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Sample records for cevada para malte

  1. BRS Deméter: nova cultivar de cevada cervejeira irrigada para o Cerrado do Brasil Central BRS Deméter: new malting barley cultivar for irrigated Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BRS Deméter é uma cultivar de cevada dística (duas fileiras de grãos de ampla adaptação, sob irrigação, ao Cerrado do Brasil Central. Apresenta potencial produtivo de grãos acima de 5.000 kg ha-1, estabilidade de produção e alta qualidade industrial malte-cervejeira. A cultivar atende às demandas do produtor por rendimento competitivo e às da indústria malteira por alta qualidade cervejeira.BRS Deméter is a spring, two-rowed barley, widely adapted to irrigated areas of the savanna, in Central Brazil. It presents production stability and high malting quality, with yield potential above 5,000 kg ha-1. It fulfills both the farmer and malting industry expectations regarding competitive yield and brewing quality.

  2. Genetic similarity of Brazilian hull-less and malting barley varieties evaluated by RAPD markers Similaridade genética de variedades brasileiras de cevada nua e cevada cervejeira avaliada por marcadores RAPD

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    Mariela Aparecida Kroth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is widely used for brewing and animal feed. Recently, it has become desirable for human consumption due to its high nutritional significance, specially hull-less or naked barley. There are differences in nutritional and malting characteristics among barley varieties. RAPD procedure is able to separate barley varieties at various similarity levels. The aim of this work was the RAPD analysis of six Brazilian hull-less varieties and seven malting varieties. PCR reactions were performed with eleven random primers. A total of 34 RAPD fragments was obtained with five primers. A dendrogram was constructed based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient. Barley varieties displayed an average similarity coefficient of 0.53. Intravarietal monomorphic fragments allowed differentiation among varieties. The averages of intravarietal similarity coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.85. RAPD markers, detected in this work, were suitable for differentiation among Brazilian barley varieties.A cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. é amplamente empregada na produção de cerveja e na ração animal. Recentemente, este cereal tornou-se desejável na alimentação humana devido ao seu alto valor nutricional, principalmente da cevada nua ou sem casca. Existem diferenças nas características nutricionais e para malteação entre as diversas variedades de cevada. O procedimento RAPD é capaz de separar as variedades de cevada em vários níveis de similaridade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar por RAPD seis variedades brasileiras de cevada nua e sete variedades de cevada cervejeira. Reações de PCR foram realizadas com onze iniciadores aleatórios. Um total de 34 fragmentos de amplificação foi obtido com cinco destes iniciadores. Baseado no coeficiente de similaridade de Jaccard, um dendrograma foi construído. As variedades de cevada apresentaram índice médio de similaridade de 0,53. Fragmentos monomórficos intravariedades permitiram a

  3. CEVADA BR 2: CULTIVAR DE CEVADA CERVEJEIRA RESISTENTE À MANCHA-RETICULAR CAUSADA POR PYRENOPHORA TERES BARLEY CULTIVAR BR 2: MALTING QUALITY AND RESISTANCE TO NET BLOTCH CAUSED BY PYRENOPHORA TERES

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    EUCLYDES MINELLA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A Cevada BR 2, criada pela Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT, foi lançada para cultivo em 1989. Originou-se de sete plantas selecionadas em F3 do cruzamento FM 424/TR 206, realizado em 1979, em Passo Fundo, RS. A BR 2 é uma cevada de primavera, do tipo de duas fileiras de grãos, com ciclo precoce, ampla adaptação e porte baixo. É a primeira cultivar brasileira resistente a Pyrenophora teres, agente causal da mancha-reticular, principal moléstia da cevada no Brasil. Em oito anos de avaliação no Ensaio Nacional de Cevada, conduzido em 12 locais da Região Sul, a BR 2 rendeu entre 1.621 e 4.014 kg/ha de grãos de primeira qualidade, superando a cultivar Antarctica 05 em 3% no RS e SC, em 13% no PR, e em 6% na média dos 96 experimentos (12 locais x 8 anos. Na lavoura, a BR 2 tem produzido rendimentos acima de 5.000 kg/ha. Aprovada como cervejeira em 1992, ocupou 30% da área semeada em 1993 e 90% em 1997. A BR 2 representa um marco no progresso do melhoramento genético da cevada no país, contribuindo decisivamente para o aumento da competitividade da produção doméstica.Barley cultivar BR 2 developed by the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT was released in 1989. BR 2 traces back to seven plants selected in the F3 from the cross FM 424/TR 206 made in Passo Fundo, RS, in 1979. BR 2 is a two row spring barley with wide adaptation, earliness and short straw. It is the first Brazilian cultivar resistant to Pyrenophora teres, causal agent of net blotch, a major barley disease in Brazil. In eight years of yield testing in the National Barley Trial in twelve locations of Southern Brazil, BR 2 yielded between 1,621and 4,014 kg/ha of plump kernels, with 3%, 13% and 6% yield increase over the check cultivar Antarctica 05 in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Paraná and in the mean of 96 trials, respectively. On the farm fields, BR 2 has yielded over 5,000 kg/ha. Since its approval as a malting

  4. Desenvolvimento de populações duplo-haplóides de cevada cervejeira associadas à atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases Development of doubled-haploids populations in malting barley associated to activity of enzymes (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases

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    Janaína Endres Georg-Kraemer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Populações duplo-haplóides apresentam especial vantagem para análises genéticas, uma vez que a informação que elas oferecem pode ser maximizada, devido ao fato que todos os locos encontram-se em homozigose. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de duas populações duplo-haplóides (DHs de cevada (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. segregantes para a atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases, através da técnica de cultura de anteras. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos com cultivares contrastantes para esta característica. As cultivares parentais selecionadas foram 'MN 698' e 'CEV 97047', para o desenvolvimento da população "malte verde" (MV, e 'Embrapa 127' e 'CEV 96025' para o desenvolvimento da população "malte seco" (MS. Foram cultivadas 10.734 anteras da população MS e 4.139 anteras da população MV. A população MV produziu 50% mais plântulas verdes quando comparada à população MS, refletindo a importância do genótipo na resposta à cultura de anteras e na regeneração. A maioria das plantas adultas duplo-haplóides foi obtida através da duplicação espontânea in vitro do genoma haplóide, ocorrendo em 66% das plantas da população MS e 76% das plantas da população MV. Também foram observadas, em menor frequência, plantas haplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides. Através da técnica de cultura de anteras, foram desenvolvidas 204 linhagens duplo-haplóides, das quais 72 linhagens são da população "malte seco" e 132 linhagens são da população "malte verde". Este material constitui um importante germoplasma para o melhoramento genético da cevada.Doubled haploid populations offer special advantages in genetic analyses, since the information they provide may be maximized due to the fact that all loci are homozygous. The aim of this study was to develop two barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp.vulgare L. doubled-haploid (DHs populations segregating to (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases activity, utilizing the anther

  5. Uso industrial de grãos de cevada de lavouras dessecadas em pré-colheita Industrial suitability for malting of grains from desiccated pre-harvest barley

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    Eduardo Caierão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da antecipação da colheita de lavouras de cevada sobre a germinação dos grãos, ao longo de 12 meses de armazenamento. O ensaio de campo foi realizado em 2002 e 2003. As parcelas colhidas foram armazenadas nos anos subseqüentes aos dos ensaios em campo, e a germinação foi monitorada mensalmente. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: dessecação com os princípios ativos glifosato e paraquat, nas doses 1, 1,5 e 2 L ha-1, além das testemunhas, colhidas normalmente e de forma antecipada, sem dessecação. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A colheita antecipada sem dessecação foi o tratamento de maior prejuízo qualitativo à germinação dos grãos. A deterioração qualitativa temporal dos grãos, nos tratamentos com herbicidas dessecantes, foi estatisticamente similar à observada nas amostras oriundas da testemunha colhida normalmente, sem dessecação. Não foram encontradas evidências de que o uso de herbicidas dessecantes acelere o processo de perda de germinação de grãos de cevada, ao longo do período de armazenagem, para os produtos e doses testados.The objective of this work was to assess the impact of early harvesting of barley on grain germination, along 12 months of storage. A field trial was carried out in 2002 and 2003. The plot yields were stored during the years subsequent to the field trial, and germination was monitored monthly. The following treatments were evaluated: desiccation with glyphosate and paraquat, at 1, 1.5, and 2 L ha-1, and the checks, which were normal and early harvest without desiccation. A randomized block design with three replications was utilized. The early harvest without desiccation treatment had the greatest quality loss regarding grain germination. Qualitative deterioration of grains within time was statistically similar both in treatments with desiccation and those with normal harvest without desiccation

  6. Extração de B-glucanas de cevada e produção de xarope de maltose a partir do amido residual

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos A cevada ocupa a quarta posição em produção de cereais no mundo. Porém, tem sido pouco utilizada na indústria de alimentos, sendo destinada, em sua maioria, para alimentação animal e produção de malte cervejeiro. No entanto, a cevada possui alto teor de fibra alimentar e alta proporção de fibras solúveis, especialmente ?-glucanas. Estudos têm demonstrad...

  7. Farinha do bagaço de cevada em dietas para a engorda de camarões marinhos Barley flour in diets for the fattening of marine shrimps

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    Ruth Gomes de Figueiredo Gadelha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade do resíduo de cevada na elaboração de dietas práticas em relação à qualidade nutricional, ao crescimento e à sobrevivência do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. Foram elaboradas cinco dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas com diferentes proporções da farinha de cevada e do farelo de milho (R1, R2, R3, R4 e R5 e uma ração comercial (R6. Estas foram fornecidas a 150 camarões por um período de 60 dias. O percentual de farinha de cevada utilizado nas rações foi de 0,62; 12,5; 18,7 e 25%, substituindo o percentual de farelo de milho inicial de 25%. Camarões com peso inicial de 3g foram distribuídos em 30 aquários (cinco camarões por aquários, com 31L de água. A farinha elaborada foi analisada para a avaliação da sua qualidade nutricional, apresentando rendimento de 22,63%. A sobrevivência variou de 88 a 100%, não apresentando diferença significativa. As dietas R1 e R5 resultaram no maior ganho de peso, enquanto que a R3 resultou no menor ganho de peso. Para a taxa de crescimento, as rações R1 (3,47g/60 dias, R2 (3,22g/60 dias, R4 (3,46g/60 dias e R5 (3,62g/60 dias apresentaram valores significativos, mas não diferiram estatisticamente (P>0,05. A farinha de cevada em substituição à farinha de milho é recomendada por proporcionar um maior crescimento em camarões juvenis da espécie Litopenaeus vannamei.The aim of this study was to evaluate the barley residue in the development of practical diets in relation to nutritional quality, growth and survival of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were prepared with different proportions of barley flour and corn meal (R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 and a commercial ration (R6. They were provided to 150 shrimps for a period of 60 days. The percentage of barley meal used in feed was 0.62, 12.5, 18.7 and 25% replacing the initial meal maize of 25%. Shrimps with initial weight of 3g were distributed into

  8. Desenvolvimento de populações duplo-haplóides de cevada cervejeira associadas à atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Endres Georg-Kraemer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Populações duplo-haplóides apresentam especial vantagem para análises genéticas, uma vez que a informação que elas oferecem pode ser maximizada, devido ao fato que todos os locos encontram-se em homozigose. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de duas populações duplo-haplóides (DHs de cevada (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. segregantes para a atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases, através da técnica de cultura de anteras. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos com cultivares contrastantes para esta característica. As cultivares parentais selecionadas foram 'MN 698' e 'CEV 97047', para o desenvolvimento da população "malte verde" (MV, e 'Embrapa 127' e 'CEV 96025' para o desenvolvimento da população "malte seco" (MS. Foram cultivadas 10.734 anteras da população MS e 4.139 anteras da população MV. A população MV produziu 50% mais plântulas verdes quando comparada à população MS, refletindo a importância do genótipo na resposta à cultura de anteras e na regeneração. A maioria das plantas adultas duplo-haplóides foi obtida através da duplicação espontânea in vitro do genoma haplóide, ocorrendo em 66% das plantas da população MS e 76% das plantas da população MV. Também foram observadas, em menor frequência, plantas haplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides. Através da técnica de cultura de anteras, foram desenvolvidas 204 linhagens duplo-haplóides, das quais 72 linhagens são da população "malte seco" e 132 linhagens são da população "malte verde". Este material constitui um importante germoplasma para o melhoramento genético da cevada.

  9. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

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    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Áreas com diferentes potenciais de rendimento dentro de uma lavoura necessitam ser manejadas separadamente, para fins de aplicação da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. O equipamento baseado em sensoriamento remoto terrestre (GreenSeeker é um dos instrumentos utilizados para separar diferentes zonas de manejo. Para fazer isso, o sensor permite a definição de classes para estimar o potencial produtivo de forma ágil, precisa e em tempo real. Com o instrumento, foi desenvolvido um modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada, correlacionando o Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI com a biomassa seca acumulada na parte aérea, por ocasião da emissão da sexta folha do colmo principal. A base do modelo foi a formação de classes de potencial produtivo correspondentes a zonas específicas de manejo da lavoura. Essas classes não necessitam ser específicas para diferentes cultivares e/ou espécies, visto que não se detectaram diferenças que justificassem a formação de grupos para elas. As superfícies de fundo (resíduos de restevas de soja e milho tiveram efeitos significativos nas leituras do sensor. O modelo continua válido mesmo se as leituras de NDVI forem feitas antes ou após o período recomendado para tal, podendo ser ajustado com sub ou superestimação. As análises de variabilidade espacial, futuramente, podem avaliar se, as zonas de potencial produtivo estimadas pelas classes de NDVI propostas pelo modelo, correspondem à flutuação espacial da biomassa, doses de N aplicadas e rendimento de grãos.Areas with different yield potential within a field need to be managed separately as for nitrogen application in small grain cereals. Terrestrial remote sensing-based equipment such as the GreenSeeker sensor is one of the tools available to handle different management zones. To do this, the sensor allows the definition of classes to estimate yield potential. A model which correlated the

  10. Habilidade competitiva de cultivares de cevada convivendo com azevém Competitive ability of barley cultivars against ryegrass

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    L Galon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da habilidade competitiva de cultivares de cevada com plantas daninhas torna-se relevante para a adoção do método de manejo cultural; desse modo, podemse diminuir os custos de produção, bem como os impactos ambientais causados por outros métodos de manejo, como o químico. Este trabalho comparou as habilidades competitivas relativas de três cultivares de cevada e um biótipo de azevém. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação na estação de crescimento 2008/09, utilizando-se delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em série de substituição e constituíram-se de cinco proporções de plantas de cevada e do azevém competidor com a cultura: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100. A cevada foi representada pelos cultivares BRS Greta, BRS Elis e BRS 225, e o competidor, pelo azevém. A análise da competitividade foi efetuada por meio de diagramas aplicados a experimentos substitutivos, mais uso de índices de competitividade relativa. As variáveis estudadas foram: afilhamento, estatura, área foliar e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas. O azevém afetou o afilhamento, a área foliar e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas dos cultivares de cevada BRS Greta, BRS Elis e BRS 225, demonstrando grande habilidade competitiva com a cultura pelos recursos disponíveis no meio. Entre os cultivares de cevada avaliados, BRS Elis foi o mais competitivo na presença do azevém, que é uma das espécies daninhas que necessitam de controle mesmo quando presente em baixas proporções na cultura da cevada.Characterization of the competitive ability of barley varieties against weed species is relevant for the adoption of the cultural method of weed control; thus, it is possible to reduce both the production costs and environmental impacts caused by other management methods, including the use of chemicals. This work assessed the

  11. EFICIÊNCIA E FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE Drechslera teres EM SEMENTES DE CEVADA (Hordeum vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Silveiro Balardin; Milto José Facco

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência e fitotoxicidade de cinco fungicidas aplicados no tratamento de sementes para o controle de Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha reticulada em cevada. A produtividade da cultura foi afetada pelos fungicidas testados. Os fungicidas tebuconazole e triadimenol reduziram a altura das plântulas. enquanto que o difenoconazole reduziu significativamente a matéria seca (30g/100kg de sementes). O efeito dos fungicidas sobre a emergência mo...

  12. Análise de crescimento de duas cultivares de cevada após tratamentos com elicitores e fungicidas

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    Antoniazzi Noemir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para o controle da mancha marrom da cevada, causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana, têm sido utilizados fungicidas e mais recentemente foi proposto o uso de elicitores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de duas cultivares de cevada cervejeira, "BRS 195" e "BRS 225", em resposta à aplicação de elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, comparativamente a plantas não tratadas. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, Guarapuava - PR, no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. Na análise de crescimento, foram determinados o índice de área foliar (IAF, a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e a taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL. Observou-se desenvolvimento semelhante das cultivares em todos os tratamentos. A cultivar "BRS 225" registrou maior acúmulo de matéria seca no período de avaliação por apresentar um ciclo vegetativo mais curto. O IAF aumentou até a fase de emborrachamento das plantas, com posterior decréscimo. A TCR diminuiu da primeira para a última coleta. A TAL diminuiu até 57 dias após a emergência, seguindo aumento no decorrer das avaliações.

  13. EL PROGRAMA MALTED. UNA PROPUESTA DIDÁCTICA PARA ENSEÑAR ESPAÑOL A INMIGRANTES EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA EN ESPAÑA

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Fernández Ulloa; Paula Gómez Bragado

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende dar un ejemplo práctico de cómo crear materiales multimedia (con el programa MALTED, del Ministerio de Educación español) para la enseñanza del español como segunda lengua en Educación Primaria. La continua llegada de inmigrantes a España, en la mayor parte de los casos de países en vías de desarrollo con hijos en edad escolar reclama la adopción de nuevas perspectivas a la hora de enseñar la lengua en el sistema educativo español. Debe enseñarse a los alumnos el ...

  14. El programa MALTED: una propuesta didáctica para enseñar español a inmigrantes en la escuela primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Bragado, Paula; Fernández Ulloa, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: En este artículo se pretende dar un ejemplo práctico de cómo crear materiales multimedia (con el programa MALTED, del Ministerio de Educación español) para la enseñanza del español como segunda lengua en Educación Primaria. La continua llegada de inmigrantes a España, en la mayor parte de los casos de países en vías de desarrollo con hijos en edad escolar reclama la adopción de nuevas perspectivas a la hora de enseñar la lengua en el sistema educativo español. Debe enseñarse a los al...

  15. El programa MALTED: una propuesta didáctica para enseñar español a inmigrantes en la escuela primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Bragado, Paula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se pretende dar un ejemplo práctico de cómo crear materiales multimedia (con el programa MALTED, del Ministerio de Educación español para la enseñanza del español como segunda lengua en Educación Primaria. La continua llegada de inmigrantes a España, en la mayor parte de los casos de países en vías de desarrollo con hijos en edad escolar reclama la adopción de nuevas perspectivas a la hora de enseñar la lengua en el sistema educativo español. Debe enseñarse a los alumnos el manejo de las nuevas tecnologías, a la vez que se sigue un enfoque comunicativo al enseñar la lengua. Este proyecto fue desarrollado durante el curso 2010-2011en la Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España. Abstract: This paper gives an example of how to create multimedia materials to teach Spanish as a Second Language in primary schools (using MALTED, software by the Spanish Ministry of Education. The continuous arrival of immigrants to Spain, mostly from undeveloped countries, demands new perspectives on teaching the language. It is necessary to teach these students how to use new technologies, and, at the same time teaching the language with a communicative approach. This project was developed during the course 2010-2011 at the University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.

  16. EFICIÊNCIA E FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE Drechslera teres EM SEMENTES DE CEVADA (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silveiro Balardin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência e fitotoxicidade de cinco fungicidas aplicados no tratamento de sementes para o controle de Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha reticulada em cevada. A produtividade da cultura foi afetada pelos fungicidas testados. Os fungicidas tebuconazole e triadimenol reduziram a altura das plântulas. enquanto que o difenoconazole reduziu significativamente a matéria seca (30g/100kg de sementes. O efeito dos fungicidas sobre a emergência mostrou que difenoconazole (30g/100kg de sementes e iprodine + thiram possibilitaram as maiores percentagens. Os fungicidas reduziram a incidência da Drechslera teres, o comprimento do coleóptilo e das radículas.

  17. EL PROGRAMA MALTED. UNA PROPUESTA DIDÁCTICA PARA ENSEÑAR ESPAÑOL A INMIGRANTES EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA EN ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fernández Ulloa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende dar un ejemplo práctico de cómo crear materiales multimedia (con el programa MALTED, del Ministerio de Educación español para la enseñanza del español como segunda lengua en Educación Primaria. La continua llegada de inmigrantes a España, en la mayor parte de los casos de países en vías de desarrollo con hijos en edad escolar reclama la adopción de nuevas perspectivas a la hora de enseñar la lengua en el sistema educativo español. Debe enseñarse a los alumnos el manejo de las nuevas tecnologías, a la vez que se sigue un enfoque comunicativo al enseñar la lengua. Este proyecto fue desarrollado durante el curso 2010 - 2011 en la Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España.

  18. The Paracaspase MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Janna; Salvesen, Guy S

    2016-03-01

    The human paracaspase MALT1 is a caspase homolog that plays a central role in NF-κB signaling. Over the past few years it has become clear that this is due to a combination of its scaffolding and proteolytic function. Knockout mice and mice expressing a catalytically dead variant of the protease have provided valuable information. This review aims to provide an overview of recent developments regarding the enzymatic mechanism and specificity of MALT1, its substrates discovered to date, different mouse models, as well as the role of MALT1 in NF-κB signaling downstream of a variety of different receptors.

  19. Fabrication of Integrated Malting Unit for Production of Malts

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    Sanjay Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malting is a three step process i.e. steeping(grain soaked in water, germination(development of sprout and enhance enzymatic activityand kilning (drying the grain and stop the enzymatic activity. All these three steps are completed in separate plants. The present study is based on the development of integrated malting unit which serves all three processes in a single unit. Integrated malting unit is used for small scale production of malt. Integrated malting unit proved useful for development of new malting technique for grains

  20. Optimization of drying process of Zea Mays malt to use as alternative source of amylolytics enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the drying process optimization of maize (Zea Mays malt for obtaining maize malt, without affecting enzymatic activity of alpha e beta-amylases from maize malt. Results showed that dryer operation must occur in zone at 54°C and 5.18-6 h process time. The maize malt obtained had good enzymatic properties.Este trabalho objetivou a otimização da secagem do malte de milho (Zea Mays para obter um malte sem afetar a atividade das enzimas presentes neste, alfa e beta -amilases. Os resultados mostraram que a operação do secador deve ser feita a 54°C e entre 5,18-6 h de processo. O malte obtido possuiu boas propriedades enzimáticas.

  1. El programa MALTED: una propuesta didáctica para enseñar español a inmigrantes en la escuela primaria en España / MALTED program. A didactic proposal to teach spanish to immigrants at the primary school in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ulloa, Teresa; Gómez Bragado, Paula

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende dar un ejemplo práctico de cómo crear materiales multimedia (con el programa MALTED, del Ministerio de Educación español) para la enseñanza del español como segunda lengua en Educación Primaria. La continua llegada de inmigrantes a España, en la mayor parte de los casos de países en vías de desarrollo con hijos en edad escolar reclama la adopción de nuevas perspectivas a la hora de enseñar la lengua en el sistema educativo español. Debe enseñarse a los alumnos el ...

  2. The malt whisky industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    A postal survey was undertaken during 1987 to collect energy consumption data from the malt whisky industry in the United Kingdom. The results from the study are presented in this Energy Consumption Guide, and compared with the results from a similar study carried out in 1984. Replies were received from 71% of the active malt whisky distilleries; this represents 83% of production at the time. The specific energy consumption data reported varies between 22 MJ/lpa and 64 MJ/lpa, with an average of 36.6 MJ/lpa. This average shows a 15% reduction from the 1984 value of 43 MJ/lpa. (author).

  3. Reação de cultivares de cevada a Drechslera teres, e variabilidade patogênica de isolados do Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Wordell Filho João Américo; Prestes Ariano Morais; Silva Márcio Só

    2002-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a reação de 58 cultivares de cevada a Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha-em-rede, bem como a variabilidade patogênica e freqüência de sintomas do patógeno. A reação das cultivares foi estimada com auxílio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 4, em que zero (0) representa a ausência de sintomas, e 4 representa os sintomas típicos da mancha-em-rede. O mesmo método foi utilizado para avaliar a variabilidade patogênica de 25 isolados oriundos do Sul do Brasil. Seis isolados d...

  4. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  5. Armida, nueva variedad de cebada maltera para riego en El Bajío Armida, new malt barley cultivar for irrigation area in El Bajío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zamora Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Armida es producto del proceso de mejoramiento genético que se originó de un cruzamiento triple realizado por el programa nacional de cebada maltera del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias en el Campo Experimental Bajío, es una variedad que tiene tolerancia a las principales enfermedades de la cebada maltera en condiciones de riego; así como, moderada tolerancia a la roya de la hoja (Puccinia hordei Otth., alto potencial de rendimiento, calidad industrial y ciclo vegetativo más corto que la variedad testigo Esperanza. Las selecciones individuales en generaciones segregantes de la variedad Armida se llevaron a cabo alternadamente en los Campos Experimentales Valle de México y Bajío. Esta variedad se evaluó durante once ciclos agrícolas con rendimientos experimentales promedio en grano superior al 12% al de la variedad comercial Esperanza.Armida is product of breeding process that originated from a triple crossing made by National Research Forestry, Agriculture and livestock Institute of the national program for malt barley, at "Bajío" Experimental Field, is a variety that is tolerant to most of common diseases to malting barley under irrigation conditions, as well as, moderated tolerance to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth., high yield potential, industrial quality and shorter growing season than control variety Esperanza. The individual selections in segregating generations of Armida variety were held alternately in the Valle de Mexico and Bajío experimental fields. This variety was evaluated for eleven growing seasons with average experimental grain yields above 12% to commercial Esperanza variety.

  6. MALT1 protease: equilibrating immunity versus tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bertossi, Arianna; Krappmann, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    MALT1 paracaspase links signaling cascades emanating from adaptive or innate immune receptors to the canonical NF-κB pathway. Now, Jaworski et al (2014) investigate the physiological role of MALT1 protease activity in mice. Besides the expected requirement of MALT1 activity for immune activation, the study unveils a novel function for MALT1 activity for the development of peripheral tolerance. Thus, MALT1 protease can act immunogenic or tolerogenic, and this interplay will be highly relevant ...

  7. MN 716: nova cultivar de cevada com estabilidade de produção e qualidade cervejeira Production stability and brewing quality of Barley MN 716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 716, lançada em 2004, é uma das cultivares recomendadas para cultivo com maior estabilidade de produção. Nos anos em que participou do ensaio para determinação de seu valor de cultivo e uso, apresentou excelente produtividade de grãos, com média superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e desempenho equilibrado quanto à qualidade, com destaque para seu teor de beta-glucanas e índice enzimático. A cultivar constitui um avanço do melhoramento desse cereal no Brasil, aliando características de interesse do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 716, released in 2004, is one of the most recomended cultivars, for its high stability. In the years that it was included in the agronomic and use value trial, the cultivar MN 716 showed high yield average, exceeding 3,000 kg ha-1, as well as excellent qualitative performance, mainly in relation to beta-glucans and enzyme index. The cultivar is a breeding achievement for this cereal in Brazil, and serves the interests of both producers and industrial sector.

  8. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma

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    Katharina Troppan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis.

  9. Heat pumps at the maltings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    Heat pumps have halved the energy costs of producing finished malt at two of the country's maltsters. The fuel-fired kilning processes described are now performed by heat pumps with considerable energy and production benefits at the maltings of J.P. Simpson and Co. (Alnwick) Ltd, in Tivetshall St Margaret, Norfolk, and of Munton and Fison Plc of Stowmarket, Suffolk. The heat pump system installed at the Station Malting of J.P. Simpson was devised by the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst near Chester. Energy cost benefits of Pound 6,000 a month are being realised at Simpsons, but there is the added benefit that the system has been designed to provide conditioned air to the germination cycle to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained throughout the year. At the Cedars factory of Munton and Fison, heat pumps were used on a trial basis for plant micropropagation and for a fish farming unit.

  10. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  11. Production and characterization of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the α and β-amylase enzymes were obtained from maize (Zea mays malt and were biochemistry characterized. A germination study to obtain the maize malt with good amylase activity was made. The maize seeds were germinated in laboratory and the enzymatic activity was measured daily. Activity dependence to germination time were fitted to an exponential model (A=A0eµt, which showed that the behaviour of enzymatic activity in the germination process was similar to the growth of the microorganism. Its model could be applied to describe the mechanism of α-amylase production for each maize varieties and others cereals. Maize malt characterization showed that α and β-amylase had optimal pH between 4-6.5, optimal temperature 50 and 90ºC, and molecular weight of 67.4 and 47.5kDa, respectively. This work contributed with the advances in biotechnology generating of conditions for application of a new and of low price amylases source.Neste trabalho as enzimas α e β-amilases foram obtidas de malte de milho e depois foram caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Um estudo da germinação foi feito para obtenção do malte com boa atividade amilásica. A germinação ocorreu em escala laboratorial e a atividade enzimática foi medida diariamente. Um modelo exponencial do tipo A=A0eµt foi ajustado a dependência do tempo de germinação com a atividade, mostrando que o comportamento da atividade enzimática no processo de germinação é semelhante ao crescimento de microorganismos. Este modelo pode ser aplicado para descrever o mecanismo de produção da α-amilase para cada variedade de milho e de outros cereais. A caracterização do malte de milho mostrou que as α e β-amilase têm pH ótimo entre 4,0-6,5, temperatura ótima de 50 e 90ºC, e massa molar de 67,4 e 47,5 kDa, respectivamente. Este trabalho contribuiu com os avanços da biotecnologia gerando condições de emprego de uma nova e barata fonte de amilases.

  12. Controlo de infestantes em pós-emergência na cultura da cevada em sementeira directa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    No ano agrícola de 2009/2010 foram levados a cabo dois ensaios de campo, cujo objectivo foi estudar o efeito de doses inferiores às recomendadas de diferentes herbicidas no controlo de infestantes em pós-emergência na cultura da cevada de sementeira directa. Num dos dois ensaios estudou-se o efeito da interacção de dois herbicidas: diclofope - metilo + fenoxaprope-p-etilo + mefenepir – dietilo (Dopler) e amidosulfurão + iodosulfurão + mefenepir-dietilo (Sekator) no controlo das infestante...

  13. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Ginster, Stefanie; Bardet, Maureen; Unterreiner, Adeline; Malinverni, Claire; Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H.; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed ...

  14. Caracterização da atividade amilásica do malte de milho (Zea mays L. = Characterization of amylase activity from maize (Zea mays L. malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar o processo de germinação e a caracterização da atividade bioquímica das amilases do malte de milho (Zea mays L. para gerar uma fonte de amilase de baixo custo e boa atividade enzimática. A atividade enzimática foi monitorada todos os dias durante a germinação das sementes para se obter a melhor condição de produção do malte. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade enzimática nas sementes foi maior no 4º. dia de germinação. A caracterização bioquímica mostrou que as amilases do malte apresentam faixa ótima de pH entre 4,3 e 6, com temperaturas ótimas a 50°C e 80ºC e os valores de Km e Vmax para hidrólise do amido foram de 7,69.10-2 g/L e 7,69.102g/L.min, respectivamente.This work aimed to study the germination process and characterization of the amylolytic activity of the maize (Zea mays L. malt aiming to obtain source amylases at lower cost. Enzymatic activity was monitored all days during the seed germination, for obtaining thebest condition of malt production. Results showed that the enzymatic activity from maize seeds was larger in 4° germination day. Enzymes characterization showed that the maize malt amylases have optimal zone of pH between 4.3 and 6, with optimal temperatures of 50°C and 80ºC. The Km and Vmax values for starch hydrolysis were 7.69.10-2 g/L and 7.69.102g/L.min, respectively.

  15. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  16. Structural determinants of MALT1 protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Christian; Leder, Lukas; Blank, Jutta; Bernardi, Anna; Melkko, Samu; Decock, Arnaud; D'Arcy, Allan; Villard, Frederic; Erbel, Paulus; Hughes, Nicola; Freuler, Felix; Nikolay, Rainer; Alves, Juliano; Bornancin, Frederic; Renatus, Martin

    2012-05-25

    The formation of the CBM (CARD11-BCL10-MALT1) complex is pivotal for antigen-receptor-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Signaling is dependent on MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), which not only acts as a scaffolding protein but also possesses proteolytic activity mediated by its caspase-like domain. It remained unclear how the CBM activates MALT1. Here, we provide biochemical and structural evidence that MALT1 activation is dependent on its dimerization and show that mutations at the dimer interface abrogate activity in cells. The unliganded protease presents itself in a dimeric yet inactive state and undergoes substantial conformational changes upon substrate binding. These structural changes also affect the conformation of the C-terminal Ig-like domain, a domain that is required for MALT1 activity. Binding to the active site is coupled to a relative movement of caspase and Ig-like domains. MALT1 binding partners thus may have the potential of tuning MALT1 protease activity without binding directly to the caspase domain.

  17. The application of triticale malt as the substitute for barley malt in wort production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Olgica S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the investigation of wort production for beer by the application of triticale malt, as the partial substitute for barley malt in grist. For wort production, three series of experiments were carried out in which malts were produced from three different triticale varieties taken from experimental fields Rimski Sancevi location (Serbia, crop 2006. Experiments were carried out on laboratory scale by applying infusion procedure for wort production. The obtained results indicate that the application of triticale malt gave worts that had good analytical quality parameters.

  18. Hidrodinâmica de uma coluna de adsorção em leito expandido para uso em purificação de proteínas de malte de milho (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Severo Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was studied the hydrodynamic behavior of an expanded bed adsorption column to obtain the optimum conditions for amylase recovery from maize malt. Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange resin was used in chromatographic bed, phosphate buffer with and without 2% of maize malt and distiller water as fluidizers at temperatures of 295.15 ± 1 K and 301.15 ± 1 K. The results showed that the experimental data were fitted to the Richardson and Zack equation, and the comparison between the experimental and calculated terminal velocities demonstrated low relative error, minor than 15% from theoretical velocity values; it validates the use and application of these equations in expanded bed adsorption. The study of residence time distribution indicated that Daxial and Pe increased by reason of elevation of temperature, bed height and bed voidage. N had constant value of 2.14, being the best condition of amylase recovery that which represented low bed voidage, due to better economic viability.

  19. A new "brew" of MALT1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M; Staudt, Louis M

    2012-12-11

    The activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma that is addicted to NF-κB signaling through the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Nagel and colleagues and Fontan and colleagues describe MALT1 inhibitors suitable for clinical use that are selectively toxic to this malignancy.

  20. Parâmetros climáticos e variação de compostos fenólicos em cevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sobreira Bezerra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se quantificar os compostos fenólicos em extrato hidroetanólico de grãos das cultivares de cevada ('BRS Lagoa' e 'MN 743' em dois anos consecutivos de cultivo (2005 e 2006, avaliando a influência dos fatores climáticos nesse conteúdo. Os compostos fenólicos totais foram quantificados pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau e os teores de rutina e ácidos cafeico e ferúlico por CLAE em fase reversa. O conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 0,97 a 1,59 mg AG g-1 de cevada e os fatores climáticos durante o período de plantio e colheita influenciaram no conteúdo. Foram identificados e quantificados nessas cultivares rutina, ácido cafeico e ácido ferúlico. A avaliação dos fatores climáticos no conteúdo de compostos fenólicos em cevada é de grande interesse, visando a sua importância nutricional e recomendação de cultivares com conteúdos expressivos de compostos bioativos.

  1. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginster, Stefanie; Bardet, Maureen; Unterreiner, Adeline; Malinverni, Claire; Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A.

  2. Caracterização nutricional de grãos integrais e descascados de cultivares de cevada Chemical characterization of covered and hulness barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elveni Teresinha Mayer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição de nutrientes de grãos de diferentes cultivares de cevada, na forma integral e descascada, e classificá-los em grupos com características nutricionais distintas. Foram utilizadas amostras de 17 cultivares, da Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS, da safra de 2005. As determinações químicas foram realizadas de acordo com os métodos de análise oficial da AOAC Internacional. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre grãos integrais de cultivares para proteína bruta, cinzas, extrato etéreo, fibra total e carboidratos não-fibrosos, porém, os teores de fibra insolúvel e fibra solúvel não diferiram. Em grãos descascados, foram observadas diferenças em todos os parâmetros analisados. Com exceção da fração de carboidratos não-fibrosos, o processo de descascamento promoveu redução em todas as frações avaliadas, em especial nos teores de fibra total e fibra insolúvel. Diferenças na composição bromatológica ocorreram devido à variabilidade genética das cultivares e ao descascamento.The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition of different covered and hulness barley cultivars grains and to classify them according to distinctive nutritional groups. Seventeen cultivars from 2005 crop of Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, were utilized. The chemical determinations were based on Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International. Significative differences between integral cultivars in relation to crude protein, ash, ether extract, total fiber and non-fibrous carbohydrate were observed, however, there were no differences for fiber content and soluble fiber. In the hulness grain, differences were observed. The non-fibrous carbohydrate was an exception and, in this case, the hull's process promoted the fraction's reduction, specially in the total fiber and insoluble fiber content. Variation in the bromatological composition occurs because of

  3. Protease activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lucas, Peter C; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a prototypical cancer that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation and an important model for understanding how deregulated NF-κB transcriptional activity contributes to malignancy. Most gastric MALT lymphomas require ongoing antigenic stimulation for continued tumor growth, and Stage I disease is usually cured by eradicating the causative microorganism, Helicobacter pylori, with antibiotics. However, in a subset of MALT lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are acquired that render the lymphoma antigen-independent. The recurrent translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with failure to respond to antibiotic therapy and increased rate of dissemination. This translocation creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein, which comprises the amino terminus of inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (API2 or cIAP2) fused to the carboxy terminus of MALT1. A common characteristic of chromosomal translocations in MALT lymphoma, including t(11;18), is that genes involved in the regulation of the NF-κB transcription factor are targeted by the translocations, and these genetic perturbations thereby result in deregulated, constitutive NF-κB stimulation. In the last decade, great insights into the roles of API2 and MALT1 in NF-κB signaling have been made. For example, recent pivotal studies have uncovered the long sought-after proteolytic activity of MALT1 and have demonstrated its critical involvement in the survival of certain lymphomas. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MALT1 in normal lymphocyte function and lymphomagenesis. We then highlight our recent work that has revealed an intriguing link between the proteolytic activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion and its ability to influence lymphomagenesis by cleaving a key NF-κB regulatory protein, NF-κB-inducing kinase.

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  5. The effect of long-term storage on quality of malting barley grain and malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš KRAJČOVIČ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the grain samples of five malting barley varieties harvested in 2011, the amount of basic components as well as physiological characteristics of barley were determined. These samples were micromalted and resulting malt was analyzed mainly according to the European Brewery Convention (EBC and the Mitteleuropäische Brautechnische Analysenkommission (MEBAK methodologies. The same samples of malting barley grain and also samples of malt were placed in polyethylene bags, from which the air was exhausted and they were further stored at 4 °C until 2016. In 2016, grain and malt samples were subjected to the same analyses as in 2011. Results were statistically evaluated by t-test of dependent samples. Most of the monitored parameters has remained at the same level as in 2011 or has slightly improved. The exception was statistically very highly significant decrease (P ≤ 0.001 of friability and increase of amount of whole and partly unmodified grains. Under conditions described, long-term storage of malting barley grain has not significantly negatively affected its germination. Long-term storage of malt has had not a significant negative impact on its quality too.

  6. Chemical characterization of Brazilian hulless barley varieties, flour fractionation, and protein concentration Caracterização química de variedades brasileiras de cevada nua, fracionamento da farinha e concentração de proteína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vieira Helm

    2004-12-01

    maior teor de proteína (15,69; 15,25 e 14,94% respectivamente. Foi observada diferença (P < 0,05 quanto ao teor de proteína nas frações de farinha de cada variedade, a qual pode ser atribuída principalmente às características genéticas, uma vez que todas as variedades foram cultivadas sob as mesmas condições ambientais. Após o fracionamento, foi observada concentração, em algumas frações, de no máximo 2% em relação a farinha integral. As variedades brasileiras de cevada nua apresentam potencial para consumo humano bem como para a produção de farinhas enriquecidas com alta proteína.

  7. Purificação de amilases de malte de Zea mays Purification of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se a purificação das enzimas α e β-amilases de malte de milho combinando os processos de adsorção em leito expandido com o fracionamento por etanol. Alimentaram-se 5 mL de uma solução a 2% de malte de milho em tampão fosfato 0,05 M a pH 5 em uma coluna contendo as resinas de troca iônica Amberlite IRA 410, em leito fixo de 4 cm fluidizado para 8 cm. A eluição foi promovida com NaCl 0,25M com 14 mL/minuto de vazão descendente e o material eluído foi fracionado com álcool etílico nas concentrações de 40-70%, 50-80% e 60-90% (v/v a 20 e 30 ºC. A recuperação da atividade e o fator de purificação foram de 95% e 23 vezes, respectivamente, na primeira etapa. A melhor condição de fracionamento das enzimas foi apresentada a 50-80% de álcool e 20 ºC, e o fator de purificação ficou acima de 100 vezes.In the present work the purification of α and β-amylase enzymes of maize malt was carried out by expanded bed adsorption and ethanol fractionation downstream processes. 5 mL of 2% maize malt solution in 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH was injected into a chromatographic column containing Amberlite 410 ion-exchange resin, on a 4 cm fixed bed fluidized to 8 cm. 0.25 M NaCl solution at 14 mL/ minuto of descending flux was used for promotion of the elution, the eluted matter was fractioned by 40-70, 50-80 and 60-90% ethyl alcohol concentration at 20 and 30 ºC. Activity recovery and purification factor were of 95% and 23 times, respectively, in the first step. 50-80% alcohol concentration at 20ºC was the best condition, in which a purification factor of more than 100 times was achieved.

  8. THE MALT EXTRACT, RELATIVE EXTRACT AND DIASTATIC POWER AS A VARIETAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MALTING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Dráb

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality of barley depends on genetic and agro-ekological factors. Chemical composition of malting barley and its technological parameters are very important for malting and brewing, due to this fact the quality of barley must be strictly evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of variety, locality and year of production on the 5 technological parameters of malt: extract, relative extract at 45 °C, Kolbach index, diastatic power and friability. It was found out that the barley variety significantly influenced the following parameters: extract, relative extract and diastatic power. The growing locality weakly influenced qualitative parameters i.e. Kolbach index and relative extract at 45°C. The study confirmed the most significant impact of the year on the Kolbach index and friability.

  9. Detection of recombinant and cellular MALT1 paracaspase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Daniel; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue protein 1) is a key regulator of antigen-induced NF-κB activation in the adaptive immune response. Activation of proteolytic activity of the MALT1 paracaspase was shown to boost the immune response. Additionally, MALT1 proteolytic activity is essential for the survival of MALT1-dependent lymphoma, such as the activated B-cell type (ABC) of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or MALT lymphoma. The functional impact of MALT1 paracaspase on T-cell activation and lymphomagenesis suggests that MALT1 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and distinct lymphoma entities. To evaluate the requirement of MALT1 in further detail, direct measurement of its activity status is of great importance. We have established a fluorogenic cleavage assay which can be used to measure activity of recombinant and cellular MALT1. Here we describe the basis of the cleavage assay and include a detailed protocol for recombinant production of MALT1 and also the cellular immunoprecipitation of endogenous MALT1 to determine its proteolytic activity.

  10. Probes to monitor activity of the paracaspase MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Janna; Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Poreba, Marcin; Sanman, Laura E; Drag, Marcin; Bogyo, Matthew; Salvesen, Guy S

    2015-01-22

    The human paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) plays a central role in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling as both a protease and scaffolding protein. Knocking out MALT1 leads to impaired NF-κB signaling and failure to mount an effective immune response. However, it is unclear to which degree it is the scaffolding function versus the proteolytic activity of MALT1 that is essential. Previous work involving a MALT1 inhibitor with low selectivity suggests that the enzymatic function plays an important role in different cell lines. To help elucidate this proteolytic role of MALT1, we have designed activity-based probes that inhibit its proteolytic activity. The probes selectively label active enzyme and can be used to inhibit MALT1 and trace its activity profile, helping to create a better picture of the significance of the proteolytic function of MALT1.

  11. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida - DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v29i5.749

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniazzi, Noemir; EMBRAPA; Deschamps, Cícero; UFPR

    2008-01-01

    A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agrop...

  12. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida = Bipolaris sorokiniana control and grain yield in barley after application of elicitors and fungicide

    OpenAIRE

    Noemir Antoniazzi; Cícero Deschamps

    2007-01-01

    A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agrop...

  13. Orbital MALT Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha G Pai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of orbital MALT (mucous associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is reported for its rarity. It presented as a large tumor obscuring the whole eye with loss of vision, without any signs of dissemination and remained free of recurrence or metastasis 12 months after undergoing simple surgical excision.

  14. Susan Isaacs and the Malting House School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Philip

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that psychoanalysis has over the years had a significant impact on the education of children with mental health problems. Its contribution to the theory and practice of mainstream education is less well documented. This paper gives an account of the five-year (1924-1929) history of the Malting House School in Cambridge. The school…

  15. Effect of radiation processing of ragi and acceptability and shelf-life of ragi malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mrinal D.; Deo, Bhakti V.; Mitra, Anuradha S.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2009-05-01

    Proximate content, sensory quality, viscosity and storage stability of malt prepared from radiation processed (1 and 5 kGy) ragi ( Eleusine coracana) was studied. Irradiation reduced the malting loss and viscosity of the malt porridge without altering the proximate composition and acceptability of the malt porridge up to 6 months. Green gram malt was added to increase the protein content of porridge.

  16. Effect of radiation processing of ragi and acceptability and shelf-life of ragi malt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Mrinal D. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: mrinal1854@yahoo.co.in; Deo, Bhakti V.; Mitra, Anuradha S. [College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, Maharashtra (India); Sharma, Arun K. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, Maharashtra (India)

    2009-05-15

    Proximate content, sensory quality, viscosity and storage stability of malt prepared from radiation processed (1 and 5 kGy) ragi (Eleusine coracana) was studied. Irradiation reduced the malting loss and viscosity of the malt porridge without altering the proximate composition and acceptability of the malt porridge up to 6 months. Green gram malt was added to increase the protein content of porridge.

  17. Controlo de Lolium rigidum Gaud e infestantes dicotiledóneas em pós-emergência na cultura da cevada em sementeira directa. Ensaio: Dopler + Sekator

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    No ano agrícola de 2008/2009, realizou-se um ensaio de campo, cujo objectivo foi estudar o efeito de doses inferiores às recomendadas de diclofope-metilo + fenoxaprope – p – etilo + mefenepir dietilo (Dopler) e amidosulfurão & iodosulfurão & mefenepir – dietilo (Sekator) no controlo de Lolium rigidum Gaud. (erva-febra) e diversas infestantes dicotiledóneas em pós-emergência, e na produção de cevada dística (Hordeum vulgare L.) em sementeira directa. Os ensaios realizaram-se na herdade Exp...

  18. Detection and measurement of paracaspase MALT1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Pelzer, Christiane; Thome, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 is a Cys-dependent, Arg-specific protease that plays an essential role in the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes during the immune response. Oncogenic activation of MALT1 is associated with the development of specific forms of B-cell lymphomas. Through specific cleavage of its substrates, MALT1 controls various aspects of lymphocyte activation, including the activation of transcriptional pathways, the stabilization of mRNAs, and an increase in cellular adhesion. In lymphocytes, the activity of MALT1 is tightly controlled by its inducible monoubiquitination, which promotes the dimerization of MALT1. Here, we describe both in vitro and in vivo assays that have been developed to assess MALT1 activity.

  19. Influência dos diferentes períodos de colheita na expressão de isoenzimas em sementes de cevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Madruga de Tunes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar os padrões isoenzimáticos de Esterase (EST - EC 3.1.1.1, Fosfatase Ácida (ACP - EC 3.1.3.2, Malato Desidrogenase (MDH - EC 1.1.1.37, Álcool Deshidrogenase (ADH - EC 1.1.1.1 e Glutamato Oxalacetato Transaminase (GOT - EC 2.6.1.1, em sementes e plântulas de dois cultivares de cevada (MN 721 e Scarlett. As sementes foram fornecidas pela empresa Westermann, localizada no município de Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul, onde foi realizado o cultivo da cevada em 2007. Foram colhidas em três épocas com diferentes percentuais de umidade, secas a 13% de umidade e armazenadas em câmara fria. Os cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos analisados apresentaram variações na expressão, principalmente quando comparados entre sementes e plântulas. Concluiu-se que há variação no padrão de expressão das enzimas EST, ACP, MDH, ADH e GOT entre sementes e plântulas. A expressão das enzimas EST e GOT foi pouco e muito influenciada pela época de colheita, respectivamente.

  20. Masking MALT1: the paracaspase's potential for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Domagoj; Dixit, Vishva M

    2009-10-26

    A key feature of aggressive B cell lymphomas is constitutive NF-kappaB activation, which requires signals from the CARD11-BCL-10-MALT1 (CMB) complex. The unique enzymatic activity of MALT1 degrades one of its binding partners, BCL-10, as well as the NF-kappaB inhibitor A20. New data shows that targeting MALT1 protease activity may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating aggressive B cell lymphomas.

  1. Novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) represents a distinct class of extranodal lymphoma that evolves against a background of chronic inflammation induced by persistent infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. In its early stages, MALT lymphoma is an antigen-dependent disease characterised by an indolent clinical course and in most cases is treatable by antibiotic eradication therapy alone. Low grade MALT lymphomas c...

  2. Development of new Malt1 inhibitors and probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Bo-Tao; Schimmack, Gisela; Du, Yimeng; Florea, Bogdan I; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Driessen, Christoph; Krappmann, Daniel; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2016-08-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (Malt1) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Several research groups have reported on the development of Malt1 inhibitors and activity-based probes for in vitro and in situ monitoring and modulating Malt1 activity. In this paper, we report on two activity-based Malt1 probes (6 and 7) and a focused library of 19 new Malt1 inhibitors. Our peptide-based probe 6 labels Malt1 in an activity-based manner. In contrast, probe 7, derived from the known covalent inhibitor MI-2, labels both wild type and catalytically inactive Cys to Ala mutant Malt1, suggesting that MI-2 inhibits Malt1 by reacting with a nucleophilic residue other than the active site cysteine. Furthermore, two of our inhibitors (9, apparent IC50 3.0μM, and 13, apparent IC50 2.1μM) show good inhibitory activity against Malt1 and outperform MI-2 (apparent IC50 7.8μM) in our competitive activity-based protein profiling assay.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cereals and their Malts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrejovič Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of malting on the antioxidant content in cereals such as wheat (PS Sunanka, Zaira, PS 57/11 and Vanda, oat (Dunajec and barley (Laudis 550 harvested in 2013. Antioxidant and polyphenol contents of these cereals and malts were investigated. Secondary, technological parameters of prepared malts were evaluated and compared with malt from barley Laudis 550 used as reference material. Malting of selected cereals had an impact on antioxidant and polyphenol content and allowed a better extraction of these compounds from cereal matrix, except of barley malt, whose antioxidant and total polyphenol content remained comparable. For other cereal malts, antioxidant contents were 2.0, 1.8, 2.6, 2.9 and 3.2-fold higher and total polyphenol content were 1.8, 1.9, 1.9, 3.1 and 3.4-fold higher than in wheat (PS Sunanka, Zaira, PS 57/11, Vanda and oat (Dunajec, respectively. From correlation analysis, the results showed that not all polyphenols released by malting have antioxidant activity. Technological parameters (friability, haze of wort, saccharification rate, filtration rate, extract and diastatic power also indicated that good malt quality had oat Dunajec and wheat PS Sunanka and Zaira in comparison with reference material (barley Laudis 550.

  4. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A.; HU, DESHENG; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2016-01-01

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4+ T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify...

  5. Can we eradicate gastric MALT-lymphoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Zullo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of primary gastric lymphoma in Italy is considerably higher than that observed in the rest of Europe. It is widely accepted that gastric B-cell, low-grade mucosalassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is caused by specific host-bacterial interactions that occur during Helicobacter pylori infection. This review examines recent findings on the origins, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of gastric MALT lymphomas. Clinical and endoscopic findings at diagnosis vary widely. In a substantial number of cases, the patient presents only vague dyspeptic symptoms or poorly defined abdominal pain with no macroscopic lesions on the gastric mucosa. Review of data from 32 trials in which a total of 1,387 MALT-lymphoma patients of the stomach were treated solely with H. pylori eradication revealed high remission rates when the disease is treated early (stage I-II1. Neoplasia confined to the submucosa, antral localization of tumors, and negativity for the API2-MALT1 translocation were associated with a high probability of remission following H. pylori eradication. When the latter approach is not sufficient, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery are associated with high success rates; data on the efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy (rituximab are still limited. Five-year survival rates are higher than 90%. Patients whose tumors have been eliminated require close, long-term endoscopic follow-up since recurrence has been reported in some cases. Broader clinical follow-up is also advisable because the incidence of other solid tumors and of cardiovascular events is reportedly increased in these patients.

  6. Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge: novas perspectivas de interpretação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é analisar a experiência do estranho no romance Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge, de Rainer Maria Rilke, através de novas perspectivas de interpretação apoiadas, por exemplo, nas teorias psicanalíticas de Sigmund Freud. Vivendo em uma cidade estrangeira (Paris, com a qual ainda não se identifica, o protagonista do romance, Malte Laurids Brigge, descobre um mundo interior novo através de seu choque com experiências do estranho nesse milieu. A revelação de recordações de sua infância e a projeção de seu ego em leituras de narrativas alheias são seus métodos para buscar e afirmar sua identidade.

  7. Variations in MALT1 Gene Disruptions Detected by FISH in 109 MALT Lymphomas Occurring in Different Primary Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Shannon; Hu, P; Murphy, A; Han, J; Tam, M; Lin, P; Konoplev, S; Lennon, P A

    2011-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that can originate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thyroid, breasts, lungs, and skin. The most common genetic abnormality occurring in MALT lymphomas involves t(11;18)(q21;q21) in the gene MALT1. This translocation results in a chimeric fusion product between the genes ATI2 and MALT1, which generates a survival advantage in the lymphoma cells. The MALT1 disruption is more common in some MALT lymphomas, distinguished by site, than others. If identified, this variation in frequency could affect treatment courses and outcomes for each type of MALT lymphoma. The study included 109 MALT lymphoma sample specimens. The sample paraffin-embedded slides were pretreated, hybridized for FISH using a MALT1 break-apart probe, post-washed, and viewed using a fluorescent microscope. On each slide, 100 individual cells were counted by two independent readers, totaling 200 cells per case, and the percentage of cells containing a translocation within each sample was recorded. A conservative threshold of 8% was used to make a positive call. There were a total of 18 positive results in the 109 samples tested. The tissue specimens tested that yielded positive results include the colon (62.5%), lung (57.14%), skin (25%), eyelid/lacrimal gland (16.67%), stomach (6.45%), kidney (50%), and thyroid (100%). The sites that yielded only negative results (0%) include the breast, salivary gland, salivary gland/parotid, soft tissue/skin, conjunctiva/orbital, small intestine, nasal, and epidural mass. As hypothesized, a variation in the MALT1 disruption was found. This is the first study to examine MALT1 disruption in the soft tissue, nasal, and epidural mass. The positive results of this study, specifically the results for the colon and lung, and the negative breast and salivary gland results are consistent with previous studies examining the genetic aberrations in MALT lymphomas. These results indicate

  8. MALT1 is an intrinsic regulator of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, A; Brenner, D; Knobbe-Thomsen, C B; Cox, M; Lang, P A; Lang, K S; Mak, T W

    2015-09-25

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and their absence or dysfunction can lead to autoimmunity. However, the molecular pathways that govern Treg biology remain obscure. In this study, we show that the nuclear factor-κB signalling mediator mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is an important novel regulator of both Tregs originating in the thymus ('natural' or nTregs) and Tregs induced to differentiate from naive thymocyte helper (Th) cells in the periphery ('induced' or iTregs). Our examination of mice deficient for MALT1 revealed that these mutants have a reduced number of total Tregs. In young Malt1(-/-) mice, nTregs are totally absent and iTreg are diminished in the periphery. Interestingly, total Treg numbers increase in older Malt1(-/-) mice as well as in Malt1(-/-) mice subjected to experimentally induced inflammation. iTregs isolated from WT and Malt1(-/-) mice were indistinguishable with respect to their ability to suppress the activities of effector T cells, but Malt1(-/-) iTregs expressed higher levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Treatment of WT and Malt1(-/-) Th cells in vitro with the TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys strongly enhanced the induction and proliferation of Malt1(-/-) iTregs. Our data suggest that MALT1 supports nTreg development in the thymus but suppresses iTreg induction in the periphery during inflammation. Our data position MALT1 as a key molecule that contributes to immune tolerance at steady-state while facilitating immune reactivity under stress conditions.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 25 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.104.

