of heat and pollutants, increased forest fires, and induced high ozone and particulate matter levels. After a description of the meteorological conditions encountered, we review here the effects of the heat-wave meteorology on photochemistry, wild fires, and particulate matter, at the continental and urban scales. We discuss the extent to which this special summer can be taken for projecting air quality in a future warmer climate, especially in the perspective of changes in regional and global emissions. For ozone, the effect of regional reduction of emissions will dominate over summer climate change, but the increase in baseline ozone should significantly raise the mean ozone levels. (authors)

  3. Identifying the northernmost summer monsoon location in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Haoran; Qian Weihong

    2007-01-01

    An integrated index which can be used to indicate the advance of subtropical summer monsoon in East Asia has been proposed in this paper. The index was combined by three variables including precipitation, wind and pseudo-equivalent potential temperature. The northernmost summer monsoon location (NSML) was identified by using this index annually. It was found that the NSML experienced an interdecadal shift in the period 1977-1979 based on the annual index analysis from 1961 to 2001. A comparison of the NSML with other four summer monsoon indices has also been made. The result showed that the NSML could well represent the interannual and interdecadal variability of summer monsoon precipitation in North China (beyond 35°N), while other four indices could well indicate the precipitation anomalies of East Asian summer monsoon along the Yangtze River valley (around 30°N).

  4. Expanding the higher education experience: international summer schools in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Dallari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer schools are a relatively recent form of higher education provision, especially in  Italy. However, they shows interesting potentials both as integrative study to undergraduate, post-graduate and PhD students curricula as well as continuing education opportunities for professionals and for young researcher. Being short, intensive, focused and often located in heritage or tourist town or city, summer schools are often multipurpose and match education objectives with social and leisure ones. This paper, firstly, investigate the dimension of the phenomenon, providing elements on the historical evolution of the “summer school” concept in the world. Secondly, it provides an overview of the Summer School experiences carried out within the University of Bologna. Finally, the focus will be given to the experiences in the international summer schools in Geography of Tourism held at the Faculty of Economics in Rimini.

  5. Dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures in Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Horia HOLOBÂCĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant summer temperature warming trend and little or no change in precipitation variation have been observed in the southern part of the Carpathians after 1980. In this paper we seek to find similar past climatic conditions using a dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures. Regional dendroclimatic reconstruction has been conducted in four different massifs (Bucegi, Piatra Craiului, Făgăraş and Parâng Massifs belonging to the Southern Carpathians. The four sampling sites are located nearby the upper timberline, the forest stands being here dominated by Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L Karst. A tree-ring width (TRW chronology of P. abies has been used here to reconstruct summer temperatures back to the end of 19th century. Results indicate that during the considered period, the decadal periods characterized by cold summers alternate with those with warm summer temperatures

  6. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  7. Relation between sea surface temperature anomaly in the Atlantic and summer precipitation over the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白人海

    2001-01-01

    Based on global monthly average data set of sea surface temperature (SST) during 1950 -1992 and global monthly average 500 hPa height during 1950 - 1997 offered by NCAR/NCEP, the feature of SST anomaly in the Atlantic and its relation with summer precipitation over the Northeast China are analyzed. The results show that, the second eigenvector of the SST′s empirical orthogonal expanssion in winter season over the North Atlantic suggests that distribution of SST anomaly has unusual meridional difference; The location of its center is basically identical to center of significant correlation region between summer precipitation over the Northeast China and winter SST in the Atlantic. When winter SST in the North Atlantic is hot in south and cold in north, the blocking situation is stronger in the middle- high latitude. Correspondingly, the blocking high pressure in the northern North Pacific is also getting stronger,the westerlies circulation index in East Asia in next summer would be lower, asa result, more precipitation in the summer would be experienced over Northeast China and vice versa.

  8. A new index to describe the tropical Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We define a new monsoon index (MV) as the product of relative vorticity and equivalent potential temperature using the long-term NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The MV index provides new insights into the intraseasonal and interannual variabilities of the broad-scale tropical Asian summer monsoon (TASM), including the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM). On the intraseasonal timescale, the pentad-to-pentad MV index bears a close relationship to the broad-scale rainfall in the TASM regions. Among 29 summers from 1979 to 2007, in 23/27 summers the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.7 in the SASM/SCSSM region. However, in fewer than 9 summers, the correlations between the broad-scale rainfall and the existing circulation indices are higher than 0.7. On the interannual timescale, various existing SASM circulation indices are moderately or well correlated with all-India summer monsoon rainfall, whereas their correlations with broad-scale SASM rainfall are weak. In contrast, the summer mean MV index correlates well with the broad-scale SASM rainfall and all-India summer monsoon rainfall (correlation of 0.73 and 0.65, respectively). In the SCSSM region, the summer mean MV index also bears a close relationship to the SCSSM rainfall, although some discrepancies exist during certain years. The composite strong TASM shows a stronger low-tropospheric low pressure in association with the enhanced westerly winds and moisture transfer, stronger convection, and upper-tropospheric easterly winds, which indicate that the MV index can well capture the features of TASM.

  9. A new index to describe the tropical Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ZhongFeng; FU CongBin; QIAN YongFu

    2009-01-01

    We define a new monsoon index (MV) as the product of relative vorticity and equivalent potential tem-perature using the long-term NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data.The MV index provides new insights into the intraseasonal and interannual variabilities of the broad-scale tropical Asian summer monsoon (TASM),including the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM).On the intraseasonal timescale,the pentad-to-pentad MV index bears a close relationship to the broad-scale rainfall in the TASM regions.Among 29 summers from 1979 to 2007,in 23/27 summers the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.7 in the SASM/SCSSM region.However,in fewer than 9 summers,the correlations between the broad-scale rainfall and the existing circulation indices are higher than 0.7.On the interannual timescale,various existing SASM circulation indices are moderately or well correlated with all-India summer monsoon rainfall,whereas their correlations with broad-scale SASM rainfall are weak.In contrast,the summer mean MV index correlates well with the broad-scale SASM rainfall and all-India summer monsoon rainfall (correlation of 0.73 and 0.65,respectively).In the SCSSM region,the summer mean MV index also bears a close relationship to the SCSSM rainfall,al-though some discrepancies exist during certain years.The composite strong TASM shows a stronger low-tropospheric low pressure in association with the enhanced westerly winds and moisture transfer,stronger convection,and upper-tropospheric easterly winds,which indicate that the MV index can well capture the features of TASM.

  10. Professional burnout of personnel working in summer camps of people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannia N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professional burnout constitutes a syndrome of physical and mental exhaustion occurring in working environment with symptoms that are present after frequent and long-term exposure in difficult working conditions especially in special education settings where a higher burnout in noticed due to tne nature of the profession. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine professional burnout of working personnel in summer camps for people with disabilities. Materials – Methods: The sample consisted of 35 participants (11 men and 25 women all camp personnel escorting people with disabilities in summer camps. Each participant completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986 comprised of 22 items that assess the variables of exhaustion, accomplishment and depersonalization. Omega total reliability analysis revealed an internal consistency ranging from good (ω total= .72 to high (ω total = .91 and a positive interaction between all factors. Independent samples t-test revealed differences personal accomplishment (t = -1.9 , df = 33, p = 0.32 και depersonalization t = -2.59 , df = 33, p = .014 according to participation in physical activity during the summer camp period. ANOVA analysis showed statistically significant differences in depersonalization (F (3, 33 = 2.81, p = .043, η2 =.076 , exhaustion (F (3, 33 = .335, p = .032, η2 =.084 , and personal accomplishment (F (3, 33 = 4.67, p = .008, η2 =.090 in relation to work satisfaction and type of disability. Conclusions: Professional burnout of personnel working in summer camps for people with disabilities appears high due to many hours and high working load that is affected by the nature of disability, participation of personnel in physical activities and their satisfaction derived from primary profession other than summer camp work.

  11. Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Shankar; S S C Shenoi; R K Nayak; P N Vinayachandran; G Nampoothiri; A M Almeida; G S Michael; M R Ramesh Kumar; D Sundar; O P Sreejith

    2005-10-01

    Hydrographic observations in the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS)during summer monsoon 2002 (during the first phase of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX))include two approximately fortnight-long CTD time series.A barrier layer was observed occasionally during the two time series. These ephemeral barrier layers were caused by in situ rainfall,and by advection of low-salinity (high-salinity)waters at the surface (below the surface mixed layer).These barrier layers were advected away from the source region by the West India Coastal Current and had no discernible effect on the sea surface temperature.The three high-salinity water masses,the Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW),Persian Gulf Water (PGW),and Red Sea Water (RSW),and the Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum also exhibited intermittency:they appeared and disappeared during the time series.The concentration of the ASHSW,PGW,and RSWdecreased equatorward,and that of the RSW also decreased offshore.The observations suggest that the RSW is advected equatorward along the continental slope off the Indian west coast.

  12. Who Said Learning about the Constitution Isn't Fun? Active Lessons on the U.S. Constitution for Junior and Senior High School Students. Lessons created by participants at "Congress and the Constitution: A Summer Institute for Teachers" (Ontario, California, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elizabeth, Ed.; Hill, Margaret, Ed.

    Twenty-eight lesson plans developed by California teachers who attended a summer institute on Congress and the Constitution are presented in this document. Sample lesson plan titles are: (1) "Geopolitics and the Constitution," (2) "Judicial Review," (3) "Electoral College and the Constitution," (4) "First Amendment Rights," (5) "Mr. Truman and the…

  13. American Summer Students At CERN A Presence From Across The Pond

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Students touring the Michigan Muon Chamber Production Labs for the CERN ATLAS Experiment during their orientation week in Ann Arbor in June, 2001. Every summer for about forty years, students from all over Europe have come to CERN to take part in high energy physics projects and learn all that they can from the experts. This honor of being 'official' CERN summer students was, for a long time, limited to only the students of Member States. However, four years ago an exception was made, Americans came on the scene under the funding of the US National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Summer Student Programme was infused with a new transatlantic vigour (along with a few eloquent catch phrases like'yo dude'). The reasons for American interest in the CERN summer student programme were many, but there was one which was particularly critical. With the invention of the World Wide Web, international boundaries were quickly disappearing and it was becoming clear to several American physicists that it was essential f...

