Sample records for cetyl pyridinium bromide

  1. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters of cetyl pyridinium bromide sorption onto ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite[Thermodynamic properties; Sorption; Cetyl pyridinium bromide; ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiaci, M. E-mail:; Kia, R.; Kalbasi, R.J


    A study was undertaken to determine the influence of temperature and surfactant concentration on the adsorption of cetyl pyridinium bromide on two ZSM-5 zeolites, and on natural clinoptilolite. The effect of temperature on adsorption and thermodynamic properties was investigated by making measurements at (297, 303, 307, 313) K. The results show that the calculated curves from the general isotherm equation can represent the experimental data very well up to T=313 K. Based on the calculation of the thermodynamics of adsorption, it is evident that the principle contribution to the {delta}G{sup compfn}{sub hm} of negative value is the large positive value of {delta}S{sup compfn}{sub hm} (36 to 52 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}), whereas {delta}H{sup compfn}{sub hm} is positive and in the range of 1 to 7 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Therefore, similar to the micellisation in bulk solution, the second step of surfactant adsorption is an entropy-driven process.

  2. Improved detection of rhamnolipid production using agar plates containing methylene blue and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Ju, Lu-Kwang


    Rhamnolipids, produced predominantly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are biosurfactants with important applications. For efficient culture screening according to rhamnolipid productivity, the method using agar plates containing methylene blue (MB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was re-examined. An alternative set-up using a fixed underneath light source and image analysis software improved the detection of the circles formed due to complexation between anionic rhamnolipids and cationic MB/CTAB. The roles and effects of MB and CTAB concentrations and pH on the complexation phenomena are reported.

  3. Flotation de-silicating from diasporic-bauxite with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 胡岳华; 刘晓文


    Using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as collector, the flotation de-silicating from diasporicbauxite was investigated. And the Zeta potentials and contact-angles of silicate minerals and diaspore were also stuite and illite become more positive, and the contact angles of these three silicates also increase evidently in the pH range of 2-8, but the Zeta potentials and contact angles of diaspore change little. So, the floatability of the four minerals is in the following order: pyrophyllite>kaolinite≈illite>diaspore. The open-circuit flotation results also show that a bauxite concentrate with m(Al2 O3 )/m(SiO2 ) over 9.3 and Al2 O3 recovery over 76% can be obtained from diasporic-bauxite ore. The result of XRD of the bauxite concentrate shows that pyrophyllite is easier to be removed from diasporic-bauxite than illite and kaolinite due to its better floatability.

  4. Self-assembly Of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide in ethanol-water mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhang Ming; Zhang Jinli; Han Yongcai


    The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in both water and ethanol-water-mixed solvent was determined using steady- state fluorescence techniques in order to investigate the effect of the self-assembling properties of the surfactant on the template synthesis of porous inorganic materials.Results indicated that the CMC increased with the increase of ethanol concentration in the mixed solvent.The CMC of CTAB is 0.0009 mol/L in water,while it is 0.24 mol/L in ethanol.Furthermore,the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was adopted to simulate the aggregation of CTAB in water and ethanol/water mixtures,and the energy difference was calculated for the surfactant tail groups after mixing with the solvent.The simulation results reflected a regularity similar to the experimental data,i.e.,tail groups of CTAB interacted more strongly with ethanol than with water,which elucidates the reason that the micelle is difficult to form in ethanol.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium cumene sulphonate with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Padalkar; V G Gaikar; V K Aswal


    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with a dramatic increase in the CTAB aggregation number. Its addition to SDS on the other hand results in the formation of smaller mixed micelles where part of SDS molecules in the micelle is replaced by NaCS molecules.

  6. Sorption and transport studies of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)and Triton X-100 in clayey soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan


    Surfactants are soil washing agents and facilitators for subsurface remediation of hydrocarbon spills.It is important to understand the sorption and transport behavior of surfactants for enhanced soil remediation.The adsorption and desorption isotherms of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 with sand and kaolinite have been quantified.Kaolinite clay had the highest sorption capacity compared to blasting sand.Transport parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (R) of the above mentioned surfactant solutions were determined in clayey soils (82.5% sand and 17.5% kaolinite mixture) with near zero and 0.1 g/L ionic strength.NaCl was used as the electrolyte solution.Convection-Diffusion equation was used to model the breakthrough curves of the surfactants.Bromide ion was chosen as the tracer material in order to characterize the column.CTAB and Triton X-100 were used to flush the perchloroethylene (PCE) contaminated soil.The effectiveness of CTAB and Triton X-100 in flushing the PCE from the contaminated soil was quantified.

  7. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

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    L. S. Blachechen


    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  8. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Vignesh, K., E-mail: [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Anano Sphere Sdn Bhd, Lorong Industri 11, Kawasan Industri Bukit Panchor, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Pung, Swee-Yong [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Othman, Radzali [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Thant, Aye Aye [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salim, Chris [Department of Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang 15810, Banten (Indonesia)


    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH){sub 2} was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH){sub 2} based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH){sub 2} phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  9. Complete dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel composite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhirong, E-mail: [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wei, Xuefeng; Han, Yanbo; Tong, Shan [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Hu, Xiang, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)


    Highlights: ► Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode with high surface area and low Pd content was prepared. ► The composite electrode was applied to dechlorination of 2,4-DCP in aqueous solution. ► Complete dechlorination of 2,4-DCP was achieved with higher current efficiency. ► Removal efficiency kept 100% after 10 times dechlorination on the stable electrode. ► The electrochemically reductive activation energy was 25.8 kJ mol{sup −1} in this system. -- Abstract: The electrochemically reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel electrode (Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode) was investigated in this paper. Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode was prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The influences of some experimental factors such as the dechlorination current, dechlorination time and the initial pH on the removal efficiency and the current efficiency of 2,4-DCP dechlorination on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were studied. Complete removal of 2,4-DCP was achieved and the current efficiency of 47.4% could be obtained under the conditions of the initial pH of 2.2, the dechlorination current of 5 mA and the dechlorination time of 50 min when the initial 2,4-DCP concentration was 100 mg L{sup −1}. The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified that the intermediate products were 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The final products were mainly phenol. Its further reduction product cyclohexanone was also detected. The electrocatalytic dechlorination pathways of 2,4-DCP on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were discussed. The stability of the electrode was favorable that it could keep dechlorination efficiency at 100% after having been reused

  10. A novel dodine-free selective medium based on the use of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to isolate Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato and Paecilomyces lilacinus from soil. (United States)

    Posadas, Julieta B; Comerio, Ricardo M; Mini, Jorge I; Nussenbaum, Ana L; Lecuona, Roberto E


    This study evaluated the quaternary ammonium compound cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an alternative to the chemically related dodecylguanidine (dodine) for the selective isolation of entomopathogenic fungi. Oatmeal agar (OA) with chloramphenicol was used as basal medium, and three concentrations of CTAB (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 g/L) were evaluated and compared against OA + 0.46 g/L dodine. Selective isolation and growth studies were performed with the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Paecilomyces lilacinus and five common non-entomopathogenic non-target species. The three entomopathogenic fungi sporulated earlier on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB than on OA + 0.46 g/L dodine, while none of the non-target fungi sporulated on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB. All entomopathogenic fungal isolates grew on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB, despite some intra-species variation, whereas non-target fungi showed no growth or sporulation. OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB resulted in an efficient medium to isolate B. bassiana, M. anisopliae s. l. and P. lilacinus from soil samples. Results of our study suggest that OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB is a suitable, simple and inexpensive to prepare medium to replace OA + 0.46 g/L dodine for the selective isolation of these fungi.

  11. 十六烷基三甲基溴化铵增敏荧光光度法测定荧光增白剂CBS-X%Determination of Fluorescent Whitening Agent CBS-X by Sensitization Fluorescent Spectrophotometry with Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘可亮; 李树伟; 杨利


    The fluorescence characteristics of fluorescent whitening agent CBS-X in different medium and the sensitization mechanism of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to CBS-X have been studied. A method on sensitization fluorescence determinations of the CBS -X was therefore developed. This method has the advantages of easy handle of the specimen, quickly test and low detection limit. The method has been used for the detection of synthetic detergent with satisfactory results. The linear regression equation is If = 1. 31+ 2. 85×109c (mol/L) with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0. 9995 and the linear range from 0 to 1. 73 ×10-7mol/L. The detection limit is 0. 45 ng/mL.%研究了不同条件下荧光增白剂CBS-X的荧光光谱,探讨了十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)对荧光增白剂CBS-X荧光的增敏机理.建立了在pH=8的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液中,CTAB增敏荧光光度法测定CBS -X含量的新方法.方法的线性范围为0~1.73×10-7 mol/L,相关系数为0.9995,检出限为0.45 ng/mL.该方法用于合成洗涤剂中CBS-X的测定,得到满意结果.

  12. Estudo da adsorção do surfatante catiônico brometo de cetiltrimetil amônio em diferentes matrizes inorgânicas preparadas via nióbio metálico Adsorption study of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium bromide onto hydrous niobium oxide matrix

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    P. H. F. Pereira


    Full Text Available É mostrada a preparação de diferentes materiais inorgânicos a partir de nióbio metálico e seu comportamento no processo de adsorção de brometo de cetiltrimetil amônio (CTABr. Os materiais inorgânicos estudados são o óxido de nióbio e o fosfato de nióbio hidratado. Os óxidos de nióbio foram obtidos pelo método da precipitação em solução homogênea com a decomposição térmica de (NH42CO3 realizada a 45 ºC e a 90 ºC. O fosfato de nióbio hidratado foi obtido pela dissolução do nióbio metálico a uma mistura de ácido fluorídrico e nítrico e adição de ácido fosfórico. Pelo método de adsorção gasosa (BET e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura verificou-se que os materiais não apresentam mudança significativa nas características físicas. As isotermas de Langmuir e de Freundlich revelaram que o melhor resultado de adsorção do surfactante CTABr foi alcançado para o óxido de nióbio hidratado preparado a 90 ºC, com capacidade de adsorção máxima, segundo modelo de Langmuir, com 14,13 mg.g-1.The preparation in inorganic material different from metallic niobium and its effect onto adsorption process of the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide CTABr is reported. The inorganic materials are studied niobium oxide hydrous and niobium phosphate hydrous. The niobium oxide hydrous were obtained by homogeneous solution precipitation method with thermal decomposition of (NH42CO3 at 45 ºC and 90 ºC .The niobium phosphate hydrous were prepared using of metallic niobium dilution in a mixture of fluoridric/nitric (10:1 and after phosphoric acid addition. Through the BET method and the SEM technique it was verified that the material suffer no significant change in the physical characteristics. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms showed better result to surfactant CTABr adsorption using the material prepared at 90 ºC, according to Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 14.13 mg.g-1.

  13. Determination of trace titanium(Ⅳ) by catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry in brilliant green-cetyl trimethyl anunonium bromide system%亮绿-十六烷基三甲基溴化铵催化动力学光度法测定痕量钛(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪福; 魏成富; 罗娅君; 何黎明; 杨小利


    Trace titanium (Ⅳ) had significant catalytical action on the fading reaction of brilliant green oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide in H2 SO4 medium at 90 ℃. On the basis of this fact, a catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric determination method of trace titanium was proposed. The optimized experimental conditions were studied. At 625 nm, the ab-sorbance difference (AA) between non-catalytic system (A0) and catalytic system (A) showed good linear relationship with the mass concentration (p) of titanium QV) in the range of 0. 021 - 0. 08 μg/ mL, with detection limit of 7. 87 × 10-10 g/mL. This catalytic reaction was found as the first order reaction for titanium (Ⅳ), and the total reaction was pseudo first order reaction. The apparent reaction rate constant was 5. 70 × 10-4/s, and the apparent activation energy E.=45. 52 kJ/mol. The proposed method had been applied to the determination of titanium (Ⅳ) in two steelmaking sinter ore samples, and the results were consistent with the reference values. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were 2.4% and 2. 0 %, respectively. The recoveries of standard addition were in the range of 98 % -102 %.%在H2 SO4介质中及活化剂十六烷基三甲基溴化铵存在下,于90℃加热时,痕量Ti(Ⅳ)对H2 O2氧化亮绿褪色反应具有显著的催化作用,据此提出了用催化动力学光度法测定痕量钛的方法,并研究了反应的最佳实验条件.在625 nm波长处,非催化反应(吸光度为A0)与催化反应(吸光度为A)吸光度的差值△A与Ti(Ⅳ)的质量浓度ρ在0.021~0.08 μg/mL范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为7.87×10-10 g/mL.该催化反应对Ti(Ⅳ)为一级反应,总反应为准一级反应,表观速率常数为5.70×10-4/s,表观活化能Ea =45.52 kJ/mol.用该方法测定了两个炼钢烧结矿样品中钛(Ⅳ),结果与参考值相符,测定结果的相对标准偏差分别为2.4%和2.0%,加标回收率在98

  14. The Catalytic Activity and Stereoselectivity of Lipase Immobilized in Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide/Sorbitan Monostearate Microemulsion-based Gel%十六烷基三甲基溴化铵/山梨醇酐硬脂酸酯微乳液凝胶固定化脂肪酶的催化活性及立体选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 宋少芳; 路福绥


    Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/sorbitan monostearate ( Span-60) microemulsion-based gel (CTAB/Span-60 MBG) having good stability in aqueous solution was successfully prepared. The mass percentage of Span-60 in emulsifier mixture( EM, the mixture of n-butanol and Span-60) was determined. The catalytic activity and stereoselectivity of lipase immobilized in CTAB/Span-60 MBG were tested using the esterification of hexanoic acid and hexanol, the hydrolysis of α-glyceryl monostearate and the stereoselective esterification of racemic ibuprofen and octanol as probes, respectively. The results showed that CTAB/Span-60 MBG with good mechanical strength could be achieved when the mass percentage of Span-60 in EM was less than 57%. In organic solvent, the catalytic esterification activity of lipase in this MBG increased gradually with the increase of the content of Span-60 in EM at the first stage and reached maximum at 35% and then decreased slightly with further increase of the content, and was higher than that in CTAB MBG, within the investigated content of Span-60. This immobilized lipase could catalyze the hydrolysis of α-glyceryl monostearate in aqueous solution and the reaction conversion rate didn't change any more after 24 h. The catalytic hydrolytic activity decreased by 13. 68% after 9 re-usage times. This suggests that lipase in CTAB/ Span-60 MBG could be separated and reused. Lipase in this MBG also selectively catalyzed S-enantiomer ibuprofen to S-enantiomer ester and the excessive enantiomeric product(eee) of the latter gradually decreased with the proceeding of the reaction, but showing better stereoselectivity than CTAB MBG. As a promising carrier for immobilizing lipase, CTAB/Span-60 MBG could be used in biosynthesis and biotransformation not only in organic solvent but also in aqueous solution.%制备了能在水溶液中长时间稳定存在的十六烷基三甲基溴化铵/山梨醇酐硬脂酸酯(CTAB/Span-60)

  15. The cooperative adsorption properties of cetyl/amino-SBA-15 for 4-nonylphenol. (United States)

    Quan, Feng; Hu, Yun; Liu, Xingchen; Wei, Chaohai


    In this study, mesoporous SBA-15 bifunctionalized with cetyl and amino groups (cetyl/amino-SBA-15) was successfully prepared by a post-synthesis grafting method. Detailed characterization by XRD, FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis confirmed that cetyl/amino-SBA-15 still retained a long-range ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Cetyl and aminopropyl groups were simultaneously functionalized on the surface of SBA-15. The adsorption capacity of cetyl/amino-SBA-15 was much higher than the arithmetic sum of those of cetyl-SBA-15 and amino-SBA-15 due to the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding/electrostatic interaction between 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and aminopropyl groups and hydrophobic interactions between 4-NP and cetyl groups. The effects of the dosage and mole ratio of cetyl and amino groups on the adsorption properties of cetyl/amino-SBA-15 for 4-NP were also investigated. Cetyl/amino-SBA-15 exhibited excellent adsorption capacity over a wide range of pH values and cetyl/amino-SBA-15(3.2/0.8) displayed the highest adsorption capacity up to 120 mg g(-1). Furthermore, cetyl/amino-SBA-15 exhibited high adsorption selectivity for 4-NP against phenol as well as high reusability, showing great potential for applications in wastewater treatment.

  16. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent


    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  17. Preparation and Peactions of Pyridinium Ylids via Decarboxylation of Pyridinium Betaines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShrongShiLIN; JianMeiWANG; 等


    Pyridinium ylids 4 were generated as reaction intermediates from the decarboxylation of pyridinium betaines 3, which were prepared from the reactions of α-amino acid ester hydrochlorides with 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. Protonation,addition and substitution reactions of 4 with electrophiles were studied in this paper.

  18. Preparation and Reactions of Pyridinium Ylids via Decarboxylation of Pyridinium Betaines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pyridinium ylids 4 were generated as reaction intermediates from the decarboxylation of pyridinium bctaincs 3, which were preparcd from the reactions of x-amino acid ester hydrochlorides with 2, 4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. Protonation, addition and substitution reactions of 4 with electrophiles werc studied in this paper.

  19. Cooperative Al(Salen-Pyridinium Catalysts for the Asymmetric Synthesis of trans-Configured β-Lactones by [2+2]-Cyclocondensation of Acylbromides and Aldehydes: Investigation of Pyridinium Substituent Effects

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    René Peters


    Full Text Available The trans-selective catalytic asymmetric formation of β-lactones constitutes an attractive surrogate for anti-aldol additions. Recently, we have reported the first catalyst which is capable of forming trans-β-lactones with high enantioselectivity from aliphatic (and aromatic aldehyde substrates by cyclocondensation with acyl bromides. In that previous study the concepts of Lewis acid and organic aprotic ion pair catalysis were combined in a salen-type catalyst molecule. Since a pyridinium residue on the salen periphery is essential for high trans- and enantioselectivity, we were interested in the question of whether substituents on the pyridinium rings could be used to further improve the catalyst efficiency, as they might have a significant impact on the effective charges within the heterocycles. In the present study we have thus compared a small library of aluminum salen/bispyridinium catalysts mainly differing in the substituents on the pyridinium residues. As one result of these studies a new catalyst was identified which offers slightly superior stereoselectivity as compared to the previously reported best catalyst. NBO calculations have revealed that the higher stereoselectivity can arguably not be explained by the variation of the effective charge.

  20. Antibacterial activity and characteristics of modified ferrite powder coated with a gemini pyridinium salt molecule. (United States)

    Shirai, Akihiro; Maeda, Takuya; Ohkita, Motoaki; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kourai, Hiroki


    This report describes the synthesis of an antibacterial material consisting of a gemini quaternary ammonium salt (gemini-QUAT) immobilized on ferrite powder, and its antibacterial activity. A gemini-QUAT containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 4,4'-[1,3-(2,2-dihydroxylmethyl-1,3-dithiapropane)]bis (1-octylpyridinium bromide), was immobilized on ferrite powder by a reaction between the hydroxyl group of the QUAT and trimethoxysilane. Immobilization of the gemini-QUAT on ferrite (F-gemini-QUAT) was confirmed when the dye, bromophenol blue, was released from F-gemini-QUAT-dye after contact between ferrite and the dye. Elemental analysis of the QUAT-ferrite determined the molar amount of QUAT on the ferrite. The antibacterial effect of the ferrite was investigated using a batch treatment system, and this effect was compared with that of another QUAT-ferrite (F-mono-QUAT) binding a mono-QUAT, which possesses one pyridinium residue, prepared by the same immobilization method as F-gemini-QUAT. Results indicated the F-gemini QUAT possessed a higher bactericidal potency and broader antibacterial spectrum compared to F-mono-QUAT. In addition, this study suggested that gemini-QUATs possessed high bactericidal potency without being influenced by immobilization to materials, and the antibacterial activity and characteristics of F-gemini-QUAT could be attributed to the unique structure of the immobilized gemini-QUAT.

  1. Preparation and Comparative Bioavailability Studies of Indomethacin-Loaded Cetyl Alcohol Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vishal Gupta


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the in vitro release and to find out whether the bioavailability of a 75 mg indomethacin capsule (Microcid SR was equivalent to optimized formulation (indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres. Indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres were prepared by meltable emulsified cooling-induced technique. Surface morphology of microspheres has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. A single dose, randomized, complete cross over study of IM microspheres was carried out on 10 healthy male and female Albino sheep’s under fasting conditions. The plasma was separated and the concentrations of the drug were determined by HPLC-UV method. Plasma indomethacin concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were statistically analyzed. The SEM images revealed the spherical shape of fat microspheres, and more than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were in the size range 12–32 μm. DSC, FTIR spectroscopy and stability studies indicated that the drug after encapsulation with fat microspheres was stable and compatible. Both formulations were found to be bioequivalent as evidenced by in vivo studies. Based on this study, it can be concluded that cetyl alcohol microspheres and Microcid SR capsule are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.

  2. Aggregation behavior and antimicrobial activity of ester-functionalized imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Ribosa, Isabel; Perez, Lourdes; Manresa, Angeles; Comelles, Francesc


    Two series of long chain imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids containing an ester functional group in the alkyl side chain, 3-methyl-1-alkyloxycarbonylmethylimidazolium bromides (C(n)EMeImBr) and 1-alkyloxycarbonylmethylpyridinium bromides (C(n)EPyrBr), were synthesized and their thermal stability, aggregation behavior in aqueous medium, and antimicrobial activity investigated. The introduction of an ester group decreased the thermal stability of the functionalized ILs compared to simple alkyl chain containing ILs (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides and 1-alkylpyridinium bromides). Tensiometry, conductimetry, and spectrofluorimetry were applied to study the self-aggregation of the amphiphilic ILs in aqueous solution. The ILs investigated displayed surface activity and the characteristic chain length dependence of the micellization process of surfactants. As compared to simple alkyl chain containing ILs bearing the same hydrocarbon chain, ester-functionalized ILs possess higher adsorption efficiency (pC(20)) and significantly lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension at the cmc (γ(cmc)), indicating that the incorporation of an ester group promotes adsorption at the air/water interface and micelle formation. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. ILs containing more than eight carbon atoms in the alkyl chain showed antimicrobial activity. Their efficiency as antimicrobial agents increased with the hydrophobicity of the amphiphilic cation being the C(12) homologous the most active compounds. The incorporation of an ester group particularly increased the biological activity against fungi.

  3. Preparation of the pyridinium salts differing in the length of the N-alkyl substituent. (United States)

    Marek, Jan; Stodulka, Petr; Cabal, Jiri; Soukup, Ondrej; Pohanka, Miroslav; Korabecny, Jan; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil


    Quaternary pyridinium salts with chains ranging from C8 to C20 belong in the large group of cationic surfactants. In this paper, the preparation of such cationic surface active agents based on the pyridinium moiety and differing in the length of the N-alkyl chain is described. Additionally, HPLC technique was established to distinguish each prepared pyridinium analogue. This study represents universal method for preparation and identification of quaternary pyridinium detergents.

  4. Preparation of the Pyridinium Salts Differing in the Length of the N-Alkyl Substituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek


    Full Text Available Quaternary pyridinium salts with chains ranging from C8 to C20 belong in the large group of cationic surfactants. In this paper, the preparation of such cationic surface active agents based on the pyridinium moiety and differing in the length of the N-alkyl chain is described. Additionally, HPLC technique was established to distinguish each prepared pyridinium analogue. This study represents universal method for preparation and identification of quaternary pyridinium detergents.

  5. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Sakulkhu, Usawadee [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri-ayudhya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Junyaprasert, Varaporn [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri-ayudhya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri-ayudhya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)], E-mail:


    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of {gamma}-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and {gamma}-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to {gamma}-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by {gamma}-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs.

  6. Statement on the safety of 'Cetyl Myristoleate Complex' as an ingredient in food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA


    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ (CMC as a novel food ingredient in the light of a new repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study in mice. In its previous opinion of 2010, the Panel concluded that based on the available data, the safety of CMC as an ingredient in food supplements has not been established. This conclusion was based on the considerations that in the absence of appropriate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, the provided toxicological data were insufficient. Whereas the applicant considers that the NOAEL of CMC in this new 90-day study was 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw, the highest dose tested, the Panel considers that this study and study report has many shortcomings to be a reliable source of information supporting the absence of adverse effects of the parent material CMC. The Panel concludes that the safety of 'Cetyl Myristoleate Complex' has not been established.

  7. The effect of cetylated fatty esters and physical therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the neck. (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Jacob, Biju Nirmal; Ajeesh, P S; Bookout, Jack B; Barathur, Raj R


    Participants with Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) of the neck were randomly assigned into 2 groups of the double-blinded study: topical cetylated fatty ester complex (CFEC) cream application plus physical therapy (CF-PT; n=37), and placebo cream application plus physical therapy (PL-PT; n=35). There were 3 visits during 4 weeks of treatment. Physical Therapy (PT), given twice/week, included Ischaemic Compression, Deep Pressure Trigger Point Massage and Myofascial Releases. Topical cream [CFEC cream (5.6%) and 1.5% menthol] or placebo cream [1.5% menthol, in a cream base] was applied twice/day. CF-PT provided the fastest and most effective study treatment modality. The addition of CFEC cream to PT resulted in statistically significant improvements, compared to PL-PT, for reduction of pain, neck disability and life quality indicators. Our results indicate that cetylated derivatives of fatty acids can effectively reduce pain and symptoms associated with neck MPS, when combined with physical therapy.

  8. Disruption and activation of blood platelets in contact with an antimicrobial composite coating consisting of a pyridinium polymer and AgBr nanoparticles. (United States)

    Stevens, Kris N; Knetsch, Menno L; Sen, Ayusman; Sambhy, Varun; Koole, Leo H


    Composite materials made up from a pyridinium polymer matrix and silver bromide nanoparticles embedded therein feature excellent antimicrobial properties. Most probably, the antimicrobial activity is related to the membrane-disrupting effect of both the polymer matrix and Ag(+) ions; both may work synergistically. One of the most important applications of antimicrobial materials would be their use as surface coatings for percutaneous (skin-penetrating) catheters, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). These are commonly used in critical care, and serious complications due to bacterial infection occur frequently. This study aimed at examining the possible effects of a highly antimicrobial pyridinium polymer/AgBr composite on the blood coagulation system, i.e., (i) on the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of thrombin and a fibrin cross-linked network, and (ii) on blood platelets. Evidently, pyridinium/AgBr composites could not qualify as coatings for CVCs if they trigger blood coagulation. Using a highly antimicrobial composite of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide) (NPVP) and AgBr nanoparticles as a thin adherent surface coating on Tygon elastomer tubes, it was found that contacting blood platelets rapidly acquire a highly activated state, after which they become substantially disrupted. This implies that NPVP/AgBr is by no means blood-compatible. This disqualifies the material for use as a CVC coating. This information, combined with earlier findings on the hemolytic effects (i.e., disruption of contacting red blood cells) of similar materials, implies that this class of antimicrobial materials affects not only bacteria but also mammalian cells. This would render them more useful outside the biomedical field.

  9. Partition coefficients of organic compounds between water and imidazolium-, pyridinium-, and phosphonium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Reta, Mario


    The partition coefficients, P IL/w, of several compounds, some of them of biological and pharmacological interest, between water and room-temperature ionic liquids based on the imidazolium, pyridinium, and phosphonium cations, namely 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, N-octylpyridinium tetrafluorophosphate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium dicyanamide, were accurately measured. In this way, we extended our database of partition coefficients in room-temperature ionic liquids previously reported. We employed the solvation parameter model with different probe molecules (the training set) to elucidate the chemical interactions involved in the partition process and discussed the most relevant differences among the three types of ionic liquids. The multiparametric equations obtained with the aforementioned model were used to predict the partition coefficients for compounds (the test set) not present in the training set, most being of biological and pharmacological interest. An excellent agreement between calculated and experimental log P IL/w values was obtained. Thus, the obtained equations can be used to predict, a priori, the extraction efficiency for any compound using these ionic liquids as extraction solvents in liquid-liquid extractions.

  10. A Synthetic Route to Quaternary Pyridinium Salt-Functionalized Silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kostenko


    Full Text Available A synthetic route to potentially biocidal silsesquioxanes functionalized by quaternary pyridinium functionalities has been developed. N-Alkylation reactions of the precursor compounds 4-(2-(trimethoxysilylethyl-pyridine (5 and 4-(2-trichloro-silylethylpyridine (6 with iodomethane, n-hexylbromide, and n-hexadecylbromide cleanly afforded the corresponding N-alkylpyridinium salts (7–10. The synthesis of a 4-(2-ethylpyridine POSS derivative (2 was achieved by capping of the silsesquioxane trisilanol Cy7Si7O9(OH3 (1 via two different preparative routes. Attempts to use compound 2 as precursor for quaternary pyridinium salt-functionalized POSS derivatives were met with only partial success. Only the reaction with iodomethane cleanly afforded the new N-methylpyridinium salt 12 in high yield, whereas n-hexylbromide and n-hexadecylbromide failed to react with 2 even under forcing conditions.

  11. Epoxy nanocomposites based on high temperature pyridinium-modified clays. (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxin; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Qi, Ben; Kagawa, Yutaka


    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are generally fabricated by thermal curing or melt compounding at elevated temperatures, however the thermal stability of common alkyl ammonium treated clays is poor and decomposition occurs inevitably during high temperature processing. In this study, we modified clays with an aromatic pyridinium salt. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the onset degradation temperature (Td(onset)) and maximum decomposition temperature (Td(max)) of the pyridinium treatment clays was up to 310 and 457 degrees C respectively implying high thermal stability. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the pyridinium modified clays was discussed. A series of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy and diethyltoluene diamine (DETDA). The morphology of epoxy/clay nanocomposites was characterized with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and intercalated structures were observed. The storage modulus of epoxy was increased but glass transition temperature was decreased with clay incorporation. The effects of clays on glass transition temperature (Tg) of epoxy were also discussed.

  12. Rapacuronium bromide (Organon Teknika). (United States)

    Plowman, A N


    Organon Teknika's rapacuronium bromide (Org-9487), the 16-N-allyl, 17-beta-propionate analog of vecuronium bromide, is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe for potential use as an anesthetic. It is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug characterized by low potency, rapid rate of block development and short time course of neuromuscular blocking action as compared with other non-depolarizing compounds [170210,221422]. A multicenter, randomized, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in patients undergoing tracheal intubation showed that the drug produced a dose dependent neuromuscular block. Doses of 1.5 to 2 mg/kg allowed rapid intubation and short duration of action [273336]. Another study showed that the drug does not cause cardiovascular side-effects [273336]. A meeting was held in Europe on 8 February 1999 to brief company employees on the registration and release of rapacuronium [319211] for which the company anticipates a launch in late 1999 [320706]. Organon estimates that the market value of Org-9487 is between dollar 100 m and dollar 250 m a year, each for Europe and the US [221422].

  13. Synthesis and characteristics of biodegradable pyridinium amphiphiles used for in vitro DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Astrid; Smisterova, Jarmila; Driessen, Cecile; Anders, Joachim T.; Wagenaar, Anno; Hoekstra, Dirk; Hulst, Ron; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    Pyridinium amphiphiles have found practical application for the delivery of DNA into eukaryotic cells. A general synthetic method starting from (iso)nicotinoyl chloride has been devised for the preparation of pyridinium amphiphiles based on (bio)degradable esters, allowing structural variation both

  14. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)-Directed Detoxification of Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride (DMAE-CB). (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Wang, Yingjie; Tian, Min; Yang, Yanwei; Sun, Jinlong; Ban, Jinghao; Chen, Jihua


    Methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) is a polymerizable antibacterial monomer and has been proved as an effective strategy to achieve bioactive bonding with reliable bacterial inhibitory effects. However, the toxicity of DMAE-CB may hamper its wide application in clinical situations. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the toxicity of DMAE-CB and explore the possible protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that chemical binding of NAC and DMAE-CB occurred in a time dependent manner. Pre-incubation of fourty-eight hours is required for adequate reaction between DMAE-CB and NAC. DMAE-CB reduced human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) viability in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effects of DMAE-CB were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. NAC alleviated DMAE-CB-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/ Propidium Iodide (PI) staining and Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that DMAE-CB induced apoptosis. Collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 were also observed after DMAE-CB treatment. NAC rescued hDPCs from DMAE-CB-induced apoptosis, accompanied by lower level of MMP loss and caspase-3 activity. This study assists to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of DMAE-CB and provides theoretical supports for the searching of effective strategies to reduce toxicity of quaternary ammonium dental monomers.

  15. Investigation of the Pyridinium Ylide—Alkyne Cycloaddition as a Fluorogenic Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bonte


    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of pyridinium ylides with alkynes was investigated under mild conditions. A series of 13 pyridinium salts was prepared by alkylation of 4-substituted pyridines. Their reactivity with propiolic ester or amide in various reaction conditions (different temperatures, solvents, added bases was studied, and 11 indolizines, with three points of structural variation, were, thus, isolated and characterized. The highest yields were obtained when electron-withdrawing groups were present on both the pyridinium ylide, generated in situ from the corresponding pyridinium salt, and the alkyne (X, Z = ester, amide, CN, carbonyl, etc.. Electron-withdrawing substituents, lowering the acid dissociation constant (pKa of the pyridinium salts, allow the cycloaddition to proceed at pH 7.5 in aqueous buffers at room temperature.

  16. High Yield of Wax Ester Synthesized from Cetyl Alcohol and Octanoic Acid by Lipozyme RMIM and Novozym 435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwen-Jen Shieh


    Full Text Available Wax esters are long-chain esters that have been widely applied in premium lubricants, parting agents, antifoaming agents and cosmetics. In this study, the biocatalytic preparation of a specific wax ester, cetyl octanoate, is performed in n-hexane using two commercial immobilized lipases, i.e., Lipozyme® RMIM (Rhizomucor miehei and Novozym® 435 (Candida antarctica. Response surface methodology (RSM and 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD are employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time (1–5 h, reaction temperature (45–65 °C, substrate molar ratio (1–3:1, and enzyme amount (10%–50% on the yield of cetyl octanoate. Using RSM to optimize the reaction, the maximum yields reached 94% and 98% using Lipozyme® RMIM and Novozym® 435, respectively. The optimum conditions for synthesis of cetyl octanoate by both lipases are established and compared. Novozym® 435 proves to be a more efficient biocatalyst than Lipozyme® RMIM.

  17. Dynamics in molecular and molecular-ionic crystals: a combined experimental and molecular simulation study of reorientational motions in benzene, pyridinium iodide, and pyridinium nitrate. (United States)

    Pajzderska, A; Gonzalez, M A; Wąsicki, J


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for crystalline benzene (C(6)H(6)), pyridinium iodide [C(5)NH(6)](+)I(-), and pyridinium nitrate [C(5)NH(6)](+)NO(3)(-) have been performed as a function of temperature and pressure. Despite the similar shape of the benzene molecule and the pyridinium cation, the experimental and simulated data have showed clear differences in their dynamics. Therefore, the rotational dynamics have been explored in detail by comparing thoroughly the existing experimental results together with new quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) data obtained for (PyH)NO(3) and molecular dynamics simulations. The correlation times, activation energy, geometry of motion of benzene molecule and pyridinium cation, isothermal compressibility, and activation volume obtained from the simulations are compared with the experimental results obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance and QENS methods. MD simulations have also revealed that reorientation of the pyridinium cation in pyridinium nitrate between two inequivalent positions is strongly affected by the hydrogen bond N-H···O between the cation and the anion and the influence of temperature on strength of the hydrogen bond is much more important than that of the pressure.

  18. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou


    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  19. Iron bromide vapor laser (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.


    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  20. Ultraviolet photodissociation action spectroscopy of the N-pyridinium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christopher S., E-mail:; Trevitt, Adam J., E-mail: [School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Blanksby, Stephen J. [Central Analytical Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology, QLD 4000 (Australia); Chalyavi, Nahid; Bieske, Evan J. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Reimers, Jeffrey R. [School of Physics and Materials Science, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structure, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)


    The S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} electronic transition of the N-pyridinium ion (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +}) is investigated using ultraviolet photodissociation (PD) spectroscopy of the bare ion and also the N{sub 2}-tagged complex. Gas-phase N-pyridinium ions photodissociate by the loss of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the photon energy range 37 000–45 000 cm{sup −1} with structurally diagnostic ion-molecule reactions identifying the 2-pyridinylium ion as the exclusive co-product. The photodissociation action spectra reveal vibronic details that, with the aid of electronic structure calculations, support the proposal that dissociation occurs through an intramolecular rearrangement on the ground electronic state following internal conversion. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze the measured spectra. Most of the vibronic features are attributed to progressions of totally symmetric ring deformation modes and out-of-plane modes active in the isomerization of the planar excited state towards the non-planar excited state global minimum.

  1. Crystal structure of 2-amino-5-nitro-pyridinium sulfamate. (United States)

    Rajkumar, M Ambrose; NizamMohideen, M; Xavier, S Stanly John; Anbarasu, S; Devarajan, Dr Prem Anand


    The title mol-ecular salt, C5H6N3O2 (+) ·H2NO3S(-), was obtained from the reaction of sulfamic acid with 2-amino-5-nitro-pyridine. A proton transfer from sulfamic acid to the pyridine N atom occurred, resulting in the formation of a salt. As expected, this protonation leads to the widening of the C-N-C angle of the pyridine ring, to 122.9 (3)°, with the pyridinium ring being essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.025 Å). In the crystal, the ion pairs are joined by three N-H⋯O and one N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds in which the pyridinium N atom and the amino N atom act as donors, and are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl-ate O atoms and the N atom of the sulfamate anion, thus generating an R (3) 3(22) ring motif. These motifs are linked by further N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds enclosing R (3) 3(8) loops, forming sheets parallel to (100). The sheets are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. The O atoms of the nitro group are disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.737 (19):0.263 (19).

  2. Vibrational analysis of 1-methyl-pyridinium-2-aldoxime and 1-methyl-pyridinium-4-aldoxime cations (United States)

    Grošev, Vlasta Mohaček; Foretić, Blaženka; Gamulin, Ozren


    Pyrimidinium aldoximes are administered intravenously in cases of acute organophosphate poisoning. Since questions regarding their morphology and active conformation in the solution are still open, an effort was made to establish correspondence between their crystal state conformers and vibrational spectra, thus facilitating the future work on the assignment of bands in solution. Normal coordinate analysis including the potential energy distribution for all modes was performed for 1-methyl-pyridinium-2-aldoxime (PAM2AN) and 1-methyl-pyridinium-4-aldoxime (PAM4AN) cations (charge = +e, spin = 0). Positions of infrared and Raman bands of corresponding chloride salts agree rather well with predicted values, except for modes taking part in hydrogen bonding to anions. The strength of hydrogen bonding is estimated to be of medium strength in both salts, the bonding in PAM2AN being stronger. The calculated and observed values of the characteristic stretching modes for the aldoxime moiety have been in accordance with the stronger acidity of PAM2AN structural isomer.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Ammonium-, Pyridinium-, and Pyrrolidinium-Based Sulfonamido Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders


    New homologous ammonium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidinium-based sulfonamido functionalized ionic liquids have been synthesized in two steps using monoethanolamine, methanesulfonyl chloride, and tosyl chloride as precursors with ethanol as solvent. Attempts to synthesize dual amino functionalized...

  4. n-Butyl Pyridinium Nitrate as a Reusable Ionic Liquid Medium for Knoevenagel Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Knoevenagel condensation of carbonyl substrates with active methylene compounds proceeds smoothly with ammonium acetate as catalyst in n-butyl pyridinium nitrate to afford the desired products of good purity in moderate yields.

  5. Mini review on blood-brain barrier penetration of pyridinium aldoximes. (United States)

    Kalász, H; Nurulain, S M; Veress, G; Antus, S; Darvas, F; Adeghate, E; Adem, A; Hashemi, F; Tekes, K


    This paper reviews the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of newly developed pyridinium aldoximes. Pyridinium aldoximes are highly charged hydrophilic compounds used in the treatment of subjects exposed to organophosphonates because they are effective as acetylcholinesterase reactivators. Pyridinium aldoximes have antidotal effects against poisoning with cholinesterase inhibitors, a frequent problem affecting people working with organophosphate-based insecticides and pesticides. Toxic organophosphonate products such as sarin and tabun can be used by terrorists as chemical warfare agents. This poses a severe challenge to all innocent and peace-loving people worldwide. This review gives a brief summary of BBB transporters and description of the current in vitro and in vivo methods for the characterization of BBB penetration of established and novel pyridinium aldoximes. The authors provide a putative mechanism of penetration, outline some future ways of formulation and discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages of increasing BBB penetration.

  6. New method of immobilization of microbial cells by capture on the surface of insoluble pyridinium-type resin. (United States)

    Kawabata, N; Nishimura, S; Yoshimura, T


    A new method for the immobilization of microbial cells has been developed. Whole cells of Escherichia coli with aspartase activity were immobilized by capture on the surface of cross-linked poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) containing styrene (BVPS resin), an insoluble pyridinium-type resin. When a suspension of the bacterial cells in buffer solution was passed through a glass column containing beads of BVPS resin, the cells were captured on the resin surface and formed an immobilized cell system. A fixed-bed column reactor containing 300 mg of the bacterial cells immobilized by capture on 10 g of BVPS resin beads was used for the preparation of L-aspartic acid from ammonium fumarate. Continuous operation of tne bioreactor produced L-aspartic acid in a quantitative yield when the influent substrate concentration was 0.1M and the flow rate was 0.41-0.83 bed volumes per hour at pH 7.4-7.7 at 30 degrees C.

  7. Dual Spectroscopic Responses of Pyridinium Hemicyanine Dyes to Anions%Dual Spectroscopic Responses of Pyridinium Hemicyanine Dyes to Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie, Puhui; Guo, Fengqi; Zhang, Dasheng; Zhang, Lei


    The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic responses of three pyridinium hemicyanine dyes to anions F , Cl , Br , I-, H2P02, HS04 and OAc- were investigated. At lower concentrations of OAc- (less than 1 equiv.), both the absorption and the fluorescence intensities of 1--3 were more effectively changed than F at iden- tical concentrations. At higher concentrations of OAc (more than 1 equiv.), the interaction was opposite for each compound. 1H NMR results indicated the interaction between 1, 2 or 3 and F- proceeded through hydrogen bonding. The results showed that these dyes are promising to develop dual fluorescence and chromogenic chemo- sensors toward F- and OAc- according to the subtle difference in the affinity of F and OAc .

