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Sample records for cf-252 ion-chamber instrumented

  1. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  2. Californium Cf-252 for pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Tai, D; Wilson, L C; Van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J

    1978-01-01

    Clinical data about therapy concerning tumors of the female gynecological cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus are reviewed. Dosimetric, laboratory and radiobiological research data form the basis for an approach to such tumors using Cf-252 as a form of boost brachytherapy. Extreme personnel hazards are a real and important consideration and indicate that maximal containment and isolation procedures should be exercised in its use.

  3. NAA using Cf-252 after preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyo, O.; Moebius, S.; Keller, C.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) with thermal neutron using Cf-252 sources was applied to elemental analysis of elements in water samples. A high-resolution Ge(Li) detector was employed for gamma-radiation detection. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction were investigated after filtration. Preconcentration method by co-precipitation using iron (III) hydroxide and oxine were chosen for use. Elements which were considered to be able to detect in the present study are Al, As, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti, U, V and Zn

  4. Use of neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence with radioactive sources (Cf-252 and Am-241) for the instrumental qualiquantitative simultaneous analysis of some elements in samples of mineral supplement for animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    To study the possibility of using two non-destructive (neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence) analyses in simultaneous quali-quantitative evaluations of some elements in mineral supplement for animals, a Cf-252 neutron source (11.3 mCi; 21.1 μgrams) and a Am-241 low energy gamma-ray emitter source (59.5 KeV; 100 mCi) were employed. For these sources, shieldings and sample irradiation systems were built. For the neutron activation analysis a reservoir of 72 cm height and 43 cm diameter was filled with paraffine, and the samples and neutron sources were put inside this reservoir using polypropilene and nylon tubes. To detect the gamma-rays emitted by the radioisotopes a well-type solid NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator (3x3') was used, coupled to a multi-channel analyser. For the X-ray fluorescence analysis a lead cylinder of 9.75 cm height and 5.6 cm diameter (with 0.7 cm thickness) was made and internally lined with a 0.36 mm copper and 0.1 mm aluminium foil. (Author) [pt

  5. Physical and biological dosimetries of Cf-252 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hisao; Wada, Tadashi; Dokiya, Takushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1986-01-01

    Recently Cf-252 sources containing 300 μg have become available in a size identical to 1 Ci of Cs-137 and with the use of remotely controlled afterloading apparatus, safe therapy with little exposure to the therapist is now possible. Radiation leakage from the Cf-252 apparatus and from the treatment room was measured with REM-meter and it was possible to reduce the leakage from the treatment room to less than 1 mrem/h (gamma rays) and 0.5 mrem/h (neutrons). Measurement of fast neutrons was made with a twin chamber composed of a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a carbon ionization chamber. The neutron dose in air and the absorbed dose in tissue equivalent water tank were measured, which showed that in air, neutrons were 70% and photons were 30% of dose. In water, greater distances from the source, neutrons attenuate and gamma rays increase in dose. The results of studies on the skin reaction of mice and sperm cleavage delay time of sea urchins indicated that the RBE ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 using the high dose rate system. Neutrons are remarkably affected by a time factor. With the use of high dose rate sources, the dose rate has become higher, but the overall time has been extended through dose fractionation and it was considered advisable to employ an RBE of 3-4 in these studies. (Auth.)

  6. The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P.J.; Fontanesi, J.

    1997-12-01

    This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly

  7. Approaches for the generation of a covariance matrix for the Cf-252 fission-neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannhart, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief retrospective glance is cast at the situation, the evaluation of the Cf-252 neutron spectrum with a complete covariance matrix based on the results of integral experiments is proposed. The different steps already taken in such an evaluation and work in progress are reviewed. It is shown that special attention should be given to the normalization of the neutron spectrum which must be reflected in the covariance matrix. The result of the least-squares adjustment procedure applied can easily be combined with the results of direct spectrum measurements and should be regarded as the first step in a new evaluation of the Cf-252 fission-neutron spectrum. (author)

  8. Prompt neutron energy spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Boykov, G.S.; Vitenko, V.A.

    1985-06-01

    The prompt neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 has been measured in 0.01-10 MeV region by the time-of-flight technique using a fast ionization chamber with U-235 layers as the neutron detector. Numerical data for the spectrum are presented, with an error file. (author)

  9. Cf-252 neutron brachytherapy: an advance for bulky localized cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and radiobiogical basis as well as the rationale for neutron brachytherapy, using Cf-252, in human cancer therapy is reviewed. Cf-252 brachytherapy represents an economical and effective form of neutron radiotherapy that is readily and safely applied clinically. It can be used anywhere in the world without unusual personnel, equipment or facilities, or prohibitive expenses or maintenance costs. Used on bulky head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, brain and appendage cancers, it overcomes hypoxic radioresistance and produces remarkable rates of tumor clearance. It is easily combined with photon radiotherapy and in proper schedules and doses, it can control advanced but still localized regional cancers to produce tumor cure. It will clear the local manifestations of recurrent or metastatic tumors or advanced stages of primary tumors and therefore in conjunction with other adjuvant therapies offers much more effective tumor control and palliation than present conventional therapy. (Auth.)

  10. Cf-252 based neutron radiography using real-time image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Koiso, Manabu; Yamaji, Akihiro; Iwata, Hideki; Kihara, Yoshitaka; Sano, Shigeru; Murata, Yutaka

    2001-01-01

    For compact Cf-252 based neutron radiography, a real-time image processing system by particle counting technique has been developed. The electronic imaging system consists of a supersensitive imaging camera, a real-time corrector, a real-time binary converter, a real-time calculator for centroid, a display monitor and a computer. Three types of accumulated NR image; ordinary, binary and centroid images, can be observed during a measurement. Accumulated NR images were taken by the centroid mode, the binary mode and ordinary mode using of Cf-252 neutron source and those images were compared. The centroid mode presented the sharpest image and its statistical characteristics followed the Poisson distribution, while the ordinary mode showed the smoothest image as the averaging effect by particle bright spots with distributed brightness was most dominant. (author)

  11. Methods for Cf-252 cervix cancer therapy and treatment planning for GYN malignancies in Lexington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, C.W.; Yoneda, J.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the clinical physics methods and treatment planning techniques used in both the external beam and brachytherapy treatment of GYN malignancies in the Radiotherapy Department of the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Specific description of the departmental implant suite and brachytherapy procedures are included. The optimization of brachytherapy applicator placement, source arrangement, and normal and tumor total dose and dose distributions are presented. Quality assurance protocols for teletherapy and brachytherapy and patient and staff safety procedures with Cf-252 are discussed

  12. Estimation of the LET threshold of single event upset of microelectronics in experiments with Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.V.; Nymmik, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A method is proposed for analyzing single event upsets (SEU) in large scale integration circuits of random access memory (RAM) when exposed to Cf-252 fission fragments. The method makes is possible to find the RAM linear energy transfer (LET) threshold to be used for estimations of RAM SEU rates in space. The method is illustrated by analyzing experimental data for the 2 x 8 kbit CMOS/bulk RAM. (author)

  13. Viability of neutron brachytherapy technique using Cf252 for tumors of salivary glands therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Gland salivary tumors, although uncommon, present significant characteristics such as distant metastasis, recurrence and average survive of five year for treated patients. Those tumors presents low response to a conventional radiotherapy, photon and electron therapy; thus, this modality is associated with surgery. Fast neutron therapy has been presented better results in controlling the local tumor in comparison with conventional radiotherapy. Brachytherapy with Cf-252 presents an alternative treatment for tumors. Those radiotherapy technique are discussed and analyzed. (author)

  14. RBE of Cf-252 neutrons as determined by its lethal, mutagenic, and cytogenetic effects on human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki

    1989-01-01

    To assess the biological effects of neutrons, a man-made spontaneously fissioning isotope, Cf-252, is useful as an experimental model to obtain basic biological data on mixed radiation of gamma-rays and neutrons. The paper describes the lethal effect of Cf-252 radiation on human skin fibroblasts, its lethal and mutagenic effect on HeLa MR cells, and the micronuclei inducing effect on human peripheral lymphocytes. Dose-survival responses of three fibroblast cell strains exposed to Cf-252 radiation are measured. Individual difference is larger than the experimental fluctuation. D 10 values of each strain are obtained from the linear model and linear-quadratic model. Though the dose rate of X-ray is higher than that of Cf-252 radiations, the mean value of RBE(n+γ) is simply obtained as 1.86+0.31 (RBE:relative biological effectiveness). RBE(n) of Cf-252 neutrons to high-dose-rate X-rays is 2.29. After X-ray irradiation, the survival curve of HeLa MR cells gives an extrapolation number of 3.6. It is 1.3 after Cf-252 irradiation. At 50% survival, RBE(n+γ) and RBE(n) are 2.05 and 2.6, respectively. At 10% survival they are 2.05 and 2.6. The mutation frequencies after X-ray irradiation showed a significant non-linear increase with dose. Those after Cf-252 irradiation increase linearly with dose. (N.K.)

  15. Metronidazole in the treatment of cervical cancer using Cf-252 neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Metronidazole was tested for its possible use in the Cf-252 brachytherapy of cervical cancer as a radiosensitizer and to deal with anaerobic pelvic infection. 15 patients were treated by only 14 were evaluable. All stages from stage IB-IVB were treated and complete local tumor regression was noted in all cases although it could take place very slowly. 5/14 (36%) are 1.5-3 year survivors but only among the patients with stage I-II disease. No unusual radio-enhancing action was observed but metronidazole appeared to be useful to treat the vaginal, cervix and uterine infections often associated with high stage disease and bulky, ulcerative or necrotic tumors

  16. Investigation of short-living fission products from the spontaneous fission of Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klonk, H.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, a method of separating and measuring fission products of Cf-252 is presented. The measurement was achieved by means of γ-spectrometry and thus provides a quantitative analysis with a good separation of the fission products with respect to both atomic number Z and mass number A. The separation of the fission products from the fission source was achieved by means of solid traps. An automatic changing apparatus made it possible to keep irradiation and measuring times short, so even very short-lived fission products could be registered. The quantitative evaluation of primary fission products was made possible by correction according to Bateman equations. With that, the yields of single nuclides and the dispersion of charge can be determined. (orig./WL) [de

  17. Measurement of Neutron Energy Spectrum Emitted by Cf-252 Source Using Time-of-Flight Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Yong-Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The techniques proposed to detect the neutrons usually require the detection of a secondary recoiling nucleus in a scintillator (or other type of detector) to indicate the rare collision of a neutron with a nucleus. This is the same basic technique, in this case detection of a recoil proton that was used by Chadwick in the 1930 s to discover and identify the neutron and determine its mass. It is primary technique still used today for detection of fast neutron, which typically involves the use of a hydrogen based organic plastic or liquid scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier tube. The light output from such scintillators is a function of the cross section and nuclear kinematics of the n + nucleus collision. With the exception of deuterated scintillators, the scintillator signal does not necessarily produce a distinct peak in the scintillator spectrum directly related to the incident neutron energy. Instead neutron time-of-flight (TOF) often must be utilized to determine the neutron energy, which requires generation of a prompt start signal from the nuclear source emitting the neutrons. This method takes advantage of the high number of prompt gamma rays. The Time-of-Flight method was used to measure neutron energy spectrum emitted by the Cf-252 neutron source. Plastic scintillator that has a superior discrimination ability of neutron and gamma-ray was used as a stop signal detector and liquid scintillator was used as a stat signal detector. In experiment, neutron and gamma-ray spectrum was firstly measured and discriminated using the TOF method. Secondly, neutron energy spectrum was obtained through spectrum analysis. Equation of neutron energy spectrum that was emitted by Cf-252 source using the Gaussian fitting was obtained.

  18. Exclusive radiation therapy of endometrial carcinoma using HDR Co-60 and Cf-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inciura, A.; Janulionis, E.; Atkocius, V.

    2000-01-01

    Although the main treatment of endometrial cancer is surgery, the gross spread of carcinoma in pelvis, elderly age of the patients and serious therapeutical diseases do not allow to operate 20% of the patients. For these patients only radical treatment decision is the combined radiation therapy. However, using various modalities of combined radiotherapy, the treatment results are not satisfying: only 52% of patients survive 5 years. There was implemented a new method of combined radiotherapy, using a three-channel applicator with two-positional locating of HDR Co-60 radioactive sources (group I). A new method of brachytherapy for endometrial carcinoma using a HDR Cf 252 sources (group II) was implemented too. For group I the medium total dose of the point A was 77.6 Gy, point I - 69.6 Gy. point 2 - 84.2 Gy, point B - 52.6 Gy, For group II the medium total dose the points A, 3 and 4 was 50 iGy. For group I 1 year overaII survival rate was 85%, 3 year - 73%. The 3 year survival rate for stage I was 79%, for stage II - 89%, for stage III - 33%. 3 year survival for highly virulent tumours - 56% and for low virulent (adenocarcinoma) - 82% was statistically different. The loss of tumour differentiation correlated with the worse prognosis: 3 year survival for G1 and G2 tumours was 92%, for G3 - 45%. Low hemoglobin level was also associated with low survival rate: 2 year survival for Hb≥120g/l was 85% and Hb<120g/l - 23%. 1 year survival rate was 87%, 3 year - 66%, 5 year - 58% for group II, treated with Cf-252. Radiation complications occurred for 13.8% of the patients for group I and 6.2% for group II. Good survival rates and a small number of complications sufficiently proofed treatment method. (author)

  19. Detection alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with track solid detectors and with surface barrier detectors: efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.R.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of particle detection by solid track detectors, types of developing and analysis of results are presented. Efficiency measurements of alpha particle detection with Makrofol e and surface barrier detector are made. Detection of Cf-252 fission fragments is shown. (L.C.)

  20. Detection of alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with solid track detectors and surface barrier detector. Efficiency calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.E.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for particle detection by using track solid detector and also types of revealing and result analysis are presented concerned to Cf-252 fission fragments detection. Measurements of alpha particles detection efficiency using Makrofol E and surface barrier detector are performed. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. Importance of the neutrons kerma coefficient in the planning of Brachytherapy treatments with Cf-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.; Azorin N, J.; Francois L, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Cf-252 is a fast neutrons emitting radioisotope by spontaneous fission that can be used as sealed source in medicine applications, industry and research. Commercially its offer sources of different sizes, compact and with a fast neutrons emission of the order of 10 6 n/s-μg and an energy spectra that presents respectively maxim and average energy in 2.1 MeV and 0.7 MeV. In medicine new applications are being developed for the treatment of patient with hypoxic and voluminous tumors, where the therapy with photons has not given positive results, as well as for the protocols of therapy treatment by boron neutron capture, where very small sources of Cf-252 will be used with the interstitial brachytherapy technique of high and low dose rate. In this work an analysis of how the small differences that exist in the elementary composition of 4 wicked tumors, 4 ICRU healthy tissues and 3 substitute materials of ICRU tissue used in dosimetry are presented, its generate changes in the neutrons kerma coefficient in function of the energy and consequently in the absorbed dose in the interval of 11 eV to 29 MeV. These differences can produce maximum variations of the neutron kerma coefficients ratio for E n > 1 keV of the one: 15% tumor/ICRU guest healthy tissue, 12% ICRU tumor/muscle, 12% ICRU healthy tissues ICRU/ICRU muscle, 22% substitutes tissue/tumor and 22% ICRU substitutes tissue/muscle. Also, it was found that the average value of the neutrons kerma coefficient for the 4 wicked tumors is from 6% to 7% smaller that the average value for the soft tissue in the interval energy of interest for therapy with fast neutrons with E n > 1 MeV. These results have a special importance during the planning process of brachytherapy treatments with sources of 252 Cf, to optimize and to individualize the patients treatments. (Author)

  2. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Beach, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10 7 were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth

  3. SU-E-T-172: Evaluation of the Exradin A26 Ion Chamber in Megavoltage Photon Beams as a Reference Class Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Exradin A26 is a new design of micro-ionization ion chamber that externally resembles the Exradin A16 model but has significant internal changes to address measurement issues reported in the literature for the A16. This project involved the characterization of two versions of the A26 chamber in high energy x-rays with particular reference to the performance specification laid out in the imminent Addendum to TG-51. Methods: The Exradin A26 was investigated in a range of megavoltage photon beams (6–25 MV). Investigations looked at chamber settling, ion recombination and polarity. Since it has been previously shown that non-ideal performance is most easily identified through ion recombination measurements, the focus was on the determination of Pion. Results: i) Chamber settling - the chamber response stabilizes very quickly (within 3 minutes), even after a large change in the polarizing voltage.ii) The polarity correction was found to be small (within 0.2% of unity)iii) The chamber showed linear behavior for a Jaffe plot (1/reading vs 1/polarizing voltage) for applied voltages ≤ 200 V.iv) The recombination correction showed a linear variation with the doseper- pulse, was not significantly dependent on the polarity of the collecting voltage and was consistent with the chamber dimensions (i.e. agreed with Boag theory). Conclusion: An initial investigation of the Exradin A26 micro chamber suggests that although its performance exceeds the AAPM specification for a reference-class ion chamber for use in megavoltage photon beams it is a significant improvement over the previous A16 design. Further work is required to evaluate long-term stability and determine kQ factors

  4. Fast neutron therapy with high intensity Cf-252 sources by remotely controlled afterloading and clinical experiences in the treatment of gynaecological cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Wada, M.; Dokiya, T.

    1986-01-01

    Cf-252 fast neutron therapy with high intensity Cf-252 sources was tested for the treatment of advanced gynaecological cancers using a remotely controlled afterloading machine designed by the author and manufactured by Toshiba. Using high intensity sources and short treatment times in a special treatment room, personnel or environment exposure to radiation was at a safe level, i.e. almost nil. During 1978-1983 18 stage III cases of cancer of the uterine cervix were treated with complete response in 78% and 44% 5 year survivals. The types of acute and delayed effects of Cf-252 were the same as Co-60 or Cs-137 but the rectum was found sensitive in this system of brachytherapy. A dose of 1,000-1,500 cGy/6-10 F in 10-22 days of Cf-252 radiation was tolerated and produced tumor cure

  5. The legacy of Cf-252 operations at Savannah River Technology Center: Continuous releases of radioiodine to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Crandall, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    The iodine isotopes I-132, 1-133, I-134, and I-135, which have half-lives ranging from 53 minutes to 21 hours, are measured in the atmospheric effluent from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRS is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The isotopes' release rates range from 10 to 300 microcuries per week compared to the rate. The resulting annual dose from all iodine isotopes is minor; it comprises 0.01 percent of the total offsite dose due to atmospheric releases from SRS in 1990. Circumstantial evidence indicates the radioiodine originates from traces of unencapsulated Cf-252. The determination that spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is the source of the radioiodine has several ramifications. Radioactive fission-product isotopes of the noble gas elements krypton and xenon must also be released. Noble gases are more volatile and mobile than iodine. Also, the released iodine isotopes decay to xenon isotopes. The noble gases decay to non-gaseous elements that are transported along with radioiodine to the terrestrial environment by deposition from the SRTC plume. Only Sr-89 is believed to accumulate sufficiently in the environment to approach detectable levels. Given similar conditions in earlier years, releases of short-lived radioiodine have occurred undetected in routine monitoring since the early 1970s. Release rates 20 years ago would have been 200 times greater than current release rates. This report documents preliminary experiments conducted by SRTC and Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS) scientists. The release process and the environmental impact of fission products from Cf-252 should be thoroughly researched

  6. Ion chamber repairs in Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.; Edwards, T.; Kerker, J.; Pletch, R.; Edwards, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses identification and successful remediation of leakage of shield tank water on vertical and horizontal Ion Chambers in Bruce A. In doing so, it discusses real events moving from the initial investigation to understand the problem, through looking at options for solutions, and moving to site work and actual resolution.. In multiunit 900 MW class CANDU® reactors, the calandria vessel is suspended within a larger shield tank. Due to temperature changes or changes in moderator fluid levels in the calandria, the calandria can move relative to the shield tank and its reactivity deck. Thimbles which contain the reactivity sensors and controls connect the two vessels and allow the reactivity drives and controls connections to be placed on the deck structure on the top of the reactor assembly for RRS and SDS1 and horizontally for SDS2. These thimbles have expansion joints with metal bellows where they meet the deck structure or shield tank walls. The deck structure lies on a vault containment boundary. The horizontal ion chambers are not in the containment boundary as they connect the outside of the calandria and shield tank around mid plane in the reactor vault, but due to geometry difference provides a more challenging work environment. Bruce had a beetle alarm (1-63851-MIA2-ME30 in alarm state (vertical IC housing)) at the start of April 2012 on Unit 1 channel F vertical Ion chamber expansion joint at the deck connection. This occurred after the moderator levels had been raised after the several years long refurbishment outage and the expansion joint had a significant travel. The investigation showed shield tank water in the collection chamber at the beetle. In addition, Channel J of the horizontal ion chamber had a seized instrument, which on removal was found to relate to oxide build up as a result of minor water leakage into the site. Repairs in both cases were performed as part of the long Bruce 1 & 2 refurbishment outage to completely stop the

  7. Study of biological effects of varying mixtures of Cf-252 and gamma radiation on the acute radiation syndromes: Relevance to clinical radiotherapy of radioresistant cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J.; Feola, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Data for the 30 day bone marrow syndrome (BM-50) and the 6-10 day gastrointestinal (GI-50) syndrome for a one and two fraction schedule and acute and low dose rate irradiation using pure and mixed Cf-252 and photon radiation are presented. The radiation of Cf-252 is a mixture of neutrons and gamma rays. Balb/c mice of both sexes were total body irradiated with acute Co-60, low dose rate Cs-137 and Cf-252 using a 1 x and 2 x schedule. For low linear energy transfer radiations of Co-60 or Cs-137 there was expected to be an increase in the dose to produce the gastrointestinal and bone marrow syndromes with minimal change for Cf-252 neutrons. The proportion of photons in the Cf-252 radiation field were further altered by mixing Cs-137 with the Cf-252 sources and mice were total body irradiated with different proportions of photons to determine the effect on the radiation syndromes. The effects of mixing Cf-252 neutrons with different proportions of photons on the syndromes was determined. There was increase in BM-50 and GI-50 doses with fractionated or low dose rate photon irradiations and the dose modifying factors were 1.3-1.4 for the GI syndrome and 1.2 for the bone marrow syndrome. For Cf-252 there was minimal fractionation effect for the GI-50 syndrome, which increased by 1.1 for x 1 vs. x 2 fractions; for the BM-50 syndrome it rose by a 1.1 factor. For LDR Cs-137 the dose for the GI-50 syndrome rose 2.2-fold. For mixed neutron-photon radiation of 0%, 15%, 35%, and 65% η/γ mixtures, the dose to produce the BM-50 and GI-50 endpoints dropped sharply from 0 to 35% neutrons and remained flat thereafter. For major tissues such as the bone marrow and GI tract, Cf-252 behaved as high linear energy transfer for mixtures of neutrons and gamma rays when the radiations were delivered simultaneously at the low dose rates studied. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. An examination of medical linear accelerator ion-chamber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolis, C.; Lee, C.; Rinks, A.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The company ( Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services Pty Ltd) provides medical physics services to four radiotherapy centres in NSW with a total of 6 high energy medical linear accelerators manufactured by three different companies. As part of the services, the stability of the accelerator ion chamber system is regularly examined for constancy and periodically for absolute calibration. Each accelerator ion chamber has exhibited undesirable behaviour from time to time, sometimes leading to its replacement. This presentation describes the performance of the ion chambers for some of the linacs over a period of 12-18 months and the steps taken by the manufacturer to address the problems encountered. As part of our commissioning procedure of new linacs, an absolute calibration of the accelerator output (photon and electron beams) is repeated several times over the period following examination of the physical properties of the radiation beams. These calibrations were undertaken in water using the groups calibrated ion chamber/electrometer system and were accompanied by constancy checks using an acrylic phantom and field instruments. Constancy checks were performed daily for a period of 8 weeks during the initial life of the accelerator and thereafter weekly. For one accelerator, the ion chamber was replaced 6 times in the first eighteen months of its life due to severe drifts in output, found to be due to pressure changes in one half of the chamber In another accelerator, erratic swings of 2% were observed for a period of nine months, particularly with the electron beams, before the manufacturer offered to change the chamber with another constructed from different materials. In yet another accelerator the ion chamber has shown consistent erratic behaviour, but this has not been addressed by the manufacturer. In another popular accelerator, the dosimetry was found to be very stable until some changes in the tuning were introduced resulting in small

  9. Relative biological effectiveness (R.B.E.) of Cf-252 vs. acute Co-60 and low dose rate Cs-137 irradiation by spleen weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    R.B.E. of Cf-252 on lymphoid tissue was assessed by radiation study of spleen weight loss following acute Co-60, and low dose rate (L.D.R.) Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations. Acute Co-60 and L.D.R. Cs-137 dose-response followed two component exponential curves with a 1.3-fold greater effect of L.D.R. Cs-137 vs. acute Co-60 on the first slope and 1.9-fold greater effect for the 2nd slope. L.D.R. Cf-252 response was 1.3 x greater than acute Co-60 but was 1.0 vs. L.D.R. Cs-137 for the first slope indicating a similar effect of Cf-252 mixed neutron/gamma radiation to L.D.R. gamma radiation in producing spleen shrinkage. There was no effect of different sequences and schedules of mixing acute Co-60 with Cf-252 irradiation observed by endogenous CFU-S survival. The R.B.E. of 1.0 - 1.9 indicates that lymphohemopoietic in vivo, presumably well oxygenated, does not respond acutely or as sensitively as hypoxic tumor where R.B.E. is 5 - 7. (author)

  10. Performance characteristics of selected integrating ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Liberace, R.