  9. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-04-12

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4(+) T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation.

  10. Molecular pathways: targeting MALT1 paracaspase activity in lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán, Lorena; Melnick, Ari

    2013-12-15

    MALT1 mediates the activation of NF-κB in response to antigen receptor signaling. MALT1, in association with BCL10 and CARD11, functions as a scaffolding protein to activate the inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK) complex. In addition, MALT1 is a paracaspase that targets key proteins in a feedback loop mediating termination of the NF-κB response, thus promoting activation of NF-κB signaling. Activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL), which tend to be more resistant to chemotherapy, are often biologically dependent on MALT1 activity. Newly developed MALT1 small-molecule inhibitors suppress the growth of ABC-DLBCLs in vitro and in vivo. This review highlights the recent advances in the normal and disease-related functions of MALT1. Furthermore, recent progress targeting MALT1 proteolytic activity raises the possibility of deploying MALT1 inhibitors for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas and perhaps autoimmune diseases that involve increased B- or T-cell receptor signaling.

  11. A New “Brew” of MALT1 Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ryan M.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    The activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma that is addicted to NF-κB signaling through the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex. In this issue of Cancer Cell, two reports describe MALT1 inhibitors suitable for clinical use that are selectively toxic to this malignancy.

  12. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  13. More than Words: A Reply to Malt and Sloman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments, Malt and Sloman [Malt, B. C., & Sloman, S. A. (2007). Category essence or essentially pragmatic? Creator's intention in naming and what's really what. "Cognition, 105," 615-648] show that the naming of artifacts is affected by discourse context. They see this phenomenon as posing a problem for the intentional-history theory of…

  14. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  15. Conversion of the LIMA1 tumour suppressor into an oncogenic LMO-like protein by API2-MALT1 in MALT lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zilin; Du, Ming-Qing; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C; Bailey, Nathanael G; Hogaboam, Cory M; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2015-01-08

    MALT1 is the only known paracaspase and is a critical mediator of B- and T-cell receptor signalling. The function of the MALT1 gene is subverted by oncogenic chimeric fusions arising from the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) aberration, which is the most frequent translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. API2-MALT1-positive MALT lymphomas manifest antibiotic resistance and aggressive clinical behaviour with poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying API2-MALT1-induced MALT lymphomagenesis are not fully understood. Here we show that API2-MALT1 induces paracaspase-mediated cleavage of the tumour suppressor protein LIMA1. LIMA1 binding by API2-MALT1 is API2 dependent and proteolytic cleavage is dependent on MALT1 paracaspase activity. Intriguingly, API2-MALT1-mediated proteolysis generates a LIM domain-only (LMO)-containing fragment with oncogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, primary MALT lymphomas harbouring the API2-MALT1 fusion uniquely demonstrate LIMA1 cleavage fragments. Our studies reveal a novel paracaspase-mediated oncogenic gain-of-function mechanism in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma.

  16. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality.

  17. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation.

  18. Protein mobilization and malting-specific proteinase expression during barley germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust barley was germinated under three different conditions: 1) a production run in a commercial malting facility, 2) a micromalting protocol developed to generate malt with malting quality metrics similar to that from the commercial malting, and 3) a simple laboratory setting using a humidified ...

  19. Let's get small: Miniaturized malt quality analysis for fun and profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most common laboratory-scale micromalting and malt analysis procedures are indeed micro-scaled compared to commercial-scale malting (the CCRU standard 170 g malting is approximately 10**6 times smaller than a 6,000 bu Saladin box production malting run). While these amounts of grain are insignifica...

  20. The Microbiology of Malting and Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing. PMID:23699253

  1. The microbiology of malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bamforth, Charles W

    2013-06-01

    Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing.

  2. [Research progress on the etiology and pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Can; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2012-12-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma originated outside the lymph nodes is low grade malignant B cell lymphoma. It is the most frequent type of marginal zone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, that usually occurs in the stomach, salivary gland, thyroid gland and orbital adnexa. Gastric MALT lymphoma accounts for 50% of MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma has been confirmed to relate with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, its main pathogenesis is immune reaction, but some patients with chromosome translocation have no response to HP eradication, suggesting presence of other unknown pathogenesis. The chromosome translocations in MALT lymphoma are t(11;18)(q21;q21), t(1;14)(p22;q32), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(3;14)(p14.1;q32). Recent studies show some new chromosomal abnormalities such as 6q23.3/A20 and so on, which have some effects on clinical course and prognosis. MALT lymphoma with chromosome abnormalities usually activate common NF-κB molecular pathway, and persistent active NF-κB pathway drives tumor cell proliferative and active, resulting in lymphoma incidence. In this article, the advances in the etiology and pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma were reviewed.

  3. Reanálisis del diagnóstico de alcoholismo en Perú: el test de alcoholismo Munich (malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Gorené

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El Test de Alcoholismo Munich (MALT fue traducido al español y aplicado a una muestra constituida por 145 probandos peruanos, de los cuales 94 eran alcohólicos. El MALT consta de dos partes: la primera está conformada por siete preguntas que son contestadas por el médico y la segunda sección está formada por 24 preguntas y son contestadas por el paciente. Tanto el coeficiente de validación para toda la prueba (r=0.87 como el coeficiente de confiabilidad de la parte autoadministrable (r=0.93 fueron elevados.

  4. Gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, high-grade MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma show different frequencies of trisomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M A; Gisbertz, I A; Schouten, H C; Schuuring, E; Bot, F J; Hermans, J; Hopman, A; Kluin, P M; Arends, J E; van Krieken, J H

    1999-01-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is a distinct entity related to Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Some studies suggest a role for trisomy 3 in the genesis of these lymphomas, but they mainly focused on low-grade MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma, however, comprises a spectrum from low- to high-grade cases. Fu

  5. The protease activity of the paracaspase MALT1 is controlled by monoubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Christiane; Cabalzar, Katrin; Wolf, Annette; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Lenz, Georg; Thome, Margot

    2013-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase MALT1 is central to lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis, but how this activity is controlled remains unknown. Here we identify a monoubiquitination of MALT1 on Lys644 that activated the protease function of MALT1. Monoubiquitinated MALT1 had enhanced protease activity, whereas a ubiquitination-deficient MALT1 mutant with replacement of that lysine with arginine (MALT1(K644R)) had less protease activity, which correlated with impaired induction of interleukin 2 (IL-2) via the T cell antigen receptor in activated T cells. Expression of MALT1(K644R) diminished the survival of cells derived from diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the activated B cell-like subtype (ABC DLBCL), which require constitutive protease activity of MALT1 for survival. Thus, monoubiquitination of MALT1 is essential for its catalytic activation and is therefore a potential target for the treatment of ABC-DLBCL and for immunomodulation.

  6. Extranodal marginal zone (MALT) lymphoma in common variable immunodeficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I.M.; Keuter, M.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe two patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) who developed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (formerly described as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma or MALT lymphoma). One patient, with documented pernicious anaemia and chronic atrophic gastritis with metaplasia, d

  7. Immunochemical determination of gluten in malts and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálek, Pavel; Hochel, Igor; Méndez, Enrique; Hernando, Alberto; Gabrovská, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The glutent content in the different varieties of barley, malts, and different types of beers were determined by means of "sandwich" enzyme immunoassay. The commercial RIDASCREEN? Gliadin kit has been used. The gluten level ranges in barley wheat, rye and spelt malts are 18.8-45.0, 44.0-68.0, 41.6, and 21.2 g kg-1, respectively. When various types of beer are compared the gluten concentration rise in the following order: alcohol free beer (

  8. Keeping It Simple: Can We Estimate Malting Quality Potential Using an Isothermal Mashing Protocol and Common Laboratory Instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for generating malting quality metrics have been developed largely to support commercial malting and brewing operations, providing accurate, reproducible analytical data to guide malting and brewing production. Infrastructure to support these analytical operations often involves sub...

  9. Mechanism and specificity of the human paracaspase MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Janna; Snipas, Scott J; van Raam, Bram J; Cancino, Erik M; Houlihan, Emily J; Poreba, Marcin; Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Drag, Marcin; Salvesen, Guy S

    2012-04-01

    The paracaspase domain of MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1) is a component of a gene translocation fused to the N-terminal domains of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2. The paracaspase itself, commonly known as MALT1, participates in the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) pathway, probably by driving survival signals downstream of the B-cell antigen receptor through MALT1 proteolytic activity. We have developed methods for the expression and purification of recombinant full-length MALT1 and its constituent catalytic domain alone. Both are activated by dimerization without cleavage, with a similar dimerization barrier to the distantly related cousins, the apical caspases. By using positional-scanning peptidyl substrate libraries we demonstrate that the activity and specificity of full-length MALT1 is recapitulated by the catalytic domain alone, showing a stringent requirement for cleaving after arginine, and with striking peptide length constraints for efficient hydrolysis. Rates of cleavage (kcat/Km values) of optimal peptidyl substrates are in the same order (10(3)-10(4) M(-1)·s(-1)) as for a putative target protein CYLD. Thus MALT1 has many similarities to caspase 8, even cleaving the putative target protein CYLD with comparable efficiencies, but with diametrically opposite primary substrate specificity.

  10. Protease activity of MALT1: a mystery unravelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhofer, Daniel; Vucic, Domagoj

    2012-06-01

    Constitutive NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activation in B-cell lymphomas relies greatly on the CARMA1 [CARD (caspase recruitment domain)-containing MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) 1]-Bcl10-MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue translocation gene 1) signalling complex. Within this protein complex, MALT1 possesses a rather unique enzymatic activity, which allows it to cleave Bcl10, RelB and CYLD, among other substrates. The catalytic activity of MALT1 promotes activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB as well as other signalling pathways. However, even after a decade of intense research on MALT1, many mechanistic aspects of its enzymatic activity remain elusive. A recent article by Hachmann, Snipas, van Raam, Cancino, Houlihan, Poreba, Kasperkiewicz, Drag and Salvesen [(2012) Biochem. J. 443, 287-295] provides novel insight into the activation mechanism and the substrate specificity of MALT1. These intriguing findings convincingly demonstrate the importance of MALT1 dimerization for its catalytic activity and pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches that target this crucial regulator of lymphoma survival and proliferation.

  11. Cleavage by MALT1 induces cytosolic release of A20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, Claire; Unterreiner, Adeline; Staal, Jens; Demeyer, Annelies; Galaup, Marion; Luyten, Marcel; Beyaert, Rudi; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2010-10-01

    The MALT1 paracaspase has arginine-directed proteolytic activity. A20 is a dual ubiquitin-editing enzyme involved in termination of NF-κB signaling. Upon T- or B-cell receptor engagement human (h) A20 is cleaved by MALT1 after arginine 439, yielding an N-terminal fragment (hA20p50) and a C-terminal one (hA20p37). The hA20p50 fragment has never been detected directly, thus limiting insight into the functional consequences of MALT1-mediated cleavage of A20. Here, various antibodies were tested, including newly generated hA20p50 and hA20p37 specific antibodies, leading to detection of the hA20p50 fragment produced after MALT1-mediated cleavage of ectopically expressed as well as endogenous A20 proteins. The properties of both A20 fragments, generated upon co-expression with a constitutively active MALT1 protein, were further studied by sub-cellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to full-length A20 which is particulate and insoluble, we found hA20p50 to be soluble and readily released into the cytosol whereas hA20p37 was partially soluble, thus suggesting loss of compartmentalization as a possible mechanism for MALT1-mediated dampening of A20 function.

  12. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  13. Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.

  14. Auto-ubiquitination-induced degradation of MALT1-API2 prevents BCL10 destabilization in t(11;18(q21;q21-positive MALT lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Noels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The translocation t(11;18(q21;q21 is the most frequent chromosomal aberration associated with MALT lymphoma and results in constitutive NF-kappaB activity via the expression of an API2-MALT1 fusion protein. The properties of the reciprocal MALT1-API2 were never investigated as it was reported to be rarely transcribed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our data indicate the presence of MALT1-API2 transcripts in the majority of t(11;18(q21;q21-positive MALT lymphomas. Based on the breakpoints in the MALT1 and API2 gene, the MALT1-API2 protein contains the death domain and one or both immunoglobulin-like domains of MALT1 (approximately 90% of cases--mediating the possible interaction with BCL10--fused to the RING domain of API2. Here we show that this RING domain enables MALT1-API2 to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for BCL10, inducing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation in vitro. Expression of MALT1-API2 transcripts in t(11;18(q21;q21-positive MALT lymphomas was however not associated with a reduction of BCL10 protein levels. CONCLUSION: As we observed MALT1-API2 to be an efficient target of its own E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, our data suggest that this inherent instability of MALT1-API2 prevents its accumulation and renders a potential effect on MALT lymphoma development via destabilization of BCL10 unlikely.

  15. Targeting B-cell lymphomas with inhibitors of the MALT1 paracaspase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Thome, Margot

    2014-12-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 is an Arg-specific protease that cleaves multiple substrates to promote lymphocyte proliferation and survival. The catalytic activity of MALT1 is normally tightly regulated by antigen receptor triggering, which promotes MALT1 activation by its inducible monoubiquitination-dependent dimerization. Constitutive MALT1 activity is a hallmark of specific subsets of B-cell lymphomas, which are characterized by chromosomal translocations or point mutations that activate MALT1 or its upstream regulators. Recent findings suggest that such lymphomas may be sensitive to treatment with MALT1 inhibitors. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of MALT1 function and regulation, and the development of small molecule MALT1 inhibitors for therapeutic applications.

  16. FISH analysis of MALT lymphoma-specific translocations and aneuploidy in primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.I.; Hoefnagel, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Willemze, R.; Hebeda, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (PCMZL) share histological and clinical characteristics with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas suggesting a common pathogenesis. A number of recurrent structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations have been described in MALT lymphoma, but

  17. Prevalencia de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en el linfoma MALT gástrico: una revisión sistemática Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric MALT lymphoma: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Asenjo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática de los estudios que evalúan la prevalencia de H. pylori en los pacientes con linfoma MALT, así como analizar los factores de los que depende. Métodos: se efectuó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed seleccionando aquellos artículos en los que se estudiaba la prevalencia de H. pylori en pacientes con linfoma MALT. Resultados: se identificaron 38 estudios, incluyendo un total de 1.844 pacientes. La prevalencia media global de infección por H. pylori fue del 79%. En pacientes en los que se utilizaron 2 o más métodos para el diagnóstico de H. pylori la prevalencia fue del 85%, frente al 77% cuando se empleó un método diagnóstico (p Objective: to perform a systematic review of studies evaluating H. pylori prevalence in patients with MALT lymphoma, and to analyze predictive factors of response. Methods: a literature search in Pubmed was performed of papers studying H. pylori prevalence in patients with MALT lymphoma. Results: 38 studies were identified including 1,844 patients. The average prevalence of H. pylori infection was 79%. In patients diagnosed with H. pylori infection using 2 or more methods prevalence was 85%, whereas it was 77% when only one diagnostic method was used (p < 0.0001. H. pylori prevalence in patients diagnosed by histology was 75%, whereas it was 85% when serology was used (p < 0.0001. H. pylori prevalence in high-grade lymphomas was 60%, and 79% in low-grade lymphomas (p < 0.0001. H. pylori infection was detected in 74% of lymphomas confined to the submucosa, but only in 44% of those reaching deeper beyond the submucosa (p < 0.0001. Conclusions: H. pylori prevalence in patients with MALT lymphoma is variable, and seems to depend, at least partly, on the number and type of diagnostic methods used, histologic grade, and deep tumor invasion. If appropriate diagnostic methods are used, and if only low-grade lymphomas are considered, H. pylori prevalence is high, nearly

  18. The paracaspase MALT1: biological function and potential for therapeutic inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworski, M.; Thome, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has a central role in the activation of lymphocytes and other immune cells including myeloid cells, mast cells and NK cells. MALT1 activity is required not only for the immune response, but also for the development of natural Treg cells that keep the immune response in check. Exaggerated MALT1 activity has been associated with the development of lymphoid malignancies, and recently developed MALT1 inhibitors show promising anti-tumor effects in xenograft models of diffuse...

  19. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jong W Yu; Sandy Hoffman; Allison M Beal; Angela Dykon; Michael A Ringenberg; Anna C Hughes; Lauren Dare; Amber D Anderson; Joshua Finger; Viera Kasparcova; David Rickard; Scott B Berger; Joshi Ramanjulu; John G Emery; Peter J Gough

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 pr...

  20. The paracaspase MALT1: biological function and potential for therapeutic inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworski, Maike; Thome, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has a central role in the activation of lymphocytes and other immune cells including myeloid cells, mast cells and NK cells. MALT1 activity is required not only for the immune response, but also for the development of natural Treg cells that keep the immune response in check. Exaggerated MALT1 activity has been associated with the development of lymphoid malignancies, and recently developed MALT1 inhibitors show promising anti-tumor effects in xenograft models of diffuse...

  1. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  2. Malt1 and cIAP2-Malt1 as effectors of NF-kappaB activation: kissing cousins or distant relatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingeter, Lara M; Schaefer, Brian C

    2010-01-01

    Malt1 is a multi-domain cytosolic signaling molecule that was originally identified as the target of recurrent translocations in a large fraction of MALT lymphomas. The product of this translocation is a chimeric protein in which the N-terminus is contributed by the apoptosis inhibitor, cIAP2, and the C-terminus is contributed by Malt1. Early studies suggested that Malt1 is an essential intermediate in antigen receptor activation of NF-kappaB, and that the juxtaposition of the cIAP2 N-terminus and the Malt1 C-terminus results in deregulation of Malt1 NF-kappaB stimulatory activity. Initial experimental data further suggested that the molecular mechanisms of Malt1- and cIAP-Malt1-mediated NF-kappaB activation were quite similar. However, a number of more recent studies of both Malt1 and cIAP2-Malt1 now reveal that these proteins influence NF-kappaB activation by multiple distinct mechanisms, several of which are non-overlapping. Currently available data suggest a revised model in which cIAP2-Malt1 induces NF-kappaB activation via a mechanism that depends equally on domains contributed by cIAP2 and Malt1, which confer spontaneous oligomerization activity, polyubiquitin binding, proteolytic activity, and association with and activation of TRAF2 and TRAF6 at several independent binding sites. By contrast, emerging data suggest that the wild-type Malt1 protein uniquely contributes to NF-kappaB activation primarily through the control of two proteolytic cleavage mechanisms. Firstly, Malt1 directly cleaves and inactivates A20, a negative regulator of the antigen receptor-to-NF-kappaB pathway. Secondly, Malt1 interacts with caspase-8, inducing caspase-8 cleavage of c-FLIP(L), initiating a pathway that contributes to activation of the I kappaB kinase (IKK) complex. Furthermore, data suggest that Malt1 plays a more limited and focused role in antigen receptor activation of NF-kappaB, serving to augment weak antigen signals and stimulate a defined subset of NF

  3. Obtenção de cerveja super concentrada com a utilização de xarope de milho como adjunto de malte

    OpenAIRE

    Orerves Martinez Castro

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo a utilização de xarope de milho na elaboração de cerveja super concentrada. Para atingir este propósito foram realizados ensaios em escala de 5 litros, testando três proporções quanto à relação de extrato de malte e de xarope de milho. Para seguir a legislação brasileira de acordo com o Decreto 6.871, de 2009, foram propostos para a realização dos experimentos as proporções de 70/30, 55/45 e 20/80 de malte:xarope de milho. Na proporção 20/80, definida pelo refe...

  4. Renal MALT lymphoma associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Po-Jui; Pei, Sung-Nan; Huang, Tung-Liang; Huang, Shun-Chen; Ng, Hwee Yeong; Lee, Chien-Te

    2014-04-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) is mostly seen in the gastrointestinal tract; origin from the kidney is extremely rare. Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a clinicopathologic syndrome denoted by the presence of monoclonal gammopathy in the serum, typically caused by lymphoproliferative disorder. Literature review did not find any report of renal MALT lymphoma accompanied by WM. Herein, for the first time, we report a 72 year-old female patient with a history of chronic kidney disease, presenting with solitary renal mass; MALT lymphoma was confirmed by pathological examination. A serology study identified the presence of WM. No manifestation of hyperviscosity syndrome was noted. Bone marrow biopsy disclosed the concurrent systemic involvement. Her treatment response was uneventful and the renal mass responded with regressive change in size after chemotherapy. The renal function remained stable during follow-up. MALT lymphoma should be considered as an underlying pathology of isolated renal mass. Furthermore, patients with MALT lymphoma should be screened for Waldenström macroglobulinemia and hyperviscosity syndrome.

  5. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  6. Paracaspase MALT1 deficiency protects mice from autoimmune-mediated demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Guire, Conor; Wieghofer, Peter; Elton, Lynn; Muylaert, David; Prinz, Marco; Beyaert, Rudi; van Loo, Geert

    2013-03-15

    The paracaspase MALT 1 is a major player in lymphocyte activation and proliferation. MALT1 mediates Ag-induced signaling to the transcription factor NF-κB by functioning both as a scaffold protein and cysteine protease. We studied the role of MALT1 in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. MALT1-knockout mice did not develop any clinical symptoms of EAE. In addition, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration into the spinal cord was absent in MALT1-knockout mice, as were demyelination and proinflammatory gene expression. Adoptive transfer experiments showed that MALT1 deficiency in splenocytes is sufficient for EAE resistance. Moreover, autoreactive T cell activation was severely impaired in MALT1-deficient T cells, suggesting the inability of MALT1-deficient effector T cells to induce demyelinating inflammation in the CNS. Finally, the MALT1 substrates A20 and CYLD were completely processed in wild-type T cells during EAE, which was partially impaired in MALT1-deficient T cells, suggesting a contribution of MALT1 proteolytic activity in T cell activation and EAE development. Together, our data indicate that MALT1 may be an interesting therapeutic target in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  7. Activity-based probes for detection of active MALT1 paracaspase in immune cells and lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Vosyka, Oliver; Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Lenze, Dido; Lammens, Katja; Schlauderer, Florian; Hlahla, Daniela; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Lenz, Georg; Hummel, Michael; Verhelst, Steven H L; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-22

    MALT1 paracaspase is activated upon antigen receptor stimulation to promote lymphocyte activation. In addition, deregulated MALT1 protease activity drives survival of distinct lymphomas such as the activated B cell type of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Here, we designed fluorophore or biotin-coupled activity based-probes (ABP) that covalently modify the active center of MALT1. MALT1-ABPs are exclusively labeling an active modified full length form of MALT1 upon T cell stimulation. Further, despite the CARMA1 requirement for initial MALT1 activation, the MALT1-ABPs show that protease activity is not confined to the high-molecular CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex. Using biotin-coupled ABPs, we developed a robust assay for sensitive and selective detection of active MALT1 in cell lines, primary lymphocytes, and DLBCL tumor biopsies. Taken together, MALT1-ABPs represent powerful chemical tools to measure cellular MALT1 activation, determine efficacy of small molecule inhibitors, and classify lymphomas based on MALT1 activity status.

  8. Sorghum malt and traditional beer (dolo) quality assessment in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale, Siébou; Taonda, Sibiri Jean-Baptiste; Bougouma, Boniface; Mason, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum malt and dolo quality evaluation criteria and parameters affecting quality were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso through questionnaires addressed to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers, and consumers. The major quality criteria for malt quality assessment were perceived to be taste and presence/absence of roots in the malt. Taste, alcohol content, and wort sufficiently cooked were perceived as major criteria for the dolo quality assessment. The major parameters affecting malt quality were perceived to be malt production period, proportions of grain and the amount of water entering malting, presence of pesticide residues in the malting grains, and age of grain. Processing method, yeast source, proportions of the components (crushed grain, water, mucilage, yeast) entering dolo production, malt quality, wort temperature at time of inoculation, amount of energy available for cooking, wort and sediment boiling time, quality of mucilage, malt with non-sweet taste, presence/absence of roots in the malt, and ease of filtering crushed malt were perceived as major parameters affecting the dolo quality. These results will be used in the improvement of the dolo supply chain in Burkina Faso by providing more reliable information for training programs for efficient dolo brewing processes, development of best cropping practices to improve grain quality, and providing better selection criteria for sorghum breeding programs.

  9. Anti-apoptotic action of API2-MALT1 fusion protein involved in t(11;18)(q21;q21) MALT lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Y

    2005-01-01

    At least three distinct chromosomal translocations, t(11;18)(q21;q21), t(1;14)(p22;q32) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) involving the API2 (also known as c-IAP2)-MALT1 fusion protein, BCL10, and MALT1, respectively, have been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Our findings showed that several variants of the API2-MALT1 fusion protein can occur in patients with t(11;18)(q21;q21), and that API2-MALT1 can potently enfance activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling, which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas. We also found that MALT1 is rapidly degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as is the case with API2, but upon the synthesis of fusion, API2-MALT1 becomes stable against this pathway. This stability of API2-MALT1 may thus result in inappropriate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma. Recent biochemical and genetic studies have clearly shown that BCL10 and MALT1 form a physical and functional complex and are both required for NF-kappaB activation by antigen receptor stimulation in T and B lymphocytes. It has also been shown that CARMA1, a newly discovered member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) families, is critical for antigen receptor-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. It can be assumed that API2-MALT1 can bypass this normal BCL10/MALT1 cellular signaling pathway linked to NF-kappaB activation, thereby inducing antigen receptor-independent proliferation of lymphocytes. Furthermore, BCL10/MALT1- and API2-MALT1-induced NF-kappaB activation may contribute to anti-apoptotic action probably through NF-kappaB-mediated upregulation of apoptotic inhibitor genes. We recently provided direct evidence that API2-MALT1 indeed exerts anti-apoptotic action, in part, through its direct interaction with apoptotic regulators including Smac. Taken together, these findings prompt us to hypothesize that the anti-apoptotic action

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with malt extracts on milk production

    OpenAIRE

    A. Formigoni; PEZZI, P.; I. Fusari; Biagi, G

    2010-01-01

    The transition period of a cow is characterized by marked changes in metabolism as the cow prepares for parturition and lactogenesis. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the effect of feeding dairy cows with malt extracts on milk production. Ten days before calving, 22 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided in two groups and received for four months the same base diet added with an experimental concentrate (1.5kg/cow/day) containing either corn starch and malt extracts (ME) o...

  11. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  13. A gradient of mercury concentrations in Scottish single malt whiskies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon D

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 26 Scottish single malt whiskies, and all found to be very low (whisky production. As UK atmospheric emissions of mercury have declined by 90 % since the 1970s, we suggest that whisky being produced today should have even lower Hg concentrations when consumed in 10- to 15-years time. This reduction may be compromised by the remobilisation of contaminants stored in catchment soils being transferred to source waters, but is very unlikely to raise the negligible health risk due to Hg from Scottish single malt whisky consumption.

  14. Reação de cultivares de cevada a Drechslera teres, e variabilidade patogênica de isolados do Sul do Brasil Reaction of barley cultivars to Drechslera teres and pathogenic variability of isolates from the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a reação de 58 cultivares de cevada a Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha-em-rede, bem como a variabilidade patogênica e freqüência de sintomas do patógeno. A reação das cultivares foi estimada com auxílio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 4, em que zero (0 representa a ausência de sintomas, e 4 representa os sintomas típicos da mancha-em-rede. O mesmo método foi utilizado para avaliar a variabilidade patogênica de 25 isolados oriundos do Sul do Brasil. Seis isolados de boa capacidade de esporulação foram utilizados para comparar o número de lesões e a severidade da doença. As cultivares diferiram quanto à reação a D. teres, e identificaram-se as três cultivares, BR 2, EMBRAPA 43 e PFC 8590, como fontes de resistência moderada à doença. Em testes de 25 isolados de D. teres, inoculados na concentração de 1,7x10(4 conídios/mL, detectaram-se diferenças significativas entre os isolados, evidenciando diferenças na sua virulência. Pelo sistema de nomenclatura de Limpert & Müller, foi possível diferenciar padrões de virulência de isolados oriundos de diferentes regiões do Sul do Brasil. O número de lesões e a severidade foram intimamente relacionadas com o local de origem do isolado.This research aimed to evaluate 58 barley cultivars for resistance to net blotch caused by Drechslera teres and to determine the variability of isolates of the pathogen and frequency of symptoms of the disease. The cultivar reaction was estimated with aid of a 0 to 4 scale, in which zero represented the absence of symptom and 4 the typical symptoms of disease susceptibility. The same method was used to determine de pathogenic variability of isolates originated from the Southern Brazil. Six isolates of good sporulation capacity were used for comparison of number of lesions and disease severity. The cultivars showed differences in reaction to net blotch, and the cultivars BR 2, EMBRAPA 43 and PFC 8590 were

  15. MALT1 Small Molecule Inhibitors Specifically Suppress ABC-DLBCL In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fontan, Lorena; Yang, Chenghua; Kabaleeswaran, Venkataraman; Volpon, Laurent; Osborne, Michael J.; Beltran, Elena; Garcia, Monica; Cerchietti, Leandro; Shaknovich, Rita; Yang, Shao Ning; Fang, Fang; Gascoyne, Randy D; Martinez-Climent, Jose Angel; Glickman, J. Fraser; Borden, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    MALT1 cleavage activity is linked to the pathogenesis of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), a chemoresistant form of DLBCL. We developed a MALT1 activity assay and identified chemically diverse MALT1 inhibitors. A selected lead compound, MI-2, featured direct binding to MALT1 and suppression of its protease function. MI-2 concentrated within human ABC-DLBCL cells and irreversibly inhibited cleavage of MALT1 substrates. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activ...

  16. MALT1 Inhibition of Oral Carcinoma Cell Invasion and ERK/MAPK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T; Soeno, Y; Shirako, Y; Sudo, H; Yagishita, H; Taya, Y; Kawashiri, S; Okada, Y; Imai, K

    2016-04-01

    The expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) that activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in lymphocyte lineages is rapidly inactivated in oral carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the patients with worst prognosis. However, its mechanism to accelerate carcinoma progression remains unknown, and this study was carried out to examine the role in invasion. HSC2 oral carcinoma cells stably expressing wild-type MALT1 (wtMALT1) reduced the invasion of basement membrane matrices and collagen gels, and the dominant-negative form (∆MALT1)-expressing cells aggressively invaded into collagen gels. MALT1 decelerated proliferation and migration of cells and downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, which were confirmed by short interfering RNA transfections. Reporter assays and immunoblot analysis showed that MALT1 does not affect the NF-κB pathway but inhibits ERK/MAPK activation. This was confirmed by endogenous MALT1 expression in oral carcinoma cell lines. Orthotopic implantation of ∆MALT1-expressing HSC2 cells in mice grew rapid expansive and invasive tongue tumors in contrast to an absence of tumor formation by wtMALT1-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that MALT1 suppresses oral carcinoma invasion by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix degradation and that the ERK/MAPK pathway is a target of MALT1 and further suggests a role as a suppressor of carcinoma progression.

  17. T-cell receptor-induced JNK activation requires proteolytic inactivation of CYLD by MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jens; Driege, Yasmine; Bekaert, Tine; Demeyer, Annelies; Muyllaert, David; Van Damme, Petra; Gevaert, Kris; Beyaert, Rudi

    2011-05-04

    The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is central to lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. MALT1 mediates antigen receptor signalling to NF-κB by acting as a scaffold protein. Furthermore, MALT1 has proteolytic activity that contributes to optimal NF-κB activation by cleaving the NF-κB inhibitor A20. Whether MALT1 protease activity is involved in other signalling pathways, and the identity of the relevant substrates, is unknown. Here, we show that T-cell receptors (TCR) activation, as well as overexpression of the oncogenic API2-MALT1 fusion protein, results in proteolytic inactivation of CYLD by MALT1, which is specifically required for c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and the inducible expression of a subset of genes. These results indicate a novel role for MALT1 proteolytic activity in TCR-induced JNK activation and reveal CYLD cleavage as the underlying mechanism.

  18. Malt1 and cIAP2-Malt1 as effectors of NF-κB activation: Kissing cousins or distant relatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingeter, Lara M.; Schaefer, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Malt1 is a multi-domain cytosolic signaling molecule that was originally identified as the target of recurrent translocations in a large fraction of MALT lymphomas. The product of this translocation is a chimeric protein in which the N-terminus is contributed by the apoptosis inhibitor, cIAP2, and the C-terminus is contributed by Malt1. Early studies suggested that Malt1 is an essential intermediate in antigen receptor activation of NF-κB, and that the juxtaposition of the cIAP2 N-terminus an...

  19. Backbone Assignment of the MALT1 Paracaspase by Solution NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnerståle, Sofia; Nowakowski, Michal; Baraznenok, Vera; Stenberg, Gun; Lindberg, Jimmy; Mayzel, Maxim; Orekhov, Vladislav; Agback, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is a unique paracaspase protein whose protease activity mediates oncogenic NF-κB signalling in activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCLs). ABC-DLBCLs are aggressive lymphomas with high resistance to current chemotherapies. Low survival rate among patients emphasizes the urgent need for alternative treatment options. The characterization of the MALT1 will be an essential tool for developing new target-directed drugs against MALT1 dependent disorders. As the first step in the atomic-level NMR studies of the system, here we report, the (15)N/(13)C/(1)H backbone assignment of the apo form of the MALT1 paracaspase region together with the third immunoglobulin-like (Ig3) domain, 44 kDa, by high resolution NMR. In addition, the non-uniform sampling (NUS) based targeted acquisition procedure is evaluated as a mean of decreasing acquisition and analysis time for larger proteins.

  20. Backbone Assignment of the MALT1 Paracaspase by Solution NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Unnerståle

    Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1 is a unique paracaspase protein whose protease activity mediates oncogenic NF-κB signalling in activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCLs. ABC-DLBCLs are aggressive lymphomas with high resistance to current chemotherapies. Low survival rate among patients emphasizes the urgent need for alternative treatment options. The characterization of the MALT1 will be an essential tool for developing new target-directed drugs against MALT1 dependent disorders. As the first step in the atomic-level NMR studies of the system, here we report, the (15N/(13C/(1H backbone assignment of the apo form of the MALT1 paracaspase region together with the third immunoglobulin-like (Ig3 domain, 44 kDa, by high resolution NMR. In addition, the non-uniform sampling (NUS based targeted acquisition procedure is evaluated as a mean of decreasing acquisition and analysis time for larger proteins.

  1. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determination made by a person using olfactory, visual, touch or feel, masticatory, or other senses unless... section 4(a)(2) of this Option; or any other costs associated with normal handling and marketing of... Option; or any other costs associated with normal handling and marketing of malting barely. (f) All...

  2. MALT90: The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, J M; Foster, J B; Whitaker, J S; Sanhueza, P; Claysmith, C; Mascoop, J L; Wienen, M; Breen, S L; Herpin, F; Duarte-Cabral, A; Csengeri, T; Longmore, S; Contreras, Y; Indermuehle, B; Barnes, P J; Walsh, A J; Cunningham, M R; Brooks, K J; Britton, T R; Voronkov, M A; Urquhart, J S; Alves, J; Jordan, C H; Hill, T; Hoq, S; Finn, S; C., S; Bains, I; Bontemps, S; Bronfman, L; Caswell, J L; Deharveng, L; Ellingsen, S P; Fuller, G A; Garay, G; Green, J A; Hindson, L; Jones, P A; Lenfestey, C; Lo, N; Lowe, V; Mardones, D; Menten, K M; Minier, V; Morgan, L K; Motte, F; Muller, E; Peretto, N; Purcell, C R; Schilke, P; Schneider-Bontemps, N; Schuller, F; Titmarsh, A; Wyrowski, F; Zavagno, A

    2013-01-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope, MALT90 has obtained 3' x 3' maps toward ~2000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 um Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to HII regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38") and spectral (0.11 km/s) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clump's morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and p...

  3. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  4. Malt1 ubiquitination triggers NF-kappaB signaling upon T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Wegener, Elmar; Welteke, Verena; Ferch, Uta; Arslan, Seda Cöl; Ruland, Jürgen; Scheidereit, Claus; Krappmann, Daniel

    2007-11-14

    Triggering of antigen receptors on lymphocytes is critical for initiating adaptive immune response against pathogens. T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement induces the formation of the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex that is essential for activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms that link CBM complex formation to IKK activation remain unclear. Here we report that Malt1 is polyubiquitinated upon T-cell activation. Ubiquitin chains on Malt1 provide a docking surface for the recruitment of the IKK regulatory subunit NEMO/IKKgamma. TRAF6 associates with Malt1 in response to T-cell activation and can function as an E3 ligase for Malt1 in vitro and in vivo, mediating lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of Malt1. Multiple lysine residues in the C-terminus of Malt1 serve as acceptor sites for the assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Malt1 mutants that lack C-terminal ubiquitin acceptor lysines are impaired in rescuing NF-kappaB signaling and IL-2 production in Malt1-/- T cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that induced Malt1 ubiquitination is critical for the engagement of CBM and IKK complexes, thereby directing TCR signals to the canonical NF-kappaB pathway.

  5. Multiple protein domains mediate interaction between Bcl10 and MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Felicia D; Jain, Nidhi A; Rossman, Jeremy S; Kingeter, Lara M; Kashyap, Anuj K; Schaefer, Brian C

    2008-11-21

    Bcl10 and MALT1 are essential mediators of NF-kappaB activation in response to the triggering of a diverse array of transmembrane receptors, including antigen receptors. Additionally, both proteins are translocation targets in MALT lymphoma. Thus, a detailed understanding of the interaction between these mediators is of considerable biological importance. Previous studies have indicated that a 13-amino acid region downstream of the Bcl10 caspase recruitment domain (CARD) is responsible for interacting with the immunoglobulin-like domains of MALT1. We now provide evidence that the death domain of MALT1 and the CARD of Bcl10 also contribute to Bcl10-MALT1 interactions. Although a direct interaction between the MALT1 death domain and Bcl10 cannot be detected via immunoprecipitation, FRET data strongly suggest that the death domain of MALT1 contributes significantly to the association between Bcl10 and MALT1 in T cells in vivo. Furthermore, analysis of point mutants of conserved residues of Bcl10 shows that the Bcl10 CARD is essential for interaction with the MALT1 N terminus. Mutations that disrupt proper folding of the Bcl10 CARD strongly impair Bcl10-MALT1 interactions. Molecular modeling and functional analyses of Bcl10 point mutants suggest that residues Asp(80) and Glu(84) of helix 5 of the Bcl10 CARD directly contact MALT1. Together, these data demonstrate that the association between Bcl10 and MALT1 involves a complex interaction between multiple protein domains. Moreover, the Bcl10-MALT1 interaction is the second reported example of interactions between a CARD and a non-CARD protein region, which suggests that many signaling cascades may utilize CARD interactions with non-CARD domains.

  6. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process.

  7. Targeting MALT1 Proteolytic Activity in Immunity, Inflammation and Disease: Good or Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Annelies; Staal, Jens; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    MALT1 is a signaling protein that plays a key role in immunity, inflammation, and lymphoid malignancies. For a long time MALT1 was believed to function as a scaffold protein, providing an assembly platform for other signaling proteins. This view changed dramatically when MALT1 was also found to have proteolytic activity and a capacity to fine-tune immune responses. Preclinical studies have fostered the belief that MALT1 is a promising therapeutic target in autoimmunity and B cell lymphomas. However, recent studies have shown that mice expressing catalytically-inactive MALT1 develop multi-organ inflammation and autoimmunity, and thus have tempered this initial enthusiasm. We discuss recent findings, highlighting the urgent need for a better mechanistic and functional understanding of MALT1 in host defense and disease.

  8. Important Quality Attributes of Malt Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ): Effect of Genetics, Environments and Agronomic Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virender Sardana; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2003-01-01

    Barley has been in use as food and fodder for thousands of years, and also used currently as themost important raw material in malting and brewing. The quality of malt barley is not much satisfied with therequirement by malting and brewing industry worldwide, although the great effort has been devoted to its im-provement through breeding and agronomy. The quality of malt barley is involved in many physical and chemi-cal traits, including hydrolytic enzymes. Of them, kernel protein content, beta-amylase activity, beta-glucancontent and kernel plumpness have dramatic influence on malting or brewing quality. The expression of thesequality parameters varies greatly in genotypes and is easily changed by diverse environments and agronomicpractices. This paper reviewed the important role of various parameters influencing the quality of malt barleyand the effect of different factors on them.

  9. Enrichment of vanillin in barley malt by hydrolysis in high temperature and high pressure steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Koichi; Kageyama, Norihiko; Nagami, Kenzo

    2012-12-19

    Malted barley was treated with saturated steam at temperatures ranging from 180 to 220 °C, that is, high temperature and high pressure steam (HHS), and a control sample exposed to saturated liquid water in the same temperature range. The malt treated in steam was extracted with water (70 °C) for 15 min after drying. Vanillin which gave beer preferable flavor was detected in all malt extracts, both after treatment with steam and in effluent from malt exposed to liquid water. Hydrolysis of ingredients in the malt occurred even in steam. The treatment of natural products in HHS could be a new thermal technique to provide a special ingredient for food industry, for example, malt for beer.

  10. Correlation of malt quality parameters and beer flavor stability: multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Luís F; Curto, Andreia F; Boivin, Patrick; Benismail, Nizar; Gonçalves, Cristina R; Barros, Aquiles A

    2007-02-07

    Malt is known to have an impact on beer flavor stability mainly due to the presence of antioxidants. In this study, five barley varieties were malted at industrial and micro scale, and quality parameters of the resulting malts were measured (diastatic power, friability, beta-glucan content, antiradical power, reducing power, lipoxygenase activity, and nonenal potential) and correlated with the sensory data obtained for the corresponding fresh and forced aged beers. A statistical strategy using multiple linear regressions was applied to explore relationships between the malt chemical parameters and beer sensory data, showing antiradical power as the major contribution of malt to beer flavor stability. Additionally, the measured antiradical power, which is well correlated with the polyphenolic content, was found to be very similar for malt and barley, emphasizing the key role of barley endogenous polyphenols.

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of MALT1 protease activity protects mice in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Guire, Conor; Elton, Lynn; Wieghofer, Peter; Staal, Jens; Voet, Sofie; Demeyer, Annelies; Nagel, Daniel; Krappmann, Daniel; Prinz, Marco; Beyaert, Rudi; van Loo, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Background: The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is crucial for lymphocyte activation through signaling to the transcription factor NF-kappa B. Besides functioning as a scaffold signaling protein, MALT1 also acts as a cysteine protease that specifically cleaves a number of substrates and contributes to specific T cell receptor-induced gene expression. Recently, small molecule inhibitors of MALT1 proteolytic activity were identified and sho...

  12. Uncoupling Malt1 Threshold Function from Paracaspase Activity Results in Destructive Autoimmune Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Gewies; Oliver Gorka; Hanna Bergmann; Konstanze Pechloff; Franziska Petermann; Katharina M. Jeltsch; Martina Rudelius; Mark Kriegsmann; Wilko Weichert; Marion Horsch; Johannes Beckers; Wolfgang Wurst; Mathias Heikenwalder; Thomas Korn; Vigo Heissmeyer

    2015-01-01

    The paracaspase Malt1 is a central regulator of antigen receptor signaling that is frequently mutated in human lymphoma. As a scaffold, it assembles protein complexes for NF-kappa B activation, and its proteolytic domain cleaves negative NF-kappa B regulators for signal enforcement. Still, the physiological functions of Malt1-protease are unknown. We demonstrate that targeted Malt1-paracaspase inactivation induces a lethal inflammatory syndrome with lymphocyte-dependent neurodegeneration in v...

  13. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional processes of sorghum grains malting were investigated in Tamale (Northern Ghana)from the raw materials through to the sun-dried malted sorghum including steeping and germinationstages. Samples were taken at each processing stage and cultured for the isolation of LAB. The isolatesw......The traditional processes of sorghum grains malting were investigated in Tamale (Northern Ghana)from the raw materials through to the sun-dried malted sorghum including steeping and germinationstages. Samples were taken at each processing stage and cultured for the isolation of LAB...

  14. Monoubiquitination and activity of the paracaspase MALT1 requires glutamate 549 in the dimerization interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Cabalzar

    Full Text Available The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue protein-1 (MALT1, also known as paracaspase is a protease whose activity is essential for the activation of lymphocytes and the growth of cells derived from human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the activated B-cell subtype (ABC DLBCL. Crystallographic approaches have shown that MALT1 can form dimers via its protease domain, but why dimerization is relevant for the biological activity of MALT1 remains largely unknown. Using a molecular modeling approach, we predicted Glu 549 (E549 to be localized within the MALT1 dimer interface and thus potentially relevant. Experimental mutation of this residue into alanine (E549A led to a complete impairment of MALT1 proteolytic activity. This correlated with an impaired capacity of the mutant to form dimers of the protease domain in vitro, and a reduced capacity to promote NF-κB activation and transcription of the growth-promoting cytokine interleukin-2 in antigen receptor-stimulated lymphocytes. Moreover, this mutant could not rescue the growth of ABC DLBCL cell lines upon MALT1 silencing. Interestingly, the MALT1 mutant E549A was unable to undergo monoubiquitination, which we identified previously as a critical step in MALT1 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest a model in which E549 at the dimerization interface is required for the formation of the enzymatically active, monoubiquitinated form of MALT1.

  15. Monoubiquitination and activity of the paracaspase MALT1 requires glutamate 549 in the dimerization interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalzar, Katrin; Pelzer, Christiane; Wolf, Annette; Lenz, Georg; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Zoete, Vincent; Hailfinger, Stephan; Thome, Margot

    2013-01-01

    The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue protein-1 (MALT1, also known as paracaspase) is a protease whose activity is essential for the activation of lymphocytes and the growth of cells derived from human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the activated B-cell subtype (ABC DLBCL). Crystallographic approaches have shown that MALT1 can form dimers via its protease domain, but why dimerization is relevant for the biological activity of MALT1 remains largely unknown. Using a molecular modeling approach, we predicted Glu 549 (E549) to be localized within the MALT1 dimer interface and thus potentially relevant. Experimental mutation of this residue into alanine (E549A) led to a complete impairment of MALT1 proteolytic activity. This correlated with an impaired capacity of the mutant to form dimers of the protease domain in vitro, and a reduced capacity to promote NF-κB activation and transcription of the growth-promoting cytokine interleukin-2 in antigen receptor-stimulated lymphocytes. Moreover, this mutant could not rescue the growth of ABC DLBCL cell lines upon MALT1 silencing. Interestingly, the MALT1 mutant E549A was unable to undergo monoubiquitination, which we identified previously as a critical step in MALT1 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest a model in which E549 at the dimerization interface is required for the formation of the enzymatically active, monoubiquitinated form of MALT1.

  16. Malt1 protease inactivation efficiently dampens immune responses but causes spontaneous autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maike; Marsland, Ben J; Gehrig, Jasmine; Held, Werner; Favre, Stéphanie; Luther, Sanjiv A; Perroud, Mai; Golshayan, Déla; Gaide, Olivier; Thome, Margot

    2014-12-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase Malt1 has recently gained interest as a drug target for immunomodulation and the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. To address the consequences of Malt1 protease inactivation on the immune response in vivo, we generated knock-in mice expressing a catalytically inactive C472A mutant of Malt1 that conserves its scaffold function. Like Malt1-deficient mice, knock-in mice had strong defects in the activation of lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells, and the development of B1 and marginal zone B cells and were completely protected against the induction of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Malt1 inactivation also protected the mice from experimental induction of colitis. However, Malt1 knock-in mice but not Malt1-deficient mice spontaneously developed signs of autoimmune gastritis that correlated with an absence of Treg cells, an accumulation of T cells with an activated phenotype and high serum levels of IgE and IgG1. Thus, removal of the enzymatic activity of Malt1 efficiently dampens the immune response, but favors autoimmunity through impaired Treg development, which could be relevant for therapeutic Malt1-targeting strategies.

  17. Malt1 protease inactivation efficiently dampens immune responses but causes spontaneous autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworski, Maike; Marsland, Ben J; Gehrig, Jasmine; Held, Werner; Favre, Stéphanie; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Perroud, Mai; Golshayan, Déla; Gaide, Olivier; Thome, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase Malt1 has recently gained interest as a drug target for immunomodulation and the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. To address the consequences of Malt1 protease inactivation on the immune response in vivo, we generated knock-in mice expressing a catalytically inactive C472A mutant of Malt1 that conserves its scaffold function. Like Malt1-deficient mice, knock-in mice had strong defects in the activation of lymphocytes, NK and ...

  18. The NF-κB regulator MALT1 determines the encephalitogenic potential of Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anne; Brenner, Dirk; Knobbe, Christiane B; Lang, Philipp A; Virtanen, Carl; Hershenfield, Brian M; Reardon, Colin; Lacher, Sonja M; Ruland, Jürgen; Ohashi, Pamela S; Mak, Tak W

    2012-12-01

    Effector functions of inflammatory IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cells have been linked to autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, what determines Th17 cell encephalitogenicity is still unresolved. Here, we show that after EAE induction, mice deficient for the NF-κB regulator MALT1 (Malt1-/- mice) exhibit strong lymphocytic infiltration in the CNS, but do not develop any clinical signs of EAE. Loss of Malt1 interfered with expression of the Th17 effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF both in vitro and in vivo. In line with their impaired GM-CSF secretion, Malt1-/- Th cells failed to recruit myeloid cells to the CNS to sustain neuroinflammation, whereas autoreactive WT Th cells successfully induced EAE in Malt1-/- hosts. In contrast, Malt1 deficiency did not affect Th1 cells. Despite their significantly decreased secretion of Th17 effector cytokines, Malt1-/- Th17 cells showed normal expression of lineage-specific transcription factors. Malt1-/- Th cells failed to cleave RelB, a suppressor of canonical NF-κB, and exhibited altered cellular localization of this protein. Our results indicate that MALT1 is a central, cell-intrinsic factor that determines the encephalitogenic potential of inflammatory Th17 cells in vivo.

  19. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  20. Assessing the xylanolytic bacterial diversity during the malting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfliet, Sofie; Justé, Annelies; Crauwels, Sam; Willems, Kris; De Cooman, Luc; Lievens, Bart; Aerts, Guido

    2013-12-01

    The presence of microorganisms producing cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes such as xylanases during malting can improve mash filtration behavior and consequently have potential for more efficient wort production. In this study, the xylanolytic bacterial community during malting was assessed by isolation and cultivation on growth media containing arabinoxylan, and identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 33 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found, taking into account a 3% sequence dissimilarity cut-off, belonging to four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) and 25 genera. Predominant OTUs represented xylanolytic bacteria identified as Sphingobacterium multivorum, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fulva. DNA fingerprinting of all xylanolytic isolates belonging to S. multivorum obtained in this study revealed shifts in S. multivorum populations during the process. Xylanase activity was determined for a selection of isolates, with Cellulomonas flavigena showing the highest activity. The xylanase of this species was isolated and purified 23.2-fold by ultrafiltration, 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-FF ion-exchange chromatography and appeared relatively thermostable. This study will enhance our understanding of the role of microorganisms in the barley germination process. In addition, this study may provide a basis for microflora management during malting.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with malt extracts on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition period of a cow is characterized by marked changes in metabolism as the cow prepares for parturition and lactogenesis. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the effect of feeding dairy cows with malt extracts on milk production. Ten days before calving, 22 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided in two groups and received for four months the same base diet added with an experimental concentrate (1.5kg/cow/day containing either corn starch and malt extracts (ME or only corn starch (CS as the main energy source. Dry matter intake was not influenced by treatment and averaged 21.7kg of DM/cow/day. The use of malt extracts determined a numerical increase of milk yield (+0.7kg/cow/day, i.e. +2.5% but this difference did not reach the significance level. Milk quality parameters were not influenced by treatment. Further studies will be needed to assess if feeding diets rich in very high fermentable carbohydrates to transition dairy cows can be a valuable strategy.

  2. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong W Yu

    Full Text Available CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo.

  3. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong W; Hoffman, Sandy; Beal, Allison M; Dykon, Angela; Ringenberg, Michael A; Hughes, Anna C; Dare, Lauren; Anderson, Amber D; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Rickard, David; Berger, Scott B; Ramanjulu, Joshi; Emery, John G; Gough, Peter J; Bertin, John; Foley, Kevin P

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo.

  4. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong W.; Hoffman, Sandy; Beal, Allison M.; Dykon, Angela; Ringenberg, Michael A.; Hughes, Anna C.; Dare, Lauren; Anderson, Amber D.; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Rickard, David; Berger, Scott B.; Ramanjulu, Joshi; Emery, John G.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Foley, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo. PMID:25965667

  5. Expression of MALT1 oncogene in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells recapitulates the pathogenesis of human lymphoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Fontán, Lorena; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Segura, Victor; Aznar, M Angela; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I; Abollo-Jimenez, Fernando; Bertolo, Cristina; Peñuelas, Ivan; Garcia-Criado, Francisco J; García-Cenador, María B; Tousseyn, Thomas; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; McPhail, Ellen D; Lossos, Izidore S; Du, Ming-Qing; Flores, Teresa; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M; Gonzalez, Marcos; Salar, Antonio; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Conde, Eulogio; Siebert, Reiner; Sagaert, Xavier; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2012-06-26

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1(+)Lin(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-κB activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tumors recapitulating the principal clinical, biological, and molecular genetic features of MALT lymphoma. Deletion of p53 gene accelerated tumor onset and induced transformation of MALT lymphoma to activated B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Treatment of MALT1-induced lymphomas with a specific inhibitor of MALT1 proteolytic activity decreased cell viability, indicating that endogenous Malt1 signaling was required for tumor cell survival. Our study shows that human-like lymphomas can be modeled in mice by targeting MALT1 expression to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the oncogenic role of MALT1 in lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, this work establishes a molecular link between MALT lymphoma and ABC-DLBCL, and provides mouse models to test MALT1 inhibitors. Finally, our results suggest that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of human mature B-cell lymphomas.

  6. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  7. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  8. Differing Requirements for MALT1 Function in Peripheral B Cell Survival and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peishan; Zhu, Zilu; Hachmann, Janna; Nojima, Takuya; Kitamura, Daisuke; Salvesen, Guy; Rickert, Robert C

    2017-02-01

    During a T cell-dependent immune response, formation of the germinal center (GC) is essential for the generation of high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. The canonical NF-κB pathway has been implicated in the initiation of GC reaction, and defects in this pathway have been linked to immune deficiencies. The paracaspase MALT1 plays an important role in regulating NF-κB activation upon triggering of Ag receptors. Although previous studies have reported that MALT1 deficiency abrogates the GC response, the relative contribution of B cells and T cells to the defective phenotype remains unclear. We used chimeric mouse models to demonstrate that MALT1 function is required in B cells for GC formation. This role is restricted to BCR signaling where MALT1 is critical for B cell proliferation and survival. Moreover, the proapoptotic signal transmitted in the absence of MALT1 is dominant to the prosurvival effects of T cell-derived stimuli. In addition to GC B cell differentiation, MALT1 is required for plasma cell differentiation, but not mitogenic responses. Lastly, we show that ectopic expression of Bcl-2 can partially rescue the GC phenotype in MALT1-deficient animals by prolonging the lifespan of BCR-activated B cells, but plasma cell differentiation and Ab production remain defective. Thus, our data uncover previously unappreciated aspects of MALT1 function in B cells and highlight its importance in humoral immunity.