  14. First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Karashtin

    Full Text Available HF sounding of the mesosphere was first carried out at SURA in summer 1994 at frequencies in the range 8–9 MHz using one of the sub-arrays of the SURA heating facility. The observations had a range resolution of 3 km. Almost all measurements indicated the presence of strong radar returns from altitudes between 83 and 90 km with features very similar to VHF measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes and polar mesopause summer echoes. In contrast to VHF observations, HF mesopause echoes are almost always present.

  15. Some aspects of the rehabilitation of summer schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holodnyy A.I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of making healthy schoolboys are considered during summer vacations in establishments of the system of formation Kharkov's region. A general tendency is marked to the increase of amount of schoolboys in summer health establishments of the system of education. The general diminishing of amount of health establishments is marked. The network of type health establishments diminishes, establishments of labour and rest, establishments for children with deviant behavior. In most cases making healthy of schoolboys a summer takes place in establishments of formation of daily type of stay.

  16. A physically-based statistical forecast model for the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley summer rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ke; WANG HuiJun; CHOI YoungJean

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to forecast the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley summer rainfall in June-August (JJA) is proposed in this paper. The year-to-year increment of the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley is forecasted and hence the summer precipitation could be predicted. In this paper, DY is defined as the difference of a variable between the current year and the preceding year (year-to-year increment). YR denotes the seasonal mean precipitation rate of the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley summer rainfall. After analyzing the atmospheric circulation anomalies in winter and spring that were associated with the DY of YR, six key predictors for the DY of YR have been identified. Then the forecast model for the DY of YR is established by using the multi-linear regression method. The predictors for the DY of YR are Antarctic Oscillation, the meridional wind shear between 850hPa and 200hPa over the Indo-Australian region, and so on. The prediction model shows a high skill for the hindcast during 1997-2006, with the average relative root mean square error is at 18%. The model can even reproduce the upward and downward trends of YR during 1984-1998 and 1998-2006. Considering that the current operational forecast models of the summer precipitation over the China region have the average forecast scores at 60%-70% and that the prediction skill for the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley summer precipitation remains quite limited up to now, thus this new approach to predict the year-to-year increment of the summer precipitation over the Yangtze River Valley (and hence the summer precipitation itself) has the potential to significantly increase the operational forecast skill of the summer precipitation.

  17. Interdecadal Connection Between Artic Temperature and Summer Precipitation Over the Yangtze River Valley in the CMIP5 Historical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuefeng; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xiao, Ziniu; Wei, Min; Li, Qingquan

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses the ability of the Phase 5 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations in capturing the interdecadal precipitation enhancement over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and investigates the contributions of Arctic warming to the interdecadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. Six CMIP5 historical simulations including models from Canada (CCCma), China (BCC), Germany (MPI-M), Japan (MRI), United Kingdom (MOHC), and United States (NCAR) are used. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and observed precipitation are also used for comparison. Among the six CMIP5 simulations, only CCCma can approximately simulate the enhancement of interdecadal summer precipitation over the YRV in 1990-2005 relative to 1960-1975, and the relationships between the summer precipitation with surface temperature (Ts), the 850hPa winds, and 500hPa height field (H500), and between Ts and H500 using regression, correlation, and SVD analyses. It is found that CCCma can reasonably simulate the interdecadal surface warming over the boreal mid-to high latitudes and the Arctic in winter, spring and summer. The summer Baikal blocking appears to be the bridge that links the winter and spring surface warming over the mid-to high latitude and Arctic with the enhancement of summer precipitation over the YRV. Models that missed some or all of these relationships found in CCCma and the reanalysis failed to simulate the interdecadal enhancement of precipitation over the YRV. This points to the importance of high latitude and Arctic processes on interdecadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon and the challenge for global climate models to correctly simulate the linkages.

  18. Summer Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Summer Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  20. Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159631.html Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer More than half of victims are under ... at risk To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will ...

  1. Seventy Five Years of Particle Accelerators (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Andy Sessler, Berkeley Lab director from 1973 to 1980, sheds light on the Lab's nearly eight-decade history of inventing and refining particle accelerators, which continue to illuminate the nature of the universe.

  2. The World as a Hologram (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: UC Berkeley's Raphael Bousso presents a friendly introduction to the ideas behind the holographic principle, which may be very important in the hunt for a theory of quantum gravity.

  3. Gardening and Agricultural Application in Chengde Summer Mountain Resort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; LI; Yiyong; ZHANG; Haicheng; YU

    2013-01-01

    Taking Chengde Summer Mountain Resort for example, agricultural development and application in gardening practices in the flourishing ages of Kangxi and Qianlong, and cultural connotations of valuing the fundamental role of agriculture in national economy were analyzed.

  4. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  5. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  6. Arctic National Wildlife Range, 1962: Summer field work report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the summer field work outlined in this report was to determine the feasibility of hiking and back-packing as a recreational use of Arctic National...

  7. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  8. Police officers learn leadership skills in summer programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2008-01-01

    Police officers from all over the state will be learning leadership skills this summer at Virginia Tech in two programs sponsored by the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation and organized by the Pamplin College of Business.

  9. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska, summer 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details field work completed on Middleton Island during the summer of 1983. These data are part of an ongoing study and interpretations of them may well...

  10. Observations on sea lion harvest, Alaska Peninsula, summer, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of a sea lion pup harvest on the Alaskan peninsula during the summer of 1965. Culling was kept to only 50 of the rookerys pups. The...

  11. Summer monsoon rainfall prediction for India - Some new ideas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Present methods of forecasting of mean Indian rainfall for summer monsoon season are critically examined. Considering the wide variations in mean seasonal rainfalls (more than 5 to less than 400 cm) and crops in various regions of India...

  12. Effect of summer pruning and CPPU on yield and quality of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, K K; Kashyap, Poonam; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P

    2015-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted on bearing vines of kiwifruit cv. Abbott to find the effect of CPPU (N-(2- chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea) and summer pruning on fruit yield, fruit size and quality. CPPU greatly stimulated fruit growth indicating that it can be a powerful tool for improving kiwifruit cropping. Application of CPPU at 10 ppm concentration was done by dipping the fruits for 10 sec in the aqueous solution of compound at petal fall and 30 days after petal fall. CPPU applied fruits increased size by 20-70 g over control. Summer pruning along with CPPU application proved to be more effective in obtaining fruits of high grades with increased fruit weight (95.37 g fruit(-1)) and high quality. Summer pruning, when done by pinching 1/5th at Petal Fall stage + CPPU dipping (10 ml(-1)) and pinching 1/5th continued till harvest, at one month interval resulted in increased fruit yield (54.80 kg vine(-1)), high TSS (17.60 Brix), high total sugar (9.85%), advanced ripening by one week and reduced flesh firmness. PMID:25895255

  13. After a Summer: Pedagogical Developments in Cross Cultural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Heslinga

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents approaches and evaluations based on a summer of volunteer work in faculty development in China that led to years of cross cultural shared study, mentoring, and faculty training. Successful teaching or learning in a foreign culture emerged through attitudes and actions based on welcoming, accommodating, invigorating, valuing, and evaluating (WAIVE). Cross cultural shared learning between presenter and local faculty, during summers working in five provinces of China, showed ...

  14. Digital Humanities Summer Institute 2014: A #dhsi2014 Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Priego, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Humanities Summer Institute (DHSI) took place 2-6 June 2014. DHSI takes place on the University of Victoria campus, and is offered by UVic's Electronic Textual Cultures Lab.http://www.dhsi.org/index.php This .XLS file contains tweets tagged with #dhsi2014 (case not sensitive). If you use or refer to this data in any way please cite and link back using the following citation information: Priego, Ernesto (2014): Digital Humanities Summer Institute 2014: A #dhsi2014 Ar...

  15. Asian Summer Monsoon and its Associated Rainfall Variability in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2010-01-01

    The Asian monsoon is an important component of the Earth's climate. Its associated rainfall variability is a crucial fac¬tor for Thailand's socio-economic development, water resources and agricultural management. An analysis shows that the Thailand rainfall annual cycle is in phase with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). On the basis of the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, the dominant spatial-temporal interannual variability in ...

  16. Boreal summer continental monsoon rainfall and hydroclimate anomalies associated with the Asian-Pacific Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Xiuji

    2012-09-01

    With the twentieth century analysis data (1901-2002) for atmospheric circulation, precipitation, Palmer drought severity index, and sea surface temperature (SST), we show that the Asian-Pacific Oscillation (APO) during boreal summer is a major mode of the earth climate variation linking to global atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate anomalies, especially the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer land monsoon. Associated with a positive APO phase are the warm troposphere over the Eurasian land and the relatively cool troposphere over the North Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean. Such an amplified land-ocean thermal contrast between the Eurasian land and its adjacent oceans signifies a stronger than normal NH summer monsoon, with the strengthened southerly or southwesterly monsoon prevailing over tropical Africa, South Asia, and East Asia. A positive APO implies an enhanced summer monsoon rainfall over all major NH land monsoon regions: West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Mexico. Thus, APO is a sensible measure of the NH land monsoon rainfall intensity. Meanwhile, reduced precipitation appears over the arid and semiarid regions of northern Africa, the Middle East, and West Asia, manifesting the monsoon-desert coupling. On the other hand, surrounded by the cool troposphere over the North Pacific and North Atlantic, the extratropical North America has weakened low-level continental low and upper-level ridge, hence a deficient summer rainfall. Corresponding to a high APO index, the African and South Asian monsoon regions are wet and cool, the East Asian monsoon region is wet and hot, and the extratropical North America is dry and hot. Wet and dry climates correspond to wet and dry soil conditions, respectively. The APO is also associated with significant variations of SST in the entire Pacific and the extratropical North Atlantic during boreal summer, which resembles the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation in SST. Of note is that the Pacific SST anomalies

  17. Photosynthetic response of Persian Gulf acroporid corals to summer versus winter temperature deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Vajed Samiei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2–34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1 to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2 to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn, dark respiration (R, autotrophic capability (Pn/R, and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature.