    1977-01-01

    Certain types of integrating ion chambers have been identified as acceptable equipment for a nationwide medical X-ray exposure survey program. In this study, Victoreen 2.5, 5 and 10 R condenser R-chambers, the Victoreen 666 Diagnostic Probe (used in the integrating mode) and the Bendix 200 mR and 5 R low energy dosimeters were evaluated for recombination losses and for energy dependence. Recombination losses were determined for exposure rates ranging from 0.3 to 80 R/sec. Energy dependence was determined for X-ray beam qualities ranging from 45 kVp and 0.83 mm Al first half value layer to 125 kVp and 4.8 mm Al first half value layer. The data enable selection of instruments so that errors from recombination losses and energy dependence can be minimized. (author)

  11. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  12. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia de Freitas Brandao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results Intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the I 1 and I 2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the I 1 and I 2 infiltration zones. Conclusion Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones.

  13. Importance of the neutrons kerma coefficient in the planning of Brachytherapy treatments with Cf-252 sources; Importancia del coeficiente de kerma de neutrones en la planeacion de tratamientos de Braquiterapia con fuentes de Cf-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyocac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, 09000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: lpg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Cf-252 is a fast neutrons emitting radioisotope by spontaneous fission that can be used as sealed source in medicine applications, industry and research. Commercially its offer sources of different sizes, compact and with a fast neutrons emission of the order of 10{sup 6} n/s-{mu}g and an energy spectra that presents respectively maxim and average energy in 2.1 MeV and 0.7 MeV. In medicine new applications are being developed for the treatment of patient with hypoxic and voluminous tumors, where the therapy with photons has not given positive results, as well as for the protocols of therapy treatment by boron neutron capture, where very small sources of Cf-252 will be used with the interstitial brachytherapy technique of high and low dose rate. In this work an analysis of how the small differences that exist in the elementary composition of 4 wicked tumors, 4 ICRU healthy tissues and 3 substitute materials of ICRU tissue used in dosimetry are presented, its generate changes in the neutrons kerma coefficient in function of the energy and consequently in the absorbed dose in the interval of 11 eV to 29 MeV. These differences can produce maximum variations of the neutron kerma coefficients ratio for E{sub n} > 1 keV of the one: 15% tumor/ICRU guest healthy tissue, 12% ICRU tumor/muscle, 12% ICRU healthy tissues ICRU/ICRU muscle, 22% substitutes tissue/tumor and 22% ICRU substitutes tissue/muscle. Also, it was found that the average value of the neutrons kerma coefficient for the 4 wicked tumors is from 6% to 7% smaller that the average value for the soft tissue in the interval energy of interest for therapy with fast neutrons with E{sub n} > 1 MeV. These results have a special importance during the planning process of brachytherapy treatments with sources of {sup 252}Cf, to optimize and to individualize the patients treatments. (Author)

  14. Equipment upgrade - Accurate positioning of ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, Harry J.; Nelson, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Five adjustable clamps were made to firmly support and accurately position the ion Chambers, that provide signals to the power channels for the University of Arizona TRIGA reactor. The design requirements, fabrication procedure and installation are described

  15. Neutron Spectra, Fluence and Dose Rates from Bare and Moderated Cf-252 Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, Radoslav P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    A new, stronger 252Cf source (serial number SR-CF-3050-OR) was obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2014 to supplement the existing 252Cf sources which had significantly decayed. A new instrument positioning track system was designed and installed by Hopewell Designs, Inc. in 2011. The neutron field from the new, stronger 252Cf source in the modified calibration environment needed to be characterized as well as the modified neutron fields produced by the new source and seven different neutron moderators. Comprehensive information about our 252Cf source, its origin, production, and isotopic content and decay characteristics needed to be compiled as well. This technical report is intended to address these issues.

  16. Description and calibration beamline SEM/Ion Chamber Current Digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoo, D.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the following on beamline SEM/ion chamber current digitizers: Module description; testing and calibration; common setup procedures; summary of fault indications and associated causes; summary of input and output connections; SEM conversion constant table; ion chamber conversion constant table; hexadecimal to decimal conversion table; and schematic diagram

  17. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source ( 239 PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  18. Monte Carlo modeling of ion chamber performance using MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J D

    2012-12-01

    Ion Chambers have a generally flat energy response with some deviations at very low (2 MeV) energies. Some improvements in the low energy response can be achieved through use of high atomic number gases, such as argon and xenon, and higher chamber pressures. This work looks at the energy response of high pressure xenon-filled ion chambers using the MCNP Monte Carlo package to develop geometric models of a commercially available high pressure ion chamber (HPIC). The use of the F6 tally as an estimator of the energy deposited in a region of interest per unit mass, and the underlying assumptions associated with its use are described. The effect of gas composition, chamber gas pressure, chamber wall thickness, and chamber holder wall thicknesses on energy response are investigated and reported. The predicted energy response curve for the HPIC was found to be similar to that reported by other investigators. These investigations indicate that improvements to flatten the overall energy response of the HPIC down to 70 keV could be achieved through use of 3 mm-thick stainless steel walls for the ion chamber.

  19. Prediction of the performance of an ion chamber amplifier under γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Sundarsingh, V.P.; Ramachandran, V.

    2005-01-01

    The ion chamber amplifier (ICA) plays a major role in the proper functioning of a nuclear reactor as it monitors the radiations from the nuclear reactor by measuring the ionic activity inside the ion chamber. The signal conditioning circuitry of the ICA detects and conditions the weak ionic currents coming from the ion chamber dome. Degradation in the performance of the semiconductor devices used in this part of the ICA, can lead to inaccurate monitoring of the reactor operation, resulting in a possible catastrophe due to malfunction. Further, the response of the ICA under irradiation also depends upon the strength of the input signal (ionic) current it is required to handle. The active devices used in the ICA under study are operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) such as DN8500A and OPA111, instrumentation amplifier INA101, transistor 2N2920A and a voltage reference device, AD584. Since these devices may be sensitive to radiation, one must know their radiation behaviour so that the performance of the ICA can be predicted. This paper examines the performance of the ICA by characterising the radiation profiles of its vital components, viz. the Op-Amps, instrumentation amplifiers, transistors, etc. by monitoring their parametric changes on-line, i.e. when the source is on, and the devices are biased. The simulation runs involve the simulation of the entire ICA circuitry using the changed values of the vital parameters such as input bias current and input offset voltage. The main advantage of this method is that it obviates irradiating the whole ICA circuit to study its irradiation performance, and simulates an environment of radiation leakage around the ICA. Based on this study, results are presented to predict the performance of the ICA

  20. DESIGN OF AN IMPROVED ION CHAMBER FOR THE SNS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITKOVER,R.L.; GASSNER,D.

    2002-05-06

    Ion chambers are in common use as beam loss monitors at many accelerators. A unit designed and used at FNAL and later at BNL was proposed for the SNS. Concerns about the ion collection times and low collection efficiency at high loss rates led to improvements to this unit and the design of an alternate chamber with better characteristics. Prototypes have been tested with pulsed beams. The design and test results for both detectors will be presented.

  1. Calibration of PKA meters against ion chambers of two geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Pereira, Marco A.G.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP or PKA) is a quantity that is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used in radiological exams to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical KAP meters are generally fixed in tube output and they are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and by evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. Recently, a device was marketed (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal Co.), which was designed for calibrating clinical KAP meters with traceability to a standard laboratory. This paper presents a metrological evaluation of two methods that can be used in standard laboratories for the calibration of this device, namely, against a reference 30 cc ionization chamber or a reference parallel plates monitor chamber. Lower energy dependence was also obtained when the PDC calibration was made with the monitor chamber. Results are also shown of applying the PDC in hospital environment to the cross calibration of a clinical KAP meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm lower energy dependence of the PDC relatively to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  2. Characterization of a multi-axis ion chamber array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas A; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan; Liu, Chihray

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize a multi-axis ion chamber array (IC PROFILER; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL, USA) that has the potential to simplify the acquisition of LINAC beam data. The IC PROFILER (or panel) measurement response was characterized with respect to radiation beam properties, including dose, dose per pulse, pulse rate frequency (PRF), and energy. Panel properties were also studied, including detector-calibration stability, power-on time, backscatter dependence, and the panel's agreement with water tank measurements [profiles, fractional depth dose (FDD), and output factors]. The panel's relative deviation was typically within (+/-) 1% of an independent (or nominal) response for all properties that were tested. Notable results were (a) a detectable relative field shape change of approximately 1% with linear accelerator PRF changes; (b) a large range in backscatter thickness had a minimal effect on the measured dose distribution (typically less than 1%); (c) the error spread in profile comparison between the panel and scanning water tank (Blue Phantom, CC13; IBA Schwarzenbruck, DE) was approximately (+/-) 0.75%. The ability of the panel to accurately reproduce water tank profiles, FDDs, and output factors is an indication of its abilities as a dosimetry system. The benefits of using the panel versus a scanning water tank are less setup time and less error susceptibility. The same measurements (including device setup and breakdown) for both systems took 180 min with the water tank versus 30 min with the panel. The time-savings increase as the measurement load is increased.

  3. Dose verification with different ion chambers for SRT/SBRT plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, I. F.; Tas, B.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    Verification of patient plan is very important in stereotactic treatments. VMAT plans were prepared with 6MV-FFF or 10MV-FFF energies for 25 intracranial and extracranial stereotactic patients. Absolute dose was measured for dose verification in each plans. Iba® CC01, Iba® CC04, Iba® CC13 ion chambers placed at a depth of 5cm in solid phantom (RW3). Also we scanned this phantom with ion chambers by Siemens® Biograph mCT. QA plans were prepared by transferring twenty five patient plans to phantom assemblies for three ion chambers. All plans were performed separately for three ion chambers at Elekta® Versa HD linear accelerator. Statistical analysis of results were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Difference between dose values were determined %1.84±3.4 (p: 0.001) with Iba CC13 ion chamber, %1.80±3.4 (p: 0.002) with Iba CC04 ion chamber and %0.29±4.6 (p: 0.667) with Iba CC01 ion chamber. In stereotactic treatments, dosimetric uncertainty increases in small areas. We determined more accurate results with small sized detectors. Difference between TPS calculations and all measurements were founded lower than %2.

  4. Determination Of The QUART Ion Chamber Stability By Using Medical Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha.

    1990-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Radiation Therapy (QUART) ion chamber was designed for quality assurance measurements of the medical linear accelerator at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital in Sydney-Australia. The ion chamber has been calibrated by using the 6 MV medical linear accelerator against the farmer dosimeter. The Medical Physics Department Protocol, Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia) was used to check the stability of QUART ion chamber by determination of calibration factor for a period of time. It was found that the stability of the seven chambers were less than 2% for more than 125 days. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs

  5. Development of an Ion Chamber for Monitoring the Containment of a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae-Yung; Kim, Han-Soo; Park, Se-Hwan; Ha, Jang-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Nuclear power plants need many different types of radiation detectors for different purposes. Neutron detectors are installed inside and outside of the core to check the neutron flux. Scintillation detectors are used to check the fission products included in the liquids and gases of plant system. Geiger-Mueller counters are used for the area radiation monitoring. In addition to the above-mentioned detectors, ion chambers are installed to monitor radiation level of the containment. A few ion chambers are located within the reactor containment to monitor radiation level of an accident case. Therefore, the ion chamber should be capable of monitoring high level radiation dose up to 10{sup 7} R/h. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) developed an ion chamber for monitoring the radiation dose inside the containment.

  6. A pressurized ion chamber monitoring system for environmental radiation measurements utilizing a wide-range temperature-compensated electrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenick, W. Van

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a complete pressurized ion chamber (PIC) radiation monitoring system is described. The design incorporates an improved temperature-compensated electrometer which is stable to ±3 · 10 -16 A over the environmental range of temperature (-40 to +40 C). Using a single 10 11 Ω feed-back resistor, the electrometer accurately measures currents over a range from 3 · 10 -15 A to 3 · 10 -11 A. While retaining the sensitivity of the original PIC system (the instrument responds readily to small background fluctuations on the order of 0.1 μR h -1 ), the new system measures radiation levels up to the point where the collection efficiency of the ion chamber begins to drop off, typically ∼27 pA at 1 mR h -1 . A data recorder and system controller was designed using the Tattletale trademark Model 4A computer. Digital data is stored on removable solid-state, credit-card style memory cards

  7. Ion chambers compliance results of Brazilian radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joana, G; Salata, C; Leal, P; Vasconcelos, R; Couto, N do; Teixeira, F C; Soares, A D; Santini, E S; Gonçalves, M

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (cnen) has been making a constant effort to keep up to date with international standards and national needs to strengthen the status of radiological protection of the country. The guidelines related to radiation therapy facilities have been revised in the last five years in order to take into consideration the most relevant aspects of the growing technology as well as to mitigate the accidents or incidents observed in practice. Hence, clinical dosimeters have gained special importance in this matter. In the present work, we discuss the effectiveness of regulation and inspections to the enforcement of instrument calibration accuracy for the improvement of patient dosimetry and quality control. As a result, we observed that the number of calibrated instruments, mainly well chambers, is increasing each year. The same behavior is observed for instruments employed in technologically advanced radiation treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, volumetric therapy and stereotatic radiosurgery. We ascribe this behavior to the new regulation.

  8. Rate-dependent performance of ion chambers for particle-ID at the GSI fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, Jan-Paul; Allred, Timothy; Enders, Joachim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Gernhaeuser, Roman; Maurus, Steffen [Physik Department, TU Muenchen (Germany); Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Prochazka, Andrej [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    At the GSI Fragment Separator (FRS), multi-sampling ion chambers (MUSIC) employing a Frisch grid are used for charge identification of secondary ion beams. At the FAIR Super-FRS, higher rates are expected, and an event-by-event determination of the charge of secondary ions will be needed at rates of several 100000 events per second. The comparison of results from test measurements for the MUSIC performance with that of a recently constructed tilted-electrode gas ion chamber (TEGIC), which was designed similar to the one discussed, is presented.

  9. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 ColonelBy Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ′}) are provided. These

  10. A new approach for the evaluation of the effective electrode spacing in spherical ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M., E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory, Tersa Street 12211, Giza P.O. Box: 136 (Egypt); Shqair, Mohammed [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities, Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-10-21

    Proper determination of the effective electrode spacing (d{sub eff}) of an ion chamber ensures proper determination of its collection efficiency either in continuous or in pulsed radiation in addition to the proper evaluation of the transit time. Boag's method for the determination of d{sub eff} assumes the spherical shape of the internal electrode of the spherical ion chambers which is not always true, except for some cases, its common shape is cylindrical. Current work provides a new approach for the evaluation of the effective electrode spacing in spherical ion chambers considering the cylindrical shape of the internal electrode. Results indicated that d{sub eff} values obtained through current work are less than those obtained using Boag's method by factors ranging from 12.1% to 26.9%. Current method also impacts the numerically evaluated collection efficiency (f) where values obtained differ by factors up to 3% at low potential (V) values while at high V values minor differences were noticed. Additionally, impacts on the evaluation of the transit time (τ{sub i}) were obtained. It is concluded that approximating the internal electrode as a sphere may result in false values of d{sub eff}, f, and τ{sub i}.

  11. Development of a parallel plate ion chamber for radiation protection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Landi, Mauricio; Moralles, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    A new parallel plate vented ion chamber is proposed in this paper. The application of this chamber was primarily intended to the measurement of stray radiation in interventional procedures, but the energy response of about 2.6%, which was obtained in the first prototype, on the range from 40 to 150 kV using ISO 4037-1 narrow qualities, provided the possibility of a wide modality application on radiation protection. Primary studies with Maxwell 2D electromagnetic field simulator revealed an optimized model regarding effective volume and saturation voltage levels, which conferred to the ion chamber a dual entrance window feature. The development of this ion chamber has the main contribution of Monte Carlo calculations as a support tool to the establishment of the effective volume of the chamber and determination of the best materials for housing mounting and conductive elements, such as guard rings, electrode, and windows. Even the composition of the conductive layers, which would be neglected due to their very small thicknesses (about 35 μm), had important influence on the results and could be better understood with Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System (MCNP) simulations. (author)

  12. Fail-safe ion chamber errant beam detector tailored for personnel protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.A.; Browman, A.A.; Brown, D.; Lee, D.M.; McCabe, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    This fail-safe ion chamber system is designed to be part of the personnel safety system (PSS) for the Los Alamos neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its job is to protect the occupants of the experimental areas from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport from the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the LANSCE neutron spallation target. Due to limited shielding between the beam transport line and the experimental area only if the beam losses in the transport line are very low. The worst case beam spill scenario is calculated to result in a personnel exposure of about 0.01 Gys/s (1 rad/s). Although the preferred solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam line and the experimental area, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit an adequate amount of shielding to be added. The solution adopted is a layered system of three types of highly reliable detector systems: a current limiter system located in the beam line, a neutron detector system located in the experimental areas, and an ion chamber system located on the walls of the beam line tunnels. The ion chamber system is capable of shutting off the beam in less than 0.5 s, resulting in a worst case personnel exposure of 0.005 Gys (0.5 rad). 4 figs

  13. Prototype development or multi-cavity ion chamber for depth dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, M.K.; Sahu, T.K.; Haridas, G.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R.M.; Nandedkar, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    In high energy electron accelerators, when the electrons interact with vacuum chamber or surrounding structural material, Bremsstrahlung x-rays are produced. It is having a broad spectrum extending up to the electron energies. Dose measured as a function of depth due to electromagnetic cascade will give rise to depth dose curve. To measure the online depth dose profile in an absorber medium, when high energy electron or Bremsstrahlung is incident, a prototype Multi-Cavity Ion Chamber (MCIC) detector is developed. The paper describes the design and development of the MCIC for measurement of depth dose profile

  14. Image timing and detector performance of a matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Oncology Centre of Auckland Hospital recently purchased a Varian PortalVision TM electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Image acquisition times, input-output characteristics and contrast-detail curves of this matrix liquid ion-chamber EPID have been measured to examine the variation in imaging performance with acquisition mode. The variation in detector performance with acquisition mode has been examined. The HV cycle time can be increased to improve image quality. Consideration should be given to the acquisition mode and HV cycle time used when imaging to ensure adequate imaging performance with reasonable imaging time. (author)

  15. Noise analysis based validation of the dynamics of in-core flux detectors and ion chambers used in SDS and RRS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, O.; Cooke, D.; Tulett, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper concentrates on some of the recent applications of reactor noise analysis in Ontario Hydro's CANDU stations, related to the dynamics of in-core flux detectors (ICFDs) and ion chambers. These applications include (1) detecting anomalies in the dynamics of ICFDs and ion chambers, (2) estimating the effective prompt fractions of ICFDs in power rundown tests and in noise measurement, (3) detecting the mechanical vibration of ICFD instrument tubes induced by moderator flow, (4) detecting the mechanical vibration of fuel channels induced by coolant flow, (5) identifying the cause of excessive signal fluctuations in certain flux detectors, (6) validating the dynamic coupling between liquid zone control signals. Some of these applications are performed on a regular basis. The noise analysis program, in the Pickering-B station alone, has saved Ontario Hydro millions of dollars during its first three years. The results of the noise analysis program have been also reviewed by the AECB with favorable results. The AECB have expressed interest in Ontario Hydro further exploiting the use of noise analysis technology (author)

  16. Detector Characterization Report, Response Related to Linear Movement and Radiation Levels for an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)-Developed Ion Chamber and a Commercial Ion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent activities regarding the safeguarding of radioactive material have indicated there is a need to use radiation sensors to monitor intentional or unintentional material movement. Existing radiation detection systems were not typically designed for this type of operation since most of their use accounted for monitoring material while the material is stationary. To ensure that a radiation monitoring system is capable of detecting the movement of radioactive material, a series of tests were needed. These tests would need to be performed in known radiological conditions, under controlled environmental conditions, and at known movement speeds. The Radiation Effects Facility (REF), located at the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, provided the necessary capabilities to perform these tests. This report provides a compilation of the results from a characterization of two different sensors--a simple, air ionization chamber-based sensor developed at ORNL that consists of an ion chamber connected to a separate amplifier, and an Eberline model RO-7-LD. The RO-7-LD is also an air ionization chamber-based sensor, but the electronics are in the same physical package

  17. Ion-recombination correction factor κsat for spherical ion chambers irradiated by continuous photom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piermattei, A.; Azario, L.; Arcovito, G.

    1996-01-01

    The large range of reference air kerma rates of brachytherapy sources involves the use of large-volume ionization chambers. When such ionization chambers are used the ion-recombination correction factor k sat has to be determined. In this paper three spherical ion chambers with volume ranging from 30 to 10 4 cm 3 have been irradiated by photons of a 192 Ir source to determine the k sat factors. The ionization currents of the ion chambers as a function of the applied voltage and the air kerma rate have been analysed to determine the contribution of the initial and general ion recombination. The k sat values for large-volume ionization chambers obtained by considering the general ion recombination as predominant (Almond's approach) are in disagreement with the results obtained using methods that consider both initial and general ion-recombination contributions (Niatel's approach). Such disagreement can reach 0.7% when high currents are measured for a high-activity source calibration in terms of reference air kerma rate. In this study a new 'two-voltage' method, independent of the voltage ratio given by a dosimetry system, is proposed for practical dosimetry of continuous x-and gamma-radiation beams. In the case where the Almond approach is utilized, the voltage ratio V 1 /V 2 should be less than 2 instead of Almond's limit of V 1 /V 2 <5. (Author)

  18. Continuous measurement of the radon concentration in water using electret ion chamber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Hopke, P.K.

