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Sample records for cetus dsph galaxy

  1. The ACS LCID project. III. The star formation history of the Cetus dSph galaxy: a post-reionization fossil

    OpenAIRE

    Monelli, M.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Stetson, P. B.; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Dolphin, A.; Cole, A. A.; Weisz, D.; Skillman, E. D.; Bernard, E; Mayer, L.; J. Navarro; Cassisi, S.; Drozdovsky, I.; Tolstoy, E.

    2010-01-01

    We use deep HST/ACS observations to calculate the star formation history (SFH) of the Cetus dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. Our photometry reaches below the oldest main sequence turn-offs, which allows us to estimate the age and duration of the main episode of star formation in Cetus. This is well approximated by a single episode that peaked roughly 12+/-0.5 Gyr ago and lasted no longer than about 1.9+/-0.5 Gyr (FWHM). Our solution also suggests that essentially no stars formed in Cetus durin...

  2. The ACS LCID project. III. The star formation history of the Cetus dSph galaxy: a post-reionization fossil

    CERN Document Server

    Monelli, M; Stetson, P B; Aparicio, A; Gallart, C; Dolphin, A; Cole, A A; Weisz, D; Skillman, E D; Bernard, E; Mayer, L; Navarro, J; Cassisi, S; Drozdovsky, I; Tolstoy, E

    2010-01-01

    We use deep HST/ACS observations to calculate the star formation history (SFH) of the Cetus dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. Our photometry reaches below the oldest main sequence turn-offs, which allows us to estimate the age and duration of the main episode of star formation in Cetus. This is well approximated by a single episode that peaked roughly 12+/-0.5 Gyr ago and lasted no longer than about 1.9+/-0.5 Gyr (FWHM). Our solution also suggests that essentially no stars formed in Cetus during the past 8 Gyrs. This makes Cetus' SFH comparable to that of the oldest Milky Way dSphs. Given the current isolation of Cetus in the outer fringes of the Local Group, this implies that Cetus is a clear outlier in the morphology-Galactocentric distance relation that holds for the majority of Milky Way dwarf satellites. Our results also show that Cetus continued forming stars through z ~ 1, long after the Universe was reionized, and that there is no clear signature of the epoch of reionization in Cetus' SFH. We discuss br...

  3. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. III. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE CETUS dSph GALAXY: A POST-REIONIZATION FOSSIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use deep HST/ACS observations to calculate the star formation history (SFH) of the Cetus dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. Our photometry reaches below the oldest main-sequence turnoffs, which allows us to estimate the age and duration of the main episode of star formation in Cetus. This is well approximated by a single episode that peaked roughly 12 ± 0.5 Gyr ago and lasted no longer than about 1.9 ± 0.5 Gyr (FWHM). Our solution also suggests that essentially no stars formed in Cetus during the past 8 Gyr. This makes Cetus' SFH comparable to that of the oldest Milky Way dSphs. Given the current isolation of Cetus in the outer fringes of the Local Group, the dominant old population implies that Cetus is a clear outlier in the morphology-Galactocentric distance relation that holds for the majority of the Milky Way dwarf satellites. Our results also show that Cetus continued forming stars until z≅ 1, long after the universe was reionized, and that there is no clear signature of the epoch of reionization in Cetus' SFH. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for dwarf galaxy evolution models. Finally, we present a comprehensive account of the data reduction and analysis strategy adopted for all galaxies targeted by the LCID (Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs) project. We employ two different photometry codes (DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME and DOLPHOT), three different SFH reconstruction codes (IAC-pop/MinnIAC, MATCH, and COLE), and two stellar evolution libraries (BaSTI and Padova/Girardi), allowing for a detailed assessment of the modeling and observational uncertainties.

  4. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. VII. THE BLUE STRAGGLERS POPULATION IN THE ISOLATED dSph GALAXIES CETUS AND TUCANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first investigation of the Blue Straggler star (BSS) population in two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, Cetus and Tucana. Deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry allowed us to identify samples of 940 and 1214 candidates, respectively. The analysis of the star formation histories of the two galaxies suggests that both host a population of BSSs. Specifically, if the BSS candidates are interpreted as young main sequence stars, they do not conform to their galaxy's age-metallicity relationship. The analysis of the luminosity function and the radial distributions supports this conclusion, and suggests a non-collisional mechanism for the BSS formation, from the evolution of primordial binaries. This scenario is also supported by the results of new dynamical simulations presented here. Both galaxies coincide with the relationship between the BSS frequency and the absolute visual magnitude MV found by Momany et al. If this relationship is confirmed by larger sample, then it could be a valuable tool to discriminate between the presence of BSSs and galaxies hosting truly young populations.

  5. Lyα-EMITTING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z∼ 4.5 IN THE LALA CETUS FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a large sample of Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at redshift z ∼ 4.5, based on Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph spectroscopic observations of candidate z∼ 4.5 Lyα-emitting galaxies in the large area Lyman alpha (LALA) narrowband imaging survey Cetus field. We identify 110 of them as z ∼ 4.5 Lyα emitters based on single-line detections with no continuum emission blueward of the line. Six foreground galaxies are identified, either based on multiple lines or blueward continuum emission. The Lyα confirmation rate varies from 200 A. These large EW candidates are spectroscopically confirmed at the same rate as candidates with more modest EWs. A composite spectrum of all 110 confirmed LAEs shows the characteristic asymmetry of the Lyα line. It also places new and stringent upper limits on the C IV 1549 A/Lyα and He II 1640 A/Lyα line ratios, providing a new upper limit on the fraction of active galactic nuclei in Lyα selected galaxy samples, and on the contribution of Pop III populations. Finally, we calculate the Lyα luminosity function for our z ∼ 4.5 sample, which is consistent with those at other redshifts, showing that there is no evolution in Lyα luminosity function from z = 3.1 to 6.6.

  6. The Local Group galaxy candidates Cas dSph, Peg dSph=AndVI, and Cam A

    CERN Document Server

    Gallart, C; Aparicio, A; Freedman, W L

    1999-01-01

    We present observations of the new Local Group galaxy candidates Cassiopeia dSph, Pegasus dSph=AndVI and Camelopardalis A. Our deep color-magnitude diagrams show that the first two galaxies are certainly Local group members, and likely dSph galaxies at a distance similar to that of the Andromeda galaxy. Cam A seems to be a star forming galaxy considerably further away.

  7. Ursa Minor dSph galaxy: Updated census of RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinemuchi, K.; Grabowski, K.; Kuehn, C.; Nemec, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present our observations and photometric results of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (UMi dSph). Observations were taken at the Apache Point Observatory 0.5m ARCSAT telescope in 2014. We identify previously known RR Lyrae stars in the field of view, and also catalog other variable star candidates for which tentative classifications are provided. We have performed a period search for the known and new variable stars. Our ultimate goal is to create an updated catalog of variable stars in the UMi dSph and to compare the RR Lyrae stellar characteristics to other RR Lyrae stars found in Local Group dSph galaxies. The comparisons can give us insights to the near-field cosmology of the Local Group.

  8. Chemical history of isolated dwarf galaxies of the Local Group - I. dSphs: Cetus and Tucana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Vergara, N.; Carigi, L.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Durazo, R.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, we obtain chemical evolution models (CEMs) for Tucana and Cetus, two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group. The CEMs have been built from the star formation histories (SFHs) and the metallicity histories, both obtained independently by the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs (LCID) project from deep colour-magnitude diagrams. Based on our models, we find that the chemical histories were complex and can be divided into different epochs and scenarios. In particular, during 75 per cent of the SFH, the galaxies behaved as closed boxes and, during the remaining 25 per cent, either received a lot of primordial gas by accretion or they lost metals through metal-rich winds. In order to discriminate between these two scenarios, abundances ratios in old stars are needed. At t ˜ 4.5 Gyr, the galaxies lost most of their gas due to a short-strong, well-mixed wind. We obtain very similar CEMs for both galaxies, although Cetus is twice as massive as Tucana. We conclude that the star formation in both galaxies began with only 1.5 per cent of the baryonic mass fraction predicted by Λ cold dark matter.

  9. Chemical history of isolated dwarf galaxies of the Local Group: I. dSphs: Cetus and Tucana

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Vergara, N; Hidalgo, S L; Durazo, R

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we obtain chemical evolution models (CEMs) for Tucana and Cetus, two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) of the Local Group. The CEMs have been built from the star formation histories (SFHs) and the metallicity histories, both obtained independently by the LCID project from deep color-magnitude dia- grams. Based on our models, we find that the chemical histories were complex and can be divided into different epochs and scenarios. In particular, during 75 percent of the SFH, the galaxies behaved as closed boxes and, during the remaining 25 percent, either received a lot of primordial gas by accretion or they lost metals through metal-rich winds. In order to discriminate between these two scenarios, abundances ratios in old stars are needed. At t approximately 4.5 Gyr, the galaxies lost most of their gas due to a short-strong, well-mixed wind. We obtain very similar CEMs for both galaxies, although Cetus is twice as massive as Tucana. We conclude that the star formation in both galaxi...

  10. Rotating stellar populations in the Fornax dSph galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    del Pino, Andrés; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Lokas, Ewa L

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel analysis of the internal kinematics of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Our results are based on the largest sample of spectroscopic data for Fornax stars presently available ($> 2500$ stars), for which we have chemical and kinematic information. We introduce new software, Beacon, designed to detect chemo-kinematic patterns among stars of different stellar populations using their metallicity and velocity along the line of sight. Applying Beacon to Fornax we have detected non-negligible rotation signals around main optical axes of the galaxy, characteristic for a triaxial system partially supported by rotation. The dominant rotation pattern is relatively strong ($\\sim 12$ km s$^{-1}$), but the galaxy also shows additional weaker albeit complex rotation patterns. Using the information available from the star formation history of Fornax we have also derived the average age of the different chemo-kinematic components found by Beacon, which has allowed us to obtain its kinematic history. Our ...

  11. Variable stars in Local Group Galaxies - II. Sculptor dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Stetson, P. B.; Monelli, M.; Bernard, E. J.; Fiorentino, G.; Gallart, C.; Bono, G.; Cassisi, S.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    We present the identification of 634 variable stars in the Milky Way dSph satellite Sculptor based on archival ground-based optical observations spanning ˜24 years and covering ˜ 2.5 deg2. We employed the same methodologies as the "Homogeneous Photometry" series published by Stetson. In particular, we have identified and characterized the largest (536) RR Lyrae sample so far in a Milky Way dSph satellite. We have also detected four Anomalous Cepheids, 23 SX Phoenicis stars, five eclipsing binaries, three field variable stars, three peculiar variable stars located above the horizontal branch - near to the locus of BL Herculis - that we are unable to classify properly. Additionally we identify 37 Long Period Variables plus 23 probable variable stars, for which the current data do not allow us to determine the period. We report positions and finding charts for all the variable stars, and basic properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude) and light curves for 574 of them. We discuss the properties of the RR Lyrae stars in the Bailey diagram, which supports the coexistence of subpopulations with different chemical compositions. We estimate the mean mass of Anomalous Cepheids (˜1.5M⊙) and SX Phoenicis stars (˜1M⊙). We discuss in detail the nature of the former. The connections between the properties of the different families of variable stars are discussed in the context of the star formation history of the Sculptor dSph galaxy.

  12. Schwarzschild models of the Sculptor dSph galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.; Helmi, A.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Battaglia, G.; Reyle, C; Robin, A; Schultheis, M

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a spherically symmetric dynamical model of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy using the Schwarzschild method. This type of modelling yields constraints both on the total mass distribution (e. g. enclosed mass and scale radius) as well as on the orbital structure of the system modelled (e. g

  13. Chemical Evolution Models of Local dSph Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carigi, L; Gilmore, G; Carigi, Leticia; Hernandez, Xavier; Gilmore, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We calculate chemical evolution models for 4 dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way (Carina, Ursa Minor, Leo I and Leo II) for which reliable non-parametric star formation histories have been derived. In this way, the independently obtained star formation histories are used to constrain the evolution of the systems we are treating. This allows us to obtain robust inferences on the history of such crucial parameters of galactic evolution as gas infall, gas outflows and global metallicities for these systems. We can then trace the metallicity and abundance ratios of the stars formed, the gas present at any time within the systems and the details of gas ejection, of relevance to enrichment of the galaxies environment. We find that galaxies showing one single burst of star formation (Ursa Minor and Leo II) require a dark halo slightly larger that the current estimates for their tidal radii, or the presence of a metal rich selective wind, which might carry away much of the energy output of their supernovae b...

  14. The Chemical Abundances of the Stellar Populations in the Leo I and Leo II dSph Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bosler, Tammy L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Stetson, Peter B

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained spectra of 102 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and 74 RGB stars in the Leo II dSph using LRIS on the Keck I 10-meter Telescope. We report on the calcium abundances [Ca/H] derived from the strengths of the Ca II triplet absorption lines at 8498, 8542, 8662 angstroms in the stellar spectra using a new Ca II triplet calibration to [Ca/H]. The two galaxies have different average [Ca/H] values of -1.34 +/- 0.02 for Leo I and -1.65 +/- 0.02 ...

  15. XMM-Newton observation of a sample of four close dSph galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Manni, L; De Paolis, F; Testa, V; Ingrosso, G

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of deep archival \\sat\\ observations towards the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Draco, Leo I, Ursa Major II and Ursa Minor in the Milky Way neighbourhood. The X-ray source population is characterized and cross-correlated with available databases with the aim to infer their nature. We also investigate if intermediate-mass black holes are hosted in the center of these galaxies. In the case of Draco, we detect 96 high-energy sources, two of them being possibly local stars, while no evidence for any X-ray emitting central compact object is found. Towards the Leo I and UMa II field of view we reveal 116 and 49 X-ray sources, respectively. None of them correlates with the putative central black holes and only one is likely associated with a UMa II local source. The study of the UMi dwarf galaxy shows 54 high-energy sources and a possible association {with a source at the dSph center}. We put an upper limit to the central compact object luminosity of 4.02$\\times$10$^{33}$ erg/s. Furt...

  16. The Chemical Abundances of the Stellar Populations in the Leo I and Leo II dSph Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bosler, T L; Stetson, P B; Bosler, Tammy L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained spectra of 102 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and 74 RGB stars in the Leo II dSph using LRIS on the Keck I 10-meter Telescope. We report on the calcium abundances [Ca/H] derived from the strengths of the Ca II triplet absorption lines at 8498, 8542, 8662 angstroms in the stellar spectra using a new Ca II triplet calibration to [Ca/H]. The two galaxies have different average [Ca/H] values of -1.34 +/- 0.02 for Leo I and -1.65 +/- 0.02 for LeoII with intrinsic abundance dispersions of 1.2 and 1.0 dex, respectively. The typical random and total errors in derived abundances are 0.10 and 0.17 dex per star. For comparison to existing literature, we also converted our Ca II measurements to [Fe/H] on the scale of Carretta and Gratton (1997) though we discuss why this may not be the best determinant of metallicity; Leo I has a mean [Fe/H] = -1.34 and Leo II has a mean [Fe/H] = -1.59. The metallicity distribution function of Leo I is approximately Gaussian in s...

  17. Variable stars in Local Group Galaxies - II. Sculptor dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Vázquez, C E; Monelli, M; Bernard, E J; Fiorentino, G; Gallart, C; Bono, G; Cassisi, S; Dall'Ora, M; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Walker, A R

    2016-01-01

    We present the identification of 634 variable stars in the Milky Way dSph satellite Sculptor based on archival ground-based optical observations spanning $\\sim$24 years and covering $\\sim$ 2.5 deg$^2$. We employed the same methodologies as the "Homogeneous Photometry" series published by Stetson. In particular, we have identified and characterized the largest (536) RR Lyrae sample so far in a Milky Way dSph satellite. We have also detected four Anomalous Cepheids, 23 SX~Phoenicis stars, five eclipsing binaries, three field variable stars, three \\textit{peculiar} variable stars located above the horizontal branch -- near to the locus of BL~Herculis -- that we are unable to classify properly. Additionally we identify 37 Long Period Variables plus 23 probable variable stars, for which the current data do not allow us to determine the period. We report positions and finding charts for all the variable stars, and basic properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude) and light curves for 574 of them. We discuss the ...

  18. Merger traces in the spatial distribution of stellar populations in the Fornax dSph galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    del Pino, Andrés; Hidalgo, Sebastial L

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and detailed study of the stellar populations of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We analyse their spatial distributions along the main body of the galaxy, obtaining their surface density maps, together with their radial density profiles. Results are based on the largest and most complete catalogue of stars in Fornax, with more than $3.5\\times10^{5}$ stars covering the main body of the galaxy up to $\\rm V \\sim 24$. We find a differentiated structure in Fornax depending on the stellar ages. Old stars ($\\gtrsim 10$ Gyr) follow an elliptical distribution well fitted by King profiles with relatively large core radius ($r_c = 760\\pm60$ pc). On another hand, young populations ($\\lesssim 3$ Gyr) concentrate in the central region of the galaxy ($r_c = 210\\pm10$ pc), and are better fitted by Sersic profiles with $0.8 < n < 1.2$, indicating some disky shape. These stars show strong asymmetries and substructures not aligned with the main optical axes of Fornax. This together with the ...

  19. On the newly discovered Canes Venatici II dSph galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, C; Clementini, G; Ripepi, V; Di Fabrizio, L; Kinemuchi, K; Marconi, M; Musella, I; Smith, H A; Rodgers, C T; Kuehn, C; Beers, T C; Catelan, M; Pritzl, B J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the detection of variable stars in the Canes Venatici II (CVn II) dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a new satellite of the Milky Way recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also present a V, B-V color-magnitude diagram that reaches V = 25.5 mag, showing the galaxy's main sequence turn off at V = 24.5 mag and revealing several candidate blue straggler stars. Two RR Lyrae stars have been identified within the half-light radius of CVn II,a fundamental-mode variable (RRab) with period P_ab = 0.743 days, and a first-overtone (RRc) RR Lyrae star with P_c = 0.358 days. The rather long periods of these variables along with their position on the period-amplitude diagram support an Oosterhoff type II classification for CVn II. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars, = 21.48 +/- 0.02 mag, is used to obtain a precision distance modulus of mu_0 = 21.02 +/- 0.06 mag and a corresponding distance of 160(+4,-5} kpc, for an adopted reddening E(B-V) = 0.015 mag.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A DYNAMICAL COLD POINT IN THE HEART OF THE SAGITTARIUS dSph GALAXY WITH OBSERVATIONS FROM THE APOGEE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the core of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy are explored using high-resolution (R ∼ 22, 500), H-band, near-infrared spectra of over 1000 giant stars in the central 3 deg2 of the system, of which 328 are identified as Sgr members. These data, among some of the earliest observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and the largest published sample of high resolution Sgr dSph spectra to date, reveal a distinct gradient in the velocity dispersion of Sgr from 11 to 14 km s–1 for radii >0.°8 from center to a dynamical cold point of 8 km s–1 in the Sgr center—a trend differing from that found in previous kinematical analyses of Sgr over larger scales that suggests a more or less flat dispersion profile at these radii. Well-fitting mass models with either cored and cusped dark matter distributions can be found to match the kinematical results, although the cored profile succeeds with significantly more isotropic stellar orbits than required for a cusped profile. It is unlikely that the cold point reflects an unusual mass distribution. The dispersion gradient may arise from variations in the mixture of populations with distinct kinematics within the dSph; this explanation is suggested (e.g., by detection of a metallicity gradient across similar radii), but not confirmed, by the present data. Despite these remaining uncertainties about their interpretation, these early test data (including some from instrument commissioning) demonstrate APOGEE's usefulness for precision dynamical studies, even for fields observed at extreme airmasses

  1. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early Universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Skillman, Evan D.; Cassisi, Santi; Bernard, Edouard J.; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (~13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differenc...

  2. Inside the whale: the structure and dynamics of the isolated Cetus dwarf spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Chapman, S C; McConnachie, A; Irwin, M J; Tolstoy, E; Tanvir, N R

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the Cetus dwarf, an isolated dwarf galaxy within the Local Group. A matched-filter analysis of the INT/WFC imaging of this system reveals no evidence for significant tidal debris that could have been torn from the galaxy, bolstering the hypothesis that Cetus has never significantly interacted with either the Milky Way or M31. Additionally, Keck/Deimos spectroscopic observations identify this galaxy as a distinct kinematic population possessing a systematic velocity of $-87\\pm2{\\rm km\\ s^{-1}}$ and with a velocity dispersion of $17\\pm2{\\rm km s^{-1}}$; while tentative, these data also suggest that Cetus possesses a moderate rotational velocity of $\\sim8{\\rm km s^{-1}}$. The population is confirmed to be relatively metal-poor, consistent with ${\\rm [Fe/H]\\sim-1.9}$, and, assuming virial equilibrium, implies that the Cetus dwarf galaxy possesses a $M/L\\sim70$. It appears, therefore, that Cetus may represent a primordial dwarf galaxy, retaining the kinematic and structural propertie...

  3. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (∼13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old (≳ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions varies from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show prominent radial stellar population gradients: The centers of these galaxies host young (≲ 1 Gyr) populations, while the age of the last formation event increases smoothly with increasing radius. This contrasts with the two dSph galaxies. Tucana shows a similar, but milder, gradient, but no gradient in age is detected Cetus. For the three galaxies with significant stellar population gradients, the exponential scale length decreases with time. These results are in agreement with outside-in scenarios of dwarf galaxy evolution, in which a quenching of the star formation toward the center occurs as the galaxy runs out of gas in the outskirts.

  4. Cetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Sea Monster or Whale; abbrev. Cet, gen. Ceti; area 1231 sq. deg.) An equatorial constellation which lies between Aquarius and Taurus, and culminates at midnight in October. It is named after the sea monster from which Perseus rescued Andromeda in Greek mythology, though it is sometimes identified as a whale. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  5. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    OpenAIRE

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the $\\Lambda$ CDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should ...

  6. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    CERN Document Server

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the $\\Lambda$ CDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should have sunk to the galactic centre many Gyr ago due to dynamical friction. Due to this, some authors proposed that the most massive clusters may have formed out of Fornax and later tidally captured. In this paper we investigate the past evolution of the Fornax GC system by using both a recently developed, semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction and direct $N$-body simulations of the orbital evolution of the globular clusters within Fornax and of Fornax galaxy around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that an "in-sit...

  7. Inclusion of horizontal branch stars in the derivation of star formation histories of dwarf galaxies: The Carina dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Alessandro; Salaris, Maurizio; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the horizontal branch of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. We found that a range of integrated red giant branch mass loss values of 0.1-0.14 M⊙ increasing with metallicity is able to reproduce the colour extension of the old horizontal branch. Nonetheless, leaving the mass loss as the only free parameter is not enough to match the detailed morphology of Carina horizontal branch. We then investigated the role played by the star formation history on the discrepancies between synthetic and observed horizontal branches. We derived a "toy" bursty star formation history that reproduces well the observed horizontal branch star counts, and also matches qualitatively the red giant and the turn-off regions. This bursty star formation history is made of a subset of age and [M/H] components of the star formation history based on turn off and red giants only, and entails four separate bursts of star formation of different strengths, centred at 2, 5, 8.6, and 11.5 Gyr, respectively, with mean [M/H] decreasing from ~-1.7 to ~-2.2 when the age of the burst increases, and with a Gaussian spread of σ 0.1 dex around these mean values. The comparison between the metallicity distribution function of our bursty star formation history and the one measured from the infrared CaT feature using a CaT-[Fe/H] calibration shows a qualitative agreement, once the range of [Ca/Fe] abundances measured in a sample of Carina stars have been taken into account, that causes a bias of the derived [Fe/H] distribution toward values that are too low. In conclusion, we show how the information contained within the horizontal branch of Carina (and dwarf galaxies in general) can be extracted and interpreted to refine the star formation history derived exclusively

  8. Inclusion of Horizontal Branch stars in the derivation of star formation histories of dwarf galaxies: the Carina dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Savino, Alessandro; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Horizontal Branch of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. We found that a range of integrated red giant branch mass loss values of 0.1-0.14 M, increasing with metallicity, is able to reproduce the colour extension of the old Horizontal Branch. However, leaving the mass loss as the only free parameter is not enough to match the detailed morphology of Carina Horizontal Branch. We explored the role played by the star formation history on the discrepancies between synthetic and observed Horizontal Branches. We derived a toy bursty star formation history that reproduces the horizontal branch star counts, and also matches qualitatively the red giant and the turn off regions. This star formation history is made of a subset of age and [M/H] components of the star formation ...

  9. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early Universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Skillman, Evan D; Cassisi, Santi; Bernard, Edouard J; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval ($\\sim 13 Gyr$) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old ($\\geq 10.5 Gyr$) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions vary from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show promine...

  10. Variable Stars in Local Group Galaxies. I: Tracing the Early Chemical Enrichment and Radial Gradients in the Sculptor dSph with RR Lyrae Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Vázquez, C E; Bono, G; Stetson, P B; Ferraro, I; Bernard, E J; Gallart, C; Fiorentino, G; Iannicola, G; Udalski, A

    2015-01-01

    We identified and characterized the largest (536) RR Lyrae (RRL) sample in a Milky Way dSph satellite (Sculptor) based on optical photometry data collected over $\\sim$24 years. The RRLs display a spread in V-magnitude ($\\sim$0.35 mag) which appears larger than photometric errors and the horizontal branch (HB) luminosity evolution of a mono-metallic population. Using several calibrations of two different reddening free and metal independent Period-Wesenheit relations we provide a new distance estimate $\\mu$=19.62 mag ($\\sigma_{\\mu}$=0.04 mag) that agrees well with literature estimates. We constrained the metallicity distribution of the old population, using the $M_I$ Period-Luminosity relation, and we found that it ranges from -2.3 to -1.5 dex. The current estimate is narrower than suggested by low and intermediate spectroscopy of RGBs ($\\Delta$[Fe/H] $\\le$ 1.5). We also investigated the HB morphology as a function of the galactocentric distance. The HB in the innermost regions is dominated by red HB stars and...

  11. Properties of Two New M31 dSph Companions from Keck Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Grebel, E K; Grebel, Eva K.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph images in V and I of the newly discovered Local Group dwarf galaxies Pegasus dSph and Cassiopeia dSph and their surrounding field. The first stellar luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams are presented for stars with V , of -1.3 +/- 0.3 for Peg dSph and -1.4 +/- 0.3 for Cas dSph. Their central surface brightness--absolute magnitude relationship follows that of other Local Group dSphs, dwarf ellipticals, and dwarf irregulars. In contrast to four out of nine Milky Way dSphs (the four that lie beyond D_MW =100 kpc), none of the six known M31 dSphs appears to have a dominant intermediate-age population.

  12. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (II): Non-thermal diffuse emission

    CERN Document Server

    Regis, M; Colafrancesco, S; Profumo, S; de Blok, W J G; Massardi, M

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse radio emission in the interstellar medium of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is an important aspect of the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the intracluster and inter-galactic medium in the early universe, competing with AGNs and starburst galaxy activity. The current quiescent phase of Local Group dSphs has so far dampened the possibility of measuring their non-thermal emissions and in turn of fully understanding connected aspects of dSph properties and evolution. Deep observations are required in order to probe the emission associated to the very-low level of dSph star formation or, possibly, to particle dark matter annihilating or decaying in the dSph halo. In this work, we employ radio observations of six local dSphs to test the presence of a diffuse component over typical scales of few arcmin. The dSph targets require wide-field low-frequency observations which were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in the frequency band 1.1-3.1 GHz. The achieved rms sensitivity ...