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . S tatement on the safety of ' Cetyl Myristoleate Complex ' as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of „Cetyl Myristoleate Complex‟ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of a new repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study in mice. In its p...

  9. Ionic Vapor Composition in Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    Strong electrostatic interactions in ionic compounds make vaporization a complex process. The gas phase can contain a broad range of ionic clusters, and the cluster composition can differ greatly from that in the liquid phase. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) constitute a complicated case due to their ionic nature, asymmetric structure, and a huge versatility of ions and ionic clusters. This work reports vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor compositions of butylpyridinium (BPY) RTILs formed with hexafluorophosphate (PF6), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TF), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anions. Unlike inorganic crystals, the pyridinium-based RTILs contain significant percentages of charged clusters in the vapor phase. Ion triplets and ion quadruplets each constitute up to 10% of the vapor phase composition. Triples prevail over quadruples in [BPY][PF6] due to the size difference of the cation and the anion. The percentage of charged ionic clusters in the gas phase is in inverse proportion to the mass of the anion. The largest identified vaporized ionic cluster comprises eight ions, with a formation probability below 1%. Higher temperature fosters formation of larger clusters due to an increase of the saturated vapor density.

  10. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kiamehr


    Full Text Available The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[,7]trideca-2(7,11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of bases and additives revealed that the presence of potassium cations is essential for formation of the product.

  11. Pyridinium tribromide catalyzed condensation of indoles and aldehydes to form bisindolylalkanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang; Zheng Lan Yin; Ban Lai Ouyang; Yi Yuan Peng


    An efficient synthetic method for bis(indol-3-yl)alkane derivatives has been developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of pyridinium tribromide (PTB), the condensation of indoles and aldehydes proceeded smoothly under mild conditions, giving rise to the corresponding bis(indol-3-yl)alkanes in good to excellent yields.

  12. Structure and rheology of semisolid o/w creams containing cetyl alcohol/non-ionic surfactant mixed emulsifier and different polymers. (United States)

    Ribeiro, H M; Morais, J A; Eccleston, G M


    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions for cosmetic use, such as lotions and creams, are complex multiple-phase systems, which may contain a number of interacting surfactants, fatty amphiphiles, polymers and other excipients. This study investigates the influence of two synthetic cationic polymers, Polyquaternium-7 and Polyquaternium-11, and the natural anionic polymer, gum of acacia, on the rheology and microstructure of creams prepared with a non-ionic mixed emulsifier (cetyl stearyl alcohol-12EO/cetyl alcohol) using rheology (continuous shear, and viscoelastic creep and oscillation), microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A control cream containing no polymer was also investigated. The semisolid control cream was structured by a swollen lamellar gel network phase formed from the interaction of cetyl alcohol and the POE surfactant, in excess of that required to stabilize oil droplets, with continuous phase water. Endothermic transitions between 25 and 100 degrees C were identified as components of this phase. Incorporation of cationic polymer into the formulation caused significant loss of structure to produce a mobile semisolid containing larger oil droplets. The microscopical and thermal data implied that the cationic polymer caused the swollen lamellar gel network phase to transform into non-swollen crystals of cetyl alcohol. In contrast, incorporation of gum of acacia produced a thicker cream than the control, with smaller droplet sizes and little evidence of the gel network. Microscopical and thermal data implied that although there were also interactions between gum of acacia and both the surfactant and the swollen gel network phase, the semisolid properties were probably because of the ability of the gum of acacia to stabilize and thicken the emulsion in the absence of the swollen lamellar network.

  13. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress. (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua


    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function.

  14. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  15. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo


    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  16. Ion chromatography as a novel method to quantify the solubility of pyridinium ionic liquids in organic solvents. (United States)

    Onink, Ferdy; Meindersma, Wytze; Burghoff, Bernhard; Weggemans, Wilko; Aerts, Guus; de Haan, André


    A validated ion chromatographic method was developed and applied for the determination of the maximum solubility of pyridinium ionic liquids in several aromatic solvents. Elution was performed on a Metrosep C3-150 prototype column at 40°C with acetonitrile-water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Mixtures of pyridinium ionic liquids and aromatic solvents were diluted with acetonitrile and acetone on a 1:1:2 weight base before the analysis. The chromatographic time only took 20 min. The standard curves for both pyridinium ionic liquids ([4-mebupy]BF4 and [3-mebupy]N(CN)2) were linear (r(2) = 0.9980-0.9998) in all aromatic solvents (toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene) in the concentration range of 5.37-241 mg kg(-1). The intraday relative standard deviations (n = 3) for peak areas were 0.60-2.9%. Accuracy in the measurement of samples ranged from 98.5 to 105%. The limit of detection for both pyridinium ionic liquids in all solvents varied between 0.73 and 2.6 mg kg(-1). This assay has been successfully applied in the determination of the maximum solubilities of both pyridinium ionic liquids in several aromatic solvents. This method demonstrated that with increasing aromatic character and/or temperature the solubilities of both investigated pyridinium ILs in the aromatic solvents increase. This is primary caused by the nature of the anion.

  17. Atomistic Force Field for Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids: Reliable Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voroshylova, I. V.; Chaban, V. V.


    Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)......Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis......(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, dicyanamide, hexafluorophosphate, triflate, chloride). We elaborate a systematic procedure, which allows accounting for specific cationanion interactions in the liquid phase. Once these interactions are described accurately, all experimentally determined transport properties can be reproduced. We prove...

  18. Pyridinium diaqua-bis-(methyl-enediphospho-nato-κO,O')chromate(III) tetra-hydrate. (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Kina; Visser, Hendrik G; Venter, J A


    In the title complex, (C(5)H(6)N)[Cr(CH(4)O(6)P(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O, the Cr(III) atom, lying on an inversion centre, is coordinated by two bidentate methyl-ene diphospho-nate ligands and two water molecules in a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. The pyridinium cation is located on an inversion centre, with an N atom and a C atom sharing a position each at a half occupancy. A three-dimensional network is constructed by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the pyridin-ium cation, complex anion and uncoordinated water mol-ecules.

  19. A general framework for the solvatochromism of pyridinium phenolate betaine dyes (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aracena, Andrés


    A general framework for the solvatochromic behavior of pyridinium phenolate betaine dyes is presented, based on the variations with the medium of the electrophilic Fukui functions of their electron-pair donor and acceptor moieties. The model explains the ‘anomalous' solvatochromic behavior of large betaines, which change their behavior from negative to inverted, when electron-pair donor and acceptor groups are separated by a conjugated chain of variable size.

  20. The interactions between lipase and pyridinium ligands investigated by electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Patriche


    Full Text Available The interaction between pyridinium ligands derived from 4,4’-bipyridine (N,N’-bis(p-bromophenacyl-4,4’-bipyridinium dibromide – Lr and (N,N’-bis(p-bromophenacyl-1,2-bis (4-pyridyl ethane dibromide – Lm with lipase enzyme was evaluated. The stability of the pyridinium ligands, having an essential role in biological systems, in 0.1 M KNO3 as supporting electrolyte is influenced by the lipase concentration added. The pH and conductometry measurements in aqueous solution suggest a rapid ionic exchange process. The behavior of pyridinium ligands in the presence of lipase is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV/Vis spectroscopy, which indicated bindings and changes from the interaction between them. The voltammograms recorded on the glassy carbon electrode showed a more intense electronic transfer for the Lr interaction with lipase compared to Lm, which is due to the absence of mobile ethylene groups from Lr structure.

  1. Isotachophoretic separation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Praus, Petr


    Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP), equipped with the conductivity detection, was tested for the separation of cetyltrimethylamonium (CTMA) bromide. To prevent adsorption of CTMA to the capillary walls, several neutral polymers and ethanol were added into the leading electrolytes. Unlike polymer additives, the CTMA free monomers and micelles, created as a result of the isotachophoretic concentration effect, were recognised in the presence of ethanol from 10 to 25% (v/v). At 30% of ethanol, only a single zone of CTMA monomer was registered because the micellization process did not take place under this condition. Employing an ITP apparatus in the column-coupling configuration, the operational system with 30% of ethanol was tested for the determination of CTMA in hair conditioners. The achieved detection limits were about 0.02mM. Both model solutions and real samples of hair conditioners were analysed with the precision about R.S.D. = 3%. One analysis in the column-coupled system takes circa 15min.

  2. Growth and characterization of lead bromide crystals (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.; Glicksman, M. E.; Coriell, S. R.; Santoro, G. J.; Duval, W. M. B.


    Lead(II) bromide was purified by a combination of directional freezing and zone-refining methods. Differential thermal analysis of the lead bromide showed that a destructive phase transformation occurs below the melting temperature. This transformation causes extensive cracking, making it very difficult to grow a large single crystal. Energy of phase transformation for pure lead bromide was determined to be 24.67 cal/g. To circumvent this limitation, crystals were doped by silver bromide which decreased the energy of phase transformation. The addition of silver helped in achieving the size, but enhanced the inhomogeneity in the crystal. The acoustic attenuation constant was almost identical for the pure and doped (below 3000 ppm) crystals.

  3. Rapid Synthesis of Glycosyl Bromides by Ultrasound Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-zhong; ZHANG Xue-qin; WU Xin; XING Ze-bing; YUE Ai-qin; SHAO Hua-wu


    A convenient and environmentally friendly reactor for the synthesis of glycosyl bromides via ultrasound irradiation was designed.Peracetylated glycosyl bromides were synthesized from free saccharides by means of a one-pot method.Benzoylated and 6-subsituted glycosyl bromides were prepared from protected saccharides.The glycosyl bromides were obtained in isolated yields of 83% to 96%.

  4. [Pharmacology of the bronchospasmolytic oxitropium bromide]. (United States)

    Bauer, V R


    The anticholinergic substance (8r)-6 beta, 7 beta-epoxy-8-ethyl-3 alpha-[(-)-tropoyloxyl]-1 alpha H, 5 alpha H-tropanium bromide (oxitropium bromide, Ba 253 BR, Ventilat) is a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In vitro, it is many times as effective as atropine. In vivo, oxitropium bromide, following i.v. administration, is also more effective than atropine. Due to its quaternary structure, a central anticholinergic effect cannot be demonstrated. Furthermore, poor enteral resorption is to be expected. Locally administered, as an aqueous aerosol, the effect of the substance is distinctly greater than that of atropine, both in potency and duration of action. This is also true when administered by metered-dose inhaler compared with ipratropium bromide. As, following aerosol administration, the margin between major effect and the most sensitive side-effect is in the ratio 1 : 100, side-effects are unlikely even with marked inhalational overdosage. Oxitropium bromide can be described, therefore, as a preparation free of side-effects which represents in prophylactic use in many cases of obstructive airway disease, an alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives.

  5. Quantum Chemical Benchmarking, Validation, and Prediction of Acidity Constants for Substituted Pyridinium Ions and Pyridinyl Radicals. (United States)

    Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A


    Sensibly modeling (photo)electrocatalytic reactions involving proton and electron transfer with computational quantum chemistry requires accurate descriptions of protonated, deprotonated, and radical species in solution. Procedures to do this are generally nontrivial, especially in cases that involve radical anions that are unstable in the gas phase. Recently, pyridinium and the corresponding reduced neutral radical have been postulated as key catalysts in the reduction of CO2 to methanol. To assess practical methodologies to describe the acid/base chemistry of these species, we employed density functional theory (DFT) in tandem with implicit solvation models to calculate acidity constants for 22 substituted pyridinium cations and their corresponding pyridinyl radicals in water solvent. We first benchmarked our calculations against experimental pyridinium deprotonation energies in both gas and aqueous phases. DFT with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals provide chemical accuracy for gas-phase data and allow absolute prediction of experimental pKas with unsigned errors under 1 pKa unit. The accuracy of this economical pKa calculation approach was further verified by benchmarking against highly accurate (but very expensive) CCSD(T)-F12 calculations. We compare the relative importance and sensitivity of these energies to selection of solvation model, solvation energy definitions, implicit solvation cavity definition, basis sets, electron densities, model geometries, and mixed implicit/explicit models. After determining the most accurate model to reproduce experimentally-known pKas from first principles, we apply the same approach to predict pKas for radical pyridinyl species that have been proposed relevant under electrochemical conditions. This work provides considerable insight into the pitfalls using continuum solvation models, particularly when used for radical species.

  6. Oxidation of phenyl alanine by pyridinium chlorochromate in acidic DMF–water medium: A kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Hiran


    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of phenyl alanine by pyridinium chlorochromate in DMF–water (70:30% mixture in presence of perchloric acid leads to the formation of corresponding aldehyde. The reaction is of first order each in [PCC], [HClO4] and [AA]. Michaelis–Menten type kinetics was observed with phenyl alanine. The reaction rates were determined at different temperatures [25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 °C] and the activation parameters were calculated. The reaction does not induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. With an increase in the amount of DMF in its aqueous mixture, the rate increases. A suitable mechanism for the reaction was postulated.

  7. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer process of betaine pyridinium: A theoretical spectroscopic study (United States)

    Perrier, Aurélie; Aloïse, Stéphane; Pawlowska, Zuzanna; Sliwa, Michel; Maurel, François; Abe, Jiro


    Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and taking into account bulk solvent effects, we investigate the absorption and emission spectra of a betaine pyridinium molecule, the 2-(1-pyridinio) benzimidazolate (SBPa). This molecule exhibits strong photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). We have identified two different electronic states involved, respectively, in the strong bathochromic ICT absorption band (S 2) and in the moderate emission band (S 1). The ICT process is analyzed in terms of charge distribution and dipole moment evolutions upon photoexcitation. These results are compared with steady-state spectroscopic measurements.

  8. Negative solvatochromism of a series of pyridinium phenolate betaine dyes with increasing steric hindrance (United States)

    Jacques, Patrice; Graff, Bernadette; Diemer, Vincent; Ay, Emel; Chaumeil, Hélène; Carré, Christiane; Malval, Jean-Pierre


    The negative solvatochromism of a series of pyridinium phenolates betaine dyes is investigated using three approaches: (a) empirical, based on the empirical solvent polarity parameter ET(30); (b) semi-empirical, based on the π∗, α, β set of parameters used in Kamlet-Taft's Solvatochromic Comparison Method (SCM); and (c) physical, by means of the Onsager reaction-field model of solvents. Comparison of the obtained correlations underscored the roles of both the two tert-butyl groups ortho to the oxygen atom and the interplanar angle between the phenyl rings on the very blue shifts observed as the polarity increases.

  9. Anionic and Zwitterionic Photophysical Effects in Some Pyridinium Oxazole Laser Dyes


    Kubin, R. F.; Henry, R. A.; Pietrak, M. E.; Bliss, D. E.; Hall, J. H.


    Kauffman and Bentley [Laser Chem. 8, 49-59 (1988)] have reported increased laser output by changing the anion of certain pyridinium oxazole dyes from the tosylate to the mesylate salt. Likewise, zwitterion variants of these dyes are also reported to have a significantly improved laser output. We find anion changes to be modest and, with one exception, all zwitterions tested were no better or not as good as the tosylate salt with respect to lasing output. However, both the mesylate salt and th...

  10. [1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphinoethane]{2-[bis(diphenylphosphinomethylamino]pyridinium}fluoridohydrazidatomolybdenum(IV bis(tetrafluoridoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Tuczek


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [MoF(N2H2(C31H29N2P2(C26H24P2](BF42, each Mo atom is surrounded by four P atoms of one 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethane and one 2-[bis(diphenylphosphinomethylamino]pyridinium ligand. The remaining binding sites of the distorted octahedron are occupied by a hydrazidate (NNH22− and a fluoride ligand. Two F atoms of an anion are disordered over two positions; the site occupancy factors are ca 0.7 and 0.3.

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Statement on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    opinion of 2010, the Panel concluded that the safety of CMC as an ingredient in food supplements at an intake of 3.3 g per day has not been established. This conclusion was based on the considerations that in the absence of appropriate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of additional information submitted by the applicant. In its previous...... 90-day study cannot serve as a reliable source of information supporting the absence of adverse effects of CMC. The dossier of this new mandate contains three new references which were not submitted and hence not considered in the previous assessments. The Panel notes that two references do...

  12. Evaluation of Range-Corrected Density Functionals for the Simulation of Pyridinium-Containing Molecular Crystals. (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Gooch, Jonathan; Zubieta, Jon; Korter, Timothy M


    The problem of nonlocal interactions in density functional theory calculations has in part been mitigated by the introduction of range-corrected functional methods. While promising solutions, the continued evaluation of range corrections in the structural simulations of complex molecular crystals is required to judge their efficacy in challenging chemical environments. Here, three pyridinium-based crystals, exhibiting a wide range of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, are used as benchmark systems for gauging the accuracy of several range-corrected density functional techniques. The computational results are compared to low-temperature experimental single-crystal X-ray diffraction and terahertz spectroscopic measurements, enabling the direct assessment of range correction in the accurate simulation of the potential energy surface minima and curvatures. Ultimately, the simultaneous treatment of both short- and long-range effects by the ωB97-X functional was found to be central to its rank as the top performer in reproducing the complex array of forces that occur in the studied pyridinium solids. These results demonstrate that while long-range corrections are the most commonly implemented range-dependent improvements to density functionals, short-range corrections are vital for the accurate reproduction of forces that rapidly diminish with distance, such as quadrupole-quadrupole interactions.

  13. CuO nanostructures: optical properties and morphology control by pyridinium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Sabbaghan, Maryam; Shahvelayati, Ashraf Sadat; Madankar, Kamelia


    Copper oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by a simple reflux method in aqueous medium of pyridinium based ionic liquids. The structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and UV-visible. The morphologies of the nanostructures can be controlled by changing the amount of NaOH and ionic liquids. The results show that the use identical pyridinium based ionic liquids in ratio of 4:1 NaOH/Cu(OAc)2⋅H2O yield minor differences in morphology of CuO nanostructures. Different morphologies of CuO nanostructures were obtained by changing the ratio NaOH/Cu(OAc)2⋅H2O to 2:1. Ionic liquids play an important role on optical properties of CuO nanostructures. The results of optical measurements of the CuO nanostructures illustrate that band gaps are estimated to be 1.67-1.85 eV. PL patterns studies show that the ionic liquids can be effect on PL patterns of the samples. The reasons of these phenomena are discussed.

  14. Antibacterial/Antiviral Property and Mechanism of Dual-Functional Quaternized Pyridinium-type Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue


    Full Text Available Due to the massive outbreaks of pathogen-caused diseases and the increase of drug-resistant pathogens, there is a particular interest in the development of novel disinfection agents with broad-spectrum antipathogenic activity. In the present study, water-soluble pyridinium-type polyvinylpyrrolidones with different counter anions were prepared. Structural characterization was conducted via 13C–1H heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy, static light scattering, UV spectrometry and apparent charge density. The influence of counter anion and polymer compositions on the antibacterial activity was studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was applied for tracking the morphological alterations in bacterial cells induced by prepared polycations. It was found that the exposure of bacteria to the polycations resulted in the destruction of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm. The antiviral activity of pyridinium-type polycations against enveloped influenza virus was evaluated via a plaque assay. The action mode against enveloped virus was depicted to rationalize the antiviral mechanism.

  15. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.


    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  16. Polymorphism of pyridinium amphiphiles for gene delivery : Influence of ionic strength, helper lipid content, and plasmid DNA complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarzello, M; Chupin, [No Value; Wagenaar, A; Stuart, MCA; Engberts, JBFN; Hulst, R; Chupin, Vladimir


    Two double-tailed pyridinium cationic amphiphiles, differing only in the degree of unsaturation of the alkyl chains, have been selected for a detailed study of their aggregation behavior, under conditions employed for transfection experiments. The transfection efficiencies of the two molecules are r

  17. Kinetic Study of the Effect of Selected Surfactants on Corrosion of Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida M. El-Kashlan


    Full Text Available The rates of copper corrosion were determined by measuring the limiting current of anodic dissolution of copper in phosphoric acid in presence and in absence of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPYB. The rate of corrosion is found to decrease by increasing the concentration of the surfactant. The percentage of inhibition ranged from 1.85 to 33.97% depending on the type of surfactant and its concentration. Increasing the copper electrode height, and concentration of H3PO4 decreases the rate of copper corrosion. The investigated adsorption isotherms indicate that the two surfactants fit Langmuir and Flory Huggins isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters show that corrosion is a diffusion controlled process. The dimensional analysis method was used to obtain the overall mass transfer correlations under the study conditions.

  18. Vibrational, structural and electronic study of a pyridinium salt assisted by SXRD studies and DFT calculations (United States)

    Labra-Vázquez, Pablo; Palma-Contreras, Miguel; Santillan, Rosa; Farfán, Norberto


    The molecular structure of 1-[2-oxo-2-(2-pyridinyl)ethyl]pyridinium iodide (C12H11IN2O) is discussed using an experimental (FT-IR/ATR, NMR, SXRD) and theoretical (DFT, B3LYP/6-311G**) approach. Compound 2 crystallized in the monoclinic P21/c space group with 4 molecules per unit cell and unit cell dimensions a = 7.5629 Å (3), b = 21.5694 Å (7), c = 7.8166 Å (3). The crystal packing is governed by ion-dipole contacts and π-π stacking. High electrostatic potential at the ethanone hydrogens was derived from DFT calculations, further explaining the acidity and reactivity of the molecule as a Michael donor.

  19. Three silver (I) supramolecular compounds constructed from pyridinium or methylimidazolium polycations: Synthesis, crystal structure and properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao Li; Wen Li Zhang; Hai Juan Du; Chao-Hai Wang; Ya Bin Lu; Yun-Yin Niu


    Three metal halide cluster supramolecular polymers, {(TBP)[Ag3Br6]}n (1), {(TBI)[Ag3Br6]}n (2) and {(TBP)[Ag3I6]}n (3) (TBP=1, 3, 5-tris(N-pyridinium methyl)benzene, TBI=1, 3, 5-tris(methylimidazole methyl)benzene), have been synthesized and characterized by thermoanalysis and spectroscopic methods, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 all feature a one-dimensional chain structure, which is further extended by electrostatic attraction. The TGA, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra in the solid state and optical band gap properties of the three complexes were also investigated.

  20. Structure-activity correlation in transfection promoted by pyridinium cationic lipids. (United States)

    Parvizi-Bahktar, P; Mendez-Campos, J; Raju, L; Khalique, N A; Jubeli, E; Larsen, H; Nicholson, D; Pungente, M D; Fyles, T M


    The efficiency of the transfection of a plasmid DNA encoding a galactosidase promoted by a series of pyridinium lipids in mixtures with other cationic lipids and neutral lipids was assessed in CHO-K1 cells. We identify key molecular parameters of the lipids in the mixture - clog P, lipid length, partial molar volume - to predict the morphology of the lipid-DNA lipoplex and then correlate these same parameters with transfection efficiency in an in vitro assay. We define a Transfection Index that provides a linear correlation with normalized transfection efficiency over a series of 90 different lipoplex compositions. We also explore the influence of the same set of molecular parameters on the cytotoxicity of the formulations.

  1. Crystal structure of bis-(1-ethyl-pyridinium) dioxonium hexa-cyanidoferrate(II). (United States)

    Tanaka, Rikako; Matsushita, Nobuyuki


    The title compound, (C7H10N)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] or (Etpy)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] (Etpy(+) is 1-ethyl-pyridinium), crystallizes in the space group Pnnm. The Fe(II) atom of the [Fe(CN)6](4-) anion lies on a site with site symmetry ..2/m, and has an octa-hedral coordination sphere defined by six cyanido ligands. Both the Etpy(+) and the oxonium cations are located on a mirror plane. In the crystal, electron-donor anions of [Fe(CN)6](4-) and electron-acceptor cations of Etpy(+) are each stacked parallel to the b axis, resulting in a columnar structure with segregated moieties. The crystal packing is stabilized by a three-dimensional O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding network between the oxonium ions and the cyanide ligands of [Fe(CN)6](4-).

  2. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Bhowmik, Pradip K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)


    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using {sup 1}H, {sup 19}F, and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property.

  3. 5-Carbamoyl-2-methyl-1-(2-methylbenzylpyridinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Beom Kim


    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C15H17N2O+·Br−, the benzene and pyridinium rings form a dihedral angle of 83.0 (1°. In the crystal, N—H...Br and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into chains along [010]. These chains are linked by weak C—H...O and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering study of aggregate structures of multi-headed pyridinium surfactants in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Haldar; V K Aswal; P S Goyal; S Bhattacharya


    The aggregate structures of a set of novel single-chain surfactants bearing one, two and three pyridinium headgroups have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is found that the nature of aggregate structures of these cationic surfactants depend on the number of headgroups present in the surfactants. The single-headed pyridinium surfactant forms the lamellar structure, whereas surfactants with double and triple headgroups form micelles in water. The aggregates shrink in size with increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. The aggregation number () continually decreases and the fractional charge () increases with more number of headgroups on the surfactants. The semimajor axis () and semiminor axis ( = ) of the micelle also decrease with the increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. This indicates that hydrocarbon chains in such micelles prepared from multiheaded surfactants adopt bent conformation and no longer stay in extended conformation.

  5. 2-((1E-1-{2-[(2Z-3,4-Diphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene]hydrazin-1-ylidene}ethylpyridin-1-ium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H19N4S+·Br−·H2O, the dihedral angles between the phenyl groups and the mean plane of the thiazolylidene ring are 34.69 (13 and 64.27 (13°, respectively, while that between the thiazolylidene and pyridinium rings is 14.73 (13°. In the crystal, zigzag chains of alternating bromide ions and water molecules associate through O—H...Br interactions run in channels approximately parallel to the b axis. These chains help form parallel chains of cations through N—H...O, C—H...N and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  6. Improved Cross Validation of a Static Ubiquitin Structure Derived from High Precision Residual Dipolar Couplings Measured in a Drug-Based Liquid Crystalline Phase



    The antibiotic squalamine forms a lyotropic liquid crystal at very low concentrations in water (0.3-3.5% w/v), which remains stable over a wide range of temperature (1-40 °C) and pH (4-8). Squalamine is positively charged, and comparison of the alignment of ubiquitin relative to 36 previously reported alignment conditions shows that it differs substantially from most of these, but is closest to liquid crystalline cetyl pyridinium bromide. High precision residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measu...

  7. A spin label study of perturbation effects of N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide and N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N-dimethylamine oxide on model membranes prepared from Escherichia coli-isolated lipids. (United States)

    Sersen, F; Leitmanová, A; Devínsky, F; Lacko, I; Balgavý, P


    Interaction of bactericidal surfactants N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide (2-ATDBr) and N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N-dimethylamine oxide (2-ATDNO) with phospholipid membranes prepared from Escherichia coli -- isolated lipids was studied by ESR spectroscopy using m-doxyl stearic acid (m-DSA, m = 5, 12, 16) and N-cetyl-N, N-dimethyl-N-tempoylammonium bromide spin labels located in different membrane depths. 2-ATDBr was found to be a more potent membrane perturbant than 2-ATDNO both at equal membrane and sample concentrations; this is in compliance with the respective antimicrobial activities of these agents. Using the statistical model of hydrocarbon chains in lipid bilayers, the probabilities of the formation of gauche conformations and the effective energy differences between the trans and gauche conformations were calculated from m-DSA order parameters for two different bilayer regions. Based on these parameters, a molecular model of the location of surfactant molecules in bilayer has been formulated. It has been suggested that at low concentrations the surfactant molecules are located in structural defects between lipid clusters in the bilayer. After filling up these defects, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the clusters between lipid molecules, expand the bilayer laterally and increase the amount of gauche conformations in the hydrocarbon chains in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer.

  8. The cytotoxicity of methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride, a cationic antibacterial monomer, is related to oxidative stress and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (United States)

    Ma, Sai; Shan, Le-qun; Xiao, Yu-hong; Li, Fang; Huang, Li; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Ji-hua


    Antibacterial monomers incorporated in dentin bonding systems may have toxic effects on the pulp. Thus, the cytotoxicity of antibacterial monomers and its underlying mechanisms must be elucidated to improve the safety of antibacterial monomer application. The influence of an antibacterial monomer, methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB), on the vitality of L929 mouse fibroblasts was tested using MTT assay. Cell cycle progression was studied using flow cytometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) after DMAE-CB treatment was measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining and flow cytometry analysis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, disturbance of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, as well as release of cytochrome C were also measured using flow cytometry analysis or Western blot to explore the possible involvement of the mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway. DMAE-CB elicited cell death in a dose-dependent manner and more than 50% of cells were killed after treatment with 30 µM of the monomer. Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed. DMAE-CB also induced G1- and G2-phase arrest. Increased levels of intracellular ROS were observed after 1 h and this overproduction was further enhanced by 6-h treatment with the monomer. DMAE-CB may cause apoptosis by disturbing the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, reducing the mitochondrial potential and inducing release of cytochrome C. Taken together, these findings suggest that the toxicity of the antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB is associated with ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle disturbance, and cell apoptosis/necrosis.

  9. Free energy of solvation of carbon nanotubes in pyridinium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Fileti, Eudes Eterno


    Numerous prospective applications require the availability of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Pristine CNTs, strongly hydrophobic in nature, are known to be either totally insoluble or poorly dispersible. While it is unlikely to be possible to prepare a real solution of CNTs in any solvent, the ability of certain solvents to maintain dispersions of CNTs for macroscopic times constitutes great research interest. In the present work, we characterize two pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), N-butylpyridinium chloride [BPY][Cl] and N-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [BPY][TFSI], with respect to their potential to solvate CNTs of different diameters, from the CNT (10,10) to the CNT (25,25). Using a universal methodology, we found that both ILs exhibit essentially the same solvation performance. Solvation of CNTs is strongly prohibited entropically, whereas the energy penalty increases monotonically with the CNT diameter. Weak van der Waals interactions, which guide enthalpy alteration upon the CNT solvation, are unable to compensate for the large entropic penalty from the destruction of the IL-IL electrostatic interactions. The structure of ILs inside and outside CNTs is also discussed. The reported results are necessary for gaining a fundamental understanding of the CNT solvation problems, thereby inspiring the search for more suitable solvents.

  10. Poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups for vanadium redox flow battery applications (United States)

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Enlei; Wang, Guosheng; Yu, Ping; Zhao, Qiuxia; Yao, Fangbo


    To develop high performance and cost-effective membranes with low permeability of vanadium ions for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application, poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups (PyPPSU) are prepared and first investigated for VRFB application. PyPPSU membranes show much lower vanadium ions permeability (0.07 × 10-7-0.15 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) than that of Nafion 117 membrane (31.3 × 10-7 cm2 min-1). As a result, the self-discharge duration of the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane (418 h) is about four times longer than that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (110 h). Furthermore, the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane exhibits higher battery efficiency (coulombic efficiency of 97.8% and energy efficiency of 80.2%) compare with that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (coulombic efficiency of 96.1% and energy efficiency of 77.2%) at a high current density of 100 mA cm-2. In addition, PyPPSU membrane exhibits stable performance in 100-cycle test. The results indicate that PyPPSU membrane is high performance and low-cost alternative membrane for VRFB application.

  11. Synthesis and thermodynamic properties of a novel pyridinium-based asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuzhao; Wang, Jun; Zou, Wenyuan; Wu, Jinchao [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou (China)


    A novel asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid (GIL), [1-(1-pyridinium-yl-hexyl)-6-methylpiperidinium] dihexafluorophosphate ([PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2}) combined with pyridine, 1-methylpiperidine by 1,6-dibromohexane with PF{sub 6} as anion, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and IR. The molar heat capacity of the GIL was measured via differential scanning calorimetry from 298.15 K to 448.15 K under atmospheric pressure. No phase transition or other thermal anomaly was observed in the solid-phase region (298.15 K to 358.15 K) and liquid-phase region (403.15 K to 448.15 K). The basic properties and thermodynamic functions of the GIL, such as melting point, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion, heat capacity, enthalpy HT-H298.15 K, and entropy S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15} K, were also determined from the experimental data. Thermal decomposition kinetics of [PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} were investigated by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis in pure nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates. Thermal decomposition data were, respectively, correlated with Friedman method, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall equation, and ASTM model. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (logA) values were obtained by using the above three methods.

  12. Phase equilibria and modeling of pyridinium-based ionic liquid solutions. (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Królikowski, Marek; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M; Tumba, Kaniki


    The phase diagrams of the ionic liquid (IL) N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ([BM(4)Py][NTf(2)]) with water, an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol), an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane), or cyclohexane have been measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. This work includes the characterization of the synthesized compound by water content and also by differential scanning calorimetry. Phase diagrams for the binary systems of [BM(4)Py][NTf(2)] with all solvents reveal eutectic systems with regards to (solid-liquid) phase equilibria and show immiscibility in the liquid phase region with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in most of the mixtures. The phase equilibria (solid, or liquid-liquid) for the binary systems containing aliphatic hydrocarbons reported here exhibit the lowest solubility and the highest immiscibility gap, a trend which has been observed for all ILs. The reduction of experimental data has been carried out using the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) correlation equation. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared with analogous phase diagrams reported previously for systems containing the IL N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tosylate and other pyridinium-based ILs. The influence of the anion of the IL on the phase behavior has been discussed.

  13. Efficient synthesis and evaluation of bis-pyridinium/bis-quinolinium metallosalophens as antibiotic and antitumor candidates (United States)

    Elshaarawy, Reda F. M.; Eldeen, Ibrahim M.; Hassan, Eman M.


    Inspired with the pharmacological diversity of salophens and in our endeavor to explore a new strategy which may conflict the invasion of drug resistance, we report herein efficient synthetic routes for the synthesis of new RO-salophen(Cl), pyridinium/quinolinium-based salophens (3a-e) and metallosalophens (4a-j). These new architectures have been structurally characterized by elemental and spectral analysis as well pharmacologically evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial, against a common panel of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains, and anticancer activities against human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cell lines. Antimicrobial assay results revealed that all tested compounds exhibited moderate to superb broad-spectrum efficacy in comparison to the standard antibiotic with a preferential ability to perform as a fungicides than to act as bactericides. Noteworthy, VO(II)-salophens are more effective in reduction HCT-116 cell viability than Cu(II)-salophens. For example, VO(II)-salophen3 (4f) (IC50 = 2.13 μg/mL) was ca. 10-fold more efficient than Cu(II)-salophen3 (4e) (IC50 = 20.30 μg/mL).

  14. Translation of in vitro to in vivo pyridinium oxime potential in tabun poisoning. (United States)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina; Žďárová Karasová, Jana; Misik, Jan; Kovarik, Zrinka


    Even if organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents were banned entirely, their presence would remain a problem as weapons of terror (like in Syria). Oxime antidotes currently used in medical practice still fall short of their therapeutic purpose, as they fail to fully restore the activity of cholinesterases, the main target for OPs. As orphan drugs, these antidotes are tested too seldom for anybody's benefit. Over the last few decades, search for improved reactivators has reached new levels, but the translation of data obtained in vitro to in vivo application is still a problem that hinders efficient therapy. In this study, we tested the strengths and weaknesses of extrapolating pyridinium oxime antidotes reactivation efficiency from in vitro to in vivo application. Our results show that this extrapolation is possible with well-determined kinetic constants, but that it also largely depends on oxime circulation time and its tissue-specific distribution. This suggests that pharmacokinetic studies should be planned at the early stages of antidote development. Special attention should also be given to improving oxime distribution throughout the organism to overcome this major constraint in improving overall OP therapy.

  15. Growth and characterization of dexterous nonlinear optical material: Dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol (DMAPNP) (United States)

    Saravanan, M.


    The crystals (dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol [DMAPNP] suitable for NLO applications were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of DMAPNP specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of P212121. The ocular precision in the intact visible region was found to be good for non-linear optical claim. Quality of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of DMAPNP sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The third order nonlinear optical properties of DMAPNP crystals were premeditated by Z-scan method. Birefringence and optical homogeneity of the crystal were evaluated using modified channel spectrum method. The half wave voltage of the grown crystal deliberate from the elector optic experimentation. Photoconductivity measurement specified consummate of inducing dipoles owing to brawny incident radiation and also disclose the nonlinear activities of the grown specimen.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Clavé, Pere; Corazziari, Enrico S; Tack, Jan


    Irritable bowel syndrome is a prevalent and chronic disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and altered bowel habits. This condition affects an estimated 10-15% of the population worldwide and impacts heavily on a patient's daily life and ability to work, as well as healthcare resource utilization. Drug therapy aimed at correcting the primary symptoms of diarrhea/constipation/bloating may have little effect on abdominal pain, which results from visceral hypersensitivity. Smooth muscle relaxants or antispasmodics decrease the tone and contractility of intestinal smooth muscle, effectively managing abdominal pain. Otilonium bromide has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be safe and well tolerated, and superior to placebo for the reduction of symptoms and the prevention of symptom relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  17. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani


    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  18. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... herb, processed and spice. (B) 325 parts per million in or on cheese, parmesan and cheese, roquefort... bromide may be present as a residue in certain processed food in accordance with the following conditions: (i) When inorganic bromide residues are present as a result of fumigation of the processed food...

  19. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  20. Formation of nitrogen-containing polycyclic cations by gas-phase and intracluster reactions of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions. (United States)

    Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; Hamid, Ahmed M; Attah, Isaac; Momoh, Paul; El-Shall, M Samy


    Here, we present evidence from laboratory experiments for the formation of nitrogen-containing complex organic ions by sequential reactions of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions in the gas phase and within ionized pyridine-acetylene binary clusters. Additions of five and two acetylene molecules onto the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions, respectively, at room temperature are observed. Second-order rate coefficients of the overall reaction of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions are measured as 9.0 × 10(-11) and 1.4 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1), respectively, indicating reaction efficiencies of about 6% and 100%, respectively, at room temperature. At high temperatures, only two acetylene molecules are added to the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions, suggesting covalent bond formation. A combination of ion dissociation and ion mobility experiments with DFT calculations reveals that the addition of acetylene into the pyridinium ion occurs through the N-atom of the pyridinium ion. The relatively high reaction efficiency is consistent with the absence of a barrier in the exothermic N-C bond forming reaction leading to the formation of the C(7)H(7)N(•+) covalent adduct. An exothermic addition/H-elimination reaction of acetylene with the C(7)H(7)N(•+) adduct is observed leading to the formation of a bicyclic quinolizinium cation (C(9)H(8)N(+)). Similar chemistry is observed in the sequential reactions of acetylene with the pyrimidinium ion. The second acetylene addition onto the pyrimidinium ion involves an exclusive addition/H-elimination reaction at room temperature leading to the formation of a bicyclic pyrimidinium cation (C(8)H(7)N(2)(+)). The high reactivity of the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions toward acetylene is in sharp contrast to the very low reactivity of the benzene cation, which has a reaction efficiency of 10(-4)-10(-5). This indicates that the presence of a nitrogen atom within the aromatic ring enhances the ring growth

  1. In search of the thermo/halochromism of the ET(30) pyridinium-N-phenolate betaine dye (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aracena, Andrés


    The thermohalochromic behavior of Reichardt's ET(30) betaine - the temperature-dependent variation of its halochromic band in the presence of a cation - was investigated for the first time in NaI solutions of HBD- (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol) and non-HBD-solvents (acetonitrile, dimethylformamide) at 15 and 55 °C. The solvent-dependent thermohalochromism of the pyridinium-N-phenolate betaine dye was interpreted in terms of the effect of the temperature on the dye-cation association in solution.

  2. Rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography using a monolithic column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huang; Hong Yu; Ying Jie Dong


    A method for rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed.Chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed-phase silica-based monolithic column using 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium-acetonitrile as mobile phase.The effects of ion-pair reagent and acetonitrile concentration on retention of the cations were investigated.The retention times of the cations accord with carbon number rule.The method has been successfully applied to the determination of four ionic liquids synthesized by organic chemistry laboratory.

  3. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  4. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei


    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  5. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang


    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  6. Highly stable pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked anion exchange membranes for all vanadium redox flow batteries (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. H.


    It has recently been demonstrated that the use of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) can reduce the migration of vanadium ions through the membrane due to the Donnan exclusion effect among the positively charged functional groups and vanadium ions. However, AEMs are plagued by low chemical stability in harsh chemical environments. Here we propose and fabricate a pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked AEM for VRFBs. The pyridinium-functionalized bromomethylated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) exhibits a superior chemical stability as a result of the strengthened internal cross-linking networks and the chemical inertness of the polymer backbone. Therefore, the membrane exhibits littler decay in a harsh environment for 20 days during the course of an ex situ immersion test. A cycling test also demonstrates that the VRFB assembled with the membrane enable to retain 80% of the initial discharge capacity over 537 cycles with a capacity decay rate of 0.037% cycle-1. Meanwhile, the membrane also shows a low vanadium permeability and a reasonably high conductivity in supporting electrolytes. Hence, all the measurements and performance tests reported in this work suggest that the membrane is a promising AEM for redox flow batteries to achieve excellent cycling stability and superior cell performance.

  7. Disiloxanes and Functionalized Silica Gels: One Route, Two Complementary Outcomes-Guanidinium and Pyridinium Ion-Exchangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tabisz

    Full Text Available Five novel disiloxane compounds comprising guanidinium and pyridinium moieties were obtained with high yields and purity. The verified synthetic pathways were then applied for modification of pre-functionalized silica gel, producing materials with the analogous organic side-chains. These halide-containing compounds and materials were then compared as to their ion-exchange properties: two disiloxanes proved to be effective in leaching different anions (nitrate, benzoate and ascorbate from solid to organic phase, and pyridinium-functionalized silica gels showed selectivity towards perchlorate ion, removing it from methanolic solutions with preference to other singly charged anions. The results presented demonstrate that both compounds and materials containing silicon-carbon bonds can be produced using the same methodology, but offer strikingly different application opportunities. Comparison of their properties provides additional insight into the binding mode of different anions and hints at how the transition from a flexible siloxane bridge to immobilization on solid surface influences anion-binding selectivity. Additionally, one of the siloxane dipodands was found to form a crystalline and poorly soluble nitrate salt (1.316 g/L, water, although it was miscible with a wide range of solvents as a hydrochloride. A possible explanation is given with the help of semi-empirical calculations. A simple, time- and cost-efficient automated potentiometric titration methodology was used as a viable analytical tool for studying ion-exchange processes for both compounds and materials, in addition to standard NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS methods.