  18. Forecasting the summer rainfall in North China using the year-to-year increment approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ke; LIN MeiJing; GAO YuZhong

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to forecasting the year-to-year increment of rainfall in North China in 07-August (JA) is proposed. DY is defined as the difference of a variable between the current year and the preceding year (year-to-year increment). NR denotes the seasonal mean precipitation rate over North China in JA. After analyzing the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the DY of NR, five key predictors for the DY of NR have been identified. The prediction model for the DY of NR is established by using multi-linear regression method and the NR is obtained (the current forecasted DY of NR added to the preceding observed NR). The prediction model shows a high correlation coefficient (0.8) between the simulated and the observed DY of NR throughout period 1965--1999, with an average relative root mean square error of 19% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The prediction model makes a hindcast for 2000-2007, with an average relative root mean square error of 21% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The model reproduces the downward trend of the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China during 1965-2006. Because the current operational prediction models of the summer precipitation have average forecast scores of 60%-70%, it has been more difficult to forecast the summer rainfall over North China. Thus this new approach for predicting the year-to-year increment of the summer precipitation (and hence the summer precipitation itself) has the potential to significantly improve operational forecasting skill for summer precipitation.

  19. Validating the dynamic downscaling ability of WRF for East Asian summer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiangbo; Hou, Wenjuan; Xue, Yongkang; Wu, Shaohong

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the regional climate model (RCM) performance for East Asian summer climate and the influencing factors, this study evaluated the dynamic downscaling ability of the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) RCM. According to the comprehensive comparison studies on different physical processes and experimental settings, the optimal combination of WRF model setups can be obtained for East Asian precipitation and temperature simulations. Furthermore, based on the optimal combination, when compared with climate observations, WRF shows high ability to downscale NCEP DOE Reanalysis-2, which provided initial and lateral boundary conditions for the WRF, especially for the precipitation simulation due to the better simulated low-level water vapor flux. However, the strengthened Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) from WRF simulation results in the positive anomaly for summer rainfall.

  20. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  1. Analysis and Discussion of Atmospheric Precursor of European Heat Summers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Träger-Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of summers with notable droughts and heatwaves on the seasonal scale is challenging, especially in extratropical regions, since their development is not yet fully understood. Thus, monitoring and analysis of such summers are important tasks to close this knowledge gap. In a previous paper, the authors presented hints that extreme summers are connected with specific conditions during the winter-spring transition season. Here, these findings are further discussed and analysed in the context of the Earth’s circulation systems. No evidence for a connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation or the Arctic Oscillation during the winter-spring transition and extremely hot and dry summers is found. However, inspection of the geopotential at 850 hPa shows that a Greenland-North Sea-Dipole is connected with extreme summers in Central Europe. This motivated the introduction of the novel Greenland-North Sea-Dipole-Index, GNDI. However, using this index as predictor would lead to one false alarm and one missed event in the time series analysed (1958–2011. Hints are found that the disturbance of the “dipole-summer” connection is due to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO. To consider the ENSO effect, the novel Central European Drought Index (CEDI has been developed, which is composed of the GNDI and the Bivariate ENSO Time Series Index. The CEDI enables a correct indication of all extremely hot and dry summers between 1958 and 2011 without any false alarm.

  2. Active and break spells of the Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Rajeevan; Sulochana Gadgil; Jyoti Bhate

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we suggest criteria for the identification of active and break events of the Indian summer monsoon on the basis of recently derived high resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset over India (1951–2007). Active and break events are defined as periods during the peak monsoon months of July and August, in which the normalized anomaly of the rainfall over a critical area, called the monsoon core zone exceeds 1 or is less than −1.0 respectively, provided the criterion is satisfied for at least three consecutive days. We elucidate the major features of these events. We consider very briefly the relationship of the intraseasonal fluctuations between these events and the interannual variation of the summer monsoon rainfall. We find that breaks tend to have a longer life-span than active spells. While, almost 80% of the active spells lasted 3–4 days, only 40% of the break spells were of such short duration. A small fraction (9%) of active spells and 32% of break spells lasted for a week or longer. While active events occurred almost every year, not a single break occurred in 26% of the years considered. On an average, there are 7 days of active and break events from July through August. There are no significant trends in either the days of active or break events. We have shown that there is a major difference between weak spells and long intense breaks. While weak spells are characterized by weak moist convective regimes, long intense break events have a heat trough type circulation which is similar to the circulation over the Indian subcontinent before the onset of the monsoon. The space-time evolution of the rainfall composite patterns suggests that the revival from breaks occurs primarily from northward propagations of the convective cloud zone. There are important differences between the spatial patterns of the active/break spells and those characteristic of interannual variation, particularly those associated with the link to ENSO. Hence, the

  3. CMIP5/AMIP GCM simulations of East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinming; Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Wu, Qizhong; Wang, Yongli

    2014-07-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is a distinctive component of the Asian climate system and critically influences the economy and society of the region. To understand the ability of AGCMs in capturing the major features of EASM, 10 models that participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), which used observational SST and sea ice to drive AGCMs during the period 1979-2008, were evaluated by comparing with observations and AMIP II simulations. The results indicated that the multi-model ensemble (MME) of CMIP5/AMIP captures the main characteristics of precipitation and monsoon circulation, and shows the best skill in EASM simulation, better than the AMIP II MME. As for the Meiyu/Changma/Baiyu rainbelt, the intensity of rainfall is underestimated in all the models. The biases are caused by a weak western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and accompanying eastward southwesterly winds in group I models, and by a too strong and west-extended WPSH as well as westerly winds in group II models. Considerable systematic errors exist in the simulated seasonal migration of rainfall, and the notable northward jumps and rainfall persistence remain a challenge for all the models. However, the CMIP5/AMIP MME is skillful in simulating the western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI).

  4. Biotic and abiotic interactions in temporary summer pools of southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Joana; Morais, Manuela; Guilherme, Pedro; Ilheu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In the south of Portugal, the summer season is characterized by reduced precipitation and high air temperatures, which causes the disruption of surface flow and subsequent formation of disconnect pools that may dry out entirely. During this dry period, there is a natural decrease of water quality standards due to the lack of water, leaving temporary rivers very vulnerable. Nevertheless, the remaining pools and surroundings become important in the survival of biological communities. Aquatic...

  5. Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

  6. Numerical Study on Density Residual Currents of the Bohai Sea in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂梅; 王辉; 孙松; 韩博平

    2003-01-01

    M2 tide and density residual currents in the Bohai Sea were examined using the Blumberg and Mellor 3D nonlinear numerical coastal circulation model incorporating Mellor and Yamada level 2.5 turbulent closure model. The tidal results showed good agreement with previous work. The model results indicated that the density residual currents are robust in summer; and that at the transition zone between well mixed and stratified water, the horizontal velocity is high and the vertical velocity is positive.

  7. Summer season variability of dissolved oxygen concentration in Antarctic lakes rich in cyanobaterial mats

    OpenAIRE

    Váczi Peter; Barták Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Since 2007, limnological investigation of terrestrial lakes has been carried out at James Ross Island, Antarctica. The lakes in scope differ in their size, origin, geomorphological and hydrological characteristics. In several selected lakes, dissolved oxygen is measured repeatedly each summer season in order to quantify lake- and weather-related differences. For this study, typical reresentatives of (i) coastal shalow lakes, and (ii) high-altitude lakes with cyanobacterial mats were chosen. W...

  8. Geostrophic volume transport and eddies in the region of sub-tropical and sub-Antarctic waters south of Madagascar during austral summer (January–February) 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sudhakar, M.

    on board ORV Sagar Kanya during austral summer 2004. Strong density current shears are encountered in the study area suggesting high potential for the generation of mesoscale eddies. Volume transports with reversing directions are encountered especially...

  9. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  10. Variations of the Summer Somali and Australia Cross-Equatorial Flows and the Implications for the Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yali

    2012-01-01

    The temporal variations during 1948-2010 and vertical structures of the summer Somali and Australia cross-equatorial flows (CEFs) and the implications for the Asian summer monsoon were explored in this study.The strongest southerly and northerly CEFs exist at 925 hPa and 150 hPa level,respectively.The low-level Somali (LLS) CEFs were significantly connected with the rainfall in most regions of India (especially the monsoon regions),except in a small area in southwest India.In comparison to the climatology,the lowlevel Australia (LLA) CEFs exhibited stronger variations at interannual time scale and are more closely connected to the East Asian summer monsoon circulation than to the LLS CEFs.The East Asian summer monsoon circulation anomalies related to stronger LLA CEFs were associated with less water vapor content and less rainfall in the region between the middle Yellow River and Yangtze River and with more water vapor and more rainfall in southern China.The sea-surface temperature anomalies east of Australia related to summer LLA CEFs emerge in spring and persist into summer,with implications for the seasonal prediction of summer rainfall in East Asia.The connection between the LLA CEFs and East Asian summer monsoon rainfall may be partly due to its linkage with El Nino-Southern Oscillation.In addition,both the LLA and LLS CEFs exhibited interdecadal shifts in the late 1970s and the late 1990s,consistent with the phase shifts of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  11. A SWOT Analysis for Organizing a Summer School: Case Study for Advanced Summer School in Analyzing Market Data 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Herman

    2013-01-01

    The economics scholars agree that investment in education is a competitive advantage. After participating and graduating the “Advanced Summer School in Analyzing Market Data 2013”, the students will gain some formal competences is applied knowledge in Statistics with the IBM SPSS Statistics software. Studies show that the employers seek also practical competences in the undergraduate students, along with the theoretical knowledge. The article focuses on a SWOT analysis for organizing a Summer...