    1992-10-01

    A radon concentration of 300 pCi/L has been proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a limit for radon dissolved in municipal drinking water supplies. There is therefore a need for a continuous monitor to insure that the daily average concentration does not exceed this limit. In order to calibrate the system, varying concentrations of radon in water have been generated by bubbling radon laden air through a dynamic flowthrough water system. The value of steady state concentration of radon in water from this system depends on the concentration of radon in air, the air bubbling rate, and the water flow rate. The measurement system has been designed and tested using a 1 L volume electret ion chamber to determine the radon in water. In this dynamic method, water flows directly through the electret ion chamber. Radon is released to the air and measured with the electret. A flow of air is maintained through the chamber to prevent the build-up of high radon concentrations and too rapid discharge of the electret. It was found that the system worked well when the air flow was induced by the application of suction. The concentration in the water was calculated from the measured concentration in air and water and air flow rates. Preliminary results suggest that the method has sufficient sensitivity to measure concentrations of radon in water with acceptable accuracy and precision

  19. Absorbed dose beam quality factors for cylindrical ion chambers: Experimental determination at 6 and 15 MV photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporali, C; Guerra, A S; Laitano, R F; Pimpinella, M [ENEA-Casaccia, Inst. Nazionale di Meterologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1996-08-01

    Ion chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water need an additional factor conventionally designed by k{sub Q} in order to determine the absorbed dose. The quantity k{sub Q} depends on beam quality and chamber characteristics. Rogers and Andreo provided calculations of the k{sub Q} factors for most commercially available ionization chambers for clinical dosimetry. Experimental determinations of the k{sub Q} factors for a number of cylindrical ion chambers have been made and are compared with the calculated values so far published. Measurements were made at 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams at a point in water phantom where the ion chambers and a Fricke dosimeter were alternatively irradiated. The uncertainty on the experimental k{sub Q} factors resulted about {+-} 0.6%. The theoretical and experimental k{sub Q} values are in fairly good agreement. (author). 12 refs, 3 tabs.

  20. Systematic uncertainties in the Monte Carlo calculation of ion chamber replacement correction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. L. W.; La Russa, D. J.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Ottawa Carleton Institute of Physics, Carleton University, Campus Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario KIS 5B6 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    In a previous study [Med. Phys. 35, 1747-1755 (2008)], the authors proposed two direct methods of calculating the replacement correction factors (P{sub repl} or p{sub cav}p{sub dis}) for ion chambers by Monte Carlo calculation. By ''direct'' we meant the stopping-power ratio evaluation is not necessary. The two methods were named as the high-density air (HDA) and low-density water (LDW) methods. Although the accuracy of these methods was briefly discussed, it turns out that the assumption made regarding the dose in an HDA slab as a function of slab thickness is not correct. This issue is reinvestigated in the current study, and the accuracy of the LDW method applied to ion chambers in a {sup 60}Co photon beam is also studied. It is found that the two direct methods are in fact not completely independent of the stopping-power ratio of the two materials involved. There is an implicit dependence of the calculated P{sub repl} values upon the stopping-power ratio evaluation through the choice of an appropriate energy cutoff {Delta}, which characterizes a cavity size in the Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Since the {Delta} value is not accurately defined in the theory, this dependence on the stopping-power ratio results in a systematic uncertainty on the calculated P{sub repl} values. For phantom materials of similar effective atomic number to air, such as water and graphite, this systematic uncertainty is at most 0.2% for most commonly used chambers for either electron or photon beams. This uncertainty level is good enough for current ion chamber dosimetry, and the merits of the two direct methods of calculating P{sub repl} values are maintained, i.e., there is no need to do a separate stopping-power ratio calculation. For high-Z materials, the inherent uncertainty would make it practically impossible to calculate reliable P{sub repl} values using the two direct methods.

  1. Design and manufacture of multi-electrode ion chamber for absolute photon-flux measurements of soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden

    2001-03-01

    In order to measure the absolute photon-flux of soft x-rays at the photon energy region from 500 eV to 1500 eV, a sealed gas ion chamber with multi-electrodes was designed and manufactured. Actually we succeeded in measuring the photon-flux at the soft x-ray beamline, BL23SU, in the SPring-8. This report concretely describes the design and the adjustment of the sealed gas ion chamber with multi-electrodes. (author)

  2. Wall attenuation and scatter corrections for ion chambers: measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D W.O.; Bielajew, A F [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Physics

    1990-08-01

    In precision ion chamber dosimetry in air, wall attenuation and scatter are corrected for A{sub wall} (K{sub att} in IAEA terminology, K{sub w}{sup -1} in standards laboratory terminology). Using the EGS4 system the authors show that Monte Carlo calculated A{sub wall} factors predict relative variations in detector response with wall thickness which agree with all available experimental data within a statistical uncertainty of less than 0.1%. They calculated correction factors for use in exposure and air kerma standards are different by up to 1% from those obtained by extrapolating these same measurements. Using calculated correction factors would imply increases of 0.7-1.0% in the exposure and air kerma standards based on spherical and large diameter, large length cylindrical chambers and decreases of 0.3-0.5% for standards based on large diameter pancake chambers. (author).

  3. Validation of Am-241 measurement in ion chamber type smoke detector by using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Khairul Nizam Razali

    2005-01-01

    Smoke detectors are useful devices in modern days that able to save many lives. Even though, the use of ion chamber type smoke detector (usually contain Americium-241) was exempted in Malaysia, but the trading of this device was controlled by regulation, under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304). The activity of the Am-241 can be measured by using the Gamma Spectrometry System since it was much easier, compared to Alpha Spectrometry System. To do so, the system was first need to be calibrated using the standard reference source to find the efficiency of the germanium detector. The method used for the measurement was first validated for several relevant parameters, which include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, working range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness to ensure it was fit for the purpose. The measured Am-241 activity inside the smoke detector will be reported together with a reasonable expanded uncertainty arise from the measurement. (Author)

  4. Ion chamber-electrometer measurement system for radiation protection tests in X-ray equipment for interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    A new parallel plate ionization chamber with volume of 500 cc and an electrometer with digital interface for data acquisition, configuring an ion chamber electrometer measurement system, were developed to comply with specific requirements for compulsory radiation protection tests in interventional X-ray equipment. The ion chamber has as main characteristics: low cost, mechanical strength and response variation with beam energy of less than 5% in the 40 kV to 150 kV range. The electrometer has a high gain (5x10 8 V/A) transimpedance amplifier circuit and a data acquisition and control system developed in LabVIEW ® platform, including an integrated power supply for the ion chamber bias with adjustable DC voltage output from O to 1000 V and an air density correction system. Electric field calculations, laboratory measurements in standard beams and computational simulations of radiation interactions in chamber volume with Monte Carlo Method were employed in the elaborated methodology of the ion chamber development, which was tested and validated. It was also developed a simplified methodology for electrometer calibration that assures metrological trustworthiness of the measurement system. Tests for the system performance evaluation as environmental influence response, energy response, angular dependency, linearity and air kerma and air kerma rate dependency were performed according to international standards and requirements. Additionally, for a detailed evaluation of the developed ion chamber, simulations with various scattered radiation spectra were performed. The system was applied in leakage radiation, residual radiation and scattered radiation tests, being compared with other reference systems and validated for laboratorial test routine. (author)

  5. IMRT implementation and patient specific dose verification with film and ion chamber array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminathan, S.; Manickam, R.; Chandraraj, V.; Supe, S. S.; Keshava, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of Intensity Modulation Radiotherapy (IMRT) and patient dose verification was carried out with film and I'mariXX using linear accelerator with 120-leaf Millennium dynamic multi leaf collimator (dMLC). The basic mechanical and electrical commissioning and quality assurance tests of linear accelerator were carried out. The leaf position accuracy and leaf position repeatability checks were performed for static MLC positions. Picket fence test and garden fence test were performed to check the stability of the dMLC and the reproducibility of the gap between leaves. The radiation checks were performed to verify the position accuracy of MLCs in the collimator system. The dMLC dosimetric checks like output stability, average leaf transmission and dosimetric leaf separation were also investigated. The variation of output with gravitation at different gantry angles was found to be within 0.9%. The measured average leaf transmission for 6 MV was 1.6% and 1.8% for 18 MV beam. The dosimetric leaf separation was found to be 2.2 mm and 2.3 mm for 6 MV and 18 MV beams. In order to check the consistency of the stability and the precision of the dMLC, it is necessary to carryout regular weekly and monthly checks. The dynalog files analysis for Garden fence, leaf gap width and step wedge test patterns carried out weekly were in good agreement. Pretreatment verification was performed for 50 patients with ion chamber and I'matiXX device. The variations of calculated absolute dose for all treatment fields with the ion chamber measurement were within the acceptable criterion. Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculated dose distribution pattern was comparable with the I'matriXX measured dose distribution pattern. Out of 50 patients for which the comparison was made, 36 patients were agreed with the gamma pixel match of>95% and 14 patients were with the gamma pixel match of 90-95% with the criteria of 3% delta dose (DD) and 3 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA). Commissioning and

  6. Neutron/gamma dose separation by the multiple-ion-chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many mixed n/γ dosimetry systems rely on two dosimeters, one composed of a tissue-equivalent material and the other made from a non-hydrogenous material. The paired chamber technique works well in fields of neutron radiation nearly identical in spectral composition to that in which the dosimeters were calibrated. However, this technique is drastically compromised in phantom due to the degradation of the neutron spectrum. The three-dosimeter technique allows for the fall-off in neutron sensitivity of the two non-hydrogenous dosimeters. Precise and physically meaningful results were obtained with this technique with a D-T source in air and in phantom and with simultaneous D-T neutron and 60 Co gamma ray irradiation in air. The MORSE-CG coupled n/γ three-dimensional Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in a water phantom. Gamma doses calculated in phantom with this code were generally lower than corresponding ion chamber measurements. This can be explained by the departure of irradiation conditions from ideal narrow-beam geometry. 97 references

  7. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ion Chamber for Process Tritium Measurement and Use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, L.B.C.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Bruce, J.; Banks, J.; Scales, S.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of process measurements of tritium with conventional ion chambers is often affected by surface tritium contamination. The measurement of tritium in the exhaust of the JET torus is particularly difficult due to surface contamination with highly tritiated hydrocarbons. JET's first unsuccessful attempt to overcome the contamination problem was to use an ion chamber, with a heating element as the chamber wall so that it could be periodically decontaminated by baking. The newly developed ion chamber works on the principle of minimising the surface area within the boundary of the anode and cathode.This paper details the design of the ion chamber, which utilises a grid of 50-micron tungsten wire to define the ion chamber wall and the collector electrode. The effective surface area which, by contamination, is able to effect the measurement of tritium within the process gas has been reduced by a factor of ∼200 over a conventional ion chamber. It is concluded that the new process ion chamber enables sensitive accurate tritium measurements free from contamination issues. It will be a powerful new tool for future tritium experiments both to improve tritium tracking and to help in the understanding of tritium retention issues

  8. Dosimetric comparison of water phantoms, ion chambers, and data acquisition modes for LINAC characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Wilbert; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study a dosimetric comparison utilizing continuous data acquisition and discrete data acquisition is examined using IBA Blue Phantom (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and PTW (PTW, Freiberg, Germany) MP3-M water tanks. The tanks were compared according to several factors including set up time, ease of use, and data acquisition times. A tertiary objective is to study the response of several ionization chambers in the two tanks examined. Methods: Measurements made using a Varian 23EX LINAC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) include PDDs and beam profiles for various field sizes with IBA CC13, PTW Semiflex 31010, PTW Pinpoint N31016, and PTW 31013 ion chambers for photons (6, 18 MV) and electrons (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV). Radial and transverse profile scans were done at depths of maximum dose, 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm using the same set of tanks and detectors for the photon beams. Radial and transverse profile scans were done at depth of maximum dose for the electron beams on the same tanks and chambers. Data processing and analysis was performed using PTW's MEPHYSTO Navigator software and IBA's OmniPro Accept version 6.6 for the respective water tank systems. Results: PDD values agree to within 1% and dmax to within 1 mm for the PTW MP3-M tank using PTW 31010 and Blue Phantom using IBA CC13 chamber, respectively and larger discrepancy with the PTW PinPoint N31016 chamber at 6 MV. With respect to setup time the PTW MP3-M and IBA Blue phantom tank took about 20 and 40 min, respectively. Scan times were longer by 5–15 min per field size in the PTW MP3-M tank for the square field sizes from 1 cm to 40 cm as compared to the IBA Blue phantom. However, data processing times were higher by 7 min per field size with the IBA system. Conclusions: Tank measurements showed little deviation with the higher energy photons as compared to the lower energy photons with regards to the PDD measurements. Chamber construction as well as tank

  9. Design of a prototype tri-electrode ion-chamber for megavoltage X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Gopal, Arun; Jain, Jinesh; Xia Junyi; DiBianca, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy (megavoltage) X-ray imaging is widely used in industry (e.g., aerospace, construction, material sciences) as well as in health care (radiation therapy). One of the fundamental problems with megavoltage imaging is poor contrast and spatial resolution in the detected images due to the dominance of Compton scattering at megavoltage X-ray energies. Therefore, although megavoltage X-rays can be used to image highly attenuating objects that cannot be imaged at kilovoltage energies, the former does not provide the high image quality that is associated with the latter. A high contrast and spatial resolution detector for high-energy X-ray fields called the kinestatic charge detector (KCD) is presented here. The KCD is a tri-electrode ion-chamber based on highly pressurized noble gas. The KCD operates in conjunction with a strip-collimated X-ray beam (for high scatter rejection) to scan across the imaging field. Its thick detector design and unique operating principle provides enhanced charge signal integration for high quality imaging (quantum efficiency ∼50%) despite the unfavorable implications of high-energy X-ray interactions on image quality. The proposed design for a large-field prototype KCD includes a cylindrical pressure chamber along with 576 signal-collecting electrodes capable of resolving at 2 mm -1 . The collecting electrodes are routed out of the chamber through the flat end-cap, thereby optimizing the mechanical strength of the chamber. This article highlights the simplified design of the chamber using minimal components for simple assembly. In addition, fundamental imaging measurements and estimates of ion recombination that were performed on a proof-of-principle test chamber are presented. The imaging performance of the prototype KCD was found to be an order-of-magnitude greater than commercial phosphor screen based flat-panel systems, demonstrating the potential for high-quality megavoltage imaging for a variety of industrial applications

  10. A beta skin dose monitor using an Eberline RO-2 ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jester, W.A.; Levine, S.H.; Lin, T.J.; Hock, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have developed a portable beta skin dose monitor that uses an Eberline RO-2trademark ion chamber. The development was based, in part, upon the previous development of a beta skin dose monitor employing silicon detectors. In this current work, the two entrance windows of the RO-2 were replaced by windows having a total mass thickness of 1.74 mg/cm 2 . A two section source-detector holder was constructed. One section fastens to the RO-2 and holds the detector at the right position to determine the contact skin dose from beta emitters located on surfaces. A second section attaches to the first, and provides fixed counting geometry for radioactive samples such as hot particles. The first section also contains a slide mechanism that allows the placement of absorbers of zero (0), 8.38, and 1000 mg/cm 2 between the detector window and the beta source. The detector response to these absorbers allows for the determination of beta skin dose. The system was modeled using a Monte Carlo beta attenuation code computing the beta skin dose to RO-2 detector response as a function of absorber thickness, average beta energy, source diameter and source position. Using the RO-2 reading from each of the three absorber configurations allows the calculation of beta skin dose and the average beta energy. The results of these calculations were confirmed through the use of three massless radioactive beta sources, traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and several utility-supplied hot particles having well-established contact skin doses. An extrapolation chamber was also used to confirm the results obtained from this monitor. This system is now use at the Pennsylvania Power and Light (PP and L) Company, the project sponsor. ((orig.))

  11. TH-AB-201-08: Ion Chamber Dose Measurements - Problems with the Temperature-Pressure Correction Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgouin, A [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); McEwen, M [National Research Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of ionization chambers over a wide pressure range. Methods: Three cylindrical and two parallel-plate designs of ion chamber were investigated. The ion chambers were placed in vessel where the pressure was varied from atmospheric (101 kPa) down to 5 kPa. Measurements were made using 60Co and high-energy electron beams. The pressure was measured to better than 0.1% and multiple data sets were obtained for each chamber at both polarities to investigate pressure cycling and dependency on the sign of the charge collected. Results: For all types of chamber, the ionization current, corrected using the standard PTP, showed a similar behaviour. Deviations from the standard theory were generally small for Co-60 but very significant for electron beams, up to 20 % below P = 10 kPa. The effect was found to be always larger when collecting negative charge, suggesting a dependence on free-electron collection. The most likely source of such electrons is low-energy electrons emitted from the electrodes. This signal would be independent of air pressure within the chamber cavity. The data was analyzed to extract this signal and it was found to be a non-negligible component of the ionization current at atmospheric pressure. In the case of the parallel plate chambers, the effect was approximately 0.25 %. For the cylindrical chambers the effect was larger - up to 1.2 % - and dependent on the chamber type, which would be consistent with electron emission from different wall materials. For the electron beams, the correction factor was dependent on the electron energy and approximately double that observed in 60Co. Conclusion: Measurements have indicated significant deviations of the standard pressure correction that are consistent with electron emission from chamber electrodes. This has implications for both primary standard and reference ion chamber-based dosimetry.

  12. A comparative study of the work involved in measuring profiles using ion chambers, a linear diode array and film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykers, K.L.; RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC; Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW; Geso, M.; Brown, G.M.; Olilver, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    depth and -0.04 to 0.09 cm at 12.5 cm depth. Film profiles measured with the Scanditronix and Wellhoefer systems were essentially indistinguishable. Film profiles compared with ion chamber profiles agreed well in terms of field size, position, height of maximum and profile shape. Film profiles deviated most from ion chamber profiles in the post-penumbra regions. LDA measured profiles agreed well with the ion chamber profiles in the post-penumbra regions, field size and general profile shape but gave maximums with marginally greater amplitudes. Dynamic wedge profiles measured with film and the LDA exhibited the same trend in agreement as observed for physical wedge profiles. The method described for taking profile measurements with film held in solid water allows for the generation of data which is comparable with that measured with an ion chamber in real water. Film requires only one delivery of the wedged field to generate an infinite number of highly resolved profiles. The time needed to measure LDA profiles is significantly greater than that required when measuring with film. The 25 mm spacing of the diodes on the LDA requires it to be moved repeatedly with many measurements taken to give a single high resolution profile. The need to take multiple exposures to achieve high resolution profiles would also be a requirement of a multi channel ion chamber array

  13. Ion chamber area monitor for low level scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.; Robinet, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    An economical, high confidence instrument was developed for laboratories using low energy x-rays. The instrument detects increases in background caused by scattered radiation. Exposure rates close to the open part of the x-ray tubes are of the order of 10 3 to 10 6 R/min. A few meters away the background is a few tenths of a mR/hr

  14. The Octavius1500 2D ion chamber array and its associated phantoms: Dosimetric characterization of a new prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P.; Basta, Katarzyna; Evrard, Marie; Ghislain, Michel; Sergent, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to characterize the prototype of the new Octavius1500 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) 2D ion chamber array, covering its use in different phantom setups, from the most basic solid water sandwich setup to the more complex cylindrical Octavius ® 4D (Oct4D) (PTW) phantom/detector combination. The new detector houses nearly twice the amount of ion chambers as its predecessors (Seven29 and Octavius729), thereby tackling one of the most important limitations of ion chamber (or diode) arrays, namely the limited detector density. The 0.06 cm 3 cubic ion chambers are now arranged in a checkerboard pattern, leaving no lines (neither longitudinally nor laterally) without detectors. Methods: All measurements were performed on a dual energy (6 MV and 18 MV) iX Clinac (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and all calculations were done in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian) with the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm. First, the basic characteristics of the 2D array, such as measurement stability, dose rate dependence and dose linearity were investigated in the solid water sandwich setup. Second, the directional dependence was assessed to allow the evaluation of the new Octavius2D phantom (Oct2D 1500 ) for planar verification measurements of composite plans. Third, measurements were performed in the Oct4D phantom to evaluate the impact of the increased detector density on the accuracy of the volumetric dose reconstruction. Results: While showing equally good dose linearity and dose rate independence, the Octavius1500 outperforms the previous models because of its instantaneous measurement stability and its twofold active area coverage. Orthogonal field-by-field measurements immediately benefit from the increased detector density. The 3.9 cm wide compensation cavity in the new Oct2D 1500 phantom prototype adequately corrects for directional dependence from the rear, resulting in good agreement within the target dose. Discrepancies may

  15. SU-E-T-392: Evaluation of Ion Chamber/film and Log File Based QA to Detect Delivery Errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C; Mason, B; Kirsner, S; Ohrt, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ion chamber and film (ICAF) is a method used to verify patient dose prior to treatment. More recently, log file based QA has been shown as an alternative for measurement based QA. In this study, we delivered VMAT plans with and without errors to determine if ICAF and/or log file based QA was able to detect the errors. Methods: Using two VMAT patients, the original treatment plan plus 7 additional plans with delivery errors introduced were generated and delivered. The erroneous plans had gantry, collimator, MLC, gantry and collimator, collimator and MLC, MLC and gantry, and gantry, collimator, and MLC errors. The gantry and collimator errors were off by 4 0 for one of the two arcs. The MLC error introduced was one in which the opening aperture didn’t move throughout the delivery of the field. For each delivery, an ICAF measurement was made as well as a dose comparison based upon log files. Passing criteria to evaluate the plans were ion chamber less and 5% and film 90% of pixels pass the 3mm/3% gamma analysis(GA). For log file analysis 90% of voxels pass the 3mm/3% 3D GA and beam parameters match what was in the plan. Results: Two original plans were delivered and passed both ICAF and log file base QA. Both ICAF and log file QA met the dosimetry criteria on 4 of the 12 erroneous cases analyzed (2 cases were not analyzed). For the log file analysis, all 12 erroneous plans alerted a mismatch in delivery versus what was planned. The 8 plans that didn’t meet criteria all had MLC errors. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that log file based pre-treatment QA was able to detect small errors that may not be detected using an ICAF and both methods of were able to detect larger delivery errors

  16. Monitoring tritium in air containing other beta-emitters using ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A flow-through ionization chamber instrument is described which is capable of measuring tritium in air containing high concentrations of other beta emitters. The instrument employs a separate concentric chamber with a thin common wall opaque only to tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers are subtracted leaving only the current due to tritium. With a 1.6-l sampling chamber and an 18-s time constant, tritium concentrations of 10 -6 μCi/ml to 10 -4 μCi/ml are measured with 2 sigma confidence in background beta concentrations of 4 x 10 -5 μCi/ml to 0.4 muCi/ml, respectively. (auth)

  17. Dosimetric comparison between nomex multimeter and Rad Cal Ion Chamber in nucletron simulix evaluation simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvan, C. Senthamil; Sureka, C.S.; Holla, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    X-ray tube performance is considered as one of the most important issues in medical imaging science and radiation protection. Hence, all necessary measures should be taken to maintain an effective performance of the X-ray machine through regular calibration and maintenance. Based on this, quality assurance tests of diagnostic X-ray tube are carried out periodically because poor performance of the equipment will directly lead to poor image quality and increase the dose to the patients. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate instrument for dosimetry should be done very carefully

  18. Poster - Thurs Eve-09: Evaluation of a commercial 2D ion-chamber array for intensity modulated radiation therapy dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, X; Bracken, G; Kerr, A

    2008-07-01

    Experimental verification of calculated dose from a treatment planning system is often essential for quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Film dosimetry and single ion chamber measurements are commonly used for IMRT QA. Film dosimetry has very good spatial resolution, but is labor intensive and absolute dose is not reliable. Ion chamber measurements are still required for absolute dose after measurements using films. Dosimeters based on 2D detector arrays that can measure 2D dose in real-time are gaining wider use. These devices provide a much easier and reliable tool for IMRT QA. We report the evaluation of a commercial 2D ion chamber array, including its basic performance characteristics, such as linearity, reproducibility and uniformity of relative ion chamber sensitivities, and comparisons between measured 2D dose and calculated dose with a commercial treatment planning system. Our analysis shows this matrix has excellent linearity and reproducibility, but relative sensitivities are tilted such that the +Y region is over sensitive, while the -Y region is under sensitive. Despite this behavior, our results show good agreement between measured 2D dose profiles and Eclipse planned data for IMRT test plans and a few verification plans for clinical breast field-in-field plans. The gamma values (3% or 3 mm distance-to-agreement) are all less than 1 except for one or two pixels at the field edge This device provides a fast and reliable stand-alone dosimeter for IMRT QA. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. LET dependence of GafChromic films and an ion chamber in low-energy proton dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Daniel; Parker, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Green, Stuart; Hugtenburg, Richard; Wojnecki, Cecile [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham, B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Palmans, Hugo [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionizing Radiation, Teddington (United Kingdom)], E-mail: djk191@bham.ac.uk