  8. Pharmacology of the anticholinergic bronchospasmolytic agent flutropium bromide. (United States)

    Bauer, R; Fügner, A


    The anticholinergic agent (8r)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)-3 alpha-hydroxy-1 alpha H,tropanium bromide benzilic acid ester (flutropium bromide, Ba 598 BR) is a classic competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In in vitro experiments it is more effective than atropine. In addition there are indications, that flutropium bromide may interfere with the anaphylactic reaction in a certain dose range in vitro. In in vivo experiments for the characterization of the anticholinergic properties flutropium bromide is also somewhat more effective than atropine after parenteral administration. Because of its quaternary structure no central anticholinergic effect is detectable. Furthermore, a poor enteral absorption is to be expected; this can be concluded from the low relative effectiveness after oral administration. After systemic administration, flutropium bromide is only slightly more effective than atropine. The duration of action is longer. After local administration as an aerosol it is superior to atropine with regard to both effectiveness and duration of action. Since in aerosol administration the ratio of the main effect to the most sensitive side effects, inhibition of salivary secretion, is 1:100, no side effects are to be expected even after high inhalational overdoses. Flutropium bromide can therefore be described as a preparation which is free of side effects. When used prophylactically it represents a therapeutic alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives for most cases of obstructive airway diseases.

  9. Acute Intramuscular Toxicity (LD50) of 1,1’-Methylenebis (4- (Hydroxyimino) Methyl) Pyridinium Dibromide, (MMB-4) in Male Mice (United States)


    METHODS Test Substance Chemical name: 1,1 ’-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium] dibromide, (01MB-4) (TAO03) Chemical Abstract 1,1 ’-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridiniumldibromide, (CMIB-1 𔃾 Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: None Molecular formula

  10. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali


    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

  11. Evaluation of monoquaternary pyridinium oximes potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase. (United States)

    Odzak, Renata; Calić, Maja; Hrenar, Tomica; Primozic, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka


    Monoquaternary N-benzyl-4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium bromide (Py-4-H) and its analogous with diverse substituents introduced into the phenyl ring (Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br, Py-4-Cl and Py-4-NO(2)) were synthesized in order to examine their potency as reactivators of tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC Within 24h, the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE reached 80% with Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br and Py-4-Cl, 40% with Py-4-NO(2), and 30% with Py-4-H. The overall reactivation rate constants were up to 5.0min(-1)M(-1). All oximes inhibited human AChE reversibly, and the inhibition potency increased in the following order Py-4-Brtabun-phosphorylated human AChE.

  12. C6-pyridinium ceramide sensitizes SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to photodynamic therapy. (United States)

    Boppana, Nithin B; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska


    Combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with another anticancer treatment modality is an important strategy for improved efficacy. PDT with Pc4, a silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer, was combined with C6-pyridinium ceramide (LCL29) to determine their potential to promote death of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. PDT+LCL29-induced enhanced cell death was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and fumonisin B1 (FB), a ceramide synthase inhibitor. Quantitative confocal microscopy showed that combining PDT with LCL29 enhanced FB-sensitive ceramide accumulation in the mitochondria. Furthermore, PDT+LCL29 induced enhanced FB-sensitive redistribution of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Overall, the data indicate that PDT+LCL29 enhanced cell death via FB-sensitive, mitochondrial ceramide accumulation and apoptosis.

  13. Molecular recognition of amino acids with some fluorescent ditopic pyrylium- and pyridinium-based crown ether receptors (United States)

    Moghimi, A.; Maddah, B.; Yari, A.; Shamsipur, M.; Boostani, M.; Fall Rastegar, M.; Ghaderi, A. R.


    The molecular recognition of L-amino acids such as asparagine, glutamine, lysine and arginine with some crownpyryliums, CP's, and a crownpyridinium compound, as receptors, were examined in methanol. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to examine the structural stability of the receptors in the presence of the amino acids. The fluorimetric titration of the receptors by specified amino acids, other than arginine, was followed within a few minutes and the stoichiometry and stability of the resulting amino acid complexes were evaluated. The data analysis clearly demonstrated the critical role of the terminal amino group to carboxylic acid distance of amino acids for their proper fixation on the receptor molecules. Ion pairing for the two oppositely charged carboxylate anion and pyrylium (or pyridinium) cation, as well as the hydrogen bonding between crown ethers' oxygens and ammonium hydrogens are expected as the main interaction sources in the host-guest complexations.

  14. Water- Lithium Bromide-γ- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-γ-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole γ-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  15. 5,6-Dimethoxybenzofuran-3-one Derivatives: a Novel Series of Dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Bearing Benzyl Pyridinium Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi


    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on design and synthesis of multi-target anti Alzheimer compounds. Utilizing of the dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors has gained more interest to treat the Alzheimer’s disease. As a part of a research program to find a novel drug for treating Alzheimer disease, we have previously reported 6-alkoxybenzofuranone derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. In continuation of our work, we would like to report the synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone derivatives bearing a benzyl pyridinium moiety as dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.MethodsThe synthesis of target compounds was carried out using a conventional method. Bayer-Villiger oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde furnished 3,4-dimethoxyphenol. The reaction of 3,4-dimethoxyphenol with chloroacetonitrile followed by treatment with HCl solution and then ring closure yielded the 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone. Condensation of the later compound with pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and subsequent reaction with different benzyl halides afforded target compounds. The biological activity was measured using standard Ellman’s method. Docking studies were performed to get better insight into interaction of compounds with receptor.ResultsThe in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase activity of compounds revealed that, all of the target compounds have good inhibitory activity against both Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase enzymes in which compound 5b (IC50 = 52 ± 6.38nM was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase. The same binding mode and interactions were observed for the reference drug donepezil and compound 5b in docking study.ConclusionsIn this study, we presented a new series of benzofuranone-based derivatives having pyridinium moiety as potent dual acting Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  16. Efficacy of novel phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes as brain-penetrating reactivators of cholinesterase inhibited by surrogates of sarin and VX. (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Funck, Kristen E; Meek, Edward C; Pringle, Ronald B; Ross, Matthew K


    Pyridinium oximes are strong nucleophiles and many are effective reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterase (ChE). However, the current oxime reactivators are ineffective at crossing the blood-brain barrier and reactivating brain ChE in the intact organism. Our laboratories have developed a series of substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes (US patent 9,227,937 B2) with the goal of identifying reactivators effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier. The first 35 of the series were found to have similar in vitro efficacy as reactivators of ChE inhibited by a sarin surrogate (phthalimidyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, PIMP) or a VX surrogate (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate, NEMP) in bovine brain preparations as previously observed in rat brain preparations. A number of these novel oximes have shown the ability to decrease the level of ChE inhibition in the brains of rats treated with a high sublethal dosage of either a sarin surrogate (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, NIMP) or the VX surrogate NEMP. Levels of reactivation at 2 h after oxime administration were up to 35% while the currently approved therapeutic, 2-PAM, yielded no reduction in brain ChE inhibition. In addition, there was evidence of attenuation of seizure-like behavior with several of the more effective novel oximes, but not 2-PAM. Therefore these novel oximes have demonstrated an ability to reactivate inhibited ChE in brain preparations from two species and in vivo data support their ability to enter the brain and provide a therapeutic action. These novel oximes have the potential to be developed into improved antidotes for nerve agent therapy.

  17. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert


    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  18. Preparation and characterization of rosin glycerin ester and its bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Caili; Zhang Faai


    Rosin glycerin ester and its bromide were prepared from natural renewable rosin,glycerin and liquid bromine which were first subjected to an esterification reaction,followed by an addition reaction.Their structures were characterized by an infrared(IR)spectrum and their thermal resistance was conducted with thermal gravity(TG)and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC).It showed that the bromide in the rosin glycerin ester decomposed faster than the ester;hence it may be used as fire-resistant material.

  19. Removal of pathogenic human viruses by insoluble pyridinium-type resin. (United States)

    Kawabata, N; Yamazaki, K; Otake, T; Oishi, I; Minekawa, Y


    Cross-linked poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) (BVP resin) was found to be very efficient in removing pathogenic human viruses from aqueous solution. In batch removal experiments using 50 g/l of BVP resin at 35 degrees C, the level of infectivity in suspensions of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus was reduced 1000-100,000 fold during a 2 h period. Those of coxsackievirus and echovirus were reduced 60-600 fold during 1 h contact. The haemagglutination titres of solutions of human rotavirus, influenza virus, human adenovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were reduced 16-256 fold during 30 min of contact. In removal experiments by a continuous flow column method for poliovirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus with initial infectivities of less than 10(5)/ml, the infectivity of these viruses was no longer detectable in the effluent solution. For poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus with initial infectivities higher than 10(6), 99.8-99.9998% of the input viruses was removed as indicated by the reduction of infectivity.

  20. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  1. On the existence of ‘L-alanine cadmium bromide' (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  2. On the existence of 'L-alanine cadmium bromide'. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  3. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ... necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest into the United States or the dissemination of a plant... partition into organic vs. aqueous environments, and is therefore commonly used to predict the likelihood...). See the February 22, 2002, Residue Chemistry Chapter for the methyl bromide RED available in...

  4. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; LAC


    Betreft resultaten van een onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide e

  5. The study of The study of the influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers The study of the influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers on liquid-gas interface liquid-gas interfacethe influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers on liquid-gas interfaceThe study of the influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers on liquid-gas interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryk Boloshaan


    Full Text Available The surface tension of compositions consisting of nonionic polyethylene glycol and surface active substances of different nature and influence of temperatures on properties of their adsorption layers were studied. To be taken into account the basics of classical chemical thermodynamics and colloidal chemistry, the thermodynamic parameters were determined for the adsorption of glycol, cetyl pyridinium bromide, Tween- 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Adsorption speed was valuated By Kinetic curves of a liquid /gas interfaces. As a surfactants were taken the anionic surfactant – sodium dodecylsulphate, cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium bromide and nonionic Tween-80. The reason of using nonionic polyethyleneglycol as polymer is that the polymer is not toxic, biodegradable and it has no harm to the human body. That is why they are largely used in food industry, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and household chemical products.

  6. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  7. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de


    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  8. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus


    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  9. A two-step ICT process for solvatochromic betaine pyridinium revealed by ultrafast spectroscopy, multivariate curve resolution, and TDDFT calculations. (United States)

    Aloïse, Stéphane; Pawlowska, Zuzanna; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Sliwa, Michel; Dubois, Julien; Poizat, Olivier; Buntinx, Guy; Perrier, Aurélie; Maurel, François; Jacques, Patrice; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Poisson, Lionel; Piani, Giovanni; Abe, Jiro


    This work deals with the photophysics of a pyridinium betaine, 2-pyridin-1-yl-1H-benzimidazole (SBPa), based on a combination of steady-state, femtosecond photoionization (gas phase) and femtosecond transient absorption (solution) spectroscopic measurements, supported by (LR)-PCM-(TD)DFT calculations. Preliminary and new electrochemical results have revealed a strongly negative solvatochromic charge transfer (CT) absorption due to a S(0) → S(2) vertical transition and a weakly-solvatochromic emission due to S(1) → S(0) transition. Advanced TDDFT optimizations of the Franck-Condon states S(2)(FC) and S(1)(FC) led to two additional CT levels with planar geometry, S(2)(CT) and S(1)(CT), respectively, allowing prediction of a two-step photoinduced ICT process, i.e., S(0) → S(2)(FC) and S(2)(CT) → S(1)(CT), separated by a S(2)(FC) → S(2)(CT) back charge transfer relaxation. While the pyridinium ring is the acceptor group in both steps, two different donor groups, the benzene ring and the imidazole bridge, are involved in the excitation and internal conversion processes, respectively. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments supported by MCR-ALS decomposition confirmed indeed the contribution of two distinct CT states in the photophysics of SBPa: following excitation to the S(2)(CT) state, ultrafast production of the emissive S(1) state (the only channel observable in the gas phase) was observed to occur in competition with a further ICT process toward the S(1)(CT) state, with a time constant ranging from 300 fs to 20 ps depending on the solvent. While in aprotic media this ICT process was found to be purely solvent controlled (double polarity and viscosity dependency), in protic solvents, the influence of the hydrogen bond network has to be taken into account. Comparison with data obtained for a pre-twisted SBPa analogue led us to exclude the presence of any large-amplitude geometrical change during ICT. Analyzing the solvent dependency using the power law

  10. A novel and robust conditioning lesion induced by ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Tolentino, Kristine; Doherty, Ernest; Rodriguez, Maria J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Zou, Yimin


    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration.

  11. Study of ferroelectric characteristics of diisopropylammonium bromide films (United States)

    Thirmal, C.; Biswas, P. P.; Shin, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Giridharan, N. V.; Venimadhav, A.; Murugavel, P.


    Organic molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable due to their numerous advantages. In the present work, a thick film of diisopropylammonium bromide organic molecular ferroelectric is fabricated on the ITO/glass substrate. The grown film shows preferential orientation along the c-axis with a ferroelectric transition at 419 K. The piezoresponse force microscopic measurements are done in a dual ac resonance tracking mode for its switching characteristics. The amplitude and phase images of the oppositely written domain patterns exhibit a clear contrast with 180° phase difference. The dynamical spectroscopic studies reveal a butterfly loop in amplitude and hysteretic character of the phase which are the expected characteristics features of ferroelectrics. In addition, the macroscopic polarization versus electric field hysteresis gives an additional proof for ferroelectric character of the film with the maximum polarization of 3.5 μC/cm2. Overall, we have successfully fabricated diisopropylammonium bromide organic films and demonstrated its room temperature ferroelectric characteristics.

  12. Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, W.M.


    A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.

  13. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols. (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke


    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.



    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi


    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  15. Transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation processes. (United States)

    Lu, Junhe; Wu, Jinwei; Ji, Yuefei; Kong, Deyang


    Sulfate radicals ( [Formula: see text] ) are applied to degrade various organic pollutants. Due to its high oxidative potential, [Formula: see text] is presumed to be able to transform bromide to reactive bromine species that can react with natural organic matter subsequently to form brominated products including brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs). This research was designed to investigate the transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation process in the presence of humic acid (HA). Significant formation of bromoform and bromoacetic acids was verified. Their formation was attributed to the reactions of HA and reactive bromine species including Br·, [Formula: see text] HOBr(-), and free bromine resulted from the oxidation of bromide by [Formula: see text] . Yields of Br-DBPs increased monotonically at persulfate concentration of 1.0 mM and working temperature of 70 °C. However, the time-depended formation exhibited an increasing and the decreasing profile when persulfate was 5.0 mM, suggesting further degradation of organic bromine. HPLC/ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that the organic bromine was eventually transformed to bromate at this condition. Thus, a transformation scheme was proposed in which the bromine could be recycled multiple times between inorganic bromide and organic bromine before being finally transformed to bromate. This is the first study that reveals the comprehensive transformation map of bromine in [Formula: see text] based reaction systems, which should be taken into consideration when such technologies are used to eliminate contamination in real practice.

  16. A Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller with Cold Storage (United States)


    TO R A G E A LITHIUM BROMIDE ABSORPTION CHILLER WITH COLD STORAGE William Gerstler, et al, General Electric Global Research UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED...Research ABSTRACT A LiBr-based absorption chiller can use waste heat or solar energy to produce useful space cooling for small buildings...However, operating this absorption chiller at high ambient tem- peratures may result in performance degradation, crystallization in the absorber, and

  17. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.


    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  18. Conservative tracer bromide inhibits pesticide mineralisation in soil. (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Rosenbom, Annette E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L(-1), levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils. KBr was added to soil microcosms at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil solution. The study concluded that KBr had a negative effect on pesticide mineralisation. The inhibitory effect varied depending on the KBr concentration, the type of pesticide and the type of soil. Furthermore, 16 S amplicon sequencing revealed that the KBr treatment generally reduced the abundance of bacteroidetes and proteobacteria on both an RNA and DNA level. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of KBr on the soil bacterial community and consequently also on xenobiotic degradation, it is recommended that KBr be applied in a concentration that does not exceed 0.5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil water.

  19. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits. (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K


    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  20. Mesomeric betaine chemistry in solution: Solvent effect on the structure and spectra of uracilyl-pyridinium betaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A., E-mail: [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lindner, A.S. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Casado, J.; Lopez Navarrete, J.T. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Ramirez, F.J., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain)


    Graphical abstract: Vibrational Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies, supported by DFT calculations, demonstrate that a polar environment quinoidizes the cationic part and aromatizes the anionic moiety of cross-conjugated mesomeric betaines. - Abstract: The presence of positive and negative delocalized charges in a heterocyclic conjugated system gives rise to an interesting class of molecules known as mesomeric betaines. These can be conveniently represented by dipolar canonical formulae. Among them, cross-conjugation appears when the charges are placed in separated parts of the common {pi}-electron system. This fact makes cross-conjugated mesomeric betaines (CCMB) suitable systems to study intramolecular electron transfer processes. In this paper, we studied Raman and electronic spectra of an uracilyl-pyridinium CCMB in solution. Vibrational results demonstrated that the presence of a polar environment quinoidizes the cationic part and aromatizes the anionic moiety of this molecule, which gave us useful information to propose the more relevant mesomeric structures of this molecule in solution. Raman spectroscopy was able to account for cross-conjugation by characterizing conjugational-sensitive bands. The effect of the solvent polarity was studied by electronic spectroscopy, allowing us to establish spectroscopy-structure relationships.

  1. Crystal structure of bis­(1-ethyl­pyridinium) dioxonium hexa­cyanidoferrate(II) (United States)

    Tanaka, Rikako


    The title compound, (C7H10N)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] or (Etpy)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] (Etpy+ is 1-ethyl­pyridinium), crystallizes in the space group Pnnm. The FeII atom of the [Fe(CN)6]4− anion lies on a site with site symmetry ..2/m, and has an octa­hedral coordination sphere defined by six cyanido ligands. Both the Etpy+ and the oxonium cations are located on a mirror plane. In the crystal, electron-donor anions of [Fe(CN)6]4− and electron-acceptor cations of Etpy+ are each stacked parallel to the b axis, resulting in a columnar structure with segregated moieties. The crystal packing is stabilized by a three-dimensional O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding network between the oxonium ions and the cyanide ligands of [Fe(CN)6]4−. PMID:28217346

  2. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.


    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  3. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [ 1- (4' -fluorobenzyl )pyridinium ]2 [ Ni (dto)2 ] Complex(dto2- = dithiooxalate dianion)%配合物[1-(4'-fluorobenzyl)pyridinium]2[Ni(dto)2](dto2-=dithiooxalate dianion)的合成及晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 谢景力; 任小明; 孟庆金


    The complex [ 1- (4'-fluorobenzyl) pyridinium ] 2 [ Ni (dto) 2 ] (dto2 - means dithiooxalate dianion) has been pre-pared by reaction of Na2[Ni(S2C2O2)2] and the 1-(4'-fluorobenzyl) pyridinium chloride salt. The crystallographicdata for the title complex: triclinic P1, a =8. 5698(8) A, b =9. 3461(9) A, c = 10. 5361(10) A, α =67. 177(2)°, β =67.398(2)°, γ =79. 611(2)°, V=717.59(12) A3, Z= 1. The [Ni(dto) 2] 2- anion with the Ni atomO is clearly observed. The nature and size of cation seems to play an important factor in the type of intermolecularinteractions as well as the crystal packing in this kind of complexes.

  4. 表面活性剂对十六烷基羟乙基纤维素溶液黏度的影响%Effects of surfactant on viscosity of cetyl hydroxyethylcellulose solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 杨成


    Effects of surfactant on viscosity of cetyl hydroxyethylcellulose (CHEC) solution were investigated by rheometer. Experimental results indicated that the viscosity of CHEC solution increases with increasing of the surfactant concentration, and after a maximum value, then decreases with further addition of the surfactant. The effect of temperature on the viscosity of surfactant and CHEC solution depends upon the formation of surfactant/CHEC complex. The effect of variety of surfactant on the hydrophobic associate interaction of surfactant and CHEC is in the order of AES >6501 > CAB.%通过流变仪研究了几种表面活性剂对十六烷基羟乙基纤维素(CHEC)溶液黏度的影响.结果表明,CHEC溶液的黏度随表面活性剂质量分数的增加先升高,达到最大值后逐渐下降;温度对表面活性剂和CHEC混合溶液黏度的影响与表面活性剂和CHEC形成的复合物有关;表面活性剂与CHEC的疏水缔合作用强弱顺序是AES>6501>CAB.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj


    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  6. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  7. DBU-Promoted Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with Difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei; Liuying Yu; Jinhong Lin; Xing Zheng; Jichang Xiao


    DBU-promoted trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DFPB) in the presence of copper source is described.In this transformation,DBU not only acts as base to deprotonate the difluoromethyl group in DFPB to generate difluoromethylene phosphonium ylide Ph3P+CF2,but also converts the difluorocarbene generated from ylide Ph3P+CF2 into trifluoromethyl anion,finally resulting in the trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides.The reactions proceeded smoothly to afford expected products in moderate to good yields.

  8. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.


    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  9. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Perovano Pardini


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. DESIGN: Cohort correlational study. SETTING: Academic referral center. SAMPLE: 53 post-menopausal women, aged 48-58 years. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Urinary pyr and d-pyr were measured in fasting urine samples by spectrofluorometry after high performance liquid chromatography and corrected for creatinine excretion measured before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA before treatment and after 12 months of HRT. RESULTS: The BMD after HRT was about 4.7% (P < 0.0004; 2% (P < 0.002; and 3% (P < 0.01 higher than the basal values in lumbar spine, neck and trochanter respectively. There were no significant correlations between pyridinium cross-links and age, weight, menopause duration and BMD. The decrease in pyr and d-pyr was progressive after HRT, reaching 28.9% (P < 0.0002, and 42% (P < 0.0002 respectively after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion decreases early in hormone replacement therapy, reflecting a decrease in the bone resorption rate, and no correlation was observed with the bone mass evaluated by densitometry.

  10. Gas-phase protonation of pyridine. A variable-time neutralization-reionization and Ab initio study of pyridinium radicals. (United States)

    Nguyen, V Q; Turecek, F


    Gas-phase protonation of pyridine with CH3NH3+, NH4+, t-C4H9+, H3O+ and CH5+ under thermal conditions was studied by variable-time neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations. N-Protonation was found to occur exclusively for CH3NH3+ through H3O+ and predominantly for CH5+. The calculated MP2/6-311G(2d,p) energies gave the proton affinities of N, C-2, C-3 and C-4 in pyridine as 924, 658, 686 and 637 kJ mol-1, respectively, which were in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. Vertical neutralization of the N-protonated isomer (1H+) was accompanied by moderate Franck-Condon effects that deposited 20-21 kJ mol-1 in the 1H-pyridinium radicals (1H) formed. 1H was calculated by UMP2/6-311G(2d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p) to be a bound species in its ground electronic state. A substantial fraction of stable 1H was detected in the spectra, which depended on the precursor ion internal energy. Deuterium labeling showed a specific loss of the N-bound hydrogen or deuterium in the radicals. The specificity increased with increasing internal energy in the radicals and decreasing contribution of ion dissociations following reionization. Variable-time measurements established specific loss of the N-bound deuterium also in dissociating low-energy 1D. Loss of hydrogen from 1H+ cations following reionization was highly endothermic and was accompanied by rearrangements that partially scrambled the ring hydrogens.

  11. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.


    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  12. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja


    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  13. A practical comparison of Copper Bromide Laser for the treatment of vascular lesions. (United States)

    Lee, SunWoo; Lee, TaeBum; Kim, HoYoun; Kim, JungSoo; Eun, HyeJun; Kim, RyunKyung


    The recent rapid growth in demand for aesthetic non-invasive laser treatments such as unwanted skin rejuvenation, removal of age-related vascular blemishes has led to a boom in the medical devices to treat these conditions. Among diverse laser for skin treatment, copper bromide laser is a very effective, safe, and well tolerated treatment for facial telangiectasia at various energy levels and the most important thing of the copper bromide laser device is that the stability of the energy. However there is no evidence about effective copper bromide laser's energy level for the treatment of vascular lesions. We compared energy stability and treatment performance between two energy levels in 2 W and 8 W which commonly use in laser treatment for the vascular lesions. 8 W copper bromide laser was more stable compared than 2 W copper bromide laser. Also, 8 W copper bromide laser was effectively superior to 2 W copper bromide laser in treatment of vascular legion. Consequently, 8 W copper bromide laser treatment for vascular lesion might be more suitable than 2 W copper bromide laser.

  14. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide. (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat


    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  15. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe


    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  16. Aspects of nonviral gene therapy: correlation of molecular parameters with lipoplex structure and transfection efficacy in pyridinium-based cationic lipids. (United States)

    Parvizi, Paria; Jubeli, Emile; Raju, Liji; Khalique, Nada Abdul; Almeer, Ahmed; Allam, Hebatalla; Manaa, Maryem Al; Larsen, Helge; Nicholson, David; Pungente, Michael D; Fyles, Thomas M


    This study seeks correlations between the molecular structures of cationic and neutral lipids, the lipid phase behavior of the mixed-lipid lipoplexes they form with plasmid DNA, and the transfection efficacy of the lipoplexes. Synthetic cationic pyridinium lipids were co-formulated (1:1) with the cationic lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC), and these lipids were co-formulated (3:2) with the neutral lipids 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol. All lipoplex formulations exhibited plasmid DNA binding and a level of protection from DNase I degradation. Composition-dependent transfection (beta-galactosidase and GFP) and cytotoxicity was observed in Chinese hamster ovarian-K1 cells. The most active formulations containing the pyridinium lipids were less cytotoxic but of comparable activity to a Lipofectamine 2000™ control. Molecular structure parameters and partition coefficients were calculated for all lipids using fragment additive methods. The derived shape parameter values correctly correlated with observed hexagonal lipid phase behavior of lipoplexes as derived from small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. A transfection index applicable to hexagonal phase lipoplexes derived from calculated parameters of the lipid mixture (partition coefficient, shape parameter, lipoplex packing) produced a direct correlation with transfection efficiency.

  17. On the direct current electric conductivity and conduction mechanism of some stable disubstituted 4-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium ylides in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danac, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Leontie, L., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire LPhiA, Angers University, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Prelipceanu, M.; Graur, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Str.Universitatii, Nr.13, RO-720229 Suceava (Romania); Carlescu, A.; Rusu, G.I. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)


    Temperature-dependent d.c. electric conductivity of some recently synthesized organic compounds, stable disubstituted 4-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium ylides, is studied. Thin-film samples (d = 0.100.80 μm) spin-coated from dimethylformamide solutions onto glass substrates have been used. Organic films with reproducible electron transport properties can be obtained if, after deposition, they are submitted to a heat treatment within temperature range of 297 − 527 K. The studied polycrystalline compounds exhibit typical n-type semiconductor behavior. The activation energy of the electric conduction ranges between 0.59 and 0.94 eV. Some correlations between semiconducting parameters and molecular structure of the organic compounds have been discussed. In the higher temperature range (T > 400 K), the electron transport in examined compounds can be interpreted in terms of the band gap representation model, while in the lower temperature range, the Mott's variable-range hopping conduction model was found to be appropriate. Some of the investigated compounds hold promise for thermistor applications. - Highlights: • 4-(4-Pyridyl)pyridinium ylides in thin films behave as n-type semiconductors. • The electron transfer is favored by extended conjugation and packing capacity. • The band gap representation is suitable in the higher temperature range. • The Mott's variable-range hopping model may be used in the lower temperature range.

  18. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  19. The first barium tin(II) bromide fluoride (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Porterfield, Robyn


    In an effort to prepare barium tin(II) bromide fluorides for the first time, possibly similar to the chloride fluorides obtained earlier in our laboratory, precipitation reactions were carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of SnF2 and of BaBr2.2H2O. In contrast with the chloride fluoride system, a single powdered phase was obtained throughout the SnF2 - BaBr2 system, with the yield being maximum at X ≈ 0.25, where X is the molar fraction of barium bromide in the reaction mixture. Phase identification with the JCPDS database failed to produce a match, confirming that a new phase had been produced. The exact chemical composition of the new compound has not been obtained yet. Based on the X value for the maximum yield, the Sn/Ba ratio is likely to be 3/1 or 2/1. The Mössbauer spectrum at ambient conditions shows that bonding to tin(II) is covalent, therefore with the tin lone pair being stereoactive. The Mössbauer parameters ( δ = 3.68 mm/s, Δ = 0.99 mm/s) are similar to those of SnBrF and of Sn2BrF5, thereby showing that tin is bonded to both fluorine and bromine. The larger isomer shift and lower quadrupole splitting than in tin(II) fluorides show that the stereoactivity of the tin lone pair is lower than in the fluorides. The Mössbauer parameters fit well the linear correlation of the quadrupole splitting versus the isomer shift" that has been shown to be present in other series of tin(II) compounds. The linear decrease on this correlation shows that the contribution of non-spherical orbitals ( p and d) to the lone pair is a much larger contributor to the quadrupole splitting than lattice distortions. The structure is likely made of Ba2+ cations and tin(II) fluoride bromide polyatomic anions, with covalent bonding withinthe anions.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  1. Ammonium Chloride Promoted Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Coupling of Aryl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 梁云; 刘文杰; 唐石; 谢叶香


    In water, ammonium chloride was found to promote palladium-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions of aryl bromides. In the presence of Pd/C, zinc, NH4Cl, and water, coupling of various aryl bromides was carried out smoothly to afford the corresponding homocoupling products in moderate yields.

  2. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  3. Effects of Inhalation or Incubation of Oxitropium Bromide on Diaphragm Muscle Contractility in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh


    Conclusions: We speculate that the increment of muscle contractility with the inhalation of oxitropium bromide was induced by the antagonization of musucarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR. In addition, the changes of fatigue resistance provoked by oxitropium bromide, which also is speculated to antagonize mAChR, may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with COPD.

  4. Acrolein as Potential Alternative to Methyl Bromide in California-Grown Calla Lilies (United States)

    Cut flower and ornamental bulb industries rely heavily on a methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/Pic) mixture as a key pest management tool. The loss of methyl bromide (MB) will seriously affect the cut flower and bulb industry, and in the future, will require growers to use alternative fumigants. Theref...

  5. Characterization studies of 1-(4-cyano-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl)-3-(4-cyano-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl) propane formed from the reaction of hydroxide Ion with 1,3-Bis-(4-cyano pyridinium)propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiori, Simone; Schuquel, Ivania T.A.; Meyer, Emerson; Hioka, Noboru, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Idelcio N. da [Fundacao Educacional do Municipio de Assis, Assis, SP (Brazil); Politi, Mario J.; Catalani, Luiz H.; Chaimovich, Hernan [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The aqueous alkaline reaction of 1,3.bis(4.cyanopyridinium)propane dibromide, a reactant constituted of two pyridinium rings linked by a three.methylene bridge, generates a novel compound, 1-(4-cyano-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl)-3-(4-cyano-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl) propane. The reaction pathway is attributed to the proximity of the OH. ion inserted between two pyridinium moieties, which occurs only in bis(pyridinium) derivatives connected by short methylene spacers, where charge-conformational effects are important. (author)

  6. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)


    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  7. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ)Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun; CHENG,Guang-Hui; 等


    There are two theories,SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide(AAC-B). Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at dififferent reaction time.In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the reaction process was studied by the combination of X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS.It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  8. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  9. Design and Fabrication of Externally heated Copper Bromide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja


    Full Text Available An externally-heated, longitudinally-discharged, low-repetition-rate copper bromide laser, was designed and fabricated. The green-coloured wavelength at 5106 A from this laser can be used for underwater ranging and detection of submerged objects. Several new changes in the design of discharge tube, heating technique, buffer-gas-flow sub-system and electrical circuit have been conceived and incorporated advantageously in our system. Various parameters, for example, the type of buffer gas and its flow rate, mixture of gases, temperature of the discharge tube, delay between dissociation and excitation pulses, dissociation and excitation energies, and various resonator configurations are being optimised to get the maximum output power/energy from the laser system.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Silver-Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Malek Nik Ahmad Nizam


    Full Text Available Organo-Ag-bentonite was prepared by the attachment of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on silver(Ag-exchanged bentonite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis and antibacterial assay was performed against Escherichia coli in different percentage of saline solutions through minimum inhibition concentration (MIC method. Organo-Ag-bentonite showed higher antibacterial activity than organo-bentonite and Ag-bentonite especially in saline solution suggesting that the precipitation of AgCl in the presence of Ag-bentonite in saline solution could be avoided by the attachment of cationic surfactant on Ag-bentonite surfaces, hence increased their antibacterial activity.

  11. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)


    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  12. Classifying the Basic Parameters of Ultraviolet Copper Bromide Laser (United States)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Iliev, I. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Sabotinov, N. V.


    The performance of deep ultraviolet copper bromide lasers is of great importance because of their applications in medicine, microbiology, high-precision processing of new materials, high-resolution laser lithography in microelectronics, high-density optical recording of information, laser-induced fluorescence in plasma and wide-gap semiconductors and more. In this paper we present a statistical study on the classification of 12 basic lasing parameters, by using different agglomerative methods of cluster analysis. The results are based on a big amount of experimental data for UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr laser with wavelengths 248.6 nm, 252.9 nm, 260.0 nm and 270.3 nm, obtained in Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The relevant influence of parameters on laser generation is also evaluated. The results are applicable in computer modeling and planning the experiments and further laser development with improved output characteristics.

  13. 以溴代十六烷基吡啶为增敏剂催化动力学光度法测定痕量钴(Ⅱ)%Catalytic Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Trace Cobalt(Ⅱ) with Cetyl Pyridine Bromide as Sensitizet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓菊; 郭飞君; 盖永胜


    在增敏剂溴代十六烷基吡啶和活化剂氨基乙酸存在下,钴对高碘酸钾氧化酸性铬兰K的反应具有催化作用,据此建立了一种测定痕量钴(Ⅱ)的新方法.考察该反应的最佳条件,测定反应动力学参数.在表面活性剂和活化剂存在下,本法灵敏度提高12倍.线性范围为0~100 μg/L,检出限为9.06×10-7g/L.此法用于茶叶、VB12等样品中钴的测定,结果令人满意.

  14. Comparative mobility of sulfonamides and bromide tracer in three soils (United States)

    Kurwadkar, S.T.; Adams, C.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.


    In animal agriculture, sulfonamides are one of the routinely used groups of antimicrobials for therapeutic and sub-therapeutic purposes. It is observed that, the animals when administered the antimicrobials, often do not completely metabolize them; and excrete the partially metabolized forms into the environment. Due to the continued use of antimicrobials and disposal of untreated waste, widespread occurrence of partially metabolized antimicrobials in aquatic and terrestrial environments has been reported in various scientific journals. In this research, the mobility of two sulfonamides - sulfamethazine (SMN), sulfathiazole (STZ) and a conservative bromide tracer was investigated in three soils collected from regions in the United States with large number of concentrated animal-feed operations. Results of a series of column studies indicate that the mobility of these two sulfonamides was dependent on pH, soil charge density, and contact time. At low pH and high charge density, substantial retention of sulfonamides was observed in all three soils investigated, due to the increased fraction of cationic and neutral forms of the sulfonamides. Conversely, enhanced mobility was observed at high pH, where the sulfonamides are predominantly in the anionic form. The results indicate that when both SMN and STZ are predominantly in anionic forms, their mobility approximates the mobility of a conservative bromide tracer. This observation is consistent for the mobility of both SMN and STZ individually, and also in the presence of several other antimicrobials in all three soils investigated. Higher contact time indicates lower mobility due to increased interaction with soil material. ?? 2011.

  15. Enhanced degradation of carbon tetrachloride by surfactant-modified zero-valent iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Ya-feng; GUAN Bao-hong; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui


    Sorption of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of CT, so the sorption capacity of ZVI is of great importance. This experiment was aimed at enhancing the sorption of CT by ZVI and the degradation rate of CT by modification of surfactants. This study showed that ZVI modified by cationic surfactants has favorable synergistic effect on the degradation of CT. The CT degradation rate of ZVI modified by cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) was higher than that of the unmodified ZVI by 130%, and the CT degradation rate of ZVI modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was higher than that of the unmodified ZVI by 81%. This study also showed that the best degradation effect is obtained at the near critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and that high loaded cationic surfactant does not have good synergistic effect on the degradation due to its hydrophilicity and the block in surface reduction sites. Furthermore degradation of CT by ZVI modified by nonionic surfactant has not positive effect on the degradation as the ionic surfactant and the ZVI modified by anionic surfactant has hardly any obvious effects on the degradation.

  16. An investigation of electronic structure and properties of new chromophore: 3,3'-bithiazolo[3,4-a]pyridinium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shixia [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Tanner, Christian [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leutwyler, Samuel [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bigler, Peter [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Decurtins, Silvio [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    The chromophore 3,3'-bithiazolo[3,4-a]pyridinium 1, obtained by oxidative cyclization reactions using a tetrathiafulvalene as a leaving group, strongly absorbs at the violet end of the visible region as evidenced by its yellow color. The solution (MeCN) spectrum displays an intensive, broad absorption band around 377 nm with a {epsilon} value of 8x10{sup 3} l mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. The chromophore also shows a strongly Stokes-shifted fluorescence emission with a lifetime {tau} of 2.8{+-}0.1 ns in acetonitrile solution. Herein, we describe the photophysical properties and a theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of the chiral dicationic, bis(bicyclic) ring assembly 1.

  17. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(vinyl chloride-Supported Pyridinium as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou


    Full Text Available The palladium nanoparticles immobilized on the polymeric surface of poly(vinyl chloride-supported pyridinium (PVC-Py-Pd0 were achieved by a simple procedure by applying the corresponding functionalized polymer and palladium chloride in ethanol solution. The as-prepared catalyst (PVC-Py-Pd0 was found to be air and moisture stable and exhibits significant catalytic activity for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under milder operating conditions. The procedure presented here showed several merits such as short reaction time, simple experimental and isolated procedure and excellent yields of products. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least six times with consistent activities.

  18. Aging Effects on the Properties of Imidazolium-, Quaternary Ammonium-, Pyridinium-, and Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids Used in Fuel and Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Smith, L. Taylor; Williamson, Tyler K.; Kendrick, Sarah E.


    Ionic liquids (ILs) are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long-term aging effect of the temperature on these materials. Imizadolium-, quaternary ammonium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidnium-based ILs with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 h (15 weeks) at 200 °C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. Finally, it was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  19. Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Fray


    Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.

  20. Structural and electronic properties of Diisopropylammonium bromide molecular ferroelectric crystal (United States)

    Alsaad, A.; Qattan, I. A.; Ahmad, A. A.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Sabirianov, R. F.


    We report the results of ab-initio calculations based on Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and hybrid functional (HSE06) of electronic band structure, density of states and partial density of states to get a deep insight into structural and electronic properties of P21 ferroelectric phase of Diisopropylammonium Bromide molecular crystal (DIPAB). We found that the optical band gap of the polar phase of DIPAB is ∼ 5 eV confirming it as a good dielectric. Examination of the density of states and partial density of states reveal that the valence band maximum is mainly composed of bromine 4p orbitals and the conduction band minimum is dominated by carbon 2p, carbon 2s, and nitrogen 2s orbitals. A unique aspect of P21 ferroelectric phase is the permanent dipole within the material. We found that P21 DIPAB has a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 consistent with recent findings which make it good candidate for the creation of ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) which have the potential to be used as memory devices.

  1. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui


    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  2. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  3. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  4. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht


    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  5. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.


    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  6. Adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes to dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide monolayers (United States)

    Engelking, J.; Menzel, H.

    Monolayers of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA) at the air/water interface were used as model for charged surfaces to study the adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes. After spreading on a pure water surface the monolayers were compressed and subsequently transferred onto a polyelectrolyte solution employing the Fromherz technique. The polyelectrolyte adsorption was monitored by recording the changes in surface pressure at constant area. For poly(styrene sulfonate) and carboxymethylcellulose the plot of the surface pressure as function of time gave curves which indicate a direct correlation between the adsorbed amount and surface pressure as well as a solely diffusion controlled process. In the case of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s the situation is more complicated. Plotting the surface pressure as function of time results in a curve with sigmoidal shape, characterized by an induction period. The induction period can be explained by a domain formation, which can be treated like a crystallization process. Employing the Avrami expression developed for polymer crystallization, the change in the surface pressure upon adsorption of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s can be described.

  7. Delayed remyelination in rat spinal cord following ethidium bromide injection. (United States)

    Graça, D L; Blakemore, W F


    Areas of demyelination were produced by injecting ethidium bromide into the white matter of the lumbar spinal cord of rats. There was variation in the nature of the process of demyelination and a difference in the speed with which Schwann cells remyelinated the demyelinated axons. In some lesions, or areas within lesions, myelin debris was rapidly processed by macrophages and axons were rapidly remyelinated by Schwann cells, while in other lesions of similar duration, or in areas within the same lesion, the myelin was transformed into lattices of membranous profiles which persisted around axons for long periods of time. In the lesions containing such myelin derived membranes, there were few macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was delayed compared to that seen in the more rapidly resolving lesions. It was concluded that the slow resolution of some lesions resulted from the delay between intoxication and cell disintegration (7-10 days) which meant that the cell responses to demyelination took place in a glial free area which could not support cell movement needed for removal of myelin debris and remyelination. This study indicates that the tempo and results of demyelination can be altered by the cellular events which accompany degeneration of oligodendrocytes.