  13. RR Lyrae Stars in the Bootes dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, M H

    2006-01-01

    We present a catalog of 15 RR Lyrae variable stars in the recently discovered Bootes galaxy -- the most metal-poor simple stellar population with measured RR Lyrae stars. The pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae conform closely to period-abundance trends extrapolated from more metal-rich populations and we estimate the distance of Bootes to be (m-M)_0=18.96+-0.12. The average period (0.69 days), the ratio of type c to type ab pulsators (0.53) and the RRab period shift (-0.07) indicate an Oosterhoff II classification for Bootes, a marked contrast to the other dSph galaxies, which are Oosterhoff intermediate. This supports the contention that the Oosterhoff dichotomy is a continuum -- that RR Lyrae properties, to first order, vary smoothly with abundance. The dSph galaxies are not distinct from the Galactic globular clusters, but bridge the Oosterhoff gap. The absence of any anomalous Cepheids in Bootes could indicate the lack of an intermediate age population.

  14. Old open clusters in the Sagittarius dSph tidal stream -- kith or kin?

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    A widely supported formation scenario for the Galactic disc is that it formed inside-out from material accumulated via accretion events. The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is the best example of a such accretion, and its ongoing disruption has resulted in that its stars are being deposited in the Milky Way halo and outer disc. It is therefore appealing to search for possible signatures of the Sgr dSph contribution to the build-up of the Galactic disc. Interestingly, models of the Sgr dSph stream indicate clearly that the trailing tail passes through the outer Galactic disc, at the same galactocentric distance as some anti-centre old open star clusters. We investigate in this Letter the possibility that the two outermost old open clusters, Berkeley~29 and Saurer~1, could have formed inside the Sgr dSph and then left behind in the outer Galactic disc as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The actual location of these two star clusters, inside the Sgr dSph trailing tail, is compatib...

  15. The ACS LCID Project. XI. On the Early Time Resolution of SFHs of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies: Comparing the Effects of Reionization in Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations, is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between 1.3× {10}6 and 7.2× {10}6 {M}ȯ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs peak as much as 1.25 Gyr earlier than the optimal solutions. Thus, this effect is important for a proper comparison of model and observed SFHs. It is also shown that none of the analyzed galaxies can be considered a true fossil of the pre-reionization era, although it is possible that the outer regions of Cetus and Tucana are consistent with quenching by reionization. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #10505.

  16. Is the Sgr dSph a dark matter dominated system?

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Barbosa, Carmen A

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of possible progenitors of Sgr dSph}using several numerical N-body simulations of different dwarf spheroidal galaxies both with and without dark matter, as they orbit the Milky Way. The barionic and dark components of the dwarfs were made obeying a Plummer and NFW potentials of one million particles respectively. The Milky Way was modeled like a tree-component rigid potential and the simulations were performed using a modified Gadget-2 code. We found that none of the simulated galaxies without dark matter reproduced the physical properties observed in Sgr dSph, suggesting that, at the beginning of its evolution, Sgr dSph might have been immersed in a dark matter halo. The simulations of progenitors immersed in dark matter halos suggest that Sgr dSph at its beginning might have been an extended system, i.e. its Plummer radius could have had a value approximated to 1.2 kpc or higher; furthermore, this galaxy could have been immersed in a dark halo with a mass higher than 10^8 solar masses...

  17. The ACS LCID Project XI. On the early time resolution of LG dwarf galaxy SFHs: Comparing the effects of reionization in models with observations

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Antonio; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between $1.3\\times 10^6$ to $7.2\\times 10^6$ M$_\\odot$ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs...

  18. Nitrogen abundances and multiple stellar populations in the globular clusters of the Fornax dSph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Søren S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brodie, Jean P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Grundahl, Frank [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Strader, Jay, E-mail: s.larsen@astro.ru.nl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We use measurements of nitrogen abundances in red giants to search for multiple stellar populations in the four most metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax 1, 2, 3, and 5). New imaging in the F343N filter, obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, is combined with archival F555W and F814W observations to determine the strength of the NH band near 3370 Å. After accounting for observational errors, the spread in the F343N-F555W colors of red giants in the Fornax GCs is similar to that in M15 and corresponds to an abundance range of Δ[N/Fe] ∼ 2 dex, as observed also in several Galactic GCs. The spread in F555W-F814W is, instead, fully accounted for by observational errors. The stars with the reddest F343N-F555W colors (indicative of N-enhanced composition) have more centrally concentrated radial distributions in all four clusters, although the difference is not highly statistically significant within any individual cluster. From double-Gaussian fits to the color distributions, we find roughly equal numbers of 'N-normal' and 'N-enhanced' stars (formally ∼40% N-normal stars in Fornax 1, 3, and 5 and ∼60% in Fornax 2). We conclude that GC formation, in particular, regarding the processes responsible for the origin of multiple stellar populations, appears to have operated similarly in the Milky Way and in the Fornax dSph. Combined with the high ratio of metal-poor GCs to field stars in the Fornax dSph, this places an important constraint on scenarios for the origin of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  19. Probing the early chemical evolution of the Sculptor dSph with purely old stellar tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Vázquez, C E; Gallart, C; Bono, G; Bernard, E J; Stetson, P B; Ferraro, I; Walker, A R; Dall'Ora, M; Fiorentino, G; Iannicola, G

    2016-01-01

    We present the metallicity distribution of a sample of 471 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Sculptor dSph, obtained from the $I$-band Period-Luminosity relation. It is the first time that the early chemical evolution of a dwarf galaxy is characterized in such a detailed and quantitative way, using photometric data alone. We find a broad metallicity distribution (FWHM=0.8 dex) that is peaked at [Fe/H]$\\simeq$-1.90 dex, in excellent agreement with literature values obtained from spectroscopic data. Moreover, we are able to directly trace the metallicity gradient out to a radius of $\\sim$55 arcmin. We find that in the outer regions (r$>\\sim$32 arcmin) the slope of the metallicity gradient from the RRLs (-0.025 dex arcmin$^{-1}$) is comparable to the literature values based on red giant (RG) stars. However, in the central part of Sculptor we do not observe the latter gradients. This suggests that there is a more metal-rich and/or younger population in Sculptor that does not produce RRLs. This scenario is strengthened ...

  20. History of Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies Imprinted on Abundance Patterns of Neutron-Capture Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, T; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    Stellar abundance pattern of neutron-capture elements such as barium is used as a powerful tool to infer how star formation proceeded in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. It is found that the abundance correlation of barium with iron in stars belonging to dSph galaxies orbiting the Milky Way, i.e., Draco, Sextans, and Ursa Minor have a feature similar to the barium-iron correlation in Galactic metal-poor stars. The common feature of these two correlations can be realized by our inhomogeneous chemical evolution model based on the supernova-driven star formation scenario if dSph stars formed from gas with a velocity dispersion of ~26 km/s. This velocity dispersion together with the stellar luminosities strongly suggest that dark matter dominated dSph galaxies. The tidal force of the Milky Way links this velocity dispersion with the currently observed value <10 km/s by stripping the dark matter in dSph galaxies. As a result, the total mass of each dSph galaxy is found to have been originally ~25 times larger ...

  1. The mass distribution of the Fornax dSph: constraints from its globular cluster distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.; Dehnen, Walter; Read, Justin I.; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2012-10-01

    Uniquely among the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, Fornax hosts globular clusters. It remains a puzzle as to why dynamical friction has not yet dragged any of Fornax's five globular clusters to the centre, and also why there is no evidence that any similar star cluster has been in the past (for Fornax or any other tidally undisrupted dSph). We set up a suite of 2800 N-body simulations that sample the full range of globular cluster orbits and mass models consistent with all existing observational constraints for Fornax. In agreement with previous work, we find that if Fornax has a large dark matter core, then its globular clusters remain close to their currently observed locations for long times. Furthermore, we find previously unreported behaviour for clusters that start inside the core region. These are pushed out of the core and gain orbital energy, a process we call 'dynamical buoyancy'. Thus, a cored mass distribution in Fornax will naturally lead to a shell-like globular cluster distribution near the core radius, independent of the initial conditions. By contrast, cold dark matter-type cusped mass distributions lead to the rapid infall of at least one cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr, except when picking unlikely initial conditions for the cluster orbits (˜2 per cent probability), and almost all clusters within Δt = 10 Gyr. Alternatively, if Fornax has only a weakly cusped mass distribution, then dynamical friction is much reduced. While over Δt = 10 Gyr this still leads to the infall of one to four clusters from their present orbits, the infall of any cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr is much less likely (with probability 0-70 per cent, depending on Δt and the strength of the cusp). Such a solution to the timing problem requires (in addition to a shallow dark matter cusp) that in the past the globular clusters were somewhat further from Fornax than today; they most likely did not form within Fornax, but were accreted.

  2. The dynamics of isolated Local Group galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Cohen, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    We measured velocities of 862 individual red giant stars in seven isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: NGC 6822, IC 1613, VV 124 (UGC 4879), the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216), Leo A, Cetus, and Aquarius (DDO 210). We also computed velocity dispersions, taking into account the measurement uncertainties on individual stars. None of the isolated galaxies is denser than the densest Local Group satellite galaxy. Furthermore, the isolated dwarf galaxies have no obvious distinction in the velocity dispersion--half-light radius plane from the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31. The similarity of the isolated and satellite galaxies' dynamics and structural parameters imposes limitations on environmental solutions to the too-big-to-fail problem, wherein there are fewer dense dwarf satellite galaxies than would be expected from cold dark matter simulations. This data set also has many other applications for dwarf galaxy evolution, including the transformation of dwarf irregular into dwarf sphe...

  3. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE URSA MINOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of 10 stars selected to span the full range in metallicity in the Ursa Minor (UMi) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. We find that [Fe/H] for the sample stars ranges from -1.35 to -3.10 dex. Combining our sample with previously published work for a total of 16 luminous UMi giants, we establish the trends of abundance ratios [X/Fe] as functions of [Fe/H] for 15 elements. In key cases, particularly for the α-elements, these trends resemble those for stars in the outer part of the Galactic halo, especially at the lowest metallicities probed. The neutron-capture elements show an r-process distribution over the full range of Fe metallicity reached in this dSph galaxy. This suggests that the duration of star formation in the UMi dSph was shorter than in other dSph galaxies. The derived ages for a larger sample of UMi stars with more uncertain metallicities also suggest a population dominated by uniformly old (∼13 Gyr) stars, with a hint of an age-metallicity relationship. Upon comparing our results for UMi, our earlier work in Draco, and published studies of more metal-rich dSph Galactic satellites, there appears to be a pattern of moving from a chemical inventory for dSph giants with [Fe/H] ∼ - 1.5 dex leads to a chemical inventory wildly discrepant from that of any component of the Milky Way. We note the presence of two UMi giants with [Fe/H] <-3.0 dex in our sample and reaffirm that the inner Galactic halo could have been formed by early accretion of Galactic satellite galaxies and dissolution of young globular clusters, while the outer halo could have formed from those satellite galaxies that accreted somewhat later.

  4. Manganese in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    North, P; Jablonka, P; Hill, V; Shetrone, M; Letarte, B; Lemasle, B; Venn, K A; Battaglia, G; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M J; Primas, F; Francois, P

    2012-01-01

    We provide manganese abundances (corrected for the effect of the hyperfine structure) for a large number of stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Sculptor and Fornax, and for a smaller number in the Carina and Sextans dSph galaxies. Abundances had already been determined for a number of other elements in these galaxies, including alpha and iron-peak ones, which allowed us to build [Mn/Fe] and [Mn/alpha] versus [Fe/H] diagrams. The Mn abundances imply sub-solar [Mn/Fe] ratios for the stars in all four galaxies examined. In Sculptor, [Mn/Fe] stays roughly constant between [Fe/H]\\sim -1.8 and -1.4 and decreases at higher iron abundance. In Fornax, [Mn/Fe] does not vary in any significant way with [Fe/H]. The relation between [Mn/alpha] and [Fe/H] for the dSph galaxies is clearly systematically offset from that for the Milky Way, which reflects the different star formation histories of the respective galaxies. The [Mn/alpha] behavior can be interpreted as a result of the metal-dependent Mn yields of type II and ...

  5. Dwarf spheroidal galaxy kinematics and spiral galaxy scaling laws

    OpenAIRE

    Salucci, Paolo; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Walker, Matthew G.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Grebel, Eva K.; Koch, Andreas; Martins, Christiane Frigerio; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic surveys of the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of the Milky Way are revealing tantalising hints about the structure of dark matter (DM) haloes at the low-mass end of the galaxy luminosity function. At the bright end, modelling of spiral galaxies has shown that their rotation curves are consistent with the hypothesis of a Universal Rotation Curve whose shape is supported by a cored dark matter halo. In this paper, we investigate whether the internal kinematics of the Milky Way dSp...

  6. The Distribution of Carbon Abundances in Stars in the Milky Way’s Satellite Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Michelle; Zhang, A.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the Milky Way halo is comprised in part of disrupted dwarf satellite galaxies; however, the extent to which they contribute to the halo’s formation is unclear. To further examine the role of dwarf galaxies in building the halo, we compared the degrees of carbon enhancement of the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies and field halo populations. We generated a grid of high-resolution synthetic spectra for hypothetical stars of specific effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, alpha element abundance, and carbon abundance for comparison with medium-resolution observed spectra of dSph stars of unmeasured [C/Fe] but otherwise known properties. After smoothing, rebinning, and normalizing the two data sets, we varied carbon abundance to find the best carbon abundance by determining the synthetic spectrum that gave the minimal deviation. We found a lower Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) fraction in the dSph galaxies, which suggests that they have evolved over time. Whereas star formation and chemical evolution stopped for accreted galaxies, the surviving galaxies evolved to became less carbon enhanced and more metal rich. The variation in carbon abundances supports prior knowledge of dSph stars and provide a deeper understanding the formation of stars such as those of the Milky Way halo. We thank the US National Science Foundation, the UCSC Science Internship Program, and the W. M. Keck Observatory where the spectra were obtained.

  7. Jeans Analysis for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Wave Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu-Rong; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2016-01-01

    Observations suggest that dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies exhibit large constant-density cores in the centers, which can hardly be explained by dissipationless cold dark matter simulations. Wave dark matter (${\\psi {\\rm DM}}$), characterized by a single parameter, the dark matter particle mass $m_{\\psi}$, predicts a central soliton core in every galaxy arising from quantum pressure against gravity. Here we apply Jeans analysis to the kinematic data of eight classical dSphs so as to constrain...

  8. A spectroscopic binary in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the radial velocity curve of a single-lined spectroscopic binary in the faint Hercules dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, based on 34 individual spectra covering more than 2 yr of observations. This is the first time that orbital elements could be derived for a binary in a dSph. The system consists of a metal-poor red giant and a low-mass companion, possibly a white dwarf, with a 135 day period in a moderately eccentric (e = 0.18) orbit. Its period and eccentricity are fully consistent with metal-poor binaries in the Galactic halo, while the projected semimajor axis is small, at ap sin i = 38 R ☉. In fact, a very close orbit could inhibit the production of heavier elements through s-process nucleosynthesis, leading to the very low abundances of neutron-capture elements that are found in this star. We discuss the further implications for the chemical enrichment history of the Hercules dSph, but find no compelling binary scenario that could reasonably explain the full, peculiar abundance pattern of the Hercules dSph galaxy.

  9. A spectroscopic binary in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Andreas; Hansen, Terese [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Feltzing, Sofia [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Wilkinson, Mark I., E-mail: akoch@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    We present the radial velocity curve of a single-lined spectroscopic binary in the faint Hercules dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, based on 34 individual spectra covering more than 2 yr of observations. This is the first time that orbital elements could be derived for a binary in a dSph. The system consists of a metal-poor red giant and a low-mass companion, possibly a white dwarf, with a 135 day period in a moderately eccentric (e = 0.18) orbit. Its period and eccentricity are fully consistent with metal-poor binaries in the Galactic halo, while the projected semimajor axis is small, at a{sub p} sin i = 38 R {sub ☉}. In fact, a very close orbit could inhibit the production of heavier elements through s-process nucleosynthesis, leading to the very low abundances of neutron-capture elements that are found in this star. We discuss the further implications for the chemical enrichment history of the Hercules dSph, but find no compelling binary scenario that could reasonably explain the full, peculiar abundance pattern of the Hercules dSph galaxy.

  10. The SPLASH Survey: A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metal-Poor, Low-Luminosity M31 dSph Satellite Andromeda X

    CERN Document Server

    Kalirai, Jason S; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Geha, Marla; Kniazev, Alexei Y; Martinez-Delgado, David; Bell, Eric F; Grebel, Eva K; Gilbert, Karoline M

    2009-01-01

    Andromeda X (And X) is a newly discovered low-luminosity M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) found by Zucker et al. (2007) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS - York et al. 2000). In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic study of individual red giant branch stars in And X, as a part of the SPLASH Survey (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo). Using the Keck II telescope and multiobject DEIMOS spectrograph, we target two spectroscopic masks over the face of the galaxy and measure radial velocities for ~100 stars with a median accuracy of sigma_v ~ 3 km/s. The velocity histogram for this field confirms three populations of stars along the sight line: foreground Milky Way dwarfs at small negative velocities, M31 halo red giants over a broad range of velocities, and a very cold velocity ``spike'' consisting of 22 stars belonging to And X with v_rad = -163.8 +/- 1.2 km/s. By carefully considering both the random and systematic velocity errors of these stars (e.g., through d...

  11. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Bidin, C Moni; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Bellazzini, M; Ibata, R; Chiba, M; Geisler, D; Caffau, E; Duffau, S

    2015-01-01

    The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, the Sgr dSph is suspected to have lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are suspected to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed due to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two among these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. We analize high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of "unassociated" MW halo globulars, and of the metal poor Sgr dSph main body population...

  12. The Faint Optical Stellar Luminosity Function in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Feltzing, S; Wyse, R F G; Feltzing, Sofia; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of their internal stellar kinematics imply that the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) companion galaxies to the Milky Way are among the most dark-matter dominated systems known. Should there be significant dark matter in the form of faint stars in these systems, the stellar luminosity function must be very different from that of a similar metallicity globular cluster, for which there is no evidence for dark matter. We present the faint stellar luminosity function in the Ursa Minor dSph, down to a luminosity corresponding to roughly 0.45 M_sun, derived from new deep HST/WFPC2 data. We find a remarkable similarity between this luminosity function, and inferred initial mass function, and that of the globular cluster M92, a cluster of similar age and metallicity to the Ursa Minor dSph.

  13. The Composition of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and Implications for Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, A; William, Andrew Mc; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2004-01-01

    We outline the results of a study of the chemical composition of 14 stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). For the Sgr dSph stars with [Fe/H]>-1 the abundances are highly unusual, showing a striking enhancement in heavy s-process elements, increasing with [Fe/H], deficiencies of the alpha- elements (O, Si, Ca, and Ti), deficiencies of Al and Na, and deficiencies of the iron-peak elements Mn and Cu. Our abundances suggest that the composition of the metal-rich Sgr dSph stars is dominated by the ejecta of an old, metal-poor population, including products of AGB stars and type Ia supernovae (SN). We suggest two scenarios to explain the observations: Prolonged chemical evolution in a galaxy experiencing significant mass-loss, and chemical enrichment with episodic bursts of star formation. The Galactic globular cluster Omega Cen, and the Fornax dwarf galaxy show similar abundance patterns, which suggests that those systems evolved similar to the Sgr dSph.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE PUZZLING ABUNDANCE PATTERN IN THE STARS OF THE FORNAX DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many works have found unusual characteristics of elemental abundances in nearby dwarf galaxies. This implies that there is a key factor of galactic evolution that is different from that of the Milky Way (MW). The chemical abundances of the stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax dSph) provide excellent information for setting constraints on the models of galactic chemical evolution. In this work, adopting the five-component approach, we fit the abundances of the Fornax dSph stars, including α elements, iron group elements, and neutron-capture elements. For most sample stars, the relative contributions from the various processes to the elemental abundances are not usually in the MW proportions. We find that the contributions from massive stars to the primary α elements and iron group elements increase monotonically with increasing [Fe/H]. This means that the effect of the galactic wind is not strong enough to halt star formation and the contributions from the massive stars to α elements did not halt for [Fe/H] ∼< –0.5. The average contribution ratios of various processes between the dSph stars and the MW stars monotonically decrease with increasing progenitor mass. This is important evidence of a bottom-heavy initial mass function (IMF) for the Fornax dSph, compared to the MW. Considering a bottom-heavy IMF for the dSph, the observed relations of [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H], [iron group/Fe] versus [Fe/H], and [neutron-capture/Fe] versus [Fe/H] for the dSph stars can be explained

  15. Chemical Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal and Blue Compact Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfranchi, G A; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A.; Matteucci, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    We studied the chemical evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) and Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) by means of comparison between the predictions of chemical evolution models and several observed abundance ratios. Detailed models with up to date nucleosynthesis taking into account the role played by supernovae of different types (II, Ia) were developed for both types of galaxies allowing us to follow the evolution of several chemical elements. The models are specified by the prescriptions of the star formation (SF) and galactic wind efficiencies chosen to reproduce the main features of these galaxies. We also investigated a possible connection in the evolution of dSph and BCGs and compared the predictions of the models to the abundance ratios observed in Damped Lyman alpha Systems (DLAs). The main conclusions are: i) the observed distribution of [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] in dSph is mainly a result of the SF rate coupled with the wind efficiency; ii) a low SF efficiency and a high wind efficiency are required to reprod...

  16. THE SPLASH SURVEY: A SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE METAL-POOR, LOW-LUMINOSITY M31 dSph SATELLITE ANDROMEDA X ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andromeda X (And X) is a newly discovered low-luminosity M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) found by Zucker et al. in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al.). In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic study of individual red giant branch stars in And X, as a part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo (SPLASH) Survey. Using the Keck II telescope and multiobject DEIMOS spectrograph, we target two spectroscopic masks over the face of the galaxy and measure radial velocities for ∼100 stars with a median accuracy of σ v ∼ 3 km s-1. The velocity histogram for this field confirms three populations of stars along the sight line: foreground Milky Way dwarfs at small negative velocities, M31 halo red giants over a broad range of velocities, and a very cold velocity 'spike' consisting of 22 stars belonging to And X with v rad = -163.8 ± 1.2 km s-1. By carefully considering both the random and systematic velocity errors of these stars (e.g., through duplicate star measurements), we derive an intrinsic velocity dispersion of just σ v = 3.9 ± 1.2 km s-1 for And X, which for its size, implies a minimum mass-to-light ratio of M/LV = 37+26-19 assuming that the mass traces the light. Based on the clean sample of member stars, we measure the median metallicity of And X to be [Fe/H] = -1.93 ± 0.11, with a slight radial metallicity gradient. The dispersion in metallicity is large, σ([Fe/H]phot) = 0.48, possibly hinting that the galaxy retained much of its chemical enrichment products. And X has a total integrated luminosity (MV = -8.1 ± 0.5) that straddles the classical Local Group dSphs and the new SDSS ultra-low luminosity galaxies. The galaxy is among the most metal-poor dSphs known, especially relative to those with MV < -8, and has the second lowest intrinsic velocity dispersion of the entire sample. Our results suggest that And X is less massive by a factor of 4 when compared to Milky Way dSphs of comparable

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Globular Cluster Candidates in Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, M E; Makarov, D I; Sharina, Margarita E.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-seven nearby low surface brightness dwarf galaxies were searched for globular cluster candidates (GCCs) using Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 imaging in V and I. The sample consists of 18 dwarf spheroidal (dSph), 36 irregular (dIrr), and 3 "transition" type (dIrr/dSph) galaxies with angular sizes less than 3.7 kpc situated at distances 2-6 Mpc in the field and in the nearby groups: M81, Centaurus A, Sculptor, Canes Venatici I cloud. We find that ~50% of dSph, dIrr/dSph, and dIrr galaxies contain GCCs. The fraction of GCCs located near the center of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is >2 times higher than that for dIrrs. The mean integral color of GCCs in dSphs, V-I = 1.04+/-0.16 mag, coincides with the corresponding value for Galactic globular clusters and is similar to the blue globular cluster sub-populations in massive early-type galaxies. The color distribution for GCCs in dIrrs shows a clear bimodality with peaks near V-I = 0.5 and 1.0 mag. Blue GCCs are presumably young with ages t -6.5 mag in both dSph an...

  18. Catalog of Visually Classified Galaxies in the Local ($z\\sim0.01$) Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Ha, D K

    2015-01-01

    The morphological types of 5840 galaxies were classified by a visual inspection of color images using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) to produce a morphology catalog of a representative sample of local galaxies with $z<0.01$. The sample galaxies are almost complete for galaxies brighter than $r_{pet}=17.77$. Our classification system is basically the same as that of the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies with some simplification for giant galaxies. On the other hand, we distinguish fine features of dwarf elliptical-like galaxies to classify 5 subtypes: dwarf ellipticals (dE), blue-cored dwarf ellipticals (dE$_{bc}$), dwarf spheroidals (dSph), blue dwarf ellipticals (dE$_{blue}$), and dwarf lenticulars (dS0). In addition, we denote the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. Elliptical galaxies and lenticular galaxies contribute only $\\sim1.5\\%$ and $\\sim4.9\\%$ of the local galaxies, respectively, whereas spirals and irregulars contribute $\\sim32.1\\%$ and $\\sim42.8\\%$, ...

  19. Inverse Compton Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Jayashri; Duorah, H. L.; Barua, A. G.; Duorah, K.

    2016-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are thought to be good candidates for dark matter search due to their high mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. One of the most favored dark matter candidates is the lightest neutralino (neutral χ particle) as predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this study, we model the gamma ray emission from dark matter annihilation coming from the nearby dSph galaxies Draco, Segue 1, Ursa Minor and Willman 1, taking into account the contribution from prompt photons and photons produced from inverse Compton scattering off starlight and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by the energetic electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation. We also compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the decay of dark matter annihilation products. Gamma ray spectra and fluxes for both prompt and inverse Compton emission have been calculated for neutralino annihilation over a range of masses and found to be in agreement with the observed data. It has been found that the ultra faint dSph galaxy Segue 1 gives the largest gamma ray flux limits while the lowest gamma ray flux limits has been obtained from Ursa Minor. It is seen that for larger M/L ratio of dwarf galaxies the intensity pattern originating from e + e - pairs scattering off CMB photons is separated by larger amount from that off the starlight photons for the same neutralino mass. As the e + e - energy spectra have an exponential cut off at high energies, this may allow to discriminate some dark matter scenarios from other astrophysical sources. Finally, some more detailed study about the effect of inverse Compton scattering may help constrain the dark matter signature in the dSph galaxies.