  12. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of

  13. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Träger-Chatterjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture–atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958–2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with

  14. Observed Variability of Summer Precipitation Pattern and Extreme Events in East China Associated with Variations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yaocun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Anning; Xiao, Chuliang

    2016-06-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of interannual and interdecadal variations of summer precipitation and precipitation-related extreme events in China associated with variations of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) from 1979-2012. A high-quality daily precipitation dataset covering 2287 weather stations in China is analyzed. Based on the precipitation pattern analysis using empirical orthogonal functions, three sub-periods of 1979-1992 (period I), 1993-1999 (period II) and 2000-2012 (period III) are identified to be representative of the precipitation variability. Similar significant variability of the extreme precipitation indices is found across four sub-regions in eastern China. The spatial patterns of summer mean precipitation, the number of days with daily rainfall exceeding 95th percentile precipitation (R95p) and the maximum number of consecutive wet days (CWD) anomalies are consistent, but opposite to that of maximum consecutive dry days (CDD) anomalies during the three sub-periods. However, the spatial patterns of hydroclimatic intensity (HY-INT) are notably different from that of the other three extreme indices, but highly correlated to the dry events. The changes of precipitation anomaly patterns are accompanied by the change of the EASM regime and the abrupt shift of the position of the west Pacific subtropical high around 1992/1993 and 1999/2000, respectively, which influence the moisture transport that contributes most to the precipitation anomalies. Lastly, the EASM intensity is linked to sea surface temperature anomaly over the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean that influences deep convection over the oceans.

  15. Indian summer monsoon simulations with CFSv2: a microphysics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Hazra, Anupam; Saha, Subodh K.; Dhakate, Ashish; Pokhrel, Samir

    2016-07-01

    The present study explores the impact of two different microphysical parameterization schemes (i.e. Zhao and Carr, Mon Wea Rev 125:1931-1953, 1997:called as ZC; Ferrier, Amer Meteor Soc 280-283, 2002: called as BF) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) on Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Critical relative humidity (RHcrit) plays a crucial role for the realistic cloud formation in a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, impact of RHcrit along with microphysical scheme on ISM is evaluated in the study. Model performance is evaluated in terms of simulation of rainfall, lower and upper tropospheric circulations, cloud fraction, cloud condensate and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). Climatological mean features of rainfall are better represented by all the sensitivity experiments. Overall, ZC schemes show relatively better rainfall patterns as compared to BF schemes. BF schemes along with 95 % RHcrit (called as BF95) show excess precipitable water over Indian Ocean basin region, which seems to be unrealistic. Lower and upper tropospheric features are well simulated in all the sensitivity experiments; however, upper tropospheric wind patterns are underestimated as compared to observation. Spatial pattern and vertical profile of cloud condensate is relatively better represented by ZC schemes as compared to BF schemes. Relatively more (less) cloud condensate at upper level has lead to relatively better (low) high cloud fraction in ZC (BF) simulation. It is seen that OLR in ZC simulation have great proximity with observation. ZC (BF) simulations depict low (high) OLR which indicates stronger (weaker) convection during ISM period. It implies strong (weak) convection having stronger (weaker) updrafts in ZC (BF). Relatively more (less) cloud condensate at upper level of ZC (BF) may produce strong (weak) latent heating which may lead to relatively strong (weak) convection during ISM. The interaction among microphysics

  16. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.

  17. ISABELLE: proceedings of the 1981 Summer Workshop. Volume 1. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISABELLE Summer Workshop, held at BNL from July 20 through July 31, was attended by 259 physicists representing 72 institutions. The discussions covered experimental areas, large detectors and detector technology, with a primary emphasis on physics opportunities, both with a phased and a full luminosity ISABELLE. There was a consensus that physics with Phase I (E/sub cm/ approx. = 700 GeV and L approx. 2 x 1031/cm2/sec, with bunched beams) was feasible, important and exciting. It has been known for years that the orthodox gauge theories will be critically tested by studying the W/sup +-/, Z0 and high p/sub perpendicular to/ phenomena. The Z0 has a reasonable chance of being found at the anti pp colliders if luminosities reach 1030/cm2/sec, but its properties will be difficult to decipher. Seeing the W/sup +-/'s or new heavy quarks is less probable and measuring their properties is even less likely. At ISABELLE these phenomena can all be studied with high precision. But the more exciting conclusion which emerged from the workshop was related to the question of what generates the approx. 100 GeV masses of the W's and Z's. The answer could involve Higgs, technicolor, or other particles with masses ranging from 10.8 GeV to 1 TeV, with an intermediate mass scale of 200 to 300 GeV being a possible region of strong interest. Some of these models predict spectacular experimental signatures. It is clear that only ISABELLE with L approx. 1032 - 1033, has an opportunity of addressing and resolving such questions. Twelve papers from volume one were prepared separately for the data base, along with three items previously prepared

  18. Itese Newsletter Number 19 - Summer 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this publication proposes the contributions to a meeting on stakes and perspectives for the CEA regarding energy transition. The authors discussed the priorities and propositions for innovation for transition, the status of the French national debate on energy transition, the contributions of nuclear techniques to the French and European transition, global issues related to energy transition (notably global warming and energy needs). An article proposes an historical approach of European electricity market (economic theories, comments on different periods: post-war reconstruction and oil shocks, liberalization process). A brief article proposes an analysis of the IAEA's HIGH scenario (a scenario with a high demand in nuclear energy)

  19. Meteorological conditions in the central Arctic summer during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tjernström

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS, described here. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean: the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of surface-shear and

  20. Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Summer Internship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, M. L.; Perry, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2004-12-01

    For the eleventh consecutive year, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) coordinated undergraduate research experiences in summer 2004, allowing 35 students with a broad array of backgrounds and interests to work with the world's preeminent earthquake scientists and specialists. Students participate in interdisciplinary, system-level earthquake science and information technology research, and several group activities throughout the summer. Funding for student stipends and activities is made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. SCEC coordinates two intern programs: The SCEC Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SCEC/SURE) and the SCEC Undergraduate Summer in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/USEIT). SCEC/SURE interns work one-on-one with SCEC scientists at their institutions on a variety of earthquake science research projects. The goals of the program are to expand student participation in the earth sciences and related disciplines, encourage students to consider careers in research and education, and to increase diversity of students and researchers in the earth sciences. 13 students participated in this program in 2004. SCEC/USEIT is an NSF REU site that brings undergraduate students from across the country to the University of Southern California each summer. SCEC/USEIT interns interact in a team-oriented research environment and are mentored by some of the nation's most distinguished geoscience and computer science researchers. The goals of the program are to allow undergraduates to use advanced tools of information technology to solve problems in earthquake research; close the gap between computer science and geoscience; and engage non-geoscience majors in the application of earth science to the practical problems of reducing earthquake risk. SCEC/USEIT summer research goals are structured around a grand challenge problem in earthquake information technology. For the past three years the students have

  1. The summer snow cover anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau and its association with simultaneous precipitation over the mei-yu-baiu region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Wu, Renguang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Nan, Sulan

    2014-07-01

    The summer snow anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their effects on climate variability are often overlooked, possibly due to the fact that some datasets cannot properly capture summer snow cover over high terrain. The satellite-derived Equal-Area Scalable Earth grid (EASE-grid) dataset shows that snow still exists in summer in the western part and along the southern flank of the TP. Analysis demonstrates that the summer snow cover area proportion (SCAP) over the TP has a significant positive correlation with simultaneous precipitation over the mei-yu-baiu (MB) region on the interannual time scale. The close relationship between the summer SCAP and summer precipitation over the MB region could not be simply considered as a simultaneous response to the Silk Road pattern and the SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and tropical central-eastern Pacific. The SCAP anomaly has an independent effect and may directly modulate the land surface heating and, consequently, vertical motion over the western TP, and concurrently induce anomalous vertical motion over the North Indian Ocean via a meridional vertical circulation. Through a zonal vertical circulation over the tropics and a Kelvin wave-type response, anomalous vertical motion over the North Indian Ocean may result in an anomalous high over the western North Pacific and modulate the convective activity in the western Pacific warm pool, which stimulates the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern and eventually affects summer precipitation over the MB region.

  2. Ventures in science status report, Summer 1992. [Program description and Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrick, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    The Ventures in Science summer program is directed towards students who are from underrepresented minority groups in mathematics and science professions. The target group of 40 was drawn from eligible students who will be entering high school freshman in the fall of 1992. 450 students applied. The theme for the summer is Chicago as an Ecosystem. The students are instructed in integrated math and science (2 hours), English/ESL (1 1/2 hrs.), counseling (1 hr.) and, physical education (1 hr.) each day four days a week. Integrated math and science are team taught. Parents are invited to participate in two workshops that will be presented based on their input. Parents may also visit the program at any time and participate in any field trip.

  3. Summer habitat selection by striped bass, Morone Saxatilis, in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, H.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Wilson, J.L.

    1980-02-01

    Summer habitat selection patterns of 18 adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Cherokee Reservoir were monitored with externally attached temperature-sensing acoustic or radio transmitters from June through September 1977. Mortalities of adult striped bass in this reservoir were hypothesized to be related to high summer temperatures and low dissolved oxygen (DO). The inhabited areas or refuges differed from noninhabited areas by maintaining temperatures less than or equal to 22 C and DO concentrations greater than 5 mg/liter. Total water hardness, pH, and water transparency were not significantly different among refuges and noninhabited areas. Movement of fish outside refuges occurred more frequently and for longer periods during June when the summer pattern of high temperatures and low DO was less severe. Fish experienced temperatures between 15 and 27 C with mean temperatures of individuals ranging from 18.5 to 22.0 C. Several tagged fish migrated outside the refuges and selected the lowest available temperature, generally near 21 C, even though DO concentrations at these temperatures were 3 mg/liter or less. Long-term survival of tagged and nontagged fish outside refuges was undetermined because no fish were tracked outside a refuge for more than 12 days without being lost. This study indicates that temperature strongly influences the behavior of striped bass and that adults of this species may have a thermal preferendum of approximately 21 C.

  4. Fish Larvae Response to Biophysical Changes in the Gulf of California, Mexico (Winter-Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Avendaño-Ibarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the response of fish larvae assemblages to environmental variables and to physical macro- and mesoscale processes in the Gulf of California, during four oceanographic cruises (winter and summer 2005 and 2007. Physical data of the water column obtained through CTD casts, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll a satellite imagery were used to detect mesoscale structures. Zooplankton samples were collected with standard Bongo net tows. Fish larvae assemblages responded to latitudinal and coastal-ocean gradients, related to inflow of water to the gulf, and to biological production. The 19°C and 21°C isotherms during winter, and 29°C and 31°C during summer, limited the distribution of fish larvae at the macroscale. Between types of eddy, the cyclonic (January registered high abundance, species richness, and zooplankton volume compared to the other anticyclonic (March and cyclonic (September. Thermal fronts (Big Islands of January and July affected the species distribution establishing strong differences between sides. At the mesoscale, eddy and fronts coincided with the isotherms mentioned previously, playing an important role in emphasizing the differences among species assemblages. The multivariate analysis indicated that larvae abundance was highly correlated with temperature and salinity and with chlorophyll a and zooplankton volume during winter and summer, respectively.