  8. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold


    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... of a sensitive alcohol containing an activated aziridine functionality, the use of the trityl bromide linker proved superior to a recently described silver triflate-assisted trityl chloride resin-based procedure....

  9. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  10. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica


    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  11. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies


    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV–vi...

  12. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami


    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  13. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  14. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination. (United States)

    Liu, Shaogang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions, four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species, which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  15. A sequential MC/TD-DFT study of the solvatochromic shift of the pyridinium- N-phenoxide betaine dye in water using standard and long-range corrected functionals (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo B. A.; Fonseca, Tertius L.; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio


    Solvatochromic shifts of the π-π∗ and n-π∗ transitions for the pyridinium-N-phenoxide [2-(pyridinium-1-yl)phenolate] betaine changing from vacuum to water, have been investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and time-dependent density functional theory schemes using standard and long-range corrected functionals. The classical Boltzmann distribution of the interring twist angle obtained from the calculated free energy agrees with a Car-Parrinello distribution. For the calculated spectral shifts BHandHLYP/6-311+G(2d,p) performs better than the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) or LC-ωPBE/6-311+G(2d,p) model but the experimental shift is very well reproduced only after the inclusion of solute polarization and proper consideration of the twist geometry relaxation associated with the intramolecular charge transfer.

  16. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.


    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  17. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir


    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  18. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail:; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  19. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P


    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  20. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.


    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  1. A combined solid-state NMR and X-ray crystallography study of the bromide ion environments in triphenylphosphonium bromides. (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L


    Multinuclear ((31)P and (79/81)Br), multifield (9.4, 11.75, and 21.1 T) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are performed for seven phosphonium bromides bearing the triphenylphosphonium cation, a molecular scaffold found in many applications in chemistry. This is undertaken to fully characterise their bromine electric field gradient (EFG) tensors, as well as the chemical shift (CS) tensors of both the halogen and the phosphorus nuclei, providing a rare and novel insight into the local electronic environments surrounding them. New crystal structures, obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are reported for six compounds to aid in the interpretation of the NMR data. Among them is a new structure of BrPPh(4), because the previously reported one was inconsistent with our magnetic resonance data, thereby demonstrating how NMR data of non-standard nuclei can correct or improve X-ray diffraction data. Our results indicate that, despite sizable quadrupolar interactions, (79/81)Br magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful characterisation tool that allows for the differentiation between chemically similar bromine sites, as shown through the range in the characteristic NMR parameters. (35/37)Cl solid-state NMR data, obtained for an analogous phosphonium chloride sample, provide insight into the relationship between unit cell volume, nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants, and Sternheimer antishielding factors. The experimental findings are complemented by gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) DFT calculations, which substantiate our experimentally determined strong dependence of the largest component of the bromine CS tensor, δ(11), on the shortest Br-P distance in the crystal structure, a finding that has possible application in the field of NMR crystallography. This trend is explained in terms of Ramsey's theory on paramagnetic shielding. Overall, this work demonstrates how careful NMR studies of underexploited exotic nuclides, such

  2. Comparison of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide versus salbutamol alone in the treatment of acute severe asthma. (United States)

    Hossain, A S; Barua, U K; Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Rahman, I; Rahman, G


    The use of nebulized Ipratropium bromide, quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination with beta-agonist for the treatment of acute asthma in adults is controversial. In a view of different recommendation the present study is undertaken in Bangladeshi patients. Combination of inhaled Ipratropium bromide and Salbutamol provides greater bronchodilatation than mono therapy with Salbutamol alone in acute severe asthma. Patients of severe asthma (PEFR Salbutamol only) and case (Salbutamol + Ipratropium bromide) group. After measurement of peak expiratory flow, patient received 3 doses of 2.5 mg Salbutamol (n=40) only or 3 doses of both 2.5mg Salbutamol and 500mcg Ipratropium bromide at an interval of 20 minutes (n=40) through a jet nebulizer. Peak flow was reassessed 30 & 60 minutes after treatment. Peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. Then at 30 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in combination group (60.01±35.01%) than Salbutamol group (44.47±25.03%) with difference of 16% (p=0.025). At 60 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was about 32% greater in combination group than Salbutamol group (94.44±33.70% vs. 62.57±29.26%, p=0.000) and combination group reached percentage predicted peak flow more than 60% while Sabutamol group did not. Ipratropium Bromide and Salbutamol nebulized combinedly have better bronchodilating effect than Salbultamol alone in acute severe asthma.

  3. Mepenzolate bromide promotes diabetic wound healing by modulating inflammation and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Xingtong; Ji, Shizhao; Tian, Song; Wu, Haibin; Luo, Pengfei; Fang, He; Wang, Li; Wu, Guosheng; Xiao, Shichu; Xia, Zhaofan


    Diabetic wounds are characterized by persistent inflammation and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, thus resulting in impaired wound healing. Mepenzolate bromide, which was originally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in clinical settings, has recently been shown to display beneficial effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis of a mouse model by inhibiting inflammatory responses and reducing oxidative stress. However,the role of mepenzolate bromide in diabetic wound healing is still unclear. In this study, full-thickness excisional skin wounds were created on the backs of db/db mice, and mepenzolate bromide was topically applied to the wound bed. We found that mepenzolate bromide significantly promoted diabetic wound healing by measuring wound closure rate and histomorphometric analyses. Further studies showed that inflammation was inhibited by assessing the number of macrophages and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-healing cytokines in the wounds. Furthermore, oxidative stress was reduced by monitoring the levels of MDA and H2O2 and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the wounds. These results demonstrated the potential application of mepenzolate bromide for treating diabetic ulcers and other chronic wounds in clinics.

  4. Growth and characterization of an organic single crystal: 2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide (United States)

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    Optically transparent crystal of the organic salt DEASI (2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide) has been synthesized by using knoevenagel condensation reaction method. The synthesized material has been purified by successfully recrystallization process. Single crystals of DEASI have been grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The solubility of the title material has been determined at different temperature in acetonitrile/methanol mixture. The cell parameters and crystallinity of the title crystal were determined by single crystal XRD. The powder diffraction was carried out to study the reflection plane of the grown crystal and diffraction peaks were indexed. The presence of different functional groups in the crystal was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. 1H NMR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of hydrogen nuclei in the synthesized material. The optical property of the title crystal was studied by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis. The melting point and thermal property of DEASI were studied using TGA/DSC technique. The Vicker’s hardness (Hv) was carried out to know the category. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound decreases with an increase in frequencies. Chemical etching studies showed that the DEASI grows in the two dimensional growth mechanisms. The Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test has done for title crystal.

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Ion-pair Compound Consisting of 1-(4-Bromobenzyl)pyridinium Cation and 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethanide Anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-Bo; CHEN You-Cun


    The title compound [BrBzPy][TCNQ] (BrBzPy+=1-(4-bromobenzyl)pyridinium cation, TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethanide anion) was synthesized by the reaction of [BrBzPy]Br and LiTCNQ in ethanol solution and its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 14.067(3), b = 7.3089(14), c = 23.796(4) (A), β = 122.011 (9)°, V = 2074.6(7) (A)3, Z = 4, C24H15BrN5, Mr = 453.32, Dc = 1.451 g/cm3, μ = 2.002 mm-1, S = 1.047, F(000) = 916, R = 0.0398 and wR = 0.0921. The most prominent structural features are the completely segregated stacking columns of the TCNQ-anions and [BrBzPy]+ cations. In a TCNQ column, the centroid-to-centroid distances of the neighboring anions of TCNQ are 3.2693 and 4.9464 (A), respectively.

  6. Sol–gel processed pyridinium ionic liquid-modified silica as a new sorbent for separation and quantification of iron in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdolmohammad-Zadeh


    Full Text Available 1-Hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate [C6py][PF6] ionic liquid (IL was firstly used for chemical modification of silica utilizing the acid-catalyzed sol–gel processing. The obtained pyridinium IL-modified silica was employed as a solid phase extraction (SPE sorbent for removal of trace levels of Fe(III ions from aqueous samples. The influence of different variables on the separation efficiency, including the concentration of chelating agent, pH, sample flow rate and volume, eluent type, concentration and volume, and interfering ions was investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s, limit of quantification (LOQ and pre-concentration factor were 0.7 μg L−1, 2.5 μg L−1, and 200, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for nine replicate determinations of 25 μg L−1 Fe was 3.2%. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system was linear in the range of 2.5–50 μg L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material and applied successfully to the separation and determination of iron in several water samples.

  7. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities. (United States)

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C


    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  8. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects. (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G


    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  9. A study of the interaction between ethidium bromide and rye chromatin: comparison with calf thymus chromatin. (United States)

    LaRue, H; Pallotta, D


    We studied the interaction of ethidium bromide with rye and calf thymus chromatin. Both types of chromatin have the same dye accessibility, which is about 50% of that of DNA. From this result we conclude that the molecular structure of these two chromatins is similar. For rye, the extraction of H1 produces no change in the binding of ethidium bromide. The subsequent extraction of H2A and H2B produces a 14% increase in the binding, and the removal of H3 and H4, another 54% increase. At this stage, the number of binding sites is still less than that of DNA. This is presumably due to the presence of some tightly bound non-histones. Thus, the arginine-rich histones and the tightly bound non-histones are most responsible for limiting the binding of ethidium bromide to rye chromatin.

  10. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  11. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Results: The mean duration of active phase of first stage of labor was significantly shorter in the drotaverine and valethamate bromide groups as compared to control group in both primigravida and multigravida patients. Conclusions: The rate of cervical dilatation under the influence of valethamate bromide and drotaverine is significantly higher as compared to control group. In each group dilatation was faster in multigravida patients as compared to primigravida and it was fastest in the drotaverine group. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1836-1842

  12. Bromidotetrakis(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Godlewska


    Full Text Available The CuII ion in the title molecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C—H...Br interaction is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  13. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN (3))copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) ion in the title mol-ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C-H⋯Br inter-action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  14. Thermodynamic evaluation of new absorbent mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts for absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Luis; Lucas, Antonio De; Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    Mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts of sodium and potassium (formate, acetate and lactate) have been evaluated as alternative absorbents for absorption refrigeration machines. The main objective is to overpass the limitations of lithium bromide and improve the characteristics and the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to select the mixture that presents better properties for its employment in absorption refrigeration cycles, a thermodynamic analysis have been done. Density, viscosity, enthalpies of dilution, solubility and vapour pressure data of the proposed mixtures have been measured. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate temperatures, heats exchanged in the different sections and the efficiency of the cycle. (author)

  15. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu


    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  16. Uroporphyria development in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts long-term treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide. (United States)

    de Muys, J M; Morais, R


    Long-term chloramphenicol- and ethidium bromide-treated chick embryo fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of porphyrins from exogenously added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The porphyrins consist mainly of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrins and are retained within cells. Uroporphyria development is a time-dependent process which accompanies a step-wise decrease in the capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon removal of chloramphenicol from the medium, the pattern of porphyrin production readily returns to normal (mainly proto- and coproporphyrins found in the medium) while ethidium bromide-treated cells remain uroporphyric. The results suggest that impairment of mitochondrial functions in chicken by xenobiotics leads to uroporphyria development.

  17. SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption. (United States)

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S


    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe(TM), a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe(TM). For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe(TM). In conclusion, SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  18. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Shepel


    Full Text Available This communication is devoted to the elaboration of a new optimal technique of infrared spectra registration of activated carbons in potassium bromide pellets. Authors investigated the dependence of the intensity of the least overlapping infrared bands of activated carbons on the conditions of preparation, recording of the spectrum, and the degree of homogenization with KBr.

  20. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  1. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of bromide by periodate in aqueous acidic solution. (United States)

    Szél, Viktor; Csekő, György; Horváth, Attila K


    The periodate–bromide reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically mainly in excess of bromide ion, monitoring the formation of the total amount of bromine at 450 nm at acidic buffered conditions and at a constant ionic strength in the presence of a phosphoric acid/dihydrogen phosphate buffer. The stoichiometry of the reaction was established to be strictly IO4(–) + 2Br(–) + 2H(+) → Br2 + IO3(–) + H2O. The formal kinetic order of the reactants was found to be perfectly one and two in the cases of periodate and bromide, respectively, but that of the hydrogen ion lies between one and two. We have also provided experimental evidence that dihydrogen phosphate accelerates the formation of bromine, suggesting the appearance of strong buffer assistance. On the basis of the experiments, a simple two-step kinetic model is proposed involving BrIO3 as a key intermediate that perfectly explains all of the experimental findings. Furthermore, we have also shown that in huge excess of bromide, the apparent rate coefficient obtained from the individual curve fitting method of the absorbance–time series is necessarily independent of the initial periodate concentration that may falsely be interpreted as the rate of bromine formation is also independent of the concentration of periodate.

  3. The carbonylation of phenyl bromide and its derivatives under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Hui Zhong; Ying Na Cui; Shen Min Li; Ying Ping Jia; Jing Mei Yin


    The carbonylation of phenyl bromide catalyzed by Co(OAc)2 has been investigated with PhCOPh as a sensitizer under visible light in the presence of basic additive.With strong base CH3ONa,PhCOOCH3 is produced in 70% yield with 100% selectivity,the similar results are also obtained with a stronger base (CH3)3CONa.However,with another strong base NaOH,the yield of the ester is only 40%.On the other hand,with weak base NaOAc or (n-C4Hg)3N,phenyl bromide cannot be carbonylated.The results of carbonylation of the six substituted phenyl bromides suggest that the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4CH3 are similar to phenyl bromide,while the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4Cl are higher with the high yields (≥93%) of the corresponding chloro-esters.In addition,the relative position of bromine and chlorine or methyl on phenyl ring has little effect on the activity of the carbonylation.

  4. Palladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-coupling Reaction in Molten Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Yue(邹岳); WANG, Quan-Rui(王全瑞); TAO, Feng-Gang(陶凤岗); DING, Zong-Biao(丁宗彪)


    A practical procedure for palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with aryl halides, including aryl chlorides in molten tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) was developed. The reaction exhibits high efficiency and functional group tolerance. The recovery of the catalyst and molten n-Bu4NBr was also investigated.

  5. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.


    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  6. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  7. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives (United States)

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H


    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. PMID:27877017

  8. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...

  9. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water. (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary


    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  11. Mild Pd-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides with a palladacycle precatalyst. (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Skrydstrup, Troels; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A palladacyclic precatalyst is employed to cleanly generate a highly active XantPhos-ligated Pd-catalyst. Its use in low temperature aminocarbonylations of (hetero)aryl bromides provides access to a range of challenging products in good to excellent yields with low catalyst loading and only a slight excess of CO. Some products are unattainable by traditional carbonylative coupling.

  12. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses (United States)


    ... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by... Corporation. 5785-48 Terr-O-Gas 50 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 8536-05 Pic-Brom 33 Soil...

  13. Sn-free Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes. (United States)

    Gong, Hegui; Andrews, R Stephen; Zuccarello, Joseph L; Lee, Stephen J; Gagné, Michel R


    A mild, stereoselective method for the Ni-catalyzed synthesis of alpha-C-alkylglycosides is reported. This approach entails the reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes at room temperature, with low alkene loading as an important feature. Diastereoselective coupling with 2-substituted acrylate derivatives was made possible through the use of 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol as a proton source.


    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  15. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    .... Alternatives for which such information is needed include: Sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide (PPO), phosphine... costs to retrofit equipment or design and construct new fumigation chambers for these alternatives. For...) that are not needed when methyl bromide is used for fumigation. Include information on the size...

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;


    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a re...

  17. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  18. Dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide: Localized dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.


    A further analysis of previous reported measurements of dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide crystals shows that the dipoles may occupy several energetically different positions, giving rise to localization of the dipoles and anomalous behaviour of the susceptibility. This

  19. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao


    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  20. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia. (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie


    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  1. Efficacy and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of 1,1'-methylenebis{4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium} dimethanesulfonate in guinea pigs and rhesus macaques exposed to cyclosarin. (United States)

    Harvilchuck, Jill A; Hong, S Peter; Richey, Jamie S; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D


    Male Hartley guinea pigs and male rhesus macaques were used to determine an efficacious dose of 1,1'-methylenebis{4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium} dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) that would result in 80% survival, 24 hours following a single exposure to cyclosarin (GF). The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship between acetylcholinesterase activity and MMB4 plasma concentrations relative to survival was evaluated. Guinea pigs and non-human primates (NHPs) were concurrently administered MMB4 DMS (guinea pigs: 0, 10, 30, or 40 mg/kg, intramuscular [IM] and NHPs: 0.1, 1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, IM), atropine, and diazepam following a 3 × median lethal dose (LD50) GF challenge. Clinical observations were evaluated using a quality-of-life (QOL) scoring system. All GF-exposed animals exhibited typical signs of nerve agent poisoning immediately following challenge. In guinea pigs, 24-hour survival was 0%, 50%, 90%, and 90% for 0, 10, 30, and 40 mg/kg MMB4 DMS groups, respectively. In addition, nearly all animals surviving to 24 hours were clinically normal, with many in the 30 and 40 mg/kg MMB4 DMS dose group observed as normal by 4 hours post-challenge. In NHPs, survival was 100% for all treatment groups, with all animals noted as clinically normal by 48 hours. Following treatment with atropine/MMB4 DMS/diazepam, NHPs exhibited dose- and temporal-related decreases in incidence and duration of the clinical signs of toxicity. The QOL scores improved with increasing MMB4 DMS dose in both species. The estimated ED80s were 25.5 mg/kg MMB4 DMS (human equivalent dose [HED] of 5.5 mg/kg) and ≤ 0.1 mg/kg (HED of 0.03 mg/kg) in guinea pigs and NHPs, respectively.

  2. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0



    Firdaus, Maulidan; Jumina, Jumina; Anwar, Chairil


    A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1)-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%). Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,1...

  4. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction. (United States)

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir


    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  5. Regioselectivity and Mechanism of Synthesizing N-Substituted 2-Pyridones and 2-Substituted Pyridines via Metal-Free C-O and C-N Bond-Cleaving of Oxazoline[3,2-a]pyridiniums (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xue, Susu; Yang, Yang; Feng, Jia; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Jianming; Xu, Zhijian; Hall, Adrian; Zhao, Bo; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang


    Novel intermediate oxazoline[3,2-a]pyridiniums were facilely prepared from 2-(2,2-dimethoxyethoxy)-pyridines via acid promoted intramolecular cyclization. Sequentially, the quaternary ammonium salts were treated with different nucleophiles for performing regioselective metal-free C-O and C-N bond-cleaving to afford prevalent heterocyclic structures of N-substituted pyridones and 2-substituted pyridines. The reaction mechanism and regioselectivity were then systematically explored by quantum chemistry calculations at B3LYP/6-31 g(d) level. The calculated free energy barrier of the reactions revealed that aniline and aliphatic amines (e.g., methylamine) prefer to attack C8 of intermediate 4a, affording N-substituted pyridones, while phenylmethanamine, 2-phenylethan-1-amine and 3-phenylpropan-1-amine favor to attack C2 of the intermediate to form 2-substituted pyridines. With the optimized geometries of the transition states, we found that the aromatic ring of the phenyl aliphatic amines may form cation-π interaction with the pyridinium of the intermediates, which could stabilize the transition states and facilitate the formation of 2-substituted pyridines. PMID:28120894

  6. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters. (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish


    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  9. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiao; Dongbin Wei; Liping Li; Qi Liu; Huimin Zhao; Yuguo Du


    The brominated products,formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions,were identified,and the formation pathways were proposed.Under disinfection conditions,benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono-or di-halogenated products,which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives.The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product.The product species were pH-dependent,while benzophenone-4 ehmination was chlorine dose-dependent.When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions,most of brominated byproducts could be detected,and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well.

  10. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor


    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Background: Numerous drugs have been used to shorten the active phase of labor. How rationale is it to use these drugs to shorten the active phase of labor? Do they really shorten the duration of labor? What adverse effects do they have on the baby and the mother? These questions were the basis to perform the present study of comparing two of such drugs, injection drotaverine and injection Valethamate bromide with control subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in a terti...

  11. Eco-friendly synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazoles catalyzed by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in water


    Yang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Chun-Mei; Lin,Shao-Miao; Chen,Jiu-Xi; Ding,Jin-Chang; Wu,Hua-Yue; Su,Wei-Ke


    A series of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with aldehydes (RCHO: R = Alkyl, Aryl, Heteroaryl, 2-Arylformyl) in the presence of a catalytic amount of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) "on water" by a one-pot procedure without additional organic solvents and oxidants. Thereinto, 2-alkylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in high yields and 2-arylformylbenzothiazoles were obtained from the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with arylfo...

  12. Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid (Preprint) (United States)


    calculated values for the SN2 reactions . Comparisons of product photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves with literature data are in good agreement...methyl and ethyl bromides were evaluated experimentally, and found to be in agreement with calculated values for the SN2 reactions . Comparisons of...contrary to what is observed experimentally. However, for the SN2 reactions , the transition state barriers and reaction enthalpies are in good

  13. Effect of lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma (United States)

    Tullett, WM; Patel, KR; Berkin, KE; Kerr, JW


    Eight patients with exercise-induced asthma participated in a single-blind trial comparing the protective effects of inhaled lignocaine (estimated dose 48 mg), sodium cromoglycate (estimated dose 12 mg), and ipratropium bromide (estimated dose 120 μg). Saline was used as control. Effects were assessed from the mean maximal percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximal mid-expiratory flow rates (MMFR) after they had run on a treadmill for eight minutes. There was no significant change in baseline FEV1 or MMFR before each agent was given. Saline, lignocaine, and sodium cromoglycate did not alter the mean baseline FEV1 or MMFR significantly. Ipratropium caused bronchodilatation with an increase of 16·3% in the mean FEV1 (p<0·001) and of 43·4% in the mean MMFR (p<0·05). After exercise the maximal percentage falls in FEV1 (means and SEM) after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 38·1% (5·0), 34·5% (6·1), 11·3% (3·7), and 19·3% (7·4) respectively. Similarly, the mean maximal falls in MMFR after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 54·4% (5·2), 52·9% (7·7), 23·6% (6·6), and 32·1% (10·5) respectively. The inhibitory effects of sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide were significant whereas lignocaine failed to produce an effect. These results suggest that mediator release is an important factor in exercise-induced asthma and that in some patients the effects of the mediators may be on the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. Local anaesthesia of sensory vagal receptors, on the other hand, does not prevent exercise asthma and these receptors do not appear to have any important role in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:6218645

  14. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds.

  15. Bromidotetrakis(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dołęga


    Full Text Available The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001 through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  16. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  17. Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides. (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Buonomo, Joseph A; Weix, Daniel J


    The synthesis of 2-alkylated pyridines by the nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides, is described. Compared to our previously published conditions for aryl halides, this method uses the different, more rigid bathophenanthroline ligand and is conducted at high concentration in DMF solvent. The method displays promising functional group compatibility and the conditions are orthogonal to the Stille coupling.

  18. Influence of the Amino Substituents in the Interaction of Ethidium Bromide with DNA


    Garbett, Nichola C.; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Graves, David E.


    A key step in the rational design of new DNA binding agents is to obtain a complete thermodynamic characterization of small molecule-DNA interactions. Ethidium bromide has served as a classic DNA intercalator for more than four decades. This work focuses on delineating the influence(s) of the 3- and 8-amino substituents of ethidium on the energetic contributions and concomitant fluorescent properties upon DNA complex formation. Binding affinities decrease by an order of magnitude upon the rem...

  19. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T


    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  20. Interaction of ozone and carbon dioxide with polycrystalline potassium bromide and its atmospheric implication (United States)

    Levanov, Alexander V.; Isaikina, Oksana Ya.; Maksimov, Ivan B.; Lunin, Valerii V.


    It has been discovered for the first time that gaseous ozone in the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor interacts with crystalline potassium bromide giving gaseous Br2 and solid salts KHCO3 and KBrO3. Molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate ion are the products of one and the same reaction described by the stoichiometric equation 2KBr(cr.) + O3(gas) + 2CO2(gas) + H2O(gas) → 2KHCO3(cr.) + Br2(gas) + O2(gas). The dependencies of Br2, KHCO3 and KBrO3 formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and CO2, humidity of initial gas mixture, and temperature have been investigated. A kinetic scheme has been proposed that explains the experimental regularities found in this work on the quantitative level. According to the scheme, the formation of molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate is due to the reaction between hypobromite BrO-, the primary product of bromide oxidation by ozone, with carbon dioxide and water; bromate results from consecutive oxidation of bromide ion by ozone Br- → +O3 , -O2 BrO- → +O3 , -O2 BrO2- → +O3, -O2 BrO3- .

  1. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaji, Masuo; Suyama, Takayuki; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    An experimental study on enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat tranfer by placing a sponge metal close to a plain heated surface was conducted in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. The sponge metal has three dimensional porous mesh framework like sponge. Boiling curves of water under the atmospheric pressure were compared with those of lithium bromide aqueous solution of mass concentration 55 to 58%. Heat transfer characteristics were improved by 2 to3 times both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution when the sponge metal was placed on the heated surface with and without cleareance. Three kinds of sponge metals were used for lithium bromide aqueous solution under the reduced pressure (24 kPa). At lower heat fluxes,#6 sponge metal which has the finest mesh and the lowest porosity shows excellent results. At high heat fluxes, however,it causes deterioration of heat transfer. Over the wide range of heat fluxes,# 4 sponge metal was found to be most suitable and the optimal clearence was determined as 0.5 mm. The sponge metal is of good practical use as a device to enhance the boiling, since no special manufacturing is required for placing it on the heated surface.

  2. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO


    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  3. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops. (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana


    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  4. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions. (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.


    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  5. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

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    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of the CH3Br budget, the phaseout schedule, and recent estimates of interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes an updated global methyl bromide source inventory that includes biofuel combustion emissions estimated at 6.1±3 Gg yr−1 globally. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide trend over the 1997–2005 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source. These results suggest that more than 80% of the missing source does not exhibit significant interannual variability during the phaseout period and, therefore, does not result from underestimating agricultural CH3Br emissions.

  6. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J


    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  7. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

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    Mindriany Syafila


    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  8. Efficient ring-closing metathesis of alkenyl bromides: the importance of protecting the catalyst during the olefin approach. (United States)

    Gatti, Michele; Drinkel, Emma; Wu, Linglin; Pusterla, Ivano; Gaggia, Fiona; Dorta, Reto


    We present the first productive ring-closing metathesis reaction that leads to the construction of cyclic alkenyl bromides. Efficient catalysis employing commercially available Grubbs II catalyst is possible through appropriate modification of the starting bromoalkene moiety.

  9. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of... (United States)


    ... species, Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) and Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly... bromide treatment schedule to mitigate risk from C. capitata and A. fraterculus, as described in the...

  10. Synthesis of 3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones by Cyclized Coupling of Ethyl o-Hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)phosphinate with Allyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones as the phosphorus analogues of chromone were firstly prepared in good yields and high regioselectivity by the palladium(Ⅱ)-catalyzed cyclized coupling reaction of ethyl o-hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)-phosphinate with allyl bromide.

  11. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

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    Budnik Lygia T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  12. 溴化十六烷基三甲铵与邻{2-[α- (2-羟基-磺酸苯偶氮)-亚苄基]肼基}苯甲酸的显色反应及其应用%Colour Reaction of Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide with o-{2-[α-(2-Hydroxy-5-sulphophenylazo)-   benzylidene]hydrazine}benzoic Acid and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟燕华; 庄稼; 白进伟


    @@ 1 引言 表面活性剂在工农业生产及人类日常生活中的应用越来越广泛,研究表明活性剂在环境中的转化、迁移及对生理过程的影响以及对它的测定是十分有意义的课题,常规测定阳离子表面活性剂的方法有称重、萃取、滴定、电张力、交流示波极谱法、气相色谱法、光化学等,但这些方法大多操作繁琐、复杂,并且灵敏度不高.实验发现邻{2-[α-(2-羟基- 磺酸苯偶氮)-亚苄基]肼基}苯甲酸(ZCN)与溴化十六烷基三甲铵(CTMAB)在pH 5.0的缓冲溶液中相互作用,致使UV光谱发生变化,最大吸收峰红移80~110 nm,具有较好的对比性.同时发现此法具有较高的灵敏度和较宽的线性范围.

  13. Hydrolysis of Racemic Ibuprofen n-Octyl Ester Catalyzed by Lipase in Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide/p-Octyl Polyethylene Glycol Phenyl Ether Microemulsion-based Gel%十六烷基三甲基溴化铵/聚乙二醇辛基苯基醚微乳液凝胶固定化脂肪酶催化水解消旋布洛芬辛酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 王晶; 裘立群; 宋少芳


    初步考察了水溶液中影响十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)/聚乙二醇辛基苯基醚(TX-100)微乳液凝胶(MBG)固定化脂肪酶催化水解消旋布洛芬辛酯的主要因素.结果表明,CTAB/TX-100 MBG固定化脂肪酶在水溶液中能顺利催化水解S-构型布洛芬辛酯生成S-构型布洛芬.随TX-100在EM(正丁醇与TX-100的混合物)中含量的增加,反应转化率(X)逐渐增大,而产物中S-构型布洛芬的对映体过量值(eei)有少许的降低;随凝胶含水量的增加,X及ee;均呈钟罩形变化,二者最大值时对应的凝胶水含量为27.3%,且磷酸缓冲溶液对二者的影响要比溶解明胶的水大;X在反应初期(16 h内)增加明显,随反应时间的继续延长增加缓慢,24h后趋于平衡,而eei随反应时间的延长呈逐渐降低的趋势;随固定化脂肪酶重复使用次数的增多,X在前3次中降幅不大,后几次中降幅逐渐增大,eei则呈逐渐稍微降低的趋势,重复使用10次后,二者分别降低了36.55%和0.52%.

  14. Investigation on interaction of DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups by spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and viscosity technologies. (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Zhaohong; Song, Youtao; Liu, Shuo; Gao, Wei; Qiao, Heng; Guo, Lili; Wang, Jun


    In this study, the interaction between DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups such as ethyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (EHDAB), hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HDBAC), and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and viscosity technologies. The results show that these cationic surfactants can interact with DNA and major binding modes are electrostatic and hydrophobic. Also, CPB and HDBAC molecules interact with DNA by partial intercalation, and CPB has slightly stronger intercalation than HDBAC, while EHDAB interacts with DNA by non-intercalation. The different head groups of the surfactant molecules can influence the interaction strength. CPB has the stronger interaction with DNA than the others. Moreover, surfactant concentration, the ratio of DNA and fluorescence probe, ionic strength can influence the interaction. The surfactants may interact with DNA by the competition reactions with BR for DNA-BR. The increase of ionic strength may favor the surface binding between DNA and surfactants to some extent. This work provides deep mechanistic insight on the toxicity of cationic surfactants with different head groups to DNA molecules.

  15. Enhanced degradation of the volatile fumigant-nematicides 1,3-d and methyl bromide in soil. (United States)

    Ou, L T


    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D in soils was considered to exhibit similar kinetics, witla their degradation rates increasing with increases in soil temperature. Enhanced degradation of 1,3-D in soil from a site in Florida with a history of repeated annual applications of 1,3-D was observed in 1994. Biological hydrolysis was involved in the initial degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D. The two isomers were degraded at different rates, with the trans isomer being degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer. Cis- and trans-l,3-D in soil from the control site were degraded at a similar rate but more slowly than in the enhanced soil. Methyl bromide in soils can be degraded through chemical hydrolysis and methylation to soil organic matter. Some methanotrophic bacteria and ammonia-oxidation bacteria during the oxidation of their primary substrates (methane and ammonia) also have the capacity to cooxidize methyl bromide to formaldehyde and bromide ion. It was recently observed that degradation of methyl bromide was stimulated in methanotrophic soils and in soils treated with ammonium sulfate. Soil methanotrophic bacteria and soil nitrifiers are apparently responsible for cooxidation of methyl bromide in methanotrophic and ammonia treated soils, respectively.

  16. Pyridinium 5-[(1,3-diethyl-6-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl(2-methoxyphenylmethyl]-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxopyrimidin-5-ide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri


    Full Text Available 1,3-Diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid reacts with 2-anisaldehyde to form the Michael addition product 2-anisylbis(1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbitur-5-ylmethanate, which crystallizes as the title pyridinium salt, C5H6N+·C24H29N4O5S2−, when it reacts with the pyridine used to catalyse the reaction. There are two independent ion pairs in the crystal structure. The anion features a methine C atom connected to three six-membered rings; one of the rings carries a hydroxy group, which engages in hydrogen bonding with the carbonyl group belonging to another ring. The monoclinic unit cell emulates an orthorhombic unit cell, and is a twin with a minor twin component of 35%.

  17. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil. (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.


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    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the quality of intubating conditions with Suxamethonium chloride and Rocuronium bromide for rapid sequence induction intubation and to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the response to single twitch stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study, entitled “Comparison of Rocuronium bromide and Suxamethonium chloride for use during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was done in 50 adult patients divided into two groups and were randomly allocated Group-I: IV Rocuronium 0.9mg/kg and Group-II: IV Suxamethonium 1mg/kg. Laryngoscopy was attempted at 60 sec. and assessment of quality of intubating conditions was performed by using a Viby Mogensen Scale. Neuromuscular monitor was used to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the adductor pollicis response to single twitch ulnar nerve stimulation. RESULTS Intubating conditions were excellent (Score 15 in 88% of cases in Group-I whereas vocal cord position was intermediate (10- 14 in 12% of cases, in Group-II all cases could be intubated at 60 sec. (Score 15 in 100% cases. The onset of maximal blockade at adductor pollicis was found to correlate well with satisfactory intubating conditions in Group-II (Sch whereas in 20% of patients in Group-I had single twitch response (though diminished at the time of intubation. CONCLUSION Rocuronium bromide in dose of 0.9mg/kg provided neuromuscular blockade with a fast onset time and good to excellent intubating conditions at 60 sec. resembling those of Suxamethonium.

  19. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects. (United States)

    Black, J; Vincenc, K; Salome, C


    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P less than 0.05) the response to methoxamine in all patients without producing significant changes in the mean baseline lung function. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after saline was 6.8 mumol and 95% confidence limits (CL) were 3.6, 12.7 mumol. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after ipratropium bromide was 35.4 (95% CL 28.8, 43.6) mumol. DSCG also produced significant (P less than 0.05) shifts to the right in the methoxamine dose response curves, but did not affect resting airway calibre as measured by the FEV1. The mean PD20 for methoxamine increased from 3.3 mumol (95% CL 1.1, 10.0 mumol) after saline to 25.1 mumol (95% CL 14.1, 44.6) after DSCG pretreatment. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenoceptors in the airways of asthmatic subjects may be located at sites other than smooth muscle--possibly on mast cells but more likely on nerve endings and/or parasympathetic ganglia. PMID:2992563

  20. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.


    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.


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    Usha Dev


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with burn injury drug pharmacology will be altered and this poses special anaesthetic challenge when an subcutaneous injection of a non- depolarizing muscle relaxant occurs in such a patient. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and hence this study aims to provide information on the anaesthetic management in a case of accidental subcutaneous injection of vecuronium bromide in a burns patient. PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT: A 22 year young male with 4 days old hot water induced grade 1 burns involving 45% of body surface area was posted for burns dressing. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium bromide through an external jugular vein to aid tracheal intubation. As the patient was not anaesthetized even after 10 minutes routine check lead to the discovery of fullness at the tip of the intravenous catheter indicating an extravasation of the drugs. Hence the other external jugular vein was cannulated and the patient induced and intubated using propofol, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The action of vecuronium outlasted the duration of surgery. So the patient continued to receive support of mechanical ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. It took 130 minutes for the clinical signs of recovery from the muscle relaxant to manifest. He was then reversed & extubated with subsequent good recovery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of these drugs poses problems of delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of action. In an inadvertent accidental subcutaneous 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium bromide injection in a patient with 4 day old 45% burns showed delayed onset action and prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to subcutaneous deposition of the drug which was managed with mechanical ventilation .The reported resistance to the action of NDMR drugs in patient with burns was not noticed here probably because of the age of the thermal injury.

  2. Structures, electronic properties and stability phase diagrams for copper(I/II) bromide surfaces. (United States)

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Marashdeh, Ali; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This study presents a comprehensive periodic slab DFT investigation into structures, electronic properties and thermodynamic stability of all plausible terminations of CuBr and CuBr2 surfaces. We first estimate lattice constants, formation and cohesive energies for the two bulk copper bromides before proceeding to analyse geometrical and electronic features of CuBr and CuBr2 configurations. Surface geometries exhibit, to a large extent, corresponding bulk structures. Nevertheless, certain CuBr2 surfaces experience a downward displacement of the topmost Cu-containing layers. We plot total and projected density of states for bulk and surface geometries of these two copper bromides and calculate their associated Bader's electronic charges. Electronic structure analysis for the bulk and surfaces of these two copper bromides show that CuBr bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr(001)_Br) do not exhibit any metallic character, whereas CuBr2 bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr2(001)_Br) both exhibit metallic characters. The formalism of the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics affords the construction of energy phase diagrams. We predict that the CuBr(001) surface, truncated with Br atoms, is the most stable structure among the considered CuBr slabs at all physically meaningful ranges of the chemical potential of bromine. This surface resembles a c(2 × 2)-bromine sheet that was characterised experimentally from initial interaction of Br2 with a Cu(100) surface. We find that surfaces terminated with the electronegative bromine atoms, if accompanied by significant relaxation, tend to be more stable. Calculated surface energies predict the shapes of CuBr and CuBr2 nanoparticles as the chemical potential of bromine changes.

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays


    Vajrabhaya, La-ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared thr...

  4. Nitrate ion photolysis in thin water films in the presence of bromide ions. (United States)

    Richards, Nicole K; Wingen, Lisa M; Callahan, Karen M; Nishino, Noriko; Kleinman, Michael T; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J


    Nitrate ions commonly coexist with halide ions in aged sea salt particles, as well as in the Arctic snowpack, where NO(3)(-) photochemistry is believed to be an important source of NO(y) (NO + NO(2) + HONO + ...). The effects of bromide ions on nitrate ion photochemistry were investigated at 298 ± 2 K in air using 311 nm photolysis lamps. Reactions were carried out using NaBr/NaNO(3) and KBr/KNO(3) deposited on the walls of a Teflon chamber. Gas phase halogen products and NO(2) were measured as a function of photolysis time using long path FTIR, NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). Irradiated NaBr/NaNO(3) mixtures show an enhancement in the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) as the bromide mole fraction (χ(NaBr)) increased. However, this was not the case for KBr/KNO(3) mixtures where the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) remained constant over all values of χ(KBr). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the presence of bromide in the NaBr solutions pulls sodium toward the solution surface, which in turn attracts nitrate to the interfacial region, allowing for more efficient escape of NO(2) than in the absence of halides. However, in the case of KBr/KNO(3), bromide ions do not appreciably affect the distribution of nitrate ions at the interface. Clustering of Br(-) with NO(3)(-) and H(2)O predicted by MD simulations for sodium salts may facilitate a direct intermolecular reaction, which could also contribute to higher rates of NO(2) production. Enhanced photochemistry in the presence of halide ions may be important for oxides of nitrogen production in field studies such as in polar snowpacks where the use of quantum yields from laboratory studies in the absence of halide ions would lead to a significant underestimate of the photolysis rates of nitrate ions.

  5. Comparative characteristics of copper, copper chloride, and copper bromide vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Petrash, G.G.; Trofimov, A.N.


    The paper reports the results of a comparative study of copper and copper halide vapor lasers emitting in a repetitively-pulsed regime. Copper chloride and copper bromide vapor lasers are found to have identical lasing characteristics under any excitation conditions. These characteristics are different from those of a copper vapor laser. An average lasing power of 13 W has been obtained for all lasers studied for an efficiency of 1%. It is shown that the choice of a laser will largely depend on the laser design suitability for a specific application.

  6. Vapour pressure and enthalpy of aqueous lithium bromide solutions. [Used in absorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))


    In this paper we present new equations for accurate calculations of the vapour pressure and enthalpy of aqueous lithium bromide solutions which are commonly used in absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformers. The number of empirical parameters involved in these equations is much smaller than those in earlier equations. Moreover, the present equations for both vapour pressure and enthalpy involve the same constants as both these equations are derived from a single free energy equation using standard thermodynamic concepts. The present methodology can be used with any other electrolyte for which enthalpy-concentration diagrams may not be readily available. (Author).

  7. Cooperative dynamics of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide / water / n-dodecane microemulsions: a dielectric relaxation study


    Wachter, Wolfgang


    A systematic study of the dielectric relaxation spectra of W/O (water-in-oil) microemulsions composed of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), water (W) and n-dodecane (D) has been made over the whole stability region in the phase diagram and over a wide range of frequencies (0.005 < nu/GHz < 89) at 25 °C. The spectra were best described by a superposition of six or five Debye processes, respectively, depending on the position of the sample in the phase diagram. Process 1 at 40 ns can be ...

  8. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  9. Thermal and optical studies of some di-methyl-di-alkyl ammonium bromides (United States)

    Witko, Waclaw; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Dynarowicz, Patrycja


    Phase situation of homologous series of di-alkyl-di-methyl ammonium bromides represented by the general formula: 2CnN+2C1Br-, with n equals 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy methods in the temperature range 20-180 degrees C. A more complex polymorphism as already reported was detected. All the compounds studied show at least tow anomalies on the DSC curves. The high-temperature phase which appears below the isotropic phase has lancet-like dendritic texture which can be attributed to SmB phase. The enthalpy changes at the transitions were calculated.

  10. Generation, spectroscopy, and structure of cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN. (United States)

    Pasinszki, Tibor; Vass, Gábor; Klapstein, Dieter; Westwood, Nicholas P C


    Cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN (X = Cl and Br), have been investigated in the gas phase by UV photoelectron and mid-infrared spectroscopies. The ground-state geometries of the neutral molecules have been obtained from quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The individual spectroscopies provide a detailed investigation into the vibrational and electronic character of the molecules and are supported by quantum-chemical calculations. The results are compared to data for structurally and chemically related molecules.