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOÖTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Boötes I (Boö I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Boö I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Boö I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age (∼12.6 Gyr) with respect to Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Boö I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

  1. A spectroscopic binary in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Feltzing, Sofia; Wilkinson, Mark I

    2013-01-01

    We present the radial velocity curve of a single-lined spectroscopic binary in the faint Hercules dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, based on 34 individual spectra covering more than two years of observations. This is the first time that orbital elements could be derived for a binary in a dSph. The system consists of a metal-poor red giant and a low-mass companion, possibly a white dwarf, with a 135-days period in a moderately eccentric ($e=0.18$) orbit. Its period and eccentricity are fully consistent with metal-poor binaries in the Galactic halo, while the projected semimajor axis is small, at $a_p$ sin$i$ = 38 R$_{sun}$. In fact, a very close orbit could inhibit the production of heavier elements through $s$-process nucleosynthesis, leading to the very low abundances of neutron-capture elements that are found in this star. We discuss the further implications for the chemical enrichment history of the Hercules dSph, but find no compelling binary scenario that could reasonably explain the full, peculiar abundan...

  2. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF TWO VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at –3 < [Fe/H] < –2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] << –3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ∼ –3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo.

  3. Distances and Metallicities for 17 Local Group Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McConnachie, A W; Ferguson, A M N; Ibata, R A; Lewis, G F; Tanvir, N

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained Johnson V and Gunn i photometry for a large number of Local Group galaxies using the Isaac Newton Telescope Wide Field Camera (INT WFC). The majority of these galaxies are members of the M31 subgroup and the observations are deep enough to study the top few magnitudes of the red giant branch in each system. We previously measured the location of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) for Andromeda I, Andromeda II and M33 to within systematic uncertainties of typically < 0.05 mags (McConnachie et al. 2004). As the TRGB acts as a standard candle in old, metal poor stellar populations, we were able to derive distances to each of these galaxies. Here we derive TRGB distances to the giant spiral galaxy M31 and 13 additional dwarf galaxies - NGC205, NGC185, NGC147, Pegasus, WLM, LGS3, Cetus, Aquarius, AndIII, AndV, AndVI, AndVII and the newly discovered dwarf spheroidal AndIX. The observations for each of the dwarf galaxies were intentionally taken in photometric conditions. In addition to the d...

  4. Leo P: How Many Metals Can a Very Low Mass, Isolated Galaxy Retain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-01

    Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with an extremely low gas-phase oxygen abundance (3% solar). The isolated nature of Leo P enables a quantitative measurement of metals lost solely due to star formation feedback. We present an inventory of the oxygen atoms in Leo P based on the gas-phase oxygen abundance measurement, the star formation history (SFH), and the chemical enrichment evolution derived from resolved stellar populations. The SFH also provides the total amount of oxygen produced. Overall, Leo P has retained 5% of its oxygen; 25% of the retained oxygen is in the stars while 75% is in the gas phase. This is considerably lower than the 20%-25% calculated for massive galaxies, supporting the trend for less efficient metal retention for lower-mass galaxies. The retention fraction is higher than that calculated for other alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) in dSph Milky Way satellites of similar stellar mass and metallicity. Accounting only for the oxygen retained in stars, our results are consistent with those derived for the alpha elements in dSph galaxies. Thus, under the assumption that the dSph galaxies lost the bulk of their gas mass through an environmental process such as tidal stripping, the estimates of retained metal fractions represent underestimates by roughly a factor of four. Because of its isolation, Leo P provides an important datum for the fraction of metals lost as a function of galaxy mass due to star formation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. r-Process enrichment by magnetorotational core-collapse supernovae in the early dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the hottest open issues in chemical evolution of $r$-process elements is fast enrichment in the early Universe. Clear evidence for it is seen in stellar abundances of extremely metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. On the other hand, small-mass galaxies are the ideal testbed to follow the evolutionary features of r-process enrichment, given the potential rarity of production events yielding heavy r-process elements. Their occurrences become countable and thus an enrichment path due to each event can be found in the stellar abundances. We examine the chemical feature of Eu abundance at an early stage of [Fe/H] $\\lesssim -2$ in the Draco and Sculptor dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Accordingly we constrain the properties of the Eu production in the early dSphs. We find that the Draco dSph experienced a few Eu production events while Eu enrichment took place more continuously in the Sculptor dSph due to its larger stellar mass. The event rate of Eu production is estimated to be about one per $100-200$ ...

  6. Chemical Feature of Eu abundance in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Aoki, Wako

    2015-01-01

    Chemical abundance of r-process elements in nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is a powerful tool to probe the site of r-process since their small-mass scale can sort out individual events producing r-process elements. A merger of binary neutron stars is a promising candidate of this site. In faint, or less massive dSph galaxies such as the Draco, a few binary neutron star mergers are expected to have occurred at most over the whole past. We have measured chemical abundances including Eu and Ba of three red giants in the Draco dSph by Subaru/HDS observation. The Eu detection for one star with [Fe/H]=-1.45 confirms a broadly constant [Eu/H] of ~-1.3 for stars with [Fe/H]>-2. This feature is shared by other dSphs with similar masses, i.e., the Sculptor and the Carina, and suggests that neutron star merger is the origin of r-process elements in terms of its rarity. In addition, two very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]=-2.12 and -2.51 are found to exhibit very low Eu abundances such as [Eu/H]<-2 with an impl...

  7. OGLE Study of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and its M54 Globular Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hamanowicz, A; Udalski, A; Mroz, P; Soszynski, I; Szymanski, M K; Skowron, J; Poleski, R; Wyrzykowski, L; Kozlowski, S; Pawlak, M; Ulaczyk, K

    2016-01-01

    We use the fundamental-mode RR Lyr-type variable stars (RRab) from OGLE-IV to draw a 3D picture of the central part of the tidally disrupted Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (Sgr dSph) galaxy. We estimate the line-of-sight thickness of the Sgr dSph stream to be 6sigma~6.2 kpc. Based on OGLE-IV observations collected in seasons 2011-2014 we conduct a comprehensive study of stellar variability in the field of the globular cluster M54 (NGC 6715) residing in the core of this dwarf galaxy. Among the total number of 270 detected variables we report the identification of 173 RR Lyr stars, 4 Type II Cepheids, 51 semi-regular variable red giants, 3 SX Phe-type stars, 18 eclipsing binary systems. Seventy-three variables are new discoveries. The distance to the cluster determined from RRab stars is d_M54=26.2+/-0.2_stat+/-1.3_sys kpc. From the location of RRab stars in the period-amplitude (Bailey) diagram we confirm the presence of two old populations, both in the cluster and the Sgr dSph stream.

  8. Dark Matter in $\\gamma$ lines: Galactic Center vs dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lefranc, Valentin; Moulin, Emmanuel; Panci, Paolo; Sala, Filippo; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We provide CTA sensitivities to Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in $\\gamma$-ray lines, from the observation of the Galactic Center (GC) as well as, for the first time, of dwarf Spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We compare the GC reach with that of dSphs as a function of a putative core radius of the DM distribution, which is itself poorly known. We find that the currently best dSph candidates constitute a more promising target than the GC, for core radii of one to a few kpc. We use the most recent i...

  9. The Stellar Populations and Structural Properties of Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies, Canes Venatici I, Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, and Leo IV

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Sakurako; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Bootes I (Boo I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The colour-magitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below the main sequence turn-offs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of faint three galaxies, Boo I, CVn II and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are estimated as old as a Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Boo I dSph has no intrinsic colour spread in the MSTO, and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Boo I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age (-12.6 Gyr) with respect to Boo I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the centre than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Bo...

  10. The radial velocity and metal abundance of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AAT FOCAP fibre system has been used to obtain spectra, centred at the Ca II IR-triplet, of 14 stars in the field of the recently discovered Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Radial velocities derived from these spectra indicate that six of the stars observed are Sextans members. Their velocities cluster closely about a value of 230±6 km s-1 which we take as the heliocentric velocity of this galaxy. This velocity, when corrected to the galactic rest frame, indicates that Sextans makes a contribution comparable to those of other dSph galaxies, such as Sculptor and Ursa Minor, to calculations of the mass of the galaxy's halo. The spectra of the Sextans members also yield an estimate of the mean abundance of this galaxy: a value of [Fe/H]=-1.7±0.25 dex is suggested from a comparison of the line strengths with those of globular cluster stars. (author)

  11. High-quality Spectrophotometry of the Planetary Nebula in the Fornax dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Yu; Pustilnik, S A; Pramsky, A G

    2007-01-01

    We present results of NTT spectroscopy of the one known planetary nebula (PN) in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Fornax, a gas-deficient Local Group galaxy that stopped its star formation activity a few hundred million years ago. We detected the [OIII] 4363 line with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~22. For the first time we detected the weak [SII] 6717,6731 lines (I(6717+6731) ~0.01 I(Hbeta)), determined the electron number density (Ne(SII) = 750 cm^-3), and calculated O, N, Ne, Ar, S, Cl, Fe, He and C abundances. The abundance analysis presented here is based on the direct calculation of the electron temperature Te and yields an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 8.28+/-0.02. The analysis of the O, Ne, Ar and S abundances shows that the original ISM oxygen abundance was 0.27+/-0.10 dex lower and that third-dredge-up self-pollution in oxygen took place. The blue spectrum shows weak Wolf-Rayet features, and the progenitor star is classified as a weak emission-line star. Four of the five PNe in dwarf spheroidal galaxies...

  12. Abundance ratios of red giants in low mass ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    François, P; Bonifacio, P; Bidin, C Moni; Geisler, D; Sbordone, L

    2015-01-01

    Low mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to 5 different ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Medium resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low mass galaxies, we found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios vs [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to what is found for the population of stars belonging to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [alpha/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than the ...

  13. Search for Gamma-ray emission from the eight newly-released DES dwarf spheroidal galaxy candidates with Fermi-LAT data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shang; Duan, Kai-Kai; Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liao, Neng-Hui; Feng, Lei; Chang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Very recently the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Collaboration has released their second group of Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy candidates. With the publicly-available Pass 8 data of Fermi-LAT we search for $\\gamma-$ray emissions from the directions of these eight newly discovered dSph galaxy candidates. No statistically significant $\\gamma-$ray signal has been found in the combined analysis of these sources. With the empirically estimated J-factors of these sources, the constraint on the annihilation channel of $\\chi\\chi \\rightarrow \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ is comparable to the bound set by the joint analysis of fifteen previously known dSphs with kinematically constrained J-factors for the dark matter mass $m_\\chi>250$ GeV. In the direction of Tuc III, one of the nearest dSph galaxy candidates that is $\\sim 25$ kpc away, there is a weak $\\gamma-$ray signal and its peak test statistic (TS) value for the dark matter annihilation channel $\\chi\\chi\\rightarrow \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-1}$ is $\\approx 6.7$. The significance of the pos...

  14. Search for a Dark Matter annihilation signal from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, E; Glicenstein, J-F; Jacholkowska, A; Rolland, L; Vivier, M

    2007-01-01

    Dwarf Spheroidal galaxies are amongst the best targets to search for a Dark Matter annihilation signal. The annihilation of WIMPs in the center of Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr dSph) galaxy would produce high energy gamma-rays in the final state. Observations carried out with the H.E.S.S. array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes are presented. A careful modelling of the Dark Matter halo profile of Sgr dwarf was performed using latest measurements on its structural parameters. Constraints on the velocity-weighted cross section of Dark Matter particles are derived in the framework of Supersymmetric and Kaluza-Klein models.

  15. The Complex Chemical Abundances and Evolution of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Smecker-Hane, T A; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; William, Andrew Mc

    2002-01-01

    We report on the chemical abundances derived from high-dispersion spectra of 14 red giant stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr dSph) galaxy. The stars span a wide range of metallicities, -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.1 dex, and exhibit very unusual abundance variations. For metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -1, [alpha/Fe] \\approx +0.3 similar to Galactic halo stars, but for more metal-rich stars the relationship of [alpha/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] is lower than that of the Galactic disk by 0.1 dex. The light elements [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] are sub-solar by an even larger amount, 0.4 dex. The pattern of neutron-capture heavy elements, as indicated by [La/Fe] and [La/Eu], shows an increasing s-process component with increasing [Fe/H], up to [La/Fe] \\sim +0.7 dex for the most metal-rich Sgr dSph stars. The large [La/Y] ratios show that the s-process enrichments came from the metal-poor population. We can best understand the observed abundances with a model in which the Sgr dSph formed stars over a many Gyr a...

  16. A trio of new Local Group galaxies with extreme properties

    CERN Document Server

    McConnachie, Alan; Martin, Nicolas; Irwin, Mike; Chapman, Scott; Fahlman, Gregory; Ferguson, Annette; Ibata, Rodrigo; Lewis, Geraint; Richer, Harvey; Tanvir, Nial

    2008-01-01

    We report on the discovery of three new dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. These galaxies are found in new CFHT/MegaPrime g,i imaging of the south-western quadrant of M31, extending our extant survey area to include the majority of the southern hemisphere of M31's halo out to 150 kpc. All these galaxies have stellar populations which appear typical of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) systems. The first of these galaxies, Andromeda XVIII, is the most distant Local Group dwarf discovered in recent years, at ~1.4 Mpc from the Milky Way (~ 600 kpc from M31). The second galaxy, Andromeda XIX, a satellite of M31, is the most extended dwarf galaxy known in the Local Group, with a half-light radius of r_h ~ 1.7 kpc. This is approximately an order of magnitude larger than the typical half-light radius of many Milky Way dSphs, and reinforces the difference in scale sizes seen between the Milky Way and M31 dSphs (such that the M31 dwarfs are generally more extended than their Milky Way counterparts). The third galaxy, Andromeda ...

  17. Bridging the gap between low and high mass dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan; Graham, Alister; Foster, Caroline; Hau, G; Benson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    While the dark matter content within the most massive giant and smallest dwarf galaxies has been probed -- spanning a range of over one million in mass -- an important observational gap remains for galaxies of intermediate mass. This gap covers K band magnitudes of approximately -16 > M_K > -18 (for which dwarf galaxies have B--K ~ 2). On the high mass side of the gap are dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, that are dominated by stars in their inner regions. While the low mass side includes dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies that are dark matter-dominated and ultra compact dwarf (UCD) objects that are star-dominated. Evolutionary pathways across the gap have been suggested but remain largely untested because the `gap' galaxies are faint, making dynamical measurements very challenging. With long exposures on the Keck telescope using the ESI instrument we have succeeded in bridging this gap by measuring the dynamical mass for five dwarf galaxies with M_K ~ -17.5 (M_B ~ --15.5). With the exception of our brightest dwa...

  18. First results of UVES at VLT abundances in the Sgr dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P; Pasquini, L; Marcantonio, P D; Santin, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Hill, Vanessa; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Santin, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    Two giants of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal have been observed with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2m Kueyen telescope, during the commissioning of the instrument. Sgr 139 has [Fe/H]=-0.28 and Sgr 143 [Fe/H]=-0.21, these values are considerably higher than photometric estimates of the metallicity of the main population of Sgr. We derived abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd and Eu; the abundance ratios found are essentially solar with a few exceptions: Na shows a strong overdeficiency, the heavy elements Ba to Eu, are overabundant, while Y is underabundat. The high metallicity derived implies that the Sgr galaxy has experienced a high level of chemical processing. The stars had been selected to be representative of the two main stellar populations of Sagittarius, however, contrary to what expected from the photometry, the two stars show a very similar chemical composition. We argue that the most likely explanation for the difference in the photometry of...

  19. Exploring Halo Substructure with Giant Stars. VI. Extended Distributions of Giant Stars Around the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy -- How Reliable Are They?

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S R; Kunkel, W E; Link, R; Muñoz, R R; Ostheimer, J C; Palma, C; Patterson, R J; Geisler, D

    2005-01-01

    The question of the existence of active tidal disruption around various dSph galaxies remains controversial. That debate often centers on the nature (bound vs. unbound) of extended populations of stars. However, the more fundamental issue of the very existence of the extended populations is still contentious. We present an evaluation of the debate centering on one particular dSph, Carina, for which claims both for and against the existence of stars beyond the King radius have been made. Our review includes an examination of all previous studies bearing on the Carina radial profile and shows that the survey method which achieves the highest detected dSph signal-to-background in the outer parts of the galaxy is the Washington M, T2 + DDO51 (MTD) filter approach from Paper II in this series. We then address statistical methods used to evaluate the reliability of MTD surveys in the presence of photometric errors and for which a new, a posteriori statistical analysis methodology is provided. Finally, these statist...

  20. Star Formation History and Chemical Evolution of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Hong Soo; Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present the star formation history and chemical evolution of the Sextans dSph dwarf galaxy as a function of galactocentric distance. We derive these from the $VI$ photometry of stars in the $42' \\times 28'$ field using the SMART model developed by Yuk & Lee (2007, ApJ, 668, 876) and adopting a closed-box model for chemical evolution. For the adopted age of Sextans 15 Gyr, we find that $>$84% of the stars formed prior to 11 Gyr ago, significant star formation extends from 15 to 11 Gyr ago (...

  1. Deep Wide Field BVI CCD Photometry of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M G; Park, J H; Sohn, Y J; Oh, S J; Yuk, I S; Rey, S C; Lee, S G; Lee, Y W; Kim, H I; Han, W; Park, W K; Lee, J H; Jeon, Y B; Kim, S C; Lee, Myung Goon; Park, Hong Soo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Sohn, Young-Jong; Oh, Seung Joon; Yuk, In-Soo; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Sang-Gak; Lee, Young-Wook; Kim, Ho-Il; Han, Wonyong; Park, Won-Kee; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeon, Young Beom; Kim, Sang Chul

    2003-01-01

    We present deep wide field $VI$ CCD photometry of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) in the Local Group, covering a field of 42' x 28' located at the center of the galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of the Sextans dSph show well-defined red giant branch (RGB), blue horizontal branch (BHB), prominent red horizontal branch (RHB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), about 120 variable star candidates including RR Lyraes and anomalous Cepheids, about 230 blue stragglers (BSs), and main sequence (MS) stars. The distance to the galaxy is derived using the $I$-band magnitude of the tip of the RGB at I(TRGB)=15.95+/-0.04: (m-M)_0=19.90+/-0.06 for an adopted reddening of E(B-V)=0.01. The mean metallicity of the RGB is estimated from the (V-I) color: [Fe/H]=-2.1+/-0.1(statistical error) +/-0.2(standard calibration error) dex, with a dispersion of sigma[Fe/H]=0.2 dex. The age of the MSTO of the main old population is estimated to be similar to that of M92, and there are seen some stellar populations with younger age. T...

  2. Testing modified gravity with dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Haghi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The observed velocity dispersion of the classical dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) requires the Newtonian stellar mass-to-light ($M_*/L$) ratios in the range of about 10 to more than 100 solar units that are well outside the acceptable limit predicted by stellar population synthesis models. Using Jeans analysis, we calculate the line-of-sight velocity dispersion ($\\sigma_{\\emph{los}}$) of stars in eight MW dSphs in the context of the modified gravity (MOG) theory of Moffat, assuming a constant $M_*/L$ ratio without invoking the exotic cold dark matter. First, we use the weak field approximation of MOG and assume the two parameters $ \\alpha $ and $ \\mu $ of the theory to be constant as has already been inferred from fitting to the observed rotational data of The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey catalogue of galaxies. We find that the derived $M_*/L$ ratios for almost all dSphs are too large to be explained by the stellar population values. In order to fit the line-of-sight velocity dispersions of ...

  3. A Universal Mass Profile for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew G.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Wyn Evans, N.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2009-10-01

    We apply the Jeans equation to estimate masses for eight of the brightest dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. For Fornax, the dSph with the largest kinematic data set, we obtain a model-independent constraint on the maximum circular velocity, V max = 20+4 -3 km s-1. Although we obtain only lower limits of V max >~ 10 km s-1 for the remaining dSphs, we find that in all cases the enclosed mass at the projected half-light radius is well constrained and robust to a wide range of halo models and velocity anisotropies. We derive a simple analytic formula that estimates M(r half) accurately with respect to results from the full Jeans analysis. Applying this formula to the entire population of Local Group dSphs with published kinematic data, we demonstrate a correlation such that M(r half) vprop r 1.4±0.4 half, or in terms of the mean density interior to the half-light radius, langρrang vprop r -1.6±0.4 half. This relation is driven by the fact that the dSph data exhibit a correlation between global velocity dispersion and half-light radius. We argue that tidal forces are unlikely to have introduced this relation, but tides may have increased the scatter and/or altered the slope. While the data are well described by mass profiles ranging over a factor of lsim2 in normalization (V max ~ 10-20 km s-1), we consider the hypothesis that all dSphs are embedded within a "universal" dark matter halo. We show that in addition to the power law M vprop r 1.4, viable candidates include a cuspy "Navarro-Frenk-White" halo with V max ~ 15 km s-1 and scale radius r 0 ~ 800 pc, as well as a cored halo with V max ~ 13 km s-1 and r 0 ~ 150 pc. Finally, assuming that their measured velocity dispersions accurately reflect their masses, the smallest dSphs now allow us to resolve dSph densities at radii as small as a few tens of pc. At these small scales, we find mean densities as large as langρrang USA.

  4. Star Formation Properties in the Local Volume Galaxies via Hα and Far-ultraviolet Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.

    2013-09-01

    A distance-limited sample of 869 objects from the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog is used to characterize the star formation status of the Local Volume population. We present a compiled list of 1217 star formation rate (SFR) estimates for 802 galaxies within 11 Mpc, derived from the Hα imaging surveys and the GALEX far-ultraviolet survey. We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR and luminosity, morphology, H I mass, surface brightness, and the environment of the galaxies. About 3/4 of our sample consist of dwarf galaxies, for which we offer a more refined classification. We note that the specific SFR of nearly all luminous and dwarf galaxies does not exceed the maximum value: log (SFR/LK ) = -9.4 [yr-1]. Most spiral and blue dwarf galaxies have enough time to generate their stellar mass during the cosmological time, T 0, with the observed SFRs. They dispose of a sufficient amount of gas to support their present SFRs over the next T 0 term. We note that only a small fraction of BCD, Im, and Ir galaxies (about 1/20) proceed in a mode of vigorous starburst activity. In general, the star formation history of spiral and blue dwarf galaxies is mainly driven by their internal processes. The present SFRs of E, S0, and dSph galaxies typically have 1/30-1/300 of their former activity.

  5. Dark satellites and the morphology of dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Helmi, Amina; Starkenburg, E; Starkenburg, T K; Vera-Ciro, C A; De Lucia, G; Li, Y -S

    2012-01-01

    One of the strongest predictions of the LambdaCDM cosmological model is the presence of dark satellites orbiting all types of galaxies. We focus here on the dynamical effects of such satellites on disky dwarf galaxies, and demonstrate that these encounters can be dramatic. Although mergers with M_sat > M_d are not very common, because of the lower baryonic content they occur much more frequently on the dwarf scale than for L_*-galaxies. As an example, we present a numerical simulation of a 20% (virial) mass ratio merger between a dark satellite and a disky dwarf (akin to the Fornax dwarf galaxy in luminosity) that shows that the merger remnant has a spheroidal morphology. We conclude that perturbations by dark satellites provide a plausible path for the formation of dSph systems and also could trigger starbursts in gas rich dwarf galaxies. Therefore the transition from disky to the often amorphous, irregular, or spheroidal morphologies of dwarfs could be a natural consequence of the dynamical heating of hithe...

  6. Neutron-capture element deficiency of the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Aden, Daniel; Matteucci, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    We present an assessment of the barium abundance ratios for red giant member stars in the faint Hercules dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. Our results are drawn from intermediate-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra around the Ba II 6141.71 AA absorption line at low signal-to-noise ratios. For three brighter stars we were able to gain estimates from direct equivalent-width measurements, while for the remaining eight stars only upper limits could be obtained. These results are investigated in a statistical manner and indicate very low Ba abundances of log epsilon (Ba) < 0.7 dex (3 sigma). We discuss various possible systematic biasses, first and foremost, a blend with the Fe I 6141.73 AA-line, but most of those would only lead to even lower abundances. A better match with metal-poor halo and dSph stars can only be reached by including a large uncertainty in the continuum placement. This contrasts with the high dispersions in iron and calcium (in excess of 1 dex) in this galaxy. While the latter spreads are typic...

  7. MULTI-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS FROM MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. I. THE SCULPTOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present measurements of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances for 388 radial velocity member stars in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), a satellite of the Milky Way (MW). This is the largest sample of individual α element (Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti) abundance measurements in any single dSph. The measurements are made from Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrometer medium-resolution spectra (6400-9000 A, R ∼ 6500). Based on comparisons to published high-resolution (R ∼> 20,000) spectroscopic measurements, our measurements have uncertainties of σ[Fe/H] = 0.14 and σ[α/Fe] = 0.13. The Sculptor [Fe/H] distribution has a mean ([Fe/H]) = -1.58 and is asymmetric with a long, metal-poor tail, indicative of a history of extended star formation. Sculptor has a larger fraction of stars with [Fe/H] -1 in [Fe/H] and +0.013 ± 0.003 dex arcmin-1 in [α/Fe] out to 11 arcmin (275 pc). Together, these measurements cast Sculptor and possibly other surviving dSphs as representative of the dwarf galaxies from which the metal-poor tail of the Galactic halo formed.

  8. Are stellar over-densities in dwarf galaxies the "smoking gun" of triaxial dark matter haloes?

    CERN Document Server

    Penarrubia, Jorge; Gilmore, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study the tidal evolution of globular clusters (GCs) in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Our models adopt a cosmologically motivated scenario in which the dSph is approximated by a static NFW halo with a triaxial shape. For a large set of orbits and projection angles we examine the spatial and velocity distribution of stellar debris deposited during the complete disruption of stellar clusters. Our simulations show that such debris appears as shells, isolated clumps and elongated over-densities at low surface brightness (>26 mag/arcsec^2), reminiscent of substructure observed in several MW dSphs. Such features arise from the triaxiality of the galaxy potential and do not dissolve in time. Stellar over-densities reported in several MW dSphs may thus be the telltale evidence of dark matter haloes being triaxial in shape. We explore a number of kinematic signatures that would help to validate (or falsify) this scenario. The mean angular momentum of the cluster debris associated with ...

  9. Deconstructing dwarf galaxies: a Suprime-Cam survey of Andromeda II

    CERN Document Server

    McConnachie, Alan; Irwin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) We present deep, sub-horizontal branch, multi-colour photometry of the Andromeda II dwarf spheroidal (And II dSph) taken with Subaru Suprime-Cam. We identify a red clump population in this galaxy, the first time this feature has been detected in a M31 dSph, which are normally characterized as having no significant intermediate age populations. We construct radial profiles for the various stellar populations and show that the horizontal branch has a nearly constant density spatial distribution out to large radius, whereas the reddest red giant branch stars are centrally concentrated in an exponential profile. We argue that these populations trace two distinct structural components in And II and show that this assumption provides a good match to the overall radial profile of this galaxy. The extended component dominates the stellar populations at large radius, whereas the exponential component dominates the inner few arcminutes. We show that the two components have very different stellar populations;...

  10. Investigation of the Puzzling Abundance Pattern in the Stars of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Many works have found unusual characteristics of elemental abundances in nearby dwarf galaxies. This implies that there is a key factor of galactic evolution that is different from that of the Milky Way (MW). The chemical abundances of the stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax dSph) provide excellent information for setting constraints on the models of the galactic chemical evolution. In this work, adopting the five-component approach, we fit the abundances of the Fornax dSph stars, including $\\alpha$ elements, iron group elements and neutron-capture elements. For most sample stars, the relative contributions from the various processes to the elemental abundances are not usually in the MW proportions. We find that the contributions from massive stars to the primary $\\alpha$ elements and iron group elements increase monotonously with increasing [Fe/H]. This means that the effect of the galactic wind is not strong enough to halt star formation and the contributions from massive stars to $\\alpha$ e...