  5. Astronomical and Hydrological Perspective of Mountain Impacts on the Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Wu, Guoxiong; Liu, Yimin; Bao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoon has great socioeconomic impacts. Understanding how the huge Tibetan and Iranian Plateaus affect the Asian summer monsoon is of great scientific value and has far-reaching significance for sustainable global development. One hypothesis considers the plateaus to be a shield for monsoon development in India by blocking cold-dry northerly intrusion into the tropics. Based on astronomical radiation analysis and numerical modeling, here we show that in winter the plateaus cannot block such a northerly intrusion; while in summer the daily solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, and the surface potential temperature to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, are higher than their counterparts to its south, and such plateau shielding is not needed. By virtue of hydrological analysis, we show that the high energy near the surface required for continental monsoon development is maintained mainly by high water vapor content. Results based on potential vorticity-potential temperature diagnosis further demonstrate that it is the pumping of water vapor from sea to land due to the thermal effects of the plateaus that breeds the Asian continental monsoon.

  6. CEBAF/SURA 1984 summer workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary: Magnetic Spectrometer Working Group; Workshop Report: Internal Targets and Tagged Photons; Nucleon Physics with Chromodynamics: From High Q2 to Baryon Spectroscopy to Nuclear Physics; Quark Signatures in Nuclear Physics; What Can We Learn About the Three-Nucleon Wave Functions from High Energy Electrons; Coincidence and Polarization Measurements with High-Energy Electrons; NPAS -- a Program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC; Spectrometers; Polarized Gas Targets in Electron Rings; Photonuclear Experiments Using Large Acceptance Detectors; 4 π Detectors; Magnetic Spectrometer Working Group Report; Workshop Report: Tagged Photons - Low Current Electron Beams and Large Acceptance - 4 π Detectors; Positron Beams at CEBAF; Lampshade Magnet for a Large-Aperture Detector; Meson Exchange in Relativistic Quark Models; Electron Scattering from Discrete Low-Lying Levels of 13C at High Momentum Transfer; NN Potential With a Six Quark Core from the Constituent Quark Model; A Study of (e,e'N) Reactions from Nuclear Targets; Study of Complex Nuclei Using Internal Targets at CEBAF; The Kaon-Nucleon Interaction in a Quark Potential Model; and Current Conservation and Magnetic Form Factors of 3He, 3H

  7. Proceedings of summer school of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture comprises six papers dealing with the following subjects: quark flavor mixing in the Standard Model; CP violation: K neutral and electric dipole moment of the neutron; nucleon decay; magnetic monopoles; present and new high-energy accelerators and accelerating techniques. Each paper has been separately analyzed and put into the base

  8. Summer climate of Madagascar and monsoon pulsing of its vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the climate of Madagascar (12°-26°S, 43°-50°E) and its relation to the Indian Ocean during austral summer (Dec-Mar). Moisture converges onto a standing easterly wave and floods are prevalent in late summer. All-island daytime land temperatures exceed 38 °C in October and are ~4 °C above sea temperatures during summer. Analysis of thermally induced diurnal convection and circulation revealed inflow during the afternoon recirculated from the southeastern mountains and the warm Mozambique Channel. Summer rainfall follows latent and sensible heat flux during the first half of the day, and gains a surplus by evening via thunderstorms over the western plains. At the inter-annual time-scale, 2.3 years oscillations in all-island rainfall appear linked with the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation and corresponding 80 Dobson Unit ozone fluctuations during flood events. Wet spells at frequencies from 11-27 days derive from locally-formed tropical cyclones and NW-cloud bands. Flood case studies exhibit moisture recycling in the confluence zone between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the lee-side vortex. Hovmoller analysis of daily rainfall reinforces the concept of local generation and pulsing by cross-equatorial (Indian winter) monsoon flow rather than zonal atmospheric waves. Since the surface water budget is critical to agriculture in Madagascar, this study represents a further step to understand its meso-scale summer climate.

  9. The impacts of Middle East dust on Indian summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Q.; Yang, Z. L.; Wei, J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem), the impact of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall was studied. Eight numerical experiments were conducted to take into account uncertainties related to dust-absorbing properties, various assumptions used in calculating aerosol optical depth (AOD), and various radiation schemes. In order to obtain reasonable dust emission, model-simulated AOD and radiation forcing at the top of the atmosphere were compared with multiple satellite- and surface-based observations. Consistent with observations, modeled results show heavy dust loadings in the Arabian Peninsula and Pakistan, which can be transported through long distance to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Peninsula. By heating the atmosphere in the lower troposphere over the Iranian Plateau, these dust aerosols result in strengthened Indian summer monsoon circulations, which in turn transport more water vapor to the Indian Peninsula. The model shows that northern India becomes wetter during the monsoon season in dust cases than non-dust cases. Further observational analyses show an increasing trend in AOD over the Arabian Peninsula, which corresponds to an increasing trend of rainfall in northern India during summer monsoon seasons from 2000 to 2013. These observed trends of AOD and rainfall are consistent with the model-simulated positive relationship between Middle East dust and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Our results highlight long-term (decadal) impacts of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer rainfall.

  10. A NAO-ENSO-based seasonal prediction model for East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Wu, Zhiwei; Feng, Juan; Zheng, Fei; Xu, Hanlie; Wang, Bin; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2013-04-01

    The observational analysis shows that the relationship between the preceding winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the following East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the past 60 years is strengthened. Both the observational and numerical evidences demonstrate that spring North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may exert significant influences on the enhancement of the EASM-ENSO relationship. Anomalous spring NAO may cause a tripole SSTA pattern in North Atlantic which can persist into ensuring summer from spring. In summer, the tripole SSTA impacts EASM through two pathways. One is the tripole SSTA pattern excites the Atlantic-Eurasian (AEA) teleconnection which is a distinct Rossby wave train prevailing over the Atlantic and northern Eurasia. As a result, the blocking highs over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea can be modulated. Another is it can force a simple Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response over western Pacific, consequently, the linkage between the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and ENSO is enhanced. The co-effects of the two teleconnection patterns help to strengthen (or weaken) the subtropical Meiyu-Baiu-Changma front, the primary rain-bearing system of the EASM. As such, spring NAO is tied to the strengthened connection between ENSO and the EASM. Then we may establish a NAO-ENSO-based seasonal prediction model for EASM. The hindcast experiments show a good performances of this prediction model for EASM. The NAO-ENSO-based model is employed to make seasonal prediction for EASM strength and summer rainfall over middle reach of Yangtze river in 2012, and the results show a good performance of the approach, implying the model could be a useful tool for seasonal prediction of EASM.

  11. Interannual to interdecadal variability of winter and summer southern African rainfall, and their teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieppois, Bastien; Pohl, Benjamin; Rouault, Mathieu; New, Mark; Lawler, Damian; Keenlyside, Noel

    2016-06-01

    This study examines for the first time the changing characteristics of summer and winter southern African rainfall and their teleconnections with large-scale climate through the dominant time scales of variability. As determined by wavelet analysis, the austral summer and winter rainfall indices exhibit three significant time scales of variability over the twentieth century: interdecadal (15-28 years), quasi-decadal (8-13 years), and interannual (2-8 years). Teleconnections with global sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation anomalies are established here but are different for each time scale. Tropical/subtropical teleconnections emerge as the main driver of austral summer rainfall variability. Thus, shifts in the Walker circulation are linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and, at decadal time scales, to decadal ENSO-like patterns related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. These global changes in the upper zonal circulation interact with asymmetric ocean-atmospheric conditions between the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans; together, these lead to a shift in the South Indian Convergence Zone and a modulation of the development of convective rain-bearing systems over southern Africa in summer. Such regional changes, embedded in quasi-annular geopotential patterns, consist of easterly moisture fluxes from the South Indian High, which dominate southerly moisture fluxes from the South Atlantic High. Austral winter rainfall variability is more influenced by midlatitude atmospheric variability, in particular the Southern Annular Mode. The rainfall changes in the southwestern regions of southern Africa are determined by asymmetrical changes in the midlatitude westerlies between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

  12. Summers_FinalReport_ER64408

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Anne [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Miller, Susan M. [Genentech, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Elemental mercury, Hg(0) is a contaminant at many DOE sites, especially at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) where the spread of spilled Hg and its effects on microbial populations have been monitored for decades. To explore the microbial interactions with Hg, we devised a global proteomic approach capable of directly detecting Hg-adducts of proteins. This technique developed in the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, allows us to identify the proteins most vulnerable to acute exposure to organomercurials phenyl- and ethyl-mercury (as surrogates for the highly neurotoxic methyl-Hg) (Polacco, et al, 2011). We have found >300 such proteins in all metabolic functional groups and cellular compartments; most are highly conserved and can serve as markers for acute Hg exposure (Zink, et al. 2016, in preparation).