  11. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-Mg/Al hydrotalcite for removal phenol in water (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Wiyantoko, Bayu; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Muzdalifah


    Hydrotalcite materials was synthesized by using Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and Mg/Al layered double hydroxide with ratio molar 3:1. Synthesis of CTAB-Mg/Al hydrotalcite was carried out using ex situ co-precipitation method at pH 10±0.5. Removal of phenol was optimum at medium pH 6 and it had optimum contact time in 300 min. It followed pseudo second order with adsorption rate constant was 1.15.10-4 mM-1.min-1. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model was 35.71 mg.g-1 at room temperature.

  12. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin


    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Mixed micelles of benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride with tetradecyltrimethylammonium and tetradecyltriphenylphosphonium bromides: a head group contribution. (United States)

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Kaur, Ishpinder; Sood, Rohit; Singh, Jasmeet; Singh, Kulbir; Sachar, Shweta; Singh, Kanwar Jit; Kaur, Gurinder


    Mixed micelle formation by tetradecyltrimethylammonium (TTAB) and tetradecyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (TTPB) with benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BTDACl) was studied with the help of conductivity and Kraft point measurements. The BTDACl + TTAB mixtures showed synergistic interactions whereas those of BTDACl + TTPB indicated weak antagonistic behavior. From Kraft temperature measurements, the enthalpy of fusion (H(1)(0)) from solid hydrated BTDACl to the liquid state in the presence of TTAB or TTPB was computed. It was found that DeltaH(1)(0) was much more positive for BTDACl + TTPB than for BTDACl + TTAB mixtures.

  14. Promotion of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide to the damage of Alexandrium sp. LC3 by cupric glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; MIAO Jin-lai; CUI Feng-xia; LI Guang-you


    The effect of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB) on the removal of A lexandrium sp. LC3 under cupric glutamate stress was investigated. Toxic effect of cupric glutamate on A lexandrium sp. LC3 was significantly promoted in the presence of HDTMAB, especially at 3.0 cmc of HDTMAB. It was found that the sulfhydryl group content of the cell decreased, while the malonaldehyde content and membrane permeability increased when Alexandrium sp. LC3 was treated with HDTMAB and cupric glutamate complex, compared with cupric glutamate alone. The data suggest that HDTMAB might stimulate the damage of A lexandrium sp. LC3 by enhancing the membrane permeability.

  15. 2-[(Diisopropylthiophosphorylamino]pyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holzhacker


    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H20N2PS+·BF4−, is a salt of 2-(diisopropylthiophosphorylaminopyridine, a chelating bidentate ligand that furnishes an S atom as a soft donor and a pyridine N atom as a hard atom for transition-metal complexation. The title salt crystallizes with two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The two independent cations are protonated at the pyridine N atoms and have the S atoms syn-oriented to them so as to form bent intramolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds, one of which one is bifurcated by involving also an N—H...F interaction. The phosphorylamino NH groups form near linear hydrogen bonds to proximal tetrafluoroborate anions. Five weak C—H...F and three weak C—H...S interactions link the constituents into a three-dimensional framework. As a result of the crystal packing, the two cations differ notably in conformation, as can be seen from the S—P—N—C torsion angles of −18.7 (1° in the first and −35.1 (1° in the second cation.

  16. p-Bromophenacyl bromide prevents cumene hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition by inhibiting pyridine nucleotide oxidation. (United States)

    Zhukova, A; Gogvadze, G; Gogvadze, V


    Mitochondrial permeability transition is commonly characterized as a Ca2+ -dependent non-specific increase in inner membrane permeability that results in swelling of mitochondria and their de-energization. In the present study, the effect of different inhibitors of phospholipase A2--p-bromophenacyl bromide, dibucaine, and aristolochic acid--on hydroperoxide-induced permeability transitions in rat liver mitochondria was tested. p-Bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented the hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition while the effects of dibucaine or aristolochic acid were negligible. Organic hydroperoxides added to mitochondria undergo reduction to corresponding alcohols by mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase. This reduction occurs at the expense of GSH which, in turn, can be reduced by glutathione reductase via oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. The latter is considered a prerequisite step for mitochondrial permeability transition. Among all the inhibitors tested, only p-bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented hydroperoxide-induced oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. Interestingly, p-bromophenacyl bromide had no affect on mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, but reacted with mitochondrial glutathione that prevented pyridine nucleotides from being oxidized. Our data suggest that p-bromophenacyl bromide prevents hydroperoxide-induced deterioration of mitochondria via interaction with glutathione rather than through inhibition of phospholipase A2.

  17. 苯扎溴铵酊处方改进及苯扎溴铵的含量测定%Improvement of prescription on Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture and de-termination of benzalkonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海伟; 王晓青; 刘皈阳; 马建丽


    Objective To improve prescription of Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture and establish a titration method in determination for content of benzalkonium bromide in Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution (eosin was removed from Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture). Methods The content of benzalkonium bromide was detected by setting up capacity analysis method, and found eosin can affect the result of content determination at different degree, therefore eosin com-position was removed from the prescription. The content of benzalkonium bromide in Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution was detected by titration method with tetraphenylboron sodium volumetric solution (0.02 mol/L). Results Ben-zalkonium Bromide Tincture changed to Benzalkonium Bromide Alcohol Solution, in content determination, the change of titration end point was obvious and easy to judge. Within the range from 0.4 mg/mL to 1.4 mg/mL, benzalkonium bromide presented a good linear relationship with the consumption volume of tetraphenylboron sodium volumetric solu-tion (r=0.9995), and the equation of linear regression was V=18.3C-0.32. The average recovery of benzalkonium bro-mide in low, middle and high dose was 99.12%, and RSD was 0.84%. Conclusion The method is simple, fast and ac-curate, it can be used for the quality control of Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution.%目的:改进苯扎溴铵酊处方,并建立容量分析法测定苯扎溴铵醇溶液(苯扎溴铵酊去除曙红成分)中苯扎溴铵的含量。方法在建立容量分析法测定苯扎溴铵的含量时,发现曙红在不同程度上均能影响含量测定结果,故将曙红成分从处方中删去。采用四苯硼钠(0.02 mol/L)为滴定液,滴定苯扎溴铵醇溶液中苯扎溴铵的含量。结果苯扎溴铵酊制剂更改为苯扎溴铵醇溶液,在含量测定中,滴定终点变化明显,易于判断。苯扎溴铵在浓度0.4~1.4 mg/mL的范围内与消耗四苯硼钠滴定液体积呈良好线性关系,r=0

  18. Moving away from methyl bromide: political economy of pesticide transition for California strawberries since 2004. (United States)

    Mayfield, Erin N; Norman, Catherine Shelley


    We examine the progress of the phaseout of the use of the pesticide methyl bromide in the production of California field strawberries. This phaseout is required under the Montreal Protocol and has been contentious in this sector, which receives exemptions from the schedule initially agreed under the treaty, and in international negotiations over the future of the Protocol. We examine the various ex-ante predictions of the impacts on growers, consumers and trade patterns in light of several years of declining allocations under the Critical Use provisions of the Protocol and the 2010 approval of iodomethane for use in California and subsequent 2012 withdrawal of this alternative from the US market. We find that, contrary to ex-ante industry claims, the years of declining methyl bromide use have been years of rising yields, acreage, exports, revenues and market share for California growers, even when faced with a global recession and increased imports from Mexican growers who retain the right to use the chemical under the Protocol. This has implications for the Protocol as a whole and for the remainder of the US phaseout of this chemical in particular.

  19. Chemical vapor transport and solid-state exchange synthesis of new copper selenite bromides (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Kayukov, Roman A.; Zagidullin, Karim A.; Siidra, Oleg I.


    A new dimorphic copper selenite bromide, Cu5(SeO3)4Br2 was obtained via chemical transport reactions. α-Cu5(SeO3)4Br2, monoclinic (1m) and β-Cu5(SeO3)4Br2, triclinic (1a) polymorphs were produced simultaneously upon reaction of amorphous, partially dehydrated copper selenite and copper bromide. 1m is similar to Cu5(SeO3)4Cl2, whereas 1a is distantly related to Ni5(SeO3)4Br2 and Co5(SeO3)4Br2. Attempts to reproduce synthesis of 1a via exchange reaction between Na2SeO3 and CuBr2 resulted in a new Na2[Cu7O2](SeO3)4Br4 (2). Current study demonstrates for the first time, that both chemical vapor and exchange reactions can be employed in preparation of new selenite halides.

  20. Thermodynamics of micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in propylene glycol-water mixture: A conductivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević-Ležaić Aleksandra M.


    Full Text Available Micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (syn. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB in propylene glycol-water (30% v/v binary mixture, as well as the thermodynamic properties of the resulting micelles, were investigated by electrical conductivity measurements. The conductivity data were used to determine both the critical micellar concentration (CMC and the micellar ionization degree (α of CTin the temperature range 298.2-310.2 K. The equilibrium model of micelle formation was applied in order to obtain the thermodynamic parameters (the standard molar Gibbs free energy, ΔGm0, enthalpy, ΔHm0 and entropy, ΔSm0 of the micellization process. The values of DGm0 and DHm0 were found to be negative at all investigated temperatures, while the values of ΔSm0 were positive and became more positive as temperature increased. A linear dependence between ΔSm0 and ΔHm0, i.e. an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, was observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  1. Model prediction uncertainty of bromide and pesticides transport in laboratory column (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas


    Knowledge of transport parameters of reactive solutes such as pesticides is a prerequisite for reliable predictions of their fate and transport in soil porous systems. Water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. Laboratory column leaching experiment with three flow interruptions was conducted. The applied numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. A global optimization method was used to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters and the uncertainty of model predictions. Within the Monte Carlo modeling framework, multiple forward simulations searching through the parametric space, were executed to describe the observed breakthrough curves. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile. Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent. Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study.

  2. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses. (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Sidiropoulos, Artemios; Prophetou-Athanasiadou, Demetra


    The complete phase-out of methyl bromide from use in developed countries by 1 January 2005 will cause many problems in agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on its use. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on tomato and cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Reduction of nematode juveniles in soil and roots to nil detection levels was observed in all plots following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. A significant reduction of nematode juveniles and root-galling index was observed in plots treated with metham-sodium, dazomet and 1,3-dichloropropene compared with the control and plots treated with non-fumigant nematicides. Reduction of the nematode population led to an increase in fruit yield. However, data collected from the second cultivation season indicated that single control methods such as fumigant or contact nematicides alone cannot drastically decrease initial nematode population and those nematodes which escape control lead to population increase by the end of the cropping season.

  3. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi


    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  4. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar


    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHDead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  5. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of atmospheric CH3Br and its budget, response to the phaseout, and response to interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes a detailed gridded ocean model coupled to a time-dependant atmospheric 2-box model. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide variability over the 1997–2008 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source indicated. The missing source does not exhibit a systematic decline during the phaseout period, and therefore, is not the result of significantly underestimating non-QPS agricultural CH3Br emissions. The model results suggest that the oceans should be less undersaturated than before the phaseout began.

  6. Pressure-Induced Structural and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskite-Based Formamidinium Lead Bromide. (United States)

    Wang, Lingrui; Wang, Kai; Zou, Bo


    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) are attracting an ever-growing scientific interest as photovoltaic materials with moderate cost and compelling properties. In this Letter, pressure-induced optical and structural changes of OMHP-based formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) were systematically investigated. We studied the pressure dependence of optical absorption and photoluminescence, both of which showed piezochromism. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction indicated that FAPbBr3 underwent two phase transitions and subsequent amorphization, leading directly to the bandgap evolution with redshift followed by blueshift during compression. Raman experiments illustrated the high pressure behavior of organic cation and the surrounding inorganic octahedra. Additionally, the effect of cation size and the different intermolecular interactions between organic cation and inorganic octahedra result in the fact that FAPbBr3 is less compressible than the reported methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3). High pressure studies of the structural evolution and optical properties of OMHPs provide important clues in optimizing photovoltaic performance and help to design novel OMHPs with higher stimuli-resistant ability.

  7. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C


    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  8. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies. (United States)

    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The adsorbents exhibits high efficiency for EtBr adsorption and equilibrium can be achieved in 6 and 3 min for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The effect of temperature on adsorption of EtBr by toward adsorbents shows the process in this research has been endothermic. The results showed that the equilibrium data were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.770 and 0.830 mg/g for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The adsorption of EtBr on SWCNT-COOH is more than SWCNTs surfaces. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order models. Pseudo second-order was found to agree well with the experimental data.

  9. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  10. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan


    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  11. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P. [Cal EPA, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others


    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  12. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion. (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V


    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present.

  13. [Effects of bromide and ferric ions on formation of tri-halomethanes during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine]. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Jing; Ge, Yuan-Xin; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Fu


    Effects of bromide and ferric ions on the formation and distribution of tri-halomethanes (THMs) have been investigated. As disinfection by-product (DBP) model precursors of natural water, humic acid solutions were used and a series of experiments were conducted. The results showed that bromide in this reaction system not only contributed to the increase of brominated species, but also the total tri-halomethanes. When the concentration of Br(-) was 1.0 mg/L, the total amount of produced THMs reached to 270% of that without bromide ions. In the presence of bromide, ferric ions decreased the production of THMs at pH 6, but increased the production of THMs at pH 8, especially for the amount of tri-bromomethanes. When the concentration of Fe3+ was 5 mg/L, the amount of produced tri-bromomethanes had an increment of 54% (from 51.7 microg/L to 79.4 microg/L), and the total amount of THMs increased from 113.49 microg/L to 162.09 microg/L. Bromide ions had a significant effect on carcinogenicity risk in disinfection of drinking water by chlorine, and the co-existence of ferric ion and bromide in alkalescent environment can result in the biggest challenge on carcinogenicity risk. Under the condition of 0.2 mg/L Br(-), 5 mg/L Fe3+ and pH 6, the carcinogenicity risk increased 2.5 times than that without Br(-) and Fe3+, and much higher increment of 5.1 times appeared when pH was 8.

  14. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail:; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)


    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  15. Bromidotetra­kis­(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)copper(II) bromide (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna


    The CuII ion in the title mol­ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C—H⋯Br inter­action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results. PMID:23468738

  16. Protective effect of testosterone on cognitive deficits induced by ethidium bromide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahadin Feizollah


    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. The hippocampus is a vital center for learning and memory; it is extremely vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. The male hormones could be neuroprotective for the CNS. The current study is an attempt to investigate the effect of testosterone on learning and spatial memory following the demyelination of CA1 area by the injection of ethidium bromide in the rats' hippocampus. Methods: This experimental study has been conducted on healthy rats in the faculty of science of the Urmia University from September 2013 to February 2015. For demyelination in all previously gonadectomized healthy rats, 3µl ethidium bromide was injected into the CA1 area of rats by stereotaxic surgery. In addition, the treatment groups received 1µl testosterone (6µg/µl during a 20-day timeframe on a daily basis after demyelination by the ethidium bromide. The control groups had no drug injection. The process of the learning and spatial memory of the rats were closely monitored by the radial Maze. The demyelination and remyelination in the hippocampus were checked by the myelin-specific coloring (Luxol fast blue and Cresyl violet. Results: The histological results suggest that the testosterone is capable of minimizing the destructive impacts of ethidium bromide in the treatment group as well as enhancing the remyelination process. In the group treated by testosterone, the percentage of the pyknotic cells 20 days after demyelination induction, represented a significant reduction compared to that of ethidium bromide group (P=0.008. The behavioral studies analyses show that the amount of the food finding time in those groups received ethidium bromide was significantly longer than those of the control groups (P=0.001. Furthermore, the application of the testosterone in the treatment groups reduced the extent of demyelination while the memory impairment induced by the

  17. Copper/N,N-Dimethylglycine Catalyzed Goldberg Reactions Between Aryl Bromides and Amides, Aryl Iodides and Secondary Acyclic Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Jiang


    Full Text Available An efficient and general copper-catalyzed Goldberg reaction at 90–110 °C between aryl bromides and amides providing the desired products in good to excellent yields has been developed using N,N-dimethylglycine as the ligand. The reaction is tolerant toward a wide range of amides and a variety of functional group substituted aryl bromides. In addition, hindered, unreactive aromatic and aliphatic secondary acyclic amides, known to be poor nucleophiles, are efficiently coupled with aryl iodides through this simple and cheap copper/N,N-dimethylglycine catalytic system.

  18. Effect of ethidium bromide on transmission of mitochondrial genomes and DNA synthesis in the petite negative yeast Schizosaccharomyces pomhe. (United States)

    Wolf, K; Del Giudice, L


    Treatment of haploid strains of the petite negative yeast Schizosaccharomyces pomhe with ethidium bromide prior to mating with untreated cells reduces transmission of mitochondrial markers from the treated strains. This effect is fully reversible after 20 generations of growth in drug free medium before mating. In contrast to the petite positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where nuclear DNA synthesis is not affected but mitochondrial DNA is degraded in the presence of 20 μg/ml ethidium bromide, the same concentration decreases both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA synthesis in Schizosaccharomyces pomhe. After removal of the drug, nuclear DNA synthesis increases faster than its mitochondrial counterpart in Schizosaccharomyces pomhe.

  19. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides and its aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, Maciej, E-mail:; Królikowska, Marta; Lipiński, Paweł


    Highlights: • The aqueous solutions of bromide-based ionic liquids have been studied. • The synthesis and basic thermal characterization of pure IL have been done. • The density, dynamic viscosity, SLE and VLE have been determined. • The experimental data have been correlated using appropriate equations. - Abstract: This work is a continuation of our research of ionic liquids to investigate the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of (ionic liquid + water) binary mixtures as a novel alternative working pair for the absorption heat pump cycle. In this work, a series of organic salts: N-propyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 3}PYR]Br; N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [C{sub 1}C{sub 4}PYR]Br and N-pentyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 5}PYR]Br have been synthesized. The structures of new compounds have been confirmed using NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The basic thermal characterization of pure ILs, including temperature and enthalpy of phase transition (T{sub tr}, Δ{sub tr}H), temperature and enthalpy of melting (T{sub m,} Δ{sub m}H) have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition temperature of the tested ILs were detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The effect of temperature on the density (ρ) and dynamic viscosity (η) is reported over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. From experimental density data, the excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. The isothermal vapour–liquid phase equilibria (VLE) have been measured by an ebulliometric method at wide temperature range from 328.15 to 368.15 K and pressure up to 85 kPa. Experimental data have been correlated by means of NRTL equation. The solid–liquid phase equilibria (SLE) for the tested binary mixtures have been determined over whole composition range using dynamic method. The NRTL equation using parameters

  20. COPD patient satisfaction with ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT


    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Mo Ghafouri,2 Luyan Dai,2 Leonard J Dunn31Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Clinical Research of West Florida, Inc, Clearwater, FL, USABackground: Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler (CVT-R was developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to ipratropium bromide/albuterol metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI, which uses a chlorofluorocarbon propellant.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, device usage, and long-term safety of CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI, and to the simultaneous administration of ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane (HFA; I and albuterol HFA (A metered-dose inhalers as dual monotherapies (I + A.Design: This is a 48-week, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study (n = 470 comparing CVT-R to CVT-MDI and to I + A.Participants: Patients were at least 40 years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and current or exsmokers.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive: (1 CVT-R, one inhalation four times daily (QID; or (2 CVT-MDI, two inhalations QID; or (3 I + A two inhalations of each inhaler QID.Main measures: Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ performance score (primary endpoint and adverse events.Key results: PASAPQ performance score was significantly higher (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, 9.6; and CVT-R versus I + A, 6.2; both P < 0.001 when using CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI or I + A at all visits starting from week 3, while CVT-MDI and I + A treatment groups were similar. Time to first COPD exacerbation was slightly longer in the CVT-R group compared to the other treatment groups, although it did not reach statistical significance (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, P = 0.57; CVT-R versus I + A, P = 0.22. Rates of withdrawal and patient refusal to continue treatment were lower in CVT-R compared with CVT

  1. An innovative experimental design reveals the spatial correlation between landuse, irrigation properties, and bromide leaching (United States)

    Schwen, A.; Yang, Y.; Walton, J.; Wendroth, O.


    Understanding the relationship between leaching of pesticides and soil hydraulic properties under different land use conditions is critical to our understanding of the flow of water and solutes in soils and efforts to model these flow characteristics. One problem inherent in the measurement of solute leaching in field experiments is the considerable high natural spatial variability of flow-controlling soil properties. Thus, analyzing treatment effects based on the mean and the variance of observations can become obsolete if there is a huge inherent variance in the set of measurements. Moreover, no spatial range of influence can be derived from the observations. To overcome this limitation, the spatial covariance and cross-variance between measurements was used as decision and quality criteria in the present study. This study aims to demonstrate that focussing on the spatial covariance of observations and considering their spatial process can provide a measure of spatial representativity or scale-specific variance. We introduce a novel experimental scheme, where the treatments are arranged in a scale-dependent manner. In a field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, bromide leaching under two contrasting land use systems (no-till agricultural crops vs. pasture) was compared. After surface application of tracer solution (KBr), the experimental field was irrigated using different time-delays (1, 4 and 24 hours) as well as two different irrigation amounts and two different intensities. At the end, the KBr-concentration in the soil profile was determined using auger samplings. The data was correlated with the applied boundary conditions by spatial statistical methods such as semivariograms, cross-semivariograms and spectral analysis. Our results show distinct differences in the leaching behaviour between the two analyzed land uses with an deeper infiltration in the no-till agricultural field. This can be partly related to a higher initial soil water content in this treatment

  2. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Q


    Full Text Available Qunyou Tan,1,* Rong Jiang,3,* Meiling Xu,2,4,* Guodong Liu,5,* Songlin Li,1 Jingqing Zhang21Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, 3Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Research, Chongqing Medical University, 4Department of Pharmacy, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, 5Eighth Department, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide, a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid microcapsules (PPNMCs were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine.Methods: The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium.Results: The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm

  3. Copper-catalysed N-arylation of arylsulfonamides with aryl bromides and aryl iodides using KF/Al2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahman Hosseinzadeh; Mahmood Tajbakhsh; Maryam Mohadjerani; Mohammad Alikarami


    An efficient synthesis of -arylsulfonamides with a variety of aryl bromides, aryl iodides and heteroaryl bromides using KF/Al2O3 as a suitable base, CuI as an inexpensive catalyst and ,'-dimethylethylenediamine (,'-DMEDA) as an effective ligand is described.

  4. Interaction between dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide-modified PLGA microspheres and hyaluronic acid (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Devi, Krisanti, Elsa


    In application of intravitreal injection, an extended drug delivery system is desired so that the frequency of injection to treat diabetic retinopathy may be reduced. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer (PLGA) was used to encapsulate a model drug in the form of microspheres. The zeta potential of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB)-modified PLGA microspheres in water was proportional to the DDAB concentration used in the preparation step, up to +57.8 mV. The scanning electron microscope pictures and the zeta potential data (SEM) confirmed that the surface of the PLGA has been modified by the cationic surfactant and that electrostatic interaction between the positively charged microspheres and the negatively charged vitreous were present.

  5. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu


    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  6. Suzuki Reaction of Aryl Bromides Using a Phosphine-Free Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported Palladium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nghia T. BUI; Trung B. DANG; Ha V. LE; Nam T. S. PHAN


    A palladium catalyst immobilized on superparaganetic nanoparticles was prepared with a palladium loading of 0.30 mmol/g.The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,vibrating sample magnetometry,thermogravimetric analysis,Fourier transform infrared,atomic absorption spectrophotometry,and nitrogen adsorption.The immobilized palladium catalyst was an efficient catalyst without added phosphine ligands for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of several aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid.The recovery of catalyst was simply by magnetic decantation in the presence of a magnet.The immobilized palladium catalyst can be reused many times without significant degradation in catalytic activity.No leaching of active palladium species into the reaction solution was detected.

  7. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizana Yusof


    Full Text Available Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.

  8. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  9. Pitting corrosion transformation of SUS304 stainless steel in lithium bromide solution at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.X.; Ma, X.H.; Chen, J.B.; Bo, S.S. [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)


    The foundational data and rules of SUS304 corrosion in aqueous lithium bromide solution at 150-200 C have been investigated by means of weight loss in this paper. The Taguchi method was chosen to investigate the effects of variables on corrosion at higher temperature. Concentration of dissolved oxygen was controlled by keeping the vessel pressure at 1.3 kPa (absolute) before the experiment. The results showed that there was a transformation tendency from pitting corrosion to general corrosion and transition concentration of pitting and film corrosion decreased with increase in solution temperature. The adsorption, activity, and diffusivity of bromine ion led to different corrosion modalities. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Improved hydrogen evolution on glassy carbon electrode modified with novel Pt/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide nanoscale aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof; Sayed Reza Hosseini; Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi-Sani


    A novel, cost‐effective, and simple electrocatalyst based on a Pt‐modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, is reported. Am‐phiphilic CTAB molecules were adsorbed on GCE by immersion in a CTAB solution. The positively charged hydrophilic layer, which consisted of small aggregates of average size less than 100 nm, was used for accumulation and complexation of [PtCl6]2− anions by immersing the electrode in K2PtCl6 solution. The modified electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pt particles in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigat‐ed. The results show that the CTAB surfactant enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt parti‐cles in the HER in acidic solution.

  11. Spectroscopic probe of the competitive binding of ethidium bromide and neomycin to DNA (United States)

    Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti


    The three spectroscopic changes of ethidium bromide (EB) on its binding to DNA, namely red-shift of the νmax, enhancement of fluorescence and induced dichroism are utilized to study the competitive binding of neomycin (NMC) and EB to DNA. Reversion of νmax, decrease in fluorescence and reduction of dichroism of DNA-EB on addition of NMC shows that the binding of NMC and EB to DNA is competitive in nature, over a limited concentration of the polymer. The binding constant of EB-DNA falls from 4.00 × 10 6 to 2.27 × 10 4 1 mol -1 in the presence of added NMC.

  12. Lithium bromide absorption machines: Pressure drop and mass transfer in solutions conical sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, E. [Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial, U.P.M., Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid 28012 (Spain); Izquierdo, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja. C.S.I.C., Serrano Galvache 4, Madrid 28033 (Spain); Lizarte, R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, Madrid 28911 (Spain); Marcos, J.D. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, U.N.E.D., Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)


    Adiabatic vapour absorption in conical liquid sheets is studied with a view to use in air conditioning. The sheets consist in a lithium bromide aqueous solution sprayed at mass flow rates ranging from 0.0078 to 0.0116 kg/s (28-42 kg/h). The experimental results show that the deformation rate associated with conical sheet development has a significant effect on absorption, with 60% of the total reached by the time the liquid sheet disintegrates, 4 ms after injection. In the conical sheet configuration, about 150 g of vapour are absorbed per kJ of solution flow work. The vapour absorption rate per chamber absorption volume, in turn, is found to be over 1 g/s l in absorption chambers 75 mm long or less. (author)

  13. Exchange equilibria between bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride and bromide on dowex 1 x 8. (United States)

    Lundström, U; Olin, A


    The exchange reaction 2R(+)HCO(3)(2-) + CO(3)(2-) right harpoon over left harpoon R(2)(+) CO(3)(2-) + 2HCO(3)(2-) has been studied on Dowex 1 x 8 in the presence of bicarbonate solution in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide (open system). The experiments showed, as theory predicts, that the composition of the resin phase is independent of the concentration of the bicarbonate solution. The mole fraction of carbonate at equilibrium is about 0.4 and the equilibrium constant is 0.15M at 20 degrees . With this value of the constant, the composition of the ion-exchanger for various bicarbonate concentrations has been calculated for a closed system. At [HCO(3)(-)] Chromatographie enrichment of bromide from fresh water.

  14. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid (United States)

    Maheswari, J. Uma; Krishnan, C.; Kalyanaraman, S.; Selvarajan, P.


    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  15. Copper bromide vapor brightness amplifiers with 100 kHz pulse repetition frequency (United States)

    Trigub, M. V.; Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.


    The paper presents a laser monitor with 10 μs time-resolution based on a high-frequency copper bromide vapor brightness amplifier. A sync circuit has been designed for single-pulse imaging. The analysis of amplifying characteristics of the active elements and active optical system (laser monitor) parameters allowed to determine the optimal concentration of HBr at which the images can be obtained with minimum distortions. For the active element operating at high frequencies (more than 50 kHz) as a brightness amplifier, the concentration of HBr must be lower than that needed for obtaining the maximum output power. The limiting brightness temperature of the background radiation which does not affect the image quality is determined. The potential feasibility of using a proposed brightness amplifier for visualizing processes blocked from viewing by the background radiation with the brightness temperature up to 8000 K is demonstrated.

  16. Crystal structure of {2-[({2-[(2-aminoethylamino]ethyl}iminomethyl]phenolato}aquacopper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya I. Plyuta


    Full Text Available In the mononuclear copper(II title complex, [Cu(C11H16N3O(H2O]Br, the CuII atom is coordinated by one O and three N atoms of the Schiff base ligand that forms together with one water molecule a slightly distorted [CuN3O2] square-pyramidal polyhedron. The deviation of the CuII atom from the mean equatorial plane is 0.182 (2 Å. The equatorial plane is nearly coplanar to the aromatic ring of the ligand [angle between planes = 10.4 (1°], and the water molecule is situated in the apical site. All coordinating atoms (except the imine nitrogen and the bromide ion contribute to the formation of the N—H...Br, O—H...Br and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link molecules into chains along [01-1].

  17. Bromidotetra-kis-(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the Cu(II) and Br(-) atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)](+) complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br(-) anions (site symmetry [Formula: see text]) by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8) and 0.380 (8).

  18. Bromidotetrakis(1H-2-ethyl-5-methylimidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Godlewska


    Full Text Available The CuII ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C6H10N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the CuII and Br− atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C6H10N24]+ complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br− anions (site symmetry overline{4} by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8 and 0.380 (8.

  19. Growth, photoluminescence, thermal and mechanical behaviour of Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide dihydrate crystal (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gopalakrishnan, R.


    Single crystal of Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide dihydrate (ETPB) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The functional groups and vibrational frequencies were identified using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral analyses. Optical properties were studied by UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques to explore its efficacy towards device fabrication. Thermal characteristics of ETPB were studied using the TGA/DTA and DSC response curves. The mechanical behaviour of the grown crystal was studied using Vicker's microhardness tester and the work hardening coefficient was evaluated. The second harmonic generation of the title compound was tested by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  20. Growth and characterization of Cadmium Thiosemicarbazide Bromide crystals for antibacterial and nonlinear optical applications (United States)

    Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.; Martin Sam Gnanaraj, J.


    Semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals of Cadmium Thiosemicarbazide Bromide was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The unit cell parameters were estimated by subjecting the crystals to single crystal X-ray diffraction. The grown crystals were subjected to Powder X-ray diffraction for analyzing the crystalline nature of the sample. FTIR studies reveal the functional groups and the optical characters were analyzed by UV-Vis spectral studies. Mechanical stability of the sample was assessed by Vicker's micro hardness test. The presence of surface dislocations was identified by chemical etching technique. Antibacterial study was carried out against ACDP declared harmful pathogens. SHG efficiency of CTSB crystal was tested using Nd: YAG laser and it was found to be ∼1.8 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

  1. Strain IMB-1, a novel bacterium for the removal of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils (United States)

    Connell, Hancock T.L.; Costello, A.M.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.


    A facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, that has been isolated from agricultural soil grows on methyl bromide (MeBr), methyl iodide, methyl chloride, and methylated amines, as well as on glucose, pyruvate, or acetate. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that strain IMB-1 classes in the alpha subgroup of the class Proteobacteria and is closely related to members of the genus Rhizobium. The ability of strain IMB-1 to oxidize MeBr to CO2 is constitutive in cells regardless of the growth substrate. Addition of cell suspensions of strain IMB-1 to soils greatly accelerates the oxidation of MeBr, as does pretreatment of soils with low concentrations of methyl iodide. These results suggest that soil treatment strategies can be devised whereby bacteria can effectively consume MeBr during field fumigations, which would diminish or eliminate the outward flux of MeBr to the atmosphere.

  2. Determination of critical micelle concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: Different procedures for analysis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goronja Jelena M.


    Full Text Available Conductivity of two micellar systems was measured in order to determine critical micelle concentration (CMC of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. Those systems were: CTin water and CTin binary mixture acetonitrile (ACN-water. Conductivity (κ-concentration (c data were treated by four different methods: conventional method, differential methods (first and second derivative and method of integration (methods A-D, respectively. As CTin water micellar system shows a sharp transition between premicellar and postmicellar part of the κ/c curve, any of the applied methods gives reliable CMC values and there is no statistically significant difference between them. However, for CTin ACN-water mixture micellar system the integration method for CMC determination is recommended due to a weak curvature of κ/c plot.

  3. [Investigation of the oxidation reaction of O3 with bromide ion in aqueous solution]. (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Jia-Hui; Pan, Xun-Xi; Zhang, Ren-Xi; Hou, Hui-Qi


    The reaction mechanism of O3 with bromide ion in aqueous solution was studied by ion chromatography and UV-Vis spectrometry instruments. Ion chromatography analysis showed that only 10% of Br- which was oxidized by ozone was formed into bromate ion. The results demonstrated that the final products of the oxidation reaction were identified as Br2 and Br3- except for BrO3-. The formation of Br3- which was yielded from the reaction of Br2 with Br- was the major process in the reaction of Br attacked by O3. The characteristic absorption spectrum of Br3- with an absorption peak at 260 nm was also investigated. The results may provide helpful information about the mechanism of the oxidation reaction of Br- with O3 and fate of Br- or its derivatives in the environment by the oxidation processes.

  4. Fluorescence studies on the interaction of ethidium bromide with duplex, triplex and quadruplex DNA structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪光; 曹恩华; 何裕建; 秦静芬


    Under different conditions, oligonucleotides can form several alternative DNA structures such as duplex, triplex and quadruplex. All these structures can interact with ethidium bromide (EB) and make its fluorescence intensity change. The fluorescence spectra and other related parameters provided by static fluorescence techniques showed that the interaction mechanisms between EB and these structures were not always the same. Among them, B type duplex and triplex DNA adopt an intercalative mode when binding to the EB, which has a relatively high efficiency of energy transfer and the fluorescence of EB cannot be quenched easily. While for the parallel duplex DNA, the interaction mode is an outside binding in which energy transfer can hardly happen and its fluorescence intensity as well as Stern-Volmer constant is almost the same to the free EB. For the quadruplex, the binding mechanism to EB is more complex. Results from the energy transfer and quenching studies indicate that the two interaction modes note


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-hua Lu; Chuan-qiou Luo; Wei-xiao Cao


    The interaction of poly(sodium sulfodecyl methacrylate) (PSSM) with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)was studied. It was found that the precipitate formed from PSSM and CTAB will be dissolved by excessive CTAB, resultingin the appearance of two maxima of the solution viscosity at the molar ratio (CTAB/-SO3-) of ≈ 0.68 and ≈ 1.30,respectively. The first one is related closely to the aggregation of polymer chains via CTAB molecules and the second oneshould be ascribed to the formation of the mixed micelles comprising surfactant and the polymer's hydrophobic chains. Theeffect of NaCl on the viscosity, the transmittance of the aqueous solution and the solubility of oil-soluble dye (dimethylyellow) in the mixed system were also investigated.

  6. Successful treatment of migrating partial seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with bromide. (United States)

    Itakura, Ayako; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro


    A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions. Genetic analysis was conducted based on the characteristic facial appearance of the patient, which identified a 2.1-Mb terminal deletion on chromosome 4p. This is the first case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome complicated by epilepsy with migrating partial seizures.

  7. Rapid isolation of plasmid DNA by LiCl-ethidium bromide treatment and gel filtration. (United States)

    Kondo, T; Mukai, M; Kondo, Y


    We established a simple and rapid plasmid DNA purification method. Crude plasmid DNA preparations are treated with 4 M LiCl in the presence of 0.6 mg/ml ethidium bromide to precipitate RNA and proteins contained in the DNA preparations. After removal of RNA and protein precipitates, the supernatant is filtered through a Sepharose CL6B column to remove low-molecular-weight contaminants. This procedure takes only 30 min and provides pure plasmid DNA preparations that consist mainly of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA but have no detectable RNA and protein. The purified DNA preparations are susceptible to various six- and four-base-recognition restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, and T7 and Taq DNA polymerase. Since no special equipment is needed for this purification method, 20 or more samples of microgram to milligram levels can be treated in parallel.

  8. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates (United States)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.


    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  9. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A


    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators

  10. The aqueous catanionic system sodium perfluorooctanoate-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at low concentration. (United States)

    López-Fontán, José Luis; Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Schulz, Pablo C; Sarmiento, Félix


    The interaction between sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) was studied by several methods and it was found strongly synergistic. Above a mole fraction of SPFO in the surfactant mixture (alpha(SPFO))=0.38, the interaction is repulsive and increases with the content of SPFO in both, the overall mixture and micelles, whereas the interaction is attractive if DTAB is in excess. At alpha(SPFO)=0.38 the low miscibility between hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon is counterbalanced by the electrostatic attraction between the opposite charged head groups, and the micelle composition is ideal (i.e., the mole fraction of SPFO in micelles X(SPFO)=alpha(SPFO)=0.38). The solubility of fluorocarbon in hydrocarbon is lower than that of hydrocarbon in fluorocarbon. Micelles of DTAB act as a solvent for SPFO without important structural changes, whilst micelles of SPFO undergo important changes when dissolve DTAB. This asymmetry may be interpreted as caused by the difference in chain length that favors the inclusion of the shorter chain in micelles of the longer surfactant, but disfavors the opposite process. Above X(SPFO)=0.5 there is an excess adsorption of bromide ions on the mixed micelles surface, giving rise to a high zeta potential. Micelles of pure SPFO or pure DTAB show an important energy barrier which prevents micelle flocculation. The inclusion of SPFO in DTAB micelles produces a reduction of the energy barrier, which disappeared when alpha(SPFO)=0.5. This produces the flocculation of micelles giving rise to the formation of a non-birefringent coacervate, which is probably formed by unordered isometric clusters of micelles.

  11. Role of combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide (QVA149 for the treatment of COPD in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horita N


    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Horita, Takeshi Kaneko Department of Pulmonology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan Abstract: Once-daily dual-bronchodilator therapy with combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide in one device (Ultibro, Breezhaler, often called QVA149, was first approved in 2013 in Japan and Europe. As of November 2014, more than 40 countries had approved this medication except for the USA. This is the first dual bronchodilator in one device. Now, the Breezhaler is the only device that can provide long-acting muscarinic antagonist (glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting beta agonist (indacaterol, and a combination of the two medications (QVA149. The choice among the three medications allows a patient to use the same inhalation device even when the regimen is changed from single-bronchodilator therapy to dual-bronchodilator therapy. In addition, the quick bronchodilation effect and once-daily administration can improve patient adherence to medical treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, as of November 2014, the safety and the efficacy of QVA149 have been evaluated in 14 randomized controlled trials. The 14 trials generally showed good safety profiles, and there were better or not-inferior bronchodilator effects of QVA149 when compared with placebo, or other inhaled medication. According to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines, QVA149 is a combination of the two first-line bronchodilators. Our meta-analysis indicated that QVA149 is superior to the salmeterol–fluticasone combination to treat COPD in respect of the frequency of adverse effects, exacerbation, pneumonia, and improvement of trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. Thus, we believe that QVA149 can be a key medication for COPD treatments. Keywords: bronchodilator agents, dry powder inhalers, delivery of health care, guideline, meta-analysis, muscarinic antagonists 

  12. Iodide Impurities in Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Products: Lot−Lot Variations and Influence on Gold Nanorod Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Ungureanu, Constantin; Krystec, Petra; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang


    Recent reports [Smith and Korgel Langmuir 2008, 24, 644−649 and Smith et al.Langmuir 2009, 25, 9518−9524] have implicated certain hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) products with iodide impurities, in the failure of a seed-mediated, silver and surfactant-assisted growth protocol, to produce g

  13. High-Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M. tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN,Qing-Hui(金庆辉); CHEN,Ji-Feng(陈继锋); JING,Feng-Xiang(景奉香); ZHAO,Jian-Long(赵建龙); XU,Yuan-Sen(徐元森)


    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis (MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M. tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide. The electrophoretic process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.

  14. High—Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M.tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金庆辉; 陈继锋; 等


    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis(MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M.tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide,The electrophoretic Process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Injection of small aliquots of dipicolinate anions (sodium salt) into an aqueous solution containing dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) vesicles is endothermic at 50-degrees-C, becoming first more and then less endothermic. The injection process is effectively athermal for solutions containi

  16. Regioselective Propargylation of Aldehydes with Propargyl Bromide Mediated by Sn-In in Aqueous Media under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhi GU; Qian Rong LI; Hao YIN


    Tin-indium were employed in the propargylations of various aldehydes with propargyl bromide in the presence of SnCl2 and C6 H5(CH3)3NBr under microwave irradiation to afford the corresponding homopropargyl alcohols exclusively in high yields. All the reactions were completed smoothly in predominantly aqueous media in 200 seconds only.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The conformational state of poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) was studied in aqueous solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. The results are indicative for the formation of hydrophobic microdomains in the case of several copolymers which possess sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl side ch

  18. Charging of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Colloids in Cyclohexyl Bromide : Locking, Size Dependence, and Particle Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Marjolein N.; Stiefelhagen, Johan C. P.; Heessels-Gurboga, Gulsen; der Hoeven, Jessi E. S. van; Elbers, Nina A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Blaaderen, Alfons


    We studied suspensions of sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles in the solvent cyclohexyl bromide (CHB; epsilon(r) = 7.92). We performed microelectrophoresis measurements on suspensions containing a single particle species and on binary mixtures, using confocal microscopy

  19. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for killing pupae and preventing emergence of apple maggot fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) (United States)

    Effects of methyl bromide, ECO2FUME (phosphine gas + CO2), Vapam (sodium methyldithiocarbamate), chloropicrin, Telone II (1, 3 dichloropropene), and chloropicrin + Telone II on killing the pupae and preventing adult emergence of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) was determined. In an e...