  9. MALT1 protease: a new therapeutic target in B lymphoma and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Baens, Mathijs; Lucas, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    The identification of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1) as a gene that is perturbed in the B-cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, already more than a decade ago, was the starting point for an intense area of research. The fascination with MALT1 was fueled further by the observation that it contains a domain homologous to the catalytic domain of caspases and thus, potentially, could function as a protease. Discoveries since then initially revealed that MALT1 is a key adaptor molecule in antigen receptor signaling to the transcription factor NF-κB, which is crucial for lymphocyte function. However, recent discoveries show that this function of MALT1 is not restricted to lymphocytes, witnessed by the ever-increasing list of receptors from cells within and outside of the immune system that require MALT1 for NF-κB activation. Yet, a role for MALT1 protease activity was shown only recently in immune signaling, and its importance was then further strengthened by the dependency of NF-κB-addicted B-cell lymphomas on this proteolytic activity. Therapeutic targeting of MALT1 protease activity might, therefore, become a useful approach for the treatment of these lymphomas and, additionally, an effective strategy for treating other neoplastic and inflammatory disorders associated with deregulated NF-κB signaling.

  10. MALT1 Protease Activity Controls the Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Keratinocytes upon Zymosan Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anja; Grondona, Paula; Maier, Tabea; Brändle, Marc; Schönfeld, Caroline; Jäger, Günter; Kosnopfel, Corinna; Eberle, Franziska C; Schittek, Birgit; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Yazdi, Amir S; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) plays an important role in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation by controlling the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and is thus essential for the expression of inflammatory target genes. MALT1 is not only present in cells of the hematopoietic lineage, but is ubiquitously expressed. Here we report that stimulation with zymosan or Staphylococcus aureus induced MALT1 protease activity in human primary keratinocytes. Inhibition of the Src family of kinases or novel protein kinase C isoforms as well as silencing of CARMA2 or BCL10 interfered with activation of MALT1 protease. Silencing or inhibition of MALT1 protease strongly decreased the expression of important inflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-17C, CXCL8 and HBD-2. MALT1-inhibited cells were unable to mount an antimicrobial response upon zymosan stimulation or phorbolester/ionomycin treatment, demonstrating a central role of MALT1 protease activity in keratinocyte immunity and suggesting MALT1 as a potential target in inflammatory skin diseases.

  11. The HECTD3 E3 ubiquitin ligase suppresses cisplatin-induced apoptosis via stabilizing MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zehua; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Wenlin; Zhou, Zhongmei; Zhang, Junran; Zhang, Jing; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Ceshi

    2013-01-01

    Homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus domain containing 3 (HECTD3) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with unknown functions. Here, we show that HECTD3 confers cancer cell resistance to cisplatin. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis and identified mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) as an HECTD3-interacting protein. HECTD3 promotes MALT1 ubiquitination with nondegradative polyubiquitin chains by direct interacting with the MALT1 through its N-terminal destruction of cyclin domain. HECTD3 does not target MALT1 for degradation but stabilize it. HECTD3 depletion dramatically decreases the levels of MALT1 in MCF7 and HeLa cells treated with cisplatin, which is correlated to an increase in apoptosis. Knockdown of MALT1 likewise increases cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells. However, HECTD3 over-expression leads to a decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of MALT1 partially rescues HECTD3 depletion-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that HECTD3 promotes cell survival through stabilizing MALT1. Our data have important implications in cancer therapy by providing novel molecular targets.

  12. The HECTD3 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Suppresses Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Stabilizing MALT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus domain containing 3 (HECTD3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with unknown functions. Here, we show that HECTD3 confers cancer cell resistance to cisplatin. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis and identified mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1 as an HECTD3-interacting protein. HECTD3 promotes MALT1 ubiquitination with non-degradative polyubiquitin chains by direct interacting with the MALT1 through its N-terminal destruction of cyclin domain. HECTD3 does not target MALT1 for degradation but stabilize it. HECTD3 depletion dramatically decreases the levels of MALT1 in MCF7 and HeLa cells treated with cisplatin, which is correlated to an increase in apoptosis. Knockdown of MALT1 likewise increases cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells. However, HECTD3 overexpression leads to a decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of MALT1 partially rescues HECTD3 depletion–induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that HECTD3 promotes cell survival through stabilizing MALT1. Our data have important implications in cancer therapy by providing novel molecular targets.

  13. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  14. The paracaspase MALT1: biological function and potential for therapeutic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maike; Thome, Margot

    2016-02-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has a central role in the activation of lymphocytes and other immune cells including myeloid cells, mast cells and NK cells. MALT1 activity is required not only for the immune response, but also for the development of natural Treg cells that keep the immune response in check. Exaggerated MALT1 activity has been associated with the development of lymphoid malignancies, and recently developed MALT1 inhibitors show promising anti-tumor effects in xenograft models of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In this review, we provide an overview of the present understanding of MALT1's function, and discuss possibilities for its therapeutic targeting based on recently developed inhibitors and animal models.

  15. MALT1 small molecule inhibitors specifically suppress ABC-DLBCL in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, Lorena; Yang, Chenghua; Kabaleeswaran, Venkataraman; Volpon, Laurent; Osborne, Michael J; Beltran, Elena; Garcia, Monica; Cerchietti, Leandro; Shaknovich, Rita; Yang, Shao Ning; Fang, Fang; Gascoyne, Randy D; Martinez-Climent, Jose Angel; Glickman, J Fraser; Borden, Katherine; Wu, Hao; Melnick, Ari

    2012-12-11

    MALT1 cleavage activity is linked to the pathogenesis of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), a chemoresistant form of DLBCL. We developed a MALT1 activity assay and identified chemically diverse MALT1 inhibitors. A selected lead compound, MI-2, featured direct binding to MALT1 and suppression of its protease function. MI-2 concentrated within human ABC-DLBCL cells and irreversibly inhibited cleavage of MALT1 substrates. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression, c-REL nuclear localization inhibition, and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Most notably, MI-2 was nontoxic to mice, and displayed selective activity against ABC-DLBCL cell lines in vitro and xenotransplanted ABC-DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound was also effective against primary human non-germinal center B cell-like DLBCLs ex vivo.

  16. Aplicação de um sistema de multi-sensores para a detecção de gliadinas: discriminação semi-quantitativa entre alimentos com glúten e sem glúten

    OpenAIRE

    Meirinho, Sofia G.

    2009-01-01

    A doença celíaca caracteriza-se pela intolerância ou hipersensibilidade à ingestão de prolaminas existentes no trigo, centeio, cevada e aveia. As proteínas do glúten do trigo contêm aproximadamente 50% de prolaminas, denominadas por gliadinas. O tratamento para a doença celíaca consiste em fazer uma dieta livre de glúten. Assim sendo, torna-se imperativo dispor de metodologias analíticas capazes de detectar e quantificar o teor de glúten em alimentos, especialmente em alimentos...

  17. 皮肤MALT淋巴瘤缺乏t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1和t(14;18)(q34;q21)/IGH-MALT1%ABSENCE OF t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1 AND t(14;18)(q34;q21)/IGH-MALT1 IN PRIMARY CUTANEOUS MALT LYMPHOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英琼; 宫丽平; 侯巧燕; 肖胜军; 郭芳; 叶洪涛

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨黏膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)淋巴瘤中常见的两个染色体易位t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1和t(14;18)(q34;q21)/IGH-MALT1在皮肤MALT淋巴瘤中的发生率.方法:采用MALT1及IGH双色分离探针,对19例皮肤MALT淋巴瘤标本进行间期荧光原位杂交(FISH).结果:19例皮肤MALT淋巴瘤中均未检测到涉及MALT1基因的染色体易位,但发现2例(2/19,11%)存在MALT1基因的3个拷贝现象.结论:涉及MALT1基因的染色体易位,即t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1和t(14;18)(q34;q21)/IGH-MALT1在皮肤MALT淋巴瘤罕见或不见.

  18. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  19. Extraction and DNA Digestion of 5'-Phosphodiesterase from Malt Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hechang; CAI Guangqi; CAI Wen; LI Hailong; GU Yi; PARK Yongdoo; MENG Fanguo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction of 5'-phosphodiesterase from malt root and the degradation of nucleic acids by this enzyme.The extraction used grade precipitation with ammonium sulfate and enzy-matic hydrolysis.Samples were assayed using the modified Bradford method and high performance liquid chromatography.The results show that 5'-phosphodiesterase is isolated by grade precipitation with 30% and 80% saturation of ammonium sulfate and can be utilized to degrade deoxydbonucleic acid.The hydrolysate has four kinds of deoxynucleotides: 5'-dCMP,5'-dTMP,5'-dAMP,and 5'-dGMP.The optimum reaction tem-perature is 70℃,and the optimum pH is 5.5-6.0 for the reaction.The percentage of deoxynucleotides indi-ceted by the China Pharmacopoeia (2000 edition) in the product is over 70%.The extraction of 5'-phosphodiesterase from malt root is shown to be possible and economical.Products from the enzymatic hydrolysate of DNA meet the pharmacopoeia.

  20. B-cell receptor-driven MALT1 activity regulates MYC signaling in mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Beiying; Grau, Michael; Juilland, Mélanie; Klener, Pavel; Höring, Elisabeth; Molinsky, Jan; Schimmack, Gisela; Aukema, Sietse M; Hoster, Eva; Vogt, Niklas; Staiger, Annette M; Erdmann, Tabea; Xu, Wendan; Erdmann, Kristian; Dzyuba, Nicole; Madle, Hannelore; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Trneny, Marek; Dreyling, Martin; Jöhrens, Korinna; Lenz, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Siebert, Reiner; Tzankov, Alexandar; Klapper, Wolfram; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Krappmann, Daniel; Ott, German; Thome, Margot; Lenz, Georg

    2017-01-19

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell lymphoma characterized by poor clinical outcome. Recent studies revealed the importance of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in maintaining MCL survival. However, it remains unclear which role MALT1, an essential component of the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex that links BCR signaling to the NF-κB pathway, plays in the biology of MCL. Here we show that a subset of MCLs is addicted to MALT1, as its inhibition by either RNA or pharmacologic interference induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling following MALT1 inhibition demonstrated that MALT1 controls an MYC-driven gene expression network predominantly through increasing MYC protein stability. Thus, our analyses identify a previously unappreciated regulatory mechanism of MYC expression. Investigating primary mouse splenocytes, we could demonstrate that MALT1-induced MYC regulation is not restricted to MCL, but represents a common mechanism. MYC itself is pivotal for MCL survival because its downregulation and pharmacologic inhibition induced cytotoxicity in all MCL models. Collectively, these results provide a strong mechanistic rationale to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the MALT1-MYC axis in MCL patients.

  1. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves the LUBAC subunit HOIL1 during antigen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douanne, Tiphaine; Gavard, Julie; Bidère, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Antigen-receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes relies on a signalosome comprising CARMA1 (also known as CARD11), BCL10 and MALT1 (the CBM complex). The CBM activates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors by recruiting the 'linear ubiquitin assembly complex' (LUBAC), and unleashes MALT1 paracaspase activity. Although MALT1 enzyme shapes NF-κB signaling, lymphocyte activation and contributes to lymphoma growth, the identity of its substrates continues to be elucidated. Here, we report that the LUBAC subunit HOIL1 (also known as RBCK1) is cleaved by MALT1 following antigen receptor engagement. HOIL1 is also constitutively processed in the 'activated B-cell-like' (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which exhibits aberrant MALT1 activity. We further show that the overexpression of MALT1-insensitive HOIL1 mitigates T-cell-receptor-mediated NF-κB activation and subsequent cytokine production in lymphocytes. Thus, our results unveil HOIL1 as a negative regulator of lymphocyte activation cleaved by MALT1. This cleavage could therefore constitute an appealing therapeutic target for modulating immune responses.

  2. The paracaspase MALT1 mediates CARD14-induced signaling in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, Inna S; Van Nuffel, Elien; Baudelet, Griet; Driege, Yasmine; Kreike, Marja; Staal, Jens; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in CARD14 have recently been linked to psoriasis susceptibility. CARD14 is an epidermal regulator of NF-κB activation. However, the ability of CARD14 to activate other signaling pathways as well as the biochemical mechanisms that mediate and regulate its function remain to be determined. Here, we report that in addition to NF-κB signaling, CARD14 activates p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways, all of which are dependent on the paracaspase MALT1. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CARD14 physically interacts with paracaspase MALT1 and activates MALT1 proteolytic activity and inflammatory gene expression, which are enhanced by psoriasis-associated CARD14 mutations. Moreover, we show that MALT1 deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of MALT1 catalytic activity inhibits pathogenic mutant CARD14-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in human primary keratinocytes. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a novel role for MALT1 in CARD14-induced signaling and indicate MALT1 as a valuable therapeutic target in psoriasis.

  3. Differential requirement of MALT1 for BAFF-induced outcomes in B cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusche, Michael W; Ward, Lesley A; Vu, Frances; McCarthy, Doug; Quintela-Fandino, Miguel; Ruland, Jurgen; Gommerman, Jennifer L; Mak, Tak W

    2009-11-23

    B cell activation factor of the TNF family (BAFF) activates noncanonical nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) heterodimers that promote B cell survival. We show that although MALT1 is largely dispensable for canonical NF-kappaB signaling downstream of the B cell receptor, the absence of MALT1 results in impaired BAFF-induced phosphorylation of NF-kappaB2 (p100), p100 degradation, and RelB nuclear translocation in B220(+) B cells. This corresponds with impaired survival of MALT1(-/-) marginal zone (MZ) but not follicular B cells in response to BAFF stimulation in vitro. MALT1(-/-) MZ B cells also express higher amounts of TRAF3, a known negative regulator of BAFF receptor-mediated signaling, and TRAF3 was found to interact with MALT1. Furthermore, phenotypes associated with overexpression of BAFF, including increased MZ B cell numbers, elevated serum immunoglobulin titers, and spontaneous germinal center formation, were found to be dependent on B cell-intrinsic MALT1 expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for MALT1 in biological outcomes induced by BAFF-mediated signal transduction.

  4. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years.

  5. Expression of thyroglobulin on follicular dendritic cells of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munemasa,Mitsuru

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Reportedly, thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is closely associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains unknown which antigen is closely associated with thyroid MALT lymphoma. We examined whether B cell response to thyroglobulin (Tg, which is a common thyroid-specific autoantigen, is related etiologically to the pathogenesis of thyroid MALT lymphoma. Expression of human Tg antigens and Cluster of differentiation (CD 35 was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of thyroid MALT lymphoma using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue specimens. In all cases of thyroid MALT lymphoma, human Tg was detected immunohistochemically in the follicular epithelial cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs. These FDCs were positive by double immunostaining for anti-human Tg rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab and for CD35. Results showed that the Tg, a thyroid autoantigen, had immunostained the germinal center of the thyroid MALT lymphoma. The Tg was present in the FDCs, as revealed by the staining pattern of the germinal center;this fact was confirmed by double immunostaining of anti-human Tg mouse monoclonal Ab and anti-CD35 mouse monoclonal Ab. The results of our study suggest that Tg is an autoantigen that is recognized by thyroid MALT lymphoma cells.

  6. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  7. Primary MALT lymphomas of the stomach: A pathological study of 18 cases Linfomas gástricos primarios tipo MALT: un estudio patológico de 18 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Venizelos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: it is doubtful that whoever is suffering from gastric malt lymphoma will escape from the disease, if treated with medication against helicobacter pylori. Material and methods: a cohort of 18 patients was analysed. Ten hosts had primary gastric malt lymphoma and were treated with gastric resection as the initial therapy. Eight hosts received antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori as the initial treatment. In all 18 patients Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings and pathology features were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the bcl-2 and p53 status. Results: patients with low grade malt lymphoma: a were Helicobacter pylori positive (5 of 5; b had a superficial lesion (5 of 5; c had no lymph node involvement (5 of 5; and d were downstaged by comparison to patients with high grade tumor. Bcl-2 was positive in 4 of 5 low grade tumors, and p53 was positive in 12 of 13 high grade ones. Investigation of patients with 5-year follow up (n = 18 revealed that all but one low-grade tumors remained superficial with no progression. These tumors were bcl-2+/p53-, and the one with a bcl-2+/p53+ immunophenotype progressed to an ulcerated low-grade tumor after disappearance of Helicobacter pylori. Complete regression was found in 6 of 8 patients from the non surgically treated group (n = 8 after Helicobacter pylori eradication. These tumors were superficial/low grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53 inconclusive (n = 2, superficial/low grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53- (n = 2, and ulcerative/high grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53- (n = 2. The two persistent tumors were ulcerative/high grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53+. Conclusion: gastric malt lymphoma Helicobacter pylori+/superficial/low grade/bcl-2+/p53- will disappear after Helicobacter pylori eradication.Objetivo: es difícil que alguien que padezca un linfoma gástrico de tipo MALT pueda librarse de la enfermedad,... a menos que se le trate con medicación para Helicobacter pylori

  8. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt.

  9. Malting of barley with combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, Rhizopus oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum to enhance malt quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, M; Alexander, A; Meijering, I; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

    2014-03-03

    Good quality malt is characterised by the presence of high levels of fermentable sugars, amino acids and vitamins. To reach the starch-rich endosperm of the kernel, β-glucan- and arabinoxylan-rich cell walls have to be degraded. β-Glucanase is synthesized in vast quantities by the aleurone layer and scutellum during germination. Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is often stimulated by addition of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3) during germination. We have shown an enhanced β-glucanase and α-amylase activity in malt when germinating barley was inoculated with a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of Aspergillus niger MH1, Rhizopus oligosporus MH2 or Trichoderma reesei MH3, and L. plantarum B.S1.6 combined with cell-free culture supernatants from each of these fungi. Highest malt β-glucanase activity (414 Units/kg malt) was recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of A. niger MH1. Highest α-amylase activities were recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of R. oligosporus MH2 (373 Ceralpha Units/g malt). Highest FAN levels were recorded when L. plantarum was inoculated in combination with spores of either R. oligosporus MH2 or T. reesei MH3 (259 and 260 ppm, respectively). This is the first study showing that cell-free culture supernatants of Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Trichoderma have a stimulating effect on β-glucanase and α-amylase production during malting. A combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6, and spores of A. niger MH1 and R. oligosporus MH2 may be used as starter cultures to enhance malt quality.

  10. Malt1 ubiquitination triggers NF-κB signaling upon T-cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Wegener, Elmar; Welteke, Verena; Ferch, Uta; Arslan, Seda Çöl; Ruland, Jürgen; Scheidereit, Claus; Krappmann, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Triggering of antigen receptors on lymphocytes is critical for initiating adaptive immune response against pathogens. T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement induces the formation of the Carma1–Bcl10–Malt1 (CBM) complex that is essential for activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms that link CBM complex formation to IKK activation remain unclear. Here we report that Malt1 is polyubiquitinated upon T-cell activation. Ubiquitin chains on Malt1 provide a docki...

  11. Using natural and synthetic growth regulators of plants in industrial mycology and malting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuznetcova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the expansion of the use the plants growth regulators in different areas are presented. The positive impact of the growth stimulators on the development of the Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium’s on agar nutrient media during surface cultivation is shown. The results for growth regulators stimulating effect on the fungus biosynthetic activity in submerged cultures are obtained. The possibility of using fumar and heteroauxin for malting is considered. The decline of malting time and increase of amylolytic activity of the malt are recorded.

  12. Treatment outcome of localized Helicobacter pylori-negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung; Soon; Park; Yu; Jin; Kim; Woo; Ick; Yang; Chang; Ok; Suh; Yong; Chan; Lee

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate treatment outcome of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori )-negative low-grade gastric mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.METHODS: In this study,we retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcome and clinicopathologic factors of stage Ⅰ E H.pylori -negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma cases from August 1998 to June 2009.RESULTS: A total of eleven patients with H.pylori -negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma were enrolled in the study and received anti-H.pylori eradication tre...

  13. Alternative expression pattern of MALT1-A20-NF-κB in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhu, Lihua; Liao, Ziwei; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Ling; Xu, Yan; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yangqiu

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder; abnormal T cell immunity plays a critical role in the development of RA. Recently, A20 was identified as a key negative regulator for T cell activation and inflammatory signaling and may be involved in RA pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of A20, NF-κB, and A20 regulatory factor mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) in patients with RA. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of MALT1, MALT-V1, A20, and NF-κB genes in RA and healthy individuals (HI). Significantly lower A20 expression was found in RA patients compared with those in the healthy group, while NF-κB overexpression could be detected in patients with RA. Moreover, the MALT1 and MALT1-V1 expression level was downregulated in RA patients. A positive correlation between MALT1 and A20 and MALT1-V1 and A20 was found in patients with RA, and a tendency towards a negative correlation was found between MALT1 and NF-κB, MALT1-V1 and NF-κB, and A20 and NF-κB. In conclusion, we first characterized the alternative expression pattern of MALT1, A20, and NF-κB in RA, which may be related to abnormal T cell activation.

  14. Alternative Expression Pattern of MALT1-A20-NF-κB in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder; abnormal T cell immunity plays a critical role in the development of RA. Recently, A20 was identified as a key negative regulator for T cell activation and inflammatory signaling and may be involved in RA pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of A20, NF-κB, and A20 regulatory factor mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 in patients with RA. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of MALT1, MALT-V1, A20, and NF-κB genes in RA and healthy individuals (HI. Significantly lower A20 expression was found in RA patients compared with those in the healthy group, while NF-κB overexpression could be detected in patients with RA. Moreover, the MALT1 and MALT1-V1 expression level was downregulated in RA patients. A positive correlation between MALT1 and A20 and MALT1-V1 and A20 was found in patients with RA, and a tendency towards a negative correlation was found between MALT1 and NF-κB, MALT1-V1 and NF-κB, and A20 and NF-κB. In conclusion, we first characterized the alternative expression pattern of MALT1, A20, and NF-κB in RA, which may be related to abnormal T cell activation.

  15. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida = Bipolaris sorokiniana control and grain yield in barley after application of elicitors and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemir Antoniazzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, comquatro repetições. A aplicação de elicitores e fungicida resultou em maior peso de mil sementes, sem interferir no teor de proteínas e na classificação comercial. O rendimento de grãos foi superior após duas ou três aplicações de alicina. A incidência e severidade de B.sorokiniana nas folhas de plantas tratadas com elicitores foram semelhantes àquelas com fungicida.The disease spot blotch, caused by the fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, is considered one of the most important phytosanitary problems ofbarley crop resulting on low productivity and damage on beer quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the elicitors xanthan gum and alicin and fungicide epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin on spot blotch control of barley cultivar BRS 195 during two cultivation cycles. The experiment was carried out at Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, Guarapuava, state of Paraná. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. Treatment of barley plants withelicitors and fungicide resulted in higher thousand-seed weight without interfering on protein content and commercial classification. The grain yield increased after two or three alicin treatments. Bipolaris sorokiniana incidence and severety on the leaves of plants treated with elicitors were similar to those treated with fungicide.

  16. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  17. The effect of hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley on forced swimming test in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Ju-Young; Go, Hoyeon; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-11-01

    Spirulina is a true puree of a filamentous, spiral-shaped blue alga and exerts the useful properties as a source of many biochemicals. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley on the forced swimming test in mice. After the forced swimming test, we examined the levels of several blood biochemical parameters in mice. The effect of the hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley-treated group for 2 weeks on the immobility time was significantly reduced in comparison with the control group (p Spirulina by malted barley-treated group compared with the control group (p Spirulina by malted barley might be a candidate among antidepressant agents.

  18. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, Linda R; Hu, Dong; Panek, Robert; Alfano, Danielle N; Bridwell, Rachel E; Bailey, Kelly M; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine I; Concel, Vincent J; Hess, Emily M; Van Beek, Matthew; Delekta, Phillip C; Gu, Shufang; Watkins, Simon C; Ting, Adrian T; Gough, Peter J; Foley, Kevin P; Bertin, John; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-09-27

    Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD). Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  19. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda R. Klei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD. Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  20. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-02-26

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to

  1. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  2. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaun Rosebeck; Megan S Lim; Kojo SJ Elenitoba-Johnson; Linda MMcAllister-Lucas; Peter C Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor(TNF) receptor associated factor(TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1(RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While theintrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for noncanonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase(NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to generate

  3. Sjogren's syndrome combined with MALT lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong; Cha, Sang Yun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    Sjogren's syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects salivary, lacrimal, and other exocrine glands. We report a case of Sjogren's syndrome combined with MALT (mucose associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma which occurred in the parotid gland. A 57-year-old female with the complaint of painful swelling and lymph node enlargement was referred to our department. Sialograms of both parotid glands showed globular collections of contrast material uniformly distributed throughout the parotid gland. Salivary scintigraphy showed decreased uptake of the parotid gland. CT scan showed larger, slightly more dense parotid gland than normal and honeycomb glandular appearance. Also, It showed discrete, slightly more enhanced round mass in the left parotid gland. Histopathological finding showed replacement of salivary gland parenchyma with dense small lymphocytic infiltration having the feature of epimyoepithelial islands. Kappa light chain restriction of interglandular plasma cell could be seen.

  4. Yeasts isolated from industrial maltings can suppress Fusarium growth and formation of gushing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Home, Silja; Wilhelmson, Annika

    2007-11-01

    Fusarium infection of barley and malt can cause severe problems in the malting and brewing industry. In addition to being potential mycotoxin producers, Fusarium fungi are known to cause beer gushing (spontaneous overfoaming of beer). Cereal-derived bacteria and yeasts are potential biocontrol agents. In this study, the antifungal potential of selected yeasts (12 strains) derived from the industrial malting ecosystem was studied in vitro with a plate-screening assay. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Pichia anomala being the most effective strain. The effects of P. anomala VTT C-04565 (C565) were examined in laboratory scale malting with naturally contaminated barley exhibiting gushing potential. P. anomala C565 restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. Grain germination was not disturbed by the presence of yeast. Addition of P. anomala C565 into the steeping seemed to retard wort filtration, but the filtration performance was recovered when yeast culture was combined with Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076. Well-characterized microbial cultures could be used as food-grade biocontrol agents and they offer a natural tool for tailoring of malt properties.

  5. Uncoupling Malt1 threshold function from paracaspase activity results in destructive autoimmune inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewies, Andreas; Gorka, Oliver; Bergmann, Hanna; Pechloff, Konstanze; Petermann, Franziska; Jeltsch, Katharina M; Rudelius, Martina; Kriegsmann, Mark; Weichert, Wilko; Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Wurst, Wolfgang; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Korn, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Ruland, Jürgen

    2014-11-20

    The paracaspase Malt1 is a central regulator of antigen receptor signaling that is frequently mutated in human lymphoma. As a scaffold, it assembles protein complexes for NF-κB activation, and its proteolytic domain cleaves negative NF-κB regulators for signal enforcement. Still, the physiological functions of Malt1-protease are unknown. We demonstrate that targeted Malt1-paracaspase inactivation induces a lethal inflammatory syndrome with lymphocyte-dependent neurodegeneration in vivo. Paracaspase activity is essential for regulatory T cell (Treg) and innate-like B cell development, but it is largely dispensable for overcoming Malt1-dependent thresholds for lymphocyte activation. In addition to NF-κB inhibitors, Malt1 cleaves an entire set of mRNA stability regulators, including Roquin-1, Roquin-2, and Regnase-1, and paracaspase inactivation results in excessive interferon gamma (IFNγ) production by effector lymphocytes that drive pathology. Together, our results reveal distinct threshold and modulatory functions of Malt1 that differentially control lymphocyte differentiation and activation pathways and demonstrate that selective paracaspase blockage skews systemic immunity toward destructive autoinflammation.

  6. MALT1-ubiquitination triggers non-genomic NF-κB/IKK signaling upon platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that IKK complex plays an important non-genomic role in platelet function, i.e., regulates SNARE machinery-dependent membrane fusion. In this connection, it is well known that MALT1, whose activity is modulated by proteasome, plays an important role in the regulation of IKK complex. Therefore, the present studies investigated the mechanism by which IKK signaling is regulated in the context of the platelet proteasome. It was found that platelets express a functional proteasome, and form CARMA/MALT1/Bcl10 (CBM) complex when activated. Using a pharmacological inhibitor, the proteasome was found to regulate platelet function (aggregation, integrin activation, secretion, phosphatidylserine exposure and changes in intracellular calcium). It was also found to regulate thrombogenesis and physiologic hemostasis. We also observed, upon platelet activation, that MALT1 is ubiquitinated, and this coincides with the activation of the IKK/NF-κB-signaling pathway. Finally, we observed that the proteasome inhibitor blocks CBM complex formation and the interaction of IKKγ and MALT1; abrogates SNARE formation, and the association of MALT1 with TAK1 and TAB2, which are upstream of the CBM complex. Thus, our data demonstrate that MALT1 ubiquitination is critical for the engagement of CBM and IKK complexes, thereby directing platelet signals to the NF-κB pathway.

  7. MALT1-ubiquitination triggers non-genomic NF-κB/IKK signaling upon platelet activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair A Karim

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that IKK complex plays an important non-genomic role in platelet function, i.e., regulates SNARE machinery-dependent membrane fusion. In this connection, it is well known that MALT1, whose activity is modulated by proteasome, plays an important role in the regulation of IKK complex. Therefore, the present studies investigated the mechanism by which IKK signaling is regulated in the context of the platelet proteasome. It was found that platelets express a functional proteasome, and form CARMA/MALT1/Bcl10 (CBM complex when activated. Using a pharmacological inhibitor, the proteasome was found to regulate platelet function (aggregation, integrin activation, secretion, phosphatidylserine exposure and changes in intracellular calcium. It was also found to regulate thrombogenesis and physiologic hemostasis. We also observed, upon platelet activation, that MALT1 is ubiquitinated, and this coincides with the activation of the IKK/NF-κB-signaling pathway. Finally, we observed that the proteasome inhibitor blocks CBM complex formation and the interaction of IKKγ and MALT1; abrogates SNARE formation, and the association of MALT1 with TAK1 and TAB2, which are upstream of the CBM complex. Thus, our data demonstrate that MALT1 ubiquitination is critical for the engagement of CBM and IKK complexes, thereby directing platelet signals to the NF-κB pathway.

  8. Oligomeric structure of the MALT1 tandem Ig-like domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1 plays an important role in the adaptive immune program. During TCR- or BCR-induced NF-κB activation, MALT1 serves to mediate the activation of the IKK (IκB kinase complex, which subsequently regulates the activation of NF-κB. Aggregation of MALT1 is important for E3 ligase activation and NF-κB signaling. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Unlike the isolated CARD or paracaspase domains, which behave as monomers, the tandem Ig-like domains of MALT1 exists as a mixture of dimer and tetramer in solution. High-resolution structures reveals a protein-protein interface that is stabilized by a buried surface area of 1256 Å(2 and contains numerous hydrogen and salt bonds. In conjunction with a second interface, these interactions may represent the basis of MALT1 oligomerization. CONCLUSIONS: The crystal structure of the tandem Ig-like domains reveals the oligomerization potential of MALT1 and a potential intermediate in the activation of the adaptive inflammatory pathway. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  9. Uncoupling Malt1 Threshold Function from Paracaspase Activity Results in Destructive Autoimmune Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gewies

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paracaspase Malt1 is a central regulator of antigen receptor signaling that is frequently mutated in human lymphoma. As a scaffold, it assembles protein complexes for NF-κB activation, and its proteolytic domain cleaves negative NF-κB regulators for signal enforcement. Still, the physiological functions of Malt1-protease are unknown. We demonstrate that targeted Malt1-paracaspase inactivation induces a lethal inflammatory syndrome with lymphocyte-dependent neurodegeneration in vivo. Paracaspase activity is essential for regulatory T cell (Treg and innate-like B cell development, but it is largely dispensable for overcoming Malt1-dependent thresholds for lymphocyte activation. In addition to NF-κB inhibitors, Malt1 cleaves an entire set of mRNA stability regulators, including Roquin-1, Roquin-2, and Regnase-1, and paracaspase inactivation results in excessive interferon gamma (IFNγ production by effector lymphocytes that drive pathology. Together, our results reveal distinct threshold and modulatory functions of Malt1 that differentially control lymphocyte differentiation and activation pathways and demonstrate that selective paracaspase blockage skews systemic immunity toward destructive autoinflammation.

  10. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of α-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low α-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation.

  11. Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage promotes canonical NF-kappaB activation in lymphocytes and lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Nogai, Hendrik; Pelzer, Christiane; Jaworski, Maike; Cabalzar, Katrin; Charton, Jean-Enno; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Décaillet, Chantal; Grau, Michael; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Peter; Lenz, Georg; Thome, Margot

    2011-08-30

    The protease activity of the paracaspase Malt1 contributes to antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. Malt1 activity is required for optimal NF-κB activation, but little is known about the responsible substrate(s). Here we report that Malt1 cleaved the NF-κB family member RelB after Arg-85. RelB cleavage induced its proteasomal degradation and specifically controlled DNA binding of RelA- or c-Rel-containing NF-κB complexes. Overexpression of RelB inhibited expression of canonical NF-κB target genes and led to impaired survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines characterized by constitutive Malt1 activity. These findings identify a central role for Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage in canonical NF-κB activation and thereby provide a rationale for the targeting of Malt1 in immunomodulation and cancer treatment.

  12. Expression of MALT1 oncogene in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells recapitulates the pathogenesis of human lymphoma in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Campos-Sánchez, Elena; González, Marcos; Cobaleda, César; Abollo-Jiménez, Fernando; Martínez-Climent, José Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1(+)Lin(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-κB activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tum...

  13. LA CONFEDERACIÓN ARGENTINA SEGÚN MALTE-BRUN (1845: UNA APROXIMACIÓN SISTÉMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Leticia Zamorano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consiste en una interpretación sistémica de la descripción de Malte-Brun sobre la Argentina, a mediados del siglo XIX. Se basa en un análisis semiótico del texto escrito por el autor acerca de nuestro territorio en 1845, en su obra "Précis de la Géographie Universelle ou Description de toutes les parties du monde sur un plan nouveau". La aproximación sistémica comprende cuatro partes: presentación, estructura, dinámica y conclusiones. Primeramente, en la apreciación global, Malte-Brun considera a la Confederación Argentina como un territorio de límites provisorios y escasa densidad. En segundo lugar, en la estructura espacial sólo se pueden apreciar tres elementos: los lugares centrales, las unidades administrativas y los usos del suelo. En la descripción de las ciudades se destacan dos aspectos: la posición, adonde se identifican los tres criterios vigentes en la época, que son el estético, el higienista y el funcionalista; la jerarquía urbana, en la cual hemos identificado cuatro niveles jerárquicos, según el número de habitantes y el equipamiento y las funciones citados por el autor. Con respecto a los usos del suelo, Malte-Brun menciona, para las catorce provincias existentes, las actividades primarias, como agricultura, ganadería, minería, y en algunos casos alude a las industrias derivadas. En la dinámica espacial el autor hace especial referencia a cuatro ejes de flujos comerciales entre las provincias que en esa época constituían la Confederación: dos longitudinales, uno latitudinal y otro transversal. Por último, se extraen conclusiones acerca del análisis semiótico del texto, en cuanto a la estructura de superficie y la estructura profunda del texto. En la primera se analiza el estilo del texto, mientras que en la segunda se consideran las fuentes consultadas, las palabras ejes de la comunicación y el trasfondo epìstemológico que ellas reflejan.

  14. MALT1 auto-proteolysis is essential for NF-κB-dependent gene transcription in activated lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs Baens

    Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1 controls antigen receptor-mediated signalling to nuclear factor κB (NF-κB through both its adaptor and protease function. Upon antigen stimulation, MALT1 forms a complex with BCL10 and CARMA1, which is essential for initial IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Parallel induction of MALT1 protease activity serves to inactivate negative regulators of NF-κB signalling, such as A20 and RELB. Here we demonstrate a key role for auto-proteolytic MALT1 cleavage in B- and T-cell receptor signalling. MALT1 cleavage occurred after Arginine 149, between the N-terminal death domain and the first immunoglobulin-like region, and did not affect its proteolytic activity. Jurkat T cells expressing an un-cleavable MALT1-R149A mutant showed unaltered initial IκBα phosphorylation and normal nuclear accumulation of NF-κB subunits. Nevertheless, MALT1 cleavage was required for optimal activation of NF-κB reporter genes and expression of the NF-κB targets IL-2 and CSF2. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that MALT1 cleavage after R149 was required to induce NF-κB transcriptional activity in Jurkat T cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that auto-proteolytic MALT1 cleavage controls antigen receptor-induced expression of NF-κB target genes downstream of nuclear NF-κB accumulation.

  15. MALT1--a universal soldier: multiple strategies to ensure NF-κB activation and target gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, Inna S; Elton, Lynn; Carpentier, Isabelle; Beyaert, Rudi

    2015-09-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is an intracellular signaling protein that plays a key role in innate and adaptive immunity. It is essential for nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and proinflammatory gene expression downstream of several cell surface receptors. MALT1 has been most studied in the context of T-cell receptor-induced NF-κB signaling, supporting T-cell activation and proliferation. In addition, MALT1 hyperactivation is associated with specific subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, where it controls tumor cell proliferation and survival. For a long time, MALT1 was believed to function solely as a scaffold protein, providing a platform for the assembly of other NF-κB signaling proteins. However, this view changed dramatically when MALT1 was found to have proteolytic activity that further fine-tunes signaling. MALT1 proteolytic activity is essential for T-cell activation and lymphomagenesis, suggesting that MALT1 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and distinct lymphoma entities. However, interference with MALT1 activity may pose a dangerous threat to the normal functioning of the immune system and should be evaluated with great care. Here we discuss the current knowledge on the scaffold and protease functions of MALT1, including an overview of its substrates and the functional implications of their cleavage.

  16. MALT1 auto-proteolysis is essential for NF-κB-dependent gene transcription in activated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baens, Mathijs; Bonsignore, Luca; Somers, Riet; Vanderheydt, Charlotte; Weeks, Stephen D; Gunnarsson, Jenny; Nilsson, Ewa; Roth, Robert G; Thome, Margot; Marynen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) controls antigen receptor-mediated signalling to nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) through both its adaptor and protease function. Upon antigen stimulation, MALT1 forms a complex with BCL10 and CARMA1, which is essential for initial IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Parallel induction of MALT1 protease activity serves to inactivate negative regulators of NF-κB signalling, such as A20 and RELB. Here we demonstrate a key role for auto-proteolytic MALT1 cleavage in B- and T-cell receptor signalling. MALT1 cleavage occurred after Arginine 149, between the N-terminal death domain and the first immunoglobulin-like region, and did not affect its proteolytic activity. Jurkat T cells expressing an un-cleavable MALT1-R149A mutant showed unaltered initial IκBα phosphorylation and normal nuclear accumulation of NF-κB subunits. Nevertheless, MALT1 cleavage was required for optimal activation of NF-κB reporter genes and expression of the NF-κB targets IL-2 and CSF2. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that MALT1 cleavage after R149 was required to induce NF-κB transcriptional activity in Jurkat T cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that auto-proteolytic MALT1 cleavage controls antigen receptor-induced expression of NF-κB target genes downstream of nuclear NF-κB accumulation.

  17. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    P. Diakabana; M. Mvoula-Tsiéri; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; D. Louembé

    2013-01-01

    The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a swee...

  18. Can malt whisky be discriminated from blended whisky? The proof. A modification of Sir Ronald Fisher's hypothetical tea tasting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, S J; Dudley, H A

    A modified version of Fisher's tea tasting experiment was performed to test the confident assertions of some members of an academic surgical unit that they could easily distinguish malt from blend whisky. Eight male volunteers from the unit, divided into regular and inexperienced whisky drinkers, were blindfolded and given a glass of each of six whiskies. The whiskies included three malts and three blends, and each subject tasted each whisky six times. They were asked whether the whisky was malt or blended, whether they could identify the distillery, and whether they liked it (ranked on a nine-point scale). The four regular whisky drinkers identified the whiskies as malts 57 times, as blends 84 times, and did not know three times; the inexperienced drinkers identified them as malts 64 times, as blends 79 times, and did not know on one occasion. The regular drinkers correctly identified the malts 36 times and the blends 48 times, and the inexperienced drinkers correctly identified malts 30 times and blends 40 times. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that within the unit malt whisky could not be distinguished from blended whisky and that experience did not alter powers of discrimination. A surgeon with no discriminatory prowess at all could be expected to achieve complete discrimination of malt from blend whisky once in 2 occasions. These results suggest that, although "uisgebeatha" has unique properties, the inexpert drinker should choose his whisky to suit his taste and pocket and not his self image.

  19. The t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1 translocation in MALT lymphomas contains templated nucleotide insertions and a major breakpoint region similar to follicular and mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Penas, Eva Maria; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Ye, Hongtao; Gazzo, Sophie; Berger, Françoise; Schilling, Georgia; Albert-Konetzny, Nadine; Vettorazzi, Eik; Salles, Gilles; Wlodarska, Iwona; Du, Ming-Qing; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Dierlamm, Judith

    2010-03-18

    The t(14;18)(q32;q21) involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) and the MALT1 gene is a recurrent abnormality in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. However, the nucleotide sequence of only one t(14;18)-positive MALT lymphoma has been reported so far. We here report the molecular characterization of the IGH-MALT1 fusion products in 5 new cases of t(14;18)-positive MALT lymphomas. Similar to the IGH-associated translocations in follicular and mantle cell lymphomas, the IGH-MALT1 junctions in MALT lymphoma showed all features of a recombination signal sequence-guided V(D)J-mediated translocation at the IGH locus. Furthermore, analogous to follicular and mantle cell lymphoma, templated nucleotides (T-nucleotides) were identified at the t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 breakpoint junctions. On chromosome 18, we identified a novel major breakpoint region in MALT1 upstream of its coding region. Moreover, the presence of duplications of MALT1 nucleotides in one case suggests an underlying staggered DNA-break process not consistent with V(D)J-mediated recombination. The molecular characteristics of the t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 resemble those found in the t(14;18)/IGH-BCL2 in follicular lymphoma and t(11;14)/CCND1-IGH in mantle cell lymphoma, suggesting that these translocations could be generated by common pathomechanisms involving illegitimate V(D)J-mediated recombination on IGH as well as new synthesis of T-nucleotides and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or alternative NHEJ repair pathways on the IGH-translocation partner.

  20. Treatment of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. Methods. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pylori infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15% of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Conclusion. Durable complete re-mission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  1. [A Clinical Study of a Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of Salivary Glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Yusuke; Koshitsuka, Keiichi; Ihara, Fumie; Ueki, Yuji; Konno, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma involving the salivary glands is a rare entity that accounts for only 1 to 4% of all salivary gland tumors. We have analyzed the clinical features of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands in 7 patients whom we have treated in the past 10 years, including data from 43 patients in the literature. The most common symptom was persistent or progressive swelling of the salivary glands without pain or facial palsy. The affected glands were the unilateral parotid in 62%, the unilateral submandibular gland in 6.8%, and the bilateral parotid or submandibular gland in 6.8%. The salivary gland swelling as evaluated by MRI or ultrasonography consisted of a localized solitary tumor in 68.9%, multiple tumors in 10.3%, and diffuse swelling of the gland in 26.1%. In 24 out of 50 patients, MALT lymphoma developed on the basis of Sjögren's syndrome. As for diagnosis, malignant lymphoma was suspected only in 4 cases out of 11 (36.7%) based on the fine needle aspiration cytology. In all patients, a definitive diagnosis was obtained based on histopathological study of the localized tumor or the biopsy specimens. When patients with Sjögren's syndrome have developed persistent swelling of the salivary glands, it is necessary to rule out malignant lymphomas, especially MALT lymphoma, by combination of ultrasonography, MRI, FNA, and biopsy or open surgery depending on image findings. The treatment of MALT lymphoma has not yet been standardized because MALT lymphoma is a rare entity. The choice of initial treatment is important because it is related to its prognosis. If MALT lymphoma remains in a local site, we should undertake an operation or radiotherapy. If MALT lymphoma has dissemineated systemically, we should choose chemotherapy.

  2. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers.

  3. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Géczi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc. have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the manufacturing companies as well. At the „Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra" we examined an entire beer brewing process in October 2013, utilising the Ahlborn sensors, which were integrated in the instruments. Simultaneously, in Gödöllő at the Szent István University, we analysed the effect of malt milling on extract yield and the filterability of wort. We used the brewing parameters (temperature, time, volume ratios, which were experienced in the microbrewery and published in professional literature. Our results verify the conclusions drawn in the professional literature, however they point out the importance of grinding. Results performed on the yields with different grain-constitution might directly be utilised for the specialists of recently in Slovakia and Hungary spreading small-scale, handicraft, and homemade beer brewing.

  4. Bioprotective potential of lactic acid bacteria in malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Susan; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2008-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally associated with many foods or their raw ingredients and are popularly used in food fermentation to enhance the sensory, aromatic, and textural properties of food. These microorganisms are well recognized for their biopreservative properties, which are achieved through the production of antimicrobial compounds such as lactic acid, diacetyl, bacteriocins, and other metabolites. The antifungal activity of certain LAB is less well characterized, but organic acids, as yet uncharacterized proteinaceous compounds, and cyclic dipeptides can inhibit the growth of some fungi. A variety of microbes are carried on raw materials used in beer brewing, rendering the process susceptible to contamination and often resulting in spoilage or inferior quality of the finished product. The application of antimicrobial-producing LAB at various points in the malting and brewing process could help to negate this problem, providing an added hurdle for spoilage organisms to overcome and leading to the production of a higher quality beer. This review outlines the bioprotective potential of LAB and its application with specific reference to the brewing industry.

  5. Dynamic viscosity study of barley malt and chicory concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find optimal conditions for dispersing and subsequent dehydration of liquid food environments in the nozzle spray drying chamber through the study of dynamic changes in viscosity according to temperature, velocities gradients and dry residue content. The objects of study were roasted chicory and malt barley concentrates with dry residue content of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Research of dynamic viscosity were carried out at the measuring complex based on the rotational viscometer Rheotest II, analog-to-digital converter, module Laurent and a personal computer with a unique software that allows to record in real time (not only on a tape recorder, but also in the form of graphic files the behavior of the viscosity characteristics of concentrates. Registration of changes of dynamic viscosity was carried out at a shear rate gradient from 1,0 с -1 to 27,0 с -1 and the products temperature thermostating : 35, 55, 75˚ C. The research results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of effective viscosity on shear rate and flow curves (dependencies of shear stresses on the velocity gradient, which defined flow regimes, the optimal modes of dispersion concentrates into spray dryer chambers in obtaining of powdered semi-finished products and instanting were found: dry residue content - 40 %, concentrate temperature - 75 ˚C, velocity gradient in the air channel of the nozzle at least 20 c-1

  6. Use of MVR in a malt whisky distillery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, S.H. [Howden Compressors Ltd. (United Kingdom); Hodgett, D.L. [EA Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    A steam heat pump was installed in the Auchroisk malt whiskey distillery of International Distillers and Vintners Ltd. as a result of a four year research and development program. Distillation accounts for 67 million CJ of energy use per annum in the UK, much of which is provided by steam and most of which is ejected into the environment by cooling towers. A closed cycle heat pump with water/steam as the working fluid which uses heat exchangers designed to give low approach temperatures can have a high coefficient of performance (COP) which would ensure a large energy saving and a good economic return. The installation has shown that a heat pump can produce large energy savings in distillation. In this instance, the heat pump has achieved over 90 % of its design performance and operated continuously. The use of steam as a working fluid was shown to have advantages over other fluids, mostly in the area of integration with the existing steam services. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Lactobacillus suntoryeus sp. nov., isolated from malt whisky distilleries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Elise; Priest, Fergus G

    2005-01-01

    Eight strains of Lactobacillus with identical partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and similar randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns were isolated from fermentation samples from Japanese and Scottish malt whisky distilleries. Phylogenetic analysis of almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequences from three representative strains (two from Japan, one from Scotland) placed them in the genus Lactobacillus as members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus gallinarum were the most closely related species, with 16S rRNA gene similarities of 99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively. A similar phylogeny was derived from partial sequences of elongation factor Tu (tuf) genes in which the alleles from the three distillery isolates were identical and shared 99.0 % similarity with L. helveticus and L. gallinarum tuf genes. S-layer (slp) gene sequences suggested different relationships among the strains and the distillery isolates no longer formed a monophyletic group. The alleles from the Japanese and Scottish strains shared only 54 % similarity. Chromosomal DNA from the distillery strains gave DNA-DNA hybridization values between 79 and 100 % but showed less than 43 and 22 % reassociation with L. helveticus and L. gallinarum DNA, respectively. The name Lactobacillus suntoryeus sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon; the type strain is strain SAT (=LMG 22464T=NCIMB 14005T).

  8. Chromosomal loci associated with endosperm hardness in a malting barley cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Panozzo, J F; Ford, R; Eckermann, P; Moody, D; Lehmensiek, A; Appels, R

    2011-01-01

    A breeding objective for the malting barley industry is to produce lines with softer, plumper grain containing moderate protein content (9-12%) as they are more likely to imbibe water readily and contain more starch per grain, which in turn produces higher levels of malt extract. In a malting barley mapping population, 'Arapiles' × 'Franklin', the most significant and robust quantitative trait locus (QTL) for endosperm hardness was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1H, across three environments over two growing seasons. This accounted for 22.6% (Horsham 2000), 26.8% (Esperance 2001), and 12.0% (Tarranyurk 2001) of the genetic variance and significantly increased endosperm hardness by 2.06-3.03 SKCS hardness units. Interestingly, Arapiles and Franklin do not vary in Ha locus alleles. Therefore, this region, near the centromere on chromosome 1H, may be of great importance when aiming to manipulate endosperm hardness and malting quality. Interestingly, this region, close to the centromere on chromosome 1H, in our study, aligns with the region of the genome that includes the HvCslF9 and the HvGlb1 genes. Potentially, one or both of these genes could be considered to be candidate genes that influence endosperm hardness in the barley grain. Additional QTLs for endosperm hardness were detected on chromosomes 2H, 3H, 6H and 7H, confirming that the hardness trait in barley is complex and multigenic, similar to many malting quality traits of interest.

  9. Crystal structure of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1) paracaspase region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong W; Jeffrey, Philip D; Ha, Jun Yong; Yang, Xiaolu; Shi, Yigong

    2011-12-27

    The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1) paracaspase, a key component of the Carma1/Bcl10/MALT1 signalosome, is critical for NF-κB signaling in multiple contexts. MALT1 is thought to function as a scaffold and protease to promote signaling; however, the biochemical and structural basis of paracaspase action remains largely unknown. Here we report the 1.75-Å resolution crystal structure of the MALT1 paracaspase region, which contains the paracaspase domain and an ensuing Ig-like domain. The paracaspase and the Ig domains appear as a single folding unit and interact with each other through extensive van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonds. The paracaspase domain adopts a fold that is nearly identical to that of classic caspases and homodimerizes similarly to form an active protease. Unlike caspases, the active and mature form of the paracaspase domain remains a single uncleaved polypeptide and specifically recognizes the bound peptide inhibitor Val-Arg-Pro-Arg. In particular, the carboxyl-terminal amino acid Arg of the inhibitor is coordinated by three highly conserved acidic residues. This structure serves as an important framework for deciphering the function and mechanism of paracaspases exemplified by MALT1.

  10. THE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND QUANTITATIVE MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MUCOSA ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE (MALT) LYMPHOMA IN STOMACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To invetigate the Immunohistochemistry characters and quantitative nmorphometric significance for the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of stomach in 14 patients. Methods: The routine paraffin slides were cut, stained with H.E., and immunochemically by ABC method. The morphologic appearance of nuclei of lymphoma cells were measured with HPIAS-1000 color pathology picture analysis system. Results of the 14 cases, 9 was centrocyte like (CCL) cell lymphoma, 2 CCL with large cell lymphoma, 1 small no cleaved cell lymphoma, 1 large no cleaved cell lymphoma, 1 T immunoblastic malignant lymphoma. The morphologic measurement results showed that there were great significant differences (P<0.001) for the 15 items of morphology parameters between the nuclei of MALT lymphoma cells and those of normal control lymphocytes in stomach. There were great significance differences (P<0.001) or significance (P<0.05) for the most of the 15 items of morphologic parameters of nuclei among the 5 types of MALT lymphoma. Especially, that the values of area, circumference, equivalent diameter, area volume, circumference volume, long diameter, short diameter, practical area were increasing as the malignant degree of classification was rising, which reflect the increasing malignancy of the tumor. Conclusion: It was suggested that with the quantitative morphology measurement method, man could make accurate diagnosis for MALT lymphoma. It offered us a new method to make the diagnosis, so that it had significance. It might be also practicable with morphology measurement method to make the sub classification of MALT lymphoma.

  11. Genotypic and environmental variation in barley limit dextrinase activity and its relation to malt quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-dong; YANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    Variation in the limit dextrinase activity of barley malt, and the relationships between limit dextrinase activity and malt quality parameters were investigated using eight cultivars grown at seven diverse locations in China for two successive years.Limit dextrinase activity varied with genotype and location, with the levels ranging from 0.245 U/g to 0.980 U/g. The results showed that the variation in limit dextrinase activity was more attributable to the environment (location and year) than to the genotype. The response of limit dextrinase activity to the environment differed markedly among cultivars, and was reflected by large difference in coefficient of variation of cultivars across diverse locations. Regression analysis showed that limit dextrinase activity was negatively correlated with malt viscosity (r=-0.52, P<0.01), positively correlated with Kolbach index (r=0.38,P<0.01) and malt extract (r=0.30, P<0.05), but had no significant correlation with malt protein content and diastatic power.

  12. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed...

  13. Successful clinical treatment and functional immunological normalization of human MALT1 deficiency following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmus, Jacob; McDonald, Rachel; Fung, Shan-Yu; Del Bel, Kate L; Roden, Juliana; Senger, Christof; Schultz, Kirk R; McKinnon, Margaret L; Davis, Jeffrey; Turvey, Stuart E

    2016-07-01

    MALT1 mutations impair normal NF-κB activation and paracaspase activity to cause a novel combined immunodeficiency. The clinical and immunological phenotype of MALT1 deficiency can be successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following reduced intensity conditioning.

  14. A20 negatively regulates T cell receptor signaling to NF-kappaB by cleaving Malt1 ubiquitin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düwel, Michael; Welteke, Verena; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Baens, Mathijs; Kloo, Bernhard; Ferch, Uta; Darnay, Bryant G; Ruland, Jürgen; Marynen, Peter; Krappmann, Daniel

    2009-06-15

    The Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling module bridges TCR signaling to the canonical IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB pathway. Covalent attachment of regulatory ubiquitin chains to Malt1 paracaspase directs TCR signaling to IKK activation. Further, the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 was recently suggested to suppress T cell activation, but molecular targets for A20 remain elusive. In this paper, we show that A20 regulates the strength and duration of the IKK/NF-kappaB response upon TCR/CD28 costimulation. By catalyzing the removal of K63-linked ubiquitin chains from Malt1, A20 prevents sustained interaction between ubiquitinated Malt1 and the IKK complex and thus serves as a negative regulator of inducible IKK activity. Upon T cell stimulation, A20 is rapidly removed and paracaspase activity of Malt1 has been suggested to cleave A20. Using antagonistic peptides or reconstitution of Malt1(-/-) T cells, we show that Malt1 paracaspase activity is required for A20 cleavage and optimal IL-2 production, but dispensable for initial IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in CD4(+) T cells. However, proteasomal inhibition impairs A20 degradation and impedes TCR/CD28-induced IKK activation. Taken together, A20 functions as a Malt1 deubiquitinating enzyme and proteasomal degradation and de novo synthesis of A20 contributes to balance TCR/CD28-induced IKK/NF-kappaB signaling.