  13. Contributions of co-curricular summer research programs to my professional growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    The co-curricular summer research program, in which I was involved over three summers as an undergraduate student, greatly benefited me. In this paper I will briefly describe the program and how the experience contributed to my value and growth. The U.S. Department of Energy operated the Global Change Education Program (GCEP), from 1999-2013, as an outreach to both undergraduate and graduate students. Its goals were to: provide students with hands-on research experience in a one-on-one setting with leaders in global change fields, encourage undergraduate students to enter graduate school, and increase the number of high quality U.S. scientists. I took part in GCEP as a Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE) Fellow. Each Fellow was teamed with a scientist to conduct research over the summer. I spent one summer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA working with Dr. William Shaw. The next two summers I spent working at Aerodyne Research, Inc. in Billerica, MA with Dr. Leah Williams. My experiences as a SURE Fellow have benefitted me in many ways. The research presentations, required of SURE Fellows, helped to improve my presentation skills. The GCEP workshops expanded the scope of my knowledge about global change impacts at all scales. I was involved in two large, collaborative field studies, which provided experiences and examples that have helped me lead my own field studies. I took part in well-functioning research teams, helping me see the value of open communication in collaborative work. My critical and analytical thinking abilities were continually honed. My problem solving skills were challenged in laboratory and field work. I worked with talented professionals and students that are now part of my professional network. My contributions resulted in being a coauthor on two peer-reviewed publications. I was able to experience research teams outside of academia, which included government and private sectors. The time spent as a SURE

  14. 中高纬度印度洋海温与西北太平洋夏季台风生成数的相关性%Relationship between Sea Surface Temperature of Middle-High Latitude Indian Ocean and Summer Typhoon Frequencies over the Western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜安; 周广庆; 穆松宁

    2013-01-01

      从独立性、显著性和滞后性角度分析西北太平洋夏季台风生成数(WNPTYF)与前期中高纬度印度洋海表温度(SST)的关系,结果表明:前期中高纬度印度洋SST与WNPTYF相关显著,且独立于热带东太平洋SST (或ENSO)对WNPTYF影响;中高纬度印度洋SST年际变化对WNPTYF年际变化的指示能力相当或超过热带东太平洋,综合两者的影响预测夏季西北太平洋台风生成数的变化有非常重要的现实意义。进一步的分析表明,中高纬度印度洋SST对WNPTYF影响有明显的滞后性,前期相关显著而同期相关不显著。这种滞后性意味着其前期中高纬度印度洋SST对WNPTYF的影响并不是通过SST的持续性,而很可能是通过南半球大气活动的持续性及异常信号在大气中的传播而影响到夏季的环流,最终影响WNPTYF异常。这种影响机制有待进一步研究。%Previous analyses have focused on the relationship between sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over tropical oceans and summer typhoons over the western North Pacific (WNPTYF);however, few studies have been conducted on other oceans. To determine the relationship between the WNPTYF and SSTs over the middle–high latitude Indian Ocean (MHIO), their independence, significance, and hysteretic characteristics are examined in this study. The results show that SSTs over MHIO can influence WNPTYF independently when the effect of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not considered. The annual change in SST over MHIO can indicate WNPTYF’s yearly change, in addition to that over the tropical East Pacific, with greater accuracy. Synthesis of the SST anomalies over the two areas is useful when the WNPTYF forecast is abnormal. Results also show that SSTs over MHIO influence WNPTYF in hysteresis, with significant correlation in the previous stage, from January to April, and week correlation at the same time, from June to September. The lagged influence of SSTs

  15. Summer School and Conference : Computations with Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains original research articles, survey articles and lecture notes related to the Computations with Modular Forms 2011 Summer School and Conference, held at the University of Heidelberg. A key theme of the Conference and Summer School was the interplay between theory, algorithms and experiment. The 14 papers offer readers both, instructional courses on the latest algorithms for computing modular and automorphic forms, as well as original research articles reporting on the latest developments in the field. The three Summer School lectures provide an introduction to modern algorithms together with some theoretical background for computations of and with modular forms, including computing cohomology of arithmetic groups, algebraic automorphic forms, and overconvergent modular symbols. The 11 Conference papers cover a wide range of themes related to computations with modular forms, including lattice methods for algebraic modular forms on classical groups, a generalization of the Maeda conjecture, ...

  16. Potential of weed suppression by summer cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pinto Lamego

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the cultural measures adopted for weed management, the use of soil cover crops in no tillage system is a practice that presents several positive effects. The objective of this study was evaluated the potential of suppression of weeds emergence through of using summer cover crops. The experimental design was in bands, with experimental units of 3.0 m x 4.0 m, randomly distributed. The treatments consisted of 26 summer cover crops species, being 18 belonged to the family Fabaceae, seven to Poaceae family and one to the Asteraceae family. The weeds with higher importance occurring were Raphanus spp. and Conyza bonariensis. Corn, dente-de-burro, sesbânia and mucuna-verde as summer cover crops, cause suppressive effect on germination, emergence and establishment of Raphanus spp. The mucuna-anã was that allowed the establishment of the higher quantity of weed.

  17. Pricing summer day options by good-deal bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the worldwide popularity of CDD- and HDD-type weather derivatives based on temperature, a different class of weather derivatives, so-called summer day options, is more popular in Japan; the payoffs are determined by the number of summer days (i.e., the days whose average temperature is above 25 C) during the contract period. In this paper, we price such summer day options by the good-deal bounds of Cochrane and Saa-Requejo [Cochrane, J.H., and J. Saa-Requejo, 2000, Beyond Arbitrage: Good-Deal Asset Price Bounds in Incomplete Markets, Journal of Political Economy 108, 79-119.], using temperature data for Tokyo. (author)

  18. Heat pump system for summer houses if possible combined with solar heating; Varmepumpeanlaeg til fritidshus eventuelt i kombination med solvarme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Kildemoes, T.; Kristensen, Joern; Bjergen Jensen, T.

    2006-03-15

    Denmark has about 220.000 summer cottages and it is estimated that about 10% of these are for rental. The trend within summer cottages for rental is going towards more and more facilities and intensive rental, and as a consequence of this high energy consumption. A substantial part of the energy use is for heating, i.e. space heating, heating of indoor pool and domestic hot water. Contrary to the other building stock in Denmark summer cottages nearly always use electricity for heating. In the project it is found, that the average yearly electricity use of a summer cottage for rental with indoor pool is about 31.000 kWh. In the project typical energy consumption profiles have been set up from analyses of typical equipment and from simulation of space heat demands in Danish climate. Furthermore a number of heat delivery solutions with heat pumps and solar heating systems have been set up and the performance has been simulated and analysed. As a result of the analyses 2 prototype systems both consisting of an air to air heat pump for space heating and an air to water heat pump for the hot water, the spa and the pool heating has been installed and tested in two summer cottages. There is a good economy in the systems and these are therefore marketed by the project participants, Energi Danmark NRGi (energy utility) and Dansommer (cottage rental company). (au)

  19. An East Asian land-sea atmospheric heat source difference index and its relation to general circulation and summer rainfall over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using a monthly precipitation dataset of 160 stations over China and a daily and monthly National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset from 1961 to 2006, we here define an East Asian land-sea atmospheric heat source difference index ILSQD and investigate its relationship to summer rainfall in China and East Asian general circulation. The results show that ILSQD more closely reflects the anomalous variations in summer monsoon phenomena; in the high-index (HI) cases, the strong low-level southerlies over East China and the strong high-level westerlies over middle latitudes indicate an active summer monsoon, and vice versa in the low-index (LI) cases. This index also reflects summer rainfall anomalies over East China; in the HI (LI) cases rainfall increases (decreases) over North China and at the same time decreases (increases) over the mid-lower Yangtze River valley and the southern Yangtze River. Hence, ILSQD can be utilized as a summer monsoon index. There is also remarkable correlation between ILSQD in March and the following summer rainfall over the mid-lower Yangtze River valley. Finally, the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3.1 (CAM3.1) of NCAR is used to run numerical experiments, which verify that the anomalous summer precipitation in simulations is similar to that of diagnosis analysis based on the anomalous summer atmospheric heating forcing. Similarly, the atmospheric heating rate in March can force summer rainfall anomalies in the simulations just as observed in the data.

  20. An updated review of polar mesosphere summer echoes: Observation, theory, and their relationship to noctilucent clouds and subvisible aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, John Y. N.; Röttger, Jürgen

    Peculiar atmospheric radar echoes from the high-latitude summer mesosphere have spurred much research in recent years. The radar data (taken on frequency bands ranging from 2 to 1290 MHz) have been supplemented by measurements from an increasing arsenal of in situ (rocket borne) and remote sensing (satellites and lidars) instruments. Theories to explain these polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSEs) have also proliferated. Although each theory is distinct and fundamentally different, they all share the feature of being dependent on the existence of electrically charged aerosols. It is therefore natural to assume that PMSEs are intimately linked to the other fascinating phenomenon of the cold summer mesopause, noctilucent clouds (NLCs), which are simply ice aerosols that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye. In this paper we critically examine both the data collected and the theories proposed, with a special focus on the relationship between PMSEs and NLCs.

  1. The alpine summer pastures in the Veneto Region: management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the management systems of the alpine summer pastures of the Veneto region and their geographical distribution, by means of detailed questionnaires on 417 holdings. A non-hierarchical cluster analysis identified 5 different management systems: 1: milk and cheese production, 2: milk and cheese with agritourism, 3: milk without cheese, 4: disadvantaged holdings with prevalence of sheep and goats; 5: holdings with dry and replacement cows. The different groups showed also a clear tendency to concentrate spatially in different portions of the study area. Regional policies should consider this variability to better sustain the alpine summer pasture management systems.

  2. A model summer program for handicapped college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    During the summer of 1988, the Goddard Space Flight Center was the site of a new NASA project called A Model Summer Program for Handicapped College Students that was directed by Gallaudet University. The project's aim was to identify eight severely physically disabled college students (four from Gallaudet University and four from local historically black colleges and universities (HBCU's)) majoring in technical fields and to assign them technical projects related to aerospace which they would complete under the guidance of mentors who were full time employees of Goddard. A description of the program is presented.

  3. Red Tides in Nagasaki Bay during Summer Season of 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Dahril, Tengku; Iizuka, Shoji

    1981-01-01

    Almost every year during the summer season, red tides have occurred in Nagasaki Bay. Red tides are caused by various kind of phytoplankton and bay waters discolor like coffee by the exclusive growth of a single organism or mixed growth of two or three organisms. However, very little is known about red tide in this bay. In this paper the authors dealt with red tides in Nagasaki Bay during the summer season of 1979. The innermost part of this bay was divided into 3 areas. Five water sampling st...