  11. Dark Matter in $\\gamma$ lines: Galactic Center vs dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lefranc, Valentin; Panci, Paolo; Sala, Filippo; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We provide CTA sensitivities to Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in $\\gamma$-ray lines, from the observation of the Galactic Center (GC) as well as, for the first time, of dwarf Spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We compare the GC reach with that of dSphs as a function of a putative core radius of the DM distribution, which is itself poorly known. We find that the currently best dSph candidates constitute a more promising target than the GC, for core radii of one to a few kpc. We use the most recent instrument response functions and background estimations by CTA, on top of which we add the diffuse photon component. Our analysis is of particular interest for TeV-scale electroweak multiplets as DM candidates, such as the supersymmetric Wino and the Minimal Dark Matter fiveplet, whose predictions we compare with our projected sensitivities.

  12. Leo P: An Unquenched Very Low-mass Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Girardi, Léo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-10-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ˜0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M⊙. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ˜10-5 M⊙ yr-1. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained from the

  13. Binary populations in Milky Way satellite galaxies: Constraints from multi-epoch data in the Carina, Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a likelihood analysis of multi-epoch stellar line-of-sight velocities to constrain the binary fractions and binary period distributions of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. This method is applied to multi-epoch data from the Magellan/MMFS survey of the Carina, Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSph galaxies, after applying a model for the measurement errors that accounts for binary orbital motion. We find that the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs are consistent with having binary populations similar to that of Milky Way field binaries to within 68% confidence limits, whereas the Carina dSph is remarkably deficient in binaries with periods less than ∼10 yr. If Carina is assumed to have a period distribution identical to that of the Milky Way field, its best-fit binary fraction is 0.14−0.05+0.28, and is constrained to be less than 0.5 at the 90% confidence level; thus it is unlikely to host a binary population identical to that of the Milky Way field. By contrast, the best-fit binary fraction of the combined sample of all four galaxies is 0.46−0.09+0.13, consistent with that of Milky Way field binaries. More generally, we infer probability distributions in binary fraction, mean orbital period, and dispersion of periods for each galaxy in the sample. Looking ahead to future surveys, we show that the allowed parameter space of binary fraction and period distribution parameters in dSphs will be narrowed significantly by a large multi-epoch survey. However, there is a degeneracy between the parameters that is unlikely to be broken unless the measurement error is of order ∼0.1 km s–1 or smaller, presently attainable only by a high-resolution spectrograph.

  14. Evidence for a chemical enrichment coupling of globular clusters and field stars in the Fornax dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Johnson, Christian I; Frank, Matthias J; Koch, Andreas; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R~28000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe]=-0.35+-0.34, [Ca/Fe]=+0.05+-0.08, and [Ti/Fe]=-0.27+-0.23, resulting in an average [alpha/Fe]=-0.19+-0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [alpha/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequ...

  15. METALS REMOVED BY OUTFLOWS FROM MILKY WAY DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stars in the dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way are significantly more metal-poor than would be expected from a closed box model of chemical evolution. Gas outflows likely carried away most of the metals produced by the dSphs. Based on previous Keck/DEIMOS observations and models, we calculate the mass in Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe expelled from each of eight dSphs. Essentially, these masses are the differences between the observed amount of metals present in the dSphs' stars today and the inferred amount of metals produced by supernovae. We conclude that the dSphs lost 96% to >99% of the metals their stars manufactured. We apply the observed mass function of Milky Way dSphs to the ejected mass function to determine that a single large dSph, like Fornax, lost more metals over 10 Gyr than all smaller dSphs combined. Therefore, small galaxies like dSphs are not significant contributors to the metal content of the intergalactic medium. Finally, we compare our ejected mass function to previous X-ray measurements of the metal content of the winds from the post-starburst dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569. Remarkably, the most recent starburst in that galaxy falls exactly on the ejected-mass-stellar-mass relation defined by the Milky Way dSphs.

  16. Non-parametric star formation histories for four dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, X.; Gilmore, Gerard; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2000-10-01

    We use recent Hubble Space Telescope colour-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar populations of a sample of local dSph galaxies (Carina, Leo I, Leo II and Ursa Minor) to infer the star formation histories of these systems, SFR(t). Applying a new variational calculus maximum likelihood method, which includes a full Bayesian analysis and allows a non-parametric estimate of the function one is solving for, we infer the star formation histories of the systems studied. This method has the advantage of yielding an objective answer, as one need not assume a priori the form of the function one is trying to recover. The results are checked independently using Saha's W statistic. The total luminosities of the systems are used to normalize the results into physical units and derive SN type II rates. We derive the luminosity-weighted mean star formation history of this sample of galaxies.

  17. Evidence for a chemical enrichment coupling of globular clusters and field stars in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Boeche, Corrado; Johnson, Christian I.; Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R ~ 28 000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe] = -0.35 ± 0.34, [Ca/Fe] = + 0.05 ± 0.08, and [Ti/Fe] = -0.27 ± 0.23, resulting in an average [α/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [α/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequence, seen as an early depletion in [α/Fe] at low metallicities, in good agreement with previous measurements. H4 falls on top of the observed field star [α/Fe] sequence and clearly disagrees with the properties of Milky Way halo stars. We therefore conclude that within a galaxy, the chemical enrichment of globular clusters may be closely linked to the enrichment pattern of the field star population. The low [α/Fe] ratios of H4 and similar metallicity field stars in Fornax give evidence that slow chemical enrichment environments, such as dwarf galaxies, may be the original hosts of alpha-depleted clusters in the halos of the Milky Way and M31. This article includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  18. Searches for dark matter self-annihilation signals from dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the Fornax galaxy cluster with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many astronomical observations indicate that dark matter pervades the universe and dominates the formation and dynamics of cosmic structures. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with masses in the GeV to TeV range form a popular class of dark matter candidates. WIMP self-annihilation may lead to the production of γ-rays in the very high energy regime above 100 GeV, which is observable with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). For this thesis, observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) and the Fornax galaxy cluster with the Cherenkov telescope systems H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS were used to search for γ-ray signals of dark matter annihilations. The work consists of two parts: First, a likelihood-based statistical technique was introduced to combine published results of dSph observations with the different IACTs. The technique also accounts for uncertainties on the ''J factors'', which quantify the dark matter content of the dwarf galaxies. Secondly, H.E.S.S. observations of the Fornax cluster were analyzed. In this case, a collection of dark matter halo models was used for the J factor computation. In addition, possible signal enhancements from halo substructures were considered. None of the searches yielded a significant γ-ray signal. Therefore, the results were used to place upper limits on the thermally averaged dark matter self-annihilation cross-section left angle σν right angle. Different models for the final state of the annihilation process were considered. The cross-section limits range from left angle σν right angle UL∝10-19 cm3s-1 to left angle σν right angle UL∝10-25 cm3s-1 for dark matter particles masses between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Some of the diverse model uncertainties causing this wide range of left angle σν right angle UL values were analyzed.

  19. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function of...

  20. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers and...... interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission is...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  1. The age of the main population of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Solving the "M giant conundrum"

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Ferraro, F R; Monaco, L; Montegriffo, P

    2005-01-01

    We present a statistically decontaminated Color Magnitude Diagram of a 1 deg X 1 deg field in the core of the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. Coupling this CMD with the most recent metallicity distributions obtained from high resolution spectroscopy we derive robust constraints on the mean age of the stellar population that dominates the galaxy (Pop A). Using three different sets of theoretical isochrones in the metallicity range -0.4<= [M/H]<= -0.7 and taking into consideration distance moduli in the range 16.90<= (m-M)_0<= 17.20 we find that the mean age of Pop A is larger than 5 Gyr, and the best-fit value is age = 8.0 +/- 1.5 Gyr. Since Pop A provides the vast majority of the M giants that traces the tidal stream of Sgr dSph all over the sky, our estimate resolves the so called ``M giant conundrum'' (Majewski et al. 2003). The time needed by the M giants that currently populates the Stream to diffuse within the main body of Sgr and to reach the extremes of the tidal tails once torn apart from the par...

  2. Carbon in Red Giants in Globular Clusters and Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Zhang, Andrew J; Deng, Michelle; Cohen, Judith G; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Shetrone, Matthew D; Lee, Young Sun; Rizzi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present carbon abundances of red giants in Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Our sample includes measurements of carbon abundances for 154 giants in the clusters NGC 2419, M68, and M15 and 398 giants in the dSphs Sculptor, Fornax, Ursa Minor, and Draco. This sample doubles the number of dSph stars with measurements of [C/Fe]. The [C/Fe] ratio in the clusters decreases with increasing luminosity above log(L/L_sun) ~= 1.6, which can be explained by deep mixing in evolved giants. The same decrease is observed in dSphs, but the initial [C/Fe] of the dSph giants is not uniform. Stars in dSphs at lower metallicities have larger [C/Fe] ratios. We hypothesize that [C/Fe] (corrected to the initial carbon abundance) declines with increasing [Fe/H] due to the metallicity dependence of the carbon yield of asymptotic giant branch stars and due to the increasing importance of Type Ia supernovae at higher metallicities. We also identified 11 very carbon-rich giants (8 previously known) in...

  3. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART CaII triplet survey

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Irwin, M; Parisi, P; Hill, V; Jablonka, P

    2010-01-01

    We use VLT/FLAMES intermediate resolution (R~6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared CaII triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). Our final sample consists of 174 probable members of Sextans with accurate line-of-sight velocities (+- 2 km/s) and CaT [Fe/H] measurements (+- 0.2 dex). We use the MgI line at 8806.8 \\AA\\, as an empirical discriminator for distinguishing between probable members of the dSph (giant stars) and probable Galactic contaminants (dwarf stars). Sextans shows a similar chemo-dynamical behaviour to other Milky Way dSphs, with its central regions being more metal rich than the outer parts and with the more metal-rich stars displaying colder kinematics than the more metal-poor stars. Hints of a velocity gradient are found along the projected major axis and along an axis at P.A.=191 deg, however a larger and more spatially extended sample may be necessary to p...

  4. A TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY VIEW OF THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF GALAXY. VI. s-PROCESS AND TITANIUM ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS ALONG THE SAGITTARIUS STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of the abundances of the α element titanium (Ti) and s-process elements yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) for 59 candidate M giant members of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) + tidal tail system pre-selected on the basis of position and radial velocity (RV). As expected, the majority of these stars show peculiar abundance patterns compared to those of nominal Milky Way (MW) stars, but as a group, the stars form a coherent picture of chemical enrichment of the Sgr dSph from [Fe/H] = -1.4 to solar abundance. This sample of spectra provides the largest number of Ti, La, and Y abundances yet measured for a dSph, and spans metallicities not typically probed by studies of the other, generally more metal-poor MW satellites. On the other hand, the overall [Ti/Fe], [Y/Fe], [La/Fe], and [La/Y] patterns with [Fe/H] of the Sgr stream plus Sgr core do, for the most part, resemble those seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and other dSphs, only shifted by Δ[Fe/H] ∼ +0.4 from the LMC and by ∼+1 dex from the other dSphs; these relative shifts reflect the faster and/or more efficient chemical evolution of Sgr compared to the other satellites, and show that Sgr has had an enrichment history more like the LMC than the other dSphs. By tracking the evolution of the abundance patterns along the Sgr stream we can follow the time variation of the chemical make-up of dSph stars donated to the Galactic halo by Sgr. This evolution demonstrates that while the bulk of the stars currently in the Sgr dSph is quite unlike those of the Galactic halo, an increasing number of stars farther along the Sgr stream have abundances like MW halo stars, a trend that shows clearly how the Galactic halo could have been contributed by present-day satellite galaxies even if the present chemistry of those satellites is now different from typical halo field stars. Finally, we analyze the chemical abundances of a moving group of M giants

  5. Evolutionary properties of the low-luminosity galaxy population in the NGC5044 Group

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A; Saracco, P; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    With this third paper of a series we present Johnson-Gunn B,g,V,r,i,z multicolour photometry for 79 objects, including a significant fraction of the faintest galaxies around NGC5044, assessing group membership on the basis of apparent morphology and low-resolution optical spectroscopy to estimate redshift for 21 objects. Together, dE's and Im's provide the bulk of the galaxy luminosity function, around M(g)\\sim-18.0, while the S0 and dSph components dominate, respectively, the bright and faint-end tails of the distribution. This special mix places the NGC 5044 group just "midway" between the high-density cosmic aggregation scale typical of galaxy clusters, and the low-density environment of looser galaxy clumps like our Local Group. The bright mass of the 136 member galaxies with available photometry and morphological classification, amounts to a total of 2.3x10^{12}M_sun while current SFR within the group turns to be about or higher than 23M_sun/yr. In this regard, a drift toward bluer integrated colours is ...

  6. A view of the M81 galaxy group via the H-alpha window

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.

    2007-01-01

    We present images for 36 galaxies of the M81 group obtained in the H-alpha line. Estimates of the H-alpha flux and star formation rate, SFR, are avialable now for all the known members of the group with absolute magnitudes down to M_B = -10^m. The character of distribution of the galaxies over three paremeters: M_B, SFR, and total hydrogen mass permits us to draw the following conclusions as to evolution status of the group population. a) Spiral and irregular type galaxies would have time to generate their luminosity (baryon mass) during the cosmological time T_0=13.7 Gyr, but dwarf spheroidal objects are capable of reproducing only ~5% of their observed luminosity. b) S and Im,BCD galaxies possess the supply of gas sufficient to maintain their observed SFRs during only next (1/4 - 1/3)T_0 years, while dIr and dSph populations have the mean gas depletion time about 3 T_0. c) There is indirect evidence that the star formation in Im, BCD and dIr galaxies proceeds in a mode of vigorous burst activity rather than...

  7. Disk and dwarf spheroidal galaxies kinematics from general relativity with infrared renormalization group effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The running of coupling constants is a well known phenomenon within Quantum Field Theory. It is also known that the renormalization group method can be extended to quantum field theory on curved space time. Nonetheless, although we know that the beta function of QED go to zero in the infrared limit fast enough to lead to constant charge at the classical level (in conformity with both the Appelquist-Carazzone theorem and experimental data), no analogous proof exists for General Relativity. Some authors have proposed that the infrared beta function of General Relativity is not trivial, and as such certain small running of the gravitational coupling might take place at astrophysical scales, leading in particular to changes on the role of dark matter in galaxies. We review and extend our contribution to infrared Renormalization Group (RG) effects to General Relativity in the context of galaxies, an approach we call RGGR. We extend our previous results by analyzing a larger sample of galaxies, now also including elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies, besides disk galaxies (both LSB and HSB). We compare our RGGR results to both standard dark matter profiles (NFW, Isothermal, Burkert) and alternative models of gravity (MOND, MSTG), showing that the RGGR results are similar in quality to the best dark matter profiles (the cored ones, e.g., Isothermal and Burkert), while displaying a better fitting to the data than NFW, MOND or MSTG. To the latter, we evaluated both the shape of the rotation curve and the expected stellar mass-to-light ratios. Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are small galaxies believed to be dominated by dark matter, with the highest fraction do dark matter per baryonic matter. These galaxies provide a strong test to any theory that mimics either all or part of the dark matter behavior. In particular, this is the only type of galaxy that MOND seems incapable of fitting the data. (author)

  8. PULSATING VARIABLE STARS IN THE COMA BERENICES DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present B, V, I time-series photometry of the Coma Berenices dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a faint Milky Way (MW) satellite, recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have obtained V, B - V and V, V - I color-magnitude diagrams that reach V ∼ 23.0-23.2 mag showing the galaxy turnoff at V ∼ 21.7 mag, and have performed the first study of the variable star population of this new MW companion. Two RR Lyrae stars (a fundamental-mode, RRab, and a first overtone, RRc, pulsator) and a short period variable with period P = 0.12468 days were identified in the galaxy. The RRab star has a rather long period of P ab = 0.66971 days and is about 0.2 mag brighter than the RRc variable and other nonvariable stars on the galaxy horizontal branch (HB). In the period-amplitude diagram, the RRab variable falls closer to the loci of Oosterhoff type-II systems and evolved fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic globular cluster M3. The average apparent magnitude of the galaxy HB, (V HB) = 18.64 ± 0.04 mag, leads to a distance modulus for the Coma dSph μ0 = 18.13 ± 0.08 mag, corresponding to a distance d = 42+2-1 kpc, by adopting a reddening E(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.015 mag and a metallicity [Fe/H] =-2.53 ± 0.05 dex.

  9. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    2016-06-01

    The high dark matter content and the shallow potential wells of low mass galaxies (10^3 Msun important questions in near field cosmology: why are there so few observed dwarfs compared to the number predicted by simulations? What shuts down star formation in ultra-faint galaxies? Why do dwarfs have inverted age gradients and what does it take to convert a dwarf irregular (dIrrs) into a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy?We to attempt to answer these questions by running ultra-high resolution cosmological FIRE simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We predict that many ultra-faint dwarfs should exist as satellites of more massive isolated Local Group dwarfs. The ultra-faints (Mstar 10 Gyr), having had their star formation shut down by reionization. Additionally, we show that the kinematics and ellipticities of isolated simulated dwarf centrals are consistent with observed dSphs satellites without the need for harassment from a massive host. We further show that most (but not all) observed *isolated* dIrrs in the Local Volume also have dispersion-supported stellar populations, contradicting the previous view that these objects are rotating. Finally, we investigate the stellar age gradients in dwarfs — showing that early mergers and strong feedback can create an inverted gradient, with the older stars occupying larger galactocentric radii.These results offer an interesting direction in testing models that attempt to solve dark matter problems via explosive feedback episodes. Can the same models that create large cores in simulated dwarfs preserve the mild stellar rotation that is seen in a minority of isolated dIrrs? Can the bursty star formation that created a dark matter core also match observed stellar gradients in low mass galaxies? Comparisons between our simulations and observed dwarfs should provide an important benchmark for this question going forward.

  10. Jeans Analysis for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Wave Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Rong; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2016-01-01

    Observations suggest that dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies exhibit large constant-density cores in the centers, which can hardly be explained by dissipationless cold dark matter simulations. Wave dark matter (${\\psi {\\rm DM}}$), characterized by a single parameter, the dark matter particle mass $m_{\\psi}$, predicts a central soliton core in every galaxy arising from quantum pressure against gravity. Here we apply Jeans analysis to the kinematic data of eight classical dSphs so as to constrain $m_{\\psi}$, and obtain $m_{\\psi}=1.18_{-0.24}^{+0.28}\\times10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}$ and $m_{\\psi}=1.79_{-0.33}^{+0.35}\\times10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}~(2\\sigma)$ using the observational data sets of Walker et al. (2007) and Walker et al. (2009b), respectively. We show that the estimate of $m_{\\psi}$ is sensitive to the dSphs kinematic data sets and is robust to various models of stellar density profile. We also consider multiple stellar subpopulations in dSphs and find consistent results. This mass range of $m_{\\psi}$ is in good agre...

  11. The effect of tides on the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Giuseppina; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of the mass distribution and dark-matter (DM) content of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are usually derived under the assumption that the effect of the tidal field of the host galaxy is negligible over the radial extent probed by kinematic data-sets. We assess the implications of this assumption in the specific case of the Fornax dSph by means of N-body simulations of a satellite orbiting around the Milky Way. We consider observationally-motivated orbits and we tailor the initial distributions of the satellite's stars and DM to match, at the end of the simulations, the observed structure and kinematics of Fornax. In all our simulations the present-day observable properties of Fornax are not significantly influenced by tidal effects. The DM component is altered by the interaction with the Galactic field (up to 20% of the DM mass within 1.6 kpc is lost), but the structure and kinematics of the stellar component are only mildly affected even in the more eccentric orbit (more than 99% of the stellar ...

  12. WFPC2 Observations of the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mighell, K J; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Burke, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    We present our analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations in F555W (~V) and F814W (~I) of the central region of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The V versus V-I color-magnitude diagram features a sparsely populated blue horizontal branch, a steep thin red giant branch, and a narrow subgiant branch. The main sequence reaches ~2 magnitudes below the main-sequence turnoff (V_TO ~ 23.27 +- 0.11 mag) of the median stellar population. We compare the fiducial sequence of Ursa Minor with the fiducial sequence of the Galactic globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). The excellent match between Ursa Minor and M92 confirms that the median stellar population of the UMi dSph galaxy is metal poor ([Fe/H]_UMi ~ [Fe/H]_M92 ~ -2.2 dex) and ancient (age_UMi ~ age_M92 ~ 14 Gyr). The B-V reddening and the absorption in V are estimated to be E(B-V) = 0.03 +- 0.01 mag and A_V = 0.09 +- 0.03 mag. A new estimate of the distance modulus of Ursa Minor, (m-M)_0 = 19.18 +- 0.12 mag, ha...

  13. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  14. MULTI-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS FROM MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. IV. ALPHA ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN MILKY WAY SATELLITE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive the star formation histories of eight dwarf spheroidal (dSph) Milky Way satellite galaxies from their alpha element abundance patterns. Nearly 3000 stars from our previously published catalog comprise our data set. The average [α/Fe] ratios for all dSphs follow roughly the same path with increasing [Fe/H]. We do not observe the predicted knees in the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram, corresponding to the metallicity at which Type Ia supernovae begin to explode. Instead, we find that Type Ia supernova ejecta contribute to the abundances of all but the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.5) stars. We have also developed a chemical evolution model that tracks the star formation rate, Types II and Ia supernova explosions, and supernova feedback. Without metal enhancement in the supernova blowout, massive amounts of gas loss define the history of all dSphs except Fornax, the most luminous in our sample. All six of the best-fit model parameters correlate with dSph luminosity but not with velocity dispersion, half-light radius, or Galactocentric distance.

  15. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; Albert, A.; Bechtol, K.; Wood, M.; Strigari, L.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Baldini, L.; Essig, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Anderson, B.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E. D.; Caputo, R.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; de Angelis, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Kuss, M.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Morselli, A.; Ohsugi, T.; Orlando, E.; Persic, M.; Rainò, S.; Sehgal, N.; Spada, F.; Suson, D. J.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Balbinot, E.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Covarrubias, R.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D.; Jeltema, T.; Kent, S.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Luque, E.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J.; Martini, P.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Petravick, D.; Pieres, A.; Plazas, A. A.; Queiroz, A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Williams, P.; Yanny, B.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses ≲ 20 {GeV} annihilating via the b\\bar{b} or τ+τ- channels.

  16. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  17. Chemical composition and constraints on mass loss for globular clusters in dwarf galaxies: WLM and IKN

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S; Forbes, D A; Strader, J

    2014-01-01

    We determine the metallicities for globular clusters (GCs) in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies, using VLT/UVES and Keck/ESI spectroscopy. For the WLM GC we also measure detailed abundance ratios for a number of light, alpha, Fe-peak and n-capture elements. We find low metallicities of [Fe/H]=-2.0 and -2.1 for the WLM GC and the GC IKN-5, respectively. We estimate that 17%-31% of the metal-poor stars in WLM belong to the GC, and IKN-5 may even contain a similar number of metal-poor stars as the whole of the IKN dwarf itself. These high ratios of metal-poor GCs to field stars are in tension with GC formation scenarios that require GCs to have lost a very large fraction of their initial mass. The GCs in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies resemble those in the Fornax dSph by being significantly more metal-poor than a typical halo GC in the Milky Way and other large galaxies. They are also substantially more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars in their parent galaxies. The overall abundance patterns in the WLM G...

  18. The Universal Stellar Mass-Stellar Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cheng, Lucy; Bullock, James S; Gallazzi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same mass-metallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z_* ~ M_*^(0.30 +/- 0.02). The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive as M_* = 10^12 M_sun. Although the average metallicities of dwarf galaxies depend only on stellar mass, the shapes of their metallicity distributions depend on galaxy type. The metallicity distributions of dIrrs resemble simple, leaky box chemical evolution models, whereas dSphs require an additional parameter, such as gas accretion, to explain the shapes of their metallicity distributions. Furthermore, the metallicity distributions of the more luminous dSphs have sharp, metal-rich cut-offs that are consistent with the s...

  19. Satellite accretion in action: a tidally disrupting dwarf spheroidal around the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Romanowsky, Aaron J; Martin, Nicolas F; Morales, Gustavo; Jennings, Zachary G; GaBany, R Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Grebel, Eva K; Schedler, Johannes; Sidonio, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of NGC 253-dw2, a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy candidate undergoing tidal disruption around a nearby spiral galaxy, NGC 253 in the Sculptor group: the first such event identified beyond the Local Group. The dwarf was found using small-aperture amateur telescopes, and followed up with Suprime-Cam on the 8 m Subaru Telescope in order to resolve its brightest stars. Using g- and R_c-band photometry, we detect a red giant branch consistent with an old, metal-poor stellar population at a distance of ~ 3.5 Mpc. From the distribution of likely member stars, we infer a highly elongated shape with a semi-major axis half-light radius of (2 +/- 0.4) kpc. Star counts also yield a luminosity estimate of ~ 2x10^6 L_Sun,V (M_V ~ -10.7). The morphological properties of NGC 253-dw2 mark it as distinct from normal dSphs and imply ongoing disruption at a projected distance of ~ 50 kpc from the main galaxy. Our observations support the hierarchical paradigm wherein massive galaxies continously accrete l...

  20. A unique isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy at D=1.9 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, Dmitry; Sharina, Margarita; Uklein, Roman; Tikhonov, Anton; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kirby, Evan; Terekhova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the unique isolated nearby dSph galaxy KKR25. The galaxy was resolved into stars with HST/WFPC2 including old red giant branch and red clump. We have constructed a model of the resolved stellar populations and measured the star formation rate and metallicity as function of time. The main star formation activity period occurred about 12.6 to 13.7 Gyr ago. These stars are mostly metal-poor, with a mean metallicity [Fe/H]\\sim -1 to -1.6 dex. About 60 per cent of the total stellar mass was formed during this event. There are indications of intermediate age star formation in KKR25 between 1 and 4 Gyr with no significant signs of metal enrichment for these stars. Long-slit spectroscopy was carried out using the Russian 6-m telescope of the integrated starlight and bright individual objects in the galaxy. We have discovered a planetary nebula (PN) in KKR25. This is the first known PN in a dwarf spheroidal galaxy outside the Local Group. We have measured its oxygen ...

  1. The universal stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1200 E. California Blvd., MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cheng, Lucy [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Ave., San Jose, CA 95117 (United States); Gallazzi, Anna, E-mail: ekirby@uci.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same mass-metallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z{sub ∗}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.30±0.02}. The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive as M {sub *} = 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. Although the average metallicities of dwarf galaxies depend only on stellar mass, the shapes of their metallicity distributions depend on galaxy type. The metallicity distributions of dIrrs resemble simple, leaky box chemical evolution models, whereas dSphs require an additional parameter, such as gas accretion, to explain the shapes of their metallicity distributions. Furthermore, the metallicity distributions of the more luminous dSphs have sharp, metal-rich cut-offs that are consistent with the sudden truncation of star formation due to ram pressure stripping.