  15. 75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages..., Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages... well as reports of severe allergic reaction, including anaphylaxis, to cochineal extract and...

  16. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: I. ß-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis that maltose would increase the thermostability of barley malt beta-amylase activity during isothermal mashing was tested at 68, 73 and 78°C and compared to isothermal mashing at 63°C. Finely ground malts of the two-row cultivar Harrington and the six-row cultivar Morex were incubated...

  17. Consecutive regression of MALT lymphomas coexisting in the pharyngeal and gastric tissue after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ivan Potente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The stomach is one of the most common organs in which mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma develops. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection plays a major role in the development of gastric MALT lymphoma and that the presence of Hp in the gastric mucosa is connected with mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT.The same tissue is located in the oral cavity and pharynx in Waldayer’s circuit. Recently, the oral cavity was proposed as an extragastric reservoir of Hp infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old female patient with concomitant pharyngeal (MALT lymphoma and Hp-related gastric MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma was detected both through endoscopic examination as well as in biopsies. Pharyngeal MALT lymphoma was also detected in biopsies. Hp has been recognized in the gastric mucosa by positive serum H. pylori antibody and urease tests. Treatment of the Hp infection in our patient using antibiotics led to the regression of both lesions. This is the first case report on the regression of a pharyngeal MALT lymphoma after Hp eradication.

  18. Changes in salivary gland immunohistology and function after rituximab monotherapy in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome and associated MALT lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J; van Imhoff, GW; Vissink, A; van der Wal, JE; Kluin, PM; Spijkervet, FKL; Kallenberg, CGM; Bootsma, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To report the successful use of rituximab on salivary gland immunohistology and function in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome ( SS) and associated MALT lymphoma. Case report: The patient was a 42 year old woman with primary SS and associated MALT lymphoma located in the parotid gland and

  19. Produção de cervejas com teor reduzido de etanol, contendo quinoa malteada como adjunto

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Henrique Hendges

    2014-01-01

    A legislação brasileira permite a substituição parcial do malte de cevada por adjuntos, malteados ou não, para produção de cervejas. Esses adjuntos proporcionam redução de custos de produção e a obtenção de bebidas com diferentes características sensoriais. A proposta deste trabalho foi a de produzir uma bebida com teor reduzido de etanol, utilizando quinoa malteada como adjunto. Foram avaliadas três linhagens de levedura, duas comerciais, S-23 e W-3470 (Fermentis - França) e uma do banco de ...

  20. MALT lymphoma and concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Julie Kang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate is a rare disease which characteristically follows an indolent course. It is believed that infection or chronic inflammation may be triggers for malignant transformation in the prostate, but it is of unknown etiology. Reports of MALT lymphomas of the prostate with other concurrent primary prostate cancers are even more limited. We present the unique case of a 67 year old male with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate and primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate. The patient was treated with standard therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma, which also sufficiently would treat a primary MALT lymphoma. He has been disease-free for over one year for both his primary malignancies. This case confirms that MALT lymphoma can arise concurrently with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  1. CARD14-Mediated Activation of Paracaspase MALT1 in Keratinocytes: Implications for Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffel, Elien; Schmitt, Anja; Afonina, Inna S; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Beyaert, Rudi; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14(CARD14) have been linked to susceptibility to psoriasis. CARD14 is an intracellular scaffold protein that regulates proinflammatory gene expression. Recent studies have offered novel insights into the mechanisms of CARD14-mediated signaling in keratinocytes and the molecular impact of psoriasis-associated CARD14 mutations. CARD14 forms a signaling complex with BCL10 and the paracaspase MALT1, and this process is enhanced upon pathogenic CARD14 mutation, culminating in the activation of MALT1 protease activity and psoriasis-associated gene expression. This review summarizes the current knowledge of CARD14/MALT1-mediated signaling in keratinocytes and its therapeutic implications in psoriasis.

  2. Radiological features in paediatric primary gastric MALT lymphoma and association with Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Mihmanli, Ismail; Aksoy, Hilmi; Korman, Ugur [Department of Radiology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Celkan, Tiraje [Department of Paediatric Oncology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Aki, Hilal [Department of Pathology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the stomach are very rare in children, most being lymphomas and sarcomas. The majority of primary gastric lymphomas are high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are of B-cell origin. However, a significant number are low-grade B-cell lymphomas that are derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) that is not found in the normal stomach. Helicobacter pylori infection predisposes to the development of MALT in the stomach and provides the pathogenic background for MALT-type lymphomagenesis. To our knowledge, only eight paediatric cases of primary gastric lymphoma have been described. The diagnosis and follow-up of gastric lymphoma are mainly made by endoscopy. Nevertheless, radiologists must be aware of this disease because it may be observed on radiological examinations that are performed for non-specific upper digestive symptoms in children. (orig.)

  3. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jonathan B; Jackson, James M; Longmore, Steve N; Whitaker, Scott; Hoq, Sadia

    2013-01-01

    ALMA will revolutionize our understanding of star formation within our galaxy, but before we can use ALMA we need to know where to look. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey is a large international project to map the molecular line emission of over 2,000 dense clumps in the Galactic plane. MALT90 serves as a pathfinder for ALMA, providing a large public database of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. In this proceedings, we describe the survey parameters and share early science highlights from the survey, including (1) a comparison between galactic and extragalactic star formation relations, (2) chemical trends in MALT90 clumps, (3) the distribution of high-mass star formation in the Milky Way, and (4) a discussion of the Brick, the target of successful ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 proposals.

  4. Characterization of the MALT90 Survey and the Mopra Telescope at 90 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jonathan B; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Chris; Whitaker, J Scott; Jackson, James M; Mascoop, Joshua L; Wienen, Marion; Breen, Shari L; Herpin, Fabrice; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Csengeri, Timea; Contreras, Yanett; Indermuehle, Balt; Barnes, Peter J; Walsh, Andrew J; Cunningham, Maria R; Britton, Tui R; Voronkov, Maxim A; Urquhart, James S; Alves, João; Jordan, Christopher H; Hill, Tracey; Hoq, Sadia; Brooks, Kate J; Longmore, Steven N

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcseconds. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12-25% down to 10-17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.

  5. API2-MALT1 gene detection from paraffin-embedded MALT lymphoma tissues%石蜡包埋组织提取RNA检测API2-MALT1融合基因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景红梅; 克晓燕; 董菲; 高子芬; 周晓鸽

    2006-01-01

    目的研究从石蜡包埋组织中提取RNA检测黏膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)淋巴瘤t(11,18)易位所致API2-MALT1(凋亡抑制蛋白2-黏膜相关淋巴瘤转位基因1)融合基因.方法采用酸性酚氯仿法从石蜡包埋组织中提取RNA,通过逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)扩增API2-MALT1融合基因,并通过转染测序检测基因.结果全部病例均检测到葡糖6磷酸脱氢酶(G6PD)重排;101例MALT淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1融合基因阳性率为21.8%,其中低度恶性的阳性率为25.0%,转化型的阳性率为13.8%;80例弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤仅1例阳性;DNA测序结果与国际报道的序列相符.结论石蜡包埋组织中提取RNA方法稳定,可为疾病相关基因检测提供有效手段,在科研和临床方面有广阔的应用前景.

  6. Effects of policies to restrict malt liquor sales on neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of malt liquor sales restrictions adopted in 2005 in three liquor stores in a large Midwestern U.S. city. We hypothesized that the restrictions would be associated with crime reductions in adjacent neighborhoods. Using Poisson regression modeling, we compared crime rates two years prior to, and two years following policy adoption. Findings were mixed; malt liquor restrictions were associated with reductions in disorderly conduct citations, but increases in larceny/theft, beyond citywide trends. Limitations and implications of our study are discussed, and further research suggested. The study was funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  7. 胃MALT淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1的检测及其临床病理意义%Detection of API2-MALT1 fusion transcript in gastric MALT lymphoma and its clinicopathological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严青; 陶琨; 侯英勇; 朱雄增

    2004-01-01

    目的检测t(11;18)所致API2-MALT1融合转录本的发生率,探讨其对胃MALT淋巴瘤(extranodal marginal zone B-celllymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue,MALTlymphoma)病理诊断的意义.方法收集原发性胃MALT淋巴瘤手术切除、石蜡包埋标本26例为实验组;含MALT成分的胃弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤(diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,DLBCL)和单纯的胃DLBCL手术切除、石蜡包埋标本各10例及慢性胃炎活检石蜡包埋标本10例作为对照组.采用半嵌套式PCR检测B细胞IgH基因重排;采用RT-PCR检测API2-MALT1融合转录本,并通过形态学、免疫组化及分子生物学方法的比较,研究API2-MALT1融合转录本的检测在MALT淋巴瘤诊断中的意义.结果IgH基因重排的阳性率在胃MALT淋巴瘤中为76.9%(20/26),在含MALT成分的胃DLBCL中为100%(10/10),在胃DLBCL中为80%(8/10),在慢性胃炎中为0(0/10);API2-MALT1融合转录本在胃MALT淋巴瘤中的检出率为19.2%(5/26),在含MALT成分的胃DLBCL、胃DLBCL和胃炎中均未检出.结论API2-MALT1是胃MALT淋巴瘤特异性的诊断指标,但其阳性率相对较低,通过与形态学、免疫组化及B细胞IgH基因重排检测的结合,对胃MALT淋巴瘤的诊断和鉴别诊断具有重要价值.

  8. Potencial amilolítico do grão de milho maltado no processo de sacarificação do mesmo cereal Amylolytic potential of maize malt in the process of sacarification of the same cereal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Farias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de sacarificação do malte de milho para produção de álcool deste cereal. Para tal, foi realizada germinação do grão de milho a 20 ºC por 5 dias. O potencial amilolítico do malte de milho foi otimizado por meio de um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2² com 3 pontos centrais, sendo as variáveis de estudo a temperatura de incubação e concentração de substrato [S]. A sacarificação foi realizada por meio de um Planejamento de Mistura com três pontos centrais, sendo as variáveis de estudo a concentração de malte e concentração de substrato, durante 6 horas. A fermentação foi conduzida com a melhor condição de sacarificação, em reator de 5 L e volume útil de 2 L. O pH foi fixado em 4,5-5. O Brix foi acertado para o valor de 14º. O mosto hidrolisado foi esterilizado e inoculado com 5,0 g.L-1 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae proveniente de fermento comercial liofilizado. O sistema foi submetido a 2 horas de aeração inicial (170 L O2.h-1 e mantido na temperatura de 30 ºC. Durante o processo de fermentação, foram realizadas determinações da concentração de células (g.L-1, açúcares redutores (mg.mL-1 e álcool (g.L-1. As variáveis temperatura de incubação e concentração de substrato foram significativos (pThe aim of this research was the production of maize malt and the evaluation of its use for alcohol production. The maize grain was allowed to germinate at 20ºC for five days. The amylolitic potential of malt was optimized through a Complete Factorial Planning 2² with three central points, where the study variables were the temperature of incubation and the substrate concentration [S]. The sacarification was performed through a Planning of Mixture with three central points, where the study variables were the malt concentration and [S] during six 6 hours. The fermentation was carried out using the best sacarification condition, in a five-liter reactor and a two-liter working volume

  9. Deficiency of MALT1 paracaspase activity results in unbalanced regulatory and effector T and B cell responses leading to multiorgan inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornancin, Frédéric; Renner, Florian; Touil, Ratiba; Sic, Heiko; Kolb, Yeter; Touil-Allaoui, Ismahane; Rush, James S; Smith, Paul A; Bigaud, Marc; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Burkhart, Christoph; Dawson, Janet; Niwa, Satoru; Katopodis, Andreas; Nuesslein-Hildesheim, Barbara; Weckbecker, Gisbert; Zenke, Gerhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Brenner, Dirk; Brüstle, Anne; St Paul, Michael; Zamurovic, Natasa; McCoy, Kathy D; Rolink, Antonius; Régnier, Catherine H; Mak, Tak W; Ohashi, Pamela S; Patel, Dhavalkumar D; Calzascia, Thomas

    2015-04-15

    The paracaspase MALT1 plays an important role in immune receptor-driven signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation. MALT1 promotes signaling by acting as a scaffold, recruiting downstream signaling proteins, as well as by proteolytic cleavage of multiple substrates. However, the relative contributions of these two different activities to T and B cell function are not well understood. To investigate how MALT1 proteolytic activity contributes to overall immune cell regulation, we generated MALT1 protease-deficient mice (Malt1(PD/PD)) and compared their phenotype with that of MALT1 knockout animals (Malt1(-/-)). Malt1(PD/PD) mice displayed defects in multiple cell types including marginal zone B cells, B1 B cells, IL-10-producing B cells, regulatory T cells, and mature T and B cells. In general, immune defects were more pronounced in Malt1(-/-) animals. Both mouse lines showed abrogated B cell responses upon immunization with T-dependent and T-independent Ags. In vitro, inactivation of MALT1 protease activity caused reduced stimulation-induced T cell proliferation, impaired IL-2 and TNF-α production, as well as defective Th17 differentiation. Consequently, Malt1(PD/PD) mice were protected in a Th17-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. Surprisingly, Malt1(PD/PD) animals developed a multiorgan inflammatory pathology, characterized by Th1 and Th2/0 responses and enhanced IgG1 and IgE levels, which was delayed by wild-type regulatory T cell reconstitution. We therefore propose that the pathology characterizing Malt1(PD/PD) animals arises from an immune imbalance featuring pathogenic Th1- and Th2/0-skewed effector responses and reduced immunosuppressive compartments. These data uncover a previously unappreciated key function of MALT1 protease activity in immune homeostasis and underline its relevance in human health and disease.

  10. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves HOIL1 reducing linear ubiquitination by LUBAC to dampen lymphocyte NF-κB signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Theo; Fung, Shan-Yu; Renner, Florian; Blank, Michael A.; Dufour, Antoine; Kang, Sohyeong; Bolger-Munro, Madison; Scurll, Joshua M.; Priatel, John J.; Schweigler, Patrick; Melkko, Samu; Gold, Michael R.; Viner, Rosa I.; Régnier, Catherine H.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen receptor signalling activates the canonical NF-κB pathway via the CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 (CBM) signalosome involving key, yet ill-defined roles for linear ubiquitination. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves and removes negative checkpoint proteins, amplifying lymphocyte responses in NF-κB activation and in B-cell lymphoma subtypes. To identify new human MALT1 substrates, we compare B cells from the only known living MALT1mut/mut patient with healthy MALT1+/mut family members using 10-plex Tandem Mass Tag TAILS N-terminal peptide proteomics. We identify HOIL1 of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as a novel MALT1 substrate. We show linear ubiquitination at B-cell receptor microclusters and signalosomes. Late in the NF-κB activation cycle HOIL1 cleavage transiently reduces linear ubiquitination, including of NEMO and RIP1, dampening NF-κB activation and preventing reactivation. By regulating linear ubiquitination, MALT1 is both a positive and negative pleiotropic regulator of the human canonical NF-κB pathway—first promoting activation via the CBM—then triggering HOIL1-dependent negative-feedback termination, preventing reactivation. PMID:26525107

  11. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties.

  12. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves HOIL1 reducing linear ubiquitination by LUBAC to dampen lymphocyte NF-κB signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Theo; Fung, Shan-Yu; Renner, Florian; Blank, Michael A; Dufour, Antoine; Kang, Sohyeong; Bolger-Munro, Madison; Scurll, Joshua M; Priatel, John J; Schweigler, Patrick; Melkko, Samu; Gold, Michael R; Viner, Rosa I; Régnier, Catherine H; Turvey, Stuart E; Overall, Christopher M

    2015-11-03

    Antigen receptor signalling activates the canonical NF-κB pathway via the CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 (CBM) signalosome involving key, yet ill-defined roles for linear ubiquitination. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves and removes negative checkpoint proteins, amplifying lymphocyte responses in NF-κB activation and in B-cell lymphoma subtypes. To identify new human MALT1 substrates, we compare B cells from the only known living MALT1(mut/mut) patient with healthy MALT1(+/mut) family members using 10-plex Tandem Mass Tag TAILS N-terminal peptide proteomics. We identify HOIL1 of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as a novel MALT1 substrate. We show linear ubiquitination at B-cell receptor microclusters and signalosomes. Late in the NF-κB activation cycle HOIL1 cleavage transiently reduces linear ubiquitination, including of NEMO and RIP1, dampening NF-κB activation and preventing reactivation. By regulating linear ubiquitination, MALT1 is both a positive and negative pleiotropic regulator of the human canonical NF-κB pathway-first promoting activation via the CBM--then triggering HOIL1-dependent negative-feedback termination, preventing reactivation.

  13. Purification and characterisation of arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase I responsible for the filterability of barley malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Fei; Cai, Guolin; Jin, Zhao; Lu, Jian; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Hua; Yu, Junhong; Yang, Mei

    2015-05-01

    Dan'er is a widely grown malt barley cultivar in China, but its filterability defects have severely impeded its application in beer brewing. Previous investigations have suggested that we should identify the malt filterability correlated proteins, one of which was postulated to be arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase I (AXAH-I). To verify this hypothesis, we purified AXAH-I from Dan'er malt, characterised its enzyme performance, and investigated its influence on filterability by adding different amounts of purified enzyme to the mash. With 6 mU g(-1) malt AXAH-I supplemented, the wort separation rate increased by 31.8%, viscosity decreased by 3.6%, and the endosperm reserve contents declined concomitantly. Unexpectedly, the wort turbidity increased with increasing AXAH-I. We also tried to optimise the use of currently available commercial enzyme products for filterability improvement in beer brewing, by supplementing them with purified AXAH-I and β-amylase. AXAH-I could be a functional component for novel commercial enzyme products in the beer industry.

  14. MALT1 induced immune response is governed by miR-2909 RNomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Deepak; Arora, M; Garg, A; Sharma, S

    2015-03-01

    The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) has been widely recognized to play crucial role in lymphocyte activation, development and the generation of lymphomas through the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Our results reported here provide evidence for the first time to support the view that MALT1 exerts its effect upon immune response involving genes coding for retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1); interferon-β (IFN-β); apo-lipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G); IFN-γ; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) through the initiation of cellular miR-2909 RNomics. This ensures sustained expression of specificity protein 1 (SP1)-dependent regulation of genes that in-turn governs MALT1 induced immune response. Based upon these results, a mechanistic-pathway is proposed that links the epigenomic-interplay between MALT1 and miR-2909.

  15. MicroRNA-649 promotes HSV-1 replication by directly targeting MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Dai, Jun; Tang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mengzhou

    2016-11-03

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the Herpes viridae, is associated with a wide variety of nervous system diseases including meningitis and encephalitis. The data presented here demonstrate that miR-649 promotes the replication of HSV-1 without affecting cell viability. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is directly targeted by miR-649. We then found that MALT1 and the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway, are involved in miR-649-induced HSV-1 replication. Interestingly, miR-649 levels were downregulated after HSV-1 infection, and miR-649 expression was negatively associated with MALT1 expression in HSV-1-infected HeLa cells. Taken together, this present study indicates that miR-649 promotes HSV-1 replication through regulation of the MALT1-mediated antiviral signaling pathway and suggests a promising target for antiviral therapies. J. Med. Virol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effect of fungicidal treatment on selected quality parameters of barley and malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlová, Pavla; Lancová, Katerina; Vánová, Marie; Havel, Josef; Hajslová, Jana

    2006-02-22

    Protection of barley grain against contamination by fungi such as Fusarium spp., particularly by those producing mycotoxins, secondary metabolites with adverse health effects, is of principal importance. Fungicides applied immediately after full heading of spring barley is one method of direct protection. In this work, extensive two-year field experiments combined with a detailed chemical laboratory analysis (barley and malt) were performed with the aim to study the effect of previous crops, different fungicides, and other conditions on the selected barley and malt quality parameters (content of beta-glucans, pentosans, oxalic acid, deoxynivalenol, and gushing), while the main task was to follow the effect of the fungicide (used as a treatment to protect against pathogens, mostly Fusarium) on changes of the chemical composition in barley and malt, and gushing. It was found that the relationship between the studied factors and the parameters usually applied to the evaluation of barley and malt quality is quite complex and not straightforward. The responses show typical features of a multifactorial influence with both positive and negative correlations resulting in a decrease or increase in grain quality (concentrations of beta-glucans, pentosans, deoxynivalenol, and other studied parameters). The role of previous crops was also found to be important. The fungicides should be applied at the time of heading but not at the very beginning of this period.

  17. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-03-07

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  18. Rituximab as Single Agent in Primary MALT Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Annibali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas are the first cause of primary ocular malignancies, and among them the most common are MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas. Recently systemic immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody has been investigated as first-line treatment; however, the optimal management for MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas is still unknown. The present study evaluated retrospectively the outcome of seven consecutive patients with primary MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas, of whom six were treated with single agent Rituximab. All patients received 6 cycles of Rituximab 375 mg/mq every 3 weeks intravenously. The overall response rate was 100%; four patients (67% achieved a Complete Remission, and two (33% achieved a partial response. In four patients an additional Rituximab maintenance every 2-3 months was given for two years. After a median follow-up of 29 months (range 8–34, no recurrences were observed, without of therapy- or disease-related severe adverse events. None of the patients needed additional radiotherapy or other treatments. Rituximab as a single agent is highly effective and tolerable in first-line treatment of primary MALT Ocular adnexal Lymphomas. Furthermore, durable responses are achievable with the same-agent maintenance. Rituximab can be considered the agent of choice in the management of an indolent disease in whom the “quality of life” matter is of primary importance.

  19. Rituximab as Single Agent in Primary MALT Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, Ombretta; Chiodi, Francesca; Sarlo, Chiara; Cortes, Magdalena; Quaranta-Leoni, Francesco M; Quattrocchi, Carlo; Bianchi, Antonella; Bonini, Stefano; Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas are the first cause of primary ocular malignancies, and among them the most common are MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas. Recently systemic immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody has been investigated as first-line treatment; however, the optimal management for MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas is still unknown. The present study evaluated retrospectively the outcome of seven consecutive patients with primary MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas, of whom six were treated with single agent Rituximab. All patients received 6 cycles of Rituximab 375 mg/mq every 3 weeks intravenously. The overall response rate was 100%; four patients (67%) achieved a Complete Remission, and two (33%) achieved a partial response. In four patients an additional Rituximab maintenance every 2-3 months was given for two years. After a median follow-up of 29 months (range 8-34), no recurrences were observed, without of therapy- or disease-related severe adverse events. None of the patients needed additional radiotherapy or other treatments. Rituximab as a single agent is highly effective and tolerable in first-line treatment of primary MALT Ocular adnexal Lymphomas. Furthermore, durable responses are achievable with the same-agent maintenance. Rituximab can be considered the agent of choice in the management of an indolent disease in whom the "quality of life" matter is of primary importance.

  20. Trisomy 3 may predict a poor response of gastric MALT lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sawako Taji; Masuji Morita; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kenichi Nomura; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideaki Sakabe; Naohisa Yoshida; Shoji Mitsufuji; Kazuhiro Nishida; Shigeo Horiike; Shigeo Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relation of the response to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to the depth of tumor invasion and chromosome abnormalities in patients with mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to determine the clinical value of aneuploidy.METHODS: We studied 13 patients with localized gastric MALT lymphoma of stage E1. Before eradication therapy,the depth of tumor invasion was assessed by endoscopic ultrasonography in 8 patients and by endoscopic examination and gastrointestinal series in the remaining patients. To detect chromosomal abnormalities, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of diagnostic biopsy specimens underwent tissuefluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using chromosomespecific α-satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 3,7,12,and 18 and YAC clones for t(11;18)(q21;q21).RESULTS: Seven of the 13 patients had complete regression(CR) in response to H pylori eradication therapy. No patient with CR had submucosal tumor invasion. Trisomy 18 was seen in 1 patient with CR, and both trisomies 12 and 18 were present in another patient with CR. All patients with no response or progressive disease had deep submucosal tumor invasion and showed t(11;18)(q21;q21) or trisomy 3. Trisomy 7 was not detected in this series of patients.CONCLUSION: The depth of tumor invasion is an accurate predictor of the response of stage E1 MALT lymphoma to H pylori eradication therapy and is closely associated with the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy 3 may predict the aggressive development of MALT lymphoma.

  1. Characterization of barley serpin Z7 that plays multiple roles in malt and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Jin, Zhao; Gao, Fei; Lu, Jian; Cai, Guolin; Dong, Jianjun; Yu, Junhong; Yang, Mei

    2014-06-18

    Barley protein Z7 (BSZ7) is a well-known serine protease inhibitor that was regarded as a major effector of beer foam stability. Moreover, it has also been suggested to participate in haze formation and affect wort filterability. The present study purified BSZ7 from barley malt and characterized its secondary structure and modification, as well as its relationship with peroxidase, to elucidate the molecular base of BSZ7 that supports its multiple roles in malt and beer. It was found that after 30 min of heating, the secondary structure was not affected. BSZ7 has no inhibiting effect on nonspecific protease originated from malt, suggesting its negative role in wort filterability was accomplished by other means. Furthermore, the glycation of BSZ7 by the Maillard reaction may make some contribution to its survival during wort boiling. The interaction of BSZ7 with polysaccharides and polyphenols found by adding experiment may explain how it acts as a negative factor on wort filterability. Greater understanding of BSZ7 and other proteins of malts will lead to better improvements in brewing quality.

  2. QTL analysis for Malt Quality in DH Lines of Barley (Steptoe × Morex grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bahman Sadeghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the quantitative variability of malting quality-related traits and to determine the genomic locations which control these traits, an experiment was conducted using one hundred fifty double haploid (DH lines of barley and their two parents ‛Steptoe’ & ‛Morex’. Protein content (% was measured using Kjeldahl method, diastatic power calculated with Lintner formula, Malt extract was measured for each by special weight achieved and based on Malt Berix Charts. Transgressive segregation in both directions was observed for all traits. Genetic map is fairly saturated and comprising 327 RFLP markers with a total length of 1226.3cM with an average marker spacing of 3.75cM. Seventeen QTLs by LOD≤2(LRS≤9.21 controlling different studied traits were identified for all studied traits. Total phenotypic variance explained by these QTLs varies from 23.2 to 45.05%. Highest LOD scores were obtained for QTL’s controlling diastatic power (Qdip3Ha on chromosome 3H, and lowest LOD scores were obtained for QTL’s controlling seed yield per plant (Qsyp1Hb on chromosome 1H. Therefore gain through marker-assisted selection (MAS in this population would be limited and some of the “Steptoe× Morex” population was developed with the intention of isolating and advancing barley lines for release to the malting quality.

  3. API2-MALT1融合基因变异体在粘膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤中的分布及凋亡的关系%The frequency of API2-MALT1 fusion gene variants in MALT lymphoma and its correlation with apoptosis of MALT lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 陈铌; 龚静

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨 API2-MALT1融合基因变异体在粘膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, MALT)中的分布特点及其转录与肿瘤凋亡的关系.方法将逆转录-聚合酶链反应和巢式聚合酶链式反应结合,检测62例不同部位MALT淋巴瘤中 API2-MALT1融合基因的多种变异体;通过TdT介导脱氧核苷酸缺口末端标记技术进行肿瘤细胞的原位凋亡检测;通过逆转录-聚合酶链反应和免疫组化染色检测API2的mRNA和蛋白水平.结果 62例MALT淋巴瘤中28例检出 API2-MALT1融合基因(45.16%),为变异体A1446-M1123或A1446-M814,但未检出A1446-M541和A1446-M1150.A1446-M1123(18/28)的检出明显多于A1446-M814(10/28).融和基因转录在甲状腺MALT淋巴瘤中检出最低,在其它部位的分布无差异.在API2-MALT1+组(API2-MALT1mRNA表达阳性组)肿瘤凋亡水平明显高于API2-MALT1-组(API2-MALT1mRNA表达阴性组), API2的mRNA和蛋白水平低于阴性组.A1446-M1123+与A1446-M814+病例之间凋亡和API2的变化无差异.结论 MALT淋巴瘤中t(11;18)(q21;q21)的发生有部位差异,A1446-M1123可能是中国人MALT淋巴瘤中 API2-MALT1融合基因变异体的主要类型. API2-MALT1融合基因转录与MALT淋巴瘤的凋亡水平和API2的变化有关.

  4. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  5. Enhancing micronutrient content of beverage powder by incorporating malted finger millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Tripathi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is growing interest in the role of the micronutrients in optimizing health, and in prevention or treatment of disease. Micronutrients play a central part in metabolism and in the maintenance of tissue function, an adequate intake therefore is necessary. Rationale: This research work was concerned with the development of micronutrient especially calcium rich instant health beverage powder from malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana and gurhal powder (Hibiscus rosa- sinensis. Aims & Objectives: In this study attempts have been made to investigate that whether the extruded malted finger millet flour and hibiscus flower powder has improved the nutritional and phytochemical quality of instant health beverage powder without deteriorating their sensory properties and whether it can be a supplement for calcium deficit sedentary women. Materials and methods: Instant health beverage powder was prepared by adding malted and extruded finger millet with glucose, hibiscus flower powder, citric acid and vanilla essence. All the ingredients were mixed well. Prior to consumption this powder was dissolved in water and stirred well manually. Further Instant health beverage powder was assessed for nutritional composition. Results: Results shows that beverage powder has very high content of protein (12.25 % and calcium (96.5 % along with highly beneficial neutraceutical properties as compared with the health drinks available in market, it is because of enhanced antioxidant activity resulted due to the incorporation of gurhal leaf powder and malting of the finger millet. Conclusion: This study may prove as a potential step to utilise malted finger millet as a supplement for calcium deficit women. The nutritional composition was found sufficient enough to meet approximately one fourth of RDA of Protein and Calcium as prescribed by NIN, India for sedentary women who are the main sufferers of calcium deficiencies in various life stages like

  6. HIDROLISADO DE FÉCULA DE MANDIOCA COMO ADJUNTO DE MALTE NA FABRICAÇÃO DE CERVEJA: AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da progressiva substituição dos adjuntos amiláceos pelos xaropes com alta concentração de maltose nas cervejarias brasileiras, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar hidrolisados de milho e de mandioca, como adjunto de malte, na fabricação de cerveja tipo Pilsen, em escala de laboratório. Os hidrolisados foram produzidos a partir de amido de milho e fécula de mandioca, sendo que na liqüefação e sacarificação da fração amilácea destes produtos foram utilizadas, respectivamente, as enzimas comerciais Termamil (alfa amilase bacteriana e Fungamil (alfa amilase fúngica. Na fabricação das cervejas, a proporção de malte e hidrolisado foi de 2 para 1, na base do extrato. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão e após resfriamento e clarificação foi inoculado com levedura cervejeira de baixa fermentação. A fermentação transcorreu a 10 °C até 90% de atenuação do extrato aparente fermentável. As cervejas foram engarrafadas e, em seguida, maturadas a 0 °C, por 14 dias. Terminado o processo de fabricação, as cervejas foram analisadas química e sensorialmente. A semelhança na composição química dos hidrolisados de milho e de mandioca refletiu na composição química dos mostos e das cervejas. Não houve diferença estatística entre os mostos e entre as cervejas testadas para todos os parâmetros químicos analisados. Também, não existiu diferença sensorial entre as cervejas produzidas com hidrolisado de milho e hidrolisado de mandioca. Concluiu-se que a fécula de mandioca apresenta potencial de uso como matéria prima para a fabricação de xarope de maltose de uso cervejeiro e que há elevada probabilidade de sucesso no uso desse xarope para a fabricação de cervejas.The brazilians breweries replace progressively starchy adjuncts by sugary liquid adjuncts made with maize. Thus, the objective of present work was saccharify cassava and maize and use them as malt adjunct on Pilsen beer

  7. The API2-MALT1 fusion exploits TNFR pathway-associated RIP1 ubiquitination to promote oncogenic NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, S; Rehman, A O; Apel, I J; Kohrt, D; Appert, A; O'Donnell, M A; Ting, A T; Du, M-Q; Baens, M; Lucas, P C; McAllister-Lucas, L M

    2014-05-08

    The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-κB activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-κB, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.

  8. Inhibition of MALT1 protease activity is selectively toxic for activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferch, Uta; Kloo, Bernhard; Gewies, Andreas; Pfänder, Vera; Düwel, Michael; Peschel, Christian; Krappmann, Daniel; Ruland, Jürgen

    2009-10-26

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphoma in humans. The aggressive activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of DLBCL is characterized by constitutive NF-kappaB activity and requires signals from CARD11, BCL10, and the paracaspase MALT1 for survival. CARD11, BCL10, and MALT1 are scaffold proteins that normally associate upon antigen receptor ligation. Signal-induced CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes couple upstream events to IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB activation. MALT1 also possesses a recently recognized proteolytic activity that cleaves and inactivates the negative NF-kappaB regulator A20 and BCL10 upon antigen receptor ligation. Yet, the relevance of MALT1 proteolytic activity for malignant cell growth is unknown. Here, we demonstrate preassembled CBM complexes and constitutive proteolysis of the two known MALT1 substrates in ABC-DLBCL, but not in germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL. ABC-DLBCL cell treatment with a MALT1 protease inhibitor blocks A20 and BCL10 cleavage, reduces NF-kappaB activity, and decreases the expression of NF-kappaB targets genes. Finally, MALT1 paracaspase inhibition results in death and growth retardation selectively in ABC-DLBCL cells. Thus, our results indicate a growth-promoting role for MALT1 paracaspase activity in ABC-DLBCL and suggest that a pharmacological MALT1 protease inhibition could be a promising approach for lymphoma treatment.

  9. T cell antigen receptor stimulation induces MALT1 paracaspase-mediated cleavage of the NF-kappaB inhibitor A20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coornaert, Beatrice; Baens, Mathijs; Heyninck, Karen; Bekaert, Tine; Haegman, Mira; Staal, Jens; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J; Marynen, Peter; Beyaert, Rudi

    2008-03-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 mediates T cell antigen receptor-induced signaling to the transcription factor NF-kappaB and is indispensable for T cell activation and proliferation. Enhanced expression of MALT1 or aberrant expression of a fusion protein of the apoptosis inhibitor API2 and MALT1 has been linked to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Despite the presence of a caspase-like domain, MALT1 proteolytic activity has not yet been demonstrated. Here we show that T cell antigen receptor stimulation induced recruitment of the NF-kappaB inhibitor A20 into a complex of MALT1 and the adaptor protein Bcl-10, leading to MALT1-mediated processing of A20. API2-MALT1 expression likewise resulted in cleavage of A20. MALT1 cleaved human A20 after arginine 439 and impaired its NF-kappaB-inhibitory function. Our studies identify A20 as a substrate of MALT1 and emphasize the importance of MALT1 proteolytic activity in the 'fine tuning' of T cell antigen receptor signaling.

  10. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 protease by phenothiazines as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of aggressive ABC-DLBCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Daniel; Spranger, Stefani; Vincendeau, Michelle; Grau, Michael; Raffegerst, Silke; Kloo, Bernhard; Hlahla, Daniela; Neuenschwander, Martin; Peter von Kries, Jens; Hadian, Kamyar; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Peter; Lenz, Georg; Schendel, Dolores J; Krappmann, Daniel

    2012-12-11

    Proteolytic activity of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein-1 (MALT1) paracaspase is required for survival of the activated B cell subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). We have identified distinct derivatives of medicinal active phenothiazines, namely mepazine, thioridazine, and promazine, as small molecule inhibitors of the MALT1 protease. These phenothiazines selectively inhibit cleavage activity of recombinant and cellular MALT1 by a noncompetitive mechanism. Consequently, the compounds inhibit anti-apoptotic NF-κB signaling and elicit toxic effects selectively on MALT1-dependent ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide a conceptual proof for a clinical application of distinct phenothiazines in the treatment of ABC-DLBCL.

  11. Essential role of MALT1 protease activity in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu; Posvitz-Fejfar, Anita; Rebeaud, Fabien; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Penas, Eva-Maria Murga; Dierlamm, Judith; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Thome, Margot

    2009-01-01

    A key element for the development of suitable anti-cancer drugs is the identification of cancer-specific enzymatic activities that can be therapeutically targeted. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue transformation protein 1 (MALT1) is a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, the least curable subtype of DLBCL. Recent data suggest that MALT1 has proteolytic activity, but it is unknown whether this activity...

  12. Is there a link between the lipopolysaccharide of Helicobacter pylori gastric MALT lymphoma associated strains and lymphoma pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lehours

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the Lewis antigen expression in Helicobacter pylori gastric MALT lymphoma associated strains in comparison to chronic gastritis only strains. Forty MALT strains (19 cagPAI (- and 21 cagPAI (+ and 39 cagPAI frequency-matched gastritis strains (17 cagPAI (- and 22 cagPAI (+ were included in this study. The lipopolyssacharide for each strain was extracted using a hot phenol method and the expression of Le(x and Le(y were investigated using Western Blot. The data were analyzed according to the strains' cagPAI status and vacA genotype. Le(x was identified in 21 (52.5% MALT strains and 29 (74.3% gastritis strains. Le(y was identified in 30 (75% MALT strains and 31 (79.5% gastritis strains. There was an association between cagPAI positivity and Le(x expression among MALT strains (p<0.0001, but not in gastritis strains (p = 0.64. Among cagPAI (- strains, isolates expressing solely Le(y were associated with MALT with an odds ratio of 64.2 (95% CI 4.9-841.0 when compared to strains expressing both Le(x and Le(y. vacA genotypes did not modify the association between Lewis antigen expression and disease status. In conclusion, cagPAI (- MALT strains have a particular Lewis antigen profile which could represent an adaptive mechanism to the host response or participate in MALT lymphomagenesis.

  13. Endoscopic staging of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma Estadificación por ecoendoscopia en el linfoma gástrico tipo malt de bajo grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS has already proven useful in the assessment of submucosal lesions, and the staging of gastrointestinal cancer, particularly gastric MALT-type lymphoma. The goal of this paper was EUS staging. Patients and method: 24 patients (10 females, 14 males with a median age of 56 years and possibly gastric MALT lymphoma (25 cases were studied using videoendoscopy, biopsies, and echoendoscopy with 7.5- and 20-MHz radial EUS, and also with 12- and 20-MHz miniprobes (MPs. Nineteen patients were definitely evaluated (7 females, 12 males as having 20 MALT-type lymphomas, as five patients were post-hoc disregarded when an invasive, high-grade gastric lymphoma (3c or plasmocytoma (2c was subsequently demonstrated. Of these 19 patients, all had T1 lesions except for two with T2 lesions; one patient had a gastroduodenal T1 lymphoma. Echographic findings with MPs were compared to EUS (gold standard and histology both before and after eradication. Then, patients were followed up every 1-3-6 months using videoendoscopy and MPs. Results: echoendoscopy correctly identified T stages in 90% of cases. MPs identified T stages in 88% of cases, and N stages in 33% of cases, with results being slightly inferior to those obtained with conventional EUS (91 vs. 45%; they were consequently used for follow-up. After eradication, all but two patients are in complete remission and have been followed every 1-3-6 months using MPs without echographic abnormalities, except for a patient who relapsed.Introducción: la ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE ha demostrado ya su utilidad en la evaluación de las lesiones submucosas, en la estadificación del cáncer digestivo en general, y del linfoma gástrico tipo MALT en particular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la estadificación por USE. Pacientes y método: veinticuatro enfermos (10 mujeres y 14 varones con edad media de 56 años y con posible linfoma gástrico tipo MALT (25 casos fueron

  14. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.

  15. Combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition augments killing of CD79 mutant diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Kutzner, Kerstin; Vincendeau, Michelle; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-12-08

    Survival of activated B cell-subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is driven by chronic B cell receptor (BCR) signaling that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway. Inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib has been shown to kill ABC DLBCL cells that carry activating mutations in the BCR adaptor CD79. However, mutations in BTK or in downstream components such as CARMA1/CARD11 can render lymphomas Ibrutinib resistant. Therefore, we assessed here the simultaneous inhibition of BTK and the protease MALT1 that acts downstream of CARMA1 and is essential for ABC DLBCL tumor growth. We show that in CD79 mutant cells BTK is a crucial upstream regulator of MALT1, but dispensable in CARMA1 mutant ABC DLBCL. Combined inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib and MALT1 by S-Mepazine additively impaired MALT1 cleavage activity and expression of NF-κB pro-survival factors. Thereby, combinatorial Ibrutinib and S-Mepazine treatment enhanced killing of CD79 mutant ABC DLBCL cells. Moreover, while expression of oncogenic CARMA1 in CD79 mutant cells conferred Ibrutinib resistance, double mutant cells were still sensitive to MALT1 inhibition by S-Mepazine. Thus, based on the genetic background combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition may improve effectiveness of therapeutic treatment and reduce the chances for the development of drug resistances.

  16. USP2a positively regulates TCR-induced NF-κB activation by bridging MALT1-TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; He, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Shu, Hong-Bing; Liu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 is essential for the activation of NF-κB in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. It recruits downstream TRAF6 and activates the E3 ligase activity of TRAF6 to polyubiquitinate several targets, which ultimately leads to NF-κB activation. Here we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a) as a MALT1-associated protein by biochemical affinity purification. Endogenous USP2a constitutively interacted with TRAF6, but dynamically interacted with MALT1 and CARMA1 in a stimulation-dependent manner. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of USP2a attenuated TCR-induced NF-κB activation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). In addition, the ubiquitination of MALT1 and TRAF6 were both suppressed by USP2a knockdown. By knockdown and reconstitution assays, we found that USP2a mediated the interaction between MALT1 and TRAF6 in a catalytic activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, USP2a deSUMOylated TRAF6. Our findings implicate that USP2a plays an important role in TCR signaling by deSUMOylating TRAF6 and mediating TRAF6-MALT1 interaction.

  17. Essential role of MALT1 protease activity in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu; Posvitz-Fejfar, Anita; Rebeaud, Fabien; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Penas, Eva-Maria Murga; Dierlamm, Judith; Chan, Wing C; Staudt, Louis M; Thome, Margot

    2009-11-24

    A key element for the development of suitable anti-cancer drugs is the identification of cancer-specific enzymatic activities that can be therapeutically targeted. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue transformation protein 1 (MALT1) is a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, the least curable subtype of DLBCL. Recent data suggest that MALT1 has proteolytic activity, but it is unknown whether this activity is relevant for tumor growth. Here we report that MALT1 is constitutively active in DLBCL lines of the ABC but not the GCB subtype. Inhibition of the MALT1 proteolytic activity led to reduced expression of growth factors and apoptosis inhibitors, and specifically affected the growth and survival of ABC DLBCL lines. These results demonstrate a key role for the proteolytic activity of MALT1 in DLBCL of the ABC subtype, and provide a rationale for the development of pharmacological inhibitors of MALT1 in DLBCL therapy.

  18. 麦精在面包中的应用%Application of malt extract in bread baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菊芬; 粟婉媛; 陈小泉

    2011-01-01

    The effect of malt extract in different addition dose on bread baking performance was studied,a bread preservation test was carried out,and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated.Results indicate that adding the malt extract can improve the performance in bread baking.The sensory evaluation proves that the bread texture and water binding capacity are improved by a proper addition of malt extract,especially the bread taste,flavor and inner textural structure.Furthermore,dough time and baking time of bread are shortened by the malt extract addition.The optimum addition dose of the malt extract in bread production is 4%.%研究了麦精的不同添加量对面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了面包中麦精的最适添加量。研究发现,麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的感官品质、质构以及面包的持水性。此外添加麦精可以缩短发酵时间和烘焙时间,面包中麦精的最适添加量为4%。

  19. Protein and hordein fraction content in barley seeds as affected by sowing date and their relations to malting quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jun-cong; CHEN Jin-xin; WANG Jun-mei; WU Fei-bo; CAO Lian-pu; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sowing date on grain protein, hordein fraction content and malting quality of two-rowed spring barley was investigated by using ten commercial cultivars with different grain protein content and the relationships among these traits were examined. The results showed that grain protein content and B hordein content increased as the sowing date postponed and were significantly affected by sowing date, while C and D hordein contents were less influenced by sowing date. There were significant differences in grain protein and hordein fraction content among the ten cultivars. The coefficient of variation of D hordein content was much larger than that of B and C hordein contents, suggesting its greater variation caused by different sowing dates. Beta-amylase activity and diastatic power were also significantly affected by sowing date, with malt extract being less affected. Significant differences in measured malt quality were found among the ten cultivars. Grain protein was significantly correlated with B hordein and malt extract positively and negatively, respectively. There was no significant correlation between beta-amylase activity or diastatic power and grain protein content. B hordein was negatively and significantly correlated with malt extract, but no significant correlations between C hordein, D hordein and malting quality traits.

  20. BCL10GFP fusion protein as a substrate for analysis of determinants required for Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue 1 (MALT1-mediated cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou Shin-Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MALT1 belongs to a family of paracaspase and modulates NF-κB signaling pathways through its scaffolding function and proteolytic activity. MALT1 cleaves protein substrates after a positively charged Arginine residue. BCL10, a 233 amino acids polypeptide, is identified as one of the MALT1 proteolytic substrates. MALT1 cleaves BCL10 at the C-terminal end of Arg228. A mere 5 amino acids difference between the substrate and the proteolytic product made it difficult to tell whether the cleavage event took place by using a simple western blot analysis. Here, BCL10GFP was constructed and utilized to examine the specificity and domain determinants for MALT1 cleavage in cells. Methods Various BCL10GFP constructs were transfected into HEK293T cell with MALT1 construct by using calcium phosphate-DNA precipitation method. Lysates of transfectants were resolved by SDS/PAGE and analyzed by western blot analysis. Results BCL10GFP was proteolytically processed by MALT1 as BCL10. The integrity of caspase recruitment domain (CARD and MALT1-interacting domain on BCL10 were required for MALT1 proteolytic activity. Besides the invariant P1 cleavage site Arg228, P4 Leu225 played a role in defining BCL10 as a good substrate for MALT1. Conclusions We offered a way of monitoring the catalytic activity of MALT1 in HEK293T cells using BCL10GFP as a substrate. BCL10GFP can be utilized as a convenient tool for studying the determinants for efficient MALT1 cleavage in HEK293T cells

  1. Experimental conversion of sugar beets into alcohol without the addition of malt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskaya, V.A.; Solov' eva, S.V.; Khokhlacheva, A.A.

    1968-01-01

    The omission of malt provides for different values of the viscosity in the wort. Various concentrations of the worts obtained this way were fermented to EtOH, and the important parameters, such as yeast cell count, acidity, EtOH assay, unfermented sugars, etc. were determined. Yeasts cultivated on beet worts under addition of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and MgSO/sub 4/, will easily ferment sugar beet worts under technical conditions to acceptable EtOH values of 11.1 dl EtOH/long ton of beets. This method was used in a plant continuously for 3 years, saving 200 long tons malt/year.

  2. Minimal change disease: an unusual presentation of marginal zone MALT lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Faisal; Law, Jason K; Myers-Gurevitch, Patricia M; Seshan, Surya V; Perlman, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) in association with low-grade extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) (MALT lymphoma) is a rare clinicopathologic entity. We report a 68-year-old male who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria as the first manifestation of underlying MZL, confirmed with standard set of investigations. Being a steroid non-responder, he was treated with rituximab demonstrating a marked response with resolution of proteinuria. However, he relapsed after 3 months. Upon relapse, a combination of rituximab and bendamustine (R-Benda) was initiated achieving sustained resolution of proteinuria. No additional treatment was administered and the proteinuria has remained in remission for over a year.

  3. {sup 10}Be measurements at MALT using reduced-size samples of bulk sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho, E-mail: kh@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Oniyanagi, Itsumi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Wasada, Hiroshi [Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Graduate school of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [MALT, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In order to establish {sup 10}Be measurements on reduced-size (1-10 mg) samples of bulk sediments, we investigated four different pretreatment designs using lacustrine and marginal-sea sediments and the AMS system of the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT) at University of Tokyo. The {sup 10}Be concentrations obtained from the samples of 1-10 mg agreed within a precision of 3-5% with the values previously determined using corresponding ordinary-size ({approx}200 mg) samples and the same AMS system. This fact demonstrates reliable determinations of {sup 10}Be with milligram levels of recent bulk sediments at MALT. On the other hand, a clear decline of the BeO{sup -} beam with tens of micrograms of {sup 9}Be carrier suggests that the combination of ten milligrams of sediments and a few hundred micrograms of the {sup 9}Be carrier is more convenient at this stage.

  4. The influence of technological parameters on malt quality produced from different triticale varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Grujić Olgica S.; Pejin Jelena D.; Denčić Srboljub S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of eight different triticale varieties, from selective experiments, crop 2007, from Rimski Šančevi (Serbia) location was performed. On the basis of results obtained from triticale and produced triticale malt analysis as well as during micromalting, technological quality of investigated triticale varieties was evaluated. The aim of the work was to determine if the gibberellic acid added during the germination phase had a positive influence on the degradation of triticale grain dur...

  5. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.

  6. Cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality results from the different steps of the malting process. Malting uses internal changes of the seed occurring during germination, such as enzymes synthesis, to obtain a good hydrolysis process and the components required. Among the three main hydrolytic events observed, that are namely starch degradation, cell wall breakdown and protein hydrolysis, an efficient cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is an essential condition for a final product of quality. Indeed, because of the physical barrier of the cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is one of the first steps expected from the process to gain access to the cell components. Moreover, viscosity problem and haze formation in malting industry are related to their presence during the process when inefficient degradation occurs, leading to increased production time and cost. Understanding the key elements in cell wall degradation is important for a better control. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans and arabinoxylans are the main constituents of cell wall. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans are unbranched chains of β-D-glucopyranose residues with β-(1,3 linkages and β-(1,4 linkages. Arabinoxylan consists in a backbone of D-xylanopyranosyl units linked by β-(1-4 bonds connected to single L-arabinofuranose by α-(1→2 or α-(1→3-linkages. Degradation of (1-3,1-4-β-glucans is processed by the (1-3,1-4-β-glucanases, the β-glucosidases and the β-glucane exohydrolases. It seems that the (1-3-β-glucanases are also involved. Arabinoxylans are mainly decomposed by (1-4-β-xylan endohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

  7. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

    2014-06-02

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  8. Lymphocyte signaling and activation by the CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 signalosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Isabel; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signalosome triggers canonical NF-κB signaling and lymphocyte activation upon antigen-receptor stimulation. Genetic studies in mice and the analysis of human immune pathologies unveiled a critical role of the CBM complex in adaptive immune responses. Great progress has been made in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms that dictate CBM assembly and disassembly. By bridging proximal antigen-receptor signaling to downstream signaling pathways, the CBM complex exerts a crucial scaffolding function. Moreover, the MALT1 subunit confers a unique proteolytic activity that is key for lymphocyte activation. Deregulated 'chronic' CBM signaling drives constitutive NF-κB signaling and MALT1 activation, which contribute to the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as lymphomagenesis. Thus, the processes that govern CBM activation and function are promising targets for the treatment of immune disorders. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the functions and mechanisms of CBM signaling in lymphocytes and how CBM deregulations contribute to aberrant signaling in malignant lymphomas.

  9. Structural architecture of the CARMA1/Bcl10/MALT1 signalosome: nucleation-induced filamentous assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qi; Yang, Chenghua; Zheng, Chao; Fontán, Lorena; David, Liron; Yu, Xiong; Bracken, Clay; Rosen, Monica; Melnick, Ari; Egelman, Edward H; Wu, Hao

    2013-09-26

    The CARMA1/Bcl10/MALT1 (CBM) signalosome mediates antigen receptor-induced NF-κB signaling to regulate multiple lymphocyte functions. While CARMA1 and Bcl10 contain caspase recruitment domains (CARDs), MALT1 is a paracaspase with structural similarity to caspases. Here we show that the reconstituted CBM signalosome is a helical filamentous assembly in which substoichiometric CARMA1 nucleates Bcl10 filaments. Bcl10 filament formation is a highly cooperative process whose threshold is sensitized by oligomerized CARMA1 upon receptor activation. In cells, both cotransfected CARMA1/Bcl10 complex and the endogenous CBM signalosome are filamentous morphologically. Combining crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron microscopy, we reveal the structure of the Bcl10 CARD filament and the mode of interaction between CARMA1 and Bcl10. Structure-guided mutagenesis confirmed the observed interfaces in Bcl10 filament assembly and MALT1 activation in vitro and NF-κB activation in cells. These data support a paradigm of nucleation-induced signal transduction with threshold response due to cooperativity and signal amplification by polymerization.

  10. METABOLIC AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE IN MILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH RYE FLAKES AND MALT EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bărăscu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye flakes and malt extract were added to milk in order to stimulate growth and fermentative activity of probioticbacteria and to obtain a probiotic product with pleasant sensory attributes. Probiotic culture used in this study containsbifidobacteria, Lb. acidophilus, Lactobacilus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus.Rye flakes have a stimulating effect more pronounced than malt extract on acidification capacity of the probioticculture, and to achieve an increase of the milk acidity of 7g lactic acid /dm3 (in 6h at 39oC the two ingredients must beadded in concentration of 2% and, respectively, 0.2%..The probiotic culture reach the greatest proteolytic activity when rye flakes are added in the proportion of 3% andmalt extract in the proportion of 0.1% and the amino acids released rate was 764.6 μg%. The lactose bioconversionrate was greater in the milk supplemented with rye flakes 3% and malt extract 0.1% and residual lactose was 3.84%.

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Mine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unknown whether primary ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a homogeneous entity, as there are few reports of the results of cytogenetic or molecular analyses of these tumors. Methods We performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis to detect translocations and aneuploidy in 34 cases of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, and reviewed the histopathological findings. Correlations between the results of FISH analysis, the histopathological features and the clinical data were also analyzed. Results Among the 34 cases, FISH analysis revealed t(14;18(q32;q21 in one case, trisomy 3 in 21 cases (62%, and trisomy 18 in 16 cases (47%. The cases with trisomy 18 had significantly more prominent lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs and less nodularity in the tumors. In regard to the clinical correlations, tumors with trisomy 18 were observed predominantly in females and younger patients; also, in the majority of the cases, the tumor was of conjunctival origin. All the cases with recurrence showed trisomy 18 in the tumor. Conclusion Primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma is a significantly heterogeneous entity. Cases with trisomy 18 may have unique clinicopathological features.

  12. 18F-FDG PET/CT and primary hepatic MALT: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Domenico; Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an extremely rare disease and its glucidic metabolic behavior is not clear. We retrospectively analyzed five patients with histological diagnosis of primary hepatic MALT lymphoma who underwent twelve 18F-FDG PET/CT. All staging 18F-FDG PET/CT were positive showing 18F-FDG uptake (average SUVmax was 5.62 ± 1.6) at the corresponding liver lesion. 18F-FDG PET/CT also was useful in evaluating the complete metabolic response after chemotherapy in three patients and radiotherapy in two. Besides, in one patient 18F-FDG PET/CT detected disease relapse during follow-up. Despite the low number of patients, our case series shows the 18F-FDG avidity of hepatic MALT and the possible role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of these patients, both for staging, treatment response evaluation and restaging. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

  13. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B. [Midwest Research Institute, Cary, NC (United States); Safriet, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  14. Characterization of lactobacilli from Scotch malt whisky distilleries and description of Lactobacillus ferintoshensis sp. nov., a new species isolated from malt whisky fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K L; Pettersson, B; Priest, F G

    2001-04-01

    Sixty-four strains of Lactobacillus were isolated from fermentation samples from 23 malt whisky distilleries located in the major whisky producing regions of Scotland. The strains were assigned to 26 ribotype patterns. Strains of some ribotype patterns were widely distributed and recovered from distilleries throughout Scotland, while strains representing other ribotypes were particular to a specific region or even a certain distillery. Repeated sampling of a single distillery over a 12 month period showed that the range of bacteria present, as indicated by ribotyping, was stable, but was influenced by changes in malt supply and the period of closure for annual maintenance. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis of ribotype representatives revealed Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus pentosus as the major species present in the distilleries; however, four isolates could not be identified by this procedure. Determination of the full 16S rDNA gene sequence from one of these isolates (strain R7-84) revealed >98.5% similarity to Lactobacillus buchneri and its phylogenetic neighbours. DNA from two other strains showed greater than 70% hybridization to DNA from R7-84 under non-stringent renaturation conditions and DNA from strain R7-84 shared less than 65% hybridization with members of the L. buchneri group. It is proposed that these three strains should be placed in a new species for which the name Lactobacillus ferintoshensis represented by the type strain R7-84(T) is suggested.