  20. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts during medium-pressure UV and chlorine coexposure of model compounds, NOM and bromide. (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru; Ding, Guoyu; Yang, Xin


    When chlorine is applied before or during UV disinfection of bromide-containing water, interactions between chlorine, bromide and UV light are inevitable. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts was studied during medium-pressure UV (MPUV) and chlorine coexposure of phenol, nitrobenzene and benzoic acid and maleic acid, chosen to represent electron-donating aromatics, electron-withdrawing aromatics, and aliphatic structures in natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. All were evaluated in the presence and absence of bromide. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of phenol produced less total organic halogen (TOX, a collective parameter for halogenated organic byproducts) than chlorination in the dark, and more haloacetic acids instead of halophenols. Increases in TOX were found in the coexposure of nitrobenzene and benzoic acid, but maleic acid was rather inert during coexposure. The presence of bromide increased the formation of brominated TOX but did not significantly affect total TOX formation, in spite of the fact that it reduced hydroxyl radical levels. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of NOM gave a higher differential UV absorbance of NOM and a larger shift to lower molecular weight compounds than chlorination in the dark. However, TOX formation with NOM remained similar to that observed from dark chlorination.

  1. Grafting, metham sodium, soil solarization and virtually impermeable films as alternative technologies to methyl bromide for Chinese protected tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xuemei; Cao Zhiping; Chen Yunfeng; Chen Guokang; Andrea Camponogara; Yang Hang; Maria Lodovica Gullino


    In the frame of the Sino-ltalian Cooperation Program for Environmental Protection,jointly launched in the year 2000 by the Italian Ministry for Environment and Territory and Sea (IMETS) and the China State Environ nental Protection Administration (SEPA),experimental trials were carried out in Qingzhou city (Shandong Prov ince,China) during 2001-2003 to test several methyl bromide alternative methods to control soilborne diseases in greenhouse tomatoes.Grafting tomatoes on resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum×L.hirsutum),metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene ptastic films,metham sodium applied at low rate under virtually im permeable films and soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents were the alternatives tested and compared to methyl bromide applied under virtually impermeable plastic films too.Collected data show that resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum × L.hirsutum) introduced from Italy is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for to cal tomato cultivars.Metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene plastic films is an effective alternative Moreover,virtually impermeable.films demonstrate the help to reduce methyl bromide and metham sodium rates.Finally,soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents does not provide satisfactory resuhs in terms of disease control.

  2. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems. (United States)

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A


    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters.

  3. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for methyl bromide according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority


    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance methyl bromide. Although this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, guideline levels for methyl bromide (at point of retail sale or when offered for consumption and MRLs for bromide ion, which is a relevant metabolite of methyl bromide, were established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CXLs. Regarding methyl bromide, the default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg as defined by Regulation (EC No 396/2005 is compliant with the Codex guideline levels and provides a satisfactory level of protection for the European consumer but it could not be demonstrated that the default MRL can be achieved in routine enforcement. Moreover, based on the assessment of the available data, some CXLs were found not to be adequately supported by data and the consumer risk assessment could not be finalised, as the toxicological reference values of bromide ion need to be revised and only few information on the natural occurrence of bromide ion in food was available to EFSA. Hence, further consideration by risk managers is needed.

  4. Melt sonoquenching: an affective process to obtain new hybrid material and achieve enhanced electrochromic performances based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/2,4,5-tris(1-methyl- 4-pyridinium)-imidazolide tetrafluoroborate nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato S. de; Goulart, Juliana da S.; Miranda, Fabio S.; Ponzio, Eduardo A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica


    Hybrid electrochromic materials are a very important class of compounds, because they enable new and/or better optical and electrochemical properties to be unfolded. This paper reports the synthesis of the new V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.1.26H{sub 2}O([C{sub 3}N{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N){sub 3}]){sub 0.07} using the combination of two traditional methods, melting quenching and sonochemistry. The new material was characterized by several methods in order to verify the physical and chemical characteristics and its possible use as an electrochromic electrode. The organic guest provokes an interlayer spacing decrease of the inorganic matrix and the electrostatic interaction between the oxo groups of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} matrix and the pyridinium rings of the organic guest demonstrate a strong interaction. The new hybrid nanostructure presented good reversibility and cyclability during 50 cycles, electrochromic efficiency of 22 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} (410 nm) and 96 % color retention after 50 cycles of color changing. (author)'.

  5. Structural, optical and device characteristics of 1-(2-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-oxoethyl)pyridinium chloride (United States)

    El-Menyawy, E. M.; Elagamey, A. A.; Elgogary, S. R.; Shalof, R. T.


    1-(2-(1,5-Dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-oxoethyl)pyridinium chloride (DOPC) was chemically synthesized and showed thermal stability up to 220 °C. DOPC powder has polycrystalline structure and crystallizes in triclinic structure with space group, Pbar{1} . Miller indices for each diffraction plan in X-ray diffraction spectra are determined. DOPC films have been prepared via spin-coating technique onto quartz and silicon single crystal substrates. The optical properties of the films are investigated by spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance over the spectral range 200-2500 nm. The absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the films are calculated in which the optical band gap and single oscillator parameters are estimated. Hybrid Au/DOPC/p-Si/Al heterojunction is constructed, and the dark current-voltage characteristics are recorded. The device exhibited rectification behavior and the basic parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance and charge carrier mobility are evaluated.

  6. Expression of Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-treated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjuan Bian; Mei Yu; Shanzheng Yang; Hui Gao; Yalin Huang; Chunguang Deng; Yanqin Gao; Fengyan Sun; Fang Huang


    The newly discovered Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa (CIN85) is involved in many cellular processes, but its functions in the brain and in neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear. In this paper, we investigated the distribution of CIN85 protein in different regions of adult mouse brain using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, and found that CIN85 was ubiquitously expressed in mouse brain. In the striatum and substantia nigra, two regions most deeply affected in Parkinson's disease, the level of CIN85 protein was relatively high. In the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease, the expression of CIN85 in the striatum and substantia nigra was complicated. But in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-treated human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, the expression of CIN85 increased dramatically. Knocking down of CIN85 by short hairpin RNA reduced SH-SY5Y cell death. Therefore, CIN85 might play different roles in the dopaminergic cell line and in the nigrostriatum of mouse brain under neurotoxin challenge.

  7. Transport of Alachlor, Atrazine, Dicamba, and Bromide through Silt and Loam Soils (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.


    The herbicides alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba, as well as bromide were applied to soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, to both macropore and non-macropore sites. Three of 6 study areas (exhibiting a high percentage of macropores) were used for analysis of chemical transport. Twelve intact soil cores (30 cm diameter; 40 cm height), were excavated (two each from 0-40 cm and 40-80 cm depths). The first three study areas and soil cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties; the remaining cores were treated the same as field macropore sites. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 1 m2 surface area, were established in each of the three macropore study areas. Each preferential plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, and neutron access tubes - 10 cm increments to 80 cm - and planted in corn. Three study areas that did not exhibit macropores had alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba and bromide disked into the top 15 cm of soil; concentrations were tracked for 120 days - samples were collected on a grid, distributed within 3 plots measuring 50 m x 50 m each. Core samples were collected prior to and immediately after application, and then at 30, 60, and 120 days after application. Each lab core sample was in 15-cm lengths from 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 45-60 cm, and 75-90 cm. For areas exhibiting macropores, herbicides had begun to move between 10-15 days after application with concentrations peaking at various depths after heavy rainfall events. Field lysimeter samples showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater percentages of preferential flowpaths. Concentrations of atrazine, alachlor and dicamba exceeding 0.30, 0.30, and 0.05 μg m1-1 respectively were observed with depth (10-30 cm and 50-70 cm) after two months following heavy rainfall events indicating that preferential flowpaths were a significant

  8. Pd-catalyzed carbonylative α-arylation of aryl bromides: scope and mechanistic studies. (United States)

    Nielsen, Dennis U; Lescot, Camille; Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels


    Reaction conditions for the three-component synthesis of aryl 1,3-diketones are reported applying the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative α-arylation of ketones with aryl bromides. The optimal conditions were found by using a catalytic system derived from [Pd(dba)2] (dba=dibenzylideneacetone) as the palladium source and 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) as the bidentate ligand. These transformations were run in the two-chamber reactor, COware, applying only 1.5 equivalents of carbon monoxide generated from the CO-releasing compound, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride (COgen). The methodology proved adaptable to a wide variety of aryl and heteroaryl bromides leading to a diverse range of aryl 1,3-diketones. A mechanistic investigation of this transformation relying on 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy was undertaken to determine the possible catalytic pathway. Our results revealed that the combination of [Pd(dba)2] and DPPP was only reactive towards 4-bromoanisole in the presence of the sodium enolate of propiophenone suggesting that a [Pd(dppp)(enolate)] anion was initially generated before the oxidative-addition step. Subsequent CO insertion into an [Pd(Ar)(dppp)(enolate)] species provided the 1,3-diketone. These results indicate that a catalytic cycle, different from the classical carbonylation mechanism proposed by Heck, is operating. To investigate the effect of the dba ligand, the Pd0 precursor, [Pd(η3-1-PhC3H4)(η5-C5H5)], was examined. In the presence of DPPP, and in contrast to [Pd(dba)2], its oxidative addition with 4-bromoanisole occurred smoothly providing the [PdBr(Ar)(dppp)] complex. After treatment with CO, the acyl complex [Pd(CO)Br(Ar)(dppp)] was generated, however, its treatment with the sodium enolate led exclusively to the acylated enol in high yield. Nevertheless, the carbonylative α-arylation of 4-bromoanisole with either catalytic or stoichiometric [Pd(η3-1-PhC3H4)(η5-C5H5)] over a short reaction time, led to the 1,3-diketone product


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Pepsi


    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to compare the rate of cervical dilatation with hyoscine butyl bromide and drotaverine hydrochloride in active stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria: 1. All women with initial cervical dilatation of 3 cms. 2. When there is a slow rate of cervical dilatation of less than 1.5 cms per hour or decent of less than 1 cm per hour for nulliparous and if dilatation was less than 2cms per hour for a multigravida. 3. And all singleton and cephalic pregnancies were included in this study. Exclusion Criteria included complications like Antepartum haemorrhage, Breech, C.P.D. In this study 400 women were allocated into two groups to receive either Hyoscine butyl bromide or Drotaverine hydrochloride. Two hours after admission in the active stage of labour, progress of labour was reassessed. If the progress of labour was satisfactory, then the wait and watch policy was adopted. If there was no progress they were administered one of the two drugs. 200 patients were administered 10mg of hyoscine butyl bromide suppositories rectally, (GROUP-1 AND THE OTHER 200 WITH 40mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intravenously (GROUP-2. The progress of labour was monitored by the partogram. Not more than 3 doses of hyoscine butyl bromide were administered. RESULTS: The rate of cervical dilatation was 2 cms per hour in group 1 (Hyoscine butyl bromide as compared to 1cm per hour in group 2 (Drotaverine hydrochloride. The difference in rate of cervical dilatation in both the groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in the rate of cervical dilatation with Hyoscine butyl bromide group of patients. There was a significant reduction in the duration of active stage of labour, and there was no significant second and third stage complication when these drugs were used. No untoward side effects were noted when

  10. Estudo da adsorção de brometo de etídeo em resina XAD-7 Study of ethidium bromide adsorption on XAD-7 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Winkler de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The adsorption of ethidium bromide on XAD-7 resin was studied. The Freundlich model was the most representative isotherm model to describe the sorption behavior. A solid-liquid equilibrium model was proposed to explain the resin mass influence on the sorption. The equilibrium constant value estimated was 2.31. The results showed an ethidium bromide ion-pair physical adsorption, with adsorption enthalpy equals to -19.33 kJ/mol. A pK2 value equals to 4.69 ± 0.01 was estimated by two distinct methods. The results will be applied to the ethidium bromide preconcentration aiming its decomposition.

  11. Binding of dyes to hydroxyapatite treated with cetylpyridinium chloride or cetrimonium bromide. (United States)

    Jensen, J E


    The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) on the adsorption of some acidic food dyes to hydroxyapatite was studied. The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6) and amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2). The apatite had adsorbed 9.2 mumol CPC per g dry weight. The adsorbed CPC was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 20 microgram/ml (58 micrometer). The adsorption of CPC and CTAB to the apatite was followed by an increased ability of the crystals to bind the dyes. The dyes were very firmly adsorbed and were not released during a series of washings. Untreated apatite showed only a minor affinity for the dyes. The adsorbed dyes were easily washed out. CPC and CTAB showed the smae specific ability to increase the binding capacity of the apatite. The results are discussed and related to the formation of stains on the teeth in persons using quaternary ammonium compounds for mouthrinsing. A mechanism explaining the production of stains is proposed.

  12. Effects of Cholinergic Stimulation with Pyridostigmine Bromide on Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Beatriz de Cuba


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of an anticholinesterase agent, pyridostigmine bromide (Pyrido, on experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice. To this end, male C57BL/6J mice noninfected (control:Con or chronically infected (5 months with Trypanosoma cruzi (chagasic:Chg were treated or not (NT with Pyrido for one month. At the end of this period, electrocardiogram (ECG; cardiac autonomic function; heart histopathology; serum cytokines; and the presence of blood and tissue parasites by means of immunohistochemistry and PCR were assessed. In NT-Chg mice, significant changes in the electrocardiographic, autonomic, and cardiac histopathological profiles were observed confirming a chronic inflammatory response. Treatment with Pyrido in Chagasic mice caused a significant reduction of myocardial inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum levels of IFNγ with no change in IL-10 levels, suggesting a shift of immune response toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Lower nondifferent numbers of parasite DNA copies were observed in both treated and nontreated chagasic mice. In conclusion, our findings confirm the marked neuroimmunomodulatory role played by the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system in the evolution of the inflammatory-immune response to T. cruzi during experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice.

  13. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza N, V. M.; Bennun T, L. D., E-mail: [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Edmundo Larenas 129, Region del Biobio (Chile)


    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO{sub 2} and 14.11% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}. (Author)

  14. Aggregation behavior modulation of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide by organic solvents in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Huiyong; Wu, Changzeng


    Material preparation in ionic liquids and environmental pollution control by ionic liquids are often closely dependent on the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in solution. In the present work, conductivity, fluorescence probe, and dynamic light scattering techniques have been used to study the effect of organic solvents on the aggregation behavior of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. It was shown that the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the ionization degree of the aggregates (α), and the standard Gibbs energy of aggregation (ΔG(m)°) of the ionic liquid increase, while its aggregation number (N(agg)) and aggregates' size decrease with increasing concentration of organic additives in water. These results have been discussed from the favorable interactions of alkyl chain of the ionic liquid with the mixed solvents. It is suggested that the solvophobic parameter, characterized quantitatively by Gibbs energy of transfer of hydrocarbon from gas into a given solvent, can be used to account for the effect of organic additives on the formation and growth of the ionic liquid aggregates in water. Aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous organic solutions can be modulated simply by the solvophobic parameters of hydrocarbon in the mixed solvents.

  15. Bromide-Assisted Anisotropic Growth of Gold Nanoparticles as Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kerr


    Full Text Available We report herein a one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs of various shapes such as triangles, hexagons, and semispheres, using 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA as the reducing agent in the presence of potassium bromide (KBr. Anisotropic Au NPs have received ever-increasing attention in various areas of research due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Numerous synthetic methods involving either top-down or bottom-up approaches have been developed to synthesize Au NPs with deliberately varied shapes, sizes, and configurations; however, the production of templateless, seedless, and surfactant-free singular-shaped anisotropic Au NPs remains a significant challenge. The concentrations of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4, 5-HIAA, and KBr, as well as the reaction temperature, were found to influence the resulting product morphology. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au NPs was performed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared Au NPs exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS properties, which make them very attractive for the development of SERS-based chemical and biological sensors.

  16. Spectroscopic study of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide Pt-C14TAB nanoparticles: Structure and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodko, Y.; Jones, L.; Frei, H.; Somorjai, G.


    The vibrational spectra of platinum nanoparticles (12 nm) capped with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C{sub 14}TAB, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We have shown that the thermal decay of Pt-C{sub 14}TAB nanoparticles in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres leads to the release of hydrocarbon chain of surfactant and the formation of strongly bonded layer of ammonium cations on the platinum surface. The platinum atoms accessible to CO chemisorptions were not reducible by hydrogen in the temperature ranging from 30 C to 200 C. A FTIR spectrum of C{sub 14}TAB adsorbed on Pt nanoparticles dramatically perturbed as compared with pure C{sub 14}TAB. New intense and broad bands centered at 1450 cm{sup -1} and 760 cm{sup -1} are making their appearance in Pt-C{sub 14}TAB. It may be speculated, that new bands are result of coupling between conducting electrons of Pt and molecular vibrations of adsorbed C{sub 14}TAB and as a consequence specific vibrational modes of ammonium cation transformed into electron-vibrational modes.

  17. Phosphorescent quantum dots/ethidium bromide nanohybrids based on photoinduced electron transfer for DNA detection (United States)

    Bi, Lin; Yu, Yuan-Hua


    Mercaptopropionic acid-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots/ethidium bromide (EB) nanohybrids were constructed for photoinduced electron transfer (PIET) and then used as a room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) probe for DNA detection. EB could quench the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by PIET, thereby forming Mn-doped ZnS QDs/EB nanohybrids and storing RTP. Meanwhile, EB could be inserted into DNA and EB could be competitively desorbed from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by DNA, thereby releasing the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs. Based on this mechanism, a RTP sensor for DNA detection was developed. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit for DNA was 0.045 mg L-1, the relative standard deviation was 1.7%, and the method linear ranged from 0.2 to 20 mg L-1. The proposed method was applied to biological fluids, in which satisfactory results were obtained.

  18. Efficient bacteria capture and inactivation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified magnetic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jin, Yinjia; Deng, Jun; Liang, Jialiang; Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping


    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have shown great application potentials in water treatment processes especially for bacterial removal. Antibacterial agent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was employed to modify Fe3O4 nanoparticles to fabricate bactericidal paramagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@CTAB). The as-prepared Fe3O4@CTAB could effectively capture both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis from water. For both cell types, more than 99% of bacteria with initial concentration of 1.5 × 10(7)CFU/mL could be inactivated by Fe3O4@CTAB (0.5 g/L) within 60 min. Fe3O4@CTAB could remove more than 99% of cells over a wide pH (from 3 to 10) and solution ionic strength range (from 0 to 1000 mM). The copresence of sulfate and nitrate did not affect the bacterial capture efficiencies, whereas, phosphate and silicate slightly decreased the bacterial removal rates. However, more than 91% and 81% of cells could be captured at 10mM of phosphate and silicate, respectively. Over 80% of cells could be removed even in the presence of 10mg/L of humic acid. Moreover, Fe3O4@CTAB exhibited good reusability, and greater than 83% of cells could be captured even in the fifth regeneration cycle. Fe3O4@CTAB prepared in this study have great application potentials for water disinfection.

  19. Optimization of energy plants including water/lithium bromide absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.C.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica, Tarragona (Spain); Miquel, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dept. de Mecanica de Fluids, Barcelona (Spain)


    In this paper a methodology for the optimal integration of water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in combined heat and power plants is proposed. This method is based on the economic optimisation of an energy plant that interacts with a refrigeration cycle, by using a successive linear programming technique (SLP). The aim of this paper is to study the viability of the integration of already technologically available absorption chillers in CHP plants. The results of this alternative are compared with the results obtained using the conventional way of producing chilled water, that is, using mechanical vapour compression chillers in order to select the best refrigeration cycle alternative for a given refrigeration demand. This approach is implemented in the computer program XV, and tested using the data obtained in the water/LiBr absorption chiller of Bayer in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The results clearly show that absorption chillers are not only a good option when low-cost process heat is available, but also when a cogeneration system is presented. In this latter case, the absorption chiller acts as a bottoming cycle by using steam generated in the heat recovery boiler. In this way, the cogeneration size can be increased producing higher benefits than those obtained with the use of compression chillers. (Author)

  20. The regeneration of P2 olfactory sensory neurons is selectively impaired following methyl bromide lesion. (United States)

    Holbrook, Eric H; Iwema, Carrie L; Peluso, Carolyn E; Schwob, James E


    The capacity of the peripheral olfactory system to recover after injury has not been thoroughly explored. P2-IRES-tauLacZ mice were exposed to methyl bromide, which causes epithelial damage and kills 90% of the P2 neurons. With subsequent neuronal regeneration, P2 neurons recover within their usual territory to equal control numbers by 1 month but then decline sharply to roughly 40% of control by 3 months. At this time, the P2 projection onto the olfactory bulb is erroneous in several respects. Instead of converging onto 1 or 2 glomeruli per surface, small collections of P2 axons innervate multiple glomeruli at roughly the same position in the bulb as in controls. Within these glomeruli, the P2 axons are aggregated near the edge, whereas the remainder of the glomerulus contains olfactory marker protein (+), non-P2 axons, violating the one receptor-one glomerulus rule normally observed. The aggregates are denser than found in control P2-innervated glomeruli, suggesting that the P2 axons may not be synaptically connected. Based on published literature and other data, we hypothesize that P2 neurons lose out in an activity-based competition for synaptic territory within the glomeruli and are not maintained at control numbers due to a lack of trophic support from the bulb.

  1. Mathematical simulation of lithium bromide solution laminar falling film evaporation in vertical tube (United States)

    Shi, Chengming; Wang, Yang; Hu, Huili; Yang, Ying


    For utilization of the residual heat of flue gas to drive the absorption chillers, a lithium-bromide falling film in vertical tube type generator is presented. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the heat and mass coupled problem of laminar falling film evaporation in vertical tube. In the model, the factor of mass transfer was taken into account in heat transfer performance calculation. The temperature and concentration fields were calculated. Some tests were conducted for the factors such as Re number, heating flux, the inlet concentration and operating pressure which can affect the heat and mass transfer performance in laminar falling film evaporation. The heat transfer performance is enhanced with the increasing of heat flux. An increasing inlet concentration can weaken the heat transfer performance. The operating pressure hardly affects on heat and mass transfer. The bigger inlet Re number means weaker heat transfer effects and stronger mass transfer. The mass transfer obviously restrains the heat transfer in the falling film solution. The relation between dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and the inlet Re number is obtained.

  2. N-phenacylthiazolium bromide reduces bone fragility induced by nonenzymatic glycation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Bradke

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycation (NEG describes a series of post-translational modifications in the collagenous matrices of human tissues. These modifications, known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, result in an altered collagen crosslink profile which impacts the mechanical behavior of their constituent tissues. Bone, which has an organic phase consisting primarily of type I collagen, is significantly affected by NEG. Through constant remodeling by chemical resorption, deposition and mineralization, healthy bone naturally eliminates these impurities. Because bone remodeling slows with age, AGEs accumulate at a greater rate. An inverse correlation between AGE content and material-level properties, particularly in the post-yield region of deformation, has been observed and verified. Interested in reversing the negative effects of NEG, here we evaluate the ability of n-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB to cleave AGE crosslinks in human cancellous bone. Cancellous bone cylinders were obtained from nine male donors, ages nineteen to eighty, and subjected to one of six PTB treatments. Following treatment, each specimen was mechanically tested under physiological conditions to failure and AGEs were quantified by fluorescence. Treatment with PTB showed a significant decrease in AGE content versus control NEG groups as well as a significant rebound in the post-yield material level properties (p<0.05. The data suggest that treatment with PTB could be an effective means to reduce AGE content and decrease bone fragility caused by NEG in human bone.

  3. Growth and characterization of L-alanine cadmium bromide a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals (United States)

    Ilayabarathi, P.; Chandrasekaran, J.


    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, L-alanine cadmium bromide (LACB) was grown from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. As grown crystals were characterized for its spectral, thermal, linear and second order nonlinear optical properties. LACB crystallizes in orthorhombic system and unit cell parameters a = 5.771(2) Å, b = 6.014(4) Å, c = 12.298(2) Å, α = β = γ = 90° and volume = 426.8(3) Å3. The mode of vibrations of different molecular groups present in the crystal was identified by FTIR study. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The thermal strength and the decomposition of the grown crystals were studied using TG/DTA and DSC analysis. Dielectric measurement revealed that the crystals had very low dielectric constant at higher frequency in room temperature. The mechanical behavior was studied by Vicker's microhardness tester. The grown crystal has negative photoconductivity nature. The fluorescence spectrum of the crystal was recorded and its optical band gap is about 3.356 eV. The NLO property of crystal using modified Kurtz-Perry powder technique with Nd:YAG laser light of wavelength 1064 nm indicated that their second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was half that of pure KDP.

  4. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.


    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  5. Room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors using thallium bromide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with wide band gap (2.68 eV) and high X- and gamma-ray stopping power. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using purified material. Two types of room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors were fabricated from the TlBr crystals: TlBr detectors with high detection efficiency for positron annihilation gamma-ray (511 keV) detection and TlBr detectors with high-energy resolution for low-energy X-ray detection. The detector of the former type demonstrated energy resolution of 56 keV FWHM (11%) for 511 keV gamma-rays. Energy resolution of 1.81 keV FWHM for 5.9 keV was obtained from the detector of the latter type. In order to analyze noise characteristics of the detector-preamplifier assembly, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) was measured as a function of the amplifier shaping time for the high-resolution detector. This analysis shows that parallel white noise and 1/f noise were dominant noise sources in the detector...

  6. Adsorption of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides at water/alkane interfaces: competitive adsorption of alkanes and surfactants. (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Mucic, N; Pradines, V; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R


    The adsorption of members of the homologous series of alkyl trimethylammonium bromides (C(n)TAB) is studied at water/alkane interfaces by drop profile analysis tensiometry. The results are discussed in terms of a competitive adsorption process of alkane and surfactant molecules. A thermodynamic model, derived originally for the adsorption of surfactant mixtures, is adapted such that it describes a competitive adsorption of the surfactant molecules from the aqueous phase and alkane molecules from the oil phase. This new model involves the interspecies attraction coefficient, which mutually increases the adsorption activities of the alkane and C(n)TAB. The effects of the alkyl chain length n of C(n)TABs and the influence of the number of C atoms in the alkane chain are discussed, and the physical quantities are compared to those determined at the aqueous solution/air interface. The new theoretical model for aqueous solution/oil interfaces is also compared to a theory that does not consider the adsorption of alkane. The proposed new model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor attenuates chemically induced gastroduodenal ulcers in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Tariq; Ibrahim Elfaki; Haseeb Ahmad Khan; Mohammad Arshaduddin; Samia Sobki; Meshal Al Moutaery


    AIM: To study the effect of bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), a phospholipase A2 inhibitor on gastric secretion and to protect chemically induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.METHODS: Acid secretion studies were undertaken in pylorus-ligated rats with BPB treatment (0, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg). Gastric and duodenal lesions in the rats were induced by ethanol and cysteamine respectively. The levels of gastric wall mucus, nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol induced gastric lesions.RESULTS: BPB produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric acid secretion and acidity in rats. Pretreatment with BPB significantly attenuated the formation of ethanol induced gastric lesion. BPB also protected intestinal mucosa against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers.The antiulcer activity of BPB was associated with significant inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of gastric wall mucus, NP-SH and MPO. These findings pointed towards the mediation of sulfhydryls in BPB induced gastrointestinal cytoprotection.CONCLUSION: BPB possesses significant antiulcer and cytoprotective activity against experimentally induced gastroduodenal lesions.

  8. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lin Jianwei, E-mail: [College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, No. 999 Hucheng Huan Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201306 (China); Zhu Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  9. Advances in crystal growth, device fabrication and characterization of thallium bromide detectors for room temperature applications (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Moed, Demi; Becla, Piotr; Overholt, Matthew; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. However, several critical issues need to be addressed before deployment of this material for long-term field applications can be realized. In this paper, progress made towards solving some of these challenges is discussed. The most significant factors for achieving long-term performance stability for TlBr devices include residual stress as generated during crystal growth and fabrication processes, surface conditions, and the choice of contact metal. Modifications to the commonly used traveling molten zone growth technique for TlBr crystals can significantly minimize the stresses generated by large temperature gradients near the melt-solid interface of the growing crystal. Plasma processing techniques were introduced for the first time to modify the Br-etched TlBr surfaces, which resulted in improvements to the surface conditions, and consequently the spectroscopic response of the detectors. Palladium electrodes resulted a 20-fold improvement in the room-temperature device lifetime when compared to its Br-etched Pt counterpart.

  10. A Comprehensive Theoretical Investigation of the Molecular Properties of Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) (United States)

    Yu, Ang-Yang; Efil, Kürşat; Yang, Rui; Hu, Qing-Miao


    The properties of the ground and the lowest excited state of methyl bromide (CH3Br) have been studied with and without inclusion of the solvent effects in this work. The geometric parameters, energies, and frequencies of the ground state and the triplet state are calculated by using the MP2(full)/6-311++G** level of theory. The vertical excitation for the singlet state is also investigated. It is found that the theoretical results performed by the TDDFT/B3P86/6-311++G** method are in the best agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the dissociation energy of CH3Br molecule is computed at MP2(full)/6-311++G** level of theory for the gas phase and in water. The ionisation potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), electronegativity (χ), electrophilicity index (ω), hardness (η), softness (S), and chemical potential (μ) values are calculated from HOMO-LUMO energies both in the gas phase and in solvent (water). These theoretical results could serve as a guide for future experimental investigations.

  11. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant on alumina modified zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Zawadzki, Witold; Słowik, Grzegorz; Pawlonka, Justyna; Machocki, Andrzej [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Lipke, Agnieszka; Majdan, Marek [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 2 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland)


    Highlights: • Synthesis of novel ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides in the presence of CTAB surfactant. • Determination of the structural, surface and optical properties. • Nanocrystalline, high-surface area ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. • ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials of different gap energy. - Abstract: Novel alumina modified zinc oxide materials were prepared by co-precipitation method in the presence of different amounts of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. X-ray diffraction, {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced formation of 10–15 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of the small amounts of surfactant. Amorphous alumina and zinc aluminate phases of different coordination environment of Al sites were identified. An increase of surfactant concentration led to the elongation of nanoparticles and changes of the nature of hydroxyl groups. Precipitation in the high CTAB concentration conditions facilitated formation of mesoporous materials of high specific surface area. The materials were composed of very small (2–3 nm) zinc aluminate spinel nanoparticles. High concentration of CTAB induced widening of band gap energy.

  12. Application of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide bentonite-titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology for pretreatment of aging leachate. (United States)

    Cai, Fei-Fei; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Wang, Li-Ke; Yang, Jian


    Organobentonite-photocatalysis technology was applied to pretreat aging leachate containing refractory pollutants. The organobentonite was synthesized by organic modifier cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and natural bentonite. In characterization experiments, we could confirm that organic functional groups of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA(+)) cations were successfully loaded on the surface of bentonite. The combination of CTMAB2.5 adsorption and TiO2 photocatalysis was superior to either running separately. Furthermore, removal efficiency of simultaneously utilizing CTMAB2.5 and TiO2 was better than them in succession. The combination technology was feasible and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with COD and NH3-N removal rate as the target responses. The optimal operation conditions calculated from the regression equations were CTMAB2.5 dosage of 7.5 g/L, pH at 3.5, TiO2 dosage of 1.63 g/L, and reaction time for 60.02 min, which maintained the removal of COD and NH3-N at 82% and 37%, respectively.

  13. Interferences in automated phenol red method for determination of bromide in water (United States)

    Basel, C.L.; Defreese, J.D.; Whittemore, D.O.


    The phenol red method for the determination of bromide in water has been automated by segmented flow analysis. Samples can be analyzed at a rate of 20 samples/h with a method detection limit, defined, as the concentration giving a signal about three times the standard deviation of replicate anaiyte determinations in reagent water, of 10 ??g/L. Samples studied include oil-field brines, halite solution brines, ground-waters contaminated with these brines, and fresh groundwaters. Chloride and bicarbonate cause significant positive interferences at levels as low as 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Ammonia gives a negative interference that is important at levels as low as 0.05 mg/L. An ionic strength buffer is used to suppress a positive ionic strength interference, correction curves are used to compensate for the chloride interference, the bicarbonate interference is minimized by acidification, and the ammonia interference is eliminated by its removal by ion exchange. Reaction product studies are used to suggest a plausible mode of chloride interference. ?? 1982 American Chemical Society.

  14. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent. (United States)

    Zhan, Yanhui; Lin, Jianwei; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  15. Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy). (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi


    Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

  16. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  17. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling


    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (Red mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  18. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  19. Cardiovascular and antihypertensive actions of 1-methyl-3-keto-4-phenylquinuclidinium bromide. (United States)

    Vidrio, H; Hong, E


    The sympatholytic and norepinephrine depleting drug 1-methyl-3-keto-4-phenylquinuclidinium bromide (MA540) possessed significant chronic antihypertensive activity in mecamylamine- and renal-hypertensive dogs. The compound was approximately four times more potent than guanethidine in the former model and three times as potent in the latter. MA540 reduced orthostatic blood pressure responses in unanesthetized rabbits, but was approximately ten times less potent than guanethidine. The quinuclidine derivative did not affect cardiac output, heart rate or stroke volume in anesthetized open chest dogs and moderately increased mean blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. It produced diuresis and saluresis in anesthetized dogs, but did not influence water or electrolyte urinary excretion in conscious rats. In the latter test, guanethidine produced antidiuresis and antisaluresis. It was concluded that MA540 is a potent, orally effective antihypertensive agent acting through adrenergic neuron blockade, that it lacks undesirable effects on cardiac and renal functions, and that compared with guanethidine, it is more potent in lowering blood pressure but less so in interfering with orthostatic cardiovascular reflexes.

  20. Ultrafast charge generation and relaxation dynamics in methylammonium lead bromide perovskites (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofan; Wen, Xiaoming; Sheng, Rui; Huang, Shujuan; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Green, Martin A.; Ho-Baillie, Anita


    Methylammonium Lead Bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) is a promising material for tandem solar cell due to its high band gap. Ultrafast optical techniques on a time scale of femto- and picosecond are used to investigate the carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3. An ultrafast cooling of hot carriers occurs in sub-picoseconds in CH3NH3PbBr3 by phonon scattering. Two ultrafast relaxation processes are attributed to optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering. The relaxation processes are evidently slower when CH3NH3PbBr3 is in contact with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer, suggesting better quality CH3NH3PbBr3. when deposited on c-TiO2. The nanosecond decay in CH3NH3PbBr3 film is ascribed to electron-hole recombination. With the presence of c-TiO2 layer, this process is accelerated due to electron transport across the CH3NH3PbBr3/ c-TiO2 interface.

  1. Bromate ion formation in dark chlorination and ultraviolet/chlorination processes for bromide-containing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bormate (BrO3-) is a carcinogenic chemical produced in ozonation or chlorination of bromide-containing water. Although its formation in seawater with or without sunlight has been previously investigated, the formation of bromate in dilute solutions,particularly raw water for water treatment plant, is unknown. In this article, the results of bench scale tests to measure the formation rates of bromate formation in dilute solutions, including de-ionized water and raw water from Yangtze River, were presented in dark chlorination and ultraviolet (UV)/chlorination processes. And the effects of initial pH, initial concentration of NaOCl, and UV light intensity on bromate formation in UV/chlorination of the diluted solutions were investigated. Detectable bromate was formed in dark chlorination of the two water samples with a relatively slow production rate. Under routine disinfecting conditions, the amount of formed bromate is not likely to exceed the national standards (10 μg/L). UV irradiation enhanced the decay of free chlorine, and,simultaneously, 6.6%-32% of Br- was oxidized to BrO3-. And the formation of bromate exhibited three stages: rapid stage, slow stage and plateau. Under the experimental conditions (pH = 4.41-11.07, CCl2= 1.23-4.50 mg/L), low pH and high chlorine concentration favored the generation of bromate. High light intensity promoted the production rate of bromate, but decreased its total generation amount due to acceleration of chlorine decomposition.

  2. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate. (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo


    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  3. Sedimentation stability and aging of aqueous dispersions of Laponite in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (United States)

    Savenko, V.; Bulavin, L.; Rawiso, M.; Loginov, M.; Vorobiev, E.; Lebovka, N. I.


    This work discusses the sedimentation stability and aging of aqueous suspensions of Laponite in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The concentration of Laponite was fixed at a constant level Cl=2 %wt, which corresponds to the threshold between equilibrium gel IG1 and glass IG2 states. The concentration of CTAB Cs was within 0-0.3 %wt. In the presence of CTAB, the Laponite aqueous suspensions were unstable against sedimentation and separated into the upper and bottom layers (U and B layers, respectively). The dynamic light-scattering technique has revealed that addition of CTAB even at a rather small concentration, Cs=0.0164 %wt (0.03 cation exchange capacity), induced noticeable changes in the aging dynamics of the U layer. It was explained by equilibration of CTAB molecules that were initially nonuniformly distributed between different Laponite particles. Accelerated stability analysis by means of analytical centrifugation with rotor speed ω=500-4000 rpm revealed three sedimentation regimes: continuous (I, Cs0.2 %wt). It was demonstrated that the B layer was “soft” in the zonelike regime. The increase of ω resulted in its supplementary compressing and collapse of “soft” sediment above certain critical centrifugal acceleration. The physical nature of the observed behavior, accounting for enhancement of hydrophobic interactions between Laponite particles, is discussed.

  4. Revealing the potential of Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as efficient scaffold for fabrication of nano liquid crystalline structures. (United States)

    Kanwar, Rohini; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mehta, S K


    To exploit the potential of Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (D12DAB) as a core lipidic constituent, an attempt was made to fabricate and optimize cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (cNLCs) using a cost-effective microemulsification methodology. Designed composition was optimized by studying the effect of different microemulsion components on D12DAB cNLCs characteristics. ​Spherical shaped D12DAB cNLCs were obtained with an average size of ∼160 nm and zeta potential of +30.2 mV. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) depicted the presence of thermotropic character, whereas polarized optical microscopy confirmed the mesophase like behavior of D12DAB based cNLCs. In addition, hemolysis analysis revealed that the toxicity was concentration dependent as LC50 was reached at a concentration of 50 μg/mL of cNLCs. This class of cNLCs is expected to become a potent candidate for a broad spectrum of medicaments as carriers, targeting for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes, due to the combination of a hard lipid with a soft lipid, where the liquid crystalline structure of the lipid co-exists.

  5. Influence of Low Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Concentration on the Interactions and Properties of Hemoglobin with Acyclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-Qing; GUO Rong


    The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the properties of hemoglobin (Hb) at low CTAB concentration were studied in Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system by the methods of UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, zeta potential, conductivity and negative-staining transmission electron microscope (TEM). With the increase of CTAB concentration, the UV peak intensity at 276 nm, the intrinsic fluorescence, the zeta potential of Hb and the system conductivity were all enhanced. Hb was easily oxidized to oxyHb and hemichrome. In Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system,CTAB made the UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, conductivity and conformation of Hb tend to be returned to those of the original Hb but the zeta potential not to do so. The UV absorption peak of Hb-acyclovir complex disappeared,and the tight structure of Hb aroused by acyclovir was refolded. When CTAB concentration was higher than 5 ×10-5 mol/L, the two absorption peaks at 536 and 576 nm appeared again, and the Hb structure became looser again.

  6. Prolonged use of pancuronium bromide and sensorineural hearing loss in childhood survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. (United States)

    Cheung, P Y; Tyebkhan, J M; Peliowski, A; Ainsworth, W; Robertson, C M


    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a significant neurologic morbidity in survivors of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), with a reported incidence of up to 60%. In a historical cohort study of 37 neonates with CDH, we investigated the use of pancuronium bromide (PB) and common ototoxic drugs during the neonatal period and their relationship to SNHL in childhood survivors. Survivors with SNHL (n = 23) had significantly higher cumulative dose of PB administered during the neonatal illness than survivors without SNHL (n = 14). The cumulative dose and duration of PB use significantly correlated (r = 0.66-0.81) and independently predicted (adjusted r (2) = 0.42-0.64) the greatest intensity (in decibels) and the widest band (lowest frequency in hertz) loss of SNHL. No differences were identified between survivors with and without SNHL regarding demographic and neonatal characteristics (including oxygenation and ventilation variables and the cumulative dose and duration of therapy with aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and furosemide), although survivors with SNHL had received a modestly higher cumulative dose of ethacrynic acid than survivors without SNHL. Although we show that prolonged administration of PB during the neonatal period is associated with SNHL in childhood survivors of CDH, further multicenter studies are required to investigate the possible etiologies of SNHL in this high-risk population.

  7. Effects of ethidium bromide on the production of ribosomal RNA in cultured mouse cells. (United States)

    Lange, M; May, P


    A treatment of primary mouse kidney cell cultures with 5 microM Ethidium Bromide (Eth Br) reduces the transcription of nuclear-coded genes and especially of ribosomal RNA genes. This effect was consistently observed when comparing drug-treated and control cells for (i), the incorporation of 3H uridine into total nuclear and B RNA polymerases as determined in isolated nuclei. It became more pronounced with exposure time; however, after removal of the drug, there was a progressive recovery of RNA synthesis culminating in the complete reversal of the drug effect. That this effect is probably not due only to the suppression of mitochondrial protein synthesis by the drug, is shown by a comparative study of the effects of chloramphenicol treatment. In addition, in the cytoplasm Eth Br depresses the labeling of 28 S rRNA more than that of 18 S whereas no abnormal accumulation of 28 S rRNA is observed in the nucleus. It is suggested that Eth Br may affect either the stability of the 28 S rRNA or its rate of formation from the 32 S precursor.