    2010-01-21

    Dosimetry using a PMMA phantom was performed in 15 and 29 MeV proton beams from the Birmingham cyclotron, with a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber and GafChromic EBT and MD-V2-55 film. Simulations of the depth-dose curves were performed with FLUKA 2008.3 and MCNPX 2.5.0, which agreed almost perfectly with each other in range and only differed by 2% in the Bragg peak (BP) region. FLUKA was also used to calculate k{sub Q} factors for Markus chamber measurements as an improvement to the IAEA TRS-398 values in low-energy beams. FLUKA depth-dose simulations overestimate the BP height measured by ion chamber by about 10%, where the initial proton energy spread was estimated by fitting to the slope of the measured BP distal edge. Both GafChromic films showed an under-response in the BP compared to ion chamber; however, EBT exhibits this effect at lower energies than MD-V2-55. A possible reason for this is attributed to the shape and arrangement of the monomer particles being different in the active components of EBT and MD-V2-55. Relative effectiveness (RE) of both films is presented as functions of residual range R{sub res} in water and peak proton energy determined by FLUKA, with considerations for the spatial separation of the two active layers in each film. The proton energies at which RE reduces to 90% of maximum film response are 6.7 and 3.2 MeV for MD-V2-55 and EBT, respectively. Additionally, a beam quality correction factor (g{sub Q,Q{sub 0}}) is suggested for both GafChromic films, involving water-to-film stopping power ratios evaluated using ICRU recommendations, and a polymer yield factor G{sub Q{sub 0}}/G{sub Q}. RE in this work is equated to the reciprocal of the polymer yield factor. The calculated values of (s{sub w,film}){sub Q} /(s{sub w,film}){sub Q{sub 0}} are constant within 2.1% and 1.2% across the proton energy range of 1-300 MeV for EBT and MD-V2-55, respectively, so it is concluded that the polymer yield factor is the dominant factor

  20. LET dependence of GafChromic films and an ion chamber in low-energy proton dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Daniel; Parker, David; Green, Stuart; Hugtenburg, Richard; Wojnecki, Cecile; Palmans, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Dosimetry using a PMMA phantom was performed in 15 and 29 MeV proton beams from the Birmingham cyclotron, with a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber and GafChromic EBT and MD-V2-55 film. Simulations of the depth-dose curves were performed with FLUKA 2008.3 and MCNPX 2.5.0, which agreed almost perfectly with each other in range and only differed by 2% in the Bragg peak (BP) region. FLUKA was also used to calculate k Q factors for Markus chamber measurements as an improvement to the IAEA TRS-398 values in low-energy beams. FLUKA depth-dose simulations overestimate the BP height measured by ion chamber by about 10%, where the initial proton energy spread was estimated by fitting to the slope of the measured BP distal edge. Both GafChromic films showed an under-response in the BP compared to ion chamber; however, EBT exhibits this effect at lower energies than MD-V2-55. A possible reason for this is attributed to the shape and arrangement of the monomer particles being different in the active components of EBT and MD-V2-55. Relative effectiveness (RE) of both films is presented as functions of residual range R res in water and peak proton energy determined by FLUKA, with considerations for the spatial separation of the two active layers in each film. The proton energies at which RE reduces to 90% of maximum film response are 6.7 and 3.2 MeV for MD-V2-55 and EBT, respectively. Additionally, a beam quality correction factor (g Q,Q 0 ) is suggested for both GafChromic films, involving water-to-film stopping power ratios evaluated using ICRU recommendations, and a polymer yield factor G Q 0 /G Q . RE in this work is equated to the reciprocal of the polymer yield factor. The calculated values of (s w,film ) Q /(s w,film ) Q 0 are constant within 2.1% and 1.2% across the proton energy range of 1-300 MeV for EBT and MD-V2-55, respectively, so it is concluded that the polymer yield factor is the dominant factor causing the LET quenching effect.

  1. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire's multiple scattering theory and Vavilov's energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program's accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented

  2. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F

    1995-12-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  3. Study on the dose response characteristics of a scanning liquid ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Shao Gang; Song Yi Xin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the dose response characteristics and the influence factors such as gantry angle, field size and acquisition mode on the dosimetric response curves, when using a scanning liquid ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for dose verification. Methods: All experiments were carried out on a Varian 600 C/D accelerator (6 MV X-ray) equipped with a Varian PortalVision sup T sup M MK2 type EPID. To obtain the dose response curve, the relationship between the incident radiation intensity to the detector and the pixel value output from the EPID were established. Firstly, the different dose rates of 6 MV X-rays were obtained by varying SSD. Secondly, three digital portal images were acquired for each dose rate using the EPID and averaged to avoid the influence of the dose rate fluctuations of the accelerator. The pixel values of all images were read using self-designed image analysis software, and and average for a region consisting of 11 x 11 pixels around the center was taken as the res...

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  7. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  8. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  9. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  11. The effect of low-energy electrons on the response of ion chambers to ionizing photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, Daniel J.

    Cavity ionization chambers are one of the most popular and widely used devices for quantifying ionizing photon beams. This popularity originates from the precision of these devices and the relative ease with which ionization measurements are converted to quantities of interest in therapeutic radiology or radiation protection, collectively referred to as radiation dosimetry. The formalisms used for these conversions, known as cavity theory, make several assumptions about the electron spectrum in the low-energy range resulting from the incident photon beam. These electrons often account for a significant fraction of the ion chamber response. An inadequate treatment of low-energy electrons can therefore significantly effect calculated quantities of interest. This thesis sets out to investigate the effect of low-energy electrons on (1) the use of Spencer-Attix cavity theory with 60Co beams; and (2) the standard temperature-pressure correction factor, P TP, used to relate the measured ionization to a set of reference temperature and pressure conditions for vented ion chambers. Problems with the PTP correction are shown to arise when used with kilovoltage x rays, where ionization measurements are due primarily to electrons that do not have enough energy to cross the cavity. A combination of measurements and Monte Carlo calculations using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code demonstrate the breakdown of PTP in these situations when used with non-air-equivalent chambers. The extent of the breakdown is shown to depend on cavity size, energy of the incident photons, and the composition of the chamber. In the worst case, the standard P TP factor overcorrects the response of an aluminum chamber by ≈12% at an air density typical of Mexico City. The response of a more common graphite-walled chamber with similar dimensions at the same air density is undercorrected by ≈ 2%. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code is also used to investigate Spencer-Attix cavity theory as it is used in the

  12. A 2D ion chamber array audit of wedged and asymmetric fields in an inhomogeneous lung phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lye, Jessica; Dunn, Leon, E-mail: leon.dunn@arpansa.gov.au; Alves, Andrew [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Kenny, John [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and Radiation Oncology Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Lehmann, Joerg; Williams, Ivan [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and School of Applied Science, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Kron, Tomas [School of Applied Science, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 3008 (Australia); Cole, Andrew [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. Methods: The ACDS Level II audit measures the dose delivered in 2D planes using an ionization chamber based array positioned at multiple depths. Measurements are made in rectilinear homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms composed of slabs of solid water and lung. Computer generated computed tomography data sets of the rectilinear phantoms are supplied to the facility prior to audit for planning of a range of cases including reference fields, asymmetric fields, and wedged fields. The audit assesses 3D planning with 6 MV photons with a static (zero degree) gantry. Scoring is performed using local dose differences between the planned and measured dose within 80% of the field width. The overall audit result is determined by the maximum dose difference over all scoring points, cases, and planes. Pass (Optimal Level) is defined as maximum dose difference ≤3.3%, Pass (Action Level) is ≤5.0%, and Fail (Out of Tolerance) is >5.0%. Results: At close of 2013, the ACDS had performed 24 Level II audits. 63% of the audits passed, 33% failed, and the remaining audit was not assessable. Of the 15 audits that passed, 3 were at Pass (Action Level). The high fail rate is largely due to a systemic issue with modeling asymmetric 60° wedges which caused a delivered overdose of 5%–8%. Conclusions: The ACDS has implemented a nonreference condition Level II type audit, based on ion chamber 2D array measurements in an inhomogeneous slab phantom. The powerful diagnostic ability of this audit has allowed the ACDS to rigorously test the treatment planning systems implemented in Australian radiotherapy facilities. Recommendations from audits have led to

  13. A 2D ion chamber array audit of wedged and asymmetric fields in an inhomogeneous lung phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, Jessica; Dunn, Leon; Alves, Andrew; Kenny, John; Lehmann, Joerg; Williams, Ivan; Kron, Tomas; Cole, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. Methods: The ACDS Level II audit measures the dose delivered in 2D planes using an ionization chamber based array positioned at multiple depths. Measurements are made in rectilinear homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms composed of slabs of solid water and lung. Computer generated computed tomography data sets of the rectilinear phantoms are supplied to the facility prior to audit for planning of a range of cases including reference fields, asymmetric fields, and wedged fields. The audit assesses 3D planning with 6 MV photons with a static (zero degree) gantry. Scoring is performed using local dose differences between the planned and measured dose within 80% of the field width. The overall audit result is determined by the maximum dose difference over all scoring points, cases, and planes. Pass (Optimal Level) is defined as maximum dose difference ≤3.3%, Pass (Action Level) is ≤5.0%, and Fail (Out of Tolerance) is >5.0%. Results: At close of 2013, the ACDS had performed 24 Level II audits. 63% of the audits passed, 33% failed, and the remaining audit was not assessable. Of the 15 audits that passed, 3 were at Pass (Action Level). The high fail rate is largely due to a systemic issue with modeling asymmetric 60° wedges which caused a delivered overdose of 5%–8%. Conclusions: The ACDS has implemented a nonreference condition Level II type audit, based on ion chamber 2D array measurements in an inhomogeneous slab phantom. The powerful diagnostic ability of this audit has allowed the ACDS to rigorously test the treatment planning systems implemented in Australian radiotherapy facilities. Recommendations from audits have led to

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  15. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  16. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  17. TH-E-BRE-03: A Novel Method to Account for Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect in a Commercial Treatment Planning System Through Convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, B; Li, J; Liu, C; Yan, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fourier-based deconvolution approaches used to eliminate ion chamber volume averaging effect (VAE) suffer from measurement noise. This work aims to investigate a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE through convolution in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Beam profiles of various field sizes and depths of an Elekta Synergy were collected with a finite size ion chamber (CC13) to derive a clinically acceptable beam model for a commercial TPS (Pinnacle 3 ), following the vendor-recommended modeling process. The TPS-calculated profiles were then externally convolved with a Gaussian function representing the chamber (σ = chamber radius). The agreement between the convolved profiles and measured profiles was evaluated with a one dimensional Gamma analysis (1%/1mm) as an objective function for optimization. TPS beam model parameters for focal and extra-focal sources were optimized and loaded back into the TPS for new calculation. This process was repeated until the objective function converged using a Simplex optimization method. Planar dose of 30 IMRT beams were calculated with both the clinical and the re-optimized beam models and compared with MapCHEC™ measurements to evaluate the new beam model. Results: After re-optimization, the two orthogonal source sizes for the focal source reduced from 0.20/0.16 cm to 0.01/0.01 cm, which were the minimal allowed values in Pinnacle. No significant change in the parameters for the extra-focal source was observed. With the re-optimized beam model, average Gamma passing rate for the 30 IMRT beams increased from 92.1% to 99.5% with a 3%/3mm criterion and from 82.6% to 97.2% with a 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: We proposed a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE in a commercial TPS through convolution. The reoptimized beam model, with VAE accounted for through a reliable and easy-to-implement convolution and optimization approach, outperforms the original beam model in standard IMRT QA

  18. A study of airborne radon levels in Paarl houses (South Africa) and associated source terms, using electret ion chambers and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7537 (South Africa)], E-mail: rlindsay@uwc.ac.za; Newman, R.T. [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Physics Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Speelman, W.J. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7537 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations were measured in Paarl homes by means of electret ion chambers. The concentrations varied between 28 and 465 Bq m{sup -3}. The average values (Bq m{sup -3}) found in houses on the west and east side of the Berg River, which bisects Paarl, were 132 ({+-}11) and 37 ({+-}3), respectively. Radiometric analyses of soils show that the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentration is three times higher on the west than on the east side of the Berg River.

  19. A study of airborne radon levels in Paarl houses (South Africa) and associated source terms, using electret ion chambers and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Newman, R.T.; Speelman, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations were measured in Paarl homes by means of electret ion chambers. The concentrations varied between 28 and 465 Bq m -3 . The average values (Bq m -3 ) found in houses on the west and east side of the Berg River, which bisects Paarl, were 132 (±11) and 37 (±3), respectively. Radiometric analyses of soils show that the mean 226 Ra activity concentration is three times higher on the west than on the east side of the Berg River

  20. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm3 ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, J; Sanchez-Doblado, F; Capote, R; Terron, J A; Gomez, F

    2006-01-01

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm 3 ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface

  1. Ion chamber-electrometer measurement system for radiation protection tests in X-ray equipment for interventional procedures; Sistema de medicao camara de ionizacao-eletrometro para ensaios de protecao radiologica em equipamentos de raios X para procedimentos intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio

    2012-07-01

    A new parallel plate ionization chamber with volume of 500 cc and an electrometer with digital interface for data acquisition, configuring an ion chamber electrometer measurement system, were developed to comply with specific requirements for compulsory radiation protection tests in interventional X-ray equipment. The ion chamber has as main characteristics: low cost, mechanical strength and response variation with beam energy of less than 5% in the 40 kV to 150 kV range. The electrometer has a high gain (5x10{sup 8} V/A) transimpedance amplifier circuit and a data acquisition and control system developed in LabVIEW Registered-Sign platform, including an integrated power supply for the ion chamber bias with adjustable DC voltage output from O to 1000 V and an air density correction system. Electric field calculations, laboratory measurements in standard beams and computational simulations of radiation interactions in chamber volume with Monte Carlo Method were employed in the elaborated methodology of the ion chamber development, which was tested and validated. It was also developed a simplified methodology for electrometer calibration that assures metrological trustworthiness of the measurement system. Tests for the system performance evaluation as environmental influence response, energy response, angular dependency, linearity and air kerma and air kerma rate dependency were performed according to international standards and requirements. Additionally, for a detailed evaluation of the developed ion chamber, simulations with various scattered radiation spectra were performed. The system was applied in leakage radiation, residual radiation and scattered radiation tests, being compared with other reference systems and validated for laboratorial test routine. (author)

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Cf-252 (sf) Neutron and Gamma Observables in CGMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Austin Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stetcu, Ionel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kiedrowski, Brian Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaffke, Patrick John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    CGMF is a Monte Carlo code that simulates the decay of primary fission fragments by emission of neutrons and gamma rays, according to the Hauser-Feshbach equations. As the CGMF code was recently integrated into the MCNP6.2 transport code, great emphasis has been placed on providing optimal parameters to CGMF such that many different observables are accurately represented. Of these observables, the prompt neutron spectrum, prompt neutron multiplicity, prompt gamma spectrum, and prompt gamma multiplicity are crucial for accurate transport simulations of criticality and nonproliferation applications. This contribution to the ongoing efforts to improve CGMF presents a study of the sensitivity of various neutron and gamma observables to several input parameters for Californium-252 spontaneous fission. Among the most influential parameters are those that affect the input yield distributions in fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE). A new scheme for representing Y(A,TKE) was implemented in CGMF using three fission modes, S1, S2 and SL. The sensitivity profiles were calculated for 17 total parameters, which show that the neutron multiplicity distribution is strongly affected by the TKE distribution of the fragments. The total excitation energy (TXE) of the fragments is shared according to a parameter RT, which is defined as the ratio of the light to heavy initial temperatures. The sensitivity profile of the neutron multiplicity shows a second order effect of RT on the mean neutron multiplicity. A final sensitivity profile was produced for the parameter alpha, which affects the spin of the fragments. Higher values of alpha lead to higher fragment spins, which inhibit the emission of neutrons. Understanding the sensitivity of the prompt neutron and gamma observables to the many CGMF input parameters provides a platform for the optimization of these parameters.

  3. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    CERN Document Server

    Rivard, M J; D'Errico, F; Tsai, J S; Ulin, K; Engler, M J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (mu g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra resul...

  4. Cost-effective pediatric head and body phantoms for computed tomography dosimetry and its evaluation using pencil ion chamber and CT dose profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saravanakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a pediatric head and body phantom was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA at a low cost when compared to commercially available phantoms for the purpose of computed tomography (CT dosimetry. The dimensions of head and body phantoms were 10 cm diameter, 15 cm length and 16 cm diameter, 15 cm length, respectively. The dose from a 128-slice CT machine received by the head and body phantom at the center and periphery were measured using a 100 mm pencil ion chamber and 150 mm CT dose profiler (CTDP. Using these values, the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw and in turn the volumetric CTDI (CTDIv were calculated for various combinations of tube voltage and current-time product. A similar study was carried out using standard calibrated phantom and the results have been compared with the fabricated ones to ascertain that the performance of the latter is equivalent to that of the former. Finally, CTDIv measured using fabricated and standard phantoms were compared with respective values displayed on the console. The difference between the values was well within the limits specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB, India. These results indicate that the cost-effective pediatric phantom can be employed for CT dosimetry.

  5. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Sitha [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  6. SU-E-T-242: Monte Carlo Simulations Used to Test the Perturbation of a Reference Ion Chamber Prototype Used for Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Quino, L; Calvo, O; Huerta, C; DeWeese, M [Midsouth Radation Physics, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the perturbation due to the use of a novel Reference Ion Chamber designed to measure small field dosimetry (KermaX Plus C by IBA). Methods: Using the Phase-space files for TrueBeam photon beams available by Varian in IAEA-compliant format for 6 and 15 MV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc to investigate the perturbation introduced by a reference chamber into the PDDs and profiles measured in water tank. Field sizes ranging from 1×1, 2×2,3×3, 5×5 cm2 were simulated for both energies with and without a 0.5 mm foil of Aluminum which is equivalent to the attenuation equivalent of the reference chamber specifications in a water phantom of 30×30×30 cm3 and a pixel resolution of 2 mm. The PDDs, profiles, and gamma analysis of the simulations were performed as well as a energy spectrum analysis of the phase-space files generated during the simulation. Results: Examination of the energy spectrum analysis performed shown a very small increment of the energy spectrum at the build-up region but no difference is appreciated after dmax. The PDD, profiles and gamma analysis had shown a very good agreement among the simulations with and without the Al foil, with a gamma analysis with a criterion of 2% and 2mm resulting in 99.9% of the points passing this criterion. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential benefits of using the KermaX Plus C as reference chamber in the measurement of PDD and Profiles for small fields since the perturbation due to in the presence of the chamber the perturbation is minimal and the chamber can be considered transparent to the photon beam.

  7. SU-E-T-83: A Study On Evaluating the Directional Dependency of 2D Seven 29 Ion Chamber Array Clinically with Different IMRT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Aswathi, C.P. [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the directional dependency of 2D seven 29 ion chamber array clinically with different IMRT plans. Methods: 25 patients already treated with IMRT plans were selected for the study. Verification plans were created for each treatment plan in eclipse 10 treatment planning system using the AAA algorithm with the 2D array and the Octavius CT phantom. Verification plans were done 2 times for a single patient. First plan with real IMRT (plan-related approach) and second plan with zero degree gantry angle (field-related approach). Measurements were performed on a Varian Clinac-iX, linear accelerator equipped with a millennium 120 multileaf collimator. Fluence was measured for all the delivered plans and analyzed using the verisoft software. Comparison was done by selecting the fluence delivered in static gantry (zero degree gantry) versus IMRT with real gantry angles. Results: The gamma pass percentage is greater than 97 % for all IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle and between 95%–98% for real gantry angles. Dose difference between the TPS calculated and measured for IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle was found to be between (0.03 to 0.06Gy) and with real gantry angles between (0.02 to 0.05Gy). There is a significant difference between the gamma analysis between the zero degree and true angle with a significance of 0.002. Standard deviation of gamma pass percentage between the IMRT plans with zero gantry angle was 0.68 and for IMRT with true gantry angle was found to be 0.74. Conclusion: The gamma analysis for IMRT with zero degree gantry angles shows higher pass percentage than IMRT delivered with true gantry angles. Verification plans delivered with true gantry angles lower the verification accuracy when 2D array is used for measurement.

  8. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly

  9. SU-G-BRB-03: Assessing the Sensitivity and False Positive Rate of the Integrated Quality Monitor (IQM) Large Area Ion Chamber to MLC Positioning Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, E McKenzie; DeMarco, J; Steers, J; Fraass, B [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To examine both the IQM’s sensitivity and false positive rate to varying MLC errors. By balancing these two characteristics, an optimal tolerance value can be derived. Methods: An un-modified SBRT Liver IMRT plan containing 7 fields was randomly selected as a representative clinical case. The active MLC positions for all fields were perturbed randomly from a square distribution of varying width (±1mm to ±5mm). These unmodified and modified plans were measured multiple times each by the IQM (a large area ion chamber mounted to a TrueBeam linac head). Measurements were analyzed relative to the initial, unmodified measurement. IQM readings are analyzed as a function of control points. In order to examine sensitivity to errors along a field’s delivery, each measured field was divided into 5 groups of control points, and the maximum error in each group was recorded. Since the plans have known errors, we compared how well the IQM is able to differentiate between unmodified and error plans. ROC curves and logistic regression were used to analyze this, independent of thresholds. Results: A likelihood-ratio Chi-square test showed that the IQM could significantly predict whether a plan had MLC errors, with the exception of the beginning and ending control points. Upon further examination, we determined there was ramp-up occurring at the beginning of delivery. Once the linac AFC was tuned, the subsequent measurements (relative to a new baseline) showed significant (p <0.005) abilities to predict MLC errors. Using the area under the curve, we show the IQM’s ability to detect errors increases with increasing MLC error (Spearman’s Rho=0.8056, p<0.0001). The optimal IQM count thresholds from the ROC curves are ±3%, ±2%, and ±7% for the beginning, middle 3, and end segments, respectively. Conclusion: The IQM has proven to be able to detect not only MLC errors, but also differences in beam tuning (ramp-up). Partially supported by the Susan Scott Foundation.