  2. Les galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  3. Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Muxlow, T W B; Richards, A M S; Thrall, H

    2006-01-01

    Star-formation and the Starburst phenomenon are presented with respect to a number of nearby star-forming galaxies where our understanding of the process can be calibrated. Methods of estimating star-formation rates are discussed together with the role played in the investigation of the process by multi-wavelength studies of a few selected starburst galaxies (especially the well studied galaxy M82). Our understanding of nearby systems allows us to study the star-formation history of the Universe by observing high-redshift starburst galaxies. These begin to dominate the radio source populations at centimetric wavelengths at flux densities below a few 10s of Jy. New very sensitive, high resolution telescopes in the sub-mm and radio will revolutionize our understanding of these distant star-forming systems, some of which may contain embedded AGN.

  4. Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  5. Exploring the Extended Structure of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Ostheimer, J. C.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Patterson, R. J.; Majewski, S. R.; Kunkel, W. E.

    2000-12-01

    We have undertaken a large area (>3 deg2) survey of the Sculptor dSph using the 1-m Swope telescope. The region surveyed includes roughly 1 deg2 centered on the Sculptor core, with the remaining survey area extending to the east and stretching to almost twice the tidal radius (rt=76.5m) to the northeast and southeast. We have imaged in the Washington M,T2 and DDO51 filters, a combination that allows us to discriminate dwarf and giant stars based on the gravity sensitivity of DDO51. The extended structure of Sculptor can be mapped via those stars selected both as giant stars and as having a combination of M and M-T2 consistent with the red giant branch of Sculptor. We also make use of the areal distribution of blue horizontal branch stars, which delineate the extended structure of Sculptor relatively well in this field at high Galactic latitude. Using the HYDRA spectrograph on the Blanco 4-m, we have obtained more than a dozen radial velocities for candidate Sculptor stars that we have identified well outside (1) the core radius, and (2) the radii explored by previous surveys. A preliminary conclusion from our work so far is that Sculptor does not show as extensive a population of extratidal stars as we have identified in similar work we have conducted around the Carina (Majewski et al. 2000, AJ, 119, 760) and Ursa Minor (Palma et al. 2000, BAAS) dwarf galaxies. Indeed, if a lack of significant extended material around Sculptor is borne out by further study over more area and other position angles, then an interesting correlation begins to emerge: Among four galaxies we have surveyed in this way (Car, UMi, Leo II, and Scl), the relative fraction of the dSph's found outside the nominal tidal radius appears to correlate with the published values of M/L. This may suggest that the derived masses for the dwarf spheroidals may be systematically overestimated to a degree set by the amount of dynamical non-equilibrium in the system. This work was supported by NSF, NASA, the

  6. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, J. T.; Team, the SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting o...

  7. Leo P: How Many Metals can a Very Low-Mass, Isolated Galaxy Retain?

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M; Salzer, John J; Rhode, Katherine L; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with an extremely low gas-phase oxygen abundance (3% solar). The isolated nature of Leo P enables a quantitative measurement of metals lost solely due to star formation feedback. We present an inventory of the oxygen atoms in Leo P based on the gas-phase oxygen abundance measurement, the star formation history, and the chemical enrichment evolution derived from resolved stellar populations. The star formation history also provides the total amount of oxygen produced. Overall, Leo P has retained 5 % of its oxygen; 25% of the retained oxygen is in the stars while 75% is in the gas phase. This is considerably lower than the 20-25% calculated for massive galaxies, supporting the trend for less efficient metal retention for lower mass galaxies. The retention fraction is higher than that calculated for other alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) in dSph Milky Way satellites of similar stellar mass and metallicity. Accounting only for the oxygen retained in stars, our results are consistent wi...

  8. Spitzer Space Telescope spectral observations of AGB stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; Bernard-Salas, J; Menzies, J W; Sloan, G C; Whitelock, P A; Wood, P R; Cioni, M -R L; Feast, M W; Lagadec, E; van Loon, J Th; Groenewegen, M A T; Harris, G J

    2007-01-01

    We have observed five carbon-rich AGB stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, using the Infrared Spectrometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The stars were selected from a near-infrared survey of Fornax and include the three reddest stars, with presumably the highest mass-loss rates, in that galaxy. Such carbon stars probably belong to the intermediate-age population (2-8 Gyr old and metallicity of [Fe/H] -1) of Fornax. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate mass-loss rate, as a function of luminosity and metallicity, by comparing AGB stars in several galaxies with different metallicities. The spectra of three stars are fitted with a radiative transfer model. We find that mass-loss rates of these three stars are 4-7x10^-6 Msun yr-1. The other two stars have mass-loss rates below 1.3x10^-6 Msun yr-1. We find no evidence that these rates depend on metallicity, although we do suggest that the gas-to-dust ratio could be higher than at solar metallicity, in the range 240 to 800. The C2H...

  9. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.;

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  10. Dwarf Cepheids in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mateo, M; Nemec, J; Mateo, Mario; Hurley-Keller, Denise; Nemec, James

    1998-01-01

    We have discovered 20 dwarf Cepheids (DC) in the Carina dSph galaxy from the analysis of individual CCD images obtained for a deep photometric study of the system. These short-period pulsating variable stars are by far the most distant (~100 kpc) and faintest (V ~ 23.0) DCs known. The Carina DCs obey a well-defined period-luminosity relation, allowing us to readily distinguish between overtone and fundamental pulsators in nearly every case. Unlike RR Lyr stars, the pulsation mode turns out to be uncorrelated with light-curve shape, nor do the overtone pulsators tend towards shorter periods compared to the fundamental pulsators. Using the period-luminosity (PL) relations from Nemec et al. (1994 AJ, 108, 222) and McNamara (1995, AJ, 109, 1751), we derive (m-M)_0 = 20.06 +/- 0.12, for E(B-V) = 0.025 and [Fe/H] = -2.0, in good agreement with recent, independent estimates of the distance/reddening of Carina. The error reflects the uncertainties in the DC distance scale, and in the metallicity and reddening of Cari...

  11. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J T

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  12. Galaxies at High Redshifts

    OpenAIRE

    Yahil, A.; Lanzetta, K. M.; Fernandez-Soto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Several conclusions have been reached over the last few years concerning high-redshift galaxies: (1) The excess of faint blue galaxies is due to dwarf galaxies. (2) Star formation peaks at redshifts z ~1-2. (3) It appears to occur piecemeal in any given galaxy and there is no evidence for starbursting throughout a large ~10 kpc galaxy. (4) There is significant and sharp diminution in the number of L* spiral galaxies at redshifts 1

  13. The metal-poor knee in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Lanfranchi, Gustavo A. [Núcleo de Astrofísica Teórica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, R. Galvão Bueno 868, Liberdade, 01506-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boeche, Corrado [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Walker, Matthew [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gilmore, Gerard, E-mail: ben.hendricks@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-20

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ∼ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ –2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ –0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined 'knee' caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ –1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ∼10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general.

  14. The metal-poor knee in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ∼ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ –2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ –0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined 'knee' caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ –1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ∼10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general.

  15. Elliptical Galaxy Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, David

    1998-01-01

    A review of elliptical galaxy dynamics, with a focus on nonintegrable models. Topics covered include torus construction; modelling axisymmetric galaxies; triaxiality; collisionless relaxation; and collective instabilities.

  16. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Tolstoy, E; Venn, K A; Shetrone, M D; Irwin, M J; de Boer, T J L; Starkenburg, E; Salvadori, S

    2011-01-01

    The ages of individual Red Giant Branch stars (RGB) can range from 1 Gyr old to the age of the Universe, and it is believed that the abundances of most chemical elements in their photospheres remain unchanged with time (those that are not affected by the 1st dredge-up). This means that they trace the ISM in the galaxy at the time the star formed, and hence the chemical enrichment history of the galaxy. CMD analysis has shown the Carina dwarf spheroidal (dSph) to have had an unusually episodic star formation history (SFH) which is expected to be reflected in the abundances of different chemical elements. We use the VLT-FLAMES spectrograph in HR mode (R~20000) to measure the abundances of several chemical elements in a sample of 35 RGB stars in Carina. We also combine these abundances with photometry to derive age estimates for these stars. This allows us to determine which of two distinct star formation (SF) episodes the stars in our sample belong to, and thus to define the relationship between SF and chemical...

  17. Can we measure the slopes of density profiles in dwarf spheroidal galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczyk, Klaudia; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Using collisionless N-body simulations of dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) we construct realistic models of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. The dwarfs are initially composed of stellar disks embedded in dark matter haloes with different inner density slopes and are placed on an eccentric orbit typical for MW subhaloes. After a few Gyr of evolution the stellar component is triaxial as a result of bar instability induced by tidal forces. Observing the simulated dwarfs along three principal axes of the stellar component we create mock data sets and determine the their half-light radii and line-of-sight velocity dispersions. Using the estimator proposed by Wolf et al. we calculate masses within half-light radii. The masses obtained this way are over(under)estimated by up to a factor of two when the line of sight is along the longest (shortest) axis of the stellar component. We then divide the initial stellar distribution into an inner and outer population and trace their evolution i...

  18. An Empirical Model for Halo Evolution and Global Gas Dynamics of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zhen; Jing, Y P

    2015-01-01

    We present an empirical model for the halo evolution and global gas dynamics of Fornax, the brightest Milky Way (MW) dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). Assuming a global star formation rate psi(t)=lambda_*[M_g(t)/M_sun]^alpha consistent with observations of star formation in nearby galaxies and using the data on Fornax's psi(t), we derive the evolution of the total mass M_g(t) for cold gas in Fornax's star-forming disk and the rate Delta F(t) of net gas flow to or from the disk. We identify the onset of the transition in Delta F(t) from a net inflow to a net outflow as the time t_sat at which the Fornax halo became an MW satellite and estimate the evolution of its total mass M_h(t) at t

  19. Galactic Tides and the Shape and Orientation of Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Christopher; Navarro, Julio F; McConnachie, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    We use cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the tidal effects of a dark matter halo on the shape and orientation of its substructure. Although tides are often assumed to enhance asphericity and to stretch subhaloes tangentially, these effects are short lived: as in earlier work, we find that subhaloes affected by tides become substantially more spherical and show a strong radial alignment toward the centre of the host halo. These results, combined with a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, may be used to assess the effect of Galactic tides on the observed population of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. If, as the model suggests, the relatively low dark matter content of luminous dSphs such as Fornax and Leo I is due to tidal stripping, then their gravitational potential must be substantially more spherical than that of more heavily dark matter-dominated systems such as Draco or Carina. The model also predicts a tidally-induced statis...

  20. The metal-poor Knee in the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A; Boeche, Corrado; Walker, Matthew; Johnson, Christian I; Penarrubia, Jorge; Gilmore, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We present alpha-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), obtained with VLT/GIRAFFE (R~16,000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor stars in our sample, we are able to follow the alpha-element evolution from [Fe/H]=-2.5 continuously to [Fe/H]=-0.7 dex. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, alpha-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [alpha/Fe] values due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an alpha-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined "knee", caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [alpha/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H]=-1.9 and therefore significantly more metal-poor than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value ...

  1. The Araucaria Project: The distance to the Carina Dwarf Galaxy from infrared photometry of RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Karczmarek, P; Gieren, W; Suchomska, K; Konorski, P; Górski, M; Pilecki, B; Graczyk, D; Wielgórski, P

    2015-01-01

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the $J$- and $K$-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relation for RR Lyrae stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 $\\pm$ 0.017 (statistical) $\\pm$ 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of Red Clump stars (20.165 $\\pm$ 0.015) and Tip of Red Giant Branch (20.09 $\\pm$ 0.03 $\\pm$ 0.12 mag in $J$-band, 20.14 $\\pm$ 0.04 $\\pm$ 0.14 mag in $K$-band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The near-infrared RR Lyrae method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5 percent level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids.

  2. Fundamental properties of the new dwarf galaxy And VI - alias "Pegasus Dwarf" - another companion of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, U; Greggio, L; Mehlert, D; Hopp, Ulrich; Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Greggio, Laura; Mehlert, Dorte

    1998-01-01

    We present medium deep CCD imaging in B, V, and I of the Pegasus Dwarf galaxy (And VI) which was recently found by Karachentsev & Karachentseva (1998), and independently also by Armandroff et al. (1999). The Calar Alto 2.2m images show a low surface brightness galaxy. Its structure resembles that of the other known dSph companions of M31 And I, II, III, and V. The brightest stars are resolved in all three colors. Color-magnitude diagrams in either B-V or V-I show the tip of the red giant branch which allows us to estimate a true distance modulus of $24.5 \\pm 0.2$. The color-magnitude diagrams and the structure show no evidence for recent star formation, thus, a classification as spheroidal dwarf galaxy with a rather old population seems appropriate. The total absolute magnitude of this dwarf is $M_{V,0} = -10.4\\pm0.2$.

  3. Evolution of Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the galaxy correlation function does not evolve in proportion with the correlation function of the underlying mass distribution. Earliest galaxies cluster very strongly and the amplitude of the galaxy correlation function decreases from this large value. This continues till the average peaks have collapsed, after which, the galaxy correlation function does not evolve very strongly.

  4. Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  5. Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Tully, R Brent

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10^12 Msun are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosi...

  6. Galaxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Tully, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  7. The Evolution of Dwarf Galaxy Satellites with Different Dark Matter Density Profiles in the ErisMod Simulations. I. The Early Infalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Mayer, Lucio; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We present the first simulations of tidal stirring of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group carried out in a fully cosmological context. We use the ErisDARK cosmological simulation of a Milky Way (MW)-sized galaxy to identify some of the most massive subhalos (Mvir > 108 M⊙) that fall into the main host before z = 2. Subhalos are replaced before infall with extremely high-resolution models of dwarf galaxies comprising a faint stellar disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The set of models contains cuspy halos as well as halos with “cored” profiles (with the cusp coefficient γ = 0.6) consistent with recent results of hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. The simulations are then run to z = 0 with as many as 54 million particles and resolutions as small as ∼4 pc using the new parallel N-body code ChaNGa. The stellar components of all satellites are significantly affected by tidal stirring, losing stellar mass, and undergoing a morphological transformation toward a pressure supported spheroidal system. However, while some remnants with cuspy halos maintain significant rotational flattening and disk-like features, all the shallow halo models achieve vrot/σ⋆ < 0.5 and round shapes typical of dSph satellites of the MW and M31. Mass loss is also enhanced in the latter, and remnants can reach luminosities and velocity dispersions as low as those of ultra-faint dwarfs.

  8. The Evolution of Dwarf Galaxy Satellites with Different Dark Matter Density Profiles in the ErisMod Simulations. I. The Early Infalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Mayer, Lucio; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We present the first simulations of tidal stirring of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group carried out in a fully cosmological context. We use the ErisDARK cosmological simulation of a Milky Way (MW)-sized galaxy to identify some of the most massive subhalos (Mvir > 108 M⊙) that fall into the main host before z = 2. Subhalos are replaced before infall with extremely high-resolution models of dwarf galaxies comprising a faint stellar disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The set of models contains cuspy halos as well as halos with “cored” profiles (with the cusp coefficient γ = 0.6) consistent with recent results of hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. The simulations are then run to z = 0 with as many as 54 million particles and resolutions as small as ∼4 pc using the new parallel N-body code ChaNGa. The stellar components of all satellites are significantly affected by tidal stirring, losing stellar mass, and undergoing a morphological transformation toward a pressure supported spheroidal system. However, while some remnants with cuspy halos maintain significant rotational flattening and disk-like features, all the shallow halo models achieve vrot/σ⋆ round shapes typical of dSph satellites of the MW and M31. Mass loss is also enhanced in the latter, and remnants can reach luminosities and velocity dispersions as low as those of ultra-faint dwarfs.

  9. WFPC2 Observations of the URSA Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Burke, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    We present our analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations in F555W (approximately V) and F814W (approximately I) of the central region of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The V versus V - I color-magnitude diagram features a sparsely populated blue horizontal branch, a steep thin red giant branch, and a narrow subgiant branch. The main sequence reaches approximately 2 magnitudes below the main-sequence turnoff (V(sup UMi, sub TO) approximately equals 23.27 +/- 0.11 mag) of the median stellar population. We compare the fiducial sequence of the Galactic globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). The excellent match between Ursa Minor and M92 confirms that the median stellar population of the UMi dSph galaxy is metal poor ([Fe/H](sub UMi) approximately equals [Fe/H](sub M92) approximately equals -2.2 dex) and ancient (age(sub UMi)approximately equalsage(sub M92) approximately equals 14 Gyr). The B - V reddening and the absorption in V are estimated to be E(B - V) = 0.03 +/- 0.01 mag and A(sup UMi, sub V) = 0.09 +/- 0.03 mag. A new estimate of the distance modulus of Ursa Minor, (m - M)(sup UMi, sub 0) = 19.18 +/- 0.12 mag, has been derived based on fiducial-sequence fitting M92 [DELTA.V(sub UMi - M92) = 4.60 +/- 0.03 mag and DELTA(V - I)(sub UMi - M92) = 0.010 +/- 0.005 mag] and the adoption of the apparent V distance modulus for M92 of (m - M)(sup M92, sub V) = 14.67 +/- 0.08 mag (Pont et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 87). The Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy is then at a distance of 69 +/- 4 kpc from the Sun. These HST observations indicate that Ursa Minor has had a very simple star formation history consisting mainly of a single major burst of star formation about 14 Gyr ago which lasted approximately ancient. If the ancient Galactic globular clusters, like M92, formed concurrently with the early formation of the Milky Way galaxy itself, then the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal is probably as old as the Milky Way.

  10. Shaping galaxy evolution with galaxy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5Hubble at 0.2galaxies to a matched sample of inactive, control galaxies shows that there is no statistically significant excess of bars in active hosts. Our result shows that bars are not the primary fueling mechanism of supermassive black hole growth.

  11. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  12. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  13. Galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing as a sensitive probe of galaxy evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saghiha, Hananeh; Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Peter; Simon, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational lensing effect provides various ways to study the mass environment of galaxies. We investigate how galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution. We consider two semi-analytic galaxy formation models based on the Millennium Run N-body simulation: the Durham model by Bower et al. (2006) and the Garching model by Guo et al. (2011). We generate mock lensing observations for the two models, and then employ Fast Fourier Transform meth...

  14. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) blended spectra catalogue: strong galaxy-galaxy lens and occulting galaxy pair candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Holwerda, B.W.; Baldry, I. K.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Conselice, C; Driver, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jones, D.H.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Loveday, J; Meyer, M J

    2015-01-01

    We present the catalogue of blended galaxy spectra from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. These are cases where light from two galaxies are significantly detected in a single GAMA fibre. Galaxy pairs identified from their blended spectrum fall into two principal classes: they are either strong lenses, a passive galaxy lensing an emission-line galaxy; or occulting galaxies, serendipitous overlaps of two galaxies, of any type. Blended spectra can thus be used to reliably identify stro...

  15. A Zoo of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org); starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  16. Star Formation in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  17. Galaxy International Mall Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An agreement between Galaxy International Mall (hereinafter referred to as Galaxy) and its three main partners was signed on January 12, 2011, in the city of Tianjin. The partners are Lotte Department

  18. Polar-bulge galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnikov, V P; Mosenkov, A V; Sotnikova, N Ya; Bizyaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    Based on SDSS data, we have selected a sample of nine edge-on spiral galaxies with bulges whose major axes show a high inclination to the disk plane. Such objects are called polar-bulge galaxies. They are similar in their morphology to polar-ring galaxies, but the central objects in them have small size and low luminosity. We have performed a photometric analysis of the galaxies in the g and r bands and determined the main characteristics of their bulges and disks. We show that the disks of such galaxies are typical for the disks of spiral galaxies of late morphological types. The integrated characteristics of their bulges are similar to the parameters of normal bulges. The stellar disks of polar-bulge galaxies often show large-scale warps, which can be explained by their interaction with neighboring galaxies or external accretion from outside.

  19. Galaxies at High Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Yahil, A; Fernández-Soto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several conclusions have been reached over the last few years concerning high-redshift galaxies: (1) The excess of faint blue galaxies is due to dwarf galaxies. (2) Star formation peaks at redshifts z ~1-2. (3) It appears to occur piecemeal in any given galaxy and there is no evidence for starbursting throughout a large ~10 kpc galaxy. (4) There is significant and sharp diminution in the number of L* spiral galaxies at redshifts 1galaxies at redshifts 2.5galaxies in universes with larger volumes per unit redshift, i.e., open or lambda models, which have lower deceleration parameters.

  20. THE DEARTH OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN GALACTIC DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spekkens, Kristine; Urbancic, Natasha [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Mason, Brian S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Willman, Beth [Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Aguirre, James E., E-mail: kristine.spekkens@rmc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We present new upper limits on the neutral hydrogen (H I) content within the stellar half-light ellipses of 15 Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), derived from pointed observations with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as Arecibo L-band Fast ALFA survey and Galactic All-Sky Survey data. All of the limits M{sub H} {sub I}{sup lim} are more stringent than previously reported values, and those from the GBT improve upon constraints in the literature by a median factor of 23. Normalizing by V-band luminosity L{sub V} and dynamical mass M {sub dyn}, we find M{sub H} {sub I}{sup lim}/L{sub V}∼10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙}/L{sub ⊙} and M{sub H} {sub I}{sup lim}/M{sub dyn}∼5×10{sup −5}, irrespective of location in the Galactic halo. Comparing these relative H I contents to those of the Local Group and nearby neighbor dwarfs compiled by McConnachie, we find that the Galactic dSphs are extremely gas-poor. Our H I upper limits therefore provide the clearest picture yet of the environmental dependence of the H I content in Local Volume dwarfs. If ram pressure stripping explains the dearth of H I in these systems, then orbits in a relatively massive Milky Way are favored for the outer halo dSph Leo I, while Leo II and Canes Venatici I have had a pericentric passage in the past. For Draco and Ursa Minor, the interstellar medium mass that should accumulate through stellar mass loss in between pericentric passages exceeds M{sub H} {sub I}{sup lim} by a factor of ∼30. In Ursa Minor, this implies that either this material is not in the atomic phase, or that another mechanism clears the recycled gas on shorter timescales.

  1. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALPHA ELEMENTS IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies contain some of the oldest, most metal-poor stars in the universe. We present [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and mean [α/Fe] abundance ratios for 61 individual red giant branch stars across eight UFDs. This is the largest sample of alpha abundances published to date in galaxies with absolute magnitudes MV > –8, including the first measurements for Segue 1, Canes Venatici II, Ursa Major I, and Leo T. Abundances were determined via medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and spectral synthesis. The sample spans the metallicity range –3.4 <[Fe/H] < –1.1. With the possible exception of Segue 1 and Ursa Major II, the individual UFDs show on average lower [α/Fe] at higher metallicities, consistent with enrichment from Type Ia supernovae. Thus, even the faintest galaxies have undergone at least a limited level of chemical self-enrichment. Together with recent photometric studies, this suggests that star formation in the UFDs was not a single burst, but instead lasted at least as much as the minimum time delay of the onset of Type Ia supernovae (∼100 Myr) and less than ∼2 Gyr. We further show that the combined population of UFDs has an [α/Fe] abundance pattern that is inconsistent with a flat, Galactic halo-like alpha abundance trend, and is also qualitatively different from that of the more luminous CVn I dSph, which does show a hint of a plateau at very low [Fe/H].

  2. The dynamical and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies with GEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revaz, Y.; Jablonka, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the fully parallel chemo-dynamical Tree/SPH code GEAR, which allows us to perform high resolution simulations with detailed chemical diagnostics. Starting from the public version of Gadget-2, we included the complex treatment of the baryon physics: gas cooling, star formation law, chemical evolution, and supernova feedback. We qualified the performances of GEAR in the case of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) galaxies. Our code GEAR conserves the total energy budget of the systems to better than 5% over 14 Gyr and provides an excellent convergence of the results with numerical resolution. We showed that models of dSphs in a static Euclidean space, where the expansion of the universe is neglected are valid. In addition, we tackled some existing open questions in the field, such as the stellar mass fraction of dSphs and its link to the predicted dark matter halo mass function, the effect of supernova feedback, the spatial distribution of the stellar populations, and the origin of the diversity in star formation histories and chemical abundance patterns. Strong supernova-driven winds seem incompatible with the observed metallicities and luminosities. Despite newly formed stars being preferentially found in the galaxy central parts, turbulent motions in the gas can quickly erase any metallicity gradient. The diversity in properties of dSph are related to a range of total masses, as well as a range of dispersion in the central densities, which is also seen in the halos emerging from a ΛCDM cosmogony. Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Musings on galaxy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification schemes and their utility are discussed with a number of examples, particularly for cD galaxies. Data suggest that primordial turbulence rather than tidal torques is responsible for most of the presently observed angular momentum of galaxies. Finally, some of the limitations on present-day schemes for galaxy classification are pointed out. 54 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  4. Galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing: Third-order correlations between the galaxy and mass distributions in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Peter; Watts, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) measures the 2-point cross-correlation between galaxies and mass in the Universe. In this work we seek to generalise this effect by considering the third-order correlations between galaxies and mass: galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing. Third-order correlations in the cosmic shear field have recently been reported in the VIRMOS-DESCART and CTIO surveys. Such data should also be ideal for measuring galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing. Indeed, the effects of these higher-order cor...

  5. Mining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in Search of Extremely α-poor Stars in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Q. F.; Zhao, G.

    2014-07-01

    As we know, the majority of metal-poor Galactic halo stars appear to have chemical abundances that were enhanced by α-elements (e.g., O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti) during the early stage of the Galaxy. Observed metal-poor halo stars preserved this pattern by exhibiting abundance ratios [α/Fe] ~+0.4. A few striking exceptions that show severe departures from the general enhanced α-element chemical abundance trends of the halo have been discovered in recent years. They possess relatively low [α/Fe] compared to other comparable-metallicity stars, with abundance ratios over 0.5 dex lower. These stars may have a different chemical enrichment history from the majority of the halo. Similarly, low-α abundances are also displayed by satellite dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. We present a method to select extremely α-poor (EAP) stars from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. The method consists of a two-step approach. In the first step, we select suspected metal-poor ([Fe/H] 4.0, +0.5], 14 candidate stars were identified. Three of these stars are found to have already been confirmed by other research.

  6. Tracing the tidal streams of the Sagittarius dSph, and halo Milky Way features, with carbon-rich long-period variables

    CERN Document Server

    Huxor, Avon

    2015-01-01

    We assemble 121 spectroscopically-confirmed halo carbon stars, drawn from the literature, exhibiting measurable variability in the Catalina Surveys. We present their periods and amplitudes, which are used to estimate distances from period-luminosity relationships. The location of the carbon stars - and their velocities when available - allow us to trace the streams of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy. These are compared to a canonical numerical simulation of the accretion of Sgr. We find that the data match this model well for heliocentric distances of 15-50 kpc, except for a virtual lack of carbon stars in the trailing arm just north of the Galactic Plane, and there is only tentative evidence of the leading arm south of the Plane. The majority of the sample can be attributed to the Sgr accretion. We also find groups of carbon stars which are not part of Sgr; most of which are associated with known halo substructures. A few have no obvious attribution and may indicate new substructure. We find ev...

  7. Does a Galaxy Fly?

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Y

    2006-01-01

    Disk galaxies in a cluster of galaxies are moving in hot gas filling the cluster. Generally, they are moving at transonic or supersonic velocities. If ram-pressure stripping is insufficient to destroy the gas disk, the galaxies should be affected by the wind of the surrounding hot gas similar to an airfoil. In this paper, I consider whether the aerodynamic interaction can be strong enough to force a disk galaxy to deviate from the orbit that it would have been in. I find that while the lift force is not effective, the drag force could affect face-on disk galaxies in poor clusters on long timescales.