  8. Influence of the amino substituents in the interaction of ethidium bromide with DNA. (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Hammond, Nicholas B; Graves, David E


    A key step in the rational design of new DNA binding agents is to obtain a complete thermodynamic characterization of small molecule-DNA interactions. Ethidium bromide has served as a classic DNA intercalator for more than four decades. This work focuses on delineating the influence(s) of the 3- and 8-amino substituents of ethidium on the energetic contributions and concomitant fluorescent properties upon DNA complex formation. Binding affinities decrease by an order of magnitude upon the removal of either the 3- or 8-amino substituent, with a further order-of-magnitude decrease in the absence of both amino groups. The thermodynamic binding mechanism changes from enthalpy-driven for the parent ethidium to entropy-driven when both amino groups are removed. Upon DNA binding, fluorescence enhancement is observed in the presence of either or both of the amino groups, likely because of more efficient fluorescence quenching through solvent interactions of free amino groups than when buried within the intercalation site. The des-amino ethidium analog exhibits fluorescence quenching upon binding, consistent with less efficient quenching of the chromophore through interactions with solvent than within the intercalation site. Determination of the quantum efficiencies suggests distinct differences in the environments of the 3- and 8-amino substituents within the DNA binding site.

  9. Atomic force microscopic examination of chromosomes treated with trypsin or ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Wu, Yangzhe; Cai, Jiye; Cheng, Longqiu; Yun, Keyu; Wang, Chenxi; Chen, Yong


    Trypsin treatment is frequently used during chromosome preparation for removal of cellular contaminants, and ethidium bromide (EB) staining of bands is often used to facilitate high-resolution observations by optical microscopy. However, conventional optical microscopy is unable to visualize potential aberrations of chromosome structures caused by these physicochemical treatments. In this article, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode to obtain and analyze high-resolution images of chromosome surface structure damage associated with trypsinization and EB treatment. According to our results, the trypsin-based digestion effects became more severe as incubations increased across a range from 10 to 40 s; a digestion time of 10 to 20 s appeared to be most suitable for observation by AFM. In terms of chromosomal damage induced by EB treatment, addition of EB into the media of cultured human blood cells induced chromosomal breakage in a dose-dependent fashion, and the results indicate centromeric region damnifyed severer than arms. Together, these results indicate that EB staining and the standard chromosomal preparative techniques of trypsinization can induce chromosomal damage that may affect the observed results.

  10. Studies of the binding of ethidium bromide to cells before and after enzyme treatment. (United States)

    Eisenhut, M; Choné, B


    Binding of ethidium bromide (EB) to cells before and after HCl, pepsin and RNase treatment was investiaged by spectophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Binding isotherms, calculated with the McGheevon Hippel equation, taking EB as a non-interacting ligand, revealed the influcence of these treatments on the fluorescence characteristics of the cells which were measured by flow-through cytofluorimetry. Thus pepsin- and RNase-treated cells have a reduced intercalation capacity due to the loss of cytoplasmic RNA and RNA hydrolysis, respectively. HCl alone, or in association with pepsin, increased the equilibrium constant K considerably. Thus at low free EB concentrations the enchanced EB affinity of acid-pretreated cells generates a high fluorescence intensity, by comparison with treatments at neutral pH. This result contradicts the interpretation of high EB binding to acid pretreated cells which is commonly believed to be due to hydrolytic histone removal from potential intercalation sites. With increasing free EB concentrations the fluorescence intensities of RNase- and pepsin-treated cells culminate at the same level due to their amost identical intercalation capacities. Consequently, quantitative DNA analysis of pretreated cell suspensions with EB can only be performed if the alteration, induced by the pretreatment, has previously been studied.

  11. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Kao, Li-Pin; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Wolvetang, Ernst


    The expression of mitochondrial components is controlled by an intricate interplay between nuclear transcription factors and retrograde signaling from mitochondria. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded proteins in mitochondrial biogenesis is, however, poorly understood and thus far has mainly been studied in transformed cell lines. We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated how the cells recovered from these insults two weeks after removal of the drugs. Although cellular growth and mitochondrial gene expression were severely impaired after both inhibitor treatments we observed marked differences in mitochondrial structure,membrane potential, glycolysis, gene expression, and redox status between fibroblasts treated with EtBr and chloramphenicol. Following removal of the drugs we further detected clear differences in expression of both mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the cells possess different compensatory mechanisms to recover from drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data reveal new aspects of the interplay between mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the expression of nuclear regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, a process with direct relevance to mitochondrial diseases and chloramphenicol toxicity in humans.

  12. Catalytic Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on the Oxidation of Triethylene glycol by Chloramine-T in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma


    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide catalyzed oxidation of triethylene glycol [2,2'-ethylene diqxybis(ethanol] by chloramine-T in acidic acid medium have been investigated. The reaction is first order dependence on chloramine-T and fractional order for triethylene glycol with excess concentration of other reactants. The catalytic effect due to cetyletrimethylammonium bromide has been studied. The small salt effect and increase in the reaction rate with increasing dielectric constant suggest the involvement of neutral molecule in the rate-determining step. The addition of p-toluene sulfonamide retards the reaction rate. The effect of chloride ion on the reaction also studied. The effect of temperature on the reaction has been investigated in the temperature range 313-333K and thermodynamic parameters were calculated from the Arrhenious plot. A tentative mechanism consistent with the experimental results has been proposed.

  13. Analysis of DAPI and SYBR Green I as Alternatives to Ethidium Bromide for Nucleic Acid Staining in Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (United States)

    Bourzac, Kevin M.; Lavine, Lori J.; Rice, Margaret S.


    DNA electrophoresis and staining is a common procedure in biochemistry laboratories, but the use of ethidium bromide (EB) for DNA detection is worrisome as EB is a mutagen and probable carcinogen. Five alternative stains were evaluated for DNA detection, safety, cost, and ease of use: BlueView, methylene blue, Carolina Blu, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride:hydrate), and SYBR Green I. BlueView, Carolina Blu, and methylene blue are not sensitive enough to detect the microgram amounts of DNA used in many procedures. However, DAPI and SYBR Green I are good staining alternatives to ethidium bromide in that they have similar sensitivity and are both easy to use. SYBR Green I is more expensive than EB or DAPI; however, the limited safety data suggest that SYBR Green I is the safest stain.

  14. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.


    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  15. Evaluation on acute toxicity of tetrabuthylammonium bromide ionic liquid at histological structure of some organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Dumitrescu


    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the acute toxicity caused by zebrafish (Danio rerio exposure tovarious concentrations of tetrabuthylammonium bromide. The ionic liquid’s acute toxicity on zebrafishwas assessed according to the lethal effects after a 96-hour exposure. To perform the test ontetrabuthylammonium bromide’s acute toxicity, we carried out three series of experiments; during eachseries, we used five different ionic liquid concentrations, respectively: 10; 25; 50; 75; 100 mg L-1 for theexperiment I, 200; 400; 600; 800; 1000 mg L-1 for the experiment II and 1500; 2000; 3000, 4000 and5000 mg L-1 for the experiment III. All these batches were compared with the control variant. Thehistopathological examination was performed on individuals from the control group and on all the deadfish. The results of the acute toxicity test reveal that the LC50 value after 96 hours is between 2500 and3000 mg L-1. The fish exposed to 4000, respectively 5000 mg L-1 tetranuthylammonium bromide diedduring the first 24 hours after exposure. The values obtained for tetrabuthylammonium bromide aremuch smaller than the data obtained for LC50 at 96 hours for other solvents like acetone (30642 mg L-1, respectively DMF (12220 mg L-1, but much bigger than the toluene (60 – 313 mg L-1, benzene(203mg L-1, phenol (5 mg L-1, etc. The histopathological study on gill, skin, liver, kidney and intestinereveal that the changes occurred within the structure of these organs are intensified with the increase oftetrabuthylammonium bromide concentration.

  16. Sonogashira coupling reaction of homopropargyl ether with aryl bromides and synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents Sonogashira coupling reaction of aryl bromides with protected homopropargyl alcohols such as tert-butyldimethyl(1-phenylbut-3-ynyloxy)silane and tert-butyldimethyl(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)but-3-ynyloxy)silane in piperidine catalyzed by PdCl2/PPh3 without copper(Ⅰ). The coupling products, disubstituted acetylene, are obtained in good or excellent yields. These products can be further used for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans.

  17. A simple physical model for steam absorption into a falling film of aqueous lithium bromide solution on a horizontal tube (United States)

    Auracher, Hein; Wohlfeil, Arnold; Ziegler, Felix


    For one horizontal tube in an absorber the Nusselt solution for film thickness and velocity distribution was applied, assuming steady state in heat transfer and a semi-infinite body’s concentration profile with unsteady state mass transfer. The model was applied to the absorption of steam into aqueous lithium bromide in absorption chillers. The results are compared to published experimental values and show fair agreement.

  18. Bromidotetra­kis­(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)copper(II) bromide (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Dołęga, Anna


    The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds. PMID:22064905

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit. (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B


    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  20. Estimating groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, China under varying land use practices using tritium and bromide tracers (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; Nimmo, J.R.; Yang, L.; Wang, W.


    Tritium and bromide were used as applied tracers to determine groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, North China, to evaluate the impacts of different soil types, land use, irrigation, and crop cultivation practice on recharge. Additional objectives were to evaluate temporal variability of recharge and the effect on results of the particular tracer used. Thirty-nine profiles at representative locations were chosen for investigation. Average recharge rates and recharge coefficient determined by tritium and bromide tracing for different sites were 0.00-1.05 mm/d and 0.0-42.5%, respectively. The results showed relative recharge rates for the following paired influences (items within each pair are listed with the influence producing greater recharge first): flood-irrigated cropland and non-irrigated non-cultivation land, flood irrigation (0.42-0.58 mm/d) and sprinkling irrigation (0.17-0.23 mm/d), no stalk mulch (0.56-0.80 mm/d) and stalk mulch (0.44-0.60 mm/d), vegetable (e.g. Chinese cabbage and garlic, 0.70 mm/d) and wheat-maize (0.38 mm/d), peanut (0.51 mm/d) and peach (0.43 mm/d). The results also showed greater recharge for the first year of tracer travel than for the second. Because total precipitation and irrigation were greater in the first year than in the second, this may reflect temporal variability of recharge. The method may not be applicable where the water table is shallow (less than 3 m). A comparison of the near-ideal tritium tracer with the more common but less ideal bromide showed that bromide moved approximately 23% faster than tritiated water, perhaps because of anion exclusion. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Efficacy of salbutamol-ipratropium bromide nebulization compared to salbutamol alone in children with mild to moderate asthma attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahari Harumdini


    Full Text Available Background The efficacy of salbutamol-ipratropium bromide nebulization in children with moderate asthma attacks remains unclear, and studies on patients with mild attacks have been relatively few, especially in Indonesia. However, it is common practice for this drug combination to be given to patients with mild-moderate asthma attacks. Objective To compare the efficacy of salbutamol-ipratropium bromide nebulization to salbutamol alone in children with mild to moderate asthma attacks. Methods This single-blind, randomized clinical trial was held in the Department of Child Health at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, the Tebet Community Health Center, and the MH Thamrin Salemba Hospital on children aged 5-18 years with mild to moderate asthma attack. We randomized subjects to receive either 2.5 mg salbutamol plus 0.5 mg ipratropium bromide (experimental group or 2.5 mg salbutamol alone (control group. Nebulization was given twice, with a 20 minute interval between treatments. We assessed clinical scores, vital signs, oxygen saturations, and peak flow rates (PFRs at baseline, and every 20 minutes up to 120 minutes post-nebulization. Results A total of 46 patients were randomized to either the experimental or the control group. Subjects had similar baseline measurements. At 20 minutes post-nebulization, the percentage increase of PFR was 19% higher in the experimental group (P=0.01, 95% CI 1.8 to 47.2. The proportion of PFR reversibility was 27% higher in the experimental group, although this result was statistically insignificant (P=0.06, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.52. There were no significant differences in clinical scores, oxygen saturations, respiratory rates, or hospitalization rates between the two groups. Side effects also did not differ significantly. Conclusion Salbutamol-ipratropium bromide nebulization improved PFR measurements better than salbutamol alone. However, other clinical parameters were not significantly different between the two groups.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir


    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  3. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.


    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients.

  4. Effect of ipratropium bromide and/or sodium cromoglycate pretreatment on water-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (United States)

    Tranfa, C M; Vatrella, A; Parrella, R; Bariffi, F


    The mechanisms underlying water-induced bronchoconstriction are still not fully understood. Cholinergic reflexes and mast cell mediator release are currently believed to play an important pathogenetic role. In order to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms, we studied the effect of ipratropium bromide (80 micrograms), a muscarinic antagonist, and sodium cromoglycate (20 mg), an inhibitor of mast cell mediator release, administered alone and in combination, in the prevention of bronchospasm induced by ultrasonic mist of distilled water (UMDW). Fifteen patients with documented atopic asthma and hyperresponsiveness to distilled water were selected for this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Airway responses to pharmachological agents and bronchial challenge were measured by change in specific airways conductance (sGaw). Sodium cromoglycate had no effect on bronchial calibre, whilst ipratropium bromide and the combination of the two drugs produced a significant bronchodilation 30, 60 and 90 min after treatments. The maximal increase in sGaw (mean % +/- SD) was observed at 90 min: 63 +/- 28% and 58 +/- 22% after ipratropium bromide and the combined drugs respectively. UMDW (2, 4, 8, 16 ml water) caused a -36 +/- 19%, -42 +/- 19%, -49 +/- 18%, -56 +/- 15% mean % +/- SD fall in sGaw after placebo. Pretreatment with sodium cromoglycate abolished the bronchoconstriction to 2 ml (fall sGaw -5 +/- 23% NS) and significantly reduced the effect of 4 (-15 +/- 22%), 8 (-21 +/- 20%) and 16 ml (-24 +/- 18%) water.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Elastic silicone encapsulation of n-hexadecyl bromide by microfluidic approach as novel microencapsulated phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhenjin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Su, Lin; Li, Jing; Yang, Ruizhuang; Zhang, Zhanwen; Liu, Meifang; Li, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Bo, E-mail: [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)


    Highlights: • n-Hexadecyl bromide was encapsuled in elastic silicone shell. • The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact. • Latent heat of microcapsules was 76.35 J g{sup −1}. • The microencapsulation ratio was 49 wt.%. • The microcapsules had good thermal stability. - Abstract: The elastic silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules were prepared as novel microencapsulated phase change materials by microfluidic approach with the co-flowing channels, where the double oil1-in-oil2-in-water (O1/O2/W) droplets with a core–shell geometry were fabricated. The thermal characterizations of the microcapsules were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The DSC results showed that the microcapsules had good energy storage capacity with melting and freezing enthalpies 76.35 J g{sup −1} and 78.67 J g{sup −1}, respectively. The TGA investigation showed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability. The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact from the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscope showed that the silicone shell can provide expansion place due to its elastic property. Therefore, the silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules showed good potential as thermal regulating textile and thermal insulation materials.

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of stearoxy dimethicone, dimethicone, methicone, amino bispropyl dimethicone, aminopropyl dimethicone, amodimethicone, amodimethicone hydroxystearate, behenoxy dimethicone, C24-28 alkyl methicone, C30-45 alkyl methicone, C30-45 alkyl dimethicone, cetearyl methicone, cetyl dimethicone, dimethoxysilyl ethylenediaminopropyl dimethicone, hexyl methicone, hydroxypropyldimethicone, stearamidopropyl dimethicone, stearyl dimethicone, stearyl methicone, and vinyldimethicone. (United States)

    Nair, Bindu


    was negative in both an oral (tested at 91%) and dermal (tested at an unknown concentration) dose carcinogenicity assay using mice. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered it unlikely that any of these polymers would be significantly absorbed into the skin due to their large molecular weight. Although adverse effects were noted in one inhalation study with small aerosol particles, the expected particle sizes for cosmetic products would primarily be in the range of 60 to 80 micro, and less than 1% would be under 10 micro, which is an upper limit for respirable particles. Overall, the safety test data support the safety of these ingredients at the concentrations they are known to be used in cosmetic formulations. Accordingly, the CIR Expert Panel was of the opinion that Stearoxy Dimethicone, Dimethicone, Methicone, Amino Bispropyl Dimethicone, Aminopropyl Dimethicone, Amodimethicone, Amodimethicone Hydroxystearate, Behenoxy Dimethicone, C24-28 Alkyl Methicone, C30-45 Alkyl Methicone, C30-45 Alkyl Dimethicone, Cetearyl Methicone, Cetyl Dimethicone, Dimethoxysilyl Ethylenediaminopropyl Dimethicone, Hexyl Methicone, Hydroxypropyldimethicone, Stearamidopropyl Dimethicone, Stearyl Dimethicone, Stearyl Methicone, and Vinyldimethicone are safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

  7. Sensitization of Eriochromeazurol-B in Presence of Cetyldimethylethylammonium Bromide for the Microdetermination of Some Lanthanides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil B. Zade


    Full Text Available Cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, a cationic surfactant has been used to decolorize eriochromeazurol B, an anionic triphenylmethane type of dye. Addition of specific lanthanide metal ion to this decolorized solution resulted into intense colored stable ternary complex with large bathochromic shift from 540 nm (binary complex to 650 nm (ternary complex with increase in absorbance values at shifted wavelength. CDMEAB thus decreases the color intensity of ECAB and increases the absorbance value of ternary complexes. This two fold advantage resulted into enhancement in molar absorptivities and sensitivities at shifted wavelength of ternary complexes with stoichiometric composition 1:(1:32, [Ln : (R:S] for all lanthanides understudy namely yttrium, neodymium, europium, terbium and ytterbium. The ternary complexes at pH 6.0 exhibited absorption maxima at 650 nm with molar absorptivities 69000 for Y(III, 66000 for Nd(III, 69000 for Eu(III, 64000 for Tb(III, 70000 for Yb(III. Beer's law were obeyed in concentration range 0.11-0.94, 0.19-1.53, 0.2-1.41, 0.21-1.69 and 0.23-1.11 ppm for Y(III, Nd(III, Eu(III, Tb(III and Yb(III respectively. Conditional formation constants and various analytical parameters have been evaluated and compared the results of newly formed ternary complexes with binary complexes. Finally newly suggested modified method have been recommended for the microdetermination of lanthanides understudy.

  8. Life without methyl bromide: the Italian experience in replacing the fumigant. (United States)

    Gullino, M L; Clini, C; Garibaldi, A


    Methyl bromide (MB) has been the most widely used chemical for the fumigation of soil, commodities, buildings and furniture for over seventy years. Since January 1st 2005, it has been phased-out in industrialized countries, where only critical uses are allowed, because of international regulatory measures designed to reduce substances that potentially deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Italy ranked second in the world, after USA, in MB consumption, due to the importance of horticultural crop production. In order to replace the use of MB, research in Italy was aimed at: a) reducing the use of MB and its emission (short-term goal); b) developing alternative pest control methods, based on available technologies (mid-term goal); c) developing new MB alternatives (mid- and long-term goal). Italian growers switched to other fumigants, applied at reduced dosages, lowering their environmental impact and risk of worker exposure. Moreover, the adoption of non-chemical alternatives slowly but steadily increased as a result of the many activities (demonstration trials, seminars, etc.) carried out in the country. The gradual shift to MB alternatives over a 10 year period, as well as the use of half rates of MB under virtually impermeable plastic films (VIFs), has generally prevented the feared loss of competitiveness of Italian horticulture. Extension in cooperation with the fumigation companies was able to provide growers with a range of methods for soil disinfestation. The experience gained in Italy and how it can help developing countries to define strategies and training programmes needed to comply with the Montreal Protocol is discussed.

  9. Transport of atrazine versus bromide and δO18 in sand (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Friedel, Michael J.


    The objective of this research was to determine the process of atrazine transport compared to bromide and δO18 transport in sands near Denver. Three 1.5 × 2 × 1.5-m plots were installed and allowed to equilibrate for 2 years before research initiation and were instrumented with 1.5 × 2-m zero-tension pan lysimeters installed at 1.5-m depths. Additionally, each plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry (TDR) moisture probes, and thermocouples (to measure soil temperature) at 15-cm depth increments. All plots were enclosed with a raised frame (of 8-cm height) to prevent surface runoff. During the 2-year period before research began, all suction and pan lysimeters were purged monthly and were sampled for fluids immediately prior to atrazine and KBr application to obtain background concentrations. Atrazine illustrated little movement until after a significant rainfall event, which peaked concentrations at depths of about 90 to 135 cm. Both Br− and δO18 moved rapidly through the soil, probably owing to soil porosity and anion exclusion for Br−. Concentrations of atrazine exceeding 5.0 μL−1 were observed with depth (90 to 150 cm) after several months. It appears that significant rainfall events were a key factor in the movement of atrazine in the sand, which allowed the chemicals to move to greater depths and thus avoid generally found biodegradation processes.

  10. Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.


    Enzymes are considered an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for biofilm control due to their lytic and dispersal activities. In this study, four enzymes (β-glucanase, α-amylase, lipase and protease) were tested separately and in combination with the quaternary ammonium compound cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to control flow-generated biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The four enzymes caused modest reduction of biofilm colony forming units (CFU). Protease, β-glucanase and α-amylase also caused modest biofilm removal. CTAB combined with either β-glucanase or α-amylase increased biofilm removal. Its combination with either β-glucanase or protease increased CFU reduction. However, CTAB−protease combination was antagonist in biofilm removal. Long-term effects in biofilm mass reduction were observed after protease exposure. In contrast, biofilms treated with β-glucanase were able to regrowth significantly after exposure. Moreover, short-term respirometry tests with planktonic cells were performed to understand the effects of enzymes and their combination with CTAB on P. fluorescens viability. Protease and lipase demonstrated antimicrobial action, while α-amylase increased bacterial metabolic activity. The combination of CTAB with either protease or α-amylase was antagonistic, decreasing the antimicrobial action of CTAB. The overall results demonstrate a modest effect of the selected enzymes in biofilm control, either when applied alone or each one in combination with CTAB. Total biofilm removal or CFU reduction was not achieved and, in some cases, the use of enzymes antagonized the effects of CTAB. The results also propose that complementary tests, to characterize biofilm integrity and microbial viability, are required when someone is trying to assess the role of novel biocide - enzyme mixtures for effective biofilm control.

  11. Experimental investigation on the absorption of alcoholic additives in an aqueous lithium bromide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonardi, Federico; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik


    The increasing energy consumption and the scarcity of energy sources require an optimization of all technical processes. Absorption chillers represent a promising technology in order to provide a cooling demand with low-energy consumption. Indeed, such chillers are driven by low-temperature heat which is often available as waste heat from industrial processes, or can be obtained by the mean of solar collectors. On the other side, absorption chillers are not yet competitive with traditional compression chiller because of their low efficiency and reliability. One way to increase the efficiency of these chillers is by the means of additives. When added in small quantities to the working fluid, they reduce the surface tension, promoting Marangoni convection at the interface of the tube bundle of the absorber. As a consequence, the heat and mass transfer is enhanced. Although several investigations have been carried out in literature, only two kinds of additives are mostly investigated. Nevertheless, enhancement mechanism is not yet fully understood, and different theories have been proposed. In the present work, the influence of additives on the dynamic surface tension of aqueous lithium bromide solution is investigated. Common additives (2-ethylhexanol and 1-octanol) as well as new additives (3-phenyl-1-propan, 3,5,5-trymethyl-1-hexanol) are used. Surface tension is measured by the pendant-drop method. Different parameters, such as additive concentration and surrounding atmosphere, are varied during the experiment. Among the four additives investigated, 2-ethylhexanol shows the fastest absorption rate, while 3-phenyl-1-propanol has no influence in reducing the surface tension. The current study is carried out in the framework of the ITN Marie Curie ''SHINE'' research program financed by the EU.

  12. A comparison of the use of sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide scintillation crystals for airborne surveys (United States)

    Bailey, Derek M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aerial Spectral Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) program performs aerial radiological and chemical characterization of geographical regions of interest. Airborne surveys are performed to characterize environmental radionuclide content, for mineral exploration, as well as for emergency scenarios such as major releases or lost sources. Two radiological detection systems are used by the ASPECT team for gamma-ray detection and characterization: lanthanum bromide [LaBr 3(Ce)] and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation systems. An aerial survey of a uranium mine in the western United States was performed using both NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) detection systems. Analyses of the survey data were performed with RadAssist software and applying International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) airborne gamma ray mapping guidelines. The data for the survey were corrected for cross-over, which is spectral interference from higher energy photons as a result of Compton scattering, height attenuation, cosmic ray contribution to signal, and Radon contribution to signal. Two radiation survey contours were generated from each discrete data set. Based on analysis of the uranium mine survey results, LaBr3(Ce) produced a product comparable to that of NaI(Tl). The LaBr3(Ce) detection system contained 1/16th the scintillating volume and had a total system weight that was 1/4th that of the NaI(Tl) system. LaBr3(Ce) demonstrated a clear advantage over NaI(Tl) detectors in system mobility, and weight factors in airborne gamma ray spectroscopy.

  13. Sol-gel Transition of Methylcellulose Solution in the Coexistence of Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Sodium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Zhou; Hai-yang Yang; Yong-jun Xie; Hua-zhen Li; Guang-ming Liu


    The sol-gel transition of methylcellulose (MC) solution in the presence of NaCl and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB),together with MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB and MC/HATB solution in the presence of NaCl,was investigated by the rheological measurements.It has been found that the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solution decreases linearly with the concentration of NaCl in solution but increases linearly with the concentration of HTAB in solution,respectively.However,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB keeps the same value,independent of the concentration of HTAB in solution.On the other hand,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC/HTAB solution decreases linearly with the concentration of NaCl in solution.The experimental results suggest that,for MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB,the saltinduced spherical micelles of HTAB should have formed in bulk solution.For MC solution in the absence of NaCl,no spherical micelles have been formed in bulk solution,though the concentration of HTAB in our experiment is almost one order of magnitude higher than the critical micelle concentration of HTAB in polymer-free solution.In fact,due to adsorption of HTAB on MC chains,the realconcentration of HTAB in bulk solution,is much less than the apparent concentration of HTAB dissolved in MC solution.

  14. Rational design of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide-based nanoassemblies for gene delivery. (United States)

    Jin, Yiguang; Wang, Shuangmiao; Tong, Li; Du, Lina


    Nonviral gene vectors are a hot topic for gene delivery. High cost and low transfection efficiency hinder the application of them. The aim of this study was to find out the optimal gene vectors with lower cost and more effective gene delivery than commonly used gene vectors. A cheap cationic lipid, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) was the basic component and the other components included oleic acid (OA), cholesterol (Chol), cholesteryl succinyl poly(ethylene glycol) 1500 (CHS-PEG), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG). The combinations of DDAB/OA/Chol, DDAB/OA/CHS-PEG and DDAB/PLGA-PEG were adopted to prepare the nanoassemblies named CNA, CPNA and PPNA, respectively. The optimal component ratios were screened out according to their Langmuir monolayer behavior. The optimal preparation method of nanoassemblies involved firstly compressing DNA or siRNA with the cationic lipid (DDAB) and secondly being coated with the helper lipids (OA and CHS-PEG) or the helper polymer (PLGA-PEG). The complexes of genes and cationic lipids were encapsulated into the core of CPNA and PPNA. The optimal gene vectors (CPNA and PPNA) with small sizes, low negative surface charges and non-exposure of cationic lipids were achieved. They had the advantages of no cytotoxicity, high transfection efficiency and low cost. More importantly, CPNA and PPNA were not sensitive to serum and showed the similar or higher transfection efficiency of pDNA and siRNA compared to Lipofectamine 2000. CPNA could mainly enter cell plasma based on endocytosis. The rational design method is useful for the design and optimization of DDAB-based gene carriers and other cationic lipid-based carriers.

  15. Application of artificial neural network in 3D imaging with lanthanum bromide calorimeter (United States)

    Gostojic, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Grave, X.; Gibelin, L.; Travers, B.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.


    Gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 0.1 up to 100 MeV holds many understudied questions connected with e.g. stellar nucleosynthesis, the active Sun, neutron stars and black holes. To access the physics behind, a significant improvement in detection sensitivity is needed compared to previous missions, e.g. CGRO and INTEGRAL. One of the promising concepts for a future gamma-ray mission is an Advanced Compton Telescope. Under the project of creating a prototype of such instrument, we study the perspectives of using a novel inorganic scintillator as a calorimeter part. Modern inorganic crystal or ceramics scintillators are constantly improving on qualities such as energy resolution and radiation hardness, and this makes them a smart choice for a new space-borne telescope. At CSNSM Orsay, we have assembled a detection module from a 5 × 5cm2 area and 1 cm thick, cerium-doped lanthanum (III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) inorganic scintillator coupled to a 64 channel multi-anode photomultiplier. The readout of the PMT signals is carried out with the ASIC MAROC, used previously for the luminometer of the ATLAS detector (CERN). Characterization, thorough measurements with various radioactive sources, as well as, single photoelectron detection have been done. Furthermore, we made a comparison of measurements with a detailed GEANT4-based simulation which includes tracking of the optical photons. Finally, we have studied the 3D reconstruction of the first interaction point of incident gamma rays, utilizing a neural network algorithm. This spatial position resolution plays a crucial part in the future implementations and, together with the other measured properties, it makes our detector module very interesting for the next generation of space telescopes operating in the MeV range.

  16. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs. (United States)

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich


    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  17. White-Light Emission and Structural Distortion in New Corrugated Two-Dimensional Lead Bromide Perovskites. (United States)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G


    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P21/c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr6" octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τavg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.

  18. [Adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solution on cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) -modified zeolite]. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lin, Jian-Wei; Zhan, Yan-Hui; Chen, Zu-Mei; Wang, Peng-Jun


    Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZs) with different coverage types were prepared by loading of different amounts of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto natural zeolites and were used as adsorbents to remove phenanthrene from aqueous solution. The adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solution on monolayer and bilayer SMZs as a function of adsorbent dosage, initial phenanthrene concentration, contact time, and temperature was investigated using batch experiments. Results showed monolayer and bilayer SMZs were effective for the removal of phenanthrene from aqueous solution. The phenanthrene removal efficiency of SMZs increased with increasing adsorbent dosage, but the amount of phenanthrene adsorbed on SMZs decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The adsorption kinetics of phenanthrene on SMZs well followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data of phenanthrene on SMZs at a low concentration of phenanthrene in solution could be described by the Linear equation and Freundlich equation. The main mechanism for phenanthrene adsorption onto monolayer SMZ is hydrophobic interaction, and the main mechanism for phenanthrene adsorption onto bilayer SMZ is organic partitioning. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change (deltaG(theta)), enthalpy changes (deltaH(theta)), and entropy change (deltaS(theta)) showed that the adsorption process of phenanthrene on SMZs is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. When the CPB loading amount of bilayer SMZ was twice as much as that of monolayer SMZ, the phenanthrene adsorption capacity for bilayer SMZ was slightly higher than that for monolayer SMZ. In a conclusion, both monolayer and bilayer SMZs are promising adsorbents for the removal of phenanthrene from water and wastewater, and monolayer SMZ is a more cost-effective adsorbent for phenanthrene removal than bilayer SMZ.

  19. Nutrient removal by Chlorella vulgaris F1068 under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide induced hormesis. (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongzhi; Li, Feng; Ge, Fei; Liu, Na; Kuang, Yangduo


    Toxicants are generally harmful to biotechnology in wastewater treatment. However, trace toxicant can induce microbial hormesis, but to date, it is still unknown how this phenomenon affects nutrient removal during municipal wastewater treatment process. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of hormesis induced by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a representative quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, on nutrient removal by Chlorella vulgaris F1068. Results showed that when the concentration of CTAB was less than 10 ng/L, the cellular components chlorophyll a, proteins, polysaccharides, and total lipids increased by 10.11, 58.17, 38.78, and 11.87 %, respectively, and some enzymes in nutrient metabolism of algal cells, such as glutamine synthetase (GS), acid phosphatase (ACP), H(+)-ATPase, and esterase, were also enhanced. As a result, the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)) and total phosphorus (TP) increased by 14.66 and 8.51 %, respectively, compared to the control during a 7-day test period. The underlying mechanism was mainly due to an enhanced photosynthetic activity of C. vulgaris F1068 indicated by the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the value of Fv/Fm, ΦII, Fv/Fo, and rETR increased by 12.99, 7.56, 25.59, and 8.11 %, respectively) and adenylate energy charge (AEC) (from 0.68 to 0.72). These results suggest that hormesis induced by trace toxicants could enhance the nutrient removal, which would be further considered in the design of municipal wastewater treatment processes. Graphical abstract The schematic mechanism of C. vulgaris F1068 under CTAB induced hormesis. Green arrows ( ) represent the increase and the red arrow ( ) represents the decrease.

  20. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis {alpha}-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidyan, R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaynalpour, S. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The interaction between {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and {alpha}-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic ({Delta}H{sup o}=-17.92 kJ mol{sup -1}) accompanied with increase in entropy ({Delta}S{sup o} between 109 to 135 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). Thus the binding of CTAB to {alpha}-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10{sup -3} M{sup -1} and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K{sub a}) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of {alpha}-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: {yields} The Fluorescence quenching effect of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation {alpha}-amylase-CTAB complex. {yields} The {alpha}-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of {alpha}-amylase. {yields} Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  1. Persistent Na+ and K+ channel dysfunctions after chronic exposure to insecticides and pyridostigmine bromide. (United States)

    Nutter, T J; Jiang, N; Cooper, Brian Y


    Many soldiers that served in the 1991 Gulf War developed widespread chronic pain. Exposure to insecticides and the nerve gas prophylactic pyridostigmine bromide (PB) was identified as risk factors by the Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses (GWI). We examined whether a 60 day exposure to neurotoxicants/PB (NTPB) produced behavioral, molecular and cellular indices of chronic pain in the rat. Male rats were exposed to chlorpyrifos (120mg/kg; SC), permethrin (2.6mg/kg; topical), and PB (13.0mg/kg; oral) or their respective vehicles (corn oil, ethanol, and water). Permethrin can exert profound influences on voltage activated Na(+) channel proteins; while chlorpyrifos and PB can increase absorption and/or retard metabolism of permethrin as well as inhibit cholinesterases. During and after exposure to these agents, we assessed muscle pressure pain thresholds and activity (distance and rest time). Eight and 12 weeks after treatments ceased, we used whole cell patch electrophysiology to examine the physiology of tissue specific DRG nociceptor channel proteins expressed in muscle and putative vascular nociceptors (voltage dependent, activation, inactivation, and deactivation). Behavioral indices were unchanged after treatment with NTPB. Eight weeks after treatments ended, the peak and average conductance of Kv7 mediated K(+) currents were significantly increased in vascular nociceptors. When a specific Kv7 inhibitor was applied (linopirdine, 10μM) NTPB treated vascular nociceptors emitted significantly more spontaneous APs than vehicle treated neurons. Changes to Kv7 channel physiology were resolved 12 weeks after treatment. The molecular alterations to Kv7 channel proteins and the specific susceptibility of the vascular nociceptor population could be important for the etiology of GWI pain.

  2. Modeling manure-borne bromide and fecal coliform transport with runoff and infiltration at a hillslope. (United States)

    Kouznetsov, M Y; Roodsari, R; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R; Sadeghi, A M; Shirmohammadi, A; Starr, J L


    Hillslope vegetated buffers are recommended to prevent water pollution from agricultural runoff. However, models to predict the efficacy of different grass buffer designs are lacking. The objective of this work was to develop and test a mechanistic model of coupled surface and subsurface flow and transport of bacteria and a conservative tracer on hillslopes. The testing should indicate what level of complexity and observation density might be needed to capture essential processes in the model. We combined the three-dimensional FEMWATER model of saturated-unsaturated subsurface flow with the Saint-Venant model for runoff. The model was tested with data on rainfall-induced fecal coliforms (FC) and bromide (Br) transport from manure applied at vegetated and bare 6-m long plots. The calibration of water retention parameters was unnecessary, and the same manure release parameters could be used both for simulations of Br and FC. Surface straining rates were similar for Br and bacteria. Simulations of Br and FC concentrations were least successful for the funnels closest to the source. This could be related to the finger-like flow of the manure from the strip along the bare slopes, to the transport of Br and FC with manure colloids that became strained at the grass slope, and to the presence of micro-ponds at the grassed slope. The two-dimensional model abstraction of the actual 3D transport worked well for flux-averaged concentrations. The model developed in this work is suitable to simulate surface and subsurface transport of agricultural contaminants on hillslopes and to evaluate efficiency of grass strip buffers, especially when lateral subsurface flow is important.

  3. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  4. The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on Daphnia magna. (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Bang-Jun; Sun, Zhen-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ji


    The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C(8)mim]Br) on Daphnia magna was investigated. The 24 and 48 h LC(50) values for [C(8)mim]Br in D. magna were 1.99 and 0.95 mg/L, respectively. A series of multigenerational toxicity tests were then used to explore [C(8)mim]Br effects in D. magna. [C(8)mim]Br significantly inhibited the body lengths of the F0 and F1 1st generations. After 21 days of exposure, [C(8)mim]Br lowered the reproductive ability of the F0 and F1 1st generations. In F1 3rd generation, 21 days of [C(8)mim]Br exposure prolonged the time to bear the first egg and the time to the first brood compared with the control, but the number of first-brood offspring and the number of broods produced by these animals were reduced. After the recovery period all the reproductive parameters returned to normal in F1 1st generation except for the number of broods. The dead neonates increased with prolonged exposure and increasing concentrations, and the dead neonates of the F1 3rd generation went far beyond that of the F1 1st and F0 generations. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) values of the three D. magna generations significantly decreased after exposure to higher concentrations of [C(8)mim]Br compared with control groups. Collectively, these results suggest that [C(8)mim]Br exerts a toxic effect on the development of D. magna. This study also highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the potential effects of aquatic ecosystems of ionic liquids that may be released into bodies of water.

  5. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Li-Pin; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Wolvetang, Ernst, E-mail:


    The expression of mitochondrial components is controlled by an intricate interplay between nuclear transcription factors and retrograde signaling from mitochondria. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded proteins in mitochondrial biogenesis is, however, poorly understood and thus far has mainly been studied in transformed cell lines. We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated how the cells recovered from these insults two weeks after removal of the drugs. Although cellular growth and mitochondrial gene expression were severely impaired after both inhibitor treatments we observed marked differences in mitochondrial structure, membrane potential, glycolysis, gene expression, and redox status between fibroblasts treated with EtBr and chloramphenicol. Following removal of the drugs we further detected clear differences in expression of both mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the cells possess different compensatory mechanisms to recover from drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data reveal new aspects of the interplay between mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the expression of nuclear regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, a process with direct relevance to mitochondrial diseases and chloramphenicol toxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► Cells respond to certain environmental toxins by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. ► We investigated the effect of Chloramphenicol and EtBr in primary human fibroblasts. ► Inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or DNA replication elicit different effects. ► We provide novel insights into the cellular responses toxins and antibiotics.

  6. Binding-Induced Fluorescence of Serotonin Transporter Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, James; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Babinchak, Michael;


    The binding-induced fluorescence of 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-phenyl)-1-methylpyridinium (APP(+)) and two new serotonin transporter (SERT)-binding fluorescent analogues, 1-butyl-4-[4-(1-dimethylamino)phenyl]-pyridinium bromide (BPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-[4-(1-piperidinyl)phenyl]-pyridinium (PPP(+)), has...

  7. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection. (United States)

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl


    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  8. Tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II COPD patients: a pharmaeconomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo


    Full Text Available Background: a secondary pre-specified analysis of the UPLIFT cohort demonstrated that the inclusion of tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II (moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is associated with stronger improvements of survival, quality of life, and exacerbation rate than those shown in the total cohort; in this subgroup, tiotropium furthermore induces a significant reduction in the rate of FEV1 decline.Objective: to adapt the Spiriva® model, originally built to evaluate cost-effectiveness of tiotropium inclusion in the general COPD population, to GOLD II patients.Methods: the Spiriva® model is a probabilistic Markov patient-level simulation developed over a lifetime horizon to compare outcomes associated with the inclusion of tiotropium in routine care (RC for COPD treatment with those obtained with RC alone. Patients are characterised by gender, age, height, smoking status and FEV1. Model structure and sources have been maintained unvaried, except for demographic characteristics, specific for GOLD II patients, as extrapolated from an Italian observational study, and tiotropium efficacy, based on the secondary analysis of GOLD II UPLIFT patients. As in the original model, only direct health care costs are considered.Results: patients treated with tiotropium on average (95% CI gain 0.70 (0.00/7.23 LYs or 0.77 (0.02/4.67 QALYs compared to RC. The incremental lifetime cost is € 3,520 (-6,391/26,686, meaning that the incremental cost required to gain a QALY (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio – ICER is equal to € 4,548. Sensitivity analysis shows that tiotropium has a 50% probability of being cost-effective for a willingness-to-pay (WTP around 4,600 €/QALY; 100% probability is achieved with a WTP of € 9,300.Conclusions: the adoption of a strategy based on the inclusion of tiotropium from the early COPD stages represents good value for money in Italy, as the ICER estimated for GOLD II


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P


    Full Text Available Adverse event profile ofSuxamethonium which is still the relaxant of choice to facilitate tracheal intubation inspired us to conduct a study in which we compared Onset time, Duration of Action and Intubating Conditions Achieved with Suxametho nium and Rocuronium Bromide with the Help of TOF Guard. AIMS : W e compared the onset of relaxation time, intubating condition, and duration of action, the cardiovascular effect, side effects between Suxamethonium and Rocuronium to ascertain the place of Rocu ronium as a relaxant for rapid sequence intubation as compared to the Suxamethonium. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The present study was carried out with the association of Department of Anesthesiology, S.S. Medical College and Associated S.G.M. and G.M. Hospitals, Rewa (M.P., and Departmen t of Pharmacology NSCB Medical C ollege Jabalpur (M.P. in 100 patients of either sex of ASA grade I and II between the ages of 16 to 70 years. The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 50 each. Group I & II received Sux amethonium 1.5 mg/kg B.W. or Rocuronium 1.0 mg/kg B.W. RESULTS : Onset time of maximum relaxation is < 60 seconds in each relaxants under study i.e. Rocuronium 1 mg/kg and Suxamethonium 1.5 mg/kg. Intubating conditions after Rocuronium 1 mg/kg are clinically acceptable in 100% of cases and are equivalent to that after Suxamethonium 1.5 mg/kg. Rocuronium upto dose of 1 mg/kg does not have any clinically significant cardiovascular effect. Rocuronium does not have any side effects including the sign of histamine release and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions. Duration of action after Rocuronium 1 mg/kg is about 2346.4 seconds (39.14 minutes so it is not suitable for surgeries of short duration. CONCLUSIONS : Rocuronium can replace Suxamethonium for rapid sequ ence intubation in conditions where use of Suxamethonium is eithe r hazardous or contraindicated p rovided there is no anticipated difficulty in intubation.