  10. Monte Carlo computed machine-specific correction factors for reference dosimetry of TomoTherapy static beam for several ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o correction factors for machine-specific reference (msr) conditions by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for reference dosimetry of TomoTherapy static beams for ion chambers Exradin A1SL, A12; PTW 30006, 31010 Semiflex, 31014 PinPoint, 31018 microLion; NE 2571. Methods: For the calibration of TomoTherapy units, reference conditions specified in current codes of practice like IAEA/TRS-398 and AAPM/TG-51 cannot be realized. To cope with this issue, Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)] described a new formalism introducing msr factors k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o for reference dosimetry, applicable to static TomoTherapy beams. In this study, those factors were computed directly using MC simulations for Q 0 corresponding to a simplified 60 Co beam in TRS-398 reference conditions (at 10 cm depth). The msr conditions were a 10 × 5 cm 2 TomoTherapy beam, source-surface distance of 85 cm and 10 cm depth. The chambers were modeled according to technical drawings using the egs++ package and the MC simulations were run with the egs c hamber user code. Phase-space files used as the source input were produced using PENELOPE after simulation of a simplified 60 Co beam and the TomoTherapy treatment head modeled according to technical drawings. Correlated sampling, intermediate phase-space storage, and photon cross-section enhancement variance reduction techniques were used. The simulations were stopped when the combined standard uncertainty was below 0.2%. Results: Computed k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o values were all close to one, in a range from 0.991 for the PinPoint chamber to 1.000 for the Exradin A12 with a statistical uncertainty below 0.2%. Considering a beam quality Q defined as the TPR 20,10 for a 6 MV Elekta photon beam (0.661), the additional correction k Q msr, Q f msr, f ref to k Q,Q o defined in Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)] formalism was in a range from 0.997 to 1.004.Conclusion: The MC computed

  11. Impact of instrument response variations on health physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1984-10-01

    Uncertainties in estimating the potential health impact of a given radiation exposure include instrument measurement error in determining exposure and difficulty in relating this exposure to an effective dose value. Instrument error can be due to design or manufacturing deficiencies, limitations of the sensing element used, and calibration and maintenance of the instrument. This paper evaluates the errors which can be introduced by design deficiencies and limitations of the sensing element for a wide variety of commonly used survey instruments. The results indicate little difference among sensing element choice for general survey work, with variations among specific instrument designs being the major factor. Ion chamber instruments tend to be the best for all around use, while scintillator-based units should not be used where accurate measurements are required. The need to properly calibrate and maintain an instrument appears to be the most important factor in instrument accuracy. 8 references, 6 tables

  12. Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures

  13. Comparison between Electronic Portal Imaging Devices and ion chamber matrix for intensity-modulated radiotherapy quality assurance; Comparacao entre Dispositivos Eletronicos de Imagens Portais e matriz de camaras de ionizacao para garantia da qualidade de radioterapia de intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Thiago B.; Rosa, Luiz A.R., E-mail: thiago.fisimed@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Marilia B., E-mail: thiago.fisimed@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Medica

    2012-08-15

    The treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) demands an individual and specific quality assurance procedure. The use of ion chamber matrix is a well establish method to dose distribution verifications, despite the lower spatial resolution. An alternative method arising is the use of the Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs). The aim of this paper is to validate the EPID use for quality assurance of IMRT comparing it to the previous method employing an ion chamber matrix. We analyzed 10 treatment planning for different tumor sites and photons energies of the linac Trilogy (Varian Medical Systems). We used Sliding-window IMRT and the measurements were acquired in EPID and in Physikalisch-Technische Werkstaetten (PTW) 2D Array seven29. Two different software were used to analyze the data: Verisoft version 4.0, for Array data; and Eclipse 8.6 with Portal Dosimetry for EPID data. The evaluation of concordance levels between measured and predicted images used the Gamma Index tool with 3% of dose difference and 3 mm of distance to agreement. The EPID showed worse results for approval percentiles, in average 2.17%, and bigger values of average gamma index, although its analysis confirmed the approvals of all planning. This happens because of the better sensitivity generated by the higher spatial resolution of the EPID, 0,784 mm against 1,0 cm of the Array, so it has bigger capacity to identify small dose variations. The EPID, jointly with the Portal Dosimetry, proved to be excellent tools to perform pre-treatment IMRT verifications, providing significant gain in dose distribution analysis. Also, the EPID is easier for positioning, for images manipulation, for data acquisition and analysis and has detection area 60% bigger. (author)

  14. Measurement of profile and intensity of proton beam by an integrating current transformer and a segmented parallel-plate ion chamber for the AGS-spallation target experiment (ASTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Profile and intensity of proton beams incident to a mercury target were measured for the experiments under AGS-spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) collaboration. Protons of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV energy were measured for a temperature, pressure wave and neutronics in the mercury target. For the beam profile measurement, segmented parallel-plate ion chamber (CHIDORI) was used as the online detector. Imaging plates (IP) were also used for the profile measurement with aluminum activation foils as the image converter. An integrating current transformer (ICT) and activation method by Cu foil were used for the measurement of beam intensity. The beam profile obtained by CHIDORI gives a good agreement with the results with the IP. The beam intensity obtained by ICT agrees with the data obtained by the activation technique within ±3% for 12 and 24 GeV cases. Furthermore, these results show in good agreement with those obtained by the monitor of segmented wire ionization chamber (SWIC) and secondary emission chamber (SEC) installed by the AGS team. Therefore, a reliable beam monitor technique was established, so that the analysis of the experiment such as temperature and pressure wave can be normalized by the number of incident protons. (author)

  15. Technical testing of portable isotope identification instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    radioactive shipment. Response summaries in the form of a pass/fail listing for isotope identification for each of the three classes of gamma emitters (SNM, medical, and industrial) were recorded. Each instrument was then tested for response to the neutron source, Cf-252, a spontaneous fission isotope. Each instrument's ability to identify several pairs of isotopes was determined. This test was intended to verify if the instrument could detect SNM when accompanied by a masking isotope. Finally, each instrument's dose rate response to different energy gamma emitters was measured. One section of this test was conducted at a very low exposure rate, 10 microR/hr above background, and the second section conducted at 2 mR/hr above background. The latter dose rate represented the expected maximum exposure rate for a properly packaged medical isotope shipment. A third dose rate, 200mR/hr, was also used. Tests also were conducted to determine the instrument's display visibility, audio alarms, and operational characteristics in electromagnetic fields and high humidity conditions. (author)

  16. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  17. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  18. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  19. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  20. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  1. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  2. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  3. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  4. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  5. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  6. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  7. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  8. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  9. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  10. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  11. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  12. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  13. Shielding and filtering techniques to protect sensitive instrumentation from electromagnetic interference caused by arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by arc welding is a concern for sensitive CANDU instrumentation and control equipment, especially start-up instrumentation (SUI) and ion chamber instruments used to measure neutron flux at low power. Measurements of the effectiveness of simple shielding and filtering techniques that may be applied to limit arc welding electromagnetic emissions below the interference threshold are described. Shielding configurations investigated include an arrangement in which the welding power supply, torch (electrode holder), interconnecting cables and welder operator were housed in a single enclosure and a more practical configuration of separate shields for the power supply, cables and operator with torch. The two configuration were found to provide 30 dB and 26 dB attenuation, respectively, for arc welder electric-field emissions and were successful in preventing EMI in SUI set up just outside the shielding enclosures. Practical improvements that may be incorporated in the shielding arrangement to facilitate quick setup in the field in a variety of application environments, while maintaining adequate EMI protection, are discussed. (author)

  14. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  15. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  16. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  17. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  18. The impact of twenty years of noise research on nuclear power plant design, instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    Early investigations demonstrated that time constants and the dynamic characteristics of low energy nuclear systems could be elegantly determined by correlation of spectral analysis of fluctuating signals from ion chambers and proportional counters. Analyses of the time series information and the multi-filtering operations in the frequency domain were time consuming and tedious projects due to the lack of suitable data processing equipment. During the last decade, the significant advances were the recognition of the advantages of the two-channel cross-correlation technique and the realisation that the dynamic behaviour of nuclear power plant at power could be monitored and studied in depth by the cross-correlation of mechanical, thermal and hydrodynamic signals with neutronic information. The former concept led to the development of theoretical models for spatial and energy-dependent noise fields within a nuclear system. The latter opened a floodgate of potential advances in nuclear power plant design optimization, control and safety instrumentation, and control and safety diagnostic systems. (U.K.)

  19. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  20. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  1. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  2. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  3. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  4. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  5. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  6. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  7. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  8. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  9. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  10. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  11. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  12. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  13. Review of techniques and detectors used in instruments for field measurement of β doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Generally, field measurements are required to assess the hazard from β-rays before personnel are allowed to occupy a working space or perform a task. Occasionally, the measurements are required for an assessment after a β-ray exposure is suspected to have occurred. With these uses of field instruments in mind, the following detectors and associated techniques will be discussed in terms of the measurement principles, advantages, and limitations: 1) thin-walled ion chambers (sometimes in combination with thick-walled ones or with covers thick enough to prevent penetration of β-particles); 2) thin scintillators, nearly tissue equivalent, to provide a detector analogous to skin; 3) scintillators, thick enough to absorb all the energy of the β-particles. Circuitry is required to count pulses according to size to permit calculation of dose or dose rate; 4) silicon diodes with thin detection layers operated as photocurrent generators; 5) silicon diodes, reversed biassed, with pulses counted according to size; 6) simple pulse counters (e.g., GM counters or silicon diodes with thin windows)

  14. Review of techniques and detectors used in instruments for field measurement of beta doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Generally, field measurements are required to assess the hazard from #betta#-rays before personnel are allowed to occupy a working space or perform a task. Occasionally, the measurements are required for an assessment after a #betta#-ray exposure is suspected to have occurred. Until recently the dose or dose rate have been the quantities of interest but there is now felt to be a need to characterize the energies and directions of the #betta#-rays as well. The purpose of #betta#-dosimetry is the assessment of hazard to superficial tissues (within approx. 10 mm of the surface) and that these tissues may also be exposed simultaneously to other ionizing radiations. The #betta#-dosimetry technique must take account of this. With these uses of field instruments in mind the following detectors, and associated techniques will be discussed in terms of the measurement principles, advantages and limitations: thin-walled ion chambers (sometimes in combination with thick-walled ones or with covers thick enough to prevent penetration of #betta#-particles); thin scintillators, nearly tissue equivalent, to provide a detector analogous to skin; scintillators, thick enough to absorb all the energy of the #betta#-particles (circuitry is required to count pulses according to size to permit calculation of dose or dose rate); silicon diodes with thin detection layers operated as photocurrent generators; silicon diodes, reversed biassed, with pulses counted according to size; and simple pulse counters (e.g., GM counters or silicon diodes with thin windows)

  15. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  16. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  17. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  18. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  19. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  20. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  1. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  2. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  3. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  4. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  5. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  6. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  7. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  8. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  9. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  10. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  11. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  12. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  13. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  14. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  15. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  16. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  17. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  18. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  19. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  20. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  1. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  2. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  3. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  4. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  5. Characteristics of protective instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, G.

    1982-01-01

    Protective Instrumentation (PI) for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is a general term for an highly reliable instrumentation, which provides information for keeping the system within safe limits, for initation of countermeasures in the case of an incident or for mitigation of consequences of an accident. In German NPPs one can find a hierarchical structure of protective instrumentation, wherein the Reactor Protection System (RPS) has the highest priority. To meet the reliability requirements different design principles are used, like - redundancy - diversity - fail safe - decoupling. The presentation gives an overview about the different design principles and characterizes their reliability aspects. As an example for the technical realization the RPS of a German NPP is discussed in some detail. Furthermore some information about other type of PI is given and reliability aspects of the interaction of operating personell with these systems are mentioned. (orig.)

  6. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  7. The IKARUS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, H.J.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    When the Federal Government decided on a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions till 2005 in 1990 the necessity resulted that an instrument has to be developed for the analysis and assessment of the ecological, economic and energetic impact of different reduction strategies. The development task was awarded by the BMFT to the Research Centre Juelich in cooperation with well-known institutions of energy system research. The total instrument is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1994. For the decentral use of the instrument by a wide specialist public the developed models and data banks which are equipped with a user-friendly surface are suited for larger PCs (486, 16 MB RAM/500-1000 MB ROM). (orig.) [de

  8. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  9. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  10. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode.

  11. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  12. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  13. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  14. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  15. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  16. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode

  17. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  18. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  19. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  20. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  1. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  2. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented

  3. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  4. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  5. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  6. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  7. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported

  8. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  9. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  10. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  11. CMO Site: Ocean Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Precipitation , Lightning, Visibility 0150 A InterOcea Hawser Strain 1.. systems, inc. and more... n 1946 3540 aero court san diego ca 92123-1799 usa phone: (619...AGU’s Microgal culture Association, P.O. Box 1004, April 8-10, 1997-Underwater Gravimetry : Instruments, Observa- Niland, CA 92257; (619) 359-3474

  12. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  13. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  14. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  15. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  16. CRISP instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknall, D.G.; Langridge, Sean

    1997-05-01

    This document is a user manual for CRISP, one of the two neutron reflectomers at ISIS. CRISP is highly automated allowing precision reproducible measurements. The manual provides detailed instructions for the setting-up and running of the instrument and advice on data analysis. (UK)

  17. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  18. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  19. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  20. A GC Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, D. Bruce

    1999-02-01

    This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory. The instrument simulator is divided into 5 sections. One is for sample preparation. Another is used to manage carrier gases and choose a detector and column. The third sets the conditions for either isothermal or programmed temperature operation. A fourth section models manual injections, and the fifth is the autosampler. The operator has a choice among 6 columns of differing diameters and packing polarities and a choice of either isothermal or simple one-stage temperature programming. The simulator can be operated in either single-sample mode or as a 10-sample autosampler. The integrator has two modes of operation, a "dumb" mode in which only the retention time, area of the peak, and percentage area are listed and a "smart" mode that also lists the components' identities. The identities are obtained from a list of names and retention times created by the operator. Without this list only the percentages and areas are listed. The percentages are based on the areas obtained from the chromatogram and not on the actual percentages assigned during sample preparation. The data files for the compounds used in the simulator are ASCII files and can be edited easily to add more compounds than the 11 included with the simulator. A maximum of 10 components can be used in any one sample. Sample mixtures can be made on a percent-by-volume basis, but not by mass of sample per volume of solvent. A maximum of 30 compounds can be present in any one file, but the number of files is limited only by the operating system. (I suggest that not more than 20 compounds be used in any one file, as scrolling through large numbers of compounds is annoying to say the least.) File construction and layout are discussed in detail in the User's Manual. Chromatograms are generated by calculating a retention time based on

  1. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  2. Social Responsibility Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mizera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Responsible business notion is more and more present in Polish economy, however the results of the research carried out in Polish business still shows a low level of CRS idea knowledge, especially in small and medium companies. Although responsible business notion is generally known, its details, ways of preparing strategy, instruments and what is more its benefits are still narrowly spread. Many business people face the lack of knowledge and information, which on one hand make it easier to spread and deepen wrong stereotypes connected with this notion and on the other hand make business people unwilling to implement CRS in their companies. The subjects of this article are examples of instruments which are responsible for realization of social responsibility strategy.

  3. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  4. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  5. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-11

    1. Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment...instrumentation, and support accommodations adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for...correctness and completeness? Yes No Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No Comment : 5. Were the

  6. Transgressive or Instrumental?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary practices that connect the arts with learning are widespread at all level of educational systems and in organisations, but they include very diverse approaches, multiple methods and background values. Regardless of explicit learning benefits, the arts/learning partnerships bring about...... creativity and the other on practices of arts-integration. My final point rests on the belief that the opposition of transgression and instrumentality is a deceiving perspective on the arts, against the background of the aesthetic plurality and hybridity....

  7. EPRTM Reactor neutron instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Maxime; SALA, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    The core safety during operation is linked, in particular, to the respect of criteria related to the heat generated in fuel rods and to the heat exchange between the rods and the coolant. This local power information is linked to the power distribution in the core. In order to evaluate the core power distribution, the EPR TM reactor relies on several types of neutron detectors: - ionization chambers located outside the vessel and used for protection and monitoring - a fixed in-core instrumentation based on Cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors used for protection and monitoring - a mobile reference in-core instrumentation based on Vanadium aero-balls This document provides a description of this instrumentation and its use in core protection, limitation, monitoring and control functions. In particular, a description of the detectors and the principles of their signal generation is supplied as well as the description of the treatments related to these detectors in the EPR TM reactor I and C systems (including periodical calibration). (authors)

  8. Mandolin Family Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  9. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the instrumentation of liquid metal cooled fast reactors. In order to ensure the safe operation of such reactors it is necessary to constantly monitor the coolant flowing through the fuel assemblies for temperature and rate of flow, requiring a large number of sensors. An improved and simplified arrangement is claimed in which the fuel assemblies feed a fraction of coolant to three instrument units arranged to sense the temperature and rate of flow of samples of coolant. Each instrument unit comprises a sleeve housing a sensing unit and has a number of inlet ducts arranged for receiving coolant from a fuel assembly together with a single outlet. The sensing unit has three thermocouple hot junctions connected in series, the hot junctions and inlet ducts being arranged in pairs. Electromagnetic windings around an inductive core are arranged to sense variation in flow of liquid metal by flux distortion. Fission product sensing means may also be provided. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  10. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  11. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  12. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  13. Operational Test Instrumentation Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    System. A topographic, transit-level measuring system, instrumented with altimeter, clinometers, compasses , and an alidade, plane table, and stadia rod...dual hangar 250 x 135 feet with two door openings, 80 feet each. There is no compass swing base, no electronic landing aids, ro aircraft wash or...month) of SDG &E) Haybarn Canyon 15,000 6,183,870 Lan Pulgas 1,500 433,890 Las Pulgas Well #41621 100 4,258 Las Pulgas Well #41611 150 7,548 Las Flores

  14. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  15. Instrumentation for tomograph positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.D.B.; Castello Branco, L.M.; Reznik, D.S.; Santos, C.A.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The COPPE's Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. has been developing researches directed towards the implementation of a Computer-Based Tomography System. Basically, the system reported in this paper can be divided into three major parts: the mechanical part, responsible for the physical movement (Stepper-Motors, table, etc.); the electronic part, which controls the mechanical part and handles the data-acquisition process (microcomputer, interfaces, etc.); and finally, the support of a software-oriented system, including control programs and information processing routines. (Author) [pt

  16. Easy instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-01

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  17. Maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rebelo, A.M. de; Santos, C.J.F. dos; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Silva, L.E.M.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A program to design and repairing of nuclear instruments for teaching and research was founded in the UFRJ to find solutions for technical support problem - The GEMD-RADIACOES. This group has assisted to several groups of the University in recuperation and conservation of devices like: Linear scanner, Cromatograph and system of radiation detection in general. Recuperation of these devices had required a study of theirs operations modes, to make it possible the setting up of a similar system. Recuperation also involves operation tests, calibration and technical for users, orienting them to get the best performance. (Author) [pt

  18. Easy instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-15

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  19. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  20. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  1. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  2. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  3. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  4. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-31

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  5. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  6. Nuclear instrumentation for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Carlos G.; Pita, Antonio; Verrastro, Claudio A.; Maino, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation for research reactors in Argentina was developed in 70'. A gradual modernization of all the nuclear instrumentation is planned. It includes start-up and power range instrumentation, as well as field monitors, clamp, scram and rod movement control logic. The new instrumentation is linked to a computer network, based on real time operating system for data acquisition, display and logging. This paper describes the modules and whole system aspects. (author). 2 refs

  7. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  8. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  9. Neutron instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  10. Incore instrument device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakima, Naoki

    1996-01-01

    An incore instrument device has an integrally disposed touch panel having a function of displaying an operation indication method such as for setting of conditions for incore measurement and information processing and results of the incore measurement and a function capable of conducting operation indication such as for setting conditions and information processing for incore measurement relative to a control section upon touching an information position on a displayed information. In addition, an information processing section comprising a man-machine function program formed so as to recognize the content of the operation indication for the incore measurement by touching and let the control section to conduct it is disposed to the outside by way of a communication interface. In addition, a programming device is disposed for forming and rewriting the program of the man-machine function relative to the information processing section. Then, when various indication operations are conducted upon performing incore measurement, a view point can be concentrated to one predetermined point thereby enabling to improve the operationability without danger. In addition, the programming of the man-machine function does not apply unnecessary load to the control section in the incore instrumentation device. (N.H.)

  11. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  12. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  13. Rio de Janeiro: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Students from Latin America were able to get hands-on experience in state-of-the-art physics instrumentation in this year's School on Instrumentation for High Energy Physics organized by the active Instrumentation Panel of ICFA (the International Committee for Future Accelerators) at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquicas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, in July

  14. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  15. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  16. Control of training instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K. W.; Joo, Y. C.; Park, J. C.; Hong, C. S.; Choi, I. K.; Cho, B. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Seo, I. S.; Park, N. K.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results on control of training instrument. The scope and contents are the following: 1. Control of Compact Nuclear Simulator 2. Control of Radiation/Radioactivity Measurement 3. Control of Non-Destructive Testing Equipment 4. Control of Chemical Equipment 5. Control of Personal Computer 6. Other related Lecture Aid Equipment. Efforts were employed to upgrade the training environment through retrofitting experimental facilities, compiling teaching materials and reforcing audio-visual aids. The Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,496 engineers/scientists from the nuclear regulatory, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 45 training courses during the fiscal year 1995. (author). 15 tabs., 7 figs., 13 refs

  17. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  18. Instrument design and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The ion mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) is described and consists of two separate instruments coupled in tandem: an ion mobility spectrometer coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The two insturments operate at different pressures in a synergistic manner, supplying both drift time and mass information about ions which are formed at atmospheric pressure in the ion mobility spectrometer tube. Two types of ion intensity signals are presented to the data processor. The IMS produces an analog voltage with major components from dc to 5 KHz. The mass spectrometer signal output resides in the pulse count rate derived from a series of TTL level pulses where each pulse represents the arrival of a single ion. The hardware, software, interfacing capabilities and basic data acquisition program are described in detail

  19. FMIT diagnostic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Chamberlin, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility (FMIT) cw prototype accelerator has noninterceptive beamline instrumentation to measure beam parameters. The transverse emittances and beam profiles are measured with an array of photodiode sensors viewing light emitted from the beam region. Tomographic reconstructions of both spatial-density distributions and of transverse-emittance distributions are performed throughout a quadrupole focusing section. Beam bunches passing through capacitive probes produce bipolar waveforms whose zero crossing corresponds to the bunch's longitudinal centroid. By measuring the time required for a bunch to travel the known distance between two probes, velocity and energy are determined. A toroidal transformer measures the average ac beam current. Beam spill is measured by a set of movable jaws that intercept the beam edges. Each jaw contains a water flow channel whose flow rate and differential temperature are measured to derive a transverse power distribution. Beam centroid position is measured by a four-lobe, magnetic-loop pickup. 5 refs., 6 figs

  20. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  1. BOMBAY: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Promising students had a foretaste of the latest laboratory techniques at the ICFA 1993 India School on Instrumentation in High Energy Physics held from February 15-26 and hosted by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bombay. The scientific programme was put together by the ICFA Panel for Future Instrumentation, Innovation and Development, chaired by Tord Ekelof (Uppsala). The programme included lectures and topical seminars covering a wide range of detector subjects. In small groups, students got acquainted with modern detector technologies in the laboratory sessions, using experimental setups assembled in various institutes world-wide and shipped to Bombay for the School. The techniques covered included multiwire proportional chambers for detection of particles and photons, gaseous detectors for UV photons and X-ray imaging, the study of charge drift in silicon detectors, measurement of the muon lifetime using liquid scintillators, tracking using scintillating fibres, and electronics for sensitive detectors. The India School was attended by around 80 students from 20 countries; 34 came from Indian universities. It was the fifth in this series, previous Schools having been at Trieste (1987, 1989 and 1991) organized by the ICFA Panel and hosted and sponsored by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, and in 1990, organized at Rio de Janeiro in collaboration with the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas. The School was jointly directed by Suresh Tonwar (TIFR), Fabio Sauli (CERN) and Marleigh Sheaff (University of Wisconsin), and sponsored by TIFR and DAE (India), CERN (Switzerland), ICTP and INFN (Italy), British Council and RAL (UK), NSF and DOE (USA), KEK (Japan), IPP (Canada) and DESY (Germany)

  2. Ideology as instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  3. Measurements on low level plutonium sources using Rad Elec Electret Ion Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskas, D.; Teagarden, J.; Wilkes, E.

    1998-01-01

    This is a technique for measuring gross alpha particle emission from interior contaminated surfaces. The technique utilizes electret ionization chambers (EICs), which consist of a charged Teflon plate (the electret) and an electrically-conductive plastic chamber of 145 ml volume. To measure very low levels of alpha contamination, the EIC is left in place on the surface to be measured for about 48 hours. The change in the surface charge of the electret is a measure of the ionization during the measurement period. The rate of change of the charge is converted into an activity using an appropriate calibration factor. This system has the ability to make accurate gross alpha contamination measurements while being subject to a high airborne radon concentration, such as might occur in certain buildings or during an atmospheric inversion. Previous studies of the effectiveness of these EIC's focused on levels of alpha contamination much higher than is allowed for unrestricted release of material at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This study evaluated the performance of EIC's at levels from 100 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per 100 cm 2 to below 20 dpm per 100 cm 2 (all measurements are referenced to a 4π geometry). The EIC's were found to be within 5% accuracy, as compared to a gas flow proportional counter calibrated with a NIST-traceable source. Test results indicate that the EIC, left in place for 48 hours, can detect alpha contamination as low as 6.4 ± 3.0 dpm/100 cm 2 to a 95% confidence level

  4. Measurement of changes in linear accelerator photon energy through flatness variation using an ion chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Song; Balter, Peter A.; Rose, Mark; Simon, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for determining changes in photon beam energy for a megavoltage linear accelerator. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current by up to ±15% in 5% increments away from the value used clinically. Two metrics for flatness, relative flatness in the central 80% of the field (Flat) and average maximum dose along the diagonals normalized by central axis dose (F DN ), were measured using a commercially available planner ionization chamber array. PDD was measured in water at depths of 5 and 10 cm in 3 × 3 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields using a cylindrical chamber. Results: PDD was more sensitive to changes in energy when the beam energy was increased than when it was decreased. For the 18-MV beam in particular, PDD was not sensitive to energy reductions below the nominal energy. The value of Flat was found to be more sensitive to decreases in energy than to increases, with little sensitivity to energy increases above the nominal energy for 18-MV beams. F DN was the only metric that was found to be sensitive to both increases and reductions of energy for both the 6- and 18-MV beams. Conclusions: Flatness based metrics were found to be more sensitive to energy changes than PDD, In particular, F DN was found to be the most sensitive metric to energy changes for photon beams of 6 and 18 MV. The ionization chamber array allows this metric to be conveniently measured as part of routine accelerator quality assurance.