  8. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  9. Morphological Evolution of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Center for Relativity, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We simulate the growth of large-scale structure for three different cosmological models, an Einstein{endash}de Sitter model (density parameter {Omega}{sub 0} = 1), an open model ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2), and a flat model with nonzero cosmological constant ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2, cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 0.8), using a cosmological {ital N}-body code (particle-particle/particle-mesh) with 64{sup 3} dark matter particles in a comoving cubic volume of present comoving size 128 Mpc. The calculations start at {ital z} = 24 and end at {ital z} = 0. We use the results of these simulations to generate distributions of galaxies at the present ({ital z} = 0), as follows: Using a Monte Carlo method based on the present distribution of dark matter, we located {approximately}40,000 galaxies in the computational volume. We then ascribe to each galaxy a morphological type based on the local number density of galaxies in order to reproduce the observed morphology-density relation. The resulting galaxy distributions are similar to the observed ones, with most ellipticals concentrated in the densest regions, and most spirals concentrated in low-density regions. By {open_quotes}tying{close_quotes} each galaxy to its nearest dark matter particle, we can trace the trajectory of that galaxy back in time by simply looking at the location of that dark matter particle at earlier time slices provided by the {ital N}-body code. This enables us to reconstruct the distribution of galaxies at high redshift and the trajectory of each galaxy from its formation epoch to the present. We use these galaxy distributions to investigate the problem of morphological evolution. Our goal is to determine whether the morphological type of galaxies is determined primarily by the initial conditions in which these galaxies form or by evolutionary processes (such as mergers or tidal stripping) occurring after the galaxies have formed and eventually altering their morphology, or a combination of both

  10. Supernovae in paired galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of host and neighbor galaxies in pairs. The orientation of SNe with respect to the preferred direction toward neighbor galaxy is found to be isotropic and independent of kinematical properties of the galaxy pair.

  11. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  12. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  13. The Dynamical and Chemical Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with GEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Revaz, Yves

    2011-01-01

    We present a fully parallel chemo-dynamical Tree/SPH code, GEAR, which allows to perform high resolution simulations with detailed chemical diagnostics. Starting from the public version of Gadget-2, we included the complex treatment of the baryon physics: gas cooling, star formation law, chemical evolution and supernovae feedback. We qualified the performances of GEAR with the case of dSph galaxies. GEAR conserves the total energy budget of the systems to better than 5% over 14Gyr and proved excellent convergence of the results with numerical resolution. We showed that models of dSphs in a static Euclidean space, where the expansion of the universe is neglected are valid. In addition, we tackled some of the existing open questions in the field, like the stellar mass fraction of dSphs and its link with the predicted dark matter halo mass function, the effect of the supernova feedback, the spatial distribution of the stellar populations, and the origin of the diversity in star formation histories and chemical a...

  14. Dark matter annihilation and decay in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The classical and ultrafaint dSphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnivard, V; Daniel, M; Funk, S; Geringer-Sameth, A; Hinton, J A; Maurin, D; Read, J I; Sarkar, S; Walker, M G; Wilkinson, M I

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are prime targets for present and future gamma-ray telescopes hunting for indirect signals of particle dark matter. The interpretation of the data requires careful assessment of their dark matter content in order to derive robust constraints on candidate relic particles. Here, we use an optimised spherical Jeans analysis to reconstruct the `astrophysical factor' for both annihilating and decaying dark matter in 21 known dSphs. Improvements with respect to previous works are: (i) the use of more flexible luminosity and anisotropy profiles to minimise biases, (ii) the use of weak priors tailored on extensive sets of contamination-free mock data to improve the confidence intervals, (iii) systematic cross-checks of binned and unbinned analyses on mock and real data, and (iv) the use of mock data including stellar contamination to test the impact on reconstructed signals. Our analysis provides updated values for the dark matter content of 8 `classical' and 13 `ultrafaint' dSphs, wi...

  15. The ISLANDS project I: Andromeda XVI, An Extremely Low Mass Galaxy not Quenched by Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Monelli, Matteo; Bernard, Edouard J; Gallart, Carme; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R; Dolphin, Andrew E; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Cole, Andrew A; Martin, Nicolas F; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Mayer, Lucio; McConnachie, Alan; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Navarro, Julio F

    2016-01-01

    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of HST time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its life-time star formation history, the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ~6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus, is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the star formation history as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the star formation history: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than i...

  16. Prospects for annihilating Dark Matter towards Milky Way's dwarf galaxies by the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lefranc, Valentin; Mamon, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the large Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) sensitivity to dark matter (DM) annihilation in several primary channels, over a broad range of DM masses. These sensitivities are estimated when CTA is pointed towards a large sample of Milky Way's dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) with promising $J$-factors and small statistical uncertainties. This analysis neglects systematic uncertainties, which we estimate at the level of at least 1 dex. We also present sensitivities on the annihilation cross section from a combined analysis of 4 dSphs. We assess the CTA sensitivity by: $i)$ using, for each dSph, recent determination of the $J$-factor and its statistical error; $ii)$ considering the most up-to-date cosmic ray background; and $iii)$ applying a joint spatial and spectral analysis in the likelihood. We find that a joint spectral and spatial analysis improves the CTA sensitivity, in particular for primary channels with sharp features in the $\\gamma$-ray energy spectrum and for dSphs with steep $J$-factor pr...

  17. Accurate Stellar Kinematics at Faint Magnitudes: application to the Bootes~I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, Sergey E; Walker, M G; Belokurov, V; Evans, N Wyn; Fellhauer, M; Gieren, W; Geisler, D; Monaco, L; Norris, J E; Okamoto, S; Penarrubia, J; Wilkinson, M; Wyse, R F G; Zucker, D B

    2011-01-01

    We develop, implement and characterise an enhanced data reduction approach which delivers precise, accurate, radial velocities from moderate resolution spectroscopy with the fibre-fed VLT/FLAMES+GIRAFFE facility. This facility, with appropriate care, delivers radial velocities adequate to resolve the intrinsic velocity dispersions of the very faint dSph dwarf galaxies. Importantly, repeated measurements let us reliably calibrate our individual velocity errors ($0.2 \\leq \\delta_V\\leq 5$ km s$^{-1}$) and directly detect stars with variable radial velocities. We show, by application to the Bootes-1 dwarf spheroidal, that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of this system is significantly below 6.5\\,km/s reported by previous studies. Our data favor a two-population model of Bootes-1, consisting of a majority `cold' stellar component, with velocity dispersion $2.4^{+0.9}_{-0.5}$\\,km/s, and a minority `hot' stellar component, with velocity dispersion $\\sim 9$\\,km/s, although we can not completely rule out a single co...

  18. Galaxy Clustering & Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing: A Promising Union to Constrain Cosmological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciato, Marcello; Bosch, Frank C. van den; More, Surhud; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Yang, Xiaohu

    2008-01-01

    Galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing probe the connection between galaxies and their dark matter haloes in complementary ways. On one hand, the halo occupation statistics inferred from the observed clustering properties of galaxies are degenerate with the adopted cosmology. Consequently, different cosmologies imply different mass-to-light ratios for dark matter haloes. On the other hand, galaxy-galaxy lensing yields direct constraints on the actual mass-to-light ratios and it can be us...

  19. The PDS starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Coziol, R; Quast, G; Contini, T; Davoust, E

    1998-01-01

    (Abridged) We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey (PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from the IRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or high quality at 12, 25 and 60 $\\mu$m and spectral indices in the ranges $-3.00 \\leq criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are a mixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. The starburst galaxies show an excess of FIR luminosity and their IRAS colors are significantly different from those of Seyfert galaxies -- 99% of the starburst galaxies in our sample have a spectral index $\\alpha(60,25) -2.5$. This color cut--off also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies: the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late--type spirals (Sb and later), while the starbursts are more numerous among early--type spirals (earlier than Sbc). No difference is found between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected on the basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxie...

  20. Carbon in Red Giants in Globular Clusters and Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guo, Michelle; Zhang, Andrew J.; Deng, Michelle; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Lee, Young Sun; Rizzi, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We present carbon abundances of red giants in Milky Way (MW) globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Our sample includes measurements of carbon abundances for 154 giants in the clusters NGC 2419, M68, and M15 and 398 giants in the dSphs Sculptor, Fornax, Ursa Minor, and Draco. This sample doubles the number of dSph stars with measurements of [C/Fe]. The [C/Fe] ratio in the clusters decreases with increasing luminosity above log (L/{{L}})≃ 1.6, which can be explained by deep mixing in evolved giants. The same decrease is observed in dSphs, but the initial [C/Fe] of the dSph giants is not uniform. Stars in dSphs at lower metallicities have larger [C/Fe] ratios. We hypothesize that [C/Fe] (corrected to the initial carbon abundance) declines with increasing [Fe/H] due to the metallicity dependence of the carbon yield of asymptotic giant branch stars and due to the increasing importance of SNe Ia at higher metallicities. We also identified 11 very carbon-rich giants (eight previously known) in three dSphs. However, our selection biases preclude a detailed comparison to the carbon-enhanced fraction of the MW stellar halo. Nonetheless, the stars with [C/Fe]\\lt +1 in dSphs follow a different [C/Fe] track with [Fe/H] than the halo stars. Specifically, [C/Fe] in dSphs begins to decline at lower [Fe/H] than in the halo. The difference in the metallicity of the [C/Fe] “knee” adds to the evidence from [α/Fe] distributions that the progenitors of the halo had a shorter timescale for chemical enrichment than the surviving dSphs. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. BOO-1137-AN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY BOOeTES I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution (R ∼ 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the 'ultra-faint' dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Booetes I, absolute magnitude MV ∼ -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Booetes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is 'normal' with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] ∼<-3.0. The α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by Δ[X/Fe] ∼ 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that Δ[α/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability ∼0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the α-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both.

  2. Shaping Galaxy Evolution with Galaxy Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis...

  3. Galaxy harassment and the evolution of clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, B; Lake, G; Dressler, A; Oemler, A E; Moore, Ben; Katz, Neal; Lake, George; Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus

    1995-01-01

    Disturbed spiral galaxies with high rates of star formation pervaded clusters of galaxies just a few billion years ago, but nearby clusters exclude spirals in favor of ellipticals. ``Galaxy harassment" (frequent high speed galaxy encounters) drives the morphological transformation of galaxies in clusters, provides fuel for quasars in subluminous hosts and leaves detectable debris arcs. Simulated images of harassed galaxies are strikingly similar to the distorted spirals in clusters at z \\sim 0.4 observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  4. Quantitative analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, P J; Schneider, Peter; Rix, Hans Walter

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we explore a quantitative and efficient method to constrain the halo properties of distant galaxy populations through ``galaxy--galaxy" lensing and show that the mean masses and sizes of halos can be estimated accurately, without excessive data requirements. Specifically, we propose a maximum-likelihood analysis which takes full account of the actual image ellipticities, positions and apparent magnitudes. We apply it to simulated observations, using the same model for the lensing galaxy population as in BBS, where the galaxy halos are described by isothermal spheres with velocity dispersion \\sigma, truncated at a radius s. Both parameters are assumed to scale with the luminosity of the galaxy. The best fitting values are then determined with the maximum-likelihood analysis. We explore two different observing strategies, (a) taking deep images (e.g., with HST) on small fields, and (b) using shallower images on larger fields. We find that \\sigma_* can be determined to \\lesssim10\\% accuracy if a sa...

  5. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  6. Quasar-Galaxy and Galaxy-Galaxy Cross-Correlations: Model Predictions with Realistic Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Scranton, Ryan; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2003-01-01

    Several measurements of QSO-galaxy correlations have reported signals much larger than predictions of magnification by large-scale structure. We find that the expected signal depends stronly on the properties of the foreground galaxy population. On arcminute scales it can be either larger or smaller by a factor of two for different galaxy types in comparison with a linearly biased version of the mass distribution. Thus the resolution of some of the excess measurements may lie in examining the...

  7. CFHTLenS: higher order galaxy-mass correlations probed by galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, P.; Erben, T.; Schneider, P.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kitching, T. D.; Mellier, Y; Miller, L; van Waerbeke, L.; Bonnett, C.; Coupon, J.; Fu, L.; Hudson, M. J.; Kuijken, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first direct measurement of the galaxy–matter bispectrum as a function of galaxy luminosity, stellar mass and type of spectral energy distribution (SED). Our analysis uses a galaxy–galaxy–galaxy lensing technique (G3L), on angular scales between 9 arcsec and 50 arcmin, to quantify (i) the excess surface mass density around galaxy pairs (excess mass hereafter) and (ii) the excess shear–shear correlations around single galaxies, both of which yield a measure of two types of galax...

  8. A Zoo of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org); starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our mode...

  9. MOND and the Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2009-01-01

    We review galaxy formation and dynamics under the MOND hypothesis of modified gravity, and compare to similar galaxies in Newtonian dynamics with dark matter. The aim is to find peculiar predictions both to discriminate between various hypotheses, and to make the theory progress through different constraints, touching the interpolation function, or the fundamental acceleration scale. Galaxy instabilities, forming bars and bulges at longer term, evolve differently in the various theories, and help to bring constraints, together with the observations of bar frequency. Dynamical friction and the predicted merger rate could be a sensitive test of theories. The different scenarios of galaxy formation are compared within the various theories and observations.

  10. The Galaxy Dark Matter Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Frank C. van den; Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    What galaxy lives in what halo? The answer to this simple question holds important information regarding galaxy formation and evolution. We describe a new statistical technique to link galaxies to their dark matter haloes, or light to mass, using the clustering properties of galaxies as function of their luminosity. The galaxy-dark matter connection thus established, and parameterized through the conditional luminosity function, indicates the presence of two characteristic scales in galaxy fo...

  11. The effects of assembly bias on cosmological inference from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling can extend the approach down to nonlinear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with large scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older halos affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function $\\langle N_\\text{cen}(M_\\text{min}) \\rangle$ for central galaxies, with halos in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We intro...

  12. Backwards Spiral Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a spiral galaxy that may rotate in the opposite direction from what was expected. A picture of the oddball galaxy is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/03 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in May 2001 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The picture showed which side of galaxy NGC 4622 is closer to Earth; that information helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars, shown in blue. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. Astronomers suspect this oddity was caused by the interaction of NGC 4622 with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a smaller companion galaxy. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 lies 111 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus. The science team, consisting of Drs. Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State Community College in Alabama

  13. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (μαcos δ, μδ) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr–1. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (μαcos δ, μδ) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr–1, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (μαcos δ, μδ) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr–1. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v rot = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s–1 at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.

  14. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  15. The Seyfert galaxy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large sample of Seyfert galaxies, many of which are Markarian galaxies, has been observed with the WSRT in lambda 21 cm continuum radiation. The results are presented, and the number of radio detected Seyferts has now increased considerably. A number of accurate optical positions are given that were needed to identify radio sources with the Seyfert galaxies observed. Optical and radio luminosity functions of Seyfert galaxies are derived. The results are compared with such functions for other categories of objects that may be related to these galaxies. The discussions focus on the possible connections between normal galaxies, Seyferts, and optically selected quasars. Three investigations are reported on individual objects that are related to Seyfert galaxies. WSRT observations of four bright, optically selected quasars are presented. The identification of an X-ray discovered BL Lacertae object is discussed. Its radio emission is on a much lower level than for other BL Lacs. Perhaps it is a radio-quiet object in this class, suggesting a comparable difference in radio emission for BL Lacs as is known for quasars. Photo-electric photometry for the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1566 is reported. Besides a monitoring programme, multi-aperture photometry is described. (Auth.)

  16. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  17. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets in order to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4 × 1010M⊙. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way-type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expect that ~1.4 ×109 planets similar to present-day Earth have existed so far in our galaxy.

  18. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  19. Observations of the Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy by the H.E.S.S. experiment and search for a Dark Matter signal

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Ferrero, E; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Funk, S; Fuling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khlifi, B; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemi`re, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Nuss, E; Olive, J P; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Saug, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Spanier, F; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Vlk, H J; Wagner, S J; Ward, M

    2007-01-01

    Observations of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr dSph) galaxy were carried out with the H.E.S.S. array of four imaging air Cherenkov telescopes in June 2006. A total of 11 hours of high quality data are available after data selection. There is no evidence for a very high energy gamma-ray signal above the energy threshold at the target position. A 95% C.L. flux limit of 3.6 x 10-12 cm-2s-1 above 250 GeV has been derived. Constraints on the velocity-weighted cross section are calculated in the framework of Dark Matter particle annihilation using realistic models for the Dark Matter halo profile of Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two different models have been investigated encompassing a large class of halo types. A 95% C.L. exclusion limit on of the order of 2 x 10-25 cm3s-1 is obtained for a core profile in the 100 GeV - 1 TeV neutralino mass range.

  20. The ACS LCID project. V. The Star Formation History of the Dwarf Galaxy \\objectname[]{LGS-3}: Clues for Cosmic Reionization and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Skillman, Evan; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Tolstoy, Eline; Ferguson, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of the transition-type (dIrr/dSph) Local Group galaxy \\objectname[]{LGS-3} (Pisces) based on deep photometry obtained with the {\\it Advanced Camera for Surveys} onboard the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope}. Our analysis shows that the SFH of \\objectname[]{LGS-3} is dominated by a main episode $\\sim 11.7$ Gyr ago with a duration of $\\sim$ 1.4 Gyr which formed $\\sim 90%$ of the stars. Subsequently, \\objectname[]{LGS-3} continued forming stars until the present, although at a much lower rate. The lack of early chemical enrichment is in contrast to that observed in the isolated dSph galaxies of comparable luminosity, implying that the dSphs were more massive and subjected to more tidal stripping. We compare the SFH of \\objectname[]{LGS-3} with expectations from cosmological models. Most or all the star formation was produced in \\objectname[]{LGS-3} after the reionization epoch, assumed to be completed at $z\\sim6$ or $\\sim 12.7$ Gyr ago. The total mass of the ...

  1. The galaxy ancestor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, Mike

    2011-01-01

    HST finds galaxies whose Tolman dimming should exceed 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies? Or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore this latter hypothesis and argue that Surface Brightness Selection Effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus the HST z=7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighborhood easily today. Conversely the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbors will have completely sunk below the sky at z>1.2 although their diffuse light could account for the missing Reionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well,including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightnesses found in deep fields, the angular size ~ inverse (1+z) law,'Downsizing' which turn...

  2. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  3. Cosmological Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shlosman, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    I review the subject of the cosmological evolution of galaxies, including different aspects of growth in disk galaxies, by focussing on the angular momentum problem, mergers, and their by-products. I discuss the alternative to merger-driven growth -- cold accretion and related issues. In the follow-up, I review possible feedback mechanisms and their role in galaxy evolution. Special attention is paid to high-redshift galaxies and their properties. In the next step, I discuss a number of processes, gas- and stellar-dynamical, within the central kiloparsec of disk galaxies, and their effect on the larger spatial scales, as well as on the formation and fuelling of the seed black holes in galactic centres at high redshifts.

  4. Modeling Galaxy-Galaxy Weak Lensing with SDSS Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Fan, Zuhui; Cacciato, Marcello; Bosch, Frank C. van den; Yang, Xiaohu; More, Surhud

    2008-01-01

    We use galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) together with mass models for individual groups to study the galaxy-galaxy lensing signals expected from galaxies of different luminosities and morphological types. We compare our model predictions with the observational results obtained from the SDSS by Mandelbaum et al. (2006) for the same samples of galaxies. The observational results are well reproduced in a $\\Lambda$CDM model based on the WMAP 3-year data, but a $\\Lam...

  5. The sizes of galaxy halos in galaxy cluster Abell 1689

    OpenAIRE

    Halkola, A.; Seitz, S.; Pannella, M.

    2006-01-01

    The multiple images observed in galaxy cluster Abell 1689 provide strong constraints not only on the mass distribution of the cluster but also on the ensemble properties of the cluster galaxies. Using parametric strong lensing models for the cluster, and by assuming well motivated scaling laws between the truncation radius s and the velocity dispersion sigma of a cluster galaxy we are able to derive sizes of the dark matter halos of cluster galaxies. For the scaling law expected for galaxies ...

  6. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  7. Constraint on the velocity dependent dark matter annihilation cross section from Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Jia, Huan-Yu; Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Feng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The γ -ray observation of dwarf spheroidal satellites (dSph's) is an ideal approach for probing the dark matter (DM) annihilation signature. The latest Fermi-LAT dSph searches have set stringent constraints on the velocity independent annihilation cross section in the small DM mass range, which gives very strong constraints on the scenario to explain the AMS-02 positron excess by DM annihilation. However, the dSph constraints would change in the velocity dependent annihilation scenarios, because the velocity dispersion in the dSph's varies from that in the Milky Way. In this work, we use a likelihood map method to set constraints on the velocity dependent annihilation cross section from the Fermi-LAT observation of six dSph's. We consider three typical forms of the annihilation cross section, i.e. p-wave annihilation, Sommerfeld enhancement, and Breit-Wigner resonance. For the p-wave annihilation and Sommerfeld enhancement, the dSph limits would become much weaker and stronger compared with those for the velocity independent annihilation, respectively. For the Breit-Wigner annihilation, the dSph limits would vary depending on the model parameters. We show that the scenario to explain the AMS-02 positron excess by DM annihilation is still viable in the velocity dependent cases.

  8. The DART Imaging And CaT Survey of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Giuseppina; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen; Irwin, M.J.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Letarte, B.; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst.,; Jablonka, P.; /LASTRO Observ.; Hill, V.; /Meudon Observ.; Venn, K.A.; /Victoria U.; Shetrone, M.D.; /Texas U., McDonald Observ.; Arimoto, N.; /Tokyo, Astron. Observ.; Primas,; /European Southern Observ.; Kaufer, A.; /European Southern Obs., Chile; Francois, P.; /Meudon Observ.; Szeifert, T.; /European Southern Obs., Chile; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Sadakane, K.; /Osaka Kyoiku U.

    2006-08-28

    As part of the DART project we have used the ESO/2.2m Wide Field Imager in conjunction with the VLT/FLAMES* GIRAFFE spectrograph to study the detailed properties of the resolved stellar population of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy out to and beyond its tidal radius. Fornax dSph has had a complicated evolution and contains significant numbers of young, intermediate age and old stars. We investigate the relation between these different components by studying their photometric, kinematic and abundance distributions. We re-derived the structural parameters of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using our wide field imaging covering the galaxy out to its tidal radius, and analyzed the spatial distribution of the Fornax stars of different ages as selected from Colour-Magnitude Diagram analysis. We have obtained accurate velocities and metallicities from spectra in the Ca II triplet wavelength region for 562 Red Giant Branch stars which have velocities consistent with membership in Fornax dwarf spheroidal. We have found evidence for the presence of at least three distinct stellar components: a young population (few 100 Myr old) concentrated in the center of the galaxy, visible as a Main Sequence in the Colour-Magnitude Diagram; an intermediate age population (2-8 Gyr old); and an ancient population (> 10Gyr), which are distinguishable from each other kinematically, from the metallicity distribution and in the spatial distribution of stars found in the Colour-Magnitude Diagram. From our spectroscopic analysis we find that the ''metal rich'' stars ([Fe/H] > -1.3) show a less extended and more concentrated spatial distribution, and display a colder kinematics than the ''metal poor'' stars ([Fe/H] < -1.3). There is tentative evidence that the ancient stellar population in the center of Fornax does not exhibit equilibrium kinematics. This could be a sign of a relatively recent accretion of external material, such as the merger of another

  9. JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen

    2015-11-01

    JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.

  10. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  11. Spherical Jeans analysis for dark matter indirect detection in dwarf spheroidal galaxies - Impact of physical parameters and triaxiality

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnivard, V; Maurin, D; Walker, M G

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter (DM) from annihilation and/or decay products. Empirical estimates of their DM content - and hence the magnitudes of expected signals - rely on inferences from stellar-kinematic data. However, various kinematic analyses can give different results and it is not obvious which are most reliable. Using extensive sets of mock data of various sizes (mimicking 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs) and an MCMC engine, here we investigate biases, uncertainties, and limitations of analyses based on parametric solutions to the spherical Jeans equation. For a variety of functional forms for the tracer and DM density profiles, as well as the orbital anisotropy profile, we examine reliability of estimates for the astrophysical J- and D-factors for annihilation and decay, respectively. For large (N > 1000) stellar-kinematic samples typical of 'classical' dSphs, errors tend to be dominated by systematics, which can b...

  12. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Albert, A; Bechtol, K; Wood, M; Strigari, L; Sanchez-Conde, M; Baldini, L; Essig, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Anderson, B; Bellazzini, R; Bloom, E D; Caputo, R; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Conrad, J; de Angelis, A; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Kuss, M; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Mirabal, N; Mizuno, T; Morselli, A; Ohsugi, T; Orlando, E; Persic, M; Raino, S; Spada, F; Suson, D J; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S; Abbott, T; Allam, S; Balbinot, E; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernstein, R A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Castander, F J; Covarrubias, R; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Cunha, C E; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Fernandez, E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; Jain, B; James, D; Jeltema, T; Kent, S; Kron, R; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Luque, E; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; March, M; Marshall, J; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miller, C; Miquel, R; Mohr, J; Neilsen, E; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Peoples, J; Petravick, D; Pieres, A; Plazas, A A; Queiroz, A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A; Wechsler, R H; Wester, W; Williams, P; Yanny, B; Zuntz, J

    2015-01-01

    Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of dark matter. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with dark matter halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged dark matter annihilation cross section for these new targets. If confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for dark matter particles with masses < 20 GeV annihilating via the b-bbar or tau+tau- channels.

  13. H-alpha survey of low-mass satellites of the neighbouring galaxies M31 and M81

    CERN Document Server

    Kaisin, S S

    2013-01-01

    Images have been obtained at the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the H-alpha line and in the continuum for 20 dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: And XI-And XXX, plus the distant Globular cluster Bol 520. Their star formation rates (FR) are estimated using the H-alpha flux and the ultraviolet FUV flux measured with the GALEX space telescope. Most of the dSph satellites of M31 have extremely low star formation rates with a characteristic upper limit of SFR~5x10^{-7}. We have made similar estimates of SFR from the H-alpha and FUV fluxes for 13 galaxies with low surface brightness recently discovered in the neighborhood of M81. Eleven of them are physical satellites of M81 with typical SFR< 5x10^{-5}. The median stellar masses of these satellites of M31 and M81 are 0.9 and 1.9 million solar masses, respectively. Our H-alpha observations place a 2-3 times stricter limit on the value of SFR than the data from the GALEX satellite, with a substant...