  15. Linfoma de celulas B de la zona marginal extraganglionar del tejido linfoide asociado a mucosa (linfoma MALT de pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vergara-Uzcategui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Los Linfomas Pulmonares Primarios son extremadamente raros (0,4% de los linfomas extraganglionares, y generalmente son de tejido linfoide asociado a mucosas (tipo MALT, con ocasionales linfomas de células grandes difusos. Los síntomas son inespecíficos, y casi la mitad de los pacientes son asintomáticos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, quien presentó durante 7 meses accesos diarios de tos seca, de predominio nocturno, asociados en el último mes a fiebre de 39ºC, disnea a medianos esfuerzos y expectoración verduzca. Los exámenes de laboratorio fueron normales. La radiografía de tórax mostró el mediastino ensanchado, un proceso en lóbulo medio con efecto atelectásico, y un nódulo en hemitórax izquierdo. La tomografía computarizada (TC torácica de alta resolución evidenció proceso alveolar derecho en lóbulo medio y un nódulo pulmonar izquierdo calcificado de tipo inespecífico. El estudio inmunohistoquímico de la biopsia pulmonar fue compatible con Linfoma de Células B de la zona marginal extraganglionar del tejido linfoide asociado a mucosa (Linfoma MALT de pulmón. La TC corporal y la Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones (PET evidenciaron importantes hallazgos complementarios para determinar la extensión de la enfermedad. El paciente se trato con quimioterapia y actualmente se encuentra en buenas condiciones, sin recidiva de la sintomatología. Dado lo infrecuente de la patología se presenta este caso y se hace una revisión de la literatura

  16. An unusual presentation of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikram Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma is a relatively rare disease; nevertheless, it is the third most common lymphoma type, accounting for 5–7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Case series and retrospective analysis published in the literature have suggested that extra gastrointestinal (GI MALT-type lymphoma can occur simultaneously with MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI tract. We report the case of a healthy, 64-year-old Caucasian male who presented with progressive fatigue, non-productive cough, and worsening exertional shortness of breath for 3 months who was subsequently diagnosed with gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or MALToma with simultaneous metastasis to the lung (bronchi based on biopsy reports. Case presentation: A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency room complaining of progressive fatigue for 3 months which had progressed to the point of hindering his usual activities of daily living (ADL. He had recently visited his primary care provider for evaluation of a non-productive cough and exertional shortness of breath. A chest radiography obtained at the time showed bilateral infiltrates. He was then treated for atypical pneumonia but his symptoms unfortunately did not improve. Initial investigations in the emergency room revealed severe anemia and a positive stool guaiac test. Imaging showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and an irregular gastric mass. Gastric and transbronchial biopsies were suggestive of extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with simultaneous metastasis to the bronchi. He was treated symptomatically with transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC and intravenous iron followed by radiotherapy. Helicobacter pylori infection was ruled out eliminating the possibility of treating him with eradication therapy. Conclusion: Although the stomach is the most common and most extensively studied site of involvement of MALT lymphomas, they can also emerge in many other

  17. Application of simulated annealing in simulation and optimization of drying process of Zea mays malt Aplicação do simulated annealing na simulação e otimização do processo de secagem do malte de Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. C. Benvenga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic simulation and drying process optimization of corn malt by Simulated Annealing (SA for estimation of temperature and time parameters in order to preserve maximum amylase activity in the obtained product are presented here. Germinated corn seeds were dried at 54-76 °C in a convective dryer, with occasional measurement of moisture content and enzymatic activity. The experimental data obtained were submitted to modeling. Simulation and optimization of the drying process were made by using the SA method, a randomized improvement algorithm, analogous to the simulated annealing process. Results showed that seeds were best dried between 3h and 5h. Among the models used in this work, the kinetic model of water diffusion into corn seeds showed the best fitting. Drying temperature and time showed a square influence on the enzymatic activity. Optimization through SA showed the best condition at 54 ºC and between 5.6h and 6.4h of drying. Values of specific activity in the corn malt were found between 5.26±0.06 SKB/mg and 15.69±0,10% of remaining moisture.Este trabalho objetivou a simulação da cinética e a otimização do processo de secagem do malte de milho por meio da técnica Simulated Annealing (SA, para estimação dos parâmetros de temperatura e tempo, tais que mantenham a atividade máxima das enzimas amilases no produto obtido. Para tanto, as sementes de milho germinadas foram secas entre 54-76°C, em um secador convectivo de ar. De tempo em tempo, a umidade e a atividade enzimática foram medidas. Esses dados experimentais foram usados para testar os modelos. A simulação e a otimização do processo foram feitas por meio do método SA, um algoritmo de melhoria randômica, análogo ao processo de têmpera simulada. Os resultados mostram que as sementes estavam secas após 3 h ou 5 h de secagem. Entre os modelos usados, o modelo cinético de difusão da água através das sementes apresentou o melhor ajuste. O tempo e a temperatura

  18. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  19. Relationship between malt qualities and p-amylase activity and protein content as affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; DAI Fei; WEI Kang; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different timing of N fertilizer application at the same rate on grain β-amylase activity, protein concentration, weight and malt quality of barley were studied. Grain β-amylase activity and protein concentration were significantly higher in treatments where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at booting stage only or equally applied at two-leaf stage and booting stage than in the treatment where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at two-leaf age stage only. On the other hand,grain weight and malt extract decreased with increased N application at booting stage. There were obvious differences between barley varieties and experimental years in the grain and malt quality response to the timing of N fertilizer application. It was found that grain protein concentration was significantly and positively correlated with β-amylase activity, but significantly and negatively correlated with malt extract and Kolbach index. The effect of grain protein concentration on malt quality was predominant over the effect of grain β-amylase activity.

  20. Changes in the MALT1-A20-NF-κB expression pattern may be related to T cell dysfunction in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Chen, Shaohua; Lu, Yuhong; Wang, Xu; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Lijian; Wu, Xiuli; Li, Bo; Li, Yangqiu

    2013-04-30

    To elucidate the characteristics of T-cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction in T-cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1), A20, NF-κB and MALT1-V1 gene expression levels in CD3+ T cells sorted from the peripheral blood of patients with AML were analyzed by real-time PCR. A significantly lower MALT1 and A20 expression level was found in T cells from patients with AML compared with healthy controls (p = 0.045, p MALT1-V1 (variant 1) was significantly higher in the AML group than in the healthy control group (p = 0.006), and the expression level of NF-κB was increased in the AML group. In conclusion, the characteristics of the expression pattern of MALT1-A20-NF-κB and the distribution of MALT1 variants in T cells from AML were first characterized. Overall, low TCR-CD3 signaling is related to low MALT1 expression, which may related to T cell immunodeficiency, while the up-regulation of MALT1-V1 may play a role in overcoming the T cell activity by downregulating A20 in patients with AML, which may be related to a specific response to AML-associated antigens.

  1. The Expression of MALT1 and Bcl2 in Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Its Significance%MALT1及Bcl2在MALT和DLBCL中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 杨文秀; 刘启兰; 郭宏伟; 裴媛媛

    2009-01-01

    目的: 了解MALT1和Bcl2表达对黏膜相关组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(MALT)和弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(DLBCL)的影响及肿瘤中两种蛋白表达的相互关系.方法: 收集MALT和DLBCL 64例,常规HE及免疫组织化学染色,观察两种淋巴瘤的组织形态学特点,检查肿瘤细胞的免疫表型和MALT1、Bcl2的表达,收集临床病理资料并随访,对所有资料进行统计学分析.结果: MALT1和Bcl2两种蛋白表达在MALT和DLBCL差异无显著性,较晚临床分期病例的表达明显多于较早分期病例,有淋巴结累及病例的表达明显多于无累及病例,肿瘤中两种蛋白的表达有明显的相关关系,生存状况MALT1阳性病例较阴性病例差、Bcl2阳性病例较阴性病例差,但无统计学意义.结论: Bcl2在MALT和DLBCL的表达可能与MALT1引起的NFκB异常活化有关,两种蛋白的表达对MALT和DLBCL的临床病理特征有明显影响.

  2. Expression feature of MALT 1,A20 and NF-κB in MM%MALT1-A20-NF-κB 信号分子在MM中的表达特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 李扬秋; 徐玲; 张帆; 徐艳; 吴秀丽; 杨力建; 陈少华; 李萡; 卢育洪

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To understand the expression feature of MALT1 ,A20 and NF-κB in the multiple my-eloma(MM)from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs).Methods:Real -time PCR with SYBR Green Ⅰ technique were used to determine the expression of MALT1 ,A20 and NF-κB genes from PBMCs of 20 MM patients(stageⅠ7 samples;stageⅡ3 samples;stage Ⅲ10 samples).The peripheral blood from 21 cases healthy individuals was served as control.By using β2-microglobulin gene (β2m)as an endogenous reference,relative mRNA expression level of MALT1 ,A20 and NF-κB genes was analyzed by using theα-ΔCt ×100%method.Results:The relative mRNA expression level of MALT1 and A20 in PB-MCs from MM patients was significantly lower than those from healthy individuals (P=0.000).Howev-er,the expression level of NF-κB gene was higher than those from healthy individuals (P>0.05 ),but there is no significant difference.In addition,there was a significant positive correlation between the rela-tive expression levels of MALT1 and NF-κB gene.However,there are no significant correlation in MALT1 ,A20 and NF-κB genes.Moreover,the expression level of MALT1 gene was significantly lower than those from healthy individuals (P<0.05 )in stageⅠ,stageⅡ and stage Ⅲ of MM.While the ex-pression level of A20 gene was also significantly lower than those from healthy individuals (P<0.05 ) stageⅠ,stageⅡ and stage Ⅲ of MM.No significant difference expression level of MALT1 ,A20,and NF-κB among stageⅠ.stageⅡ and stage Ⅲ of MM.Conclusion:In MM,when abnormal changes oc-curred in MALT1-A20 mediated cellular immune and inflammatory signaling pathways,it may affect the development of MM.%目的:了解多发性骨髓瘤(MM)患者外周血中黏膜相关组织淋巴瘤异位基因1(MALT1)、A20与核转录因子κB(NF-κB)基因的表达特点。方法:采用SYBR GreenⅠ荧光实时定量PCR和相对定量分析法检测20例MM患者(Ⅰ期7例,Ⅱ期3例,Ⅲ期10例)及21例健

  3. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLASGAL clumps with IRAS flux and MALT90 data (Stephens+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, I. W.; Jackson, J. M.; Whitaker, J. S.; Contreras, Y.; Guzman, A. E.; Sanhueza, P.; Foster, J. B.; Rathborne, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90GHz (MALT90) survey (Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; 2013PASA...30...38F; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J) mapped 16 lines for 3246 clumps, primarily high-mass star-forming clumps that are >200Mȯ, as identified from the ATLASGAL 870um survey (Schuller et al. 2009A&A...504..415S). In order to compare luminosities derived from IRAS (LIR) to molecular line luminosities from MALT90 (Lmolecule), we first matched the MALT90 clumps to the IRAS Point Source Catalog v2.1 (PSC; see Cat. II/125). See section 2.1 for further explanations. (1 data file).

  5. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (Pmedida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  6. TRAF2-binding BIR1 domain of c-IAP2/MALT1 fusion protein is essential for activation of NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J B; Samuel, T; Reed, J C

    2009-04-02

    Marginal zone mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphoma is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation occurs frequently in MALT lymphomas and creates a chimeric NF-kappaB-activating protein containing the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains of c-IAP2 (inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2) fused with portions of the MALT1 protein. The BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 interacts directly with TRAF2 (TNFalpha-receptor-associated factor-2), but its role in NF-kappaB activation is still unclear. Here, we investigated the role of TRAF2 in c-IAP2/MALT1-induced NF-kappaB activation. We show the BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 is essential for NF-kappaB activation, whereas BIR2 and BIR3 domains are not. Studies of c-IAP2/MALT1 BIR1 mutant (E47A/R48A) that fails to activate NF-kappaB showed loss of TRAF2 binding, but retention of TRAF6 binding, suggesting that interaction of c-IAP2/MALT1 with TRAF6 is insufficient for NF-kappaB induction. In addition, a dominant-negative TRAF2 mutant or downregulation of TRAF2 achieved by small interfering RNA inhibited NF-kappaB activation by c-IAP2/MALT1 showing that TRAF2 is indispensable. Comparisons of the bioactivity of intact c-IAP2/MALT1 oncoprotein and BIR1 E47A/R48A c-IAP2/MALT1 mutant that cannot bind TRAF2 in a lymphoid cell line provided evidence that TRAF2 interaction is critical for c-IAP2/MALT1-mediated increases in the NF-kappaB activity, increased expression of endogenous NF-kappaB target genes (c-FLIP, TRAF1), and resistance to apoptosis.

  7. Interplay between BCL10, MALT1 and IkappaBalpha during T-cell-receptor-mediated NFkappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gabrielle; Le Guelte, Armelle; Demian, Catherine; Vazquez, Aimé; Gavard, Julie; Bidère, Nicolas

    2010-07-15

    T-cell-receptor (TCR) signalling to NFkappaB requires the assembly of a large multiprotein complex containing the serine/threonine kinase CK1alpha, the scaffold protein CARMA1, the heterodimer BCL10-MALT1 (the CBM complex) and the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK). Although the mechanisms regulating recruitment and activation of IKK within the CBM microenvironment have been extensively studied, there is little understanding of how IKK subsequently binds and phosphorylates IkappaBalpha, the inhibitor of NFkappaB, to promote IkappaBalpha ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Here, we show that BCL10, MALT1 and IKK inducibly associate with IkappaBalpha in a complex that is physically distinct from the early CK1alpha-CBM signalosome. This IkappaBalpha-containing complex probably maturates from the CBM, because siRNA-based knockdown of CARMA1, CK1alpha and BCL10 hampered its assembly, leading to a reduction in NFkappaB activation. By contrast, CK1alpha normally recruited both BCL10 and ubiquitylated species of MALT1 when IkappaBalpha levels were reduced. However, knockdown of IkappaBalpha led to an altered ubiquitylation profile of BCL10-MALT1 combined with a defect in MALT1 reorganisation within large cytoplasmic structures, suggesting that, following stimulation, IkappaBalpha might also participate in MALT1 recycling. Altogether, our data suggest a two-step mechanism to connect active IKK to IkappaBalpha, and further unveil a potential role for IkappaBalpha in resetting TCR-mediated signalling.

  8. Study of regulatory T-cells in patients with gastric malt lymphoma: influence on treatment response and outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar García

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg play an essential role in modulating host responses to tumors and infections. The role of these cells in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas remains unknown. The aims of the study were to quantify the number of infiltrating FOXP3+ and CD3+ cells in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma at diagnosis and to study kinetics of these cells and CD20+ tumor cells after treatment and during long-term follow-up. METHODS: FOXP3+, CD3+ and CD20+ cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of cells was quantified using a micrometric ocular. Samples of 35 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma at diagnosis and after treatment were included. Diagnostic samples were compared to 19 cases of chronic gastritis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of the stomach. RESULTS: The median number of FOXP3+ infiltrating cells was higher (27 cells/cm(2 in gastric MALT patients than in DLBCL (10 cells; p = 0.162 but similar to chronic gastritis (20 cells; p = 0.605. No characteristic or specific distribution pattern of infiltrating FOXP3+ cells was found. Gastric MALT lymphoma patients responding to bacterial eradication therapy had higher number of FOXP3+ cells at study entry. Kinetics of both infiltrating FOXP3+ cells and tumor CD20+ cells were strongly dependent on the treatment administered. DISCUSSION: Gastric MALT lymphomas have a number of Treg cells more similar to chronic gastritis than to DLBCL. Patients with higher number of tumor infiltrating FOXP3+ cells at study entry seem to have better response to antibiotics. Kinetics of Treg and tumor cells are influenced by type of treatment.

  9. Evolution of the lactic acid bacterial community during malt whisky fermentation: a polyphasic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Sylvie; Priest, Fergus G

    2002-01-01

    The development of the lactic acid bacterial community in a commercial malt whisky fermentation occurred in three broad phases. Initially, bacteria were inhibited by strong yeast growth. Fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed, in this early stage, both cocci and rods that were at least partly derived from the wort and yeast but also stemmed from the distillery plant. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of partial 16S rRNA genes and sequence analysis revealed cocci related to Streptococcus thermophilus or Saccharococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus fermentum. The middle phase began 35 to 40 h after yeast inoculation and was characterized by exponential growth of lactobacilli and residual yeast metabolism. Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus paracasei, L. fermentum, and Lactobacillus ferintoshensis were detected in samples of fermenting wort examined by DGGE during this stage. Bacterial growth was accompanied by the accumulation of acetic and lactic acids and the metabolism of residual maltooligosaccharides. By 70 h, two new PCR bands were detected on DGGE gels, and the associated bacteria were largely responsible for the final phase of the fermentation. The bacteria were phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and strains similar to the former had previously been recovered from malt whisky fermentations in Japan. These were probably obligately homofermentative bacteria, required malt wort for growth, and could not be cultured on normal laboratory media, such as MRS. Their metabolism during the last 20 to 30 h of fermentation was associated with yeast death and autolysis and further accumulation of lactate but no additional acetate.

  10. Decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated during malt whisky fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, S; Priest, F G

    2000-12-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation.

  11. Mildew-resistant mutants induced in North American two- and six-rowed malting barley cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Cano, J.L.; Simiand, J.P.; Sopena, A.;

    2003-01-01

    and were shown to have two new alleles at the mlo locus; these were designated, respectively, mlo31 and mlo32. Mutant URS2, showing partial resistance, was inherited as a dominant gene, but was not an allele at the Mla locus. The mean yield of each mutant was higher than that of its parental line......, but both URS1 and URS2 showed lower malt extract than Ursula. This lower extract might be due to the smaller grain size of the mutants that could, in turn, result from necrotic lesions in the leaves, as implied by the effects on grain yield....

  12. Short Communication: Preferential Killing of HIV Latently Infected CD4+ T Cells by MALT1 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; He, Hui; Gong, Leyi; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report that the addition of an host paracaspase MALT1 inhibitor, MI-2, to HIV latently infected ACH-2, Jurkat E4, and J-LAT cells accelerated cell death in the presence of cell stimuli or the protein kinase C agonist, bryostatin 1. MI-2-mediated cell death correlated with the induction of the cellular RNase MCPIP1 and requires the presence of viral component(s). Altogether, the combination of MI-2 and bryostatin 1 displays selective killing of HIV latently infected CD4+ T cells. PMID:26728103

  13. Short Communication: Preferential Killing of HIV Latently Infected CD4(+) T Cells by MALT1 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; He, Hui; Gong, Leyi; Fu, Mingui; Wang, Tony T

    2016-02-01

    We report that the addition of an host paracaspase MALT1 inhibitor, MI-2, to HIV latently infected ACH-2, Jurkat E4, and J-LAT cells accelerated cell death in the presence of cell stimuli or the protein kinase C agonist, bryostatin 1. MI-2-mediated cell death correlated with the induction of the cellular RNase MCPIP1 and requires the presence of viral component(s). Altogether, the combination of MI-2 and bryostatin 1 displays selective killing of HIV latently infected CD4(+) T cells.

  14. Imobilização de enzimas de milho maltado em gel Gel immobilization of enzymes from malted corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Luísa de Farias Oliveira Bezerra e Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou a otimização da imobilização das enzimas amilases extraídas do malte do milho, usando alginato de sódio. A concentração do malte no extrato, a porcentagem de alginato de sódio e o pH foram usados como fatores que influenciam na imobilização das enzimas. Os resultados mostraram que as melhores condições de imobilização foram obtidas quando se usou as soluções de malte de milho em duas faixas de concentrações, uma entre 3,75 a 5 g.L-1 e outra entre 15 a 16,25 g.L-1, em pH entre 4,83 a 6,6 e 4% (m/v de alginato de sódio, condições nas quais se conseguiu imobilizar 100% das enzimas com baixa perda de atividade. Este trabalho mostrou como se obter amilases de malte de milho imobilizadas por oclusão em alginato de sódio e que podem ser usadas em processos industriais de hidrólise de amido.This work aimed at optimizing the immobilization of amylases obtained from corn malt by the occlusion method with sodium alginate. Corn malt concentration, sodium alginate mass percentage and pH were used as factors that influence enzyme immobilization. The results showed that the best immobilization conditions were obtained at two ranges of corn malt concentration, one between 3.75-5 g.L-1 and the other between 15-16.25 g.L-1, at pH between 4.83-6.6 and at 4% (m/m sodium alginate. In these conditions, 100% of the enzymes were immobilized with a low loss of activity. This work showed how to obtain immobilized corn malt amylases that can be used in industrial processes of starch hydrolysis by occlusion in sodium alginate.

  15. Detection of API2-MALT1 fusion gene transcript and its diagnostic value in pulmonary MALT lymphoma%肺原发性MALT型淋巴瘤API2-MALT1融合基因的检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 张杰; 何小金

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨在MALT淋巴瘤石蜡组织中检测API2-MALT1融合基因的可行性及API2-MALT1融合基因mRNA表达在肺MALT淋巴瘤诊断中的意义.方法收集肺MALT淋巴瘤石蜡包埋组织标本10例, 以慢性淋巴结炎石蜡包埋组织标本5例作阴性对照,β-肌动蛋白作内对照, 用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和巢式PCR结合, 检测肺MALT淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1融合基因的mRNA表达.结果 10例肺MALT淋巴瘤均检出内对照β-actin的mRNA表达, 3例检出API2-MALT1融合基因的mRNA表达, 被检出的3例病变均局限在一侧肺组织, 单个病灶最大径小于5 cm.其中2例出现不同程度的呼吸道症状,1例为体检发现,所有慢性淋巴结炎病例均未检出融合基因的表达.结论通过RT-PCR和PCR扩增结合的方法检测石蜡包埋组织中API2-MALT1融合基因的表达是完全可行的, API2-MALT1融合基因的表达与MALT淋巴瘤的病变范围有一定关系.

  16. MALT1 is required for EGFR-induced NF-κB activation and contributes to EGFR-driven lung cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D; Jiang, C; Ma, Z; Blonska, M; You, M J; Lin, X

    2016-02-18

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been implicated in having a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of many types of human cancers. Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can directly activate NF-κB, the mechanism by which EGFR induces NF-κB activation and the role of NF-κB in EGFR-associated tumor progression is still not fully defined. Herein, we found that mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is involved in EGFR-induced NF-κB activation in cancer cells, and that MALT1 deficiency impaired EGFR-induced NF-κB activation. MALT1 mainly functions as a scaffold protein by recruiting E3 ligase TRAF6 to IKK complex to activate NF-κB in response to EGF stimulation. Functionally, MALT1 inhibition shows significant defects in EGFR-associated tumor malignancy, including cell migration, metastasis and anchorage-independent growth. To further access a physiological role of MALT1-dependent NF-κB activation in EGFR-driven tumor progression, we generated triple-transgenic mouse model (tetO-EGFR(L858R); CCSP-rtTA; Malt1(-/-)), in which mutant EGFR-driven lung cancer was developed in the absence of MALT1 expression. MALT1-deficient mice show significantly less lung tumor burden when compared with its heterozygous controls, suggesting that MALT1 is required for the progression of EGFR-induced lung cancer. Mechanistically, MALT1 deficiency abolished both NF-κB and STAT3 activation in vivo, which is a result of a defect of interleukin-6 production. In comparison, MALT1 deficiency does not affect tumor progression in a mouse model (LSL-K-ras(G12D); CCSP-Cre; Malt1(-/-)) in which lung cancer is induced by expressing a K-ras mutant. Thus, our study has provided the cellular and genetic evidence that suggests MALT1-dependent NF-κB activation is important in EGFR-associated solid-tumor progression.

  17. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  18. Transcripts of MALT1 gene in healthy individuals and B-cell leukemia patients%MALT1基因2种转录本在正常人和B细胞白血病患者中的表达特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 张帆; 徐艳; 吴秀丽; 陈少华; 杨力建; 李萡; 卢育洪; 李扬秋

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the difference of the distribution and expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) transcripts in healthy individuals and B-cell leukemia patients.METHODS:Two pairs of primers were designed according to the sequences of different MALT1 transcripts.RT-PCR was performed to detect the distribution of MALT1 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 8 healthy individuals,8 patients with B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) and 8 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL).The mRNA expression of MALT1 in all samples from the 3 groups was determined by real-time PCR.RESULTS:Expected amplicons were amplified by the 2 primer pairs,and 2 PCR products of different sizes were amplified by the first primer pair (the larger one included exons 5,6,7,8 and 9,and the small one included exons 5,6,8 and 9).Moreover,the MALT1 transcript variant 1 was conformed by the second primer pair.All the PCR products were confirmed by the nucleotide sequencing analysis.Two transcripts of MALT1 were identified in all samples from both healthy individuals and Bcell leukemia patients,and the expression level of MALT1 was predominant in transcript variant 2.The gray level of MALT1 transcript variant 1 in B-ALL patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals,whereas the MALT1 transcript variant 2 was significantly lower than that in healthy group.However,no significant difference of the gray level was found in the 2 MALT1 transcript variants in B-CLL group as compared with healthy group.In addition,the expression level of MALT1 mRNA in B-ALL group (median =1.253) was lower than that in healthy group (median =1.976,P =0.05),while no significant difference of the expression level of MALT1 mRNA between B-CLL patients and healthy individuals was found.CONCLUSION:Two transcripts of MALT1 have common distribution in both healthy individuals and B-cell leukemia patients,while the significant

  19. The status of the AMS system at MALT in its 20th year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmatsu@um.u-tokyo.ac.jp [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko S. [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ito, Seiji; Morita, Akira [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kusuno, Haruka [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyake, Yasuto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Honda, Maki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Bautista VII, Angel T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawamoto, Marina; Tokuyama, Hironori [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was designed for a ‘highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system’ using an ion-beam generated by a Pelletron™ 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently, a multi-nuclide AMS ({sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 129}I) system is available and shows good performance in both precision and sensitivity, and the accelerator serves for PIXE, NRA, ERDA/RBS measurements as well. The total operation time of the accelerator has been over 95,000 hours since the start of MALT, 20 years ago. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, many projects related to {sup 129}I have been conducted. The retrospective reconstruction of the {sup 131}I distribution at the accident from {sup 129}I is one of the most important missions for dose evaluation of the residents. The accident-derived {sup 129}I is also quite useful as a tracer for the general iodine dynamics in the environment. As a new tool for environmental assessment related to nuclear activity, including the global fallout from past atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, effects from the spent fuel reprocessing plant, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and FDNPP, a {sup 236}U-AMS system is now under development.

  20. CHANGES OF THE SELECTED PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM ATCC 4080 DURING STORAGE OF MALT BEVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kraszewska

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to obtain malt beverage, which includes high number of viable lactic acid bacteria and has a good sensor quality for eight weeks of storage at the temperature of 22°C. L. plantarum ATCC 4080 strain after four weeks of storage did not reveal antagonistic activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. This strain after two, six and eight weeks of storage had antagonistic properties. The tested strain after two and four weeks of storage did not survive during incubation at pH 2.5 and next in malt beverage with 3 mmol/dm3 deoxycholate sodium, while survived in these conditions after six and eight weeks. In case of incubation at pH 2.5 and next in aqueous solution of deoxycholate sodium tested strain after four and six weeks of storage had survival ability. The survival ability in these conditions of the tested strain after two and eight weeks of storage were not investigated.

  1. Textile dye removal from aqueous solutions by malt bagasse: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Klaiani B; Chaves, Eduardo S; Sanchez, Jefferson D S; Watanabe, Erica R L R; Pietrobelli, Juliana M T A; Lenzi, Giane G

    2016-02-01

    The biosorption of orange solimax TGL 182% (OS-TGL) textile dye onto new and low cost biossorbent (malt bagasse) in aqueous solutions was investigated. The malt bagasse was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area (BET method).Batch biosorption experiments were conducted in order to determine the following parameters: particles size, pH, agitation speed, temperature, contact time, biomass dosage, influence of the ionic strength and, finally, the influence of other textile dye on the OS-TGL biosorption. The optimum conditions for OS-TGL removal were obtained at pH 1.5, agitation speed of 150rpm, contact time of 180min and biomass dosage 2, 8gL(-1). The results show that the kinetics of biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order model and by increasing the temperature from 293 up to 313K, the biosorption capacity was improved. The Langmuir model showed better fit and the estimated biosorption capacity was 23.2mgg(-1). The negative values of Gibbs free energy, ΔG°, and positive value of enthalpy, ΔH°, confirm the spontaneous nature and endothermic character of the biosorption process. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance in high salt concentrations. The removal capacity (>95%) was not affected with the presence of other textile dyes.

  2. Regulation of NF-κB signaling by caspases and MALT1 paracaspase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens Staal; Tine Bekaert; Rudi Beyaert

    2011-01-01

    Caspases are intracellular proteases that are best known for their function in apoptosis signaling.It has become evident that many caspases also function in other signaling pathways that propagate cell proliferation and inflammation,but studies on the inflammatory function of caspases have mainly been limited to caspase-1-mediated cytokine processing.Emerging evidence,however,indicates an important contribution of caspases as mediators or regulators of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)signaling,which plays a key role in inflammation and immunity.Much still needs to be learned about the mechanisms that govern the activation and regulation of NF-κB by caspases,and this review provides an update of this area.Whereas apoptosis signaling is dependent on the catalytic activity of caspases,they mainly act as scaffolding platforms for other signaling proteins in the case of NF-κB signaling.Caspase proteolytic activity,however,counteracts the pro-survival function of NF-κB by cleaving specific signaling molecules.A striking exception is the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1(MALT1),whose adaptor and proteolytic activity are both needed to initiate a full blown NF-κB response in antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.Understanding the role of caspases and MALT1 in the regulation of NF-κB signaling is of high interest for therapeutic immunomodulation.

  3. MALT1 is not alone after all: identification of novel paracaspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulpiau, Paco; Driege, Yasmine; Staal, Jens; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-03-01

    Paracaspases and metacaspases are two families of caspase-like proteins identified in 2000. Up until now paracaspases were considered a single gene family with one known non-metazoan paracaspase in the slime mold Dictyostelium and a single animal paracaspase called MALT1. Human MALT1 is a critical signaling component in many innate and adaptive immunity pathways that drive inflammation, and when it is overly active, it can also cause certain forms of cancer. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of two new vertebrate paracaspases, PCASP2 and PCASP3. Functional characterization indicates that both scaffold and protease functions are conserved across the three vertebrate paralogs. This redundancy might explain the loss of two of the paralogs in mammals and one in Xenopus. Several of the vertebrate paracaspases currently have incorrect or ambiguous annotations. We propose to annotate them accordingly as PCASP1, PCASP2, and PCASP3 similar to the caspase gene nomenclature. A comprehensive search in other metazoans and in non-metazoan species identified additional new paracaspases. We also discovered the first animal metacaspase in the sponge Amphimedon. Comparative analysis of the active site suggests that paracaspases constitute one of the several subclasses of metacaspases that have evolved several times independently.

  4. [MALT B cell lymphoma with kidney damage and monoclonal gammopathy: a case study and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Vega-Cabrera, C; Peces, C; Pobes, A; Fresno, M F

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) involving the left kidney and simultaneous onset of a monoclonal gammopathy IgM kappa. No predisposing local inflammatory condition was identified. Following left nephrectomy, the renal specimen showed the centrocyte like cells and lymphoid cells in the lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for CD20 and CD79α. The neoplastic cells expressed monotypic cytoplasmic IgM kappa. The demonstration of bone marrow cells of B-lineage expressing the same monoclonal protein as the tumor suggested bone marrow involvement, even in the absence of identical morphology. Despite chemotherapy and rituximab treatment, clinical follow-up showed right kidney extension with high-grade transformation, and finally systemic dissemination. This case illustrates that the kidney is among the sites that may be involved by MALT B-cell lymphomas in a primary or secondary fashion, and the need for expanded investigation of the possible dissemination. We review the literature on this unusual extranodal lymphoma.

  5. [A Case of MALT Lymphoma of the Rectum Treated with Intersphincteric Resection (ISR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokura, Tomohisa; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-11-01

    A 60-year-old woman visited a local hospital complaining of melena. On colonoscopy, she was found to have 2 tumors in the lower rectum, each of approximately 10 mm in diameter. A biopsy of the tumors indicated MALT lymphoma, and the patient was referred to our hospital. We performed intersphincteric resection (ISR) with lymph node dissection according to the guidelines for the treatment of rectal cancer for 2 reasons. One reason was that eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori was not effective in this case, and we needed to obtain an accurate histopathological diagnosis as to whether the patient had diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The other reason was that it was localized disease in the rectum, and that curative resection could be performed. MALT lymphoma of the rectum occurs frequently in the lower rectum and has a relatively good prognosis. It is important to consider the quality of life when selecting an operative method. ISR is thought to be a good option.

  6. Chemical Evolution in High-Mass Star-Forming Regions: Results from the MALT90 Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hoq, Sadia; Foster, Jonathan B; Sanhueza, Patricio; Guzman, Andres; Whitaker, J Scott; Claysmith, Christopher; Rathborne, Jill M; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H2 column densities for each clump from Herschel Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N2H+, HCO+, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The Herschel dust tempe...

  7. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  8. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - I. Techniques and spectral line data

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, Christopher H; Lowe, Vicki; Voronkov, Maxim A; Ellingsen, Simon P; Breen, Shari L; Purcell, Cormac R; Barnes, Peter J; Burton, Michael G; Cunningham, Maria R; Hill, Tracey; Jackson, James M; Longmore, Steven N; Peretto, Nicolas; Urquhart, James S

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from the MALT-45 (Millimetre Astronomer's Legacy Team - 45 GHz) Galactic Plane survey. We have observed 5 square-degrees ($l = 330 - 335$, $b = \\pm0.5$) for spectral lines in the 7 mm band (42-44 and 48-49 GHz), including $\\text{CS}$ $(1-0)$, class I $\\text{CH}_3\\text{OH}$ masers in the $7(0,7)-6(1,6)$ $\\text{A}^{+}$ transition and $\\text{SiO}$ $(1-0)$ $v=0,1,2,3$. MALT-45 is the first unbiased, large-scale, sensitive spectral line survey in this frequency range. In this paper, we present data from the survey as well as a few intriguing results; rigorous analyses of these science cases are reserved for future publications. Across the survey region, we detected 77 class I $\\text{CH}_3\\text{OH}$ masers, of which 58 are new detections, along with many sites of thermal and maser $\\text{SiO}$ emission and thermal $\\text{CS}$. We found that 35 class I $\\text{CH}_3\\text{OH}$ masers were associated with the published locations of class II $\\text{CH}_3\\text{OH}$, $\\text{H}_2\\text{O}$ and $...

  9. Prevalence of API2-MALT1 fusion gene in gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and diffuse large B cell lymphomas%胃肠道黏膜相关边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤和弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1融合基因表达的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 陆洪芬; 盛伟琪; 施达仁

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of the prevalence of t(11;18) (q21;q21)/ AP12-MALT1 fusion gene between gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods A total of 57 cases gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas (38 gastric and 19 intestinal lymphomas), 32 DLBCL (28 gastric and 4 intestinal lymphomas) and 7 cases gastric DLBCL accompanied MALT lymphoma were collected from the Cancer Hospital of Fudan University. API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using both dual fusion translocation and break apart probes. Results Among gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas, API2-MALT1 fusion gene was found in 12 of 57 cases (21.1% , 10 gastric and 2 intestinal lymphomas). In contrast, the fusion gene was not found in all 32 DLBCL and 7 gastric DLBCL with MALT lymphoma component. There was statistical significant difference between two groups (X~2=9.383, P=0.001). Conclusions API2-MALT1 fusion gene is a distinctive genetic aberration in MALT lymphomas, and is not present in DLBCL. The findings suggest that gastrointestinal tract MALT lymphomas with API2-MALT1 fusion geue may not transform into DLBCL, which may represent primary lymphoma or transformed API2-MALT1 negative MALT lymphomas.%目的 比较t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALX1融合基因在胃肠道黏膜相关边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(MALN淋巴瘤)和弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤(DLBCL)中的发生情况,探讨t(11;18)(q21;q21)与胃肠道MALT淋巴瘤和DLBCL间演进的关系.方法 收集57例胃肠道MALT淋巴瘤(包括38例胃和19例肠),32例胃肠道DLBCL(包括28例胃和4例肠)和7例胃DLBCL同时合并MALT淋巴瘤成分,用荧光原位杂交(FISH)检测API2-MALT1融合基因.使用的探针包括API2-MALT1双色融合易位探针和MALT1双色分离重排探针.结果 在MALT淋巴瘤中有21.1%(12/57,包括10例胃和2例肠)发现API2-MALT1融合基因,而在32例DLBCL和7例DLBCL与MALT淋巴瘤混合

  10. Identification of β-Lapachone Analogs as Novel MALT1 Inhibitors To Treat an Aggressive Subtype of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Min; Jeong, Yujeong; Lee, Suhyun; Im, Honggu; Tae, Hyun Seop; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Hee Dong; Park, Jonghoon; Hong, Sungwoo

    2015-11-12

    The treatment of activated B cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) is one of the urgent unmet medical needs because it is the most resistant DLBCL subtype to current therapies eagerly awaiting effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, the paracaspase MALT1 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. Herein, we report a new class of MALT1 inhibitors developed by high-throughput screening and structure-based drug design. The original hit, 4-amino-1,2-naphthoquinone series inhibited MALT1 activity but suffered from poor cellular activity. The extensive pharmacophore search led to the discovery of structurally similar β-lapachone that is a direct inhibitor of MALT1 and possesses favorable physicochemical properties. Molecular simulation studies suggested the possibility of the formation of a covalent bond between MALT1 and β-lapachone, which was corroborated by experimental wash-out studies. Inspired by this, we explored the structure-activity relationships by incorporating electron-withdrawing substituents at C8 position of β-lapachone. These MALT1 inhibitors exhibited potent antiproliferative activity to OCI-LY3 cell line and inhibited the cleavage of CYLD mediated MALT1.

  11. Immunohistochemical comparison of CD5, lambda, and kappa expression in primary and recurrent buccal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mituyoshi; Goto, Kaoru

    2011-09-06

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Primary MALT lymphomas can also occur in the oral cavity, although their appearance in this location is rare. The neoplastic cells of which MALT lymphomas are composed express B-cell antigens and show monotypic immunoglobulin expression with light-chain restriction.Although neoplastic MALT lymphoma cells do not express CD5, previous studies have shown that CD5 positive MALT lymphomas are more prone to dissemination than those that do not express CD5. Moreover, there are some reports that describe kappa- and lambda- dual light chain expression in B cell malignant neoplasms.A 66-year-old Japanese woman with swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. The lesion was excised and was pathologically diagnosed as a MALT lymphoma tumor with a t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation.Swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred 2 years later. The recurrent tumor was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma.Immunohistochemical examination of CD5, lambda, and kappa expressions revealed that the primary tumor was positive for CD5, kappa, and lambda, but the recurrent tumor was weakly positive for CD5 and kappa.With respect to lambda positivity, the recurrent tumor showed negativity.Our study suggests that immunohistochemical expression of CD5, kappa, and lambda in oral MALT lymphoma have the risk of recurrence.We first described the recurrence of CD5 positive MALT lymphoma in the oral cavity and compared the immunohistochemical expressions of CD5, lambda, and kappa between the primary and recurrent tumors.

  12. MALT1 inhibitors prevent the development of DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice via inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Hang, Nan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shen, Yan; Cao, Jingsong; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-05-24

    Mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1), a paracaspase and essential regulator for nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) activation, plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Suppression of MALT1 protease activity with small molecule inhibitors showed promising efficacies in subtypes of B cell lymphoma and improvement in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. However, whether MALT1 inhibitors could ameliorate colitis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the pharmacological effect of two specific MALT1 inhibitors MI-2 and mepazine on the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice, followed by mechanistic analysis on NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Treatment with MI-2 and mepazine dose-dependently attenuated symptoms of colitis in mice, evidenced by reduction in the elevated disease activity index, the shortening of colon length as well as the histopathologic improvement. Moreover, protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-17A and IFN-γ, were markedly suppressed by MALT1 inhibitors. The underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of MALT1 inhibitors in DSS-induced colitis may be attributed to its inhibition on NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. The in vitro study showed that MALT1 inhibitors decreased production of IL-1β/IL-18 in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells and bone marrow derived macrophage via suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of the protease activity of MALT1 might be a viable strategy to treat inflammatory bowel disease and the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activation are critical components in MALT1 signaling cascades in this disease model.

  13. 77 FR 22485 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... the brand label or back label. * * * * * PART 7--LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES 0 5. The... or carmine list the additive(s) prominently and conspicuously on the brand label or on a back label... order to reduce the burden on small companies that are already facing limited financial resources due...

  14. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  15. A role for MALT1 activity in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus latency and growth of primary effusion lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, L; Passelli, K; Pelzer, C; Perroud, M; Konrad, A; Thurau, M; Stürzl, M; Dai, L; Trillo-Tinoco, J; Del Valle, L; Qin, Z; Thome, M

    2017-03-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an incurable malignancy that develops in immunodeficient patients as a consequence of latent infection of B-cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV). Malignant growth of KSHV-infected B cells requires the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which controls maintenance of viral latency and suppression of the viral lytic program. Here we show that the KSHV proteins K13 and K15 promote NF-κB activation via the protease mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein-1 (MALT1), a key driver of NF-κB activation in lymphocytes. Inhibition of the MALT1 protease activity induced a switch from the latent to the lytic stage of viral infection, and led to reduced growth and survival of PEL cell lines in vitro and in a xenograft model. These results demonstrate a key role for the proteolytic activity of MALT1 in PEL, and provide a rationale for the pharmacological targeting of MALT1 in PEL therapy.

  16. Psoriasis mutations disrupt CARD14 autoinhibition promoting BCL10-MALT1-dependent NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ashleigh; O'Sullivan, Paul A; Breyer, Felix; Ghose, Ashavari; Cao, Li; Krappmann, Daniel; Bowcock, Anne M; Ley, Steven C

    2016-06-15

    Inherited and de novo mutations in the CARD14 gene promote the development of psoriasis, an inflammatory disease of the skin. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14 (CARD14) is a member of the CARMA protein family that includes the structurally related CARD11 adaptor that mediates NF-κB activation by antigen receptors. We investigated the mechanism by which CARD14 mutation in psoriasis activates NF-κB. In contrast with wild-type CARD14, CARD14(E138A) and CARD14(G117S) psoriasis mutants interacted constitutively with BCL10 and MALT1, and triggered BCL10- and MALT1-dependent activation of NF-κB in keratinocytes. These alterations disrupted the inhibitory effect of the CARD14 linker region (LR) on NF-κB activation by facilitating BCL10 binding. Therefore, psoriasis mutations activated CARD14 by a mechanism analogous to oncogenic CARD11 mutations in non-Hodgkin B cell lymphomas. CARD14(E138A) also stimulated MALT1 paracaspase activity and activated both ERK1/2 and p38α MAP kinases. Inhibition of MALT1 with mepazine reduced CARD14(E138A)-induced expression of specific psoriasis-associated transcripts in keratinocytes. Our results establish the mechanism whereby gain-of-function CARD14 variants, which induce psoriatic disease in affected individuals, activate pro-inflammatory signalling.

  17. 76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 5 RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed...

  18. Potential of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the growth ofFusarium culmorum in the malting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liske, R; Niessen, L; Vogel, R

    2000-03-01

    25 microorganisms were used for tested for their potential to reduce growth of toxigenic and gushing-activeFusarium culmorum strains during the malting process. Twelve isolates were found to substantially decrease the growth ofF. culmorum under the conditions applied.

  19. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: II. Alpha-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltose, the primary product of starch degradation during mashing, has the potential as a compatible solute to affect the activity of and increase the thermostability of barley malt alpha-amylase activity at high temperatures used in mashing and temperatures above those normally used in mashing. To ...

  20. Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiora, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production. Dimitra Pantiora1, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti1, Ioannis D. Manariotis2, Alexis Lycourghiotis1, Christos Kordulis1,3 (1) University of Patras, Department of Chemistry, GR 26500, Patras, Greece, (2) University of Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, Patras, Greece, (3) Institute of Chemical Engineering Science (FORTH/ ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR 26500, Patras, Greece Biodiesel is an attractive renewable fuel, environmentally friendly, and can readily be synthesized from the triglycerides found in animal fats and vegetable oils. It can be used in existing engines. Biodiesel consists of fatty acid alkyl esters. Conversion of triglycerides to biodiesel fuel is commonly achieved through a series of transesterification reactions involving the reaction of an alkoxy group of an ester (i.e., mono-, di-, or triglyceride) with that of a small alcohol (usually methanol). This reaction is traditionally catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts, such as bases or mineral acids. Basic catalysts have been proved to be much more active than acidic ones. However, due to environmental (waste water) and economic concerns (catalyst separation and product and by-product cleaning), heterogeneous catalysts are much more desirable. In the present study we have evaluated the use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, as a potential basic catalyst, for transesterification of triglycerides using triacetin as a probe molecule. The biochar used in this study was prepared by heating malt spent rootlets in an oxygen-limited environment. It is a carbon rich material, containing 66% C, 22% O, 0.45% Mg, 0.86% Si, 5.7% K, 1.5% Cl, 0.61% Ca, and 2.4% P. Aqueous suspension of this material equilibrates at pH= 10. This is probably due to high K content. Furthermore, it exhibits high specific surface area (SSA= 183 m2g-1). The above described characteristics make this material very promising catalyst for

  1. 原发性MALT淋巴瘤API2-MALT1融合基因多种变异体的表达及其意义%Expression of the Variants of API2-MALT1 Fusion Gene and Its Significance in Primary MALT Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 张杰; 李俸媛

    2004-01-01

    目的:检查API2-MALT1融合基因多种变异体mRNA在MALT淋巴瘤中的表达情况,探讨其表达与MALT淋巴瘤的临床病理特征及预后的关系.方法:收集胃和肺MALT淋巴瘤石蜡包埋标本共29例,慢性淋巴结炎5例.采用RT-PCR和巢式PCR相结合检测MALT淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1的mRNA.将29例分为API2-MALT1mRNA表达组及未表达组,了解两组患者临床病理学特征和预后的差异.结果:MALT淋巴瘤中两种API2-MALT1变异体被检出,总检出率为48.2%,慢性淋巴结炎未检出,与未表达组相比,表达组临床病理分期偏低,细胞增殖活性和淋巴结受累有降低和减轻的趋势,两组间病变范围、浸润深度等特征及预后无明显差异.结论:API2-MALT1mRNA的表达可能与MALT淋巴瘤的淋巴结受累、临床病理分期及细胞增殖有关,与MALT淋巴瘤的浸润深度、病变范围及预后等无明显相关:不同的变异体表达与MALT淋巴瘤的发生部位有关.

  2. Fertilización nitrogenada y balance de nutrientes en cebada cervecera Nitrogen fertilization and nutrients balance in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Landriscini

    2010-12-01

    testigo y fertilizadas fue de 87 y 68%, respectivamente, para el promedio de los dos años estudiados. El método DRIS fue un buen indicador del balance nutricional de la planta y de la respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada.The wider use of malting barley with high yield potential will necessarily increase soil nutrient requirements, the resulting nutritional deficiency placing constraints on production. The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS approach uses leaf nutrient relationships to rank the importance of different nutrients in limiting crop yield. The objectives of the present study were to: a evaluate the sensitivity of the DRIS methodology in detecting responses to nitrogen (N fertilizer; b establish the ranking of the main macronutrient requirements; and c determine whether N application improves the nutrient balance in plants. Malting barley plants were taken from fertilizer experiments carried out in 1999 and 2000 and sampled at the tillering and heading stages. At tillering, N was found to be the most deficient nutrient in the control and fertilized plots and S in cases where N was more abundant (fertilized with 30 or 60 kg N ha-1. The Nutritional Balance Index (IBN and N:S ratio show a slight nutritional imbalance at this stage. At the heading stage the plants showed significant N deficiency, followed in many cases by S deficiency, directly affecting yield parameters. No P and K deficiencies were registered in the soils. In 1999, yields were low and showed fertilization response except in Alberti, where nitrate availability and yields were high. In 2000, higher water availability gave rise to higher yields with marked deficiencies in N owing to the shortage of N availably at sowing. S alternated with N in the order of requirements and IBN values decreased with increasing N availability. There was an 87% and 68% correlation between this index and the yields of the control and fertilized plots, respectively. The DRIS approach proved a good

  3. Malt hydrolysis of sweet-potatoes and eddoes for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosein, Rhonda; Mellowes, W.A. (University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    In the Caribbean the main root crops produced are cassava, sweet-potatoes, eddoes, dasheen and yam. The production of ethanol from these starchy substrates first requires the hydrolysis of the starch into simpler sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or by means of acids. The root crops selected for study were sweet-potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and eddoes (Colocasia antiquorum esculenta var. globulifera). They were hydrolysed using the enzymes contained in malt. The sugars obtained under the above conditions were 5.6 and 5.4% (w/v) for sweet-potatoes and eddoes, respectively. The corresponding starch conversions were 88 and 92%. Fermentation of the above hydrolysates gave alcohol in the region of 2.3 and 2.2% (v/v) for sweet-potatoes and eddoes, respectively. The conversion of sugar to alcohol was 91 and 89%. (author).

  4. Malte Friedrich, Urbane Klänge. Popmusik und Imagination der Stadt, Bielefeld: Transcript 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic LaRue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragen der Urbanität rücken seit einigen Jahren vermehrt ins Zentrum des Interesses der Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften und so auch der Musikwissenschaft. Ein aktueller Beitrag zu möglichen Korrelationen von Musik und urbanem Raum ist vorliegende Arbeit des Soziologen Malte Friedrich. Der Autor widmet sich der Frage, "welchen Einfluss die Stadtumgebung auf die Produktion von populärer Musik hat und wie diese die Wahrnehmungsweise und das Erleben von Stadt mit beeinflusst." (S. 14 Dabei geht es ihm um die Schließung einer Lücke in der Stadtforschung, die er in der fehlenden Würdigung musikalischer Klänge als Repräsentationen des Urbanen ausmacht.

  5. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  6. The Temperature Fuzzy Control System of Barleythe Malt Drying Based on Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyang; Bi, Yang; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jingjing; Yun, Jianmin

    The control strategy of temperature and humidity in the beer barley malt drying chamber based on fuzzy logic control was implemented.Expounded in this paper was the selection of parameters for the structure of the regulatory device, as well as the essential design from control rules based on the existing experience. A temperature fuzzy controller was thus constructed using relevantfuzzy logic, and humidity control was achieved by relay, ensured the situation of the humidity to control the temperature. The temperature's fuzzy control and the humidity real-time control were all processed by single chip microcomputer with assembly program. The experimental results showed that the temperature control performance of this fuzzy regulatory system,especially in the ways of working stability and responding speed and so on,was better than normal used PID control. The cost of real-time system was inquite competitive position. It was demonstrated that the system have a promising prospect of extensive application.

  7. Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures.

  8. Chemical Evolution in High-mass Star-forming Regions: Results from the MALT90 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Guzmán, Andrés; Whitaker, J. Scott; Claysmith, Christopher; Rathborne, Jill M.; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton

    2013-11-01

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H2 column densities for each clump from Herschel/Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N2H+, HCO+, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The Herschel dust temperatures increase as a function of the IR-based Spitzer evolutionary classification scheme, with the youngest clumps being the coldest, which gives confidence that this classification method provides a reliable way to assign evolutionary stages to clumps. Both N2H+ and HCO+ abundances increase as a function of evolutionary stage, whereas the N2H+ (1-0) to HCO+ (1-0) integrated intensity ratios show no discernable trend. The HCN (1-0) to HNC(1-0) integrated intensity ratios show marginal evidence of an increase as the clumps evolve.

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND POLYPHENOL CONTENT OF MALT BEVERAGES ENRICHED WITH BEE POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, especially among the brewers, using of natural ingredients is increasingly growing demand. Beer is one of the most popular beverages in the world with evident positive effects on the overall health condition. It can be used as a base for developing a variety of products with specific physiological activity. Bee pollen is considered to be one of the possible sources of active ingredients for that purpose. Activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in bee pollen can contribute to the antioxidant potential of beer. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of different types and content of bee pollen on the antioxidant properties of malt beverages and to compare phenolic and flavonoid profiles. The technological process of malt beverages preparation with addition of bee pollen was also verified. It was found out that all beverages enriched with bee pollen had higher polyphenol, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential than control sample – pure wort. The higher antioxidant activities of all extracts was measured in sample R2 - wort with 0.6% of dry rapeseed pollen and sample R4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen rapeseed pollen. The higher phenolic content than in other samples was measured in sample M4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen poppy pollen and sample M1 - wort with 0.256% of dry poppy pollen. Higher total flavonoid content was found out in sample M2 - wort with 0.6% of dry poppy pollen and M4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen poppy pollen. In conclusion, the most noticeable results of antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content were achieved in samples with higher 0.6% addition of bee pollen, mostly poppy (Papaver somniferum L. pollen.

  10. 制麦过程中淀粉溶解情况的比较%Comparative Study on Starch Modification in Malting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋俊洲; 安家彦

    2009-01-01

    以进口大麦Baudin为材料,分别在14℃和18℃下发芽,对其萌发过程中α-淀粉酶活力、麦芽脆度和麦芽淀粉黏度的动态变化进行了比较.结果表明,大麦在萌发过程中,α-淀粉酶活力及麦芽脆度明显增大,淀粉黏度逐渐减小,14℃发芽条件下麦芽脆度与麦芽淀粉的黏度线性相关性显著,18℃发芽条件下二者线性相关性高度显著,α-淀粉酶活力与麦芽的淀粉黏度呈二次回归关系,且相关性显著.%Imported barley Baudin was used as material,under the temperature of 14 ℃ and 18 ℃ for malting. The dynamic changes of α-amylase activity,friability of malt and starch viscosity in the malting were discussed. The results showed that both α-amylase activity and friability of malt increased significantly,while starch viscosity of malt reduced gradually during malting. At the temperature of 14 ℃,the linear correlation of malt friability and starch viscosity was significant,while at the temperature of 18 ℃,the linear correlation was significant primarily in the process of germination. At the same time,there were a second regression relationship between a-amylase activity and malt starch viscosity,and the correlation of them was equally noticeable.

  11. MALT1 cleaves the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1 in activated T cells, generating a dominant negative inhibitor of LUBAC-induced NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Lynn; Carpentier, Isabelle; Staal, Jens; Driege, Yasmine; Haegman, Mira; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Human paracaspase 1 (PCASP1), better known as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1), plays a key role in immunity and inflammation by regulating gene expression in lymphocytes and other immune cell types. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been implicated in autoimmunity, immunodeficiency and certain types of lymphoma. As a scaffold MALT1 assembles downstream signaling proteins for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, while its proteolytic activity further enhances NF-κB activation by cleaving NF-κB inhibitory proteins. MALT1 also processes and inactivates a number of mRNA destabilizing proteins, which further fine-tunes gene expression. MALT1 protease inhibitors are currently developed for therapeutic targeting. Here we show that T cell activation, as well as overexpression of the oncogenic fusion protein API2-MALT1, induces the MALT1-mediated cleavage of haem-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1 (HOIL-1). In addition, to acting as a K48-polyubiquitin specific E3 ubiquitin ligase for different substrates, HOIL-1 co-operates in a catalytic-independent manner with the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1L interacting protein (HOIP) as part of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Intriguingly, cleavage of HOIL-1 does not directly abolish its ability to support HOIP-induced NF-κB signaling, which is still mediated by the N-terminal cleavage fragment, but generates a C-terminal fragment with LUBAC inhibitory properties. We propose that MALT1-mediated HOIL-1 cleavage provides a gain-of-function mechanism that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of NF-κB signaling.