  5. Evaluating uncertainties in the cross-calibration of parallel ion chambers used in electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ernani; Travassos, Paulo; Ferreira, Max da Silva; Carvalho, Samira Marques de; Silva, Michele Maria da; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira; Salmon Junior, Helio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimative the combined standard uncertainty for a detector parallel plate used for dosimetry of electron beams in linear accelerators for radiotherapy, which has been calibrated by the cross-calibration method. Keeping the combined standard uncertainty next of the uncertainty informed in the calibration certificate of the reference chamber, become possible establish the calibration factor of the detector. The combined standard uncertainty obtained in this study was 2.5 %. (author)

  6. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  7. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  8. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  9. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  10. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  11. TFTR CAMAC instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gatto, H.J.; Bradish, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system makes extensive use of CAMAC equipment. The system consists of eight CAMAC highways operating from eight Gould 75/32 computers. Links up to 3.5 miles in length with more than fifty CAMAC crates have been implemented and are currently in use. Data transfer along the highway is implemented in bit serial format. The link speed is run at 5MHz. The length and complexity of the link requires the reformatting of the NRZ input/output format of the L-2 crate controller. U-Port adapter modules are used to interface the modified serial highway to the L-2 controllers. The modified serial highway uses a transmission technique that requires the distribution of both Bi-Phase encoded data and a 5MHz clock. The Serial Driver interfaces to the GOULD computer through use of a High Speed Data (HSD) interface board which attaches to the computers internal bus. All transfers to and from the computer are accomplished by direct memory access (DMA). In addition to the standard CAMAC link the system also includes a Block Transfer (BT) system. This system provides an alternate path for transferring data between the computers and the CAMAC modules. The BT system is interfaced to the host computers through HSD boards and to the CAMAC crates through use of an auxiliary crate controllers

  12. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  13. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  14. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  15. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when....... We distinguish between statistical and clinical significance. Statistical significance is calculated using T-test. Clinical significance is the minimal amount of change in relational coordination score that is not considered noise. Sensitivity of the instrument i.e. the ability of the instrument...

  16. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  17. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  18. Nuclear instrumentation evaluation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Jun; Han, Sang Joon; Chung, Chong Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Kim, Dong Hwa; Park, Byung Hae; Moon, Je Sun; Lee, Chel Kwon; Song, Ki Sang; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jung Bok

    1986-12-01

    This project provides the program for improving instrumentation reliability as well as developing a cost-effective preventive maintenance activity through evaluation and analysis of nuclear instrumentation concerning pilot plants, large-scale test facilities and various laboratories on KAERI site. In addition, it discusses the program for enhancing safe operations and improving facility availability through establishment of maintenance technology. (Author)

  19. A Database Management Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, J. Harold; Daigle, Roy; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an instrument designed for assessing learning outcomes in data management. In addition to assessment of student learning and ABET outcomes, we have also found the instrument to be effective for determining database placement of incoming information systems (IS) graduate students. Each of these three uses is discussed in this…

  20. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  1. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  2. Smart antennas for nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ranjan Bala; Singhi, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The advances in the field of computer and communications are leading to the development of smart embedded nuclear instruments. These instruments have highly sophisticated signal-processing algorithms based on FPGA and ASICS, provisions of present day connectivity and user interfaces. The developments in the connectivity, standards and bus technologies have made possible to access these instruments on LAN and WAN with suitable reliability and security. To get rid of wires i.e. in order to access these instruments, without wires at any place, wireless technology has evolved and become integral part of day-to-day activities. The environment monitoring can be done remotely, if smart antennas are incorporated on these instruments

  3. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-05-27

    The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness), but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta) is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  4. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL. The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness, but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  5. Instrumentation in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabjan, C W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Pilcher, J E [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); eds.

    1988-01-01

    The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs.

  6. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  7. Instrumentation in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C.W.; Pilcher, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kurosawa, T.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities.

  9. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  10. Commissioning Instrument for the GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

    2005-12-01

    During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

  11. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  12. Survey of instruments for micrometeorology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteith, John Lennox

    1972-01-01

    ... have been developed for micrometeorological measurements. Many of these instruments can be used by ecologists to measure and define the environment of plants and animals and to explore the ways in which organisms modify the environment they are exposed...

  13. Digital instrumentation for retrofit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    There can be many reasons for applying retrofit designs to existing power plants. Whatever the reasons, care in planning and instrument design will be required in order to derive the full benefits afforded by today's technology. Specifically, the availability of microprocessors and their related integrated circuits make possible capabilities, accuracies, reliabilities, maintainability and user interfaces not achievable when original equipment was designed. Some of the motives for the replacement of current instrumentation are examined and the various benefits and pitfalls of applying present day microprocessor technology to new designs are discussed. From this, a set of design objectives can be formulated that can best take advantage of modern technology. General Electric's design solution, a family of instruments called NUMAC (Nuclear Measurement, Analysis and Control) is described, followed by descriptions of instruments currently in production and those contemplated for design in the near future

  14. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  15. PEP instrumentation and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems.

  16. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  17. PEP instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems

  18. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  19. A Finescale Lagrangian Instrument System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toole, John

    2003-01-01

    ... from conventional, bottom-anchored moorings. An initial trial of the concept targeting the upper ocean was carried out off Bermuda in November 2001 with an instrument profiling between 12 and 28O-m depth...

  20. Instrumental development and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, J.

    1978-01-01

    A review of recent developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation is presented under the following headings: introduction (scope of mass spectrometry compared with neighbouring fields); ion sources and ionization techniques; spectrometers (instrumental developments); measuring procedures; coupling techniques; data systems; conclusions (that mass spectrometry should have a broader basis and that there would be mutual profit from a better penetration of mass spectrometry into fields of routine application). (U.K.)

  1. MITS instrumentation error analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.W.; Hillon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The MITS (Machine Interface Test System) installation consists of three types of process monitoring and control instrumentation: flow, pressure, and temperature. An effort has been made to assess the various instruments used and assign a value to the accuracy that can be expected. Efforts were also made to analyze the calibration and installation procedures to be used and determine how these might effect the system accuracy

  2. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  3. Nucleonic instruments from VUPJT Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smola, J.

    1986-01-01

    The instruments currently produced by Tesla Premysleni are listed and briefly characterized. They include a low level alpha-beta counter, an automatic low level alpha-beta counter, detection units for environmental sample counting, instruments for measuring specific activity of liquids and radon concentration in water, a radioactive aerosol meter, dose ratemeters, portable alpha-beta indicators for surface contamintion monitoring, neutron monitors, single-, two- and three-channel spectrometric units. (M.D.)

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  5. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  6. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  7. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  8. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  9. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.307 Monetary instruments. The term monetary instruments shall have the meaning...

  10. Refabricated and instrumented fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel for power reactors capabilities evaluation is strongly based on the intimate knowledge of its behaviour under irradiation. This knowledge can be acquired from refabricated and instrumented fuel rods irradiated at different levels in commercial reactors. This paper presents the development and qualification of a new technique called RECTO related to a double-instrumented rod re-fabrication process developed by CEA/LECA hot laboratory facility at CADARACHE. The technique development includes manufacturing of the properly dimensioned cavity in the fuel pellet stack to house the thermocouple and the use of a newly designed pressure transducer. An analytic irradiation of such a double-instrumented fuel rod will be performed in OSIRIS test reactor starting October 2004. (Author)

  11. HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Sydney J.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

  12. Seismic Instrumentation Placement Recommendations Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    DOE Order 420.1, ''Facility Safety'', requires that facilities or sites with hazardous materials be provided with instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrences and severity of seismic events. These requirements assure that necessary records are available after an earthquake for evaluation purposes and to supplement other data to justify a facility restart or curtailing plant operations after an earthquake. This report documents the basis for the selection of Savannah River Site areas and existing facilities to be instrumented. The need to install instrumentation in new facilities such as the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility, Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility and the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility will be assessed separately

  13. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  14. Technical presentation - KEITHLEY Instruments - CANCELLED

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2009-01-01

    10 March 2009 13:30 – 15:30, Council Chamber, Bldg. 503 Keithley markets highly accurate instruments and data acquisition products, as well as complete system solutions for high-volume production and assembly testing. Keithley Instruments, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and markets complex electronic instruments and systems geared to the specialized needs of electronics manufacturers for high-performance production testing, process monitoring, product development and research. Products and Services: Digital Multimeters and Data Acquisition Systems Current / Voltage Source and Measure Products Low Current / High Resistance Measurement Products Function/Pulse/Arbitrary/Pattern Generators Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurement Products RF Spectrum Analyzer / RF Signal Generator / RF Switching Semiconductor Device Characterization Program: Topic 1: Welcome and short overview of new Products SMU 26XXA / ARB Generator 3390 / DMM 3706 / E-Meter 6517B Topic 2a: Te...

  15. Safeguards instrumentation: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments are essential for accounting, for surveillance and for protection of nuclear materials. The development and application of such instrumentation is reviewed, with special attention to international safeguards applications. Active and passive nondestructive assay techniques are some 25 years of age. The important advances have been in learning how to use them effectively for specific applications, accompanied by major advances in radiation detectors, electronics, and, more recently, in mini-computers. The progress in seals has been disappointingly slow. Surveillance cameras have been widely used for many applications other than safeguards. The revolution in TV technology will have important implications. More sophisticated containment/surveillance equipment is being developed but has yet to be exploited. On the basis of this history, some expectations for instrumentation in the near future are presented

  16. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  17. Recent developments in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Nuclear Instrumentation is a field of vital importance for DAE. It has important applications in many areas of interest such as Reactor Monitoring and control, Accelerator based research, Laser and nuclear physics experiments, Health and environmental monitoring, Astrophysics experiments etc. It is a specialized field involving expertise in detection of radioactivity down to the level of few events per minute as well as processing and analysis of signals which can be as small as few hundred micro volts embedded in noise. Some applications involve digitizing and processing these signals with 0.001% accuracy and timing accuracies of a fraction of nano sec. Rapid developments in semiconductor related technologies have influenced the field of nuclear instrumentation. Development of FPGA's and ASIC's have made it possible to develop miniaturized smart and portable instruments for field applications. Advancements in field of computers, communications and various field buses have been successfully utilized for smart, portable and DSP based instrumentation. Smart sensor with detector and front-end electronics on a single silicon chip is now a reality. These instruments are also made intelligent by addition of fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and expert systems. Electronics Division of BARC has made significant contribution to the field of nuclear instrumentation to achieve self-reliance in this area. This has also led to development of several new methods, which have been published in international journals and appreciated worldwide. As a step towards achieving complete self-reliance a programme for development of FPGA's, HMC's and ASIC's has been undertaken and is being followed with special emphasis. This also includes development of detector and front- end electronics on a single chip. This talk brings out details of these developments and describes the 'state of art' work done in India

  18. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  19. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z; Young, S E; Becker, C H; Coggiola, M J [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  20. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  1. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  2. Practical course on reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2004-06-01

    This course is based on the description of the instrumentation of the TRIGA-reactor Vienna, which is used for training research and isotope production. It comprises the following chapters: 1. instrumentation, 2. calibration of the nuclear channels, 3. rod drop time of the control rods, 4. neutron flux density measurements using compensated ionization, 5. neutron flux density measurement with fission chambers (FC), 6. neutron flux density measurement with self-powered neutron detectors (SPND), 7. pressurized water reactor simulator, 8. verification of the radiation level during reactor operation. There is one appendix about neutron-sensitive thermocouples. (nevyjel)

  3. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  4. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  5. Neutron beam instruments at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, A.H.; Harris, D.H.C.

    1978-11-01

    A list and brief descriptions are given of the neutron beam facilities for U.K. scientists at Harwell and in academic institutions, available under an agreement between the Science Research Council and AERE (Harwell). The list falls under the following headings: reactor instruments (single crystal diffractometers, powder diffractometers, triple axis spectrometers, time-of-flight cold neutron twin rotor spectrometer, beryllium filter spectrometer, MARX spectrometer, Harwell small-angle scattering spectrometer); LINAC instruments (total scattering spectrometer, back scattering spectrometer, active sample spectrometer, inelastic rotor spectrometer, constant Q spectrometer); ancillary equipment (cryostats, superconducting magnets, electromagnets, furnaces). (U.K.)

  6. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  7. New instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Constantin, F.; Petcu, M.; Plostinaru, V.D.; Rusu, Al.; Lupu, A.C.; Lupu, F.

    2003-01-01

    Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

  8. Advances in control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendar, Ch.

    1994-01-01

    Control and instrumentation systems have seen significant changes from pneumatic to electronic with the advent of transistors and integrated circuits. Miniaturization was realised. With the introduction of microprocessors there has been a revolutionary change in the approach in instrumentation and control systems in the areas of sensors, data acquisition/transmission, processing for control, and presentation of the information to the operator. An effort is made to give some insight into these areas, with some idea of the advantages to which these systems are being put to use in the nuclear facilities, particularly nuclear power reactors. (author)

  9. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Developments discussed include a transistorized- power supply for the Beckman DU spectrophotometer, a master clock pulse generator, a modular printing unit, a flash photolysis setup, a glove box assembly for a Perkin-Elmer infrared spectrophotometer, and a Faraday balance for measuring the magnetic susceptibilities of actinide compounds. (WHK)

  10. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  11. Loyaliteitsprogramma's: zinvol CRM-instrument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty programs have been widely adopted by companies and their customers. A loyalty program is a relational marketing instrument that aims to enhance customer loyalty. However, skepticism exists about the implementation and effectiveness of loyalty programs. This paper studies for whom, when and

  12. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  13. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  14. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  15. Market-based Economic Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Grundkategorien her er markedet som den optimale allokeringsmekanisme for de belastninger, som de økonomiske instrumenter / miljøskatterne påfører. Det mest omfattende og spektakulære eksempel på markedet som allokatorer af skatter er EU's børs for forureningstilladelser, dvs reelt CO-2 beskatnin...

  16. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net

  17. Management system of instrument database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin

    1997-01-01

    The author introduces a management system of instrument database. This system has been developed using with Foxpro on network. The system has some characters such as clear structure, easy operation, flexible and convenient query, as well as the data safety and reliability

  18. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    Maintenance of instruments is generally of two kinds: (a) corrective maintenance, on a non-scheduled basis, to restore equipment to a functional status by repairs; (b) preventive maintenance, to keep equipment in a specified functional condition by providing systematic inspection, quality control, detection and correction of early malfunctions. Most of the instruments used in nuclear medicine are rather complex systems built from mechanical, electrical and electronic parts. Any one of these components is liable to fail at some time or other. Repair could be done only by a specialist who is able to evaluate the condition of the various parts ranging from cables to connectors, from scintillators to photomultipliers, from microprocessors to microswitches. The knowledge of the intricacies of the various electronic components required for their repairs is quite wide and varied. The electronics industry turns out more and more multi-purpose chips which can carry out the functions of many parts used in the instruments of the earlier generation. This provides protection against unauthorized copying of the circuits but it serves another purpose as well of inhibiting repairs by non-factory personnel. These trends of the instrument design should be taken into consideration when a policy has to be developed for the repairs of the hospital based equipment 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    Maintenance of instruments is generally of two kinds: (a) corrective maintenance, on a non-scheduled basis, to restore equipment to a functional status by repairs; (b) preventive maintenance, to keep equipment in a specified functional condition by providing systematic inspection, quality control, detection and correction of early malfunctions. Most of the instruments used in nuclear medicine are rather complex systems built from mechanical, electrical and electronic parts. Any one of these components is liable to fail at some time or other. Repair could be done only by a specialist who is able to evaluate the condition of the various parts ranging from cables to connectors, from scintillators to photomultipliers, from microprocessors to microswitches. The knowledge of the intricacies of the various electronic components required for their repairs is quite wide and varied. The electronics industry turns out more and more multi-purpose chips which can carry out the functions of many parts used in the instruments of the earlier generation. This provides protection against unauthorized copying of the circuits but it serves another purpose as well of inhibiting repairs by non-factory personnel. These trends of the instrument design should be taken into consideration when a policy has to be developed for the repairs of the hospital based equipment

  20. A portable luminescence dating instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, M.H.; Murray, A.S.; Lapp, Torben

    2011-01-01

    We describe a portable luminescence reader suitable for use in remote localities in the field. The instrument weighs about 8kg and is based around a 30mm bialkali photomultiplier detecting signals through a glass filter centered on 340nm. Stimulation is by 470nm blue LEDs (24W in total) operating...

  1. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

  3. A Musical instrument in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, H.; Beekman, J.G.; Been, A.J.; Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Folkertsma, G.A.; Fortgens, L.; de Graaf, D.; Vocke, S.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    In this work we describe a MEMS instrument that resonates at audible frequencies, and with which music can be made. The sounds are generated by mechanical resonators and capacitive displacement sensors. Damping by air scales unfavourably for generating audible frequencies with small devices.

  4. Instrumental activation analysis of molybdenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, M.; Schelhorn, H.

    1981-01-01

    Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Se, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Yb, Hf, W, Re, and Th have been determined in 6 molybdenite samples by instrumental activation analysis. The samples were of different origin and showed K, Sc, W, and Re values with differences of more than two orders of magnitude, whereas Sc values were within one order of magnitude

  5. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Instrumentation for PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of instrumentation for PIXE and Rutherford backscattering analysis, including hardware and software needed to perform the analysis, including detectors, analyzers, data acquisition systems and data analysis software. It also provides some information on accelerators needed for these applications

  7. Technological considerations in emergency instrument preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The types of emergency instrumentation systems necessary to characterize the severity and extent of radiation accidents and to aid in the protection of operating personnel and personnel living near the plant are discussed. These include instruments for direct measurement of the airborne radioactive material within the facility, fixed instrumentation for ambient dose rate monitoring or area monitoring, and portable instruments for environmental monitoring

  8. Temperature documentation - instrument for quality assurance; Temperaturdokumentation - Instrument der Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegglin, A [Wurm AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2000-10-01

    Important inspection points of a HACCP concept are the temperatures. On the basis of the demands for a systematic temperature documentation, the application of control systems and instruments is described by several examples. (orig.) [German] Wichtige Kontrollpunkte eines HACCP-Konzepts sind die Temperaturen. Ausgehend von den Anforderungen, die an eine systematische Temperaturedokumentation gestellt werden, wird der Einsatz geeigneter Regel- und Ueberwachungsgeraete an mehreren Beispielen erlaeutert. (orig.)

  9. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  10. Analysis of instrumentation technology for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Suh, Y. S.; Seong, S. H.; Jang, G. S.

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary that development requirements, techniques to be developed, and development tasks and approach are established to develop the SMART instrumentation system. It is important to establish the development strategies for input for developing SMART instrumentation system. To meet above needs, the industry general and nuclear instrumentation techniques were analyzed and reviewed, respectively, based on the classification of instrumentation to analyze the industrial instrumentation techniques, and analysis results which described the inherent merits and demerits of each technique can be used for inputs to select the instruments for SMART. For the instrumentation techniques for nuclear environments, the major instrumentation techniques were reviewed, and the instrumentation system were established. The following development approaches were established based on the development requirements and the analysis results of research and development trends of industrial and nuclear instrumentation techniques. (author). 90 refs., 38 tabs., 33 figs

  11. The history of thoracic surgical instruments and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, E J; Mann, C; Galibert, L A; Steichen, F M

    2000-02-01

    Thoracic surgical practice has evolved from the innovations of its pioneers. Beginning with the stethoscope discovered by Laënnec with his system of auscultation, to the tools we use in the dissection and control of the hilum of the lung for resection, our practice of thoracic surgery has been entwined with the development of instruments and instrumentation. The development of strategies to prevent death from the open pneumothorax began with manual control of the mediastinum and progressed through differential pressure to, finally, the technique of intubation and the methods of positive-pressure and insufflation anesthesia. The instruments we place in our hands are not enough to define our art. Entry into the chest would not be possible without the use of rib retractors, rib shears, and even periosteal elevators. Finally, to the present day of minimally invasive techniques and the application of thoracoscopy for therapeutic purposes, we find the efforts of our predecessors well developed. For the progression from the fear of the open pneumothorax to the present-day state of the ease of thoracotomy for lung resection we are indebted to those who gave so much of their time and, for some, their lives to death from tuberculosis, to allow the advancement of our practice of surgery. These great people should be remembered not only for their acceptance of novel ideas but also, more importantly, for their lack of fear of testing them.

  12. Development of CAMAC and Fastbus instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Aruna; Behere, Anita; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Bairi, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the work being done towards the development of CAMAC and Fast Bus Instrumentation under the VII Five Year Plan Project 'Modernisation of Reactor Control Instrumentation and Development of CAMAC and FAST BUS Instrumentation'. The report summarises the goals, objectives, principles and concepts of CAMAC and Fast Bus Instrumentation. While emphasizing the motivation behind the development of CAMAC and Fast Bus Instrumentation, the report brings out the current status and future plans of this development program. (author)

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2009-05-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-09-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-08-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  20. CERCA's fuel elements instrumentation manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbonnier, G.; Jarousse, C.; Pin, T.; Febvre, M.; Colomb, P.

    2005-01-01

    When research and test reactors wish to further understand the Fuel Elements behavior when operating as well as mastering their irradiation conditions, operators carry out neutron and thermo hydraulic analysis. For thermal calculation, the codes used have to be preliminary validated, at least in the range of the reactor safety operational limits. When some further investigations are requested either by safety authorities or for its own reactor needs, instrumented tools are the ultimate solution for providing representative measurements. Such measurements can be conducted for validating thermal calculation codes, at nominal operating condition as well as during transients ones, or for providing numerous and useful data in the frame of a new products qualification program. CERCA, with many years of experience for implanting thermocouples in various products design, states in this poster his manufacturing background on instrumented elements, plates or targets. (author)

  1. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  2. Modernization of ILL instrument electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, F.