  14. The Internal Kinematics of the Leo I Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Dark Matter at the Fringe of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Mateo, M; Vogt, S S; Keane, M J; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Vogt, Steven S.; Keane, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    We present radial velocities of 33 red giants in the Leo I dSph galaxy obtained from spectra taken with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. These data have a mean precision of 2.2 km/s and lead to estimates of the central velocity dispersion and systemic velocity of Leo I of 8.8 +- 1.3 km/s, and 287.0 +- 1.9 km/s, respectively. The systemic velocity confirms past results that Leo I has an unusually large galactocentric velocity, implying the presence of a massive dark halo in the Milky Way or an extended dark component pervading the Local Group. The V-band (M/L) ratio of Leo I is in the range 3.5-5.6. We have produced a set of models that account for the effects of stellar evolution on the global mass-to-light ratio of a composite population. Because Leo I contains a dominant intermediate-age population, we find that the V-band mass-to-light ratio of Leo I would be in the range 6-13 if it were composed exclusively of old stars such as found in globular clusters. This suggests that Leo I pr...

  15. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy -- wide field implications for galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, A; Kleyna, J T; Gilmore, G F; Grebel, E K; MacKey, A D; Evans, N W; Wyse, R F G

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution spectroscopy of 120 red giants in the Galactic satellite dwarf spheroidal (dSph) Leo I, obtained with the GeminiN-GMOS and Keck-DEIMOS spectrographs. We find stars with velocities consistent with membership of Leo I out to 1.3 King tidal radii. By measuring accurate radial velocities with a median measurement error of 4.6 km/s we find a mean systemic velocity of 284.2 km/s with a global velocity dispersion of 9.9 km/s. The dispersion profile is consistent with being flat out to the last data point. We show that a marginally-significant rise in the radial dispersion profile at a radius of 3' is not associated with any real localized kinematical substructure. Given its large distance from the Galaxy, tides are not likely to have affected the velocity dispersion, a statement we support from a quantitative kinematical analysis, as we observationally reject the occurrence of a significant apparent rotational signal or an asymmetric velocity distribution. Mass determinations adopting both ...

  16. A Deep Search for Extended Radio Continuum Emission from Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: Implications for Particle Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkens, Kristine; Mason, Brian S.; Aguirre, James E.; Nhan, Bang

    2013-08-01

    We present deep radio observations of four nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, designed to detect extended synchrotron emission resulting from weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter annihilations in their halos. Models by Colafrancesco et al. (CPU07) predict the existence of angularly large, smoothly distributed radio halos in such systems, which stem from electron and positron annihilation products spiraling in a turbulent magnetic field. We map a total of 40.5 deg2 around the Draco, Ursa Major II, Coma Berenices, and Willman 1 dSphs with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at 1.4 GHz to detect this annihilation signature, greatly reducing discrete-source confusion using the NVSS catalog. We achieve a sensitivity of σsub preferred set of charged particle propagation parameters adopted by CPU07; this is comparable to that inferred at γ-ray energies from the two-year Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We discuss three avenues for improving the constraints on langσvrangχ presented here, and conclude that deep radio observations of dSphs are highly complementary to indirect WIMP searches at higher energies.

  17. Galaxy-dark matter correlations applied to galaxy-galaxy lensing: predictions from the semi-analytic galaxy formation models

    OpenAIRE

    Guzik, Jacek; Seljak, Uros

    2000-01-01

    We use semi-analytic models of galaxy formation combined with high resolution N-body simulations to make predictions for galaxy-dark matter correlations and apply them to galaxy-galaxy lensing. We analyze cross-correlation spectra between the dark matter and different galaxy samples selected by luminosity, color or star formation rate. We compare the predictions to the recent detection by SDSS. We show that the correlation amplitude and the mean tangential shear depend strongly on the luminos...

  18. Interacting Galaxies with MOND

    OpenAIRE

    Tiret, O; Combes, F

    2007-01-01

    We compare N-body simulations performed in MOND with analogs in Newtonian gravity with dark matter (DM). We have developed a code which solves the Poisson equation in both gravity models. It is a grid solver using adaptive mesh refinement techniques, allowing us to study isolated galaxies as well as interacting galaxies. Galaxies in MOND are found to form bars faster and stronger than in the DM model. In Newton dynamics, it is difficult to reproduce the observed high frequency of strong bars,...

  19. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  20. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between ...

  1. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth workshop organised by the Advanced School of Astronomy addresses the specific problems of galaxy and star formation processes, topics of uncertainty and controversy to which IRAS observations may give novel perspectives. The properties of stellar populations in the local group of galaxies are discussed. Several lectures deal with the fundamentals of the theory of spectral and photometrical evolution of stellar populations, and with recent developments in the theory of stellar structure, a necessary step to model and understand galactic evolution. Other lectures are concerned with empirical population syntheses and problems related to the UV spectra of elliptical and SO galaxies. The properties of galaxies at large lookback times and the search of primeval objects are also considered. (Auth.)

  2. Supernovae in paired galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies.

  3. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)

  4. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  5. Galaxy merging in MOND

    OpenAIRE

    Nipoti, Carlo; Londrillo, Pasquale; Ciotti, Luca

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of N-body simulations of dissipationless galaxy merging in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). For comparison, we also studied Newtonian merging between galaxies embedded in dark matter halos, with internal dynamics equivalent to the MOND systems. We found that the merging timescales are significantly longer in MOND than in Newtonian gravity with dark matter, suggesting that observational evidence of rapid merging could be difficult to explain in MOND. However, when two...

  6. Magnetic fields in ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, D; Silchenko, O; Sokoloff, D; Horellou, C; Beck, R

    2016-01-01

    Many galaxies contain magnetic fields supported by galactic dynamo action. However, nothing definitive is known about magnetic fields in ring galaxies. Here we investigate large-scale magnetic fields in a previously unexplored context, namely ring galaxies, and concentrate our efforts on the structures that appear most promising for galactic dynamo action, i.e. outer star-forming rings in visually unbarred galaxies. We use tested methods for modelling $\\alpha-\\Omega$ galactic dynamos, taking into account the available observational information concerning ionized interstellar matter in ring galaxies. Our main result is that dynamo drivers in ring galaxies are strong enough to excite large-scale magnetic fields in the ring galaxies studied. The variety of dynamo driven magnetic configurations in ring galaxies obtained in our modelling is much richer than that found in classical spiral galaxies. In particular, various long-lived transients are possible. An especially interesting case is that of NGC 4513 where th...

  7. The Milky Way galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAU Symposium 106, held at the Kapteyn Institute in Groningen, presents an overview of all major aspects of galactic astronomy. The vast subject is covered in 20 authoritative review papers and 22 invited papers, each with discussion, plus 81 shorter contributions. The book opens with 4 reviews by historians of science, outlining the history of galactic research. Part 2 deals with (i) galactic rotation, (ii) the large-scale distributions of matter, of both old and young stellar populations, and of the atomic, molecular and high-energy components of the interstellar medium, (iii) small-scale structure in the gas, (iv) the galactic nucleus, (v) the high-velocity clouds. Part 3 discusses the dynamics of the local group of Galaxies and of the Milky Way-Magellanic clouds system, the dynamical and chemical evolution of the Galaxy and of its disk and halo components and the formation of the Galaxy. The controversial subject of spiral structure and star formation is analyzed in several extensive reviews and lively discussions, featuring both observational and theoretical developments. Results of extragalactic research are blended with studies of our Galaxy throughout the book, and there is a separate comparison between Andromeda and Milky Way Galaxies. The Symposium featured the first maps produced by IRAS, and results from most major telescopes in a variety of wavebands. Many review papers present material not published elsewhere. The book closes with a lecture on life in the Galaxy and with an imaginative symposium summary. (orig.)

  8. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  9. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  10. Orbiting Water Molecules Dance to Tune Of Galaxy's "Central Engine," Astronomers Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A disk of water molecules orbiting a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy 60 million light-years away is "reverberating" in response to variations in the energy output from the galaxy's powerful "central engine" close to the black hole, astronomers say. The team of astronomers used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico and the 100-meter-diameter radio telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy at Effelsberg, Germany, to observe the galaxy NGC 1068 in the constellation Cetus. They announced their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta. The water molecules, in a disk some 5 light-years in diameter, are acting as a set of giant cosmic radio-wave amplifiers, called masers. Using energy radiated by the galaxy's "central engine," the molecules strengthen, or brighten, radio emission at a particular frequency as seen from Earth. "We have seen variations in the radio 'brightness' of these cosmic amplifiers that we believe were caused by variations in the energy output of the central engine," said Jack Gallimore, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. "This could provide us with a valuable new tool for learning about the central engine itself," he added. Gallimore worked with Stefi Baum of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD; Christian Henkel of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany; Ian Glass of the South African Astronomical Observatory; Mark Claussen of the NRAO in Socorro, NM; and Almudena Prieto of the European Southern Observatory in Munich, Germany. "Our observations show that NGC 1068 is the second-known case of a giant disk of water molecules orbiting a supermassive black hole at a galaxy's core," Gallimore said. The first case was the galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106), whose disk of radio-amplifying water molecules was measured by the NSF's Very Long Baseline

  11. INTERACTIONS OF GALAXIES IN THE GALAXY CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dependence of galaxy properties on the clustercentric radius and the environment attributed to the nearest neighbor galaxy using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies associated with the Abell galaxy clusters. We find that there exists a characteristic scale where the properties of galaxies suddenly start to depend on the clustercentric radius at fixed neighbor environment. The characteristic scale is 1-3 times the cluster virial radius depending on galaxy luminosity. Existence of the characteristic scale means that the local galaxy number density is not directly responsible for the morphology-density relation in clusters because the local density varies smoothly with the clustercentric radius and has no discontinuity in general. What is really working in clusters is the morphology-clustercentric radius-neighbor environment relation, where the neighbor environment means both neighbor morphology and the local mass density attributed to the neighbor. The morphology-density relation appears working only because of the statistical correlation between the nearest neighbor distance and the local galaxy number density. We find strong evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions with nearby early-type galaxies is the main drive to quenching star formation activity of late-type galaxies in clusters. The hot cluster gas seems to play at most a minor role down to one tenth of the cluster virial radius. We also find that the viable mechanisms which can account for the clustercentric radius dependence of the structural and internal kinematics parameters are harassment and interaction of galaxies with the cluster potential. The morphology transformation of the late-type galaxies in clusters seems to have taken place through both galaxy-galaxy hydrodynamic interactions and galaxy-cluster/galaxy-galaxy gravitational interactions.

  12. Galaxy Bulges and Elliptical Galaxies - Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge on the central components of disk galaxies has grown substantially in the past few decades, particularly so in the last. This frantic activity and the complexity of the subject promote confusion in the community. In these notes, I discuss the concept of galactic bulge and its different flavors. I also address fundamental scaling relations and the bulge-elliptical galaxy connection, their central black holes and formation models. In particular, I aim at conveying three important notions: (i): box/peanuts are just the inner parts of bars; (ii): the physical reality of two different families of bulges is evident; and (iii): at the high mass end, at least, classical bulges are not just scaled down ellipticals surrounded by disks.

  13. H1 in RSA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.

    1993-01-01

    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  14. How environment drives galaxy evolution: lessons learnt from satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, A

    2015-01-01

    It is by now well established that galaxy evolution is driven by intrinsic and environmental processes, both contributing to shape the observed properties of galaxies. A number of early studies, both observational and theoretical, have shown that the star formation activity of galaxies depends on their environmental local density and also on galaxy hierarchy, i.e. centrals vs. satellites. In fact, contrary to their central (most massive) galaxy of a group/cluster, satellite galaxies are stripped of their gas and stars, and have their star formation quenched by their environment. Large galaxy surveys like SDSS now permit us to investigate in detail environment-driven transformation processes by comparing centrals and satellites. In this paper I summarize what we have so far learnt about environmental effects by analysing the observed properties of local central and satellite galaxies in SDSS, as a function of their stellar mass and the dark matter mass of their host group/cluster.

  15. Mining the Sloan digital sky survey in search of extremely α-poor stars in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we know, the majority of metal-poor Galactic halo stars appear to have chemical abundances that were enhanced by α-elements (e.g., O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti) during the early stage of the Galaxy. Observed metal-poor halo stars preserved this pattern by exhibiting abundance ratios [α/Fe] ∼+0.4. A few striking exceptions that show severe departures from the general enhanced α-element chemical abundance trends of the halo have been discovered in recent years. They possess relatively low [α/Fe] compared to other comparable-metallicity stars, with abundance ratios over 0.5 dex lower. These stars may have a different chemical enrichment history from the majority of the halo. Similarly, low-α abundances are also displayed by satellite dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. We present a method to select extremely α-poor (EAP) stars from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. The method consists of a two-step approach. In the first step, we select suspected metal-poor ([Fe/H] <–0.5) and α-poor ([Mg/Fe] <0) stars as our targets. In the second step, we determine [Mg/Fe] from low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra for our targets and select stars with [Mg/Fe] <–0.1 as candidate EAP stars. In a sample of 40,000 stars with atmospheric parameters in the range of Teff = [4500, 7000] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], and [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], 14 candidate stars were identified. Three of these stars are found to have already been confirmed by other research.

  16. Magnetic Bubbles in Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    I discuss Chandra X-ray Observatory measurements of cavities in galaxy clusters and their implications for heating the intracluster gas. The emerging paradigm for cooling flows has important implications for understanding self-regulated galaxy formation.

  17. ARCHANGEL Galaxy Photometry System

    CERN Document Server

    Schombert, J

    2007-01-01

    Photometry of galaxies has typically focused on small, faint systems due to their interest for cosmological studies. Large angular size galaxies, on the other hand, offer a more detailed view into the properties of galaxies, but bring a series of computational and technical difficulties that inhibit the general astronomer from extracting all the information found in a detailed galaxy image. To this end, a new galaxy photometry system has been developed (mostly building on tools and techniques that have existed in the community for decades) that combines ease of usage with a mixture of pre-built scripts. The audience for this system is a new user (graduate student or non-optical astronomer) with a fast, built-in learning curve to offer any astronomer, with imaging data, a suite of tools to quickly extract meaningful parameters from decent data. The tools are available either by a client/server web site or by tarball for personal installation. The tools also provide simple scripts to interface with various on-l...

  18. The ISLANDS Project. I. Andromeda XVI, An Extremely Low Mass Galaxy Not Quenched by Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, Matteo; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Gallart, Carme; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Cole, Andrew A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Mayer, Lucio; McConnachie, Alan; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Navarro, Julio F.

    2016-03-01

    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its lifetime star formation history (SFH), the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ˜6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low-mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus it is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the SFH as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the SFH: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than in the external regions, although the quenching age appears to be the same, within 1 Gyr. We also report the discovery of nine RR Lyrae (RRL) stars, eight of which belong to And XVI. The RRL stars allow a new estimate of the distance, (m - M)0 = 23.72 ± 0.09 mag, which is marginally larger than previous estimates based on the tip of the red giant branch. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13028.

  19. Damped Lyman-Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, D A; Lane, W; Monier, E M; Nestor, D; Bergeron, J; Briggs, F; Smette, A

    2000-01-01

    Some results from an imaging program to identify low-redshift (0.09galaxies are presented. The standard paradigm that was widely accepted a decade ago, that DLA galaxies are the progenitors of luminous disk galaxies, is now being seriously challenged. The indisputable conclusion from imaging studies at low redshift is that the morphological types of DLA galaxies are mixed and that they span a range in luminosities and surface brightnesses.

  20. Relativistic Effect in Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2014-01-01

    The general relativistic description of galaxy clustering provides a complete and unified treatment of all the effects in galaxy clustering such as the redshift-space distortion, gravitational lensing, Sachs-Wolfe effects, and their relativistic effects. In particular, the relativistic description resolves the gauge issues in the standard Newtonian description of galaxy clustering by providing the gauge-invariant expression for the observed galaxy number density. The relativistic effect in ga...

  1. Galaxy formation and chemical evolution

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The manner the galaxy accretes matter along with the star formation rates at different epochs, influence the evolution of the stable isotopic inventories of the galaxy. A detailed analysis is presented here to study the dependence of the galactic chemical evolution on the accretion scenario of the galaxy along with the star formation rate during the early accretionary phase of the galactic thick disk and thin disk. Our results indicate that a rapid early accretion of the galaxy during the for...

  2. Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Y; SOFUE, Yoshiaki; RUBIN, Vera

    2000-01-01

    Rotation curves of spiral galaxies are the major tool for determining the distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. They provide fundamental information for understanding the dynamics, evolution and formation of spiral galaxies. We describe various methods to derive rotation curves, and review the results obtained. We discuss the basic characteristics of observed rotation curves in relation to various galaxy properties, such as Hubble type, structure, activity, and environment.

  3. Galaxies at Redshifts z > 5

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki

    1998-01-01

    Here we describe our attempts to establish statistically complete samples of very high redshift galaxies by obtaining photometric redshifts of galaxies in Medium Deep Survey (MDS) fields and photometric and spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies in very deep STIS slitless spectroscopy fields. On the basis of this analysis, we have identified galaxies of redshift z = 4.92 in an MDS field and of redshift z = 6.68 in a very deep STIS field.

  4. Twins born in different environments? Nuclei of two dSphs: isolated galaxy KKS3 and ESO269-66, a close neighbor of NGC5128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharina, Margarita; Karachentsev, Igor; Kniazev, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    The close vicinity of giant neighbors determines the environmental mechanisms that have been considered responsible for the evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). In the recent years, Karachentsev and collaborators have reported on the discovery of a few truly isolated dSphs in the Local volume. This study focuses on one of these unusual objects, KKs3 (MV=-12.3 mag). It contains a massive globular cluster (GC) (MV=-8.5 mag) near its optical center. We have performed the estimation of its radial velocity using a medium-resolution spectrum obtained with the RSS spectrograph at the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The signal-to-noise ratio in the spectrum was sufficient to estimate the age and metallicity for the GC using simple stellar population models, and the methods of full spectrum fitting and Lick index diagnostic diagrams. The results contribute to the knowledge about the origin of massive star clusters and their host dSphs.In the same way we have analyzed another luminous GC (MV=-10) in the center of ESO269-66 (MB=-15.4), a close dSph neighbor of the giant S0 Cen A. The cluster was observed with SALT in the same instrumental configuration. The structure and star formation histories of the two galaxies look rather similar. Both of them have experienced several star-forming events. The most recent ones occurred 1÷2 Gyr ago, and most powerful bursts happened 12÷14 Gyrs ago. Our analysis has shown that both GCs appear to be 1÷2 Gyr younger and 0.2÷0.3 dex more metal-rich than the most ancient metal-poor stars in the host dSphs. We examine signatures of multiple stellar population in the GCs using out data. Since central star-forming bursts were extended in time, the massive clusters might be considered as nuclei of the galaxies.

  5. Constraints on galaxy formation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, A. S.

    1986-01-01

    The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities, temperature fluctuations of the microwave background and the correlation function of galaxies point to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. The velocity data provide strong constraints on the theories even in the case when light does not follow mass of the universe.

  6. Analytical Approximations to Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some recent progress in constructing analytic approximations to the galaxy clustering. We show that successful models can be constructed for the clustering of both dark matter and dark matter haloes. Our understanding of galaxy clustering and galaxy biasing can be greatly enhanced by these models.

  7. Quasars and young galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxies still pose unanswered questions, even at the most rudimentary level. It is still not known what physical processes determine their characteristic masses and radii, nor are the differences between the various types of galaxies satisfactorily explained. The high-energy non-stellar activity in some galactic nuclei seems even more mysterious. But glimmerings of a consensus seem to be emerging, particularly on the relations between quasars and galaxies. An attempt is made to try to summarize these, and also indicate some areas where there seems a genuine hope of progress in the next few years. The timescales of galactic evolution are so long, and the distances of quasars so great, that the subject inevitably involves cosmology. (author)

  8. Gaseous Flows in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2007-01-01

    The gas component plays a major role in the dynamics of spiral galaxies, because of its dissipative character, and its ability to exchange angular momentum with stars in the disk. Due to its small velocity dispersion, it triggers gravitational instabilities, and the corresponding non-axisymmetric patterns produce gravity torques, which mediate these angular momentum exchanges. When a srong bar pattern develops with the same pattern speed all over the disk, only gas inside corotation can flow towards the center. But strong bars are not long lived in presence of gas, and multiple-speed spiral patterns can develop between bar phases, and help the galaxy to accrete external gas flowing from cosmic filaments. The gas is then intermittently driven to the galaxy center, to form nuclear starbursts and fuel an active nucleus. The various time-scales of these gaseous flows are described.

  9. Galaxy Zoo Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A M; Sullivan, M; Lintott, C J; Nugent, P E; Botyanszki, J; Kasliwal, M; Quimby, R; Bamford, S P; Fortson, L F; Schawinski, K; Hook, I; Blake, S; Podsiadlowski, P; Joensson, J; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Howell, D A; Bloom, J S; Jacobsen, J; Kulkarni, S R; Law, N M; Ofek, E O; Walters, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results from a new citizen science project: Galaxy Zoo Supernovae. This proof of concept project uses members of the public to identify supernova candidates from the latest generation of wide-field imaging transient surveys. We describe the Galaxy Zoo Supernovae operations and scoring model, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel method using imaging data and transients from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We examine the results collected over the period April-July 2010, during which nearly 14,000 supernova candidates from PTF were classified by more than 2,500 individuals within a few hours of data collection. We compare the transients selected by the citizen scientists to those identified by experienced PTF scanners, and find the agreement to be remarkable - Galaxy Zoo Supernovae performs comparably to the PTF scanners, and identified as transients 93% of the ~130 spectroscopically confirmed SNe that PTF located during the trial period (with no false positive iden...

  10. Slowly cooking galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Legrand, F

    1999-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations of IZw~18 have revealed homogeneous abundance throughout the galaxy and several observations of other starburst galaxies have shown no significant gradient or discontinuity in the abundance distributions within the HII regions. I thus concur with Tenorio-Tagle (1996) and Devost et al. (1997) that these observed abundance homogeneities cannot be produced by the material ejected from the stars formed in the current burst and result from a previous star formation episode. Metals ejected in the current burst of star formation remain most probably hidden in a hot phase and are undetectable using optical spectroscopy. Combining various observational facts, for instance the faint star formation rate observed in low surface brightness galaxies (van Zee et al., 1997), I propose that a low and continuous star formation rate occurring during quiescent phases between bursts is a non negligible source of new elements in the interstellar medium. Using a spectrophotometric and chemical evol...

  11. H2 in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The bulk of the molecular gas in spiral galaxies is under the form of cold H2, that does not radiate and is only suspected through tracer molecules, such as CO. All tracers are biased, and in particular H2 could be highly underestimated in low metallicity regions. Our knowledge is reviewed of the H2 content of galaxies, according to their types, environment, or star-forming activities. The HI and CO components are generally well-mixed (spiral arms, vertical distribution), although their radial distributions are radically different, certainly due to radial abundance gradients. The hypothesis of H2 as dark matter is discussed, as well as the implications on galaxy dynamics, or the best perspectives for observational tests.

  12. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from ∼105 M☉ at galaxy absolute magnitude U = –13 mag to 109 M☉ at U = –20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M ☉ pc–2 locally to 10-100 M☉ pc–2 at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from ∼0.01 M☉ yr–1 kpc–2 locally to ∼1 M☉ yr–1 kpc–2 at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  13. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  14. Galaxies & the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Get the big picture about Galaxies and our Universe. From the smallest particles of matter to the biggest star system, our universe is made up of all things that exist in space. Our resource takes you through the Milky Way Galaxy, Black Holes and Gravity, then on to Nebulae, Sources of Light and the Speed of Light, and finally to Quasars, the most distant objects in the universe. Written using simplified language and vocabulary, our resource presents science concepts in a way that makes them accessible to students and easier to understand. Comprised of reading passages, student activities for

  15. Galaxy alignments: An overview

    CERN Document Server

    Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Rassat, Anais

    2015-01-01

    The alignments between galaxies, their underlying matter structures, and the cosmic web constitute vital ingredients for a comprehensive understanding of gravity, the nature of matter, and structure formation in the Universe. We provide an overview on the state of the art in the study of these alignment processes and their observational signatures, aimed at a non-specialist audience. The development of the field over the past one hundred years is briefly reviewed. We also discuss the impact of galaxy alignments on measurements of weak gravitational lensing, and discuss avenues for making theoretical and observational progress over the coming decade.

  16. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...

  17. Interactions of Galaxies in the Galaxy Cluster Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Changbom

    2008-01-01

    We study the dependence of galaxy properties on the clustercentric radius and the environment attributed to the nearest neighbor galaxy using the SDSS galaxies associated with the Abell galaxy clusters. We find that there exists a characteristic scale where the properties of galaxies suddenly start to depend on the clustercentric radius at fixed neighbor environment. The characteristic scale is $1\\sim 3$ times the cluster virial radius depending on galaxy luminosity. Existence of the characteristic scale means that the local galaxy number density is not directly responsible for the morphology-density relation in clusters because the local density varies smoothly with the clustercentric radius and has no discontinuity in general. What is really working in clusters is the morphology-clustercentric radius-neighbor environment relation, where the neighbor environment means both neighbor morphology and the local mass density attributed to the neighbor. The morphology-density relation appears working only because o...

  18. HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble

  19. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Blended Spectra Catalog: Strong Galaxy-Galaxy Lens and Occulting Galaxy Pair Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; Alpaslan, M; Bauer, A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Cluver, M E; Conselice, C; Driver, S P; Hopkins, A M; Jones, D H; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Loveday, J; Meyer, M J; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the catalogue of blended galaxy spectra from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. These are cases where light from two galaxies are significantly detected in a single GAMA fibre. Galaxy pairs identified from their blended spectrum fall into two principal classes: they are either strong lenses, a passive galaxy lensing an emission-line galaxy; or occulting galaxies, serendipitous overlaps of two galaxies, of any type. Blended spectra can thus be used to reliably identify strong lenses for follow-up observations (high resolution imaging) and occulting pairs, especially those that are a late-type partly obscuring an early-type galaxy which are of interest for the study of dust content of spiral and irregular galaxies. The GAMA survey setup and its autoz automated redshift determination were used to identify candidate blended galaxy spectra from the cross-correlation peaks. We identify 280 blended spectra with a minimum velocity separation of 600 km/s, of which 104 are lens pair candidates, 71 e...

  20. Inclination-Independent Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method to classify galaxies from large surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using inclination-corrected concentration, inclination-corrected location on the color-magnitude diagram, and apparent axis ratio. Explicitly accounting for inclination tightens the distribution of each of these parameters and enables simple boundaries to be drawn that delineate three different galaxy populations: Early-type galaxies, which are red, highly concentrated, and round; Late-type galaxies, which are blue, have low concentrations, and are disk dominated; and Intermediate-type galaxies, which are red, have intermediate concentrations, and have disks. We have validated our method by comparing to visual classifications of high-quality imaging data from the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue. The inclination correction is crucial to unveiling the previously unrecognized Intermediate class. Intermediate-type galaxies, roughly corresponding to lenticulars and early spirals, lie on the red sequence. The red sequence ...

  1. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied in...... Chapter 3 is found to be a young, star-forming galaxy with evidence for strong outflows of gas. This suggests that the more evolved and metal-rich DLAs overlap with the faint end of the luminosity selected galaxies in terms of mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and age. DLAs are generally observed to...