  12. Determination of Phenolic Content in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts by Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences in sensitivity. Concentrations approximately 180-fold lower could be achieved by mass spectrometry analysis compared to diode array detection, especially for the flavan-3-ols (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin, which have poor absorptivity in the UV region. Malt samples were characterized by higher phenolic content comparing to corresponding barley varieties, revealing a significant increase of the levels of (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin during the malting process. Moreover, the industrial malting is responsible for modification on the phenolic profile from barley to malt, namely on the synthesis or release of sinapinic acid and epicatechin. Accordingly, the selection of the malting parameters, as well as the barley variety plays an important role when considering the quality and antioxidant stability of beer.

  13. Presence of a high-grade component in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is not associated with an adverse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Mei-Kim; Hee, Siew Wan; Quek, Richard; Yap, Swee Peng; Loong, Susan; Tan, Leonard; Tao, Miriam; Lim, Soon Thye

    2009-05-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) show a spectrum of disease characterized by varying proportions of low-grade and high-grade components. While the natural history and optimum treatment for low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and DLBCL is well established, the prognosis and optimal treatment of patients with both low- and high-grade components is not well established. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric DLBCL. A retrospective review of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, gastric DLBCL, or MALT lymphoma with a high-grade component treated at our centers from 1994 to 2006 was performed. Patients were divided into three categories: "pure MALT lymphoma," "MALT lymphoma with high-grade component" (mixed), and "pure DLBCL." Seventy-six patients were included in our study-26 with pure MALT, 22 with MALT with high-grade component ("mixed"), and 28 with pure DLBCL. Pure MALT lymphoma and mixed lymphoma patients had similar clinical characteristics, whereas pure DLBCL patients had less favorable disease characteristics with significantly poorer performance status, higher number of extranodal sites of disease, higher stage, and larger proportion of bone marrow involvement and international prognostic index (IPI) scores compared with mixed lymphoma. The majority of mixed lymphoma (72.7%) and DLBCL patients (71.4%) were treated with chemotherapy. Of patients receiving chemotherapy, a higher proportion of mixed lymphoma and DLBCL patients received anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy regimens compared with MALT lymphoma (73% vs 71% vs 8%) whereas the proportion of mixed lymphoma and DLBCL patients was similar (p = 0.919). At a median follow-up of 37 months, the 5-year overall survival was 66.9%. The 5-year overall survival was 78% for MALT lymphoma, 84% for mixed lymphoma, and 45

  14. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    , and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results......The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...

  15. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages.

  16. Retrospective comparison of the effectiveness of various treatment modalities of extragastric MALT lymphoma: a single-center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrer, Stefan; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Fischbach, Julia; Müllauer, Leonhard; Troch, Marlene; Lukas, Julius; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Raderer, Markus

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a retrospective analysis of all patients with extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma treated at our institution to compare the efficacy of first-line therapeutic modalities including surgery, radiation, systemic therapy, and antibiotics. One hundred eighty-five patients with extragastric MALT lymphoma with a median age of 63 (interquartile range (IQR) 50-74) years and a median follow-up time of 49 (IQR 18-103) months were retrospectively analyzed. Time to progression and time to next therapy were used as surrogate endpoints for efficacy. Patients having either surgery (100 %), chemo/immunotherapy (85.5 %), or radiation (80 %) had significantly (p = 0.01) higher response rates than patients treated with antibiotics (33.3 %). Patients who were irradiated had significantly more progressive disease, but also the longest follow-up time. Stage, elevated LDH, anemia, elevated beta-2 microglobulin, plasmacytic differentiation, monoclonal gammopathy, or autoimmune disease did not influence the rate of disease progression nor did complete remission or partial remission from initial therapy influence time to and rate of progression. There was no significant difference in the median time to progression (p = 0.141), but the estimated time to progression (p = 0.023) as well as the estimated time to next therapy (p = 0.021) was significantly different among the various cohorts favoring surgery, chemo/immunotherapy, and radiation. Our results suggest extragastric MALT lymphoma as a potential systemic disease irrespective of initial stage. Radiation, surgery, and chemo/immunotherapy seem to be equally effective in achieving remissions and prolonged progression free survivals, but a curative potential is questionable. Localized MALT lymphomas affecting the thyroid gland or the lungs have excellent long-term progression-free survivals with surgical treatment only.

  17. TRANFSER OF FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS AND ?MASKED? DEOXYNIVALENOL (DEOXYNIVALENOL-3-GLUCOSIDE) FROM FIELD BARLEY THROUGH MALT TO BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Lancova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Krplova, Alexandra; Zachariasova, Milena; Dostálek, Pavel; Sachambula, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The fate of 5 Fusarium toxins- deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON)- during the malting and brewing processes was investigated. In addition to these ?free? mycotoxins, also occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was, to our knowledge, for the first time, monitored in beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley,...

  18. Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancova, K; Hajslova, J; Poustka, J; Krplova, A; Zachariasova, M; Dostalek, P; Sachambula, L

    2008-06-01

    The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

  19. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  20. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  1. Composition of peats used in the preparation of malt for scotch whisky productioninfluence of geographical source and extraction depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Barry M; Priest, Fergus G

    2009-03-25

    Peat is burned during malt kilning to provide flavor compounds in Scotch malt whisky. The aim of this work was to establish whether peats from different locations in Scotland are chemically distinct and could impart different flavors. Peat samples from four locations (Islay, Orkney, St. Fergus, and Tomintoul) were analyzed using Curie point pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Peat pyrolysates from Islay and St. Fergus were rich in lignin derivatives, while those from Orkney and Tomintoul had higher levels of carbohydrate derivatives. Also, Islay and Orkney peat pyrolysates were rich in nitrogen-containing compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. The depth of peat extraction was found to have an additional effect on peat composition as the levels of carbohydrate derivatives reduced with increasing depth. Where peat is used in whisky production, the observed differences in peat composition could potentially impact flavor, an important consideration if the peat used for malt production is changed by either choice or necessity.

  2. Vliv vodního součinitele na vlastnosti vápenných malt

    OpenAIRE

    Kurfürstová, Nela

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce podává stručný popis v oblasti tradičních technologií přípravy vápenných malt pro obnovu fasád historických objektů. Teoretická část práce je zaměřena na přípravu vápenných malt tradičními postupy, použití vhodných surovin pro přípravu a vliv množství záměsové vody. Pozornost je také věnovaná dějům, které probíhají při tuhnutí a tvrdnutí vápenných malt. V experimentální části byl proveden výzkum, jehož cílem bylo posoudit vliv vodního součinitele a poměru mísení (pojivo k plni...

  3. The Expression of API2-MALT1 Fusion Gene and Its Influence on the Cellular Apoptosis and Proliferation in Gastrointestinal MALT Lymphoma%胃肠MALT淋巴瘤API2-MALT1融合基因表达对肿瘤细胞增殖和凋亡相关蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 欧阳钦; 刘卫平; 张杰

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨胃肠道粘膜相关淋巴组织来源的结外边缘区B 细胞(MALT)淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1融合基因表达对凋亡相关蛋白API2、Caspase3表达及肿瘤细胞增殖活性的影响.方法用RT-PCR和巢式PCR结合, 检测肿瘤组织中API2-MALT1融合基因的表达;根据有否该融合基因mRNA表达将33例病例分组,用免疫组化染色检查肿瘤组织中Ki67、API2和Caspase3蛋白的表达.结果 16例胃肠MALT淋巴瘤检出API2-MALT1 mRNA的表达,检出率48.4%.融合基因表达组API2平均面积(21177.30±6171.71) μm2和单位平均面积(29.81±7.40) μm2均较未表达组[(34325.65±6577.00) μm2和(37.84±8.55)] μm2显著降低,两组IOD值无明显改变;Ki67和Caspase3两组间无明显差异.结论 API2-MALT1表达与API2蛋白的表达下调有关,API2的下调对Caspase3影响不明显,融合基因表达对肿瘤细胞增殖活性无明显影响.

  4. BCL10 aberations and NF-kappa B activation involving p65 are absent or rare in primary gastric MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajder Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma accounts for 5-17% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL. The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas is not well-established. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically determined nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB (NF-κB in tumor cells of gastric MALT lymphoma and its impact on the patogenesis and outcome of the disease. Methods. Medical records of 35 patients with newly diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma were analyzed and biopsy specimens were immunostained for BCL10 and NF-kB expression (p65 subunit. Results. The median age of 35 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma was 63.5 years (male/female = 21/14. Symptoms were present in 23/35 (65.7% patients with the weight loss as the most common symptom. Gastric MALT lymphomas were usually localized in the stomach corpus and corpus and antrum (45.7% and 31.2%, respectively. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66.7% patients. Treatment options were as follows: immunochemotherapy in 10 (28.5% patients, surgery in 9 (25.8% patients, combined surgery and chemotherapy in 14 (40% patients and supportive measures in 2 (5.7% patients. Complete remission was achieved in 13 (37.1% patients and partial remission in two (5.7% patients. Sixteen (45.7% patients had disease progression (p < 0.001. Cytoplasmatic expression of BCL10 in tumor cells was detected in 19 (54.3% specimens. Nuclear expression was detected in no specimen. Cytoplasmic expression of NF-κB was present in 22 (65.7% specimens, but nuclear expression was not detected in any specimens. Conclusion. Nuclear expressions (activation of NF-κB p65 subunit and BCL10 were not detected in specimens of gastric MALT lymphoma. The correlation of nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-κB in gastric MALT lymphoma was not established. These results indicate that other mechanisms and signal pathways are active in lymphogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma, as that

  5. Characterizing the properties of cluster precursors in the MALT90 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Yanett; Guzman, Andres; Jackson, James; Whitaker, Scott; Sanhueza, Patricio; Foster, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the Milky Way there are thousands of stellar clusters each harboring from a hundred to a million stars. Although clusters are common, the initial conditions of cluster formation are still not well understood. To determine the processes involved in the formation and evolution of clusters it is key to determine the global properties of cluster-forming clumps in their earliest stages of evolution. Here, we present the physical properties of 1,244 clumps identified from the MALT90 survey. Using the dust temperature of the clumps as a proxy for evolution we determined how the clump properties change at different evolutionary stages. We find that less-evolved clumps exhibiting dust temperatures lower than 20 K have higher densities and are more gravitationally bound than more-evolved clumps with higher dust temperatures. We also identified a sample of clumps in a very early stage of evolution, thus potential candidates for high-mass star-forming clumps. Only one clump in our sample has physical properties consis...

  6. Computer image analysis in caryopses quality evaluation as exemplified by malting barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszela, K.; Raba, B.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Przybył, J.

    2015-07-01

    One of the purposes to employ modern technologies in agricultural and food industry is to increase the efficiency and automation of production processes, which helps improve productive effectiveness of business enterprises, thus making them more competitive. Nowadays, a challenge presents itself for this branch of economy, to produce agricultural and food products characterized by the best parameters in terms of quality, while maintaining optimum production and distribution costs of the processed biological material. Thus, several scientific centers seek to devise new and improved methods and technologies in this field, which will allow to meet the expectations. A new solution, under constant development, is to employ the so-called machine vision which is to replace human work in both quality and quantity evaluation processes. An indisputable advantage of employing the method is keeping the evaluation unbiased while improving its rate and, what is important, eliminating the fatigue factor of the expert. This paper elaborates on the topic of quality evaluation by marking the contamination in malting barley grains using computer image analysis and selected methods of artificial intelligence [4-5].

  7. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  8. Far-Infrared Dust Temperatures and Column Densities of the MALT90 Molecular Clump Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Guzmán, Andrés E; Contreras, Yanett; Smith, Howard A; Jackson, James M; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M

    2015-01-01

    We present dust column densities and dust temperatures for $\\sim3000$ young high-mass molecular clumps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey, derived from adjusting single temperature dust emission models to the far-infrared intensity maps measured between 160 and 870 \\micron\\ from the Herschel/Hi-Gal and APEX/ATLASGAL surveys. We discuss the methodology employed in analyzing the data, calculating physical parameters, and estimating their uncertainties. The population average dust temperature of the clumps are: $16.8\\pm0.2$ K for the clumps that do not exhibit mid-infrared signatures of star formation (Quiescent clumps), $18.6\\pm0.2$ K for the clumps that display mid-infrared signatures of ongoing star formation but have not yet developed an HII region (Protostellar clumps), and $23.7\\pm0.2$ and $28.1\\pm0.3$ K for clumps associated with HII and photo-dissociation regions, respectively. These four groups exhibit large overlaps in their temperature distributions, with dispersions rang...

  9. Mutation analysis of barley malt protein Z4 and protein Z7 on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kimura, Tatsuji; Araki, Shigeki; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Shigyou, Tatsuro; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2012-02-15

    Beer foam stability is an important characteristic. It has been suggested that isoforms of protein Z, that is, protein Z4 and protein Z7, contribute to beer foam stability. We investigated the relationship between beer foam stability and protein Z4 and protein Z7 using their deficient mutants. As a protein Z4-deficient mutant, cv. Pirkka was used. Protein Z7 deficiency was screened in 1564 barley accessions in the world collection of Okayama University, Japan. The barley samples from normal, protein Z4-deficient, protein Z7-deficient, and double-deficient were genotyped in F(2) populations and then pooled based on the DNA marker genotypes of protein Z4 and protein Z7. For a brewing trial, F(5) pooled subpopulations were used. After malting and brewing, the foam stability was determined, and the results showed that the levels of foam stability in the four samples were comparable. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the proteome in these beer samples. The results showed that low molecular weight proteins, including lipid transfer protein (LTP2), in the deficient mutants were higher than those in the normal sample. Our results suggest that the contribution of protein Z4 and protein Z7 to beer foam stability was not greater than that of other beer proteins.

  10. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  11. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Badeck, Franz W.; Lattanzio, Veronica M.T.; Pascale, Michelangelo; Terzi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011–2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011–2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae—and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2—in malting barley grown in Italy. PMID:27556490

  12. Reduction of methanol in brewed wine by the use of atmospheric and room-temperature plasma method and the combination optimization of malt with different adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Liang, Ying-Jie; Chai, Jiang-Yan; Zhou, Shi-Shui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Methanol, often generated in brewed wine, is highly toxic for human health. To decrease the methanol content of the brewed wine, atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content. Headspace gas chromatography was used to determine the identity and concentration of methanol with butyl acetate as internal standard in brewed wine. With 47.4% higher and 26.3% positive mutation rates were obtained, the ARTP jet exhibited a strong effect on mutation breeding of S. cerevisiae. The mutant S. cerevisiae S12 exhibited the lowest methanol content, which was decreased by 72.54% compared with that of the wild-type strain. Subsequently, the mutant S. cerevisiae S12 was used to ferment different combinations of malt and adjuncts for lower methanol content and higher alcoholic content. It was shown that the culture 6#, which was 60% malt, 20% wheat, and 20% corn, was the best combinations of malt and adjuncts, with the lowest methanol content (104.8 mg/L), and a relatively higher alcoholic content (15.3%, v/v). The optimal malt-adjunct culture 6#, treated with the glucoamylase dose of 0.04 U/mg of grain released the highest reducing sugars (201.6 mg/mL). It was indicated that the variation in reducing sugars among the combinations of malt and different adjuncts could be due to the dose of exogenous enzymes.

  13. Selective C-Rel activation via Malt1 controls anti-fungal T(H-17 immunity by dectin-1 and dectin-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja I Gringhuis

    Full Text Available C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H1 and T(H-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-κB. Here we demonstrate that Malt1 recruitment is pivotal to T(H-17 immunity by selective activation of NF-κB subunit c-Rel, which induces expression of T(H-17-polarizing cytokines IL-1β and IL-23p19. Malt1 inhibition abrogates c-Rel activation and T(H-17 immunity to Candida species. We found that Malt1-mediated activation of c-Rel is similarly essential to induction of T(H-17-polarizing cytokines by dectin-2. Whereas dectin-1 activates all NF-κB subunits, dectin-2 selectively activates c-Rel, signifying a specialized T(H-17-enhancing function for dectin-2 in anti-fungal immunity by human dendritic cells. Thus, dectin-1 and dectin-2 control adaptive T(H-17 immunity to fungi via Malt1-dependent activation of c-Rel.

  14. Selective C-Rel activation via Malt1 controls anti-fungal T(H)-17 immunity by dectin-1 and dectin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringhuis, Sonja I; Wevers, Brigitte A; Kaptein, Tanja M; van Capel, Toni M M; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; de Jong, Esther C; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2011-01-20

    C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H)1 and T(H)-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-κB. Here we demonstrate that Malt1 recruitment is pivotal to T(H)-17 immunity by selective activation of NF-κB subunit c-Rel, which induces expression of T(H)-17-polarizing cytokines IL-1β and IL-23p19. Malt1 inhibition abrogates c-Rel activation and T(H)-17 immunity to Candida species. We found that Malt1-mediated activation of c-Rel is similarly essential to induction of T(H)-17-polarizing cytokines by dectin-2. Whereas dectin-1 activates all NF-κB subunits, dectin-2 selectively activates c-Rel, signifying a specialized T(H)-17-enhancing function for dectin-2 in anti-fungal immunity by human dendritic cells. Thus, dectin-1 and dectin-2 control adaptive T(H)-17 immunity to fungi via Malt1-dependent activation of c-Rel.

  15. T cell receptor-dependent activation of mTOR signaling in T cells is mediated by Carma1 and MALT1, but not Bcl10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristia S; Phong, Binh; Corey, Catherine; Cheng, Jing; Gorentla, Balachandra; Zhong, Xiaoping; Shiva, Sruti; Kane, Lawrence P

    2014-06-10

    Signaling to the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates diverse cellular processes, including protein translation, cellular proliferation, metabolism, and autophagy. Most models place Akt upstream of the mTOR complex, mTORC1; however, in T cells, Akt may not be necessary for mTORC1 activation. We found that the adaptor protein Carma1 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing membrane-associated protein 1] and at least one of its associated proteins, the paracaspase MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), were required for optimal activation of mTOR in T cells in response to stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) and the co-receptor CD28. However, Bcl10, which binds to Carma1 and MALT1 to form a complex that mediates signals from the TCR to the transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), was not required. The catalytic activity of MALT1 was required for the proliferation of stimulated CD4+ T cells, but not for early TCR-dependent activation events. Consistent with an effect on mTOR, MALT1 activity was required for the increased metabolic flux in activated CD4+ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Carma1 and MALT1 play previously unappreciated roles in the activation of mTOR signaling in T cells after engagement of the TCR.

  16. Investigation the Role of MALT1 and IL-17 in the Pathogenesis of EAE%EAE发病机制中MALT1、IL-17作用的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵泉; 张宇; 张美妮

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过建立实验性自身免疫性脑脊髓炎(EAE)小鼠模型,观察小鼠脑组织中黏膜相关淋巴组织淋巴瘤转运蛋白1与血清白介素-17(Interleukin-17)的表达情况,并探讨两者在EAE发病机制中的作用。进一步探究MALTI是否可以作为多发性硬化(MS)的治疗靶点,以便寻找治疗MS的新手段。方法:将36只C57BL/6雌性小鼠按照随机数字表法分为EAE组和佐剂组各18只,EAE组采用MOG与完全弗氏佐剂的沫状混合物制备EAE模型,佐剂组仅给予弗氏佐剂。观察每只实验动物发病情况并每隔2 d进行一次神经功能评分。分别于免疫后14 d、24 d、40 d两组小鼠随机各取6只,心脏取血并4%多聚甲醛灌注取脑组织。取小鼠脑组织石蜡切片,免疫组化方法检测各组小鼠脑组织中MALT1并用ELISA法检测血清IL-17表达。结果:EAE组与佐剂组的小鼠神经功能评分、体重、血清中IL-17含量和脑组织中MALT1蛋白阳性细胞数比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。EAE组中24 d组小鼠的神经功能评分(2.50±0.55)分明显高于14 d组的(0.83±0.41)分和40 d组的(1.50±0.32)分,体重(17.04±0.41)g明显少于14 d组的(18.33±0.49)g和40 d组的(18.15±0.13)g,且血清中IL-17含量(288.00±26.45)pg/mL明显高于14 d组的(122.60±10.11)pg/mL和40 d组的(184.40±29.51)pg/mL,脑组织中MALT1蛋白阳性细胞数(183.80±9.25)个明显多于14 d组的(78.25±9.47)个和40 d组的(133.50±19.87)个,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:EAE小鼠神经功能评分越高,血清中IL-17含量越高,MALT1表达也越多,提示MALT1参与了EAE小鼠的发病过程,其机制可能与MALT1在EAE小鼠上调血清IL-17表达有关。%Objective:To observe the expression of Interleukin-17 in serum andMALT1 in brain tissue of mice through the establishment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

  17. Correlation of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and Endoscopic Findings of Twin Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Stomach: Report of a Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Choi, Jin Wook [SungAe Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma arises from extranodal marginal zone B-cell. It is etiologically associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and, hence, can be cured by antibiotic treatment. MALT type lymphoma is the most common variety of gastric lymphoma that is rare in the stomach). The published data of clinical studies on the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of MALT type lymphoma varied according to authors. Thus, the result of Hoffmann et al. was discouraging whereas a high diagnostic accuracy was reported by Ambrosini et al. The latter group further went to suggest that higher 18F-FDG uptake in gastric MALT type lymphoma would positively relate to the aggressiveness of neoplasm. The clinical studies conducted by other groups on MALT lymphomas of the stomach, lung, orbit and parotid gland and the stomach, lung, parotid gland, skin, orbit, mandible, esophagus and uterus confirmed that 18F-FDG scan is valuable.

  18. Partial purification of saccharifying and cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in waste from beer fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Kang, Minkyung; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-06-01

    A number of hydrolyzing enzymes that are secreted from malt during brewing, including cell wall-hydrolyzing, saccharide-hydrolyzing, protein-degrading, lipid-hydrolyzing, and polyphenol and thiol-hydrolyzing enzymes, are expected to exist in an active form in waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB). In this study, the existence of these enzymes was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after which enzyme extract was partially purified through a series of purification steps. The hydrolyzing enzyme activity was then measured under various conditions at each purification step using carboxymethyl cellulose as a substrate. The best hydrolyzing activities of partially purified enzymes were found at pH 4.5 and 50 °C in a citrate buffer system. The enzymes showed highest thermal stability at 30 °C when exposed for prolonged time. As the temperature increased gradually from 25 to 70 °C, yeast cells in the chemically defined medium with enzyme extract lost their cell wall and viability earlier than those without enzyme extract. Cell wall degradation and the release of cell matrix into the culture media at elevated temperature (45-70 °C) in the presence of enzyme extract were monitored through microscopic pictures. Saccharification enzymes from malt were relatively more active in the original WBFB than supernatant and diluted sediments. The presence of hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in WBFB is expected to play a role in bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation without the need for additional enzymes, nutrients, or microbial cells via a cell-free enzyme system.

  19. Interaction of MalY and Aes with MalT, the transcriptional activator of the Eschrichia coli maltose system

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The maltose system of Escherichia coli consists of 10 genes whose products are involved in the uptake and metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins. There are 3 known proteins directly interacting with the transcriptional activator MalT and stabilizing its inactive conformation: MalK, the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit of the system, MalY, a bC-S lyase, and Aes, an enzyme with acetyl esterase activity.The analysis of MalY mutants with reduced repressor ability and the X-ray structure allowed to determ...

  20. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein fusion c-IAP2.MALT1 stimulates NF-kappaB activation independently of TRAF1 AND TRAF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Wayson, Sarah M; Dixit, Vishva M; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Vucic, Domagoj

    2006-09-29

    The inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are a family of cell death inhibitors found in viruses and metazoans. All members of the IAP family have at least one baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) motif that is essential for their anti-apoptotic activity. The t(11, 18)(q21;q21) translocation fuses the BIR domains of c-IAP2 with the paracaspase/MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) protein, a critical mediator of T cell receptor-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB. The c-IAP2.MALT1 fusion protein constitutively activates the NF-kappaB pathway, and this is considered critical to malignant B cell transformation and lymphoma progression. The BIR domains of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 interact with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors 1 and 2 (TRAF1 and TRAF2). Here we investigated the importance of TRAF1 and TRAF2 for c-IAP2.MALT1-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. We identified a novel epitope within the BIR1 domains of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 that is crucial for their physical interaction with TRAF1 and TRAF2. The c-IAP2.MALT1 fusion protein associates with TRAF1 and TRAF2 using the same binding site. We explored the functional relevance of this interaction and established that binding to TRAF1 and TRAF2 is not required for c-IAP2.MALT1-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, gene ablation of TRAF2 or combined down-regulation of TRAF1 and TRAF2 did not affect c-IAP2.MALT1-stimulated signaling. However, TRAF1/2-binding mutants of c-IAP2.MALT1 still oligomerize and activate NF-kappaB, suggesting that oligomerization might be important for signaling of the fusion protein. Therefore, the t(11, 18)(q21;q21) translocation creating the c-IAP2.MALT1 fusion protein activates NF-kappaB and contributes to human malignancy in the absence of signaling adaptors that might otherwise regulate its activity.

  1. Expression of CD86 and increased infiltration of NK cells are associated with Helicobacter pylori-dependent state of early stage high-grade gastric MALT lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo; Jaw-Town Lin; Ann-Lii Cheng; Li-Tzong Chen; Chi-Long Chen; Shin-Lian Doong; Kun-Huei Yeh; Ming-Shiang Wu; Tsui-Lien Mao; Hui-Chen Hsu; Hsiu-Po Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A high percentage of early-stage high-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas remain Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)-dependent. However,unlike their low-grade counterparts, high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas may progress rapidly if unresponsive to H pylori eradication. It is mandatory to identify markers that may predict the H pylori-dependent status of these tumors. Proliferation of MALT lymphoma cells depends on cognate help and cell-to-cell contact of H pylori-specific intratumoral T-cells. To examine whether the expression of co-stimulatory marker CD86 (B7.2) and the infiltration of CD56 (+) natural killer (NK) cells can be useful markers to predict Hpylori-dependent status of high-grade gastric MALT lymphoma.METHODS: Lymphoma biopsies from 26 patients who had participated in a prospective study of H pylori-eradication for stage IE high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas were evaluated. Tumors that resolved to Wotherspoon grade Ⅱ or less after H pylorieradication were classified as H pyloridependent; others were classified as H pylori-independent.The infiltration of NK cells and the expression of CD86 in pre-treatment paraffin-embedded lymphoma tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: There were 16 H pylori-dependent and 10H pylori-independent cases. CD86 expression was detected in 11 (68.8%) of 16 Hpyiori-dependent cases but in none of 10 Hpylori-independent cases (P = 0.001).H pylori-dependent high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas contained significantly higher numbers of CD56 (+) NK cells than H pylori-independent cases (2.8±1.4% vs 1.1±0.8%; P = 0.003). CD86 positive MALT lymphomas also showed significantly increased infiltration of CD56 (+)NK cells compared to CD86-negative cases (2.9±1.1% vs1.4±1.3%; P= 0.005).CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the expression of co-stimulatory marker CD86 and the increased infiltration of NK cells are associated with H pylori-dependent state of early-stage high-grade gastric MALT

  2. Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria, in maize porridge with added malted barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Merete H; Wicklund, Trude; Narvhus, Judith A

    2004-03-15

    A fermented probiotic maize porridge with high energy density and low viscosity was prepared, using maize flour and barley malt. The porridge was fermented with four probiotic strains (grown separately): Lactobacillus reuteri, Lb. acidophilus (LA5 and 1748) and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains were inoculated at two levels; to obtain approx. 7 or 6 log cfu g(-1) in the porridge at 0 h. The porridge was fermented for 24 h at 37 degrees C, and analysed for viable cell count, pH, organic acids, volatile aromatic compounds and sugar content. The inoculated cell concentration was shown to be particularly important during the first hours of the fermentation period, showing a delayed production of most metabolites in porridge inoculated with approx. 6 log cfu g(-1). Most strains reached maximum cell count after 12-h fermentation (7.2-8.2 log cfu g(-1)), with a pH below 4.0. Depending on the strain, lactic acid was produced in amounts ranging from 1360 to 4000 mg kg(-1). Lb. reuteri metabolised succinate, while pyruvate and small amounts of diacetyl were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748. High amounts of diacetyl (6 mg kg(-1)) and acetoin (27 mg kg(-1)) were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. rhamnosus GG. Porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748, contained acetaldehyde, while both Lb. reuteri and Lb. rhamnosus GG reduced the acetaldehyde to ethanol. Lb. reuteri utilised both maltose and glucose as carbohydrate sources, while Lb. acidophilus LA5, Lb. acidophilus 1748 and Lb. rhamnosus GG utilised only glucose.

  3. Utilização de microscopia eletrônica de varredura para detecção de fraudes em café torrado e moído

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMBONI Renata D. de Mello Castanho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente a detecção de fraudes em café em pó, desengordurado e tamizado, é realizada por microscopia ótica. Assim, propõe-se um método alternativo de microscopia, mais rápido e eficiente do que o usado atualmente para a detecção de fraudes amiláceas em café torrado e moído: a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Comparou-se café puro com café fraudado com 2,5, 5 e 10% de centeio, cevada, milho e trigo. Em todas as análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM de café fraudado, detectou-se, facilmente, a presença de amido, o que não ocorreu na microscopia ótica. Sugere-se o uso de microscopia eletrônica de varredura como um método para a identificação de cereais como adulterantes em café.

  4. Coexistence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Thyroid MALT Lymphoma in a Patient With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Clinical Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guohua; Ji, Ting; Hu, Shuang; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Anren

    2015-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid neoplasias; however, primary thyroid gland lymphoma (PTL) is uncommon and their simultaneous occurrence is very rare.Herein, we reported a 25-year-old female patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), who developed a small goiter with a palpable 1.2-cm nodule in the right lobe. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy revealed atypical follicular epithelial cells and lymphoid cells in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis. A total thyroidectomy was performed. The pathology showed multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma, concomitant thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy and radioactive iodine ablation treatment. Nowadays the thyroglobulin of the patient is undetectable, without recurrences at 2 years of follow-up.It is concluded that the PTC and MALT lymphoma can exist concomitantly, especially in patients with HT. For the diagnostic workup and optional management of this rare coexistence, a multidisciplinary approach and close surveillance are needed.

  5. THE CLINICAL PATHOLOGY AND DNA PLOIDY OF GASTRIC MUCOSA ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE (MALT) LYMPHOMA INFILTRATING THE LEIOMYOMAS OF THE UTERUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Xiang; LI Xiangzhou; WANG Yihua; DAI Xiaobo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathology and DNA ploidy of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma infiltraving the leiomyomas of the uterus of a patient. Methods: The routine paraffin slides were cut, stained with HE, immunochemically by ABC methodusing the and stained by Feulgen method.Then the DNA ploidy of tumor cells was measured with an image cytometer. Results: In the mucosa, submucosa and the smooth muscle layer of the stomach and in the leiomyomas of the uterus there was diffusive and dense infiltration of centrocyte-like cells. The DNA measurement results were that the distribution of DNA mass of lymphoma cells in stomach and in lymph nodes had a single main aneuploidy peak each, and the distribution of DNA mass of lymphoma cells in leiomyomas of uterus had two peaks; one of them was the diploid, the other aneuploid. Conclusion: The MALT lymphoma cell invasion in uterus must be differentiated with a primary lymphoma in the uterus, the chronic lymphocyte leukemia in uterus and an endometrial stromal sarcoma. The present prognosis of the patient under discussion was poor. The follow-up results indicated the DNA index seemed to be important for predicting the malignancy degree and prognosis.

  6. Distribution of Lymphocytes in the Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT of Naturally Occurring Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.

  7. T cell receptor signals to NF-κB are transmitted by a cytosolic p62-Bcl10-Malt1-IKK signalosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suman; Traver, Maria K; Kashyap, Anuj K; Washington, Michael A; Latoche, Joseph R; Schaefer, Brian C

    2014-05-13

    Antigen-mediated stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) triggers activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a key transcriptional regulator of T cell proliferation and effector cell differentiation. TCR signaling to NF-κB requires both the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex and the inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex; however, the molecular mechanisms connecting the CBM complex to activation of IKK are incompletely defined. We found that the active IKK complex is a component of a TCR-dependent cytosolic Bcl10-Malt1 signalosome containing the adaptor protein p62, which forms in effector T cells. Phosphorylated IκBα and NF-κB were transiently recruited to this signalosome before NF-κB translocated to the nucleus. Inhibiting the activity of the kinase TAK1 or IKK blocked the phosphorylation of IKK, but not the formation of p62-Bcl10-Malt1 clusters, suggesting that activation of IKK occurs after signalosome assembly. Furthermore, analysis of T cells from p62-deficient mice demonstrated that the p62-dependent clustering of signaling components stimulated activation of NF-κB in effector T cells. Thus, TCR-stimulated activation of NF-κB requires the assembly of cytosolic p62-Bcl10-Malt1-IKK signalosomes, which may ensure highly regulated activation of NF-κB in response to TCR engagement.

  8. Selective C-Rel Activation via Malt1 Controls Anti-Fungal T-H-17 Immunity by Dectin-1 and Dectin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, S.I.; Wevers, B.A.; Kaptein, T.M.; Capel, T.M.M.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.; de Jong, E.C.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2011-01-01

    C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H)1 and T-H-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-kappa B. Here we demonstr

  9. Selective C-Rel activation via Malt1 controls anti-fungal T(H)-17 immunity by dectin-1 and dectin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, S.I.; Wevers, B.A.; Kaptein, T.M.; van Capel, T.M.; Theelen, B.J.F.; Boekhout, T.; de Jong, E.C.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2011-01-01

    C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H)1 and T(H)-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-kappaB. Here we demonstr

  10. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L).

  11. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

  12. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern (pH 6-11) and identification of water-soluble barley seed and malt proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Roepstorff, P.

    2004-01-01

    A protocol was established for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of barley seed and malt proteins in the pH range of 6-11. Proteins extracted from flour in a low-salt buffer were focused after cup-loading onto IPG strips. Successful separation in the second dimension was achieved using...

  13. Complete or partial trisomy 3 in gastro-intestinal MALT lymphomas co-occurs with aberrations at 18q21 and correlates with advanced disease stage: A study on 25 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens Krugmann; Alexandar Tzankov; Stephan Dirnhofer; Falko Fend; Dominik Wolf; Reiner Siebert; Pensiri Probst; Martin Erdel

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Taji et al.[1] have reported in their study on 13 patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas an aggressive tumor course in trisomy 3 positive cases. The authors analyzed only stage I patients with classical low-grade marginal zone lymphoma of the MALT type and detected the trisomy 3 using an alphasatellite DNA probe directed to the centromere. Their data support the observation that trisomy 3 is the most frequent cytogenetic aberration in MALT lymphomas[2,3].

  14. B cell antigen receptor-induced activation of an IRAK4-dependent signaling pathway revealed by a MALT1-IRAK4 double knockout mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufner Almut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The B cell antigen receptor (BCR and pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, act in concert to control adaptive B cell responses. However, little is known about the signaling pathways that integrate BCR activation with intrinsic TLR4 stimulation. Antigen receptors initialize activation of the inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB via recruitment of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase caspase recruitment domain protein 11 (CARD11, the adapter molecule B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10, and the "paracaspase" mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 into lipid rafts. Upon BCR triggering, this activation strictly depends on BCL10, but not on MALT1, leading to the hypothesis that a MALT1-independent NF-κB activation pathway contributes to BCR-induced NF-κB activation downstream of BCL10. The identity of this pathway has remained elusive. Results Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that the IRAK4- and IRAK1-dependent TLR signaling branch is activated upon BCR triggering to induce partial NF-κB activation. BCR-induced MALT1-independent IκB degradation and B cell proliferation were inhibited in MALT1/IRAK4 double knockout B cells. Moreover, IRAK1 was recruited into lipid rafts upon BCR stimulation and activated following transient recruitment of IRAK4. Conclusion We propose that the observed crosstalk between BCR and TLR signaling components may contribute to the discrimination of signals that emanate from single and dual receptor engagement to control adaptive B cell responses.

  15. 液体大麦精在面包烘焙中的应用%Application of Liquid Malt Extract in Bread Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龄; 丁文平; 曹银

    2009-01-01

    研究了液体大麦精的不同添加量对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量.研究发现,液体大麦精的添加会改变面团的流变学性质,对面包的理化指标有所改善.经过感官品质分析可得出:液体大麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的风味和内部结构.同时,面包添加液体大麦精,延缓了面包的陈化速率,延长了面包的保质期.试验结果显示,大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量为蔗糖替代量的60%.%The effects of liquid malt extract in different addition dose on the rheological characteristics of wheat dough and bread baking performance were studied, a bread preservation test was carried out, and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated. Results indieate that adding the malt extract to wheat dough changes the theological characteristics of dough and improves the performance in bread baking. The sensory evaluation proves that the bread quality is improved by a proper addition of malt extract, especially the bread taste, flavor and inner textural structure. Furthermore, the stale rate of bread is reduced and bread quality assurance period is extended by the malt extract addition. The optimum addition dose of the maltextract in bread produetion is 60% substitution amount of sugar.

  16. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J.; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed–time-point 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard–time-point 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and Methods Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive 18F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single 18F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective 18F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45–60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100–150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. Results 18F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%–84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%–100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%–80.9%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%–99.8%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Delayed–time-point imaging

  17. CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1,NF-κB信号传导通路与淋巴瘤%Lymphomas with CARMA1,BCL10,MALT1 and NF-κB signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 叶洪涛; 周晓燕

    2007-01-01

    CARMA1、BCL10和MALT1是NF-κB信号传导通路中重要的3种信号蛋白分子,也是淋巴细胞特异性的传导分子.这些信号分子的异常与多种淋巴瘤的发生有重要联系.本文综述了这些信号分子的生理和各种病理异常与不同类型淋巴瘤的发生机制的联系,以及目前对淋巴瘤靶向治疗的思路.

  18. 结外B细胞性非霍奇金淋巴瘤中MALT1基因表达的检测及意义%Clinical Significance of MALT1 Gene Detection in Extra-nodal B Cell Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏伟; 杨文秀; 钟愉; 陈玉梅; 王松; 刘启兰; 刘辉

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨结外B细胞淋巴瘤中MALT1基因(mRNA)的表达与MALT和弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤发生发展的关系,及其对淋巴瘤临床病理特征和预后的影响.方法:用HE和免疫组化染色筛选出本院确诊的MALT和结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤106例,检查肿瘤组织Bcl-2和Ki-67的表达,用RT-PCR检测肿瘤中的MALT1基因mRNA水平,收集临床病理资料并随访.结果:MALT1 mRNA的表达:在DLBCL与MALT淋巴瘤组、淋巴结累及组和无累及组、临床分期Ⅲ~Ⅳ组和Ⅰ~Ⅱ组间均有统计学差异(P0.05),而Bcl-2阳性组却高于阴性组(P<0.05);MALT1mRNA表达与不表达病例之间患者生存状况有明显差异(P<0.05),表达组生存状况较差.结论:MALT1基因在MALT淋巴瘤与DLBCL中有不同程度的表达,MALT1基因活化NF-κB后可能通过调控Bcl-2使细胞凋亡抑制而导致淋巴瘤发生,MALT1mRNA表达与B细胞淋巴瘤的类型、淋巴结累及、临床分期有关,与患者的生存状况有关,MALT1可能是一个MALT和弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤预后不良的相关因子.

  19. 胃B细胞淋巴瘤API2-MALT1融合基因表达与幽门螺杆菌感染的相关性%Correlation between the expression of API2-MALT1 fusion mRNA and infection of helicobacter pylori in gastric B-cell lymphomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 李俸媛

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨胃MALT淋巴瘤和弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤演进中t(11;18)(q21;q21)与幽门螺杆菌(HP)感染的关系,以及检测API2-MALT1融合基因的意义.方法 47例胃淋巴瘤病例(MALT淋巴瘤31例,弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤16例),经复查诊断后,用RT-PCR和巢式PCR,检测肿瘤组织中API2-MALT1融合基因的表达,用半巢式PCR和特殊染色检查HP感染情况.根据淋巴瘤类型及融合基因检测结果将病例分组,观察各组病例HP感染的差异.结果 47例胃淋巴瘤中20例API2-MALT1融合基因mRNA检测阳性,包括16例MALT淋巴瘤和4例弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤.HP感染检出率:API2-MALT1阳性组为25%(5/20),API2-MALT1阴性组25.92%(7/27).统计学分析表明两组间差异无显著性.2例API2-MALT1融合基因检测阴性的胃MALT淋巴瘤病例经抗HP治疗后病情稳定.结论胃MALT淋巴瘤和DLBCL中API2-MALT1 mRNA表达与胃淋巴瘤HP感染无明显相关,API2-MALT1融合基因可能成为胃MALT淋巴瘤抗HP治疗效果不良的预测因子.

  20. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia A. Reimann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malTcon double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  1. A further study of the anaerobic biotreatment of malt whisky distillery pot ale using an UASB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J A; Finlayson, J M; Low, E W

    2001-06-01

    Pot ale from a pilot-scale malt whisky distillery was treated using a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester. Stable operation was observed at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 5.46 kg COD/m3 day or less when the pot ale was diluted with tap water. Digester failure occurred when undiluted pot ale was used, even though OLR was less than 5 kg COD/m3 day. Overall performance was worse than that observed previously when UASB digesters were used to treat pot ale from a different source supplemented with trace elements. A substantial proportion of effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was present as volatile fatty acids (VFA), particularly during periods of reactor stress, indicating that overall performance was limited by the rate of VFA conversion. Wastewater alkalinity rose during digestion. The sludge which developed in the reactor was flocculent but did not form compact granules.

  2. Measurement of 26Al in Antarctic ice with the MALT-AMS system at the University of Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Aoi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2007-06-01

    We have attempted to determine the 26Al concentration of Antarctic ice sampled from the vicinity of the Dome Fuji Research Station using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at MALT (MicroAnalysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator) of the University of Tokyo. Because the expected concentration of 26Al in ice is very low, our standard procedure for the AMS measurement was re-examined and refined. The observed 26Al concentration ranged between 160 and 210 atoms g-1. The averaged value of the 26Al/10Be ratio from two samples was 1.75 ± 0.19 × 10-3, which agrees well with recently reported values for the meteoric 26Al/10Be ratio from Antarctic ice and air filter residues. This result implies the possibility of future 26Al/10Be dating of old Antarctic ice.

  3. Activity-based protein profiling of hydrolytic enzymes induced by gibberellic acid in isolated aleurone layers of malting barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Roberts, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase. Our results show that ABPP can be used rapidly to identify a variety of active enzyme isoforms in cereal aleurone without the need for enzyme purification.

  4. Bioacumulación de arsénico en las etapas de desarrollo de la cebada maltera (Hordeum distichon L. Arsenic bioaccumulation in the stages of development of malt barley (Hordeum distichon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    cultivo para estimar niveles de contaminación por arsénico.The contamination by arsenic in water and ground of Zimapán, Hidalgo, Mexico, causes that malt barley (Hordeum distichon L. grown in this region, accumulates this element. The objective was to measure the levels of arsenic accumulated in organs and tissues of barley under controlled conditions, at different stages of development. Malt barley cv. Esmeralda was grown in 25 pots, five pots per differentiated trial. Trials include negative (not contaminated ground and water and positive controls. Five plants by pot were used and the accumulation of arsenic in each one was evaluated in five organs: root, stem, leaf, glean and grain, at each of five stages of development (coleoptiles formation or first leaf, macollo or true leaves from an armpit first knot that becomes present separated from the ground and forms the first spike, formation of spikes and seed filling. A random block design with three treatments was used: with arsenic, positive control and negative control. Malt barley presented high accumulation of arsenic at different stages of development, directly proportional to the time of exposition. Roots presented the highest accumulation of arsenic (100 and 300 mg kg-1, followed by leaves (80 to 180 mg kg-1 and stem (70 to 110 mg kg-1. The level of accumulation of arsenic in grains was between 40-90 mg kg-1, amount that according to Argentinean norms can be considered as highly contaminated. For the bioaccumulation index (BI, the leaves presented the high values, classified as medium values (0.1-1 for green plants. This organ can be indicative of contamination level in the ground. The largest values for the BI were observed in the stem, this organ can be a malt barley specific indicator of the level of arsenic contamination.

  5. Adubação Fosfatada para Alta Produtividade de Soja, Milho e Cereais de Inverno Cultivados em Rotação em Latossolos em Plantio Direto no Centro-Sul do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Costa Beber Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Paraná não dispõe de um sistema de recomendação de adubação para rotação de culturas em plantio direto (PD. Em razão disso, utiliza indicações geradas para culturas individuais há mais de 30 anos e em preparo convencional. Este estudo teve como objetivo consolidar a calibração de P e avaliar a resposta das culturas à adubação fosfatada, visando à proposição de um sistema de indicações técnicas para a adubação fosfatada das culturas da soja, do milho, do trigo e da cevada cultivadas em sistema de rotação em Latossolos com longo histórico de PD (>30 anos na região centro-sul do Paraná, que se caracteriza por possuir alto potencial produtivo. Três experimentos de calibração foram conduzidos de 2008 a 2013 e consistiram na criação de níveis de P pela aplicação de doses a lanço de até 640 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Quarenta e quatro experimentos de resposta a P foram conduzidos entre as safras de 2011 a 2012/13, tendo como foco avaliar a resposta das culturas a P em solos com distinta disponibilidade do nutriente. Os rendimentos relativos [RR = (rendimento sem P/rendimento máximo × 100] das culturas e os teores de P no solo (Mehlich-1 foram relacionados, obtendo-se os teores críticos e as classes de disponibilidade de P no solo. Para a estimativa das doses nas classes de disponibilidade Baixa e Média, foram utilizadas as curvas de resposta à adubação de P, seguindo a filosofia de suficiência (adubação de cultura. Nas classes de disponibilidade Alta e Muito Alta, as doses foram com base na exportação pelos grãos. Os cereais de inverno se evidenciaram mais exigentes e determinaram o teor crítico de P de 8 mg dm-3 para a rotação de culturas, considerando a camada de 0-20 cm. As doses de P indicadas para soja, milho, trigo e cevada em solos em PD de longa duração são superiores às de adubação atualmente indicadas no PR, o que, ao menos em parte, justificam-se pelas altas produtividades das

  6. [A case of lambda-expressing pulmonary MALT lymphoma with dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hye Ryong; Lee, Mi Ja; Park, Geon; Moon, Dae Soo; Park, Young Jin; Jang, Sook Jin

    2009-06-01

    A 70-yr-old woman was hospitalized with a history of dry cough. Bronchial endoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy were performed. However, the findings of histopathology and immunohistochemistry were not sufficient to decide whether the lesion was benign or malignant, because of the presence of crush artifacts in the biopsy specimens. We performed B-cell clonality studies using BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR (InVivoScribe Technologies, USA) to detect clonal rearrangements in the immunoglobulin gene. The results of multiplex PCR showed clonal rearrangements of both kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes. The findings of immunochemistry revealed that the lesion expressed lambda light chain, but not kappa light chain. Based on the clinical, pathologic, and molecular findings, this case was diagnosed as pulmonary MALT lymphoma. We report the first case in Korea of lambda-expressing MALT lymphoma that is shown to have dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene by multiplex PCR.

  7. The molecular cytogenetic progress of MALT lymphoma%MALT淋巴瘤分子细胞遗传学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 范钦和

    2005-01-01

    粘膜相关淋巴样组织(MALT)淋巴瘤起源于结外边缘区B淋巴细胞,其发病机制目前尚不清楚.最近的研究表明,MALT淋巴瘤具有特征性的t(11;18)和t(1;14)染色体易位及染色体三体现象,涉及MALT1、bcl10、Fas等多种基因的改变,并且与细胞凋亡有着密切关系.现就MALT淋巴瘤常见的分子细胞遗传学异常作一回顾和探讨.

  8. Hemicelluloses of ragi (finger millet, Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15): isolation and purification of an alkali-extractable arabinoxylan from native and malted hemicellulose B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, M V S S T; Muralikrishna, G

    2006-03-22

    Hemicelluloses (A and B) were isolated from an Indo-African hybrid variety of finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana) by extracting the starch-free residue with 10% sodium hydroxide under a continuous stream of nitrogen, and changes in their sugar composition during malting for 96 h were studied. Hemicellulose B, obtained in higher yield from both native (N) and malted (M) flours, was found to be completely soluble in water, richer in uronic acid, and more viscogenic than hemicelullose A. Fractional precipitation of hemicellulose B by ammonium sulfate resulted in four precipitable fractions (F-60, F-70, F-80, and F-100) and a nonprecipitable (NP) fraction varying in their yield and arabinose, xylose, galactose, and glucose contents. A progressive increase in the pentose-to-hexose ratio (P:H) from 0.42:1.0 in F-60 to 1.94:1.0 in NP was observed in native hemicellulose B fractions; however, in malted hemicellulose B the P:H ratio increased from 0.43:1.0 in F-60 to 1.56:1.0 in F-80 and then decreased to 1.13:1.0 in NP. The major fraction, F-70 (N, 44.5%; M, 38.5%), was separated into eight subfractions on DEAE-cellulose by successive elution with water, ammonium carbonate (AC) (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 M AC), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 and 0.2 M) differing in their yield and neutral sugar composition. The purity of the major glucuronoarabinoxylan fraction (0.1 M AC eluted) was ascertained by Sepharose CL-4B, HPSEC, cellulose acetate, and capillary electrophoresis methods. A significant decrease in the molecular mass of arabinoxylan from 1200 to 1120 kDa upon malting for 96 h is an indication of cell wall degradation by the inducible cell wall degrading enzymes.

  9. Characterization of wheat malt Lipase in malting%小麦芽脂肪酶酶学性质以及制麦过程的酶活变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪; 杜金华; 张开利; 金玉红

    2013-01-01

    以对硝基苯酚丁酸酯为底物,确定了小麦芽脂肪酶的酶学性质:最适温度为37℃;最适pH为8.0;4 ~35℃脂肪酶的热稳定性较好,35℃下保温60 rmin后其活力仍可保持在88.37%,45℃保温60 min后其活力保持在46.81%,55℃保温60 min酶失活;pH5.5 ~6.0范围内对脂肪酶的破坏力相对较小,保温60 min其活力仍可分别保持在95.11%和91.11%;Fe3+对脂肪酶有较强的抑制作用;Cu2+、Mn2+、Al3对脂肪酶的抑制作用较小;Ca2+、EDTA对脂肪酶有较强的激活作用.小麦制麦过程中发芽第4天酶活达到最大值,为8.52 u/g,随后酶活下降;干燥会破坏部分脂肪酶的酶活,损失率为27.06%.小麦芽籽粒、胚芽、胚根中的脂肪酶酶活依次降低,分别为8.01 u/g、7.55u/g、6.83 u/g;协定法麦汁糖化过程中,无胚芽麦芽脂肪酶的酶活比有胚芽的低,且酶的失活速度也比较大,在55 min(70℃)时,脂肪酶完全失活.%Taking p-nitro phenol butyrate as substrate,enzymatic properties of Lipase in wheat malt were confirmed as follows:optimal temperature was 37 ℃ ; optimal pH was 8.0 ; thermal stability of Lipase was good at 4 ~ 35℃,and it still kept 88.37% and 46.81% of activity when it was correspondingly incubated at 35 ℃ and 45℃ for 60min.When it was incubated at 45℃ for 60min,the enzyme was inactive.Its activity could be kept 95.5% and 91.11% when it was incubated at pH 5.5 and 6.0 for 60min.Fe3+ can strongly inhibit the activity of Lipase.EDTA had an obvious activation on Lipase.During germination,the activity of the enzyme reached a maximum of 8.52u/g on the fourth day,and then decreased.The activity of the enzyme in kernel,embryo,radical decreased in turn,which respectively were 8.01 u/g,7.55 u/g,and 6.83u/g.During EBC mashing,the activity of the enzyme in malt without embryo was lower than that in malt,and the inactivation rate was more quickly.Lipase was inactive completely at 70℃ for 55min.

  10. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  11. MALT LYMPHOMA IN LABIAL SALIVARY GLAND BIOPSY FROM SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME (SS): IMPORTANCE OF FOLLOW-UP IN EARLY DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszler, A; Adler, LI; Gandolfo, MS; Masquijo Bisio, PA; Smith, AC; Vollenweider, CF; Heidenreich, AM; de Stefano, G; Kambo, MV; Cox, DP; Narbaitz, M; Lanfranchi, HE

    2012-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are known to occur in Sjögren syndrome (SS) patients, but reported cases in labial salivary glands (LSG) are rare. We report a case of 60-year-old female patient with SS who developed MALT lymphoma in the labial salivary glands during a 2-year time interval when she was participating in the Sjögren’s International Clinical Collaborative Alliance (SICCA). SICCA is an ongoing longitudinal multisite observational study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States. At follow-up exam, LSG biopsy showed atypical diffuse infiltration by mononuclear cells of variable size and atypical nuclei affecting the whole specimen with destruction of glandular architecture, leading to a diagnosis of B-cell MALT lymphoma. Computed tomography and bone marrow biopsy failed to show additional evidence of disease. Clinical, serological, ocular, histologic and immunohistochemical findings are presented. A “watch and wait” policy was adopted with regular examinations. PMID:23157989

  12. 眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤的临床分析%Clinical analysis of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许薇薇; 张卯年; 魏锐利

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristic features and the treatment of ocular adnexal lymphoma.Methods Between 1996 to 2008,the clinical and imaging features,histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects,prognosis and results of treatments in 32 patients with ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma were retrospectively analyzed.Results This group included 22 males and 10 females.The ages ranged from 23 to 74 years and the average age was 64.1 years.Number of tumors located in the conjunctiva,the orbit and the lacrimal apparatus was 18/32 (56.3%);9/32 (28.1%) and 5/32 (15.6%),respectively.B ultrasound examination showed hyperechoie masses (28.1% ,9/32),and the echo was not uniformed (84.4% ,27/32).CT examination showed a medium (43.8±10.7)HU and uniform density (84.6%,22/26).The signal patterns in MRI tended to be isointense in T1-,T2-weighted imaging (66.67%,6/9;88.89%,8/9).After image examination,all of the 32 cases underwent surgical resection combined with radiotherapy.These cases were followed up from 1 to 12 years.The relapse rate was 12.5%.Conclusions Image examination is useful for the diagnosis of ocular adnexal lymphoma.Pathologic and immunohistochemical examinations can confirm the diagnosis of ocular adnexal lymphoma.MALT lymphoma has a good prognosis after surgical resection combined with radiotherapy.%目的 探讨黏膜相关组织淋巴瘤(MALT)在眼附属器包括眼睑、眼眶、泪腺等部位的特殊临床特征与治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析32例眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤患者的临床表现、B超、CT、MRI检查结果,病理组织学和免疫组织化学结果以及综合治疗疗效与预后情况.结果 32例眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤患者中男22例,女10例;年龄23.0~74.0岁,平均年龄64.1岁.18例发生于结膜,占56.3%(18/32);9例发生于眼眶,占28.1%(9/32);5例发生于泪腺,占15.6%(5/32).B超检查肿块多表现为内回声不均匀(84.4%,27/32)或内回声高(28.1%,9/32);CT

  13. API2-MALT1融合基因表达与结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤临床病理特征与预后的关系%The correlation between the expression of API2-MALT1 mRNA and clinicopathological features and prognosis of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 陈铌; 李雷

    2005-01-01

    目的检测结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤API2-MALT1融合基因mRNA表达,了解其表达与结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤临床病理特征与预后的关系.方法收集胃肠和甲状腺结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤共32例,通过RT-PCR检测所有病例的API2-MALTl mRNA,收集临床病理资料和随访.根据融合基因表达情况将病例分为两组,即API2-MALT1mRNA表达与未表达组,比较两组的临床病理特征和预后.结果 32例中11例检出融合基因表达(34.4%).与API2-MALT1mRNA未表达病例相比较,API2-MALT1mRNA表达病例临床病理分期较早,细胞增殖指数、淋巴结累及远处转移率和复发率都较低,两组间差异有显著意义.生存分析:API2-MALT1mRNA表达病例平均存活时间长、5年生存率高,两组的存活情况差异有显著意义.结论 API2-MALT1融合基因表达对结外DLBCL的临床病理特征和预后有明显影响,来源于MALT淋巴瘤恶性转化的DLBCL有具有更加惰性的临床过程和较好的存活情况.MALT淋巴瘤和由它高恶性转化而来的结外DLBCL应被视为同一个临床病理学实体,这样更能体现MALT淋巴瘤的演进过程.