    1999-01-01

    We have built new general purpose cards for data acquisition taking advantage of recent developments in electronics. At the end of the year, most scheduled instruments at the ILL will be running under UNIX with VME electronics front-end. As the VME electronics of the ILL was designed at the beginning of the eighties, the instrument control section (SCI) at ILL has prepared a renewal plan for two reasons: - first, all the processor cards of the Institute are based on MIZAR processor boards and MIZAR stopped the production of this card last year, as the market was shrinking; - in addition, processors and programmable electronics are now 10 times faster. The electronics services want to take full advantage of these new performances. (author)

  3. Evaluation Framework for Search Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Cooper, Matt W.; Kaye, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A framework for quantitatively evaluating current and proposed gamma-ray search instrument designs has been developed. The framework is designed to generate a large library of ''virtual neighborhoods'' that can be used to test and evaluate nearly any gamma-ray sensor type. Calculating nuisance-source emissions and combining various sources to create a large number of random virtual scenes places a significant computational burden on the development of the framework. To reduce this burden, a number of radiation transport simplifications have been made which maintain the essential physics ingredients for the quantitative assessment of search instruments while significantly reducing computational times. The various components of the framework, from the simulation and benchmarking of nuisance source emissions to the computational engine for generating the gigabytes of simulated search scenes, are discussed

  4. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  5. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  6. Epithermal neutron instrumentation at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G; Festa, G; Andreani, C

    2014-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources makes available high epithermal neutron fluxes (in the energy range between 500 meV and 100 eV). New dedicated instrumentation, such as Resonance Detectors, was developed at ISIS spallation neutron source in the last years to apply the specific properties of this kind of neutron beam to the study of condensed matter. New detection strategies like Filter Difference method and Foil Cycling Technique were also developed in parallel to the detector improvement at the VESUVIO beamline. Recently, epithermal neutron beams were also used at the INES beamline to study elemental and isotopic composition of materials, with special application to cultural heritage studies. In this paper we review a series of epithermal neutron instrumentation developed at ISIS, their evolution over time and main results obtained

  7. Holy Trinity of Instrumentation Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursic, Rok; Solar, Borut

    2004-01-01

    Being user friendly should be the main guidance, beside the self-understood high performance, in today's instrumentation development. Here we identify three components of the user-friendly policy: the all-in-one concept, customization, and connectivity. All-in-one is the concept of unification of various building blocks and thus various functionalities in one product. The customization is enabled by the product's reconfigurability that allows a product to grow and support new requirements and applications without changing hardware. The consequence of the two is the capacity of the single instrument to perform a variety of tasks that before were split among different devices. The last of the three is connectivity that improves the relationship between controls and beam diagnostics, brings out-of-the-crate freedom, and opens unforeseen possibilities for intra-accelerator cooperation and remote technical support

  8. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  10. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  11. Beam diagnostic instruments of TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1987-09-01

    The paper summarizes the beam diagnostic instruments of the low energy ion accumulation ring; TARN. With these monitors, position, profiles, bunch structure, intensity, emittance and momentum spread were measured to evaluate the injection and stacking experiments. The monitors provide the sensitivity of a few μA for the nondestructive and a few nA for the destructive monitors. Discussions on monitor probe and electronics are presented on the basis of an achievement of the beam stacking experiments. (author)

  12. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.; Johansen, Guro G.; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation. PMID:29599738

  13. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  14. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G; Johansen, Guro G; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of "private teaching, private learning" has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy ( N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  15. Virtual Instrumentation in Biomedical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Faustino Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the assessment of body composition by estimating the percentage of body fat has a great impact in many fields such as nutrition, health, sports, chronic diseases and others. The main purpose for this work is the development of a virtual instrument that permits more effective assessment of body fat, automatic data processing, recording results and storage in a database, with high potential to conduct new studies, http://lipotool.com.

  16. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  17. Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  18. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siw G. Nielsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In higher music education (HME, the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96, where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  20. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  1. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR: National Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    From 9:30 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Data acquisition systems on PCs, industrial measurement and control techniques, advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation, and system components for tests and automation will be presented. Walk-in courses will address DIAdem, LabVIEW and data acquisition. Language: English and French Free seminars and courses, no registration Organisers: Rolf Stampfli / IT-CO / 78102 & 160367 / Rolf.Stampfli@cern.ch Davide Vitè / HR-PMD-ATT / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch For more information and the complete event programme, please visit the...

  2. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  3. The instrumentation of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira

    2003-03-01

    The author has been engaged in the development of fast reactors over the last 30 years with both an involvement with the early technology development on the experimental breeder reactor Joyo, and latterly continuing this work on the prototype breeder reactor, Monju. In order to pass on this experience to younger engineers this paper is produced to outline this experience in the sincere hope that the information given will be utilised in future educational training material. The paper discusses the wide diversity on the associated instrument technology which the fast breeder reactor requires. The first chapter outlines the fast reactor system, followed by discussions on reactor instrumentation, measurement principles, temperature dependencies, and verification response characteristics from various viewpoints, are discussed in chapters two and three. The important issues of failed fuel location detection, and sodium leak detection from steam generators are discussed in chapters 4 and 5 respectively. Appended to this report is an explanation on the methods of measuring response characteristics on instrumentation systems using error analysis, random signal theory and measuring method of response characteristic by AR (autoregressive) model on which it appears is becoming an indispensable problem for persons involved with this technology in the future. (author)

  4. Measuring instruments of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grgić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is focused on the instruments for the measurement of corporate reputation. Recent research of the elements which influence the success of a company shows a growing interest in intangible values. Corporate reputation itself has been identified as one of the key intangible assets which create the company’s added value. Understanding of the importance of corporate reputation has been determined as a significant component of the company’s competitiveness, that is, of its competitive edge. Reputation is a normal part of our life and an integral part of our society. Our interest in the honesty and integrity of others is firmly established in all cultures and nowadays the focus of this interest is switching increasingly on companies. Corporate reputation can be acquired by means of strong, well-developed strategies, which are crucial for the opinion of stakeholders regarding future stability and competitive sustainability of the company. On the other hand, it should be emphasized that in order to manage it, corporate reputation has to be measured first. However, although the concept of corporate reputation is universally accepted and its significance has been recognized especially in the last two decades, the process of its measurement is still at an early stage and there is no universally accepted instrument for its measurement. Therefore, the author of this paper gives an overview of the instruments used for the measurement of corporate reputation which have gained a foothold through former practical usage.

  5. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    creativity , supported by analysis of, and interviews with, musical composers. Instrumentness is explained through discussions of materiality and metonymy as central strategies for computer mediated creativity. The paper is contributing to an investigation of the aesthetics of use in relation to software...... are controlled and conceptualized through values such as virtuosity and palyability, which are important for computer-mediated creative work supporting development in use beyond what is initially designed for. The papet performs a conceptual investigation into qualities in software interfaces that support...

  6. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  7. Electrolytic preconcentration in instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioda, R E; Batley, G E; Lund, W; Wang, J; Leach, S C

    1986-05-01

    The use of electrolytic deposition as a separation and preconcentration step in trace metal analysis is reviewed. Both the principles and applications of the technique are dealt with in some detail. Electrolytic preconcentration can be combined with a variety of instrumental techniques. Special attention is given to stripping voltammetry, potentiometric stripping analysis, different combinations with atomic-absorption spectrometry, and the use of flow-through porous electrodes. It is pointed out that the electrolytic preconcentration technique deserves more extensive use as well as fundamental investigation.

  8. In-pile Instrumentation Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, L.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced irradiations in research reactors require the on-line monitoring of crucial parameters like neutron fluxes, gamma dose rates, central fuel rod temperatures, fission gas release pressures and small geometry changes. Our activities in this field aim at a detailed understanding of the sensor behaviour in the irradiation conditions in order to extract reliable real-time information. The objectives of work performed by SCK-CEN are to study of the on-line in-pile measurement of gamma and neutron fluxes in real time and to investigate parasitic radiation-induced signals in instrumentation cables

  9. Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

  10. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  11. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  12. Financial instrument pricing using C++

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Daniel J

    2004-01-01

    One of the best languages for the development of financial engineering and instrument pricing applications is C++. This book has several features that allow developers to write robust, flexible and extensible software systems. The book is an ANSI/ISO standard, fully object-oriented and interfaces with many third-party applications. It has support for templates and generic programming, massive reusability using templates (?write once?) and support for legacy C applications. In this book, author Daniel J. Duffy brings C++ to the next level by applying it to the design and implementation of class

  13. Performing instrumentation and controls upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, F. M.; Connell, T. J.; Ryan, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    I and C upgrades are comprised of a varying range of content, complexity, expansiveness, and criticality. There are common threads in all upgrades which can be simplified by the development of a long term I and C upgrade plan. The development of a such a plan can establish effective ground rules for upgrades, large and small. It can be the basis from which to begin an upgrade evaluation and the standard which is used to compare the degree of compliance of any upgrade regarding the plan or to define the differences from the plan and an individual upgrade. Primary motivation for I and C upgrades are obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts. Numerous other areas of consideration are also involved in an upgrade. Today's technology results in most upgrades largely or totally utilizing digital equipment. The use of digital equipment is fairly new in many I and C applications and requires an elaborate evaluation from functional, qualification, operational, and licensing perspectives as well as others. A well defined upgrade plan developed as a basis for I and C upgrades is a significant start to ensuring an effective upgrade process. Properly developed and implemented, the plan will support I and C upgrade efforts to ensure that the intricacies associated with such tasks eliminate the existing problems which require the upgrade to be performed. The upgrade plan also results in ensuring the maximum benefit from all perspectives of the plant enhancements being carried out and considered for future implementation. Instrumentation and controls aging and replacement are issues of growing importance due to the potential for significant impact on plant operation and efficiency. Obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts are major drivers towards evaluating the cost benefits of upgrading current equipment. In addition to these two primary factors, the advantages of utilizing digital equipment have also become of prime importance when evaluating instrumentation and

  14. The 2007 ESO Instrument Calibration Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufer, Andreas; ESO Workshop

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 ESO Instrument Calibration workshop brought together more than 120 participants with the objective to a) foster the sharing of information, experience and techniques between observers, instrument developers and instrument operation teams, b) review the actual precision and limitations of the applied instrument calibration plans, and c) collect the current and future requirements by the ESO users. These present proceedings include the majority of the workshop’s contributions and document the status quo of instrument calibration at ESO in large detail. Topics covered are: Optical Spectro-Imagers, Optical Multi-Object Spectrographs, NIR and MIR Spectro-Imagers, High-Resolution Spectrographs, Integral Field Spectrographs, Adaptive Optics Instruments, Polarimetric Instruments, Wide Field Imagers, Interferometric Instruments as well as other crucial aspects such as data flow, quality control, data reduction software and atmospheric effects. It was stated in the workshop that "calibration is a life-long l...

  15. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP), which consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field...

  16. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field sensors along with a central computer to record and monitor the instruments....

  17. Instrumentation for three-dimensional tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Donner 280-crystal positron tomograph is described and its operation is explained. The instrument was put into operation in 1978. Possible uses of this instrument in human and animal studies are given

  18. Development of a plug-type IMS-MS instrument and its applications in resolving problems existing in in-situ detection of illicit drugs and explosives by IMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenxia; Sun, Tangqiang; Zhao, Jianan; Wang, Di; Zhang, Zhongxia; Yu, Wenlian

    2018-07-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) which acts as a rapid analysis technique is widely used in the field detection of illicit drugs and explosives. Due to limited separation abilities of the pint-sized IMS challenges and problems still exist regarding high false positive and false negative responses due to the interference of the matrix. In addition, the gas-phase ion chemistry and special phenomena in the IMS spectra, such one substance showing two peaks, were not identified unambiguously. In order to explain or resolve these questions, in this paper, an ion mobility spectrometry was coupled to a mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). A commercial IMS is embedded in a custom-built ion chamber shell was attached to the mass spectrometer. The faraday plate of IMS was fabricated with a hole for the ions to passing through to the mass spectrometer. The ion transmission efficiency of IMS-MS was optimized by optimizing the various parameters, especially the distance between the faraday plate and the cone of mass spectrum. This design keeps the integrity of the two original instruments and the mass spectrometry still works with multimode ionization source (i.e., IMS-MS, ESI-MS, APCI-MS modes). The illicit drugs and explosive samples were analyzed by the IMS-MS with 63 Ni source. The results showed that the IMS-MS is of high sensitivity. The ionization mechanism of the illicit drug and explosive samples with 63 Ni source were systematically studied. In addition, the interferent which interfered the detection of cocaine was identified as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) by this platform. The reason why the acetone solution of amphetamine showed two peaks was explained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. IAEA safeguards instrumentation: Development, implementation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive development efforts over the last 5 years have produced a number of new instruments to help the IAEA meet its safeguards obligations. Implementation of these new instruments is proceeding at a necessarily slower pace. To optimize the performance and reliability of the instrumentation systems when used in safeguards applications, increasing attention is needed to be spent on performance monitoring and control of the instruments. (author)

  20. Digital study of nuclear reactor instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Gongxiang; Yang Zhijun

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the design method of nuclear reactor's digital instrument developed by authors based on the AT89C52 single chip microcomputer. Also the instrument system hardware structure and software framework are given. The instrument apply DDC112 which is responsible for the measure of lower current. When designing the instrument system, anti-interference measure of software, especially hardware is considered seriously. (authors)

  1. A new Loan-Stock Financial Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Morozovsky, Alexander; Narasimhan, Rajan; Kholodenko, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    A new financial instrument (a new kind of a loan) is introduced. The loan-stock instrument (LSI) combines fixed rate instruments (loans, etc.) with other financial instruments that have higher volatilities and returns (stocks, mutual funds, currencies, derivatives, options, etc.). This new loan depends on the value of underlying security (for example, stock) in such a way that when underlying security increases, the value of loan decreases and backwards. The procedure to create a risk free po...

  2. Marketing instruments of foreign trade promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate t...

  3. Development on experimental VHTR instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, N.; Ara, K.; Terada, H.; Yamagishi, H.; Tomoda, T.

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes developmental works on the instrumentation of the Experimental VHTR. In the area of the nuclear instrumentation for the reactor control, high temperature fission counter-chambers have been developed. These withstood the accelerated irradiation life tests at 600 deg. C, the long term in-reactor operating test at 600 deg. C and the 800 deg. C-operating tests for several hundred hours in a simulated accident condition. Platinum-Molybdenum alloy thermocouples have been studied as a neutron-irradiation-resistant high-temperature thermocouple for the in-core temperature distribution monitoring of the VHTR in the temperature range between 1000 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The instability problems of the Pt-5% Mo/Pt-0.1% Mo thermocouple seem to be overcome by introducing a double sheath structure and adopting a better material to the inner sheath. A local failure and abnormality monitoring method for the HTR fuel is also studied using a gas-sweeping irradiation rig for the CPF compacts. This study aims mainly at the development of a method to compensate for the dependency of the FP-release rate on the fuel temperature, the neutron flux density, the burn-up and others, in order to increase the detection sensitivity of fuel failures. (author)

  4. Economic instruments for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaman, R.

    1991-01-01

    Economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies distinguish themselves from traditional tools (the 'command and control' type) for the reason that: they influence the costs and the benefits of the economic agents in question; they change the behaviour of the subjects in question in a way that they guarantee behaviour trends less harmful to the environment; they guarantee the assignment of adequate prices to the natural resources that traditionally don't have a price and therefore are consumed excessively by the economic subjects; normally they impose the transfer of economic resources to the disadvantage of the subjects responsible for the phenomena of pollution; certain objective pollution reduction data guarantee the minimization of the social costs of pollution abatement, that is, of the total costs on the economic system in general (economists define this characteristic as the 'static efficiency'); they guarantee what is called in economical jargon, the dynamic efficiency, i.e., in practice, they determine a continuous incentive for the reduction of the emission of the various pollutants and for the realization of the technological innovations that are able to control the pollution; they are more flexible than the instruments of direct regulation, because they leave the subjects a freedom of choice under different price conditions than in the past; they are flexible as well for the reason that the public operator can intervene rapidly to change the way of application

  5. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Fliescher, S.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10 −3

  6. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Benton, S. J. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bullock, E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Duband, L. [SBT, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France); Fliescher, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D., E-mail: csheehy@uchicago.edu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Collaboration: Bicep2 Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10{sup −3}.

  7. Instrument for measuring flow velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffo, J.

    1977-01-01

    The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de

  8. PACMAN: PRIMA astrometric instrument software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Sahlmann, Johannes; Pozna, Eszter

    2010-07-01

    The dual feed astrometric instrument software of PRIMA (PACMAN) that is currently being integrated at the VLTI will use two spatially modulated fringe sensor units and a laser metrology system to carry out differential astrometry. Its software and hardware compromises a distributed system involving many real time computers and workstations operating in a synchronized manner. Its architecture has been designed to allow the construction of efficient and flexible calibration and observation procedures. In parallel, a novel scheme of integrating M-code (MATLAB/OCTAVE) with standard VLT (Very Large Telescope) control software applications had to be devised in order to support numerically intensive operations and to have the capacity of adapting to fast varying strategies and algorithms. This paper presents the instrument software, including the current operational sequences for the laboratory calibration and sky calibration. Finally, a detailed description of the algorithms with their implementation, both under M and C code, are shown together with a comparative analysis of their performance and maintainability.

  9. Tamper indicating radiation surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.H.; Ney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype personnel and shipping dock portal monitors suitable for unattended use were fabricated and tested. The requirement for continuous operation with only periodic inspection along with a desire for minimum costs and minimum interference with normal plant operation imposed unique design constraints. The design, operation, and performance of the detection and data recording instrumentation are described, as well as the tamper indicating techniques required to protect the collected data. The essential elements of either of the two instruments include a gamma detector array, signal conditioning electronics, digital alarm logic circuitry, power supplies, a microwave occupancy monitor, surveillance camera, irreversible electromechanical counters, and the appropriate tamper indicating envelope protecting these elements. Attempts to penetrate the tamper indicating envelope require material removal, and undetectable repair is very difficult, if not impossible. The techniques for joining major subassemblies and providing unique seals are also described. The personnel doorway uses a double pole array of NaI(Tl) detectors, and outputs are taken from a single channel pulse height analyzer with a window set at 60 to 250 keV and the lower level discriminator at greater than 60 keV. A sliding interval counter is used to make comparisons to an accumulated background at the 4sigma level. Logic design, sensitivity for special nuclear materials, false alarm data, and test procedures are described in detail. The shipping dock monitor had different design constraints and therefore uses a single, long, cylindrical plastic scintillator. Some differences in signal conditioning and processing are also described. (auth)

  10. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  11. ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 14, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

  12. The Squiggle: A Digital Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues pertaining to thedesign of digital musical instruments that are to effectively fillthe role of traditional instruments (i.e. those based on physicalsound production mechanisms). The design andimplementation of a musical instrument that addresses some ofthese issues, using scanned synthesis coupled to a "smart"physical system, is described.

  13. Automated testing of health physics instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Endres, A.W.; Hadley, R.T.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1983-12-01

    A microcomputer controlled CAMAC system has been adapted for automated testing of health physics survey instruments. Once the survey instrument is positioned, the system automatically performs tests for angular dependence or battery lifetime. Rotation of the instrument is performed by a computer controlled stepping motor while readout is performed by an auto ranging digital volt meter and data stored on computer disks

  14. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment related to experimental facilities [sr

  15. Simulation tools for detector and instrument design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Cai, Xiao Xiao

    2018-01-01

    The high performance requirements at the European Spallation Source have been driving the technological advances on the neutron detector front. Now more than ever is it important to optimize the design of detectors and instruments, to fully exploit the ESS source brilliance. Most of the simulation...... a powerful set of tools to tailor the detector and instrument design to the instrument application....

  16. Are Musical Instrument Gender Associations Changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Hal

    2009-01-01

    The researcher sought to examine gender associations across three decades to determine if changes in the sex stereotyping of musical instruments has occurred. First, the study examined the paired comparison gender-instrument rankings of 180 college students. The results confirmed a reduction of instrument gender associations reported in the 1990s.…

  17. Adult Perspectives of Learning Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Kathryn; Jutras, Peter; Kim, Seon Joo

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults' perceptions and experiences of learning musical instruments. Conducted in the south-east United States, 15 adults who were learning instruments were recruited via community music groups and private instrumental teachers. Analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews…

  18. The scientific use of technological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    One of the most obvious ways in which the natural sciences depend on technology is through the use of instruments. This chapter presents a philosophical analysis of the role of technological instruments in science. Two roles of technological instruments in scientific practices are distinguished:

  19. Software-Enabled Modular Instrumentation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soijer, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Like most other types of instrumentation systems, flight test instrumentation is not produced in series; its development is a one-time achievement by a test department. With the introduction of powerful digital computers, instrumentation systems have included data analysis tasks that were previously

  20. Aspects of progress in neutron instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlile, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    The capability of neutron instrumentation in coming years will depend upon many factors, the main ones being the neutron source the instrument is sited on, the quality of the instrument itself, the quality of the support provided and the protocol for instrument operation. All of these factors must be optimised and improved upon to ensure consistently high quality scientific exploitation of an instrument. Examples of progress in each of these fields are given and a subjective view of possible future trends are hazarded. (author)

  1. Advanced neutron instrumentation at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the new German high flux neutron source FRM-II is finished and FRM-II is waiting for its licence to start nuclear operation. With the beginning of the routine operation 22 instruments will be in action, including 5 irradiation facilities and 17 beam tube instruments, most of them use neutron scattering techniques. Additional instruments are under construction. Some of these instruments are unique, others are expected to be the best of their kind, all instruments are based on innovative techniques. (author)

  2. MITIGATING INNOVATION RISKS CONCERNING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.

  3. Smart instrumentation development at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.

    1984-01-01

    For several years Los Alamos has incorporated microprocessors into instruments to expand the capability of portable survey type equipment. Beginning with portable pulse height analyzers, the developments have expanded to small dedicated instruments which handle the measurement and interpretation of various radiation fields. So far, instruments to measure gamma rays, neutrons, and beta particles have been produced. The computer capability built into these instruments provides significant computational power into the instruments. Capability unheard of a few years ago in small portable instruments is routine today. Large computer-based laboratory measurement systems which required much space and electrical power can now be incorporated in a portable hand-held instrument. The microprocessor developments at Los Alamos are now restricted to radiation monitoring equipment but can be expanded to chemical and biological applications as well. Applications for radiation monitoring equipment and others are discussed

  4. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and...... associated issues), and to elaborate a set of criteria for the selection and design of the instruments in relation to the formulation of innovation policy. The article argues that innovation policy instruments must be designed and combined into mixes in ways that address the problems of the innovation system....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  5. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and...... associated issues), and to elaborate a set of criteria for the selection and design of the instruments in relation to the formulation of innovation policy. The article argues that innovation policy instruments must be designed and combined into mixes in ways that address the problems of the innovation system....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  6. Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L; Bowles, N E; Urbak, E [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Keane, D; Sawyer, E C, E-mail: k.aplin1@physics.ox.ac.uk [RAL Space, R25, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

  7. Nuclear reactor instrumentation power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear reactor instrumentation power monitor that can be used in, for example, BWR type nuclear power plants. Signals from multi-channel detectors disposed on field units are converted respectively by LPRM signal circuits. Then, the converted signals are further converted by a multiplexer into digital signals and transmitted as serial data to a central monitor unit. The thus transmitted serial data are converted into parallel data in the signal processing section of the central monitor unit. Then, LPRM signals are taken out from each of channel detectors to conduct mathematical processing such as trip judgment or averaging. Accordingly, the field unit and the central monitor unit can be connected by way of only one data transmission cable thereby enabling to reduce the number of cables. Further, since the data are transmitted on digital form, it less undergoes effect of noises. (I.S.)

  8. Anàlisi instrumental

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Sabata, Josep M.

    1994-01-01

    Conté: 2. Cromatografia i electroforesi Aquest text pretén donar una visió general de l'ampli camp dels mètodes instrumentals de separació aplicats al laboratori d'anàlis segons un concepte eminentment pràctic. S'ha dividit en cinc capítols temàtics: teoria de la cromatografia, cromatografia clàssica, cromatografia de gasos, cromatografia de líquids i electroforesi. Va destinat als estudiants d'enginyeria i de les facultats de ciències que dins el seu pla d'estudis incorporin la matèria d'...

  9. Presentation of a new instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, M B; Rasmussen, B K; Brennum, J

    1992-01-01

    A new instrument, the Diagnostic Headache Diary, based on the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS), was tested in 61 migraine patients from a headache research clinic using the clinical diagnosis (IHS criteria) for comparison. All patients kept the diary...... for one to eight months. The clinical and diary diagnosis of migraine with and without aura was the same in, respectively, 72 and 87% of the patients. Nausea, photophobia and phonophobia tended to be more pronounced at the clinical interview. The diary identified 20 more cases of episodic tension......-type headache and 15 fewer cases of chronic tension-type headache than the clinical interview. Two blinded observers always made the same IHS diagnoses when interpreting the diagnostic headache diary. A combination of a clinical interview and the diagnostic headache diary gives a qualitatively...

  10. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  11. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Abusleme, Angel; Afanaciev, Konstantin

    2010-09-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  12. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  13. Online Personalization of Hearing Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert de Vries

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Online personalization of hearing instruments refers to learning preferred tuning parameter values from user feedback through a control wheel (or remote control, during normal operation of the hearing aid. We perform hearing aid parameter steering by applying a linear map from acoustic features to tuning parameters. We formulate personalization of the steering parameters as the maximization of an expected utility function. A sparse Bayesian approach is then investigated for its suitability to find efficient feature representations. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated in an application to online personalization of a noise reduction algorithm. A patient trial indicates that the acoustic features chosen for learning noise control are meaningful, that environmental steering of noise reduction makes sense, and that our personalization algorithm learns proper values for tuning parameters.