  4. Peak into the Past - An Archaeo-Astronomy Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D; Francis, R

    2010-01-01

    Our Landscape has been shaped by man throughout the millennia. It still contains many clues to how it was used in the past, giving us insights into ancient cultures and their everyday life. Our summer school uses Archaeology and Astronomy as a focus for effective out-of-classroom learning experiences. It demonstrates how a field trip can be used to its full potential and utilise ancient monuments as outdoor classrooms. We show how such a summer school can be embedded into the secondary curriculum, give advice and examples of activities and locations to visit, and outline the impact our work has had.

  5. Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Summer 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2015-09-01

    Wilga Summer 2015 Symposium on Photonics Applications and Web Engineering was held on 23-31 May. The Symposium gathered over 350 participants, mainly young researchers active in optics, optoelectronics, photonics, electronics technologies and applications. There were presented around 300 presentations in a few main topical tracks including: bio-photonics, optical sensory networks, photonics-electronics-mechatronics co-design and integration, large functional system design and maintenance, Internet of Thins, and other. The paper is an introduction the 2015 WILGA Summer Symposium Proceedings, and digests some of the Symposium chosen key presentations.

  6. Seasonal prediction of Indian summer monsoon: Sensitivity to persistent SST

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukanta Kumar Das; Sanjib Kumar Deb; C M Kishtawal; Pradip Kumar Pal

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, the assessment of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) developed at National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for seasonal forecasting of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with different persistent SST is reported. Towards achieving the objective, 30-year model climatology has been generated using observed SST. Upon successful simulation of climatological features of ISM, the model is tested for the simulation of ISM 2011 in forecast mode. Experiments have been conducted in three different time-phases, viz., April, May and June; using different sets of initial conditions (ICs) and the persistent SSTs of the previous months of the time-phases. The spatial as well as temporal distribution of model simulated rainfall suggest a below normal monsoon condition throughout the season in all the experiments. However, the rainfall anomaly shows some positive signature over north-east part of India in the month of June and August whereas the central Indian landmass had positive anomaly during August and September. The monthly accumulated All-India rainfall (AIR) over land for June to September 2011 are predicted to be 101% (17.6 cm), 86% (24.3 cm), 83% (21.0 cm) and 95% (15.5 cm) of normal AIR, respectively. This makes the seasonal accumulated AIR 78.4 cm which is 11% below the normal rainfall of 87.6 cm. The model prediction for the months of June and July is comparable with the observation; however, the simulation would not be able to capture the high rainfall during August and September. The intention behind this work is to assess the shortcomings in the CAM model prediction, which can later be improved for future monsoon forecast experiments.

  7. Validation of Seasonal Forecast of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Deb, Sanjib Kumar; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2015-06-01

    The experimental seasonal forecast of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall during June through September using Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 3 has been carried out at the Space Applications Centre Ahmedabad since 2009. The forecasts, based on a number of ensemble members (ten minimum) of CAM, are generated in several phases and updated on regular basis. On completion of 5 years of experimental seasonal forecasts in operational mode, it is required that the overall validation or correctness of the forecast system is quantified and that the scope is assessed for further improvements of the forecast over time, if any. The ensemble model climatology generated by a set of 20 identical CAM simulations is considered as the model control simulation. The performance of the forecast has been evaluated by assuming the control simulation as the model reference. The forecast improvement factor shows positive improvements, with higher values for the recent forecasted years as compared to the control experiment over the Indian landmass. The Taylor diagram representation of the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), standard deviation and centered root mean square difference has been used to demonstrate the best PCC, in the order of 0.74-0.79, recorded for the seasonal forecast made during 2013. Further, the bias score of different phases of experiment revealed the fact that the ISM rainfall forecast is affected by overestimation in predicting the low rain-rate (less than 7 mm/day), but by underestimation in the medium and high rain-rate (higher than 11 mm/day). Overall, the analysis shows significant improvement of the ISM forecast over the last 5 years, viz. 2009-2013, due to several important modifications that have been implemented in the forecast system. The validation exercise has also pointed out a number of shortcomings in the forecast system; these will be addressed in the upcoming years of experiments to improve the quality of the ISM prediction.

  8. In situ trace gas and particle measurements in the summer lower stratosphere during STREAM II : Implications for O-3 production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregman, A; Arnold, F; Burger, Koert N. J.; Fischer, H; Lelieveld, J; Scheeren, BA; Schneider, J; Siegmund, PC; Strom, J; Waibel, A; Wauben, WMF

    1997-01-01

    In situ aircraft measurements of O-3, CO, HNO3, and aerosol particles are presented, performed over the North Sea region in the summer lower stratosphere during the STREAM II campaign (Stratosphere Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements) in July 1994. Occasionally, high CO concentrations o

  9. RELATION BETWEEN SUMMER TYPHOON FREQUENCY ANOMALIES IN WEST PACIFIC AND ENSO EVENTS AND THE ANOMALOUS ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xue-ming; WEI Ying-zhi; WU Chen-feng

    2006-01-01

    By using data of serially numbered typhoons in northwestern Pacific and NOAA OLR data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of wind field, based on the statistics and study of the relationship between the calendar years with more (or fewer) summer typhoons and ENSO events, we compared the composites of OLR eigenvectors and tropical summer wind fields during El Ni(n)o and La Ni(n)o events with more or fewer than normal summer typhoons, respectively. The results show that, in summer, without remarkable systematic anomalies of Mascarene High and Australia High in South Hemisphere, the anomaly of Walker circulation will dominate and follow the rule of ENSO impacts to atmospheric circulation and typhoon frequency. Otherwise,when systematic anomalies of Australia High appear during the El Ni(n)o events, circulation anomalies in the South Hemisphere will dominate, and many more typhoons will occur. In 1999, which is a special year of La Ni(n)a events, northward and eastward monsoon was induced by the stronger Mascarene High, and fewer typhoons arose. The typhoon source are regions where weak vertical wind shear, warm pool in western Pacific and the area with monsoon troughs are overlapping with each other. Finally, this paper analyzes and compares the source locations and ranges of more (fewer) typhoons in the events of El Ni(n)o and La Ni(n)o, respectively.

  10. Evidence of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes Observed by SuperDARN SANAE HF Radar in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle Ogunjobi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE occurrence probability over SANAE (South African National Antarctic Expedition IV, for the first time. A matching coincidence method is described and implemented for PMSE extraction from SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network HF radar. Several SuperDARN-PMSE characteristics are studied during the summer period from years 2005 - 2007. The seasonal and interannual SuperDARN-PMSE variations in relation to the mesospheric neutral winds are studied and presented in this paper. The occurrence probability of SuperDARN-PMSE on the day-to-day scale show, predominantly, diurnal variation, with a broader peak between 12 - 14 LT and distinct minimum of 22 LT. The SuperDARN-PMSE occurrence probability rate is high in the summer solstice. Seasonal variations show a connection between the SuperDARN-PMSE occurrence probability rate and mesospheric temperature from SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry. The seasonal trend for both meridional and zonal winds is very stable year-to-year. Analysis of the neutral wind variations indicates the importance of pole-to-pole circulations in SuperDARN-PMSE generation.

  11. Possible connection between summer tropical cyclone frequency and spring Arctic Oscillation over East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki-Seon [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Typhoon Center, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Chun-Chieh [National Taiwan University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Taipei (China); Byun, Hi-Ryong [Pukyong National University, Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study shows that the frequency of summer tropical cyclones (TCs) in the areas of Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (JKT), which are located in the middle latitudes of East Asia, has a positive correlation with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) occurring during the preceding spring, while summer TC frequency in the Philippines (PH), located in the low latitudes, has a negative correlation with the AO of the preceding spring. During a positive AO phase, when the anomalous anticyclone forms over the mid-latitudes of East Asia, other anomalous cyclones develop not only in the high latitudes but also in the low latitudes from the preceding spring to the summer months. With this change, while southeasterlies in the JKT area derived from the mid-latitude anticyclone plays a role in steering TCs toward this area, northwesterlies strengthened in the PH area by the low-latitude cyclone plays a role in preventing TC movement toward this area. In addition, because of this pressure systems developed during this AO phase, TCs occur, move, and recurve in further northeastern part of the western North Pacific than they do during a negative AO phase. (orig.)

  12. Broadening Participation in Geosciences with Academic Year and Summer Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. A.; Howard, A.; Johnson, L. P.; Gutierrez, R.; Chow, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, has initiated a multi-tiered strategy aimed at increasing the number of under-represented minority and female students pursuing careers in the Geosciences, especially Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and related areas. The strategy incorporates research on the persistence of minority and female under-represented students in STEM disciplines. The initiatives include NASA and NSF-funded team-based undergraduate research activities during the summer and academic year as well as academic support (clustering, PTLT workshops for gatekeeper courses), curriculum integration modules, and independent study/special topics courses. In addition, high school students are integrated into summer research activities working with undergraduate and graduate students as well as faculty and other scientist mentors. An important initial component was the building of an infrastructure to support remote sensing, supported by NASA. A range of academic year and summer research experiences are provided to capture student interest in the geosciences. NYC-based research activities include urban impacts of global climate change, the urban heat island, ocean turbulence and general circulation models, and space weather: magnetic rope structure, solar flares and CMEs. Field-based investigations include atmospheric observations using BalloonSat sounding vehicles, observations of tropospheric ozone using ozonesondes, and investigations of the ionosphere using a CubeSat. This presentation provides a description of the programs, student impact, challenges and observations.

  13. Ecological characteristics of a Hungarian summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. producing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorbai A. Gógán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has outstanding environment for natural truffle production in some regions including plain and hilly areas. The most famous of all the natural summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. habitats is the commonly called Jászság region. This area is situated in the middle of Hungary, between river Danube and Tisza. The flatland area is basically covered by river alluviums with main soils of chernozems, fluvisols, solonchaks and arenosols. Climate of the region is typically continental: warm and dry summers and cold winters vary. The area is traditionally of agricultural use, although strong afforestation was made in the late 1950’s. The English oak (Quercus robur L. populations planted at that time gave a basis for current excellent truffle production. Nowadays the region has proved to be the best natural summer truffle (T. aestivum producing area of Hungary with early season opening (June and high quality truffles as early as August. In the research the best truffle producing forest blocks were selected for ecological investigation. Results of the detailed site description showed uniform climate characteristics and dominance of English oak (Q. robur or mixed English oak-Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. forests. Soil types revealed differences from earlier findings: dominance of gleysols and water affected chernozems was declared. Soil chemical parameters are in accordance with literature data: pH, organic matter and active carbonate content of the examined soils fall within the range indicated as the requirement of T. aestivum.