  14. The CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signalosome complex: Stepping into the limelight of human primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Stuart E; Durandy, Anne; Fischer, Alain; Fung, Shan-Yu; Geha, Raif S; Gewies, Andreas; Giese, Thomas; Greil, Johann; Keller, Bärbel; McKinnon, Margaret L; Neven, Bénédicte; Rozmus, Jacob; Ruland, Jürgen; Snow, Andrew L; Stepensky, Polina; Warnatz, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing has accelerated the genetic characterization of many human primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). These discoveries can be lifesaving for the affected patients and also provide a unique opportunity to study the effect of specific genes on human immune function. In the past 18 months, a number of independent groups have begun to define novel PIDs caused by defects in the caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11)-B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 [CBM]) signalosome complex. The CBM complex forms an essential molecular link between the triggering of cell-surface antigen receptors and nuclear factor κB activation. Germline mutations affecting the CBM complex are now recognized as the cause of novel combined immunodeficiency phenotypes, which all share abnormal nuclear factor κB activation and dysregulated B-cell development as defining features. For this "Current perspectives" article, we have engaged experts in both basic biology and clinical immunology to capture the worldwide experience in recognizing and managing patients with PIDs caused by CBM complex mutations.

  15. Changes in the Fusarium Head Blight Complex of Malting Barley in a Three-Year Field Experiment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Beccari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, conducted for three years on eleven malting barley varieties cultivated in central Italy, the incidence of different mycotoxigenic fungal genera, the identification of the Fusarium species associated with the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB complex, and kernels contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON and T-2 mycotoxins were determined. The influence of climatic conditions on Fusarium infections and FHB complex composition was also investigated. Fusarium species were always present in the three years and the high average and maximum temperatures during anthesis mainly favored their occurrence. The FHB complex was subject to changes during the three years and the main causal agents were F. poae, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. graminearum, which, even if constantly present, never represented the principal FHB agent. The relative incidence of Fusarium species changed because of climatic conditions occurring during the seasons. The FHB complex was composed of many different Fusarium species and some of them were associated with a specific variety and/or with specific weather parameters, indicating that the interaction between a certain plant genotype and climatic conditions may influence the presence of Fusarium spp. causing infections. With regard to mycotoxin contamination, T-2 toxin, in some cases, was found in kernels at levels that exceeded EU recommended values.

  16. Purification, enzymatic characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a high-isoelectric-point alpha-glucosidase from barley malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, T P; Lok, F; Mirgorodskaya, E;

    2000-01-01

    High-isoelectric-point (pI) alpha-glucosidase was purified 7, 300-fold from an extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange, and butyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme had high activity toward maltose (k(cat) = 25 s(-1)), with an optimum at pH 4...... in the transition state complex. Mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments assigned the 92-kD protein to a barley cDNA (GenBank accession no. U22450) that appears to encode an alpha-glucosidase. A corresponding sequence (HvAgl97; GenBank accession no. AF118226) was isolated from a genomic phage library using a c......DNA fragment from a barley cDNA library. HvAgl97 encodes a putative 96.6-kD protein of 879 amino acids with 93.8% identity to the protein deduced from U22450. The sequence contains two active site motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 31. Three introns of 86 to 4,286 bp interrupt the coding region. The four...

  17. Expression of BCL-10 protein and the relationship with API2-MALT1 fusion gene in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue%黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤BCL-10蛋白表达及其与API2-MALT1融合基因的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷; 李甘地; 江炜; 杨文秀; 刘卫平; 张文燕; 李吉满; 唐源

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨MALT淋巴瘤中BCL-10蛋白核表达与API2-MALT1融合基因的关系.方法 对86例MALT淋巴瘤进行回顾性研究,采用SP法检测BCL-10的表达,RT-PCR检测API2-MALT1融合基因.结果 10例桥本甲状腺炎均表达BCL-10于胞浆,86例MALT淋巴瘤患者中,42例(48.8%)同时表达BCL-10于胞核和胞浆,35例(40.7%)检测出API2-MALT1融合基因.BCL-10核表达的检出与API2-MALT1融合基因具有相关性(r=0.374,P=0.000).结论 MALT淋巴瘤中BCL-10蛋白的核表达与API2-MALT1融合基因相关.

  18. 结外B细胞淋巴瘤组织中API2-MALT1融合基因的检测及其意义%Detection of API2-MALT1 fusion gene in extranodal B-cell lymphoma and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 李雷; 陈铌

    2006-01-01

    目的了解API2-MALT1融合基因mRNA多种变异体在多个部位黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(MALT淋巴瘤)、结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(DLBCL)以及桥本甲状腺炎中的分布特征,探讨t(11;18)(q21;q21)与上述淋巴瘤的临床病理特征和预后的关系及意义.方法收集手术切除的MALT淋巴瘤62例(肺10例、胃31例、肠9例及甲状腺12例)、DLBCL 32例(胃16例、肠13例和甲状腺3例)及桥本甲状腺炎8例标本,通过逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测所有病例的API2-MALT1 mRNA,5例淋巴结反应性增生作为阴性对照.根据检测结果将94例淋巴瘤分为API2-MALT1阳性及阴性组,比较两组的临床病理特征和生存率(随访6~120个月).结果 94例淋巴瘤中39例检出API2-MALT1 mRNA(MALT淋巴瘤28例,结外DLBCL 11例).8例桥本甲状腺炎及阴性对照组均未检出融合基因.共检出A1446-M814和A1446-M1123两种变异体,以后者多见.融合基因mRNA检出率在甲状腺淋巴瘤最低,而在肺、胃肠较高.与阴性组相比,阳性组临床分期较早,浸润程度较轻、复发率较低,5年生存率较高.结论 API2-MALT1 融合基因mRNA在MALT淋巴瘤和结外DLBCL中都可被检出,而在桥本甲状腺炎中未检出.MALT1基因在1123 bp断点较高的发生率可能是国人API2-MALT1形成时的一个特点;表达API2-MALT1 融合基因的B细胞淋巴瘤具有更加惰性的临床过程和较好的存活情况,将其视为同一谱系更能体现其发展.

  19. Lymphomagenic CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling drives malignant B-cell proliferation via cooperative NF-κB and JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Nathalie; Alankus, Begüm; Weilemann, Andre; Tzankov, Alexandar; Brunner, Kristina; Ruff, Tanja; Kremer, Marcus; Keller, Ulrich B; Lenz, Georg; Ruland, Jürgen

    2015-12-29

    The aggressive activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and constitutive nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation, which is required for tumor cell survival. BCR-induced NF-κB activation requires caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11), and CARD11 gain-of-function mutations are recurrently detected in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To investigate the consequences of dysregulated CARD11 signaling in vivo, we generated mice that conditionally express the human DLBCL-derived CARD11(L225LI) mutant. Surprisingly, CARD11(L225LI) was sufficient to trigger aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferation, leading to early postnatal lethality. CARD11(L225LI) constitutively associated with B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) to simultaneously activate the NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades. Genetic deficiencies of either BCL10 or MALT1 completely rescued the phenotype, and pharmacological inhibition of JNK was, similar to NF-κB blockage, toxic to autonomously proliferating CARD11(L225LI)-expressing B cells. Moreover, constitutive JNK activity was observed in primary human activated B cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL specimens, and human ABC-DLBCL cells were also sensitive to JNK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that enforced activation of CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling is sufficient to drive transformed B-cell expansion in vivo and identify the JNK pathway as a therapeutic target for ABC-DLBCL.

  20. MiR-26 down-regulates TNF-α/NF-κB signalling and IL-6 expression by silencing HMGA1 and MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chyi-Ying A; Chang, Jeffrey T; Ho, Yi-Fang; Shyu, Ann-Bin

    2016-05-05

    MiR-26 has emerged as a key tumour suppressor in various cancers. Accumulating evidence supports that miR-26 regulates inflammation and tumourigenicity largely through down-regulating IL-6 production, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, combining a transcriptome-wide approach with manipulation of cellular miR-26 levels, we showed that instead of directly targeting IL-6 mRNA for gene silencing, miR-26 diminishes IL-6 transcription activated by TNF-α through silencing NF-κB signalling related factors HMGA1 and MALT1. We demonstrated that miR-26 extensively dampens the induction of many inflammation-related cytokine, chemokine and tissue-remodelling genes that are activated via NF-κB signalling pathway. Knocking down both HMGA1 and MALT1 by RNAi had a silencing effect on NF-κB-responsive genes similar to that caused by miR-26. Moreover, we discovered that poor patient prognosis in human lung adenocarcinoma is associated with low miR-26 and high HMGA1 or MALT1 levels and not with levels of any of them individually. These new findings not only unravel a novel mechanism by which miR-26 dampens IL-6 production transcriptionally but also demonstrate a direct role of miR-26 in down-regulating NF-κB signalling pathway, thereby revealing a more critical and broader role of miR-26 in inflammation and cancer than previously realized.

  1. From array-based hybridization of Helicobacter pylori isolates to the complete genome sequence of an isolate associated with MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mégraud Francis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background elicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastro-duodenal inflammatory diseases of various levels of severity. To determine whether certain combinations of genetic markers can be used to predict the clinical source of the infection, we analyzed well documented and geographically homogenous clinical isolates using a comparative genomics approach. Results A set of 254 H. pylori genes was used to perform array-based comparative genomic hybridization among 120 French H. pylori strains associated with chronic gastritis (n = 33, duodenal ulcers (n = 27, intestinal metaplasia (n = 17 or gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma (n = 43. Hierarchical cluster analyses of the DNA hybridization values allowed us to identify a homogeneous subpopulation of strains that clustered exclusively with cagPAI minus MALT lymphoma isolates. The genome sequence of B38, a representative of this MALT lymphoma strain-cluster, was completed, fully annotated, and compared with the six previously released H. pylori genomes (i.e. J99, 26695, HPAG1, P12, G27 and Shi470. B38 has the smallest H. pylori genome described thus far (1,576,758 base pairs containing 1,528 CDSs; it contains the vacAs2m2 allele and lacks the genes encoding the major virulence factors (absence of cagPAI, babB, babC, sabB, and homB. Comparative genomics led to the identification of very few sequences that are unique to the B38 strain (9 intact CDSs and 7 pseudogenes. Pair-wise genomic synteny comparisons between B38 and the 6 H. pylori sequenced genomes revealed an almost complete co-linearity, never seen before between the genomes of strain Shi470 (a Peruvian isolate and B38. Conclusion These isolates are deprived of the main H. pylori virulence factors characterized previously, but are nonetheless associated with gastric neoplasia.

  2. A MALT90 study of the chemical properties of massive clumps and filaments of infrared dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) provide a useful testbed in which to investigate the genuine initial conditions and early stages of massive-star formation. Aims: We attempt to characterise the chemical properties of a sample of 35 massive clumps of IRDCs through multi-molecular line observations. We also search for possible evolutionary trends among the derived chemical parameters. Methods: The clumps are studied using the MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz) line survey data obtained with the Mopra 22 m telescope. The survey covers 16 different transitions near 90 GHz. The spectral-line data are used in concert with our previous LABOCA (Large APEX BOlometer CAmera) 870 μm dust emission data. Results: Eleven MALT90 transitions are detected towards the clumps at least at the 3σ level. Most of the detected species (SiO, C2H, HNCO, HCN, HCO+, HNC, HC3N, and N2H+) show spatially extended emission towards many of the sources. Most of the fractional abundances of the molecules with respect to H2 are found to be comparable to those determined in other recent similar studies of IRDC clumps. We found that the abundances of SiO, HNCO, and HCO+ are higher in IR-bright clumps than in IR-dark sources, reflecting a possible evolutionary trend. A hint of this trend is also seen for HNC and HC3N. An opposite trend is seen for the C2H and N2H+ abundances. Moreover, a positive correlation is found between the abundances of HCO+ and HNC, and between those of HNC and HCN. The HCN and HNC abundances also appear to increase as a function of the N2H+ abundance. The HNC/HCN and N2H+/HNC abundance ratios are derived to be near unity on average, while that of HC3N/HCN is ~10%. The N2H+/HNC ratio appears to increase as the clump evolves, while the HNC/HCO+ ratio shows the opposite behaviour. Conclusions: The detected SiO emission is probably caused by shocks driven by outflows in most cases, although shocks resulting from the cloud formation process could also play a role

  3. 大麦发芽过程中蛋白质组的变化研究%Study on changes of barley proteome during the malting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝祥; 朴永哲; 翟明昌; 董亮; 郭敏利; 周华成; 赵长新

    2013-01-01

    通过双向电泳技术监测大麦发芽过程中水溶蛋白质组的变化,明确大麦发芽过程中蛋白质组的变化规律,为麦芽制造提供一定理论依据.以澳麦“schooner”为研究对象,提取其水溶蛋白进行双向电泳分析,结合分析软件监测大麦发芽过程中蛋白质组的变化.结果显示,本实验检测出大麦种子中大约有804种蛋白质,发芽过程中有424种蛋白质未发生变化,379种蛋白质降解消失或浓度降低,另有77种新的蛋白质产生.结果表明,进一步证实浸麦阶段主要是蛋白质的降解过程;发芽前期蛋白质的降解和合成转化较为缓和,发芽中期(48~72h)蛋白质的降解最为旺盛;发芽后期蛋白质的变化基本趋于平衡.%Study on the change of barley proteome during the malting process by two-dimensional electrophoresis,providing a theory of malting.In this study,Australian barley-" Schooner" was chosen.Two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysis software were used to survey the change of water-soluble barley proteome during the malting process.The results showed that during the malting process,only less than 424 kinds of protein retained,while more than 379 kinds of protein disappeared.And 77 kinds of new protein appeared,compared with the 804 kinds of protein in barley.The results showed that barley protein mainly resolved in steeping process.The solution and synthetic transformation of barley protein changed small at the start of germination.And protein resolved the most clearly in the middle of the germination(48~72h).So it was a gradual process of equilibrium.Later of it,protein mostly did not change.

  4. 麦芽糊精基因组DNA不同提取方法的比较%Comparison of different extraction methods of genomic DNA from malt dextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟丽; 李启明; 汪家琦; 马莺

    2011-01-01

    To find out a better one from three malt dextrin DNA extraction methods for the molecular marker analysis of high quality and sufficient samples.With malt dextrin purchased from the market as the tested material,the genomic DNA was extracted from malt dextrin using three different methods,such as CTAB method,SDS method and GuSCN method.The extraction effects of different methods were compared.The results of optical density detection showed that extraction amount and purity with GuSCN method were better than SDS method and CTAB method.The results of agarose gel electrophoresis determination showed that genome DNA band extracted by SDS method was clear and stable and genome DNA extracted by SDS method and CTAB method were not banded.The genomic DNA extracted with these methods all could be used in PCR reaction.The results showed that DNA could be obtained with three of all methods from malt dextrin,but the GuSCN method was the best extraction method.%采用不同方法对麦芽糊精基因组DNA进行提取,从中选取满足麦芽糊精材料进行分子标记检测的最好的DNA提取方法。以市售麦芽糊精为材料,分别采用CTAB、SDS和异硫氰酸胍3种方法提取基因组DNA,比较不同方法的提取效果。光密度检测结果显示,异硫氰酸胍法的提取量和纯度均优于SDS法和CTAB法;琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测结果显示异硫氰酸胍法提取的基因组DNA谱带清晰、重复性好,SDS法和CTAB法提取的基因DNA观察不到谱带;3种方法提取的麦芽糊精基因组DNA都能够满足PCR分析的需要。结果表明,3种方法均能有效地从麦芽糊精中获得DNA,然而异硫氰酸胍法优于SDS法和CTAB法。

  5. INVESTIGATION OF HYGROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF POWDER OF SEMIFINISHED KVASS WORT CONCENTRATE, MALT EXTRACT OF BARLEY AND CHICORY EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry of Russia urgently needs both updating of the manufacturing units of equipment and the creation of new high-tech and energy-saving technologies. Nowadays powdered food products and semifinished foods gained wide popularity in the market of foods and in manufacturing. Due to the caking and low wettability of fine powdered semi-finished products, there is an urgent need for modifying their properties by instanting. This article is devoted to the study of hygroscopic properties of powdered products and semifinished products: chicory extract, barley malt extract, kvass wort concentrate obtained by spray drying with an average dispersed composition of 10-20 microns, to find optimal conditions for packaging, storage and theoretical justification of the instanting process conditions. The article provides a diagram of experimental device for the study of hygroscopic properties of food powdered semi-finished products by accelerated method with the creation of the fluidized bed and the required temperature and humidity characteristics of fluidizing agent. The principles of operation of the device and methods of the experiment carrying out are given. The results are given in the form of sorption isotherms, by which monomolecular poly-molecular and capillary forms of binding of moisture with the test products and semi-finished products are determined. Theoretical nomogram to determine the binding energy of the moisture with the semi-finished products is given. Mathematical dependences of equilibrium humidities in the studied powdered products and semi-finished products on the air relative humidity in the range of 15 to 85 % at a temperature 22 ˚C were obtained. Optimal humidity properties of the resulting products for their production and subsequent storage and for the instanting processes were determined.

  6. Gradients methods for simultaneous optimizations: case studies for food systems/ Métodos de gradiente para otimização simultânea: estudo de casos de sistemas alimentares

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    Evandro Bona

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a software with efficient gradient methods for foods systems multiresponse optimization using the Derringer & Suich function, including a 4th order polynomial equation to remove non-differentiable points in that function. The software was tested in three food systems selected in specialized literature: 1 inactivated lipoxygenase and lipase and preserve phytase activity in barley during soaking; 2 simultaneous optimization of response in protein mixture formulation; 3 simultaneous optimization of parameters used in roasting process of corn germ to be used as an ingredient in foods. The program that was developed has show itself to be efficient and trustworthy for the optimization of multiresponse.Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um aplicativo com métodos de gradiente eficazes na otimização de sistemas alimentares com respostas múltiplas utilizando as funções de Derringer & Suich, incluindo um polinômio de 4º grau para a remoção das descontinuidades dessas funções. O aplicativo foi testado em três sistemas alimentares selecionados na literatura especializada: 1 inativação da lipoxigenase e lípase preservando-se a atividade da fitase durante o processamento hidrotérmico da cevada; 2 otimização simultânea das respostas na formulação de misturas de proteínas; 3 otimização simultânea dos parâmetros de torração de gérmen de milho visando aplicação como ingrediente em alimentos. O programa desenvolvido mostrou ser eficiente e confiável para a otimização em sistemas alimentares multirresposta.

  7. Expression of CARMA1, BCL10 and MALT1 in MALT and Extra diffuse large B cell lymphomas and its significance%MAITL、CARMA1及BCL10蛋白在MALT淋巴瘤和结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 杨文秀; 裴媛媛; 郭宏伟; 孟青

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解MALT1、BCL10、CARMA1蛋白分子在结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(Ex-DLBCL)及MALT淋巴瘤中的表达及表达的相互关系,探讨其表达对Ex-DLBCL及MALT淋巴瘤的影响.方法 通过常规苏木素伊红染色观察肿瘤的组织学特征,免疫组织化学染色检查对肿瘤细胞的免疫表型进行病理筛选,再用免疫组化染色检测CARMA1、BCL10、MALT1蛋白和Ki67的表达.采用相应的统计方法进行统计学分析.结果 蛋白表达总阳性率:在淋巴瘤中CARMA1 62.8%,MALT1 73.0%,BCL10 69.2%,表达水平明显高于反应性增生淋巴结(依次为13.3%,20%,13.3%),P值均为0.001.MALT淋巴瘤和Ex-DLBCL病例比较:CARMA1 (60.9%:64.8%)和MALT1(70.7%:75.6%)蛋白表达差异均无显著性,但BCL10表达(58.5%:81.0%)差异有统计学意义.CARMA1、BCL10和MALT1蛋白两两比较表现出明显的相关关系;三种蛋白不同的表达情况与淋巴瘤类型有相关关系(P=0.022),蛋白分子表达种类越多,Ex-DLBCL病例越多.CARMA1和BCL10阳性表达病例肿瘤细胞Ki67≥30%的病例明显多于相应的阴性表达病例(P=0.001),而MALT1阳性和阴性表达病例之间比较无类似的差异.结论 MALT和Ex-DLBCL肿瘤细胞高表达CARMA1、MALT1和BCL10,三种蛋白分子之间两两表达具有相关性,CBM三联复合物形成可能通过使NFκB的异常持续活化上调促细胞增殖的相关基因表达从而参与MALT淋巴瘤的演进过程.

  8. The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

    2013-10-01

    Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci.

  9. Effect of different doses of post-emergence-applied iodosulfuron on weed control and grain yield of malt barley (Hordeum distichum L., under Mediterranean conditions

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    Barros José Calado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out over a two year period (2009/2010 and 2012/2013 on an experimental farm in the Alentejo region (Beja, in southern Portugal where rainfed malt barley (Hordeum distichum L. is sown at the end of autumn or beginning of winter (November- December. The aim of this experiment was to study the efficiency of the herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium to control post-emergence broadleaved weeds in this cereal crop. The malt barley crop was established using no-till farming. This technology provides the necessary machine bearing capacity of the soil to assure the post-emergence application of herbicides at two different weed development stages. The herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied at three doses (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g a. i. · ha-1 and at two different broadleaved weed development stages (3 to 4 and 6 to 7 pairs of leaves, that also corresponded to two different crop development stages (beginning of tillering and complete tillering. The results indicated that early herbicide application timing provided a significantly higher efficiency for all the applied herbicide doses, but this better weed control was not reflected in a higher crop grain yield. The lack of a higher crop grain yield was probably due to a crop phytotoxicity of the herbicide, when used at an early application timing.

  10. Detection of apoptotic cells and immunohistochemical study of bcl-2 and p53 gene protein in primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To identify the apoptotic cells in gastric MALT lymphoma and its relationship between bcl-2 and p53 gene expression. Methods: TdT-mediated dUTP biotin Nick End labeling (TUNEL) and immuno-histochemistry ABC method were used to display apoptotic cells and the gene protein expression of bcl-2 and p53 independently. Results: Apoptotic indices (AI) in high-grade MALT lymphomas were significantly higher than in mixed-grade group and low-grade group (P<0.05). Bcl-2 was expressed in 83% of low-grade tumors, 61.6% of the median-grade tumors and 43.7% of high-grade tumors. An inverse correlation was observed between the expression of bcl-2 and apoptotic indices. Only 27 cases were p53 positive. The frequency of p53 positivity was significantly increased as the histologic grade advanced (P<0.05). There was also an inverse correlation between the expression of bcl-2 and p53. Conclusion: Apoptosis may be important in tumors development and transmission. P53 and bcl-2 were important regulatory genes of apoptosis and may be associated with transformation from low-grade to high-grade lymphomas.

  11. Antiproliferation and induction of cell death of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) extract fermented by brewer malt waste on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Ivy Tuang Ngo; Chui, Chung Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Lau, Fung Yi; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Ho, Kwok Ping

    2005-11-01

    Astaxanthin has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on breast cancer and skin cancer cells. However, the high cost of production, isolation and purification of purified astaxanthin from natural sources or chemically synthetic methods limit its usage on cancer therapy. We show that astaxanthin could be produced by fermentating the Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) yeast cells with brewer malt waste using a 20 L B. Braun fermentor. The percentage composition of astaxanthin from the P. rhodozyma was >70% of total pigment as estimated by the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of this P. rhodozyma cell extract (PRE) was demonstrated on breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB231 (estrogen receptor negative) by using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-arboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (MTS) assay. No apoptotic cell death, but growth inhibitory effect was induced after 48 h of PRE incubation as suggested by morphological investigation. Anchorage-dependent clonogenicity assay showed that PRE could reduce the colony formation potential of both breast cancer cell lines. Cell death was observed from both breast cancer cell lines after incubation with PRE for 6 days. Taken together, our results showed that by using an economic method of brewer malt waste fermentation, we obtained P. rhodozyma with a high yield of astaxanthin and the corresponding PRE could have short-term growth inhibition and long-term cell death activity on breast cancer cells.

  12. Método simplex supermodificado como estratégia de otimização para respostas combinadas em sistemas alimentares The use of super-modified simplex as an optimisation strategy for combined responses in food systems

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    Rosângela Aguilar da SILVA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo combinar modelagem pela superfície de resposta com otimização simplex supermodificado, para tratamento de casos de interesse na ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, com o emprego da função de Derringer & Suich para respostas combinadas. Um programa para microinformática, denominado MULTIPLEX, foi desenvolvido e testado na otimização multirresposta de três sistemas alimentares selecionados na literatura especializada: 1 inativação da lipoxigenase e lipase preservando-se a atividade da fitase durante o processamento hidrotérmico da cevada; 2 desidratação instantânea de maçã por expansão; 3 extração da proteína da linhaça com hexametafosfato. Uma análise estatística rigorosa foi realizada para testar a capacidade preditiva dos modelos. O método simplex supermodificado, com inicialização automática, foi o instrumento para a solução numérica da função de Derringer & Suich para respostas combinadas. O programa desenvolvido mostrou ser eficiente e confiável para a otimização de multirrespostas, sendo executável em microcomputador que disponha de processador 486 e ambiente MS-DOS.The objective of this work was to combine response surface methodology (RSM with super-modified simplex optimisation for treatment of cases that are interesting for food science and technology through the application of the function of Derringer & Suich for combined responses. A microcomputer program called MULTIPLEX was developed and tested in the multiresponse optimisation of three food systems selected in specialised literature: 1 inactivated lipoxygenase and lipase and preserve phytase activity in barley during soaking; 2 vapor induced puffing in apple dehydration; 3 hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction of flaxseed protein. A rigorous statistics analysis was accomplished in order to test the predictive ability of the models. The super-modified simplex method with automatic initialisation was the

  13. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  14. Etude comparative des composés phénoliques, du pouvoir antioxydant de différentes variétés de sorgho sénégalais et des enzymes amylolytiques de leur malt

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    Thonart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of phenolic compounds, antioxidant power of various Senegalese sorghum cultivars and amylolytic enzymes of their malt. The study involved seven cultivars of white sorghum selected to ISRA Bambey and consumed in many regions of Senegal. Several characters and biochemical compounds of the grains (presence of pigmented testa, total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity were determined in all cultivars. A three days malting was also carried out and amylolytic enzymes such as α-amylase, β-amylase and limit-dextrinase which are essential for a malt of good quality were proportioned. These enzymes are measured specifically with kits of Megazyme: Amylazyme (α-amylase, Betamyl (β-amylase and Limit-Dextrizyme (limit-dextrinase. Two cultivars, CE 180-33 and CE 145-66 proved to be tannin sorghums, have the highest levels in total phenols and the most important antioxidant activities (ABTS and DPPH. The results of enzymatic analysis and the index of Kolbach indicated the F-2-20 like cultivar presenting the best potentialities for malt production.

  15. The influence of barley malt protein modification on beer foam stability and their relationship to the barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor-I (BDAI-I) as a possible foam-promoting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshihiro; Iimure, Takashi; Takoi, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Takafumi; Kihara, Makoto; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2008-02-27

    The foam stability of beer is one of the important key factors in evaluating the quality of beer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of malt modification (degradation of protein, starch, and so on) and the beer foam stability. This was achieved by examining foam-promoting proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). We found that the foam stability of beer samples brewed from the barley malts of cultivars B and C decreased as the level of malt modification increased; however, the foam stability of cultivar A did not change. To identify the property providing the increased foam stability of cultivar A, we analyzed beer proteins using 2DE. We analyzed three fractions that could contain beer foam-promoting proteins, namely, beer whole proteins, salt-precipitated proteins, and the proteins concentrated from beer foam. As a result, we found that in cultivar A, some protein spots did not change in any of these three protein fractions even when the level of malt modification increased, although the corresponding protein spots in cultivars B and C decreased. We analyzed these protein spots by peptide mass finger printing using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, all of these spots were identified as barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor-I (BDAI-I). These results suggest that BDAI-I is an important contributor to beer foam stability.

  16. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  17. Para Leer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sanz Cañibano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jorge L. Tizón, Ramón Ciurana, M del Carmen Fernández (Comps. Libro de casos. Promoción de la salud mental desde la atención primaria. (Adela Sanz Cañibano Grupo de Expertos en Competencia Intercultural. Instrumento para la valoración de la Competencia Intercultural en la Atención en salud mental. Hacia la equidad en salud. (María Goretti Morón Nozaleda Mariano Hernández Monsalve y Pilar Nieto Degregori (Coords.. Psicoterapia y Rehabilitación de pacientes con psicosis. (Francisco Chicharro Lezcano André du Laurens. De las enfermedades melancólicas. Jourdain Guibelet. Del humor melancólico. (Iñaki Markez Julio José? Segarra Valls. Léxico psico(patológico en la obra de Carlos Castilla del Pino. (Eudoxia Gay Pamos Giorgio Nardone y Alessandro Salvini. El diálogo estratégico. (Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo Michel Foucault. Leçons sur la volonté de savoir, suivi de Le savoir d'Edipe. (Mauricio Jalón Camilo Castelo Branco. La novela de un hombre rico. (Alicia Merisi Kenzaburo Oé. Cuadernos de Hiroshima. (Mauricio Jalón Pascal Quignard. Les solidarités mystérieuses. (Beatriz A. Rubín Documentos en la red (Juan Medrano

  18. Detecting the API2-MALT1 Fusion Gene and Its Significance in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Lymphomas%API2-MALT1融合基因在桥本氏甲状腺炎和甲状腺淋巴瘤中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 李甘地; 周桥; 刘卫平; 李雷; 陈铌

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨API2-MALT1融合基因在桥本氏甲状腺炎和甲状腺MALT及弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(DLBCL)中的表达情况,以了解融合基因表达与甲状腺MALT和弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤发生及预后的关系.方法用逆转录降落PCR和巢式PCR结合检测8例桥本氏甲状腺炎、12例甲状腺MALT淋巴瘤和3例DLBCL中的API2-MALT1 mRNA,5例反应性增生的淋巴结作为检测的阴性对照;通过临床病理和随访资料的分析了解融合基因对两种甲状腺淋巴瘤预后的影响.结果 5例反应性增生的淋巴结和8例桥本氏甲状腺炎均未检出融合基因转录,15例甲状腺淋巴瘤检出2例有融合基因转录,1例为MALT淋巴瘤,1例为DLBCL,2例均伴有桥本氏甲状腺炎,临床分期为ⅠE期,无淋巴结累及.结论甲状腺MALT淋巴瘤中API2-MALT1融合基因mRNA的检出率虽较低,但不能完全排除API2-MALT1表达在桥本氏甲状腺炎向甲状腺淋巴瘤发展过程中的作用;具有融合基因转录的甲状腺淋巴瘤可能表现出更加惰性的发展过程.

  19. Phenanthrene removal from aqueous solutions using well-characterized, raw, chemically treated, and charred malt spent rootlets, a food industry by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valili, Styliani; Siavalas, George; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Manariotis, Ioannis D; Christanis, Kimon

    2013-10-15

    Malt spent rootlets (MSR) are biomaterials produced in big quantities by beer industry as by-products. A sustainable solution is required for their management. In the present study, MSR are examined as sorbents of a hydrophobic organic compound, phenanthrene, from aqueous solutions. Raw MSR sorb phenanthrene but their sorptive properties are not competitive with the respective properties of commercial sorbents (e.g., activated carbons). Organic petrography is used as a tool to characterize MSR after treatment in order to produce an effective sorbent for phenanthrene. Chemical and thermal (at low temperature under nitrogen atmosphere) treatments of MSR did not result in highly effective sorbents. Based on organic petrography characterization, the pores of the treated materials were filled with humic colloids. When pyrolysis at 800 °C was used to treat MSR, a sorbent with new and empty pores was produced. Phenanthrene sorption capacity was 2 orders of magnitude higher for the pyrolized MSR than for raw MSR.

  20. Morphology and staging of primary gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (MALT) in hydro-CT imaging; Morphologie und Staging primaerer mukosaassoziierter Lymphome des Magens in der Hydro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L.; Duex, M.; Hallscheidt, P.; Libicher, M.; Richter, G.M.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiodiagnostik

    1998-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluation by hydro-CT in diagnosing and staging of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the stomach (MALT). Material and methods: 15 patients with MALT lymphoma underwent imaging by hydro-CT (helical CT scanning optimised for parenchymal and vessel contrast with distension of the gastric wall by water). The CT scans were evaluated for the site, morphology, extent and contrast enhancement of gastric lymphoma; in addition, the number and location of abdominal lymph nodes were examined. The results of CT imaging were compared with the findings at endoscopy + biopsy and endosonography and in case of gastrectomy also with the histopathological results. Results: All lymphomas were correctly diagnosed and were mostly located in the distal parts of the stomach. MALT lymphoma typically grew submucosally, infiltration of the mucosa was rare. Most tumours showed marked contrast enhancement of the mucosa and poor enhancement of the submucosa. Hydro-CT and endosonography had similar accuracies in respect of staging of compartment I and II lymph nodes. Staging of distant nodal groups was more accurate by hydro-CT. Conclusion: Hydro-CT is non-invasive and may be used for diagnosis and staging of primary gastric lymphoma with a typical morphology of gastric lymphoma. Hydro-CT may be regarded as complementary to endosonography and is well suited for the initial diagnosis of gastric lymphoma as well as for the diagnosis of recurrent tumour. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Wertigkeit der Hydro-CT bei Diagnostik und Staging von primaeren mukosaassoziierten Lymphomen des Magens (MALT-Lymphom). Material und Methode: 15 Patienten mit MALT-Lymphom des Magens wurden mittels kontrastoptimiertem Spiral-CT des wassergefuellten Magens (Hydro-CT) untersucht. Die Lokalisation, Morphologie, Ausdehnung, das Kontrastverhalten der Lymphome und der abdominelle Lymphknotenstatus wurden evaluiert. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit der Endosonographie, der endoskopischen Biopsie und bei Operation mit der

  1. Enfermidades em bovinos associadas ao consumo de resíduos de cervejaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Armando C. Brust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A utilização de subprodutos de cervejaria na alimentação de bovinos tem crescido nos últimos anos como uma excelente alternativa na manutenção ou aumento da produtividade na bovinocultura, sobretudo na Região Sudeste. Entre os resíduos mais empregados estão o bagaço de malte oriundo da "cevada" e o "levedo de cerveja", um subproduto líquido que contém álcool, muito utilizado no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O uso incorreto ou sem os devidos cuidados, bem como o armazenamento de forma inadequada, contudo, podem ser responsáveis por quadros de intoxicação por etanol, neurotoxicose por Aspergillus clavatus, acidose ruminal e botulismo. Esse trabalho tem por intuito alertar para a importância dessas condições como causa de sérios prejuízos econômicos à pecuária e fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico, diagnóstico diferencial e profilaxia das mesmas.

  2. Patrones de absorción de nitrógeno nativo y del fertilizante en cebada cervecera con fertilizaciones cercanas a la siembra Soil and fertilizer nitrogen uptake patterns in malting barley with near seeding fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurora Lázzari

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe escasa información sobre la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados, en cebada cervecera, y su relación con el aumento de rendimiento de granos sin aumentar la concentración proteica a niveles que excedan el rango exigido por las malterías. Se llevaron a cabo ocho experimentos a campo en diferentes sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, en los años 1999 y 2000, para determinar el efecto del nitrógeno sobre el crecimiento, la absorción de N del suelo y del fertilizante, el rendimiento y la concentración de N en grano. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados a la emergencia de la planta, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados en macollaje temprano, y 60 kg N ha-1 fraccionado en dos momentos: 30 kg N ha-1 cada uno aplicados a la emergencia y en macollaje temprano. Dentro de cada parcela se ubicó una microparcela a la que se le aplicó urea marcada con 15N. En cuatro momentos del ciclo de la cebada, desde macollaje temprano hasta madurez fisiológica, se evaluó la producción de materia seca y la absorción de N de plantas extraídas de las microparcelas. El crecimiento continuó hasta madurez fisiológica, y generalmente alcanzó el máximo después de antesis, en coincidencia con el período de mayor absorción de nitrógeno. La dosis de 30 kg N ha-1 aumentó el rendimiento pero no la concentración de N del grano. El agregado de 60 kg N ha-1 afectó ambos. El momento de aplicación de N no afectó el rendimiento de la materia seca ni la concentración de N en el grano. La variación en la absorción de N entre sitios fue mayor que la variación en la absorción de N del fertilizante. El Índice de Cosecha de Nitrógeno no fue afectado por las dosis de N aplicado.There is a lack of data associated with applications of nitrogen fertilizer to increase yield while not increasing seed protein to levels exceeding those acceptable for malting barley in Buenos Aires province. Field experiments were carried out on eight sites

  3. Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite during the CADRE/MALTED campaign 1. Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-11-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alca‸ntara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guará Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3°S) and magnetic (~0.5°S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the CUPRI 50

  4. Effect of ABF Bio+malt extra on the probiotic bacteria and sensory quality of yogurt%双麦麦精对酸奶益生菌及其感官性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如琪; 吕宝龙; 卢艳花; 刘少伟

    2012-01-01

    ABF Bio+ malt extract is a kind of nature nutrients, which is extracted from barely. Add different ratio ABF Bio+ malt extract during making yogurt, 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% respectively. Enumeration the viable bacteria number of Bulgaria lactobacillus (B.L.) and streptococcus thermophilus (S.T.) after various storage time. The results showed that the viable bacteria numbers were highest at 3% ABF Bio+malt extract and 4% sugar concentration with the comparation of high-purity fructo-oligosaccharide. It is demonstrated that 3%ABF Bio+ malt extract also can promote the growth of bifidobacterium. The appearance, flavor, texture and taste of yogurt with various ABF Bio+malt extract addition was the optimum , compared to high-purity fructo-oligosaccharide.%双麦麦精是以大麦,其他麦类为原料通过酶解提取的一种天然营养物质.在酸奶制作过程中添加不同比例的双麦麦精,采用平板涂布的方法检测不同储存时间下,酸奶中的保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌的活菌数.并且通过感官实验评定双麦麦精对酸奶口感、口味、色泽以及香味的影响.结果明,当双麦麦精添加量为3%,蔗糖4%时,对酸奶中益生菌的促生长作用最好.同时验证了3%双麦麦精对双歧杆菌也有明显的益生作用.而且,3%添加量的双麦麦精在益生作用以及感官性质方面都比同等添加量的低聚果糖效果好.

  5. Effect of malt alkaloid extracts on the excitatory autacoid levels in HPRL rats%生麦芽生物碱对高泌乳素血症模型大鼠激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敦全; 陈永刚; 吴金虎; 王雄; 曹金红

    2012-01-01

    Objective Through evaluating the effect of malt alkaloid in the excitatory autacoid levels in HPRL rats,to determine the active fraction for milk regurgitation effect of malt. Methods The female HPRL rat model was established by metoclopramide administration through subcutaneous injection, and then treated intragastrically with appropriate medication for 20 consecutive days. Blood was collected after the last treatment, and the levels of estradiol ( E2 ) and progesterone ( P) , prolactin ( PRL) , follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by ELISA. Results Comparison with the positive control group,serum PRL levels decreased significantly (P<0. 01) in both malt alkaloids high and low dose groups, but serum E2 and P levels elevated ( P < 0. 05 and P < 0. 01 ) in the malt alkaloids high dose group. Each treatment group had no effect on up-regulating the levels of FSH and LH. Conclusion Malt alkaloid exhibits a protective effect on hyperprolactinemia, and its mechanism may be related to regulation of the hormone levels.%目的 研究生麦芽生物碱对高泌乳素血症(HPRL)模型大鼠泌乳素(PRL)、雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)等激素水平的影响,初步明确生麦芽回乳作用的有效部位.方法 选用雌性未孕Wistar大鼠,背部皮下注射盐酸甲氧氯普胺注射液制备HPRL模型.造模成功后,各组均胃饲给予相应的药物治疗,连续20d.末次给药后取血,应用ELISA法检测血清中PRL、E2、P、促卵泡激素(FSH)、促黄体生成素(LH)的含量,观察生麦芽生物碱对HPRL大鼠各激素水平的影响.结果 与模型组比较,生麦芽生物碱高、低剂量组大鼠血清PRL水平明显下降(P<0.01),高剂量组还可升高E2、P水平(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 生麦芽生物碱对HPRL模型大鼠有保护作用,其作用机制可能与其对PRL、E2、P水平的调节作用有关.

  6. The role of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 in regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation and its abnormal alterations in T cell malignancy%CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1调节T细胞增殖分化作用及其在T细胞肿瘤中的改变情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 胡峻岩; 李扬秋

    2014-01-01

    由CARMA1、BCL10和MALT1 3种蛋白分子形成的CBM复合物,是活化NF-κB的信号转导通路中的重要信号分子,在调控淋巴细胞增殖和分化的过程中具有重要作用.本文主要综述了该信号通路分子的结构和主要在T细胞增殖和分化中的功能的研究新进展以及在T细胞肿瘤中的异常改变和相关分子机制.

  7. Gastric MALT lymphoma: clinical characteristics and prevalence of H. pylori infection in a series of 37 cases Linfoma MALT gástrico: características clínicas y prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori en una serie de 37 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Gisbert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma diagnosed in our hospital during the last 15 years. Methods: patients with gastric MALT lymphoma diagnosed in our hospital during the last 15 years were retrospectively included. Demographic, clinic, analytic, endoscopic, and histological variables were reviewed. The extension study, the staging classification, and the presence of H. pylori infection were assessed. Results: thirty-seven patients with gastric MALT lymphoma were identified. Mean age was 61 years, with 62% of males. The most common presentation symptom was dyspepsia (76%, followed by digestive bleeding (11% and constitutional syndrome (8%. At endoscopy, erosive lesions were identified in 41%, and proliferative or exophytic lesions in 43%. Most lymphomas were classified as low-grade (68%. The stage distribution was EI for 56%, EII for 13%, EIII for 3%, and EIV for 28%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection (histology in all cases, rapid urease test in 19%, and 13C-urea breath test in 24% was 46%. When only low-grade lymphomas in stage EI were considered, H. pylori prevalence increased to 55%. When H. pylori infection was evaluated by 13C-urea breath testing (in addition to histology, the prevalence of H. pylori infection increased to 78%. Conclusions: it is probable that the reduced H. pylori prevalence found in some studies, as in ours, could be explained by false-negative results obtained when only one diagnostic method was used. Therefore, at least two (invasive diagnostic methods should be performed. Furthermore, the performance of a non-invasive diagnostic method (such as a 13C-urea breath test before the exclusion of H. pylori infection should be considered.Objetivo: revisar retrospectivamente las características clínicas y la prevalencia de infección por H. pylori en los pacientes con linfoma MALT gástrico diagnosticados

  8. t(14;18)(q32;q21)累及IGH和MALT1在皮肤MALT淋巴瘤和原发皮肤弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤中不常见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wongchaowart; N.; T.; Kim; B.; Hsi; E.; D.

    2006-01-01

    背景:t(14;18)(q32;q21)累及IGH和MALT1已在皮肤MALT淋巴瘤和1例原发皮肤弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤(DLBCL)中被描述。但是,IGH/MALT1转位在这些类型皮肤淋巴瘤的发生率还不清楚。方法:作者用MALT1和IGH分裂探针对16例皮肤MALT1淋巴瘤和16例原发皮肤DLBCL患者的石蜡切片进行分裂间期荧光原位杂交(FISH),以评价IGH/MALT1转位的频率,筛选其他有关IGH和MALT1位点的潜在转位。结果:16例皮肤MALT1淋巴瘤和16例原发皮肤DLBCL患者中,均未检测到累及MALT1的转位。能够进行IGH转位分析的12例MALT淋巴瘤患者均为阴性。相反,能够进行IGH转位分析的13例(31%)例原发皮肤DLBCL患者中有4例阳性。之后的FISH分析显示其中1例为IGH/BCL2转位,1例为CMYC/IGH转位,而剩余2例的转位配对目前还未发现。结论:该研究显示累及MALT1的转位,包括IGH/MALT1在皮肤MALT淋巴瘤和原发皮肤DLBCL中不常见。其他累及IGH的转位也不参与至少大多数皮肤MALT淋巴瘤的发病。相反,原发皮肤DLBCL在少数病例中可有几种IGH转位中的一种。

  9. Micro-solid phase extraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of aflatoxins in coffee and malt beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Salleh, Baharuddin; Manaf, Normaliza Hj Abdul; Latiff, Aishah A

    2014-03-15

    A single step extraction-cleanup procedure using porous membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the extraction and determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1 and G2 from food was successfully developed. After the extraction, AFs were desorbed from the μ-SPE device by ultrasonication using acetonitrile. The optimum extraction conditions were: sorbent material, C8; sorbent mass, 20mg; extraction time, 90 min; stirring speed, 1,000 rpm; sample volume, 10 mL; desorption solvent, acetonitrile; solvent volume, 350 μL and ultrasonication period, 25 min without salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factor of 11, 9, 9 and 10 for AFG2, AFG1, AFB2 and AFB1, respectively were achieved. Good linearity and correlation coefficient was obtained over the concentration range of 0.4-50 ng g(-1) (r(2) 0.9988-0.9999). Good recoveries for AFs ranging from 86.0-109% were obtained. The method was applied to 40 samples involving malt beverage (19) and canned coffee (21). No AFs were detected in the selected samples.

  10. Hyd5 gene based analysis of cereals and malt for gushing-inducing Fusarium spp. by real-time LAMP using fluorescence and turbidity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denschlag, Carla; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

    2013-04-01

    The surface active class 2 hydrophobin Hyd5p (GenBank accession number DQ449530) has been identified as a causative agent for over foaming (gushing) of beer. In order to estimate the potential of brewing cereals and malt to induce gushing in beer we used a previously described set of primers to amplify a partial sequence of the hyd5 gene in Fusarium culmorum and closely related species in a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. Real-time LAMP was optimized and performed on two different platforms using a turbidimeter and a fluorescence reader to monitor the reaction on line. Serial dilutions of purified target DNA were used to set up a calibration curve for quantitative estimation of DNA concentrations. Analysis of model barley samples prepared by mixing infected with non-infected material in different ratios demonstrated a positive correlation between the real-time LAMP results and respective infection levels. In order to investigate the performance of the newly established methods, samples of barley were analyzed for their gushing potential using the Hyd5 real-time LAMP assay and a reference in vitro test for gushing prediction (Modified Carlsberg Test, MCT) in parallel experiments. Results showed that the real-time LAMP assay was in accordance with the reference test in 50% of cases with both platforms used. It predicted a lower number of gushing-positive samples as compared to the current reference test.

  11. Potential of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria to replace the use of malt for partial starch hydrolysis to produce African fermented pearl millet gruel fortified with groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songré-Ouattara, L T; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Icard-Vernière, C; Rochette, I; Diawara, B; Guyot, J P

    2009-04-15

    Fermentation and starch hydrolysis of a pre-cooked pearl millet-groundnut (MG) slurry inoculated with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) or by back slopping was investigated as a substitute for the addition of malt to prepare infant gruels. The ALAB collection strain Lb. plantarum A6, and the endogenous microflora provided by back slopping were more efficient in acidifying and partially hydrolysing starch in the MG slurry than Lb. plantarum 6.1, isolated from the traditional process in Burkina Faso. Large amounts of maltotriose and maltotetraose accumulated in slurry fermented by strain A6. No accumulation of maltose was observed, which could be an advantage to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants such as yeasts. Starch hydrolysis in the MG slurry inoculated with strain A6 or by back slopping enabled preparation of high-energy density gruels (84.7+/-4.4 and 80.4+/-23.8 kcal/100 g of gruel, respectively) of liquid consistency. However variability was higher with back slopping.

  12. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making.

  13. Herramienta para hacer cuestionarios para Moodle

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Garcia, jesus

    2010-01-01

    Herramienta de creación de cuestionarios remotos de cuestiones SQL para Moodle. Permite también, el Aprendizaje colaborativo, para que los estudiantes puedan hacer cuestionarios de forma conjunta y desarrollar habilidades de trabajo en equipo. / Tool for Moodle to create remote quiz with SQL question. It also allows collaborative learning, so students can do together remote quiz and develop teamwork and social skills.

  14. 市售国产啤酒及麦芽麸质蛋白含量的现状%Present Status of Gluten Content in Commercially Available Domestic Beer and Malts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳俊; 王德良; 秦谦; 刘国华; 刘助水; 唐玉竹

    2016-01-01

    Gluten content in 14 kinds of commercially available domestic beer and 8 kinds of malts were determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay (RIDASCREEN competitive ELISA kit) approved by CAC. The results showed that the gluten content ranged from<10 mg/L to 307.62 mg/L in the 14 kinds of beer, among them, gluten content in 12 kinds of light beer ranged from<10mg/L to 67.4 mg/L, and gluten content in 2 kinds of wheat beer were 290.5 mg/L and 307.62 mg/L respectively;in addition, gluten content ranged from 7.56 to 51.38 g/kg in the 8 kinds of malts, and such difference might be induced by raw material species and malt-making technology.%采用国际食品法典委员会(CAC)认可的麸质蛋白的检测方法竞争法ELISA试剂盒,检测了14种市售国产啤酒和8种麦芽的麸质蛋白含量。研究表明,14种市售国产啤酒麸质蛋白含量从小于10 mg/L到307.62 mg/L,其中12种淡爽型啤酒麸质蛋白含量从小于10 mg/L到67.4 mg/L,2种小麦啤酒麸质蛋白含量分别为290.5 mg/L和307.62 mg/L;8种麦芽麸质蛋白含量为7.56~51.38 g/kg,可能因品种、制麦工艺不同而有所差异。

  15. Microbiological analysis on premature yeast flocculation of malt%引起啤酒酵母提前絮凝的麦芽微生物群落分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 李蓉; 江晓路; 林艳

    2011-01-01

    The microorganism was isolated from two kinds of beer malt premature yeast flocculation ( PYF + , PYF-). Based on morphological characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences for bacteria, ITS region gene sequences for fungi, a total of 15 strains were identified. Eight of them belonged to the family of bacteria, the rest ones were all fungi. The quantities of Pantoea agglomerans, Escherichia hermannii and Cryptococ-cus magnus on PYF + malt were 7. 6 x 105, 1. 68 x 106 and 1. 6 x 106 CFU/g, respectively, they were significantly higher than that of PYF- malt and relevant to premature yeast flocculation.%对具有酵母提前絮凝现象(PYF+)和标准麦芽(PYF-)2种类型的麦芽进行微生物分离纯化.根据微生物形态学特征、生理生化特点以及对细菌的16S rRNA区域和真菌的ITS区域分析,共分离得到15株菌种,细菌8株,真菌7株.其中细菌中的成团泛菌、赫氏埃希菌及真菌中的大隐球酵母在PYF+麦芽上数量分别达到7.6×105、1.68×106和1.6×106个/g,显著高于PYF-麦芽,与啤酒酵母提前絮凝现象具有较大的相关性.

  16. Treatment of Malt Production Wastewater by Hydrolysis Acidification/Activated Sludge/Air Flotation%水解酸化/活性污泥/气浮工艺处理麦芽生产废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪荣平; 江云; 钱小青; 季俊杰

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of malt production wastewater, the malt wastewater treatment station was designed and built, using hydrolysis acidification/activated sludge/air flotation as the main wastewater treatment processes. The engineering operation results show that when the influent COD, BOD5 and SS are 401 to 832 mg/L, 128. 2 to 240.2 mg/L and 88 to 258 mg/L respectively, the effluent COD, BOD5 and SS are 36 to 60 mg/L, 10. 2 to 14.6 mg/L and 32 to 50 mg/L respectively, meeting the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Beer Industry (GB 19821 -2005). The wastewater treatment cost is 1.17 yuan/m3. The practice proves that hydrolysis acidification/activated sludge/air flotation process is an economical and effective method for malt wastewater treatment, which provides a successful experience for the future design and operation of malt wastewater treatment projects.%根据麦芽生产废水的特点,采用水解酸化/活性污泥/气浮为主体的废水处理工艺,设计并建成了麦芽废水处理站.工程运行结果表明,在进水COD、BOD5和SS分别为(401 ~832)、(128.2 ~240.2)和(88 ~ 258) mg/L的情况下,出水COD为36 ~ 60 mg/L、BOD5为10.2~14.6mg/L、SS为32~50 mg/L,达到了《啤酒工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 19821-2005),处理成本为1.17元/m3.实践证明,采用水解酸化/活性污泥/气浮工艺处理麦芽生产废水经济有效,为麦芽废水处理工程的设计和运行提供了成功经验.

  17. Measurement of alpha-amylase activity in white wheat flour, milled malt, and microbial enzyme preparations, using the Ceralpha assay: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; McNally, Marian; Monaghan, Dympna; Mugford, David C

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the method performance of a rapid procedure for the measurement of alpha-amylase activity in flours and microbial enzyme preparations. Samples were milled (if necessary) to pass a 0.5 mm sieve and then extracted with a buffer/salt solution, and the extracts were clarified and diluted. Aliquots of diluted extract (containing alpha-amylase) were incubated with substrate mixture under defined conditions of pH, temperature, and time. The substrate used was nonreducing end-blocked p-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside (BPNPG7) in the presence of excess quantities of thermostable alpha-glucosidase. The blocking group in BPNPG7 prevents hydrolysis of this substrate by exo-acting enzymes such as amyloglucosidase, alpha-glucosidase, and beta-amylase. When the substrate is cleaved by endo-acting alpha-amylase, the nitrophenyl oligosaccharide is immediately and completely hydrolyzed to p-nitrophenol and free glucose by the excess quantities of alpha-glucosidase present in the substrate mixture. The reaction is terminated, and the phenolate color developed by the addition of an alkaline solution is measured at 400 nm. Amylase activity is expressed in terms of Ceralpha units; 1 unit is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release 1 micromol p-nitrophenyl (in the presence of excess quantities of alpha-glucosidase) in 1 min at 40 degrees C. In the present study, 15 laboratories analyzed 16 samples as blind duplicates. The analyzed samples were white wheat flour, white wheat flour to which fungal alpha-amylase had been added, milled malt, and fungal and bacterial enzyme preparations. Repeatability relative standard deviations ranged from 1.4 to 14.4%, and reproducibility relative standard deviations ranged from 5.0 to 16.7%.

  18. Normas para vivienda

    OpenAIRE

    Coupé, Françoise

    1990-01-01

    El Seminario Taller Normas para Vivienda, analiza los efectos de las normas vigentes en el país, sobre el desarrollo urbano, la vivienda y la calidad de vida, para participar en la discusión del Estatuto Metropolitano de Usos del Suelo, Urbanismo y Construcción. Se presenta en este Boletín algunos resultados del trabajo realizado.