  14. Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Team

    2010-01-01

    The 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is making detailed maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background at Cerro Toco in northern Chile. In this talk, I focus on the design and operation of the telescope and its commissioning instrument, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The camera contains three independent sets of optics that operate at 148 GHz, 217 GHz, and 277 GHz with arcminute resolution, each of which couples to a 1024-element array of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. I will report on the camera performance, including the beam patterns, optical efficiencies, and detector sensitivities. Under development for ACT is a new polarimeter based on feedhorn-coupled TES devices that have improved sensitivity and are planned to operate at 0.1 K.

  16. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  17. EPRI instruments reach commercial market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has developed instruments capable of verifying time responses of power plant pressure sensors and temperature sensors. A patent is pending on the pressure-sensor device, and the temperature-sensor device is already commercially available. The devices, EPRI's first hardware products to be marketed, are the result of research to find technological solutions to the problems of knowing the time period when temperature and pressure changes occur in light water reactors. The hydraulic pressure-sensor device is a portable unit that can conveniently test equipment in place. Utilities can obtain detailed information from EPRI's project report to construct their own. The loop current step response (LCSR), measuring resistance temperature, is also a compact system suitable for in-plant testing

  18. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  19. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Sviridova, V.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production

  20. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  1. Hybrid microcircuits for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) have distinct advantages over their rival products like printed circuit boards (PCBs) and integrated circuits (ICs), and are able to survive the onslaught of Moore's law, by retaining the niche market for themselves. The ASIC development cost is normally huge and when the volumes are small (less than ten thousand or so), the prohibitively high unit cost deters the potential customers. However the HMCs can be developed at a small fraction of an ASIC development cost and thus they are attractive when the volumes are small, as in the case of professional electronics industries like defense, broadcast, or instrumentation industries. The hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology can involve one of the two processes: thick-film and thin- film. Broadly the thick-film process consists of printing and firing of, conductor and resistor pastes, on an Alumina substrate. The thin-film process consists of photo lithographic etching of, conductor and resistor patterns, on a metal/resistor sputtered high purity Alumina substrate. The active devices, either in die-form or in surface-mount form, are attached to the thick-film or the thin-film substrate. The passive devices like chip inductors and chip capacitors are also attached to the substrate. This paper discusses in detail the thick-film and the thin-film processes and their relative merits and demerits. The associated qualification and screening procedures followed to provide reliable HMCs to the customer are described. The existing HMC facilities and the product range available in Bharat Electronics including the HMCs developed for nuclear instrumentation are presented. (author)

  2. Origins, transformations and key foci in instrumental genesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    This paper investigates the origins of the instrumental genesis and instrumental orchestrations frameworks. This is done by reviewing instrumented activity situations, instrumental genesis, and instrumental orchestrations with the purpose of identifying their epistemological assumptions, what the...... and instrumental orchestrations have potential shortcomings since the technologies that currently exist in school contexts are rather different from the technologies instrumental genesis was originally developed to study.......This paper investigates the origins of the instrumental genesis and instrumental orchestrations frameworks. This is done by reviewing instrumented activity situations, instrumental genesis, and instrumental orchestrations with the purpose of identifying their epistemological assumptions, what...

  3. Design and construction of a 10B coated ion chamber for the measurement of a thermal neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, M.

    1979-01-01

    A model of an ionization chamber cover with 10 B, for the measurement of thermal neutron flux is presented, the developed chamber is made of a cylindrical vessel in which interior exist 7 aluminium electrodes which by electrodeposition were covered with a coat of 10 B with a thickness of 0.68 mg/cm 2 . Once the chamber is filled with N 2 to a pressure of 1.33 atm., it was exposed to a flux of thermal neutrons at the order 10 4 n/cm 2 -seg obtaining an ionization current of 10 -11 amp. which can be easily distinguished from the leak current which order is of 10 -12 amp. The conventional electronics associated to the chamber allows to process the ionization current in pulse form. The relation of noise to signal is approximately of 8, for which the pulses can be differentiated from the electronic noise without any problem. (author)

  4. Study tube housing leakage of 111 conventional diagnostic X-ray machines using ion chamber survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalrinmawia, Jonathan; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at measuring the leakage radiation from X-ray tube and compare to national and international safety standard. The leakage radiation is formed at the anode inside the X-ray tube and transmitted through the tube housing. The tube housing is proposed to protect both patients and workers from leakage radiation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no tube housing leakage measurements have been done so far in the present study area

  5. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  6. Operational and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, F.; Gow, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In the last 15 years the CEGB has experienced progressive plant development, integration and changes in operating regime through nine nuclear (gas-cooled reactor) power stations with corresponding instrumentation advances leading towards more refined centralized control. Operation and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation is reported in this paper with reference to the progressive changes related to the early magnox, late magnox and AGR periods. Data on instrumentation reliability in terms of reactor forced outages are presented and show that the instrumentation contributions to loss of generating plant availability are small. Reactor safety circuits, neutron flux and temperature measurements, gas analysis and vibration monitoring are discussed. In reviewing the reactor instrumentation the emphasis is on reporting recent experience, particularly on AGR equipment, but overall performance and changes to magnox equipment are included so that some appreciation can be obtained of instrumentation requirements with respect to plant lifetimes. (author)

  7. Recent advances in radiation protection instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection instrumentation plays very important role in radiation protection and surveillance programme. Radiation detector, which appears at the frontal end of the instrument, is an essential component of these instruments. The instrumental requirement of protection level radiation monitoring is different from conventional radiation measuring instruments. Present paper discusses the new type of nuclear radiation detectors, new protection level instruments and associated electronic modules for various applications. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, such as nuclear power plants; mining and milling; medical institutions; educational and research establishments; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection to workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radioactive materials for different applications. The radiation exposures to the individual radiation workers and records of their cumulative radiation doses need to be routinely monitored and recorded

  8. The JEM-EUSO instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the JEM-EUSO instrument. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) will observe Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) from space. It will detect UV-light of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by UHECRs traversing the Earth's atmosphere. For each event, the detector will determine the energy, arrival direction and the type of the primary particle. The advantage of a space-borne detector resides in the large field of view, using a target volume of about 1012 tons of atmosphere, far greater than what is achievable from ground. Another advantage is a nearly uniform sampling of the whole celestial sphere. The corresponding increase in statistics will help to clarify the origin and sources of UHECRs and characterize the environment traversed during their production and propagation. JEM-EUSO is a 1.1 ton refractor telescope using an optics of 2.5 m diameter Fresnel lenses to focus the UV-light from EAS on a focal surface composed of about 5,000 multi-anode photomultipliers, for a total of ≃3ṡ105 channels. A multi-layer parallel architecture handles front-end acquisition, selecting and storing valid triggers. Each processing level filters the events with increasingly complex algorithms using FPGAs and DSPs to reject spurious events and reduce the data rate to a value compatible with downlink constraints.

  9. Human pavlovian-instrumental transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Seymour, Ben; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2008-01-09

    The vigor with which a participant performs actions that produce valuable outcomes is subject to a complex set of motivational influences. Many of these are believed to involve the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens, which act as an interface between limbic and motor systems. One prominent class of influences is called pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT), in which the motivational characteristics of a predictor influence the vigor of an action with respect to which it is formally completely independent. We provide a demonstration of behavioral PIT in humans, with an audiovisual predictor of the noncontingent delivery of money inducing participants to perform more avidly an action involving squeezing a handgrip to earn money. Furthermore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that this enhanced motivation was associated with a trial-by-trial correlation with the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the nucleus accumbens and a subject-by-subject correlation with the BOLD signal in the amygdala. Our data dovetails well with the animal literature and sheds light on the neural control of vigor.

  10. Human Pavlovian–Instrumental Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Seymour, Ben; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    The vigor with which a participant performs actions that produce valuable outcomes is subject to a complex set of motivational influences. Many of these are believed to involve the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens, which act as an interface between limbic and motor systems. One prominent class of influences is called pavlovian–instrumental transfer (PIT), in which the motivational characteristics of a predictor influence the vigor of an action with respect to which it is formally completely independent. We provide a demonstration of behavioral PIT in humans, with an audiovisual predictor of the noncontingent delivery of money inducing participants to perform more avidly an action involving squeezing a handgrip to earn money. Furthermore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that this enhanced motivation was associated with a trial-by-trial correlation with the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the nucleus accumbens and a subject-by-subject correlation with the BOLD signal in the amygdala. Our data dovetails well with the animal literature and sheds light on the neural control of vigor. PMID:18184778

  11. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  12. LISA Pathfinder instrument data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Felipe

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtrac-tion techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology Subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of pre-flight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  13. Internal communication: challenges and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Rizea, Lavinia

    2007-01-01

    Mike Hughes, the publisher for Publicity Express once said that 'Without Public Relations a terrible thing happens: nothing'. The term 'Public Relations' describes the efficient and coherent organization of external and internal communication. A company has an external public and an internal one as well. The employees of an organization are important carriers of the message the organization wants to transmit, but moreover, they are the driving engine behind the success of an enterprise. Better informed employees are more confident and prepared to get involved in challenging tasks such as obtaining public support for nuclear power. Internal communication is the continuous flux of information on all hierarchic levels both horizontally and vertically. The efficient usage of internal communication tools brings great advantages and benefits for the managers and the personnel of an organization. Despite this, organizing an integrated internal communication strategy is a challenging effort for any PR department. The paper deals with the instruments of internal communication, the obstacles usually encountered and the possibilities to apply an integrated strategy in large companies operating in the nuclear field. (authors)

  14. The Juno Gravity Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.

  15. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  16. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  17. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems

  18. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  19. Instrumentation at pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Lander, G.H.; Windsor, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Scientific investigations involving the use of neutron beams have been centered at reactor sources for the last 35 years. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using the neutrons produced by accelerator driven (pulsed) sources. Such installations are in operation in England, Japan, and the United States. In this article a brief survey is given of how the neutron beams are produced and how they can be optimized for neutron scattering experiments. A detailed description is then given of the various types of instruments that have been, or are planned, at pulsed sources. Numerous examples of the scientific results that are emerging are given. An attempt is made throughout the article to compare the scientific opportunities at pulsed sources with the proven performance of reactor installations, and some familiarity with the latter and the general field of neutron scattering is assumed. New areas are being opened up by pulsed sources, particularly with the intense epithermal neutron beams, which promise to be several orders of magnitude more intense than can be obtained from a thermal reactor

  20. Remote Monitoring of Instrumentation in Sealed Compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, Clinton; Moser, John C.

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been exploring the instrumentation of sealed canisters where the flight application will not tolerate either the presence of a chemical power source or penetration by power supply wires. This paper will describe the application of a low power micro-controller based instrumentation system that uses magnetic coupling for both power and data to support a flight application

  1. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  2. Virtual experiment instrument of nuclear pulse measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Zhao Xiuliang; Yu Hong; Zhang Meiqin

    2009-01-01

    Study on the scheme of application of virtual instrument(VI) technique in measuring of nuclear pulse. The system of Counter based on technology of LabVIEW and NI company's products USB-6009-DAQ is developed. Virtual nuclear instrument-Virtual Counter is realized. This system extends the application of technology of virtual instrument. The experimental results indicate that the system of Counter had the good counting measuring function of Nuclear Pulse. (authors)

  3. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.; Majstorovic, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  4. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related control and maintenace of the experimental devices [sr

  5. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related control and maintenace of the experimental devices [sr

  6. Nuclear reactor instrumentation at research reactor renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baers, B.; Pellionisz, P.

    1981-10-01

    The paper overviews the state-of-the-art of research reactor renewals. As a case study the instrumentation reconstruction of the Finnish 250 kW TRIGA reactor is described, with particular emphasis on the nuclear control instrumentation and equipment which has been developed and manufactured by the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. Beside the presentation of the nuclear instrument family developed primarily for research reactor reconstructions, the quality assurance policy conducted during the manufacturing process is also discussed. (author)

  7. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  8. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  9. Increasing Laser Stability with Improved Electronic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Daylin; Bennett, Aaron; Erickson, Christopher J.; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin S.

    2010-03-01

    We present several electronic instruments developed to implement an ultra-stable laser lock. These instruments include a high speed, low noise homodyne photo-detector; an ultrahigh stability, low noise current driver with high modulation bandwidth and digital control; a high-speed, low noise PID controller; a low-noise piezo driver; and a laser diode temperature controller. We will present the theory of operation for these instruments, design and construction techniques, and essential characteristics for each device.

  10. Instrument to collect fogwater for chemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Waldman, Jed M.; Haghi, Mehrdad; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Flagan, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument is presented which collects large samples of ambient fogwater by impaction of droplets on a screen. The collection efficiency of the instrument is determined as a function of droplet size, and it is shown that fog droplets in the range 3–100-µm diameter are efficiently collected. No significant evaporation or condensation occurs at any stage of the collection process. Field testing indicates that samples collected are representative of the ambient fogwater. The instrument may ea...

  11. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  12. Instrument validation system of general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filshtein, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Instrument Validation System (IVS) as a software system which has the capability of evaluating the performance of a set of functionally related instrument channels to identify failed instruments and to quantify instrument drift. Under funding from Combustion Engineering (C-E), the IVS has been developed to the extent that a computer program exists whose use has been demonstrated. The initial development work shows promise for success and for wide application, not only to power plants, but also to industrial manufacturing and process control. Applications in the aerospace and military sector are also likely

  13. Millimeter-wave Instrumentation Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Millimeter-wave Instrumentation Test Facility conducts basic research in propagation phenomena, remote sensing, and target signatures. The facility has a breadth...

  14. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  15. LOFT instrumented fuel design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A summary description of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) system instrumented core construction details and operating experience through reactor startup and loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) operations performed to date are discussed. The discussion includes details of the test instrumentation attachment to the fuel assembly, the structural response of the fuel modules to the forces generated by a double-ended break of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant pipe at the inlet to the reactor vessel, the durability of the LOFT fuel and test instrumentation, and the plans for incorporation of improved fuel assembly test instrumentation features in the LOFT core

  16. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  17. LESSER KNOWN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rešad Fazli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presented the instruments that were originated in this region, as well as those instruments that are brought from other regions, and became deeply carved into the tradition and culture of the local people, that they feel as their own. Some of these instruments are kept only here in this region, and they are not used anymore in the area they originated from. This paper also covers instruments that are rarely used or completely lost in this region.

  18. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  19. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files

  20. The Sensors and Instrumentation Knowledge Transfer Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P

    2009-01-01

    The Sensors and Instrumentation KTN has established itself as the UK's national network in sensors and instrumentation, developing a community of over 2,250 member organisations. This paper describes the background to Knowledge Transfer Networks (KTNs) and the changes that are happening to KTNs at a national level, before describing the market size, activities and successes of the Sensors and Instrumentation KTN. The paper concludes by describing the merger between the Sensors and Instrumentation KTN and four other KTNs to create a new KTN, with a working title of the Electronics, Sensors and Photonics KTN.

  1. [What's new in instrumental dermatology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, J-M

    2014-12-01

    This "What's new in instrumental dermatology" focuses on cutaneous oncologic surgery, base on a review of the 2012-2014 literature. First, the ability of dermatologists to make a good "oncologic reading of tumors" is the key of radical surgical treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the biopsy are discussed. Then, the second message is the management of anticoagulants, that should not be interrupted for skin surgery. Despite recommendations, this practice is not followed in 40% of cases; this point is critical because bleeding complications are minor compared to potential morbidity of thrombotic events when stopping these medications. Regarding infection, nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is identified as a risk factor for wound infection. A preoperative shower with chlorhexidine and mupirocin topical decolonization of nostril reduces this risk. Surgical techniques are trying to reach minimalism, by reducing undermining and scarring. On the trunk, using deep slow resorbable sutures improve scarring. In addition using adhesive sutures (strip) reduce the wideness of scar. On the face, the lower third of the nose is the most challenging because of the free edges, which are deformable. In this location bilobed or trilobed transposition flap offer the advantage of remaining in the nasal aesthetic unit and not disturbing the free edges of the nasal orifices. Regarding scarring, early hypertrophic scar is now well defined and linked with transposition flaps of the nasal region. An early treatment with intralesional corticosteroid injection appears to be effective. Finally, the biological mechanism of the effectiveness of compression in the prevention and treatment of dystrophic scar is now clear. The mechanotransduction explain how a mechanical stress of the skin activates biological cell pathways, which regulate the quality of collagen synthesis and the arrangement of skin fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing the TRYAD Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, K. T.; Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Fuchs, J.; Capps, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief MeV gamma-ray flashes that are associated with thunderstorms, around 12km in altitude, and are viewed by orbiting satellites. These bright flashes of high energy photons were discovered in 1994. The two major models for TGFs that originate in thunderstorms are the Lightning Leader and Relativistic Feedback Discharge (RFD) model. Both depend on energetic electrons radiating via bremsstrahlung emission. The Lightning Leader model theorizes that lightning step leaders can accelerate electrons to relativistic speeds. The RFD model states that an energetic seed particle can be accelerated to relativistic speeds by strong electric fields inside of a thunderstorm. The main difference in the results of the two models is as follows; the Lightning Leader model results in a wider beam of gamma-rays than the RFD model because the electric field of a thunderstorm is more structured than that of lightning. The TRYAD mission will be the first to fly two detectors, inside CubeSats, in formation to detect TGFs from multiple points in the sky. The data from the CubeSats and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) will likely provide enough insight to constrain or eliminate some of the existing models for TGFs.This summer was spent testing components and constructing the engineering model of the scientific instrument that will be used to detect TGFs. The detector is made up of four lead-doped plastic scintillators which are coupled to arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from the SiPM array is then fed into a discriminator where a lower energy estimate can be determined and photon counts are recorded. I will present the progress made over the summer constructing the engineering model.

  3. Combining within and between instrument information to estimate precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, J.W.; Devary, J.L.; Ward, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    When two instruments, both having replicated measurements, are used to measure the same set of items, between instrument information may be used to augment the within instrument precision estimate. A method is presented which combines the within and between instrument information to obtain an unbiased and minimum variance estimate of instrument precision. The method does not assume the instruments have equal precision

  4. Vision though afocal instruments: generalized magnification and eye-instrument interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William F.; Evans, Tanya

    2018-04-01

    In Gaussian optics all observers experience the same magnification, the instrument's angular magnification, when viewing distant objects though a telescope or other afocal instruments. However, analysis in linear optics shows that this is not necessarily so in the presence of astigmatism. Because astigmatism may distort and rotate images it is appropriate to work with generalized angular magnification represented by a 2 × 2 matrix. An expression is derived for the generalized magnification for an arbitrary eye looking through an arbitrary afocal instrument. With afocal instruments containing astigmatic refracting elements not all eyes experience the same generalized magnification; there is interaction between eye and instrument. Eye-instrument interaction may change as the instrument is rotated about its longitudinal axis, there being no interaction in particular orientations. A simple numerical example is given. For sake of completeness, expressions for generalized magnification are also presented in the case of instruments that are not afocal and objects that are not distant.

  5. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O ampersand MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document

  6. Fabrication of internally instrumented reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutz, J.D.; Meservey, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures are outlined for fabricating internally instrumented reactor fuel rods while maintaining the original quality assurance level of the rods. Instrumented fuel rods described contain fuel centerline thermocouples, ultrasonic thermometers, and pressure tubes for internal rod gas pressure measurements. Descriptions of the thermocouples and ultrasonic thermometers are also contained

  7. Patient perspective: choosing or developing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John R; Fries, James F; Hewlett, Sarah; Osborne, Richard H

    2011-08-01

    Previous Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) meetings recognized that patients view outcomes of intervention from a different perspective. This preconference position paper briefly sets out 2 patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument approaches, the PROMISE computer adaptive testing (CAT) system and development of a rheumatoid arthritis-specific questionnaire to measure fatigue; a tentative proposal for a PRO instrument development pathway is also made.

  8. DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Court, A.J.; Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Visser, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Decae, R.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of aerosols is a largely unresolved problem. A dedicated instrument aimed at aerosols would be able to reduce the large uncertainties connected to this kind of remote sensing. TNO is performing a study of a space based instrument for aerosol measurements, together with the

  9. Conceptual design of safety instrumentation for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, G.; Seshadri, U.; Raghavan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation systems enable monitoring of the process which in turn enables control and shutdown of the process as per the requirements. Safety Instrumentation due to its vital importance has a stringent role and this needs to be designed methodically. This paper presents the details of the conceptual design for PFBR. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs

  10. IAEA programme on maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuister, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Medical Applications Section in the Division of Life Sciences of the International Atomic Energy Agency has been engaged since 1975 in activities aimed at the more effective use of nuclear instruments. Activities and achievements are described concerning the conditioning of laboratories, preventive maintenance and repair of instruments, the management thereof, space parts and the promotion of local training in these subjects. (author)

  11. Technology evolution of the Tropomi instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Hoogeveen, R.; Voors, R.; Kleipool, Q.; Veefkind, P.; Aben, I.; Snel, R.; Valk, N.C.J. van der; Visser, H.; Otter, G.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    TROPOMI is the sun backscatter trace gas instrument on ESA's Sentinel-5 precursor satellite. TROPOMI builds upon a rich heritage from similar instruments, the main ones being SCIAMACHY on ESA's ENVISAT and OMI on NASA's AURA satellite. This paper explains how the technology from the heritage

  12. Specialized instrument for radiation assistance teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A specialized multiradiation instrument for radiation assistance teams (RAT's) has been designed; a working prototype has been constructed and field tested. The instrument detects alpha, beta, and gamma radiation simultaneously with simple red, yellow, and green meter indications and audio outputs. It is basically intended for DOE radiation assistance teams but would have application to any government, military, or industrial radiation accident team

  13. Effect of geotropism on instrument readings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolph, James T.

    2006-01-01

    A review of gravity's effect on instrument readings, also referred to as geotropism. In this essay a review of meter movement construction and the effect are reviewed as it applies to portable radiation instruments. Reference to the three ANSI standards and their requirements are reviewed. An alternate approach to test for the effects is offered

  14. Why Do They Choose Their Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Irene Martínez; Jauset-Berrocal, Jordi-Angel

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is a key word in the arts and, especially, in music since it conveys collective, as well as individual, feelings. The beginning of musical instrument learning should be based on the student's musical interest but, due to the casual and improvised nature of everyday situations in which the choice of a musical instrument takes place, tend…

  15. Wubbles: A Collaborative Ephemeral Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Berthaut, Florent; Knibbe, Jarrod

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a collaborative digital musical instrument that uses the ephemeral and physical properties of soap bubbles to explore the complexity layers and oscillating parameters of electronic (bass) music. This instrument, called Wubbles, aims at encouraging both individual and collaborative musical manipulations.

  16. The Micronium-A Musical MEMS instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, Hylco; Beekman, Jethro G.; Fortgens, Laurens C.; de Graaf, Derk B.; Vocke, Sander; Abelmann, Leon

    The Micronium is a musical instrument fabricated from silicon using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. It is—to the best of our knowledge—the first musical micro-instrument fabricated using MEMS technology, where the actual sound is generated by mechanical microstructures. The

  17. Guitar as the Preferred Musical Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Mallari, Shedy Dee C.; Pelayo, Jose Juancho S.

    2015-01-01

    The Guitar is a very popular instrument that is commonly used by many musicians. This study focused on the factors that made the guitar more appealing to the youth in comparison to other instruments. A semi structured, open ended questionnaire was used to collect the data essential for this study. 50 male and 50 female college students were…

  18. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  19. Computer-Aided Instruction in Automated Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses functions of automated instrumentation systems, i.e., systems which combine electrical measuring instruments and a controlling computer to measure responses of a unit under test. The computer-assisted tutorial then described is programmed for use on such a system--a modern microwave spectrum analyzer--to introduce engineering students to…

  20. The Treatment Validity of Autism Screening Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…