  10. Methylene bromide chemistry and photochemistry on rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Robbins, Matthew D.


    The chemistry and photochemistry of methylene bromide (CD2Br2) on the rutile TiO2(110) surface was probed using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). CD2Br2 desorbed in three desorption states at 145, 160 and 250 K tentatively assigned to desorption from the multilayer, from an η1-CD2Br2 species and a bridging η2-CD2Br2 species, respectively. The latter two TPD states presumably involve binding of CD2Br2 molecules to the surface through Br coordination at five-coordinate Ti4+ surface sites. The 160 and 250 K TPD states saturated at coverages of 1.0 and 0.33 ML, respectively, where 1 ML is equivalent to the surface Ti4+ site density (5.2 × 1014 cm- 2). No thermal decomposition of CD2Br2 was observed on either the clean surface or with preadsorbed O2. UV irradiation of CD2Br2 on TiO2(110) resulted in predominately photodesorption, with trace amounts of photodecomposition evidenced in TPD. The rate of CD2Br2 photodesorption from TiO2(110) occurred with a low cross section (~ 2 × 10- 21 cm2) similar to that expected from direct optical excitation of CD2Br2. This observation suggests that charge carriers generated in TiO2(110) were no more effective in activating adsorbed CD2Br2 molecules than would be expected through direct molecular excitation. Finally, these findings suggest that photocatalytic destruction of halocarbons such as CD2Br2 on TiO2 may preferentially occur though indirect processes (such as OH radical attack) as opposed to direct electron transfer processes involving charge carriers generated in TiO2 by bandgap excitation.

  11. Effect of pinaverium bromide on stress-induced colonic smooth muscle contractility disorder in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Dai; Jian-Xiang Liu; Jun-Xia Li; Yun-Feng Xu


    AIM: To investigate the effect of pinaverium bromide, a Ltype calcium channel blocker with selectivity for the gastrointestinal tract on contractile activity of colonic circular smooth muscle in normal or cold-restraint stressed rats and its possible mechanism.METHODS: Cold-restraint stress was conducted on rats to increase fecal pellets output. Each isolated colonic circular muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing warm oxygenated Tyrode-Ringer solution. The contractile response to ACh or KCl was measured isometrically on inkwriting recorder. Incubated muscle in different concentrations of pinaverium and the effects of pinaverium were investigated on ACh or KCl-induced contraction. Colon smooth muscle cells were cultured from rats and [Ca2+]i was measured in cell suspension using the Ca2+ fluorescent dye fura-2/AlMl.RESULTS: During stress, rats fecal pellet output increased 61% (P<0.01). Stimulated with ACh or KCl, the muscle contractility was higher in stress than that in control. Pinaverium inhibited the increment of [Ca2+]i and the muscle contraction in response to ACh or KCl in a dose dependent manner. A significant inhibition of pinaverium to ACh or KCl induced [Ca2+]i increment was observed at 10-6 mol/L. The IC50 values for inhibition of ACh induced contraction for the stress and control group were 1.66×10-6 mol/L and 0.91×10-6mol/L, respectively. The ICs0 values for inhibition of KCl induced contraction for the stress and control group were 8.13×10-7 mol/L and 3.80×10-7 mol/L, respectively.CONCLUSION: Increase in [Ca2+]i of smooth muscle cells is directly related to the generation of contraction force in colon. L-type Ca2+ channels represent the main route of Ca2+ entry.Pinaverium inhibits the calcium influx through L-type channels;decreases the contractile response to many kinds of agonists and regulates the stress-induced colon hypermotility.

  12. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of clinical benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik CS


    Full Text Available Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD.Methods: This study was performed as a systematic literature review.Results: Inhaled glycopyrronium bromide seems to be a safe and well tolerated long-acting muscarinic antagonist with a fast onset of action. In patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium bromide has clinically important effects on level of forced expiratory volume in one second, use of relief medication, percentage of days with no use of rescue medication, daytime dyspnea scores, and probably also on health status. Furthermore, in this group of patients, glycopyrronium bromide has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, but long-term controlled trials with exacerbation rate as the primary outcome variable have not been published yet.Conclusion: Once-daily inhaled glycopyrronium bromide has characteristics important for use in COPD, including a fast onset of action, sustained 24-hour bronchodilatation, and improvement in exercise tolerance, and therefore appears to have the potential for a significant role in the future management of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting bronchodilators

  13. CdTe quantum dots functionalized with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide as luminescent nanoprobe for the sensitive recognition of bromide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Hosten, Eric; McCleland, Cedric [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Campus), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)


    Graphical abstract: A bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) showed a high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of bromide ion using fluorescence recovery. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe quantum dots interact with tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum dots fluorescence is quenched by the radical. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the presence of bromide ions the fluorescence is restored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor is more selective to bromine ions than other common ions. - Abstract: A novel bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) has been developed. Fluorescence quenching of the QDs by 4AT was observed. The functionalized QDs-4AT nanoprobe allowed a highly sensitive determination of bromide ion via analyte-induced change in the photoluminescence (fluorescence recovery) of the modified QDs. A detection limit of 0.6 nM of bromide ion was obtained, while the interfering effect of other inorganic cations and anions was investigated to examine the selectivity of the nanoprobe. The linear range was between 0.01 and 0.13 {mu}M. Combined fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed electron transfer processes between bromide ion and QDs-4AT.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of new aromatic quaternary ammonium bromides: precursors for ionic liquids and complexation studies (United States)

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Ropponen, Jarmo; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari


    Series of new aromatic R2R‧2N+Br- (R=benzyl, 4-methylbenzyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl; R‧=ethyl, methyl, isopropyl) or RR‧2NH+Br--type (R=benzyl, R‧=isopropyl) quaternary ammonium bromides were prepared by using novel synthetic route in which a formamide (N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-diisopropylformamide) is treated with aralkyl halide in presence of a weak base. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Structures of the crystalline compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction, and in addition the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. Three of the compounds crystallized in monoclinic, two in orthorhombic and one in triclinic crystal system, showing ion pairs, which are interconnected by weak hydrogen bonds and weak π - π interactions between the phenyl rings. Three of the compounds appeared as viscous oil or waxes. Finally, TG/DTA and DSC methods were used to analyze thermal properties of the prepared compounds. The lowest melting points were obtained for diethyldi-(2-phenylethyl)ammonium bromide (122.2 °C) and for diethyldi-(3-phenylpropyl)-ammonium bromide (109.1 °C). In general, decomposition of the compounds started at 170-190 °C without identifiable cleavages, thus liquid ranges of 30-70 °C were observed for some of the compounds.

  15. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  16. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph


    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  17. Effect of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline on cytokines in children with bronchopneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Yu Che


    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children and the effect on cytokines.Methods:A total of 70 children with bronchopneumonia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given anti-infection, oxygen inhalation, cough and asthma relieving, acidosis correcting, mask+oxygen driven aerosol inhalation of budesonide (0.5 mg/time) and terbutaline (1.0 mg/time), with an oxygen flow rate of 5-7 L/min, 5-10 min every time, twice a day. On the above basis, the patients in the study group were given additional ipratropium bromide (1.0 mg/time). After 7-day treatment, the efficacy was evaluated. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, and WBC before and after treatment were detected. PEF, FVC, and FEV1 before and after treatment were detected. The improvement of clinical symptoms and signs, and the occurrence of adverse reactions were observed.Results: The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, and WBC counting after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05).Conclusions:Ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children can rapidly relieve the symptoms, and improve the cytokine level, without obvious adverse reactions; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  18. Sonogashira couplin8 reaction of homoproparsyl ether with aryl bromides and synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; LIU LingYan; CHANG WeiXing; LI Jing


    This paper presents Sonogashira coupling reaction of aryl bromides with protected homopropargyl alcohols such as tert-butyldimethyl(1-phenylbut-3-ynyloxy)silane and tert-butyldimethyl(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)but-3-ynyloxy)silane in piperidine catalyzed by PdCl2/PPh3 without copper(Ⅰ).The coupling products,disubstituted acetylene,are obtained in good or excellent yields.These products can be further used for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans.

  19. Efficacy and safety of eco-friendly inhalers: focus on combination ipratropium bromide and albuterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos RJ


    Full Text Available Ralph J Panos1,2 1Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and its treatment is critical to improve quality of life, reduce symptoms, and diminish the frequency of COPD exacerbations. Due to the harmful environmental effects of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, newer systems for delivering respiratory medications have been developed. Methods: A search of the literature in the PubMed database was undertaken using the keywords “COPD,” “albuterol,” “ipratropium bromide,” and “Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™”; pertinent references within the identified citations were included. The environmental effect of CFC-pMDIs, the invention of the Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™ (SMI (Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany, and its use to deliver the combination of albuterol and ipratropium bromide for the treatment of COPD were reviewed. Results: The adverse environmental effects of CFC-pMDIs stimulated the invention of novel delivery systems including the Respimat SMI. This review presents its development, internal mechanism, and use to deliver the combination of albuterol and ipratropium bromide. Conclusion: CFC-pMDIs contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer and the surge in disorders caused by harmful ultraviolet B radiation. The banning of CFCs spurred the development of novel delivery systems for respiratory medications. The Respimat SMI is an innovative device that produces a vapor of inhalable droplets with reduced velocity and prolonged aerosol duration that enhance deposition within the lower airway and is associated with improved patient satisfaction. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the Respimat SMI

  20. Study of the Ion Channel Behavior of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Formed Bilayer Lipid Membrane Stimulated by PF-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG,Yue-Hong; HAN,Xiao-Jun; WANG,Er-Kang


    Bilayer lipid membranes ( BLM ) formed from didodecyldimethylammonium bromide were made on the freshly exposed surface ofa glassy carbon (GC) ani were demonstrated by the ac impedance spectroscopy. The ion channels of membrane properties induced by PF6- were studied by the cyclic voltammetric methods.Experimental results indicated that the ion channel of BLM was open in the presence of the PF6- due to the interaction of PF6- with the BLM, while it was switched offin the absence of PF6-. Because the ion channel behavior was affected by the concentration of PF6-,a sensor for PF6- can be developed.

  1. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi


    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  2. The application of pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) forensic analyses to tissue samples from an "Angel of Death" investigation. (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D; Alcaraz, Armando; Grant, Patrick M


    The case report of a serial killer who worked at several hospitals as a respiratory therapist is presented. The suspect was initially labeled a benevolent Angel of Death who ended the suffering of elderly patients through mercy killing. However, his subsequently declared motive for homicide was very different from other similar cases in medical settings. The application of new analysis techniques for the detection of pancuronium bromide in a series of aged exhumation tissues gave positive results and led to the resultant conviction of the therapist.

  3. Solid-phase plate-reader quantification of specific PCR products by measurement of band-specific ethidium bromide fluorescence. (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael T; O'Callaghan, Christopher A


    Real-time PCR is widely employed to quantify PCR products across a range of applications. However, accurate real-time PCR is not always technically feasible, and alternative methods for PCR product quantification can be expensive and time consuming to validate. We have developed an inexpensive, rapid, and immediately accessible protocol to quantify PCR products, by measuring ethidium bromide fluorescence of PCR products excised from agarose gels. This protocol has relevance to a broad range of methods in molecular biology where quantification of PCR products is necessary.

  4. Investigation of Surfactant-Stain-Metal Interaction: Naphthochrome Green/Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide/Rare Earths Ternary Complexation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立新; 沈荣; 郜洪文


    The ternary interaction of naphthochrome green (NCG) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and rare earths (Res: Yb, Dy, Er and Eu) has been investigated with the microsurface adsorption-spectral correction technique (MSASC). The aggregation of NCG on CTAB obeys the Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The enrichment of NCG on CTAB and the presence of NaCl sensitize the complexation between Res and NCG. Both the binary aggregate and the ternary complex were characterized in the presence and absence of NaCl at pH 8.30 at 20 and 40℃.

  5. 罗库溴铵合成路线图解%Graphical Synthetic Routes of Rocuronium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严慧; 邱飞; 刁勇


    @@ 罗库溴铵(rocuronium bromide,1),化学名为1-[(2β,3α,5α,16β,17β)-17-(乙酰氧基)-3-羟基-2-(4-吗啉基)雄甾烷-16-基]-1-(2-丙烯基)吡咯烷鎓溴化物,是荷兰Organon公司研发的一种非去极化甾醇类肌肉松弛药,1994年6月首次在美国上市.

  6. Direct observation of the reversible unwinding of a single DNA molecule caused by the intercalation of ethidium bromide


    Hayashi, Masahito; Harada, Yoshie


    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the conventional intercalator for visualizing DNA. Previous studies suggested that EtBr lengthens and unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). However, no one has observed the unwinding of a single dsDNA molecule during intercalation. We developed a simple method to observe the twisting motions of a single dsDNA molecule under an optical microscope. A short dsDNA was attached to a glass surface of a flow chamber at one end and to a doublet bead as a rotation marker at t...

  7. Synthesis, crystal growth and spectroscopic investigation of novel metal organic crystal: β-Alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM) (United States)

    Renugadevi, R.; Kesavasamy, R.


    β-Alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM), a new metal organic crystal has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The β-ACBM crystallized in monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The presence of protons and carbons in the β-alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate was confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. The mode of vibration of different molecular groups present in β-ACBM was identified by FT-IR spectral analysis. Transparency of crystals in UV-Vis-NIR region has also been studied. The thermal characteristics of as-grown crystals were analyzed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The magnetic property of the grown crystal was investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at ambient temperature. The mechanical stability of β-ACBM was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurement.

  8. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P


    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.

  9. Pentafluorobenzyl bromide-A versatile derivatization agent in chromatography and mass spectrometry: I. Analysis of inorganic anions and organophosphates. (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios


    Pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) is a versatile derivatization agent. It is widely used in chromatography and mass spectrometry since several decades. The bromide atom is largely the single leaving group of PFB-Br. It is substituted by wide a spectrum of nucleophiles in aqueous and non-aqueous systems to form electrically neutral, in most organic solvents soluble, generally thermally stable, volatile, strongly electron-capturing and ultraviolet light-absorbing derivatives. Because of these greatly favoured physicochemical properties, PFB-Br emerged an ideal derivatization agent for highly sensitive analysis of endogenous and exogenous substances including various inorganic and organic anions by electron capture detection or after electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization in GC-MS. The present article attempts an appraisal of the utility of PFB-Br in analytical chemistry. It reviews and discusses papers dealing with the use of PFB-Br as the derivatization reagent in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of endogenous and exogenous inorganic anions in various biological samples, notably plasma, urine and saliva. These analytes include nitrite, nitrate, cyanide and dialkyl organophosphates. Special emphasis is given to mass spectrometry-based approaches and stable-isotope dilution techniques.

  10. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng


    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  11. Photoinduced Dissociation Of N-alkyl Bromides On Gallium Arsenide(110) And Gallium Arsenide(100) Electron And Fragment Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, K A


    In this study we investigate the UV-initiated electron transfer and dissociation fragment dynamics of selected n-alkyl bromides physisorbed on single crystals of GaAs. By systematically varying different chemical and structural parameters of the adsorbate/substrate system we explore a number of fundamental questions regarding the basic physics and chemistry of photochemical processes on surfaces. Monolayers of methyl, ethyl and propyl bromide were deposited on the (110), Ga-terminated (100) and As- terminated (100) surfaces of GaAs without thermal decomposition at 80 K. Substrate-mediated electron transfer to the molecule, induced by exposure to UV light at 193, 248 and 351 nm, causes C-Br bond cleavage. The electron transfer dynamics of this mechanism are examined as a function of wavelength and molecular complexity of the adsorbate to better understand the flow of energy and charge across the adsorbate/substrate interface. The photodynamics of the alkyl fragments are studied using mass-, energy- and angle-r...

  12. Study on the toxicity of sodium bromide to different fresh water organisms. [Scenedesmus pannonicus; Daphnia magna; Poecilia reticulata; Oryzias latipas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, J.H.; Wester, P.W.; Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.


    The toxicity of sodium bromide for fresh water organisms was tested using algae (Scenedesmus pannonicus), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and fish (Poecilia reticulata and Oryzias latipes). Depending on the species tested, the acute toxicity varied from 44 to 5800 mg Br-/litre (EC50 values) and the No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC values) in the long-term tests varied from 7.8 to 250 mg Br-/litre. Bromide ion markedly impaired reproduction in both crustaceans and fish. Histologically no effects were observed in the long-term test with Oryzias, but in the reproduction test with Poecilia, hyperplasia of the thyroid, atrophy and degeneration of the musculature and regressive changes in the female reproductive tract were observed. As a criterion of water quality, 1 mg Br-/litre has been proposed, on the basis of reproductive performance in the Poecilia test. The concentrations found in surface water frequently exceed this value and sometimes reach levels at which acute effects on water organisms can be expected.

  13. Interaction between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide and Xanthan: MesoDyn simulation and binding isotherm measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    MesoDyn density functional simulation method is used to study the interactions between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12NBr) and Xanthan (XC). The micro dynamic process of aggregate formation and the aggregate morphology are reported. Interaction between XC and nonyphenyloxypropylβ-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C9phNBr) is compared with that between XC and C12NBr. Simulation results show that the aggregate morphology of XC/C12NBr and XC/C9phNBr is of rod-like shape with helix characteristic. The binding of C9phNBr to XC is more difficult than that of C12NBr to XC. In addition, three stages for the dynamic evolution of surfactant binding to XC are observed. The simulation results agree with binding isotherms of C9phNBr (C12NBr) to XC obtained via the potentiometric titration method, which shows a typical cooperative binding between C9phNBr (C12NBr) and XC.

  14. Linear optical properties and their bond length dependence of yttrium bromide from ab initio and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipour, Mojtaba, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajeri, Afshan, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: The electronic properties such as the static dipole polarizability, anisotropy of the polarizability, and dipole moment of yttrium bromide, YBr (X{sup 1}{Sigma}) have been theoretically studied. Highlights: {yields} Conventional ab initio and density functional theory methods were employed to study linear optical properties of YBr molecule. {yields} Properties derivatives and their level of theory dependence were studied. {yields} Electron correlation effects and rovibrational corrections have also been discussed. - Abstract: We have employed conventional ab initio and density functional theory methods to study the electronic properties such as the mean static dipole polarizability, {alpha}-bar, anisotropy of the polarizability, {Delta}{alpha}, and dipole moment, {mu}, of yttrium bromide. The bond length dependence of properties is determined at different levels of theory and appropriate expansions around experimental internuclear distance have been presented. Moreover, the first and second geometrical derivatives for each property are quantified and their level of theory dependence has been analyzed. To study the effect of molecular rotation and vibration on the electronic properties, the rovibrational corrections have also been carried out. It is found that these corrections are less pronounced for considered properties of YBr. In all calculations, the electron correlation effects have been considered and discussed. The obtained results show that the electron correlation is more significant in the calculation of the mean and the anisotropy of dipole polarizability.

  15. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: Enhanced bromate formation in the presence ofsynthetic metal oxides and deposits formed indrinking water distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao


    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate>>sulfate>bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Preparation of Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Al-MSU-S Using Ionic Liquids as Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin-Yu; LIU Cai-Hua; YANG Jian-Guo; WU Hai-Hong; WU Peng; HE Ming-Yuan


    Mesoporous molecular sieves Al-MSU-S has been prepared from the precursor of zeolite Y using ionic liquids l-hexadecane-3-methylimidazolium bromide (CMIMB) as a template in basic medium, which exhibited larger pore diameter, pore volume and surface area than that synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)template.

  17. Use of Cyclic Allylic Bromides in the Zinc–Mediated Aqueous Barbier–Grignard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Perala


    Full Text Available The zinc–mediated aqueous Barbier–Grignard reaction of cyclic allylic bromide substrates with various aldehydes and ketones to afford homoallylic alcohols was investigated. Aromatic aldehydes and ketones afforded adducts in good yields (66–90% and with good diastereoselectivities. Non–aromatic aldehydes also reacted well under these conditions, but only poor yields were obtained with non–aromatic ketones. Regioselectivity was high when some substituted cyclic allylic bromides were investigated.

  18. Development of a miniature dielectric barrier discharge–optical emission spectrometric system for bromide and bromate screening in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong-Liang [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cai, Yi [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, Ming-Li, E-mail: [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300071 (China)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is for the first time used as a radiation source for the excitation of bromine and its emission. •A DBD–optical emission spectrometric (OES) system was developed for the detection of bromide and bromate. •The DBD–OES system has been demonstrated by screening trace bromide and bromate in a series of environmental water samples. -- Abstract: Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure provides an efficient radiation source for the excitation of bromine and it is used for the first time for optical emission spectrometric (OES) detection of bromide and bromate. A portable DBD–OES system is developed for screening potential pollution from bromide and bromate in environmental waters. Bromide is on-line oxidized to bromine for in-situ generation of volatile bromine. Meanwhile, a helium stream carries bromine into the DBD micro-plasma for its excitation at a discharging voltage of 3.7 kV and optical emission spectrometric detection with a QE65000 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer in the near-infrared spectral region. Similarly, the quantification of bromate is performed by its pre-reduction into bromide and then oxidized to bromine. The spectral characteristics and configuration of the DBD micro-plasma excitation source in addition to the oxidation vapor generation of bromine have been thoroughly investigated. With a sampling volume of 1 mL, a linear range of 0.05–10.0 mg L{sup −1} is obtained with a detection limit of 0.014 mg L{sup −1} by measuring the emission at 827 nm. A precision of 2.3% is achieved at 3 mg L{sup −1} bromide. The system is validated by bromine detection in certified reference material of laver (GBW10023) at mg L{sup −1} level, giving rise to satisfactory agreement. In addition, it is further demonstrated by screening trace bromide and bromate as well as spiking recoveries in a series of environmental water samples.

  19. Estudo da adsorção de brometo de etídeo em resina XAD-7 Study of ethidium bromide adsorption on XAD-7 resin


    Mônica Winkler de Oliveira; Alexandre W. S. Hilsdorf; Astréa F. Souza Silva; André Fernando Oliveira


    The adsorption of ethidium bromide on XAD-7 resin was studied. The Freundlich model was the most representative isotherm model to describe the sorption behavior. A solid-liquid equilibrium model was proposed to explain the resin mass influence on the sorption. The equilibrium constant value estimated was 2.31. The results showed an ethidium bromide ion-pair physical adsorption, with adsorption enthalpy equals to -19.33 kJ/mol. A pK2 value equals to 4.69 ± 0.01 was estimated by two distinct me...

  20. Apparent and partial molar volumes of long-chain alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides and bromides in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C[Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides; Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium bromides; Micellization; Density; Apparent molar volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Ruso, J.M.; Nimo, J.; Rodriguez, J.R. E-mail:


    Density measurements of dodecyl- (C{sub 12}DBACl), tetradecyl- (C{sub 14}DBACl), hexadecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C{sub 16}DBACl) and of decyl- (C{sub 10}DBABr) and dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium bromide (C{sub 12}DBABr) in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C have been carried out. From these results, apparent and partial molar volumes were calculated. Positive deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. The change of the apparent molar volume upon micellization was calculated. The relevant parameters have been presented in function of the alkyl chain length. Apparent molar volumes of the present compounds in the micellar phase, V{sub phi}{sup m}, and the change upon micellization, {delta}V{sub phi}{sup m}, have been discussed in terms of temperature and type of counterion.

  1. Bromide and other ions in the snow, firn air, and atmospheric boundary layer at Summit during GSHOX

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    J. E. Dibb


    Full Text Available Measurements of gas phase soluble bromide in the boundary layer and in firn air, and Br in aerosol and snow, were made at Summit, Greenland (72.5° N, 38.4° W, 3200 m a.s.l. as part of a larger investigation into the influence of Br chemistry on HOx cycling. The soluble bromide measurements confirm that photochemical activation of Br in the snow causes release of active Br to the overlying air despite trace concentrations of Br in the snow (means 15 and 8 nmol Br kg−1 of snow in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Mixing ratios of soluble bromide above the snow were also found to be very small (mean <1 ppt both years, with maxima of 3 and 4 ppt in 2007 and 2008, respectively, but these levels clearly oxidize and deposit long-lived gaseous elemental mercury and may perturb HOx partitioning. Concentrations of Br in surface snow tended to increase/decrease in parallel with the specific activities of the aerosol-associated radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb. Earlier work has shown that ventilation of the boundary layer causes simultaneous increases in 7Be and 210Pb at Summit, suggesting there is a pool of Br in the free troposphere above Summit in summer time. Speciation and the source of this free tropospheric Br are not well constrained, but we suggest it may be linked to extensive regions of active Br chemistry in the Arctic basin which are known to cause ozone and mercury depletion events shortly after polar sunrise. If this hypothesis is correct, it implies persistence of the free troposphere Br for several months after peak Br activation in March/April. Alternatively, there may be a~ubiquitous pool of Br in the free troposphere, sustained by currently unknown sources and processes.

  2. Bromide and other ions in the snow, firn air, and atmospheric boundary layer at Summit during GSHOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Dibb


    Full Text Available Measurements of gas phase soluble bromide in the boundary layer and in firn air, and Br in aerosol and snow, were made at Summit, Greenland (72.5° N, 38.4° W, 3200 m a.s.l. as part of a larger investigation into the influence of Br chemistry on HOx cycling. The soluble bromide measurements confirm that photochemical activation of Br in the snow causes release of active Br to the overlying air despite trace concentrations of Br in the snow (means 15 and 8 nmol Br kg−1 of snow in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Mixing ratios of soluble bromide above the snow were also found to be very small (mean <1 ppt both years, with maxima of 3 and 4 ppt in 2007 and 2008, respectively, but these levels clearly oxidize and deposit long-lived gaseous elemental mercury and may perturb HOx partitioning. Concentrations of Br in surface snow tended to increase/decrease in parallel with the specific activities of the aerosol-associated radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb. Earlier work has shown that ventilation of the boundary layer causes simultaneous increases in 7Be and 210Pb at Summit, suggesting there is a pool of Br in the free troposphere above Summit in summer time. Speciation and the source of this free tropospheric Br are not well constrained, but we suggest it may be linked to extensive regions of active Br chemistry in the Arctic basin which are known to cause ozone and mercury depletion events shortly after polar sunrise. If this hypothesis is correct, it implies persistence of the free troposphere Br for several months after peak Br activation in March/April. Alternatively, there may be a ubiquitous pool of Br in the free troposphere, sustained by currently unknown sources and processes.


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid and safe endotracheal intubation is of paramount importance in practice of general anesthesia . Succinylcholine chloride , a depolarizing muscl e relaxant due to its quick onset of action and excellent intubating conditions has remained a muscle relaxant of choice . Rocuronium was proved to be safe alternative to Succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation . AIMS : Study was conducted to evaluate & c ompare the onset time , clinical duration and intubating condition of Succinylcholine and Rocuronium Bromide and Haemodynamic changes caused by these agents . METHODS & MATERIALS : 80 patients were randomly divided into two groups . Group - 1 , Succinylcholine ( 1 . 5mg/kg and group - 2 Rocuronium Bromide ( 0 . 6mg/kg . After 60 sec of administration of muscle relaxant , intubating conditions were judged according to scoring system by Cooper et al . 1 Onset time and duration of action was noted . Hemodynamic parameters ( H eart rate , Systolic Blood Pressure , Diastolic Blood Pressure , Mean Atrial pressure and SPO 2 were monitored before intubation , during intubation and just after intubation at 1 , 2 and 5 minutes . RESULTS : The mean onset time and duration of action was signi ficantly longer for Rocuronium ( 95 . 15±9 . 47 seconds than Succinylcholine ( 59 . 80±14 . 30 seconds and Rocuronium ( 42 . 60±13 . 15 minutes than Succinylcholine ( 5 . 10±2 . 35 minutes . Intubating conditions was excellent in 35 ( 87% and good in 5 ( 12 . 5% patients in su ccinylcholine whereas , in Rocuronium produced excellent intubation in only 23 ( 57 . 5% patients and good intubation in 14 ( 35% patients . The heart rate increased significantly after induction ( maximum at 1 minute with both Rocuronium ( 98 . 75±15 . 53 and Succi nylcholine ( 112 . 75±15 . 89 . But it gradually declined towards normal and change in heart rate with either drug was not significant at 5 minutes . The mean blood pressure increased significantly after induction

  4. Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Tamsulosin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Using Bromate-Bromide and Methyl Orange Reagent

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    Bharatkumar Ganeshbhai Chaudhari


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, accurate and precise assay procedure based on Spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical formulation. The method was based on the bromination of Tamsulosin hydrochloride with a known excess amount of Bromate-bromide mixture in acidic medium followed by the determination of surplus bromine by reacting with dye methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 513 nm. Validation was carried out in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Linear regression analysis of method showed good linearity with the correlation co-efficient (r of 0.9978 with respect to absorbance in the concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL and the mean recovery for Tamsulosin hydrochloride was 99.65% ± 0.47 . The proposed method can be successfully applied for the analysis of tablet formulations.

  5. Physicochemistry of hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl and ethanolic head group analogues in buffered aqueous and gelatin solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debolina Mitra; Satya P Moul


    In this work, the interfacial and bulk behaviour of the amphiphiles hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl and ethanolic head group analogues in buffered aqueous and gelatin solution has been examined. The analogues are of two categories: the methyl and the combined methyl and ethanolic head group representatives are considered as Group A compounds, and all non-methyl but ethanolic head group species are taken as Group B compounds. Different physical techniques have been employed to ascertain the amphiphilic behaviour in solution. The self-aggregation of these surfactants at different pH has been studied along with pH dependent interfacial activity of gelatin. The interaction of the two categories of the surfactants with gelatin at different pH has been investigated. A scheme for this interaction at various stages of the process has been proposed. The influence of the surfactant head groups on the interaction process has been assessed.

  6. A kinetic study of the thermal degradation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide inside the mesoporous SBA-3 molecular sieve

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    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB inside the mesoporous SBA-3 was studied under non-isothermal conditions. There are two distinct and complex kinetic processes which partly overlap, each consisting of one dominant and three minor individual processes. The two dominant processes can be described by the Sestak–Berggren model. The main decomposition step (the first dominant process involves the overcoming of weak interactions between CTMAB and the silica network and proceeds with a lower Ea value (116±2 kJ mol‑1 than the second dominant process (153±5 kJ mol-1, which can be explained by the size reduction of the pore openings due to the contraction of the SBA-3 unit cell caused by the removal of CTMAB.

  7. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride–Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications (United States)


    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425–570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1–x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride–bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm. PMID:26236949

  8. Study of liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin with sodium butyrate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu


    The liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin and sodium butyrate with tetrabutylammonium bromide as a phase transfer catalyst was studied in this paper. The shrinking core model was applied. The analysis of the reaction based on the kinetic model showed a reaction-controlled regime at temperatures varying from 90 to 100°C. The exterior diffusivity was removed between 300 and 400 rpm. The internal diffusivity was removed when the particle size was 2 × 10-4 m. Reaction rate constants were calculated at different temperatures. The correlation was obtained when the proposed kinetic model was applied to all the experimental data for predictive evaluations and the activation energy was 37.01 kJ mol-1.

  9. Superiority of pulmonary administration of mepenzolate bromide over other routes as treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Kurotsu, Shota; Asano, Teita; Yamakawa, Naoki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasunobu; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Mizushima, Tohru


    We recently proposed that mepenzolate bromide (mepenzolate) would be therapeutically effective against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to its both anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory activities. In this study, we examined the benefits and adverse effects associated with different routes of mepenzolate administration in mice. Oral administration of mepenzolate caused not only bronchodilation but also decreased the severity of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema; however, compared with the intratracheal route of administration, about 5000 times higher dose was required to achieve this effect. Intravenously or intrarectally administered mepenzolate also showed these pharmacological effects. The intratracheal route of mepenzolate administration, but not other routes, resulted in protective effects against elastase-induced pulmonary damage and bronchodilation at a much lower dose than that which affected defecation and heart rate. These results suggest that the pulmonary route of mepenzolate administration may be superior to other routes (oral, intravenous or intrarectal) to treat COPD patients.

  10. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride-Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications. (United States)

    Sadhanala, Aditya; Ahmad, Shahab; Zhao, Baodan; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Pearce, Phoebe M; Deschler, Felix; Hoye, Robert L Z; Gödel, Karl C; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo; Dutton, Siân E; De Volder, Michael F L; Friend, Richard H


    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425-570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1-x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride-bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm.

  11. CO2 capture from binary mixture via forming hydrate with the help of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifeng Li; Shuanshi Fan; Jingqu Wang; Xuemei Lang; Deqing Liang


    Hydrate formation rate and separation effect on the capture of CO2 from binary mixture v/a forming hydrate with 5 wt% tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution were studied.The results showed that the induction time was 5 min,and the hydrate formation process pressure of 7.30 MPa.The CO2 recovery was about 45% in the feed pressure range from 4.30 to 7.30 MPa.Under the feed pressure of 4.30 MPa,the maximum separation factor and CO2 concentration in hydrate phase were 7.3 and 38.2 tool%,respectively.The results demonstrated that TBAB accelerated hydrate formation and enriched CO2 in hydrate phase under the gentle condition.

  12. The efficacy of bromides, stiripentol and levetiracetam in two patients with malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy. (United States)

    Djuric, Milena; Kravljanac, Ruzica; Kovacevic, Gordana; Martic, Jelena


    The syndrome of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy is a devastating, age-specific, epileptic encephalopathy, which still presents an aetiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic problem. In this study, we present two patients who were diagnosed with the disease, based on electroclinical symptoms. The patients were treated with a combination of sodium bromide, stiripentol and levetiracetam. The first patient unequivocally responded, following a course of ineffective conventional drugs, and the second, who was diagnosed and treated immediately, showed a more significant therapeutic response. Antiepileptic drugs, previously reported to be beneficial in case reports, when given concomitantly, may substantially reduce the number and severity of seizures, without influence on psychomotor development. [Published with video sequences].

  13. Joint interaction of ethidium bromide and methylene blue with DNA. The effect of ionic strength on binding thermodynamic parameters. (United States)

    Vardevanyan, Poghos O; Antonyan, Ara P; Parsadanyan, Marine A; Torosyan, Margarita A; Karapetian, Armen T


    Large amount of data of experimental and theoretical studies have shown that ethidium bromide (EtBr) and methylene blue (MB) may bind to nucleic acids via three modes: intercalation between two adjacent base pairs, insertion into the plane between neighboring bases in the same strand (semi-intercalation), and outside binding with negatively charged backbone phosphate groups. The aim of the given research is to examine the behavior of these two ligands at both separate and joint DNA binding. The obtained experimental data show that the effect of simultaneous binding of EtBr and MB on double-stranded DNA has a non-additive effect of separate binding. The analyses of the melting thermodynamic parameters of DNA complexes with two bound ligands suggest competitive mechanism of interaction.

  14. Reverse osmosis membrane composition, structure and performance modification by bisulphite, iron(III), bromide and chlorite exposure. (United States)

    Ferrer, O; Gibert, O; Cortina, J L


    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane exposure to bisulphite, chlorite, bromide and iron(III) was assessed in terms of membrane composition, structure and performance. Membrane composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and membrane performance was assessed by water and chloride permeation, using a modified version of the solution-diffusion model. Iron(III) dosage in presence of bisulphite led to an autooxidation of the latter, probably generating free radicals which damaged the membrane. It comprised a significant raise in chloride passage (chloride permeation coefficient increased 5.3-5.1 fold compared to the virgin membrane under the conditions studied) rapidly. No major differences in terms of water permeability and membrane composition were observed. Nevertheless, an increase in the size of the network pores, and a raise in the fraction of aggregate pores of the polyamide (PA) layer were identified, but no amide bond cleavage was observed. These structural changes were therefore, in accordance with the transport properties observed.

  15. Unilateral pupillary mydriasis from nebulized ipratropium bromide: A false sign of brain herniation in the intensive care unit

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    Priyanka Chaudhry


    Full Text Available Although there are many causes of anisocoria in the intensive care setting, the development of unilateral mydriasis in patients with intracranial hemorrhage or tumor is a neurological emergency, as it may herald the onset of uncal herniation. We describe two patients with a hemiparesis from neurosurgical disorder who subsequently developed a fixed and dilated pupil. The pupillary abnormality was caused by nebulized ipratropium bromide in both cases, and resolved when the medication was discontinued. Nebulized ipratropium may leak from the mask into ipsilateral eye and cause mydriasis in patients with facial weakness. This benign cause of anisocoria in the intensive care setting is distinguished from uncal herniation by the laterality of neurologic findings, and lack of mental status change, ptosis, and extraocular movement impairment.

  16. SiO{sub x} monolayer overcoating effect on the TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic oxidation of cetylpyridinium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Hiroaki; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Akazawa, Manabu; Ito, Seishiro


    The effect of SiO{sub x} monolayer coverage on the rate of TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic oxidation of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) in aqueous solutions has been studied. The rate of CPB removal from the solution (5 < pH < 7) increases with the surface modification at concentrations below 4.5 x 10{sup {minus}4} M and its promoting effect is enhanced with decreasing concentration. A modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, where the rate of surface reaction is assumed to be proportional to the coverage of CPB at the photostationary state is proposed for dilute reaction systems. As a result of the kinetic analyses, the acceleration of the reaction with the SiO{sub x} monolayer coverage can be attributed to the increase in the rate of adsorption due to the electrostatic attraction of cetylpyridinium ion. The suppression of Br{sup {minus}} adsorption is also suggested as a minor contribution.

  17. An Efficient and General Method for Formylation of Aryl Bromides with CO2 and Poly(methylhydrosiloxane). (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Yang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Yanfei; Hao, Leiduan; Zhang, Hongye; Gao, Xiang; Han, Buxing; Liu, Zhimin


    The formylation of aryl halides with CO2 to generate aryl aldehydes is challenging. Herein, we report a novel synthesis of aryl aldehydes by formylation of aryl bromides with CO2 and a waste silane, poly(methylhydrosiloxane) (PMHS). It has been discovered that a simple combination of 1,3-bis(diphenyphosphino)propane (DPPP)-chelated Pd catalyst, Pd(DPPP)Cl2 , with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) is able to effectively catalyze the reaction, leading to aryl aldehydes in moderate to excellent yields, and without any by-products in most cases. Moreover, this route could be extended to the formylation of aryl iodides with high efficiency. This approach is simple, less costly, and environmentally friendly, and also widens the applications of CO2 to form value-added chemicals by the construction of new C-C bonds.

  18. Isolation of bacterial plasmids by density gradient centrifugation in cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) without the use of ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Andersson, K; Hjorth, R


    Plasmids extracted from bacterial cells by alkaline extraction can easily be isolated from linear DNA by isopycnic centrifugation in CsTFA. This is a fast and simple method which circumvents the use of the intercalating dye, ethidium bromide, and consequently the problems associated with its removal. The buoyant densities for covalently closed circular DNA and linear DNA in CsTFA are 1.60 g/ml and 1.65 g/ml, respectively. The isolation is achieved regardless of plasmid size and can be accomplished at temperatures of between 4 and 30 degrees C. Plasmid DNA isolated in gradients of CsTFA are of a high purity and have been found to be intact when cleaved with restriction enzymes and ligated with T4 DNA ligase.

  19. Transport of bromide and pesticides through an undisturbed soil column: A modeling study with global optimization analysis (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas


    The fate of pesticides in tropical soils is still not understood as well as it is for soils in temperate regions. In this study, water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. The numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow, and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. Data from a laboratory column leaching experiment were used in the uncertainty analysis using a global optimization methodology to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile (sorption distribution coefficients lower than 2 cm3 g- 1). Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent (degradation half-lives smaller than 45 days). Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study. Uncertainty analysis using a physically-based Monte Carlo modeling of pesticide fate and transport provides useful information for the evaluation of chemical leaching in Hawaii soils.

  20. An experimental investigation of thermo-capillary convection in solution of lithium bromide at non-isothermal absorption

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    Bufetov N. S.


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain new experimental data on the development of thermo-capillary convection in a solution of lithium bromide with non-isothermal absorption of water vapor in a confined vessel. In experiments the contactless method of measuring the temperature of the interface based on using thermal imaging equipment, and the visualization method of the flow arising in the absorbent layer by introducing markers into solution have been used. The immobile layer of lithium bromide solution with an initial concentration of 58 % and a layer thickness of 20 mm in a confined vessel of 70 mm in diameter has been chosen as an object of investigation. The water vapor has been used as the absorbed gas, whose pressure was kept constant during the absorption (approximately 2 000 Pa. The absorption process has started after the steam supply to the absorber where the initial pressure has corresponded to saturated water vapor pressure at the temperature of the solution (250–300 Pa. The speed and duration of convective motion in the layer absorption on the basis of imaging arising due to thermo-capillary convection have been measured. The thermograms of the interface for various operating parameters have been obtained with the development of thermo-concentration convection. The characteristic time of the thermo-capillary convection development has been determined. Based on the experimental data analysis the empirical expressions for duration of the convective motion depending on the vapor pressure in the absorber and the thickness of the absorbent layer have been proposed. It has been shown that lowering the initial temperature of the solution leads to enhancement of thermo-concentration convection. The results are useful for the design and optimization of elements of refrigeration engineering of the absorption type.