  19. 黏膜相关淋巴样组织淋巴瘤分子遗传学研究进展%Progress on the study of molecular genetics of MALT lymphomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 叶洪涛; 施达仁

    2006-01-01

    近年来对黏膜相关淋巴样组织(MALT)淋巴瘤的研究主要集中在基因和染色体异常.除早期发现的t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1融合基因外,还发现t(1;14)(p22;q32)/BCL10-IgH或t(1;2)(p22;p12)/BCL10-IgLκ;t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IgH-MALT1;t(3;14)(p14.1;q32)/FOXP1-IgH以及BCL6基因异常.另外,对MALT淋巴瘤和由此转化的弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤的关系也逐渐明确,发现了独特的或二者相互重叠的基因异常.这些分子遗传学的研究,有助于了解MALT淋巴瘤的发病机制,也有助于早期诊断和合理治疗.

  20. La vision de l’Espagne de la première moitié du XIXe siècle dans la Géographie Universelle de Conrad Malte-Brun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Puyo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Grande figure de la géographie française —et européenne— du premier quart du XIXe siècle, Conrad Malte-Brun laisse une oeuvre scientifique écrite considérable, dont une vaste Géographie universelle qui marqua alors son époque, rééditée à de multiples reprises durant plus de 50 ans. Contrairement à Élisée Reclus, autre grande figure de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, les écrits de Malte-Brun demeurent mal connus, sinon mésestimés. Or, à travers le fil conducteur que représente le chapitre de sa Géographie universelle consacré à l’Espagne, nous avons pour objectif de montrer que son auteur a su dépasser la simple dimension descriptive caractérisant nombre de textes géographiques de son époque pour introduire une réelle dimension explicative. Rien que pour cela, il mérite très largement, à notre sens, d’être redécouvert…

  1. Aviso para las viudas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available San Pablo instruye todos los prelados en la persona de su Timoteo, diciendo: «Honra las viudas que son verdaderamente viudas». Para ser, pues, verdaderamente viuda, son necesarias estas cosas

  2. Estrategias para negociaciones exitosas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Parra V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de negociación son herramientas para disminuir conflictos o para intercambiar bienes y servicios. Una negociación exitosa crea relaciones de solidaridad y propicia reciprocidad, cooperación y confianza para quienes tendrán relaciones permanentes de negociación con beneficios para ambas partes. Una estrategia de negociación exitosa requiere manejar el desarrollo del ambiente social del grupo de personas, con la finalidad de tener presente las fronteras que no pueden irrumpirse. Otro aspecto importante, es el lenguaje corporal utilizado por las personas y las tácticas que se practican. El manejo de esta información permite diseñar diferentes modelos de negociaciones para cada caso específico. Este documento propone la utilización de la herramienta MONACO, diseñada por los autores, que es un software útil para encontrar los mejores tácticas posibles dentro de una negociación; basándose en el lenguaje corporal que muestra el negociante oponente durante cada oferta monetaria. El uso de este software da al negociador la oportunidad de manejar las negociaciones con mayor control, el negociador que usa el software puede elegir una estrategia de acuerdo a las relaciones que espera mantener con el negociador oponente.

  3. 不同地区啤酒大麦品种农艺性状鉴定与分类研究%Agronomic Characteristics and Classification of Malting Barley from Different Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树明; 普晓英; 张京; 曾亚文; 杨涛; 杜娟

    2011-01-01

    为筛选可用于云南啤酒大麦改良的优良种质材料,对107份不同来源啤酒大麦品种的农艺性状进行鉴定与分类研究.结果表明,云南啤酒大麦的主要特点是成熟期长,分蘖较强,植株高,旗叶面积大,穗长、穗粒数、穗粒重、千粒重、秸秆干重中等,穗草比较高;国外引进品种株型中等紧凑,叶片细长,穗粒重和千粒重较大,穗草比适中.从中筛选出19份性状优良的材料.通过聚类分析,可将供试材料划分成4个性状不同的类群,各类群的农艺性状差异明显,有利于育种目标材料的选择.%In order to select good germplasm for improvement of Yunnan malting barley, agronomic characteristics of 107 accession of malting barley from different ecological regions were evaluated and classified. The results showed that the malting barley cultivars from Yunnan have common characters of long maturity, strong tillering, high plant,wide flag leaves,middle spike length, grain number per spike,grain weight per spike, 1000-grain weight, and dry panicle grain/item. The cultivars from abroad have middle height and compact plant type,long and narrow leaves ,high single panicle grain weight, 1000-grain weight, middle panicle grain/item. Nineteen cultivars with good morphological characteristics were selected for possible parents to improve productivity of barley in Yunnan. Through a cluster analysis,the material could be divided into 4 groups with different characteristics in which differences morphological character was obvious. It would be advantageous to the choice of breeding material.

  4. Tiempo para un cambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  5. Instalaciones para hotel rural

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Riera, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto cuenta con la información necesaria para el desarrollo de las instalaciones de un hotel rural. Dichas instalaciones son; la eléctrica, la de agua caliente sanitaria, las telecomunicaciones y la climatización. En el apartado de la instalación eléctrica, se han calculado todos los cables necesarios para el correcto funcionamiento del hotel, partiendo de las potencias demandadas en cada punto de consumo. Se ha calculado la línea general de alimentación, acomet...

  6. Instrucciones para autores

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrucciones para autoresNota preliminar: ¡Es de suma importancia que antesde enviar cualquier documento a la Revista GeologíaColombiana, lea y cumpla cuidadosamente cada uno delos subíndices de las Normas para autores!A partir del Volumen 35 (2010) recibimos artículosprincipalmente a través del sistema digital enhttp://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/geocol/index.Si quiere enviar un artículo, por favor regístrese comoAutor en el menú INGRESAR (aquí pueden registrarsetambién evaluadores u...

  7. MALT BARLEY PRODUCTION ON THE CHESTNUT SOILS AREA OF VOLGOGRAD REGION Производство ячменя, пригодного для пивоварения в зоне каштановых почв Волгоградской области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna E. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a short review of malt barley cultivation and its improvement ways on chestnut soils in Volgograd region. It includes the results of home brewing with the use of the experimental crop

  8. Clinicopathological features of primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma: report of 23 cases%肺原发性黏膜相关淋巴组织淋巴瘤23例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳冰; 谢建兰; 滕孝静; 刘伟; 郑媛媛; 张晓敬; 许传杰; 周小鸽

    2015-01-01

    研究肺原发性黏膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)淋巴瘤的临床表现、病理学形态特征、免疫表型、分子生物学特点及预后情况,总结肺原发性MALT淋巴瘤的临床及病理学特点.方法 通过临床资料总结、病理学形态观察、免疫表型分析,对23例肺原发性MALT淋巴瘤病例进行研究,并且对其中5例行IgH基因克隆性重排检测,4例行荧光原位杂交(FISH) MALT1基因检测.结果 23例肺原发性MALT淋巴瘤中12例无症状,于体检时发现肺部病变,其余表现为咳嗽、胸痛等.影像学均表现为肺部肿块影或实变影,19例病变位于右肺.病理学形态特点,5例肿瘤呈结节状,18例弥漫性生长,肿瘤与肺组织交界处均可见孤岛样或串珠样结构.肿瘤由3种形态细胞构成:中心细胞样细胞、单核样B细胞、小淋巴细胞样细胞,其中13例伴浆细胞分化,均可见到淋巴上皮病变及滤泡殖入现象.免疫组化染色,肿瘤细胞CD20(+),Ki-67指数5% ~20%,8例IgK、Igλ显示肿瘤细胞为单克隆性B细胞.分子生物学方面,IgH克隆性重排检测均检测到单克隆条带,4例中2例FISH检测出MALT1基因断裂.本组4例失访,其余19例随访3个月~6年5个月,全部存活,其中5例可疑肿瘤局部复发.8例仅行肿瘤局部切除,11例行手术切除并于术后行化疗.结论 肺原发性MALT淋巴瘤无症状或仅有轻微症状,影像学显示肺部肿块或阴影,组织形态表现为结节状或弥漫性单核样小淋巴细胞浸润,周边伴特征性孤岛样或串珠样结构,呈B细胞免疫表型并无其他小B细胞性淋巴瘤的表型特征,IgH克隆性检测呈单克隆,FISH检测可见MALT1基因断裂.本病预后较好,可局部复发.

  9. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion,lymphoepithelial carcinoma,MALT lymphoma and their association%良性淋巴上皮病、淋巴上皮癌、MALT淋巴瘤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江

    2007-01-01

    良性淋巴上皮病(benign lymphoepithelial lesion)、淋巴上皮癌(lymphoepithelial carcinoma)、黏膜相关淋巴组织型结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(MALT淋巴瘤)(extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoidtissue,MALT lymphoma)是3种性质不同但又存在某些关联的病变,本文对3种病变的病因、组织病理学表现及三者之间的关系进行了介绍,并结合叶为民等论文中的一些内容进行了简要探讨.

  10. Aprendizaje cooperativo para ELE

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Presentación sucinta para docentes de español como lengua extranjera del conjunto de propuestas metodológicas conocidas bajo la denominación aprendizaje cooperativo : origen, fundamentación, principales principios psicopedagógicos y algunas propuestas prácticas.

  11. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  12. Utilização de mostos concentrados na produção de cervejas pelo processo contínuo: novas tendências para o aumento da produtividade Use of concentrated worts for high gravity brewing by continuous process: new tendencies for the productivity increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Dragone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a produtividade volumétrica em etanol durante a fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato original, para a produção de cerveja pelo processo contínuo, utilizando as leveduras imobilizadas em bagaço de malte. Os mostos com diferentes concentrações de extrato original (14,3 ºP, 15,2 ºP e 19,6 ºP foram preparados a partir de um mosto de 22 ºP elaborado com malte e adjunto de alta maltose em uma relação adjunto: malte de 1:2,8. As fermentações foram conduzidas em um reator de coluna de bolhas, a 15 ºC, empregando uma taxa de diluição de 0,04 h-1 e um fluxo constante de gases de 250 mL/min (200 mL/min de CO2 e 50 mL/min de ar. De acordo com os resultados, a produtividade volumétrica em etanol aumentou quando a concentração de extrato original do mosto foi aumentada, sendo o valor máximo (2,09 g.L-1.h-1 obtido para o mosto de 19,6 ºP. Esse valor representa um aumento de 345% quando comparado com a produtividade (0,47 g.L-1.h-1 da fermentação descontínua de um mosto de 20 ºP. Conclui-se, então, que o processo contínuo de fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato para a produção de cerveja permite obter expressivos ganhos na produtividade em etanol quando comparado ao processo descontínuo.The present work evaluated the ethanol volumetric productivity during fermentation of worts with elevated original extract, for high gravity brewing by continuous process using yeasts immobilized on brewer's spent grain. Worts with different original extract (14.3 ºP, 15.2 ºP and 19.6 ºP were prepared from a wort of 22 ºP elaborated with malt and high maltose adjunct in an adjunct:malt ratio of 1:2.8. The fermentations were performed in a bubble column reactor, at 15 ºC, using a dilution rate of 0.04 h-1 and a constant gas flow of 250 mL/min (200 mL/min CO2 and 50 mL/min air. According to the results, the ethanol volumetric productivity increased when the

  13. Instrucciones para autores y autoras

    OpenAIRE

    Casa de la Mujer, Revista

    2015-01-01

    Le recomendamos leer este documento a profundidad para queconozca las políticas y normas para postular a consideración su escrito.Estas instrucciones se organizan en tres apartados: I. Datos básicos,II. Políticas y III. Lineamientos para presentar el escrito; para la citacióny referenciación con APA se ofrece el documento titulado Guía dereferenciación y citación con APA.

  14. Consejos para pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Eulalia Lucio-Villegas Menéndez; Laura López González; M. Isabel Gutiérrez Pérez; Natalia Aresté Lluch; M. Luisa Morató Agustí; Santiago Pérez Cachafeiro

    2014-01-01

    En el cuidado de las heridas es tan importante saber qué hacer como saber qué no hacer. Lo primero es valorar la gravedad de la lesión y saber si es necesario acudir a un centro sanitario o no. Si la herida es simple, lo más recomendable es hacer una buena limpieza con suero o agua tras lavado de manos, realizando la desinfección de esta con el antiséptico más adecuado. Los antisépticos no deben usarse para la limpieza de las heridas (usar suero fisiológico o agua del grifo) ni para la cur...

  15. Aplicaciones web para celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Diego Germán de la

    2007-01-01

    Las tecnologías inalámbricas -y en particular la telefonía celular- han tenido mucho auge y desarrollo en estos últimos años. El teléfono celular hoy día no es solo una herramienta indispensable para la gente de negocios, sino también un elemento primordial para la comunicación entre las personas. El rápido desarrollo tecnológico, la reducción de costos y el incremento de las expectativas de la gente, han provocado una invasión de teléfonos celulares en toda la sociedad, a nivel de llegar a r...

  16. Libertad para volar

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Olalla

    2008-01-01

    La formación, el empleo y la arquitectura sin barreras son aspectos esenciales para la integración del colectivo de personas con discapacidad. Sin embargo, la independencia y la normalización son un grado más en la lucha por la igualdad de trato y es ahí donde entran en juego factores como el ocio y el tiempo libre.

  17. Universidades accesibles para todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Stupp Kupiec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende hacer conciencia sobrelos factores que inciden en la construcción colectiva deuniversidades dispuestas a innovar y transformar suideología, sus políticas, el currículum, los servicios estu-diantiles, la infraestructura física y administrativa y lasestrategias de comunicación e información, bajo el para-digma de la accesibilidad en el entorno. Se hace referen-cia al marco legal internacional y nacional que orientalas acciones que deben planificarse e implementarse enlas instituciones de Educación Superior.En la construcción de universidades accesibles para to-dos se requiere de un cambio en la concepción curricu-lar. Se analizan conceptos como la flexibilidad en la for-mación y el acceso a los planes de estudio para respondera las necesidades educativas de todos los estudiantes. Para promover estas transformaciones se proponen prin-cipios y prácticas tales como la interdisciplinareidad y lainclusión del tema de la discapacidad en todas las carre-ras. Además, se presentan ejemplos de aplicación en dife-rentes áreas del perfil profesional, en la formación deldocente universitario y en actividades de proyección so-cial, vida estudiantil e investigación. En el ámbito estu-diantil, se describen algunos servicios y procesos que sehan desarrollado en la Universidad de Costa Rica

  18. Educando para la ignorancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Más que describir una situación particular, los autores buscan con este escrito motivar al estudiante para que asuma posiciones críticas; así como dar un campanazo de alerta a los profesores, en relación a los conocimientos que transmiten a sus alumnos y la forma en que lo hacen; todo con el ánimo de generar verdaderos espacios de reflexión en la universidad.

  19. INICIATIVAS PARA EL CAMBIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alfonso Defrancisco-Larrañaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El planeta no atraviesa por su mejor momento en materia de conservación y renovación de sus recursos naturales. Claramente en los últimos tiempos los recursos hídricos han venido haciéndose cada vez menores; el hombre ha notado con preocupación y vivido en carne propia este fenómeno, que de no ser tratado a tiempo, podría atentar contra la existencia misma. Esto lo ha alentado a buscar métodos que sirvan como solución para contrarrestar éste mal y crear conciencia entre sus iguales, para así poder garantizar su permanencia y la de su entorno durante muchas generaciones. En países desarrollados del continente europeo y en algunos lugares de América del norte, el uso de sistemas de reutilización y tratamiento de aguas grises y aprovechamiento de las aguas lluvias se ha convertido en una constante y nos están dando las pautas para poder seguir el ejemplo y así de esta manera poder aportar a la causa ambiental y a su vez crear un ahorro en nuestros gastos mensuales de consumo.

  20. High incidence of t(11;18)/API2-MALT1 and BCL10 aberrant nuclear expression in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomus%肺黏膜相关B淋巴细胞淋巴瘤中BCL10蛋白表达和染色体易位的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 杨文涛; 陆洪芬; 范月珍; 周晓燕; 施达仁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To detect the BCL10 expression and chromosomal translocations in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, including t (11;18)/API2-MALT1 ; t(1 ;14)/IgH-BCLI0 and t(14;18)/MALTI-IgH, and to determine if aberrant nuclear BCL10 expression is related with chromosomal translocations. Methods Twenty-three cases of pulmonary MALT lymphomas were collected from Cancer Hospital of Fudan University. BCLIO was detected by immunohistoehemistry of EnVision method, and API2.-MALT1, BCLI0, MALTI, IgH chromosomal abnormalities were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Results BCLI0 was expressed in 82. 6% (19/23) of the pulmonary MALT lymphomas. Among those eases, 9 of 23 (39.1%) were expressed in the cytoplasm, and 10 of 23 (43.5%) were in the nucleus. In the FISH results, 9 cases (39.1%, 9/23) showed API2MALT1 fusion gene, 1 case with possible BCLI0-IgH abnormality, but none showed chromosomal abnormalities related with MALTI and IgH gene simultaneously. Among 10 BCL10 nuclear expressive cases only 5 harbored genetic abnormalities. There was no correlation between BCL10 abrerrant nuclear expression and chromosoma(translocations) (X2=0.306,P=0.685). Follow-up of 10 eases for a period of 7 to 35 months showed that all the patients were alive. Because different treatments applied in different patients(chemotherapy only, surgery with chemotherapy or surgery only), best available treatment could not be confirmed in this study. Conclusions t (11;18)/API2-MALT1 was the most common chromosomal abnormality in pulmonary MALT lymphomas, but t(1;14)/BCLI0-IgH and t(14; 18)/MALTl-lgH were rare. Pulmonary MALT lymphomas also had higher nuclear BCLI0 expression, which was not correlated with chromosomal abnormalities. As a result, BCLIO nuclear expression and cytogenetic aberration may be helpful in the diagnosis, especially for small biopsy specimens.%目的 检测肺黏膜相关B淋巴细胞淋巴瘤(MALT淋巴瘤)中BCL10蛋白表达

  1. para mejorar el %R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Díaz Mata

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan dos indicadores técnicos bursátiles que están estrechamente relacionados, el oscilador estocástico %K de Lane y el oscilador %R de Williams; asimismo, se evalúa el uso de dos mecanismos asociados con el primero y que no suelen utilizarse con el %R: el proceso de frenado (slowing y el uso de un promedio móvil del propio oscilador estocástico como disparadores de señales de compra y de venta. Realizando simulaciones con 27 acciones y el Índice de Precios y Cotizaciones de la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores se verifica la hipótesis principal y se comprueba que, efectivamente, en muchos casos, el uso del proceso de frenado con el oscilador %R de Williams permite tomar mejores decisiones. Por otro lado, se concluye que de los dos disparadores de señales el que mejor funciona, tanto para %K como para %R es el uso de cotas inferior y superior. Este artículo surgió en el curso de una investigación sobre el análisis técnico bursátil de acciones que se puede realizar en su totalidad por computadora y que, esencialmente, excluye el análisis gráfico. Uno de los propósitos del estudio es determinar si es posible, y bajo qué mecanismos, establecer un sistema de análisis bursátil que le permita al inversionista tomar decisiones de inversión en acciones en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores sin tener que emplear la considerable cantidad de tiempo que es necesario para el análisis gráfico tradicional. Durante este estudio se realizó un análisis preliminar de unos 120 indicadores técnicos para, por un lado, conocerlos con cierto detalle y, por otra parte, aislar aquellos que prometían ser de utilidad para el objetivo de la investigación. Fue en este proceso cuando se detectó que existen dos indicadores que están relacionados y que permiten un análisis por separado que tiene, cuando menos, dos ventajas. En primer lugar está el placer que da a quien gusta de estos temas encontrarse con indicadores que, de acuerdo

  2. Inmunopotenciadores para la acuicultura

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    Rocmira Pérez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La acuicultura es una de las actividades económicas de mayor crecimiento para la producción de alimentos. Uno de sus principales retos es la obtención de grandes volúmenes de producción con la mayor calidad posible. Esto conlleva a una reducción de la aplicación de antibióticos y productos quimioterapéuticos. Una de las estrategias más prometedoras es la aplicación de inmunopotenciadores, principalmente en los cultivos intensivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los principales inmunopotenciadores, así como las tendencias y retos de su uso mundial. Se resumen las particularidades moleculares y funcionales de los mismos y se hace énfasis en los más estudiados: levamisol, ß-glucanos, lipopolisacárido, vitamina C, extractos de plantas y hormonas. Todos estos compuestos de naturaleza heterogénea inciden mayoritariamente en los componentes de la inmunidad innata de los peces, fortaleciendo y potenciando la resistencia a enfermedades; adicionalmente algunos de ellos tienen funciones antiestrés y favorecen su crecimiento. Se concluye que los inmunopotenciadores constituyen una estrategia viable para reducir las pérdidas por problemas sanitarios en el sector de la acuicultura; pero aún quedan por solucionar aspectos como la vía de administración y la etapa de inmunización adecuada para cada especie y tipo de cultivo.

  3. Partir para quedarse

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes, Geneviève; Franqueville, André

    2015-01-01

    Partir para quedarse... la paradoja resume la situación de muchos campesinos de los Andes bolivianos, confrontados a una creciente pobreza. El jefe de familia y muchas veces sus hijos van a trabajar en las planicies amazónicas, a la Argentina o a un país rico del norte. Su propósito es ganar suficiente dinero que les permita al resto de la familia vivir en el lugar de origen e independizarse después. Las olas migratorias son abordadas en un cuadro de un estudio comparativo de las sociedades ...

  4. Comunicar para la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Eva Bocco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo quiero plantearles una inquietud en torno al rol que nos cabe a los comunicadores en el área de la salud desde la perspectiva de la comunicación para la salud. ¿Se puede pensar la salud pública desvinculada de la comunicación? ¿La comunicación es posible sin la existencia de salud en la comunidad? ¿Qué puede hacer un comunicador en el ministerio de salud? ¿Puede un estado desarrollar políticas de salud sin la presencia de la comunicación?

  5. Nombrados para el mal

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Claudio; Sanchez, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se encuentra inscripto en la investigación Las vicisitudes del lazo amoroso en la época actual en el Gran La Plata. En ella, nuestro rasgo de investigación fue establecer algunas coordenadas para pensar que los signos de la Declinación del Nombre del Padre deben leerse en la transformación del registro del amor, dejando por fuera el registro que más desarrollos ha tenido dentro del campo del psicoanálisis: el de los ideales y el de la autoridad. La propuesta es que si El n...

  6. Para uma antropologia diferente

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Revista da FCSH, N.1, 1980, pp. 235-243 Quando no ano lectivo de 1975/76, começámos, num dos cursos de apôs-graduação, o ensino de Antropologia Cultural na Universidade Nova de Lisboa, muitos dos alunos ficaram deveras surpreendidos com o nosso estilo de linguagem e, particularmente, com a natureza das analogias de tipo transdisciplinar que empregávamos para explicar determinados fenômenos ou factos sociais e culturais. Era corrente, durante as sessões de trabalho, ref...

  7. Espirales tubulares para turbinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Para el suministro y fabricación de las espirales tubulares que debían alimentar las turbinas del aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Brownlee, que constituye el primero de los cuatro saltos del grupo Hells Canyon, del río Snake, la conocida factoría S. Morgan Smith, especializada en la construcción de turbinas y material a ellas accesorio, se encargó del estudio, fabricación y montaje de cuatro de estas espirales tubulares de 5,50 m de diámetro máximo.

  8. Ha vuelto para mirarnos

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    En cada entrega analizaremos un cuadro, mirándolo con ojos matemáticos. Con esa particular mirada, fruto de nuestra propia (de)formación. Y desde ese punto de vista haremos paseos por el arte y las matemáticas. Espero que el lector, como hago yo mismo, disfrute descubriendo más allá de lo que a simple vista distinguiría cualquiera. Al fin de cuentas, el arte, como las matemáticas, han sido creados para hacernos disfrutar.

  9. Para pensar o afeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio Pereira de Menezes

    Full Text Available Apresentação de um conjunto de formulações relativas ao “afeto” anteriores ao surgimento da psicanálise. Dificuldade da psicanálise em construir uma concepção propriamente psicanalítica. Contribuição da fenomenologia de Husserl para o estudo do afeto. Atualidade das concepções do afeto marcadas pelas neurociências. As maneiras principais de ver o problema da conceituação do afeto no pensamento psicanalítico.

  10. Comunicar para la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Eva Bocco

    1998-01-01

    Con este trabajo quiero plantearles una inquietud en torno al rol que nos cabe a los comunicadores en el área de la salud desde la perspectiva de la comunicación para la salud. ¿Se puede pensar la salud pública desvinculada de la comunicación? ¿La comunicación es posible sin la existencia de salud en la comunidad? ¿Qué puede hacer un comunicador en el ministerio de salud? ¿Puede un estado desarrollar políticas de salud sin la presencia de la comunicación?

  11. Ayudas TIC para Dislexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gassol Noguera, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    El artículo que presento intenta difundir las posibilidades de ofrecer ayudas para facilitar la lectura y la escritura en el mismo procesador de textos, sin tener que recurrir al uso de otros programas informáticos a la vez. Además se incorpora la posibilidad de adaptar el formato del texto a las preferencias del usuario (siguiendo los resultados de unos estudios presentados en 2012 que indican que la velocidad y comprensión de personas con dislexia mejora aumentando la separación entre las l...

  12. Determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L. extract powder containing malt dextrin%含麦芽糊精枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾东升; 崔施展; 谢晓亮; 温春秀; 李荣乔; 刘铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立含麦芽糊精的枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量的测定方法。方法采用糖化酶水解麦芽糊精,醇沉后苯酚硫酸法测定多糖含量,优化糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的工艺,比较酶解麦芽糊精后测定多糖含量、直接测定多糖含量与样品中多糖含量真实值之间的差异。并考察糖化酶对枸杞多糖的水解能力。结果糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的最佳工艺条件为:酶解温度60℃、酶与底物比例为1∶5,反应时间为30 min。与样品中枸杞多糖含量的真实值相比,直接测定值显著偏高,组间比较数据有显著统计学差异(P<0.01),酶解麦芽糊精后测定值无显著性差异(P>0.05);与直接测定值相比,酶解麦芽糊精后测定值显著降低(P<0.01),且糖化酶对枸杞多糖无水解能力。结论糖化酶水解法可消除麦芽糊精对枸杞提取物干粉中多糖测定的影响,且方法简单、有效。%Objective To establish a method for determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L . extract powder containing with malt dextrin. Method Maltodextrin was treated with glucoamylase hydrolysis and ethanol precipitation successively;then the phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to determine the content of polysaccharide. The glucoamylase hydrolysis technolgy of malt dextrin was optimized, and the variation of polysaccharide content before and after hydrolysis, the difference of polysaccharide contents between direct determination and truth were compared. Morever, the hydrolysis effect of glucoamylase on Lycium barbarum L. was investigated. Results The optimum hydrolysis condition was: temperature 60℃, the ratio of enzyme to substrate 1∶5, hydrolysis time 30 min. The polysaccharide content determined directly was significantly higher than the real value (P0.05). Glucoamylase showed no hydrolysis effects on Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide. Conclusion Glucoamylase hydrolysis can deplete the

  13. Principios teatrales para docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Irene Arroyo Zúñiga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende dar herramientas a los docentes para que puedan utilizarlas como parte de las actividades dentro de un plan de elección, en cualquier disciplina. Además encontrará una exposición de los elementos que componen el arte de la representación escénica, como son: 1. Expresión corporal; es la capacidad de expresar emociones partiendo únicamente de nuestro cuerpo. 2. Impostación; es la habilidad de proyectar la voz sin lastimar las cuerdas vocales. 3. Dicción; es la pronunciación correcta de las palabras. 4. Actuación; es la posibilidad de crear un personaje partiendo de los recursos expresivos y de la forma natural en que el alumno acostumbra a reaccionar. Técnica de improvisación, en éste artículo propongo una serie de seis pasos que pueden ser de gran ayuda a la hora de usar el teatro como recurso didáctico. El teatro a lo largo de la historia ha sido usado para transmitir conocimientos, valores, creencias y todo aspecto inherente a los individuos y su entorno social. Por lo tanto debemos aprovechar al máximo los beneficios que nos ofrece el teatro como educadores

  14. "Colaborar para Competir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Hijuelos-Cárdenas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con Michael Porter, los Clusters se definen como “Una agrupación de empresas e instituciones relacionadas entre sí, pertenecientes a un mismo sector o segmento de mercado, que se encuentran próximas geográficamente y que colaboran para ser más competitivas”. Los Clusters son en última instancia una herramienta de competitividad basada en la cooperación de sus miembros, y es una de las estrategias recientes, en el país, para incrementar la productividad y competitividad y las apuestas productivas desde el nivel local. Y es precisamente esta cercanía geográfica de las empresas de un mismo sector, lo que a la vez que genera la competencia entre ellas, también les facilita el acceso a insumos y a conocimientos específicos y en última instancia les permite promover la innovación.

  15. Study on the Method for Measuring Guanosine Enzyme Activity in Barley Malt%大麦芽中鸟苷酶酶活测定方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉龙; 李红; 杜金华; 刘常姝

    2014-01-01

    The properties and the measuring method of guanosine enzyme in barley malt were studied in this paper. In the experiment, barley malt powder was homogenized with cold buffer at the ratio of 1 to 5(w/v). Then the supernatant was filtered to obtain the crude enzyme solution. Then enzyme catalytic reaction was in progress for 30 min at 40℃ (0.8 mmol/L guanosine in 9 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate buffer, and pH6.8) and such reaction was stopped by boiling. And product guanine content was measured by HPLC. The measured guanosine enzyme activity was as high as 5.241 U/mg under the above conditions. RSD of such method was 1.558 %with good re-peatability and high sensitivity. Accordingly, it was suitable for measuring guanosine enzyme activity.%对大麦芽中鸟苷酶的酶学性质及测定方法进行了研究。大麦芽粉与缓冲液以1:5(w/v)比例制备匀浆,过滤后取上清液得到粗酶液;在鸟苷浓度为0.8 mmol/L,磷酸二氢钾-磷酸氢二钾(pH6.8)的浓度为9 mmol/L,反应温度为40℃的条件下,反应30 min,煮沸终止反应,用液相法测定产物鸟嘌呤的含量。在上述条件下,测定鸟苷酶酶活力为5.241 U/g。该方法RSD=1.558%,重复性较好,灵敏度高,可以作为检测鸟苷酶酶活力的方法。

  16. Bases para proyectiles dirigidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque actualmente no se ha llegado a una línea general de métodos o sistemas que gobiernen un tipo característico de rampa y servicios auxiliares necesarios para el lanzamiento al espacio de proyectiles dirigidos a grandes alturas y distancias, las experiencias obtenidas en diferentes ensayos, utilizando distintos tipos de proyectiles y trayectorias balísticas, han sentado toda una serie de procedimientos, datos y conclusiones de gran valor balístico que, aun teniendo en cuenta la continua evolución del proyectil, sus formas, combustibles y alcances, se conocen ya, con bastante aproximación, las condiciones mínimas que ha de reunir una base dedicada a este tipo de lanzamientos.

  17. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  18. Characterization of Substrates Elaborated with Organic Residues to Produce Forest Species Seedlings Caracterização de substratos para produção de mudas de espécies florestais elaborados a partir de resíduos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuo Maeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the need for viable options for destination of waste from agricultural and agriindustries activities waste from logging and brewing industries and goat dregs previously composted, with potential for
    use as substrates for the production of seedlings of trees were characterized chemically and physically. The treatments had consisted of the following mixtures: S1 commercial product for substratum (Plantmax® Florestal + pinus bark partially decomposed - PB (1:1; S2 residue of malt with wooden sawdust - WS (1:4; S3 cellulosic
    mud with WS (1:1; S4 mixture of treatment S3 product with PB (1:1; S5 black-liquor with WS (4:1; S6 blackliquor with WS (3:2; S7 mixture of the product of treatment 6 with PB (1:1; S8 goat dregs. The following variable were evaluated: pH CaCl2; P, C, N, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H+Al and Na concentrations; CEC, Al saturation and C/N; total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, density and available water. The substrates made with mixtures of Plantmax Florestal® + PB (1:1; residue of malt with wooden sawdust - WS (1:4; cellulosic mud with WS (1:1 mixed with PB (1:1 and goat dreg composted can be used in the production of seedlings of forest species tolerant to acidity, adopting the protocols of management recommended, both for irrigation as for fertilization.Considerando a necessidade de viabilizar opções de destinação de resíduos das atividades agropecuárias e agroindustriais, caracterizaram-se química e fisicamente resíduos das indústrias madeireira e cervejeira e da caprinocultura previamente compostados, com potencial para utilização como substratos para produção de mudas de espécies florestais. Foram avaliadas as seguintes  combinações (v:v: S1 substrato comercial (Plantmax Florestal® + casca de pínus parcialmente decomposta (CP (1:1; S2 bagaço de malte + serragem (1:4; S3 lodo celulósico + serragem (1:1; S4 composto do tratamento 3 + CP (1:1; S5 lixívia celulósica + serragem (4:1; S6

  19. The identification of upregulated ebv-mir-BHRF1-2-5p targeting MALT1 and ebv-miR-BHRF1-3 in the circulation of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; He, Dandan; Liang, Hongwei; Yang, Dan; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Rui; Li, Bing; Yang, Hongxia; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yao; Duan, Yuxiao; Zhang, ChenYu; Chen, Xi; Fu, Jin

    2017-03-02

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-documented etiologic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). EBV encodes at least 44 microRNAs (miRNAs) that are readily detectable in the circulation of human. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBV-encoded miRNAs regulate host immune response and may serve as biomarkers for EBV-associated diseases. However, the roles of EBV miRNAs in MS are still unkown. To fill the gap, we conducted a comprehensive profiling of 44 mature EBV miRNAs in 30 relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) patients at relapse and 30 matched healthy controls. Expression levels of ebv-miR-BHRF1-2-5p and ebv-miR-BHRF1-3 were significantly elevated in the circulation and positively correlated with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores of MS patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed that the expression of these two miRNAs clearly distinguished MS patients from healthy controls. Luciferase assays revealed that ebv-miR-BHRF1-2-5p may directly target MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma transport protein 1), a key regulator of immune homeostasis. In conclusion, we described the expression of EBV miRNAs in MS and preliminarily validated the potential target genes of significantly altered EBV miRNAs. The findings may pave the way for prospective study about the pathogenesis of MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Research on Brewing Vinegar with Burnt Malt Distilling Residue%利用焦香麦芽蒸馏酒余液酿造食醋的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元良; 董永胜; 王孔斌; 王君高

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of vinegar with unique taste can be brewed by acetic acid liquid fermentation, using burnt malt distilling residue and edible alcohol as main raw materials. The optimum technological conditions of three factors in the process of acetic acid fermentation are determined by the orthogonal experiment, and the final experimental results show that the initial alcohol concentration is 3%,the remained liquid concentration is 11% and the inoculum size is 10%.%利用实验室焦香麦芽蒸馏酒余液、食用酒精为原料,进行醋酸液态发酵,获得具有独特风味的食醋。通过正交实验确定了醋酸发酵过程中三个因素的最佳工艺条件,即初始酒精浓度为3%,蒸馏酒余液浓度为11%,接种量为10%。

  1. Development of ΔE-E telescope ERDA with 40 MeV 35Cl7+ beam at MALT in the University of Tokyo optimized for analysis of metal oxynitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, I.; Nagashima, K.; Hirose, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Sekiba, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a compact ΔE-E telescope elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system, for the first time at Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator (MALT) in the University of Tokyo, which consists of a gas ionization chamber and solid state detector (SSD) for the quantitative analysis of light elements. The gas ionization chamber is designed to identify the recoils of O and N from metal oxynitrides thin films irradiated with 40 MeV 35Cl7+. The length of the electrodes along the beam direction is 50 mm optimized to sufficiently separate energy loss of O and N recoils in P10 gas at 6.0 × 103 Pa. The performance of the gas ionization chamber was examined by comparing the ERDA results on the SrTaO2N thin films with semi-empirical simulation and the chemical compositions previously determined by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We also confirmed availability of the gas ionization chamber for identifying not only the recoils of O and N but also those of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

  2. Effect of neutral protease on non-biological stability of non-malt beer%中性蛋白酶对无麦芽啤酒非生物稳定性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 王家林

    2012-01-01

    直接采用大麦酿制啤酒,不经过制麦工艺,可有效地降低生产成本.该文主要通过对中性蛋白酶在糖化过程的应用以及对无麦芽啤酒的非生物稳定性的影响进行研究.实验结果表明,添加中性蛋白酶在一定程度上可降低高分子蛋白质的含量,有效地提高无麦芽啤酒的非生物稳定性,提高麦汁的质量,添加量在300mg/kg时效果最优.%The cost of beer production could be lowered if barley is directly used for beer-making without germination. The application of neutral protease in saccharification and the effect of neutral protease on non-biological stability of non-malt beer were studied. The results showed that the application of neutral protease could improve the non-biological stability and the quality of wort, and decrease the content of high molecule weight proteins. And the optimum addition amount of neutral protease was 300mg/kg raw materials.

  3. Effective predictive factors for regression of gastric MALT lymphoma after anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment%胃粘膜相关淋巴样组织淋巴瘤抗H.Pylori治疗的有效预测因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莲; 李昌平

    2006-01-01

    胃粘膜相关淋巴样组织(MALT)型结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤发病机制主要与幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)感染有关,目前认为根治H.pylori治疗已成为胃粘膜相关淋巴样组织淋巴瘤的一线治疗.然而,抗H.pylori治疗不能使胃MALT淋巴瘤100%完全缓解,即使完全缓解后仍有复发的可能.随着研究的深入,哪些患者更能从抗H.pylori治疗中受益,抗H.pylori治疗后随访是目前研究的热点.此文对胃MALT淋巴瘤与H.pylori的关系,抗H.pylori治疗的有效预测、随访作一综述.

  4. Leer para Creer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Polanco-Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Más allá de los prejuicios que se puedan alimentar en las aulas por -en ocasiones- brillantes exponentes de la clínica psicológica, resultaría difícil creer que exista hoy en día un profesional que se atreva a sostener que el ser humano es sólo mente, o argumentar que lo corporal o cerebral es secundario e incluso irrelevante en los pacientes con los que habitualmente se deberá tratar. De hacerlo simplemente sería un acto de ignorancia, sobretodo en un momento en que disponemos de evidencias diarias desde las neurociencias que dan para sostener la unidad mente-cuerpo como nunca antes en la historia del estudio de “lo psicológico”. La convicción de que los estudiantes deberán ser nutridos con las nociones básicas de los modernos estudios del cerebro debería reflejarse en la bibliografía de diversas asignaturas y estar presente en el espíritu central del quehacer académico como una manera de prevenir esta viciosa tendencia a ningunear aquello que se desconoce y que finalmente cegará a la hora de probar nuevas formas de ver “el síntoma”.

  5. para promover la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Consuelo Chapela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de educación a distancia sustentada en el desarrollo de la cibernética obliga a reflexionar sobre sus definiciones, objetivos y medios, especialmente si pensamos en las necesidades de la fracción de población que no tiene acceso a las posibilidades que ofrece el desarrollo tecnológico. En este trabajo se presenta e ilustra con un ejemplo práctico, una perspectiva sobre las posibilidades de la educación a distancia desde las necesidades de la promoción de la salud entre grupos de población marginada en el mundo virtual. Se propone la creación de bibliotecas itinerantes regionales que pongan a disposición de la población con acceso limitado a la información, la tecnología comunicativa necesaria para apoyar los trabajos de promoción de la salud.

  6. Marcadores para la Realidad Aumentada para fines educativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reina Zarate Nava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Realidad Aumentada (AR es considerada por algunos expertos como la tecnología en crecimiento para el 2014, en diferentes sectores: ingeniería, educación, juegos y negocios, siendo este último el más usado en él 2013. Sin embargo en el sector educativo la AR se presenta en algunos proyectos que se han desarrollado para diferentes áreas de las ciencias, como Química, Física y Matemáticas, lo anterior con el objetivo de facilitar el proceso de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje. En el presente artículo se presenta el modelo de patrones utilizado para un Proyecto AR enfocado en Química, el cual presenta un conjunto de patrones que fueron valorados para facilitar el rastreo de los objetos y a su vez el entendimiento de algunos materiales de los laboratorios de Química I.

  7. Una agenda para educadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. McClintock

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las instituciones educativas constituyen los principales factores en la construcción social de un nuevo sistema educativo. Las escuelas y los educadores controlan y producen propiedad intelectual de una extraordinaria profundidad y amplitud. Los cambios producidos por las tecnologías digitales están consiguiendo que el acceso y la producción de conocimiento sea más accesible y universal. Lo que es, a la vez, un gran logro de apertura curricular, pero también un grave peligro de perder la perspectiva eminentemente “educativa” de la transmisión del conocimiento en la escuela. Los nuevos recursos permiten a los educadores romper el ciclo de reproducción en los logros educativos, acercarse al medio y a la familia y transformar la escuela. Los educadores y las escuelas deben asumir el reto de constituir comunidades de aprendizaje. Así como de atreverse a producir y difundir ese conocimiento con soporte digital. Lo contrario sería una terrible abdicación. El artículo traza un recorrido histórico sobre esta función de la escuela y su adaptación a los medios y recursos de cada época. Tras lo cual, aboga por asumir el desafío actual de las TICs, para renovar el vínculo progresista con la posteridad y construir un mejor futuro. Los nuevos recursos permiten a los educadores romper el ciclo de reproducción en los logros educativos, acercarse al medio y a la familia y transformar la escuela.

  8. A20 and TNF genes aberration in ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas%眼附属器黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区淋巴瘤A20及TNF基因的遗传学改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛倩; 孙勤暖; 李海燕; 刘红刚; 叶洪涛; 周小鸽; 高子芬; 宫丽平

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测眼附属器黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区( MALT)淋巴瘤中A20基因及TNF基因数目的变化,为眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤发病机制的研究提供线索.方法 收集原发性眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤石蜡包埋组织标本41例,利用间期荧光原位杂交( FISH)技术,使用商品化6号染色体着丝粒探针及自制位点特异性探针A20和TNF,检测眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤病例中6号染色体、A20以及TNF基因数目的异常.结果 41例样本中,A20杂合性缺失2例(4.88%);TNF基因多拷贝5例(12.20%),其中3例与6号染色体多体同时存在;无A20缺失与TNF多拷贝同时存在的病例.结论 中国少部分眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤中存在A20基因杂合性缺失及TNF位点多拷贝的遗传学改变,A20的缺失与TNF位点多拷贝无明显相关性.%Objective To investigate the copy number changes of A20 and TNF genes,and determine the contribution of the two genes in the development of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma.Methods Forty-one cases of archive paraffin-embedded ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma tissues were detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the commercial chromosome 6 centromere probe (CEP6),and house-made site-specific probe of A20 and TNF. Results Of the 41 ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma cases,loss of heterozygosity (LOH)in A20 locus was detected in 2 cases (4.88 %).TNF extra copies were found in 5 cases (12.20 %),of which three cases simultaneously had extra CEP6 signals.No A20 deletion were found coexistence with TNF extra copies in any case.Conclusion A20 gene deletion is present in the small part of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, and might contribute to the development of Chinese ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma.A20 deletion is not associated with extra copies of TNF locus.

  9. 中国北方地区原发性眼附属器黏膜相关淋巴组织淋巴瘤染色体易位的间期FISH分析%Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽娜; 宫丽平; 刘红刚; 叶洪涛; 朱建波; 金哈斯; 高子芬; 周小鸽; 董格红; 张丹丹

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨淋巴瘤常见染色体易位在中国北方地区眼附属器黏膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)淋巴瘤中的发生率、意义及间期荧光原位杂交(FISH)方法在我国石蜡包埋组织中检测分子遗传学异常的可行性.方法 收集1995年4月至2007年8月原发性眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤石蜡包埋组织标本28份,米用IgH、MALT1(18q21)、bcl-6、c-myc、bcl-2、CCND1、bcl-10和FOXP1双色分离重排探针,利用问期FISH的方法,检测淋巴瘤常见染色体易位在眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤中的发生率.结果 所有标本均杂交成功.28份眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤标本中,IgH基因位点断裂1份,但其MALT1、bcl-6、c-myc、bel-2、CCND1、bcl-10和FOXP1基因均未见断裂,即未找到与IgH发生相互易位的伙伴基因.其余27份标本IgH、MALT1和bcl-6基因位点均未断裂,表明与MALT淋巴瘤相关的t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1、t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IgH-MALT1、t(1;14)(p22;q32)/bcl-10-IgH、t (3;14)(p14.1;q32)/FOXP1-IgH以及涉及bcl-6基因的染色体易位在本组病例中发生率为0.结论中国北方地区眼附属器MALT淋巴瘤中,罕见MALT淋巴瘤特异性染色体易位及其他淋巴瘤常见染色体易位,但可能存在新的涉及IgH基因的染色体易位.间期FISH方法是检测石蜡包埋组织分子遗传学异常的可靠方法.

  10. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We define the notion of a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of $\\Z_{N}$ para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects, that are invariant under isotopy. For each $\\Z_{N}$, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras which play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra. Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras which one can use in the study of quantum information. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivi...

  11. Almanaques y calendarios para maestros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam CARREÑO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos los contenidos de los almanaques para maestros publicados en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX (después de la puesta en marcha de la primera ley de Instrucción pública y primeras décadas del siglo XX. Estos libritos, especialmente escritos para maestros, juegan un papel muy importante en la construcción del tiempo escolar. Constituyeron un excelente instrumento para los maestros en lo que respecta a la organización del trabajo escolar, sincornizándola con las demandas de la administración central en el desarrollo de la legislación educativa. También se utilizaron para difundir temas de interés para los maestros referentes a diversas disciplinas: gramática, literatura, geografía, ciencias... Dedican, además, algunas páginas para anunciar manuales escolares y material de enseñanza.

  12. CBM复合物对MALT淋巴瘤和结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤发展和预后的影响%Effects of CBM composite on the development and prognosis of MALT lymphoma and extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 杨文秀; 裴媛媛; 郭宏伟; 方艺

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解黏膜相关淋巴瘤异位基因1 (MALT1)、B细胞淋巴瘤10(BCL 10)、含caspase募集结构域的膜相关鸟氨酸激酶1 (CARMA1)在结外弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(Ex-DLBCL)及黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(MALT淋巴瘤)中的表达及其对两种淋巴瘤预后的影响.方法:常规HE和IHC染色筛选病例78例,检查CARMA1、BCL10和MALT1蛋白的表达,收集临床病理资料和随访,并进行统计学分析.结果:两种淋巴瘤中三种蛋白表达阳性率均明显高于淋巴结反应性增生(均P=0.001),Ex-DLBCL中BCL10表达高于MALT淋巴瘤(P=0.027);与CARMA1、BCL10阴性组比较,相应的阳性组临床分期较晚(P依次为0.033、0.011)、Ki67≥30%的病例增多(均P=0.001).三种蛋白不同的表达组合与淋巴瘤类型、分期、淋巴结累及率和Ki67表达有相关关系(P分别为0.022、0.023、0.020、0.008).随访分析:三种蛋白不同的表达组合病例之间生存状况有明显差异,以全表达病例生存状况最差(P=0.015).结论:MALT淋巴瘤和Ex-DLBCL都高表达CARMA1、MALT1和BCL 10;2.CARMA1、MALT1和BCL10表达对Ex-DLBCL及MALT淋巴瘤的临床过程和预后有一定影响,三种蛋白同时表达可能是两种淋巴瘤独立的不良预后相关因子.

  13. T(11;18)及核bcl-10蛋白在胃肠MALT淋巴瘤中的表达%Expression of t(11;18) and bcl-10 in Gastrointestinal MALT Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董菲; 高子芬; 王苗; 李敏; 景红梅; 黄雪彪; 克晓燕

    2004-01-01

    为了探讨t(11;18)(q21;q21)染色体易位及核bcl-10蛋白在胃肠粘膜相关淋巴组织淋巴瘤(MALTlymphoma)中的表达,用酸性酚氯仿法从石蜡组织中提取RNA;逆转录合成cDNA后用聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增API2-MALT1融合基因;用免疫组织化学法检测石蜡切片中bcl-10蛋白的表达.结果表明:42例MALT淋巴瘤中,t(11;18)(q21;q21)染色体易位在低度恶性MALT淋巴瘤中的表达为14%,在伴高恶转化型MALT淋巴瘤中的表达为46%,在40例弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(diffuse large B cell lymphoma,DLBCL)对照组中没有表达;43例MALT淋巴瘤中bcl-10蛋白在低度恶性MALT淋巴瘤的核表达为61%,在伴高恶转化型MALT淋巴瘤中的核表达为69%.结论:t(11;18)易位可能与高度进展MALT淋巴瘤有一定相关性,但与DLBCL无关;bcl-10蛋白的核表达在恶性程度不同的两组MALT淋巴瘤中无显著性差异,其原因有待进一步研究.

  14. The protein kinase C-responsive inhibitory domain of CARD11 functions in NF-kappaB activation to regulate the association of multiple signaling cofactors that differentially depend on Bcl10 and MALT1 for association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Ryan R; Pomerantz, Joel L

    2008-09-01

    The activation of NF-kappaB by T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling is critical for T-cell activation during the adaptive immune response. CARD11 is a multidomain adapter that is required for TCR signaling to the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. During TCR signaling, the region in CARD11 between the coiled-coil and PDZ domains is phosphorylated by protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta) in a required step in NF-kappaB activation. In this report, we demonstrate that this region functions as an inhibitory domain (ID) that controls the association of CARD11 with multiple signaling cofactors, including Bcl10, TRAF6, TAK1, IKKgamma, and caspase-8, through an interaction that requires both the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and the coiled-coil domain. Consistent with the ID-mediated control of their association, we demonstrate that TRAF6 and caspase-8 associate with CARD11 in T cells in a signal-inducible manner. Using an RNA interference rescue assay, we demonstrate that the CARD, linker 1, coiled-coil, linker 3, SH3, linker 4, and GUK domains are each required for TCR signaling to NF-kappaB downstream of ID neutralization. Requirements for the CARD, linker 1, and coiled-coil domains in signaling are consistent with their roles in the association of CARD11 with Bcl10, TRAF6, TAK1, caspase-8, and IKKgamma. Using Bcl10- and MALT1-deficient cells, we show that CARD11 can recruit signaling cofactors independently of one another in a signal-inducible manner.

  15. Séquences biosédimentaires et environnement morphostructural sur l'escarpement de Malte (Campagne Escarmed 3 Biosedimentary Sequences and Morphostructural Environment on the Malta Escarpment (Escarmed 3 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizon G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La confrontation de données biostratigraphiques, sédimentologiques, minéralogiques, géochimiques et géotechniques obtenues sur quelques carottes de l'escarpement de Malte a amené à la définition d'une séquence biosédimentaire d'origine climatique sur le glacis. L'altération (érosion, hiatus de cette séquence, voire sa destructuration (turbidite, débris-flow sur la bordure et au pied de la falaise inférieure traduisent l'instabilité de cette marge, jusqu'au Pléistocène supérieur. Dans ce contexte morphostructural particulier, les facteurs dynamique et hydrologique sont également considérés. Les résultats biostratigraphiques (courbe climatique, subdivisions des carottes en différents intervalles, essais de corrélation s'appuient sur des données statistiques concernant les foraminifères planctoniques (comptage et sur la répartition des principaux foraminifères benthiques. A comparison of biostratigraphic, sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical and geotechnical data obtained from several core samples from the Malta escarpment has resulted in the definition of a biosedimentary sequence of climatic origin on the continental rise. The weathering of this sequence (erosion, gap or even its destructuring (turbidite, debris flow on the edge and at the foot of the lower cliff reveal the instability of this margin up to the Upper Pleistocene. In this specific morphostructural context, the dynamic and hydrological factors are also considered. The biostratigraphic findings (climatic curve, subdivision of the core samples into different intervals, correlation tests are based on statistical data concerning the planktonic foraminifers (counting and on the distribution of the leading benthic foraminifers.

  16. Fortified malted milk drinks containing low-dose ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol do not differ in their capacity to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy men and women not exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Catherine M; Theobald, Hannah E; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2012-07-01

    Uncertainty remains regarding the efficacy of low intakes of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 or D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or D3) provided in food to increase serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) metabolite concentrations when UV-B exposure is low. We recruited 40 healthy men and women into a double-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. Participants received placebo or 1 of 4 experimental treatments (D2 or D3 at 5 or 10 μg/d) supplied as a malted milk drink for 4 wk during a period of minimal UV-B exposure in the UK. The primary outcome was a change in serum 25-OH-D2 and 25-OH-D3 concentrations measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem MS. The secondary outcomes were changes in concentrations of plasma parathyroid hormone and serum calcium (Ca(2+)). Baseline concentrations (geometric mean ± SD) of 25-OH-D2, 25-OH-D3, and total 25-OH-D were 3 ± 4, 32 ± 22, and 37 ± 22 nmol/L, respectively. Both D2- and D3-fortified drinks resulted in dose-dependent increases (P D2 were (mean ± SEM) 9.4 ± 2.5 and 17.8 ± 2.4 nmol/L for 25-OH-D2 and following 5 and 10 μg/d of D3 were 15.1 ± 4.7 and 22.9 ± 4.6 nmol/L for 25-OH-D3, respectively. There was no difference between D2 and D3 groups in the incremental AUC of their respective metabolites. These findings suggest that D2 and D3 are equipotent in increasing 25-OH-D in healthy men and women with negligible UV-B exposure.

  17. Uma ferramenta para planejamento de estudos para concursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a constituição brasileira, a única forma de se tornar um empregado do governo é passar em um concurso público. O exame de conhecimento do cargo é um dos componentes mais importantes de um concurso. Estudar para esse exame é uma tarefa que requer planejamento. Um meio de obter um bom planejamento é construir uma grade de horários que relacione as matérias a serem estudadas com os respectivos horários disponíveis para o estudo. Esse tipo de problema se assemelha bastante à gerência de projetos, em que se procura estabelecer a distribuição das atividades ao longo do tempo disponível. Assim, torna-se interessante explorar a dinâmica de estudos para concursos como um projeto. O presente trabalho apresenta a ferramenta de apoio ao estudos - Passe-me, baseada no ciclo PDCA (do inglês, Plan-Do-Check-Act. Por se tratar de uma ferramenta web, o tempo de resposta para produzir uma grade de estudos é fundamental. A ferramenta faz uso de algoritmo genético para calcular a grade de horários priorizando a velocidade de resposta. A ferramenta foi avaliada em diferentes cenários de uso e obteve desempenho satisfatório durante a produção da grade de estudos.

  18. ¿Argumentar para definir o definir para argumentar?

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luz; Samper, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta y se ilustra un marco de referencia de un estudio en curso para obtener el título de Maestría en Docencia de la Matemática de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (Colombia); estudio sobre la conexión entre las acciones de definir y argumentar, que puede contribuir a la práctica de profesores en ejercicio y en formación. La habilidad para construir una definición es un posible indicio de comprensión, mientras que saberla de memoria no garantiza la comprensión del concepto (Vinner, 1...

  19. Modelo para establecer sanciones pecuniarias para delitos ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS DIEGO VÉLEZ GÓMEZ

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo pretende exponer el modelo básico que sustenta el desarrollo de multas óptimas; en él se muestra la forma de desincentivar los intereses del violador de la normatividad ambiental, e igualmente el método para alcanzar efectos compensatorios sobre los daños cometidos al medio ambiente. El desarrollo del tema sobre sanciones pecuniarias (multas) y penalidades (encarcelamiento) toma la relación contractual entre el agente (la empresa) y el principal (La entidad reguladora) para, a t...

  20. Para todo mal, a cura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, eu apresento a teoria kantiana do mal. Mostrarei que Kant divide o mal em três níveis: fraqueza, impureza e perversidade, relacionando-os com afetos e paixões. Eu defendo que Kant apresenta várias formas de curar o mal nos diversos textos, tais como Doutrina da Virtude, Antropologia, Ideia para uma história universal do ponto de vista cosmopolita e Religião nos limites da simples razão. Eu tentarei mostrar que a virtude é impotente para curar o mal e que Kant apresenta uma comunidade ética para esse fim. Por fim, eu compararei a construção de comunidade ética com o estabelecimento de uma sociedade civil jurídica