  14. Phytoplankton abundance and community structure in the Antarctic polar frontal region during austral summer of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHRAMIK Patil; RAHUL Mohan; SUHAS Shetye; SAHINA Gazi

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic polar front region in the Southern Ocean is known to be most productive.We studied the phytoplankton community structure in the Indian sector at this frontal location during late austral summer (February,2009) onboard R/V Akademic Boris Petrov.We used the phytoplankton and microheterotrophs abundance,as also the associated physico-chemical parameters to explain the low phytoplankton abundance in the study region.This study emphasizes the shift of phytoplankton,from large (>10 μm) to small (<10 μm) size.The phytoplankton abundance appears to be controlled by physical parameters and by nutrient concentrations and also by the microheterotrophs (ciliates and dinoflagellates) which exert a strong grazing pressure.This probably reduces small (<10 μm) and large (>10 μm)phytoplankton abundance during the late austral summer.This study highlights the highly productive polar front nevertheless becomes a region of low phytoplankton abundance,due to community shifts towards pico-phytoplankton (<10 μm) during late austral summer.

  15. Impact of morphometric and catchment variables on summer organic carbon richness in deep temperate lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunalska J. A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study lakes are located in north-eastern Poland, in the same physiographic system. These lakes were formed during the last glacial period. The lakes differed in morphometry, catchment size and environmental conditions. The study included deep, clear water lakes that stratify in summer. The results from multiple linear regression equations indicate that the morphometric and catchment variables may influence mainly the particulate fraction of OC during summer stratification. No significant correlation was found between the examined parameters and the quantity (DOC or the carbon-specific absorbance (SUVA260 of the dissolved fraction. The most important factors which determine POC abundance in lakes are the maximum depth (zmax, length and development of shoreline (L, DL, catchment area to lake volume (CA/V, and stratification percentage (“% strat.”, as well as epilimnion bottom area to epilimnion volume (AE/VE. Thus, in the summer the quantity of OC in lakes, especially of POC, will be determined by the in-lake production and consumption processes. Low productivity can be easily maintained in deep, strongly stratified lakes, and therefore should be protected and high water quality should be preserved.

  16. Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial times in the past 470 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.-D. Rousseau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese loess sequences are interpreted as a reliable record of the past variation of the East Asian monsoon regime through the alternation of loess and paleosols units, dominated by the winter and summer monsoon, respectively. Different proxies have been used to describe this system, mostly geophysical, geochemical or sedimentological. Terrestrial mollusks are also a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and are often preserved in large numbers in loess deposits. The analysis of the mollusk remains in the Luochuan sequence, comprising L5 loess to S0 soil, i.e. the last 500 ka, shows that for almost all identified species, the abundance is higher at the base of the interval (L5 to L4 than in the younger deposits. Using the present ecological requirements of the identified mollusk species in the Luochuan sequence allows the definition of two main mollusk groups varying during the last 500 kyr. The cold-aridiphilous individuals indicate the so-called Asian winter monsoon regime and predominantly occur during glacials, when dust is deposited. The thermal-humidiphilous mollusks are prevalent during interglacial or interstadial conditions of the Asian summer monsoon, when soil formation takes place. In the sequence, three events with exceptionally high abundance of the Asian summer monsoon indicators are recorded during the L5, L4 and L2 glacial intervals, i.e., at about 470, 360 and 170 kyr, respectively. The L5 and L4 events appear to be the strongest (high counts. Similar variations have also been identified in the Xifeng sequence, distant enough from Luochuan, but also in Lake Baikal further North, to suggest that this phenomenon is regional rather than local. The indicators of the summer monsoon within the glacial intervals imply a strengthened East-Asian monsoon interpreted as corresponding to marine isotope stages 12, 10 and 6, respectively. The L5 and L2 summer monsoons are coeval with Mediterranean sapropels S12 and S6, which

  17. Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial conditions in the past 470 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.-D. Rousseau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese loess sequences are interpreted as a reliable record of the past variation of the East Asian monsoon regime through the alternation of loess and paleosols units, dominated by the winter and summer monsoon, respectively. Different proxies have been used to describe this system, mostly geophysical, geochemical or sedimentological. Terrestrial mollusks are also a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and are often preserved in large numbers in loess deposits. The analysis of the mollusk remains in the Luochuan sequence, comprising L5 loess to S0 soil, i.e. the last 500 ka, shows that for almost all identified species, the abundance is higher at the base of the interval (L5 to L4 than in the younger deposits. Using the present ecological requirements of the identified mollusk species in the Luochuan sequence allows the definition of two main mollusk groups varying during the last 500 kyr. The cold-aridiphilous individuals indicate the so-called Asian winter monsoon regime and predominantly occur during glacials, when dust is deposited. The thermal-humidiphilous mollusks are prevalent during interglacial or interstadial conditions of the Asian summer monsoon, when soil formation takes place. In the sequence, three events with exceptionally high abundance of the Asian summer monsoon indicators are recorded during the L5, L4 and L2 glacial intervals, i.e., at about 470, 360 and 170 kyr, respectively. The L5 and L4 events appear to be the strongest (high counts. Similar variations have also been identified in the Xifeng sequence, distant enough from Luochuan, but also in Lake Baikal further North, to suggest that this phenomenon is regional rather than local. The indicators of the summer monsoon within the glacial intervals imply a strengthened East-Asian monsoon interpreted as corresponding to marine isotope stages 6, 10 and 12, respectively. The L5 and L2 summer monsoons are coeval with Mediterranean sapropels S12 and S6, which

  18. Arctic Summer Surface Energy Balance at Two Coastal Drained Lake Basins, Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, A.; Hinzman, L.; Harazono, Y.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W.

    2008-12-01

    We examined the partitioning of the summer surface energy balance at two coastal drained lake basins using measurements from two eddy covariance towers in Barrow, Alaska. Drained lake basins are a common land feature covering approximately one fourth of the Arctic Coastal Plain but have been given limited attention. Overall, wetlands are extensive in the region in spite of an annual precipitation close to a desert and a negative summer P-ET. Included in the analysis was summer 2007, which experienced unusually high air temperatures and low precipitation compared to the long term mean. During the five analyzed summers, most of the energy available at the ground surface was partitioned into sensible heat flux despite saturated or nearly saturated near-surface soils. The maritime conditions resulted in a cool and close to saturated air mass with a few exceptions on individual days. With a ground surface often warmer than the air above and limited air vapor pressure deficits, the dissipation of the available heat at the ground surface was mainly partitioned into sensible heat flux resulting in midday Bowen Ratios (sensible divided by latent heat flux) above unity. Total daily latent heat flux presented in mm of water varied between 0.2 - 4.2 mm/day with a Jun-Aug mean of 1.5 mm. In 80% of the analyzed days, mean midday evapotranspiration occurred below the equilibrium rate resulting in a Priestley-Taylor alpha value below unity. The equilibrium evaporation rates of inland arctic wetlands have previously shown to occur at or above equilibrium rate. Further, the energy balance partitioning of a wetland located in a maritime or continental climate show differences such as in the Bowen Ratio. It is therefore necessary to analyze coastal and inland areas separately when examining the hydrological response of wetlands to climate changes.

  19. Microarray analysis highlights immune response of pacific oysters as a determinant of resistance to summer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Elodie; Huvet, Arnaud

    2012-04-01

    Summer mortality of Crassostrea gigas is the result of a complex interaction between oysters, their environment, and pathogens. A high heritability was estimated for resistance to summer mortality, which provided an opportunity to develop lines of oysters that were resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to summer mortality. Previous genome-wide expression profiling study of R and S oyster gonads highlighted reproduction and antioxidant defense as constitutive pathways that operate differentially between these two lines. Here, we show that signaling in innate immunity also operates differentially between these lines, and we hypothesize that this is at the main determinant of their difference in survival in the field. A reanalysis of our published microarray data using separate ANOVAs at each sampling date revealed a specific "immune" profile at the date preceding the mortality. In addition, we conducted additional microarray profiling of two other tissues, gills, and muscle, and both showed an overrepresentation of immune genes (46%) among those that are differentially expressed between the two lines. Eleven genes were pinpointed to be simultaneously differentially expressed between R and S lines in the three tissues. Among them, ten are related to "Immune Response." For these genes, the kinetics of R mRNA levels between sampling dates appeared different just before the morality peak and suggests that under field conditions, R oysters had the capacity to modulate signaling in innate immunity whereas S oysters did not. This study enhances our understanding of the complex summer mortality syndrome and provides candidates of interest for further functional and genetics studies. PMID:21845383

  20. Summer and fall ants have different physiological responses to food macronutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2016-04-01

    Seasonally, long-lived animals exhibit changes in behavior and physiology in response to shifts in environmental conditions, including food abundance and nutritional quality. Ants are long-lived arthropods that, at the colony level, experience such seasonal shifts in their food resources. Previously we reported summer- and fall-collected ants practiced distinct food collection behavior and nutrient intake regulation strategies in response to variable food protein and carbohydrate content, despite being reared in the lab under identical environmental conditions and dietary regimes. Seasonally distinct responses were observed for both no-choice and choice dietary experiments. Using data from these same experiments, our objective here is to examine colony and individual-level physiological traits, colony mortality and growth, food processing, and worker lipid mass, and how these traits change in response to variable food protein-carbohydrate content. For both experiments we found that seasonality per se exerted strong effects on colony and individual level traits. Colonies collected in the summer maintained total worker mass despite high mortality. In contrast, colonies collected in the fall lived longer, and accumulated lipids, including when reared on protein-biased diets. Food macronutrient content had mainly transient effects on physiological responses. Extremes in food carbohydrate content however, elicited a compensatory response in summer worker ants, which processed more protein-biased foods and contained elevated lipid levels. Our study, combined with our previously published work, strongly suggests that underlying physiological phenotypes driving behaviors of summer and fall ants are likely fixed seasonally, and change circannually. PMID:26860359