  2. Observing the first galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, James S

    2012-01-01

    I endeavour to provide a thorough overview of our current knowledge of high-redshift galaxies and their evolution during the first billion years of cosmic time, corresponding to redshifts z > 5. After first summarizing progress with the seven different techniques which have been used to date in the discovery of objects at z > 5, I focus thereafter on the two selection methods which have yielded substantial samples of galaxies at early times, namely Lyman-break and Lyman-alpha selection. I discuss a decade of progress in galaxy sample selection at z ~ 5 - 8, including issues of completeness and contamination, and address some of the confusion which has been created by erroneous reports of extreme-redshift objects. Next I provide an overview of our current knowledge of the evolving ultraviolet continuum and Lyman-alpha galaxy luminosity functions at z ~ 5 - 8, and discuss what can be learned from exploring the relationship between the Lyman-break and Lyman-alpha selected populations. I then summarize what is kn...

  3. The Hooked Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Life is not easy, even for galaxies. Some indeed get so close to their neighbours that they get rather distorted. But such encounters between galaxies have another effect: they spawn new generations of stars, some of which explode. ESO's VLT has obtained a unique vista of a pair of entangled galaxies, in which a star exploded. Because of the importance of exploding stars, and particularly of supernovae of Type Ia [1], for cosmological studies (e.g. relating to claims of an accelerated cosmic expansion and the existence of a new, unknown, constituent of the universe - the so called 'Dark Energy'), they are a preferred target of study for astronomers. Thus, on several occasions, they pointed ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) towards a region of the sky that portrays a trio of amazing galaxies. MCG-01-39-003 (bottom right) is a peculiar spiral galaxy, with a telephone number name, that presents a hook at one side, most probably due to the interaction with its neighbour, the spiral galaxy NGC 5917 (upper right). In fact, further enhancement of the image reveals that matter is pulled off MCG-01-39-003 by NGC 5917. Both these galaxies are located at similar distances, about 87 million light-years away, towards the constellation of Libra (The Balance). ESO PR Photo 22/06 ESO PR Photo 22/06 The Hooked Galaxy and its Companion NGC 5917 (also known as Arp 254 and MCG-01-39-002) is about 750 times fainter than can be seen by the unaided eye and is about 40,000 light-years across. It was discovered in 1835 by William Herschel, who strangely enough, seems to have missed its hooked companion, only 2.5 times fainter. As seen at the bottom left of this exceptional VLT image, a still fainter and nameless, but intricately beautiful, barred spiral galaxy looks from a distance the entangled pair, while many 'island universes' perform a cosmic dance in the background. But this is not the reason why astronomers look at this region. Last year, a star exploded in the vicinity of the hook

  4. Our wobbly galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvitch, Katia

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that the Milky Way rotates around a supermassive black hole, but researchers have found that our galaxy undulates up and down as well like a giant galactic merry-go-round. Katia Moskvitch reports on this surprising finding.

  5. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  6. Discovering Teenage Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Staring for the equivalent of every night for two weeks at the same little patch of sky with ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has found the extremely faint light from teenage galaxies billions of light years away. These galaxies, which the research team believes are the building blocks of normal galaxies like our Milky Way, had eluded detection for three decades, despite intensive searches. ESO PR Photo 52/07 ESO PR Photo 52/07 A 92-hour long spectrum Two-dimensional spectrum obtained in 92 hours of exposure time, showing the line emitter candidates. The quasar absorption lines are visible close to the centre of the image. The team, led by Martin Haehnelt of the University of Cambridge, UK, Michael Rauch and George Becker of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, USA, and Andy Bunker of the Anglo-Australian Observatory, reports their results in the 1 March 2008 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. "This is the first time that the sky has been searched to this depth and the unrivalled sensitivity of the picture taken with the VLT was key to succeeding," says Haehnelt. Experts have long speculated that galaxies like ours were created by the amalgamation of proto-galaxies early in the history of the Universe, but the light from these fragments was so faint that astronomers had struggled to prove they were there at all. Astronomers thought that the teenage galaxies must be out there because they were blocking part of the light from objects even further away in space. "Previous attempts have usually been frustrated by the difficulty of detecting extremely faint objects: the amount of time required even with an 8-metre class telescope like the VLT considerably exceeds typical observing time awards. We have thus exploited the periods of less good weather with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT, taking advantage of the service observing mode," says Becker. In service mode, ESO staff astronomers at Paranal are responsible for carrying

  7. Galaxies probing galaxies: cool halo gas from a z = 0.47 post-starburst galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Kate H. R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    We study the cool gas around a galaxy at z = 0.4729 using Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a bright (B = 21.7) background galaxy at z = 0.6942 at a transverse distance of 16.5/h_70 kpc. The background galaxy spectrum reveals strong FeII, MgII, MgI, and CaII absorption at the redshift of the foreground galaxy, with a MgII 2796 rest equivalent width of 3.93 +/- 0.08 Angstroms, indicative of a velocity width exceeding 400 km/s. Because the background galaxy is large (> 4/h_70 kpc), the high covering fr...

  8. The Densest Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Seth, Anil C.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Caldwell, Nelson; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 108 M ⊙ but a half-light radius of only ~24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (rh = 14 pc n ~ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (rh = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with LX ~ 1038 erg s-1 that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (gsim 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ~ 70 km s-1) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/LV = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/LV . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with MB ~ -18 to -19.

  9. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  10. Dark matter halo properties from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results over the past years have shown that the Universe is by far not only composed of baryonic matter. In fact the major energy content of 72% of the Universe appears to be represented by so-called dark energy, while even from the remaining components only about one fifth is of baryonic origin, whereas 80% have to be attributed to dark matter. Originally appearing in observations of spiral galaxy rotation curves, the need for dark matter has also been verified investigating elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. In fact, it appears that dark matter played a major role during structure formation in the early Universe. Shortly after the Big Bang, when the matter distribution was almost homogeneous, initially very small inhomogeneities in the matter distribution formed the seeds for the gravitational collapse of the matter structures. Numerical n-body simulations, for instance, clearly indicate that the presently observable evolutionary state and complexity of the matter structure in the Universe would not have been possible without dark matter, which significantly accelerated the structure collapse due to its gravitational interaction. As dark matter does not interact electromagnetically and therefore is non-luminous but only interacts gravitationally, the gravitational lens effect provides an excellent opportunity for its detection and estimation of its amount. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that makes use of the random orientation of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticities and thus their uniform distribution. Gravitational tidal forces introduce a coherent distortion of the background object shapes, leading to a deviation from the uniform distribution which depends on the lens galaxy properties and therefore can be used to study them. This thesis describes the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of 89deg2 of optical data, observed within the CFHTLS-WIDE survey. In the framework of this thesis the data were used in order to create photometric

  11. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02r_{vir,nei} and \\rho <\\bar{\\rho} well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests importance of hydrodynamic interaction among galaxies within their virial radii in galaxy evolution.

  12. Submillimeter Galaxy Number Counts and Magnification by Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Marcos; Devlin, Mark; Aguirre, James

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical model which reproduces measured galaxy number counts from surveys in the wavelength range of 500 micron to 2 mm. The model involves a single high-redshift galaxy population with a Schechter luminosity function which has been gravitationally lensed by galaxy clusters in the mass range 10^13 to 10^15 Msun. This simple model reproduces both the low flux and the high flux end of the number counts reported by the BLAST, SCUBA, AzTEC and the SPT surveys. In particular, our model accounts for the most luminous galaxies detected by SPT as the result of high magnifications by galaxy clusters (magnification factors of 10-30). This interpretation implies that submillimeter and millimeter surveys of this population may prove to be a useful addition to ongoing cluster detection surveys. The model also implies that the bulk of submillimeter galaxies detected at wavelengths larger than 500 micron lie at redshifts greater than 2.

  13. Triggering star formation by galaxy-galaxy interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, P B; Alonso, M S; Coldwell, G V; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of having a close companion on the star formation activity of galaxies in 8K galaxy pair catalog selected from the 2dFGRS. We found that, statistically, galaxies with $r_{\\rm p} < 25 {\\rm h^{-1}}$ kpc and $\\Delta V < 100 {\\rm km/s}$ have enhanced star formation with respect to isolated galaxies with the same luminosity and redshift distribution. Our results suggest that the physical processes at work during tidal interactions can overcome the effects of environment, expect in dense regions.

  14. Triggering star formation by galaxy-galaxy interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.; Alonso, M. Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of having a close companion on the star formation activity of galaxies in 8K galaxy pair catalog selected from the 2dFGRS. We found that, statistically, galaxies with $r_{\\rm p} < 25 {\\rm h^{-1}}$ kpc and $\\Delta V < 100 {\\rm km/s}$ have enhanced star formation with respect to isolated galaxies with the same luminosity and redshift distribution. Our results suggest that the physical processes at work during tidal interactions can overcome the effects of environment, ex...

  15. Recent galaxy mergers and residual star formation of red sequence galaxies in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Ree, Chang H; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the GALEX ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in 4 rich Abell clusters at z \\leq 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r' colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r' \\leq 5), and that number was doubled (~ 72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r' \\leq 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5xR_{200}. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R_{200}. We performed a Dressler-Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the sub-structures in ...

  16. Galaxies appear simpler than expected

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, M J; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment, and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular-momentum, baryon-fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free of optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our dataset. Such a de...

  17. Morphological Transformation from Galaxy Harassment

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, B; Katz, N; Moore, Ben; Lake, George; Katz, Neal

    1997-01-01

    The morphological content of galaxy clusters has undergone a remarkable transition over the past several billion years. Distant clusters at z \\sim 0.4 are filled with small spiral galaxies, many of which are disturbed and show evidence of multiple bursts of star-formation. This population is absent from nearby clusters where spheroidals comprise the faint end of the luminosity function. We present numerical simulations that follow the evolution of disk galaxies in a rich cluster owing to encounters with brighter galaxies and the cluster's tidal field-galaxy harassment. After a bursting transient phase, they undergo a complete morphological transformation from ``disks" to``spheroidals". We examine the remnants and find support for our theory in detailed comparisons of the photometry and kinematics of the spheroidal galaxies in clusters. Our model naturally accounts for the intermediate age stellar population seen in these spheroidals as well as the trend in dwarf to giant ratio with cluster richness. The final...

  18. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying...... sheds light on the AGN-host co-evolution by connecting the fraction and luminosity of AGNs with galaxy properties. By analyzing a large survey in X-ray, AGNs of high and low X-ray luminosity are extracted among massive galaxies at z _ 2 via AGN classification methods, and stacking techniques of non...

  19. Environmental Effects on Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, T

    2003-01-01

    It is a remarkable feature that various properties of galaxies vary according to their environments. However, only little has been known on the origin of this variety in galaxies. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, we investigate the morphology-density relation to find two characteristic environment where the morphology-density relation abruptly changes (0.3 and 2 Rvir).The result has significant implication for the underlying physical mechanism since it suggests that two different mechanisms might be responsible for the morphology-density relation. In addition, we study the environment of unusual spiral galaxies with no [OII] or Halpha emission lines (passive spirals), and find that passive spiral galaxies preferentially live in cluster infalling regions (1-10 Rvir}). Thus, the origin of passive spiral galaxies is likely to be cluster related. Based on all of our observational results, we propose possible fate of cluster infalling galaxies.

  20. The colours of HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, E; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I filters of 15 HII galaxies from the Nordic Optical Telescope and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at Canary Islands. The colours of the starburst continuum and of the underlying galaxy are measured. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in HII galaxies is similar to the colours of other late type low surface brightness galaxies which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of HII galaxies. However, comparison with recent evolutionary population synthesis models show that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history.

  1. Galaxy mapping the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, James

    2014-01-01

    Each night, we are able to gaze up at the night sky and look at the thousands of stars that stretch to the end of our individual horizons. But the stars we see are only those that make up our own Milky Way galaxy-but one of hundreds of billions in the whole of the universe, each separated  by inconceivably huge tracts of empty space. In this book, astronomer James Geach tells the rich stories of both the evolution of galaxies and our ability to observe them, offering a fascinating history of how we've come to realize humanity's tiny place in the vast universe.             Taking us on a compel

  2. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 109 to 1015 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  3. AGNs and galaxy interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, M. Sol; Lambas, Diego G.; Tissera, Patricia; Coldwell, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of AGN host characteristics and nuclear activity for AGNs in pairs and without companions. Our study concerns a sample of AGNs derived from the SDSS-DR4 data by Kauffmann et al (2003) and pair galaxies obtained from the same data set by Alonso et al. (2006). An eye-ball classification of images of 1607 close pairs ($r_p

  4. Gaseous Flows in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, F.

    2007-01-01

    The gas component plays a major role in the dynamics of spiral galaxies, because of its dissipative character, and its ability to exchange angular momentum with stars in the disk. Due to its small velocity dispersion, it triggers gravitational instabilities, and the corresponding non-axisymmetric patterns produce gravity torques, which mediate these angular momentum exchanges. When a srong bar pattern develops with the same pattern speed all over the disk, only gas inside corotation can flow ...

  5. Dust in External Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Calzetti, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Existing (Spitzer Space Telescope) and upcoming (Herschel Space Telescope) facilities are deepening our understanding of the role of dust in tracing the energy budget and chemical evolution of galaxies. The tools we are developing while exploring the local Universe will in turn become pivotal in the interpretation of the high redshift Universe when near--future facilities (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array [ALMA], the Sub--Millimeter Array [SMA], the Large Millimeter Telescope [LMT], the Jam...

  6. A chemical evolution model for galaxy clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Portinari, L.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Chiosi, C.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a toy-model for the chemical evolution of the intracluster medium, polluted by the galactic winds from elliptical galaxies. The model follows the "galaxy formation history" of cluster galaxies, constrained by the observed luminosity function.

  7. Quantitative analysis of spirality in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dojcsak, Levente

    2013-01-01

    We use an automated galaxy morphology analysis method to quantitatively measure the spirality of galaxies classified manually as elliptical. The data set used for the analysis consists of 60,518 galaxy images with redshift obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and classified manually by Galaxy Zoo, as well as the RC3 and NA10 catalogues. We measure the spirality of the galaxies by using the Ganalyzer method, which transforms the galaxy image to its radial intensity plot to detect galaxy spirality that is in many cases difficult to notice by manual observation of the raw galaxy image. Experimental results using manually classified elliptical and S0 galaxies with redshift <0.3 suggest that galaxies classified manually as elliptical and S0 exhibit a nonzero signal for the spirality. These results suggest that the human eye observing the raw galaxy image might not always be the most effective way of detecting spirality and curves in the arms of galaxies.

  8. The Automatic Galaxy Collision Software

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Pfeiffer, Phillip; Perkins, Sam; Barkanic, Jason; Fritts, Steve; Southerland, Derek; Manchikalapudi, Dinikar; Baker, Matt; Luckey, John; Franklin, Coral; Moffett, Amanda; Struck, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The key to understanding the physical processes that occur during galaxy interactions is dynamical modeling, and especially the detailed matching of numerical models to specific systems. To make modeling interacting galaxies more efficient, we have constructed the `Automatic Galaxy Collision' (AGC) code, which requires less human intervention in finding good matches to data. We present some preliminary results from this code for the well-studied system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5), and address questions of uniqueness of solutions.

  9. Dynamical Friction in Cuspidal Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical friction is the process responsible for matter transport toward the inner regions of galaxies in form of massive objects, like intermediate mass black holes, globular clusters and small satellite galaxies. While very bright galaxies show an almost flat luminosity profile in the inner region, fainter ones have, usually, a peaked, cuspidal, profile toward the center. This makes unreliable, in these cases, the use of the classic Chandrasekhar's formula for dynamical friction in its loc...

  10. Compact Massive Object in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, I Tosta e

    2016-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies show the presence of super massive black holes and/or very dense stellar clusters. Both objects seem to follow similar host-galaxy correlations, suggesting that they are members of the same family of Compact Massive Objects. We investigate here a huge data collection of Compact Massive Objects properties to correlate them with absolute magnitude, velocity dispersion and mass of their host galaxies.

  11. AGNs and galaxy interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, M S; Tissera, P; Coldwell, G; Lambas, Diego G.; Tissera, Patricia; Coldwell, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of AGN host characteristics and nuclear activity for AGNs in pairs and without companions. Our study concerns a sample of AGNs derived from the SDSS-DR4 data by Kauffmann et al (2003) and pair galaxies obtained from the same data set by Alonso et al. (2006). An eye-ball classification of images of 1607 close pairs ($r_p<25$ kpc $h^{-1}$, $\\Delta V<350$ km $s^{-1}$) according to the evidence of interaction through distorted morphologies and tidal features provides us with a more confident assessment of galaxy interactions from this sample. We notice that, at a given luminosity or stellar mass content, the fraction of AGNs is larger for pair galaxies exhibiting evidence for strong interaction and tidal features which also show sings of strong star formation activity. Nevertheless, this process accounts only for a $\\sim 10%$ increase of the fraction of AGNs. As in previous works, we find AGN hosts to be redder and with a larger concentration morphological index than non-AG...

  12. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  13. Galaxy Disks are Submaximal

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A; Verheijen, Marc A W; Westfall, Kyle B; Andersen, David R; Swaters, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    We measure the contribution of galaxy disks to the overall gravitational potential of 30 nearly face-on intermediate-to-late-type spirals from the DiskMass Survey. The central vertical velocity dispersion of the disk stars, sigma(z,R=0), is related to the maximum rotation speed (Vmax) as sigma(z,R=0) ~ 0.26 Vmax, consistent with previous measurements for edge-on disk galaxies and a mean stellar velocity ellipsoid axial ratio sigma(z) / sigma(R) = 0.6. For reasonable values of disk oblateness, this relation implies these galaxy disks are submaximal. We find disks in our sample contribute only 15% to 30% of the dynamical mass within 2.2 disk scale-lengths (hR), with percentages increasing systematically with luminosity, rotation speed and redder color. These trends indicate the mass ratio of disk-to-total matter remains at or below 50% at 2.2 hR even for the most extreme, fast-rotating disks (Vmax > 300 km/s), of the reddest rest-frame, face-on color (B-K ~ 4 mag), and highest luminosity (M(K)<-26.5 mag). Th...

  14. The Densest Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Romanowsky, Aaron; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Caldwell, Nelson; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher; Arnold, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we term M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 x 10^8 M_sun but a half-light radius of only ~ 24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well-fit by a sum of Sersic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r_h=14 pc; n ~ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r_h=49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L_X ~ 10^38 erg/s that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (~> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. T...

  15. Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera

    In 1965, Vera Rubin was the first woman permitted to observe at Palomar Observatory. In the intervening years, she has become one of the world's finest and most respected astronomers. This particular collection of essays is compiled from work written over the past 15 years and deals with a variety of subjects in astronomy and astrophysics, specifically galaxies and dark matter. The book also contains biographical sketches of astronomers who have been colleagues and friends, providing a stimulating view of a woman in science. About the Author Since 1965 Vera Rubin has been a staff member at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dr. Rubin has authored nearly 200 papers on the structure of our galaxy, motions within other galaxies, and large scale motions in the universe. She has been a distinguished visiting astronomer at the Cerro Tololo Inter American Observatory in Chile; a Chancellor's Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Berkeley; a President's Distinguished Visitor at Vassar College; and a Beatrice Tinsley visiting professor at the University of Texas, Austin.

  16. Executing SADI services in Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Egaña Aranguren, Mikel; Rodríguez González, Alejandro; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years Galaxy has become a popular workflow management system in bioinformatics, due to its ease of installation, use and extension. The availability of Semantic Web-oriented tools in Galaxy, however, is limited. This is also the case for Semantic Web Services such as those provided by the SADI project, i.e. services that consume and produce RDF. Here we present SADI-Galaxy, a tool generator that deploys selected SADI Services as typical Galaxy tools. Results: SADI-Ga...

  17. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  18. Characteristic Scales in Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Dekel, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    Recent data, e.g. from SDSS and 2dF, reveal a robust bi-modality in the distribution of galaxy properties, with a characteristic transition scale at stellar mass M_*~3x10^{10} Msun (near L_*), corresponding to virial velocity V~100 km/s. Smaller galaxies tend to be blue disks of young populations. They define a "fundamental line" of decreasing surface brightness, metallicity and velocity with decreasing M_*, which extends to the smallest dwarf galaxies. Galaxies above the critical scale are d...

  19. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    James, Bethan L; Stark, Daniel P; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a sub-sample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on SDSS images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered extremely metal-poor galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ~100 of these blue, diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45<12+log(O/H)<8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionisation parame...

  20. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  1. Neighboring Galaxies' Influence on Rotation Curve Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, John C.; Castelaz, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation velocity asymmetry v observed in spiral galaxy HI rotation curves linearly correlates with the effective potential force from the 10 closest neighboring galaxies normalized for the test particle mass and the gravitational constant. The magnitude of the potential force from a close galaxy is proportional to the luminosity of the close galaxy and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the close galaxy to the target galaxy. The correlation coefficient is 0.99 and ...

  2. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  3. Joint Analysis of Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering: Methodology and Forecasts for DES

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y; Dodelson, S; Jain, B; Amara, A; Becker, M R; Bridle, S L; Clampitt, J; Crocce, M; Fosalba, P; Gaztanaga, E; Honscheid, K; Rozo, E; Sobreira, F; Sánchez, C; Wechsler, R H; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; James, D J; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Melchior, P; Miller, C J; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Soares-Santos, M; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Weller, J; Zuntz, J

    2015-01-01

    The joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large scale structure. This analysis will be carried out on data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. We develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting small scale lensing, which provides halo masses, and large scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects sub-dominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degen...

  4. THE DENSEST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} but a half-light radius of only ∼24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r{sub h} = 14 pc; n ∼ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r{sub h} = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (∼> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ∼ 70 km s{sup –1}) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L{sub V} = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L{sub V} . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M{sub B} ∼ –18 to –19.

  5. Dependence of Barred Galaxy Fraction on Galaxy Properties and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Choi, Yun-Young

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than $M_{r}=-19.5+5$log$h$ at $0.02\\le z\\le0.05489$, drawn from the SDSS DR 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio $b/a>0.60$, we find 3,240 barred galaxies ($f_{bar}=30.4%$) which divide into 2,542 strong bars ($f_{SB1}=23.8%$) and 698 weak bars ($f_{SB2}=6.5%$). We find that $f_{SB1}$ increases as $u-r$ color becomes redder, and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion ($\\sigma\\simeq$150 km s$^{-1}$). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with $\\sigma>150$ km s${}^{-1}$. We also find that $f_{bar}$ ...

  6. Internal kinematics of spiral galaxies in distant rich galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, K; Ziegler, B L; Heidt, J; Moellenhoff, C

    2004-01-01

    We present our project on galaxy evolution in the environment of distant rich clusters aiming at disentangling the importance of specific interaction and galaxy transformation processes from the hierarchical evolution of field galaxies. Spatially resolved MOS spectra were gained with VLT/FORS to analyze the internal kinematics of disk galaxies. First results are shown for the clusters MS 1008.1-1224 (z=0.30), Cl 0303+1706 (z=0.42), and Cl 0413-6559 (z=0.51). Out of 35 late type cluster members, 13 galaxies exhibit a rotation curve of the universal form rising in the inner region and passing over into a flat part. The other members have peculiar kinematics. The 13 cluster galaxies for which a maximum rotation velocity could be derived are distributed in the Tully-Fisher diagram very similar to field galaxies from the FORS Deep Field with corresponding redshifts. The same is true for seven non-cluster galaxies observed in the cluster fields. The TF-cluster spirals do not show any significant luminosity evolutio...

  7. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  8. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  9. Local Environmental Dependence of Galaxy Properties in a Volume-Limited Sample of Main Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a volume-limited sample of Main Galaxies from SDSS Data Release 5, we investigate the dependence of galaxy properties on local environment. For each galaxy, a local three-dimensional density is calculated. We find that the galaxy morphological type depends strongly on the local environment: galaxies in dense environments have predominantly early type morphologies. Galaxy colors have only a weak dependence on the environment. This puts an important constraint on the process of galaxy formation.

  10. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical Models of Interacting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Holincheck, Anthony J; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C; Parrish, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of Citizen Scientists, we sample 10^5 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the ...

  11. Galaxies Detected by the Dwingeloo Obscured Galaxies Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, A J; Kraan-Korteweg, R C

    1999-01-01

    The Dwingeloo Obscured Galaxies Survey (DOGS) is a 21-cm blind survey for galaxies hidden in the northern "Zone of Avoidance" (ZOA): the portion of the optical extragalactic sky which is obscured by dust in the Milky Way. Like the Parkes southern hemisphere ZOA survey, the DOGS project is designed to reveal hidden dynamically important nearby galaxies and to help "fill in the blanks" in the local large scale structure. To date, 36 galaxies have been detected by the Dwingeloo survey; 23 of these were previously unknown (no corresponding sources recorded in the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED)). Among the interesting detections are 3 nearby galaxies in the vicinity of NGC 6946 and 11 detections in the Supergalactic plane crossing region. VLA follow-up observations have been conducted for several of the DOGS detections.

  12. Spherical Jeans analysis for dark matter indirect detection in dwarf spheroidal galaxies - impact of physical parameters and triaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnivard, V.; Combet, C.; Maurin, D.; Walker, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter (DM) from annihilation and/or decay products. Empirical estimates of their DM content - and hence the magnitudes of expected signals - rely on inferences from stellar-kinematic data. However, various kinematic analyses can give different results and it is not obvious which are most reliable. Using extensive sets of mock data of various sizes (mimicking `ultrafaint' and `classical' dSphs) and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine, here we investigate biases, uncertainties and limitations of analyses based on parametric solutions to the spherical Jeans equation. For a variety of functional forms for the tracer and DM density profiles, as well as the orbital anisotropy profile, we examine reliability of estimates for the astrophysical J- and D-factors for annihilation and decay, respectively. For large (N ≳ 1000) stellar-kinematic samples, typical of `classical' dSphs, errors tend to be dominated by systematics, which can be reduced through the use of sufficiently general and flexible functional forms. For small (N ≲ 100) samples typical of `ultrafaints', statistical uncertainties tend to dominate systematic errors and flexible models are less necessary. We define an optimal strategy that would mitigate sensitivity to priors and other aspects of analyses based on the spherical Jeans equation. We also find that the assumption of spherical symmetry can bias estimates of J (with the 95 per cent credibility intervals not encompassing the true J-factor) when the object is mildly triaxial (axis ratios b/a = 0.8, c/a = 0.6). A concluding table summarizes the typical error budget and biases for the different sample sizes considered.

  13. Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

  14. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

  15. The Epoch of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Baugh, C M; Frenk, C S; Lacey, C

    1997-01-01

    We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation in hierarchical clustering theories to interpret recent data on galaxy formation and evolution, focussing primarily on the recently discovered population of Lyman-break galaxies at z galaxy catalogues subject to identical selection criteria to those applied to the real data. We find that the expected number of Lyman-break galaxies is very sensitive to the assumed stellar initial mass function and to the normalization of the primordial power spectrum. For reasonable choices of these and other model parameters, it is possible to reproduce the observed abundance of Lyman-break galaxies in CDM models with Ømega_0=1 and with Ømega_0<1. The Lyman break galaxies generally form from rare peaks at high redshift and, as a result, their spatial distribution is strongly biased, with a typical bias parameter, b\\simeq 4, and a comoving correlation length, r_0\\simeq 4 \\mpc. In combination with data at lower redshifts, the Lyman-break galaxies can be used to trace the cos...

  16. Viewing galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krajnović, Davor

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to a technique that reveals galaxies in 3D, astronomers can now show that many galaxies have been wrongly classified. Davor Krajnovi\\'c argues that the classification scheme proposed 85 years ago by Edwin Hubble now needs to be revised.

  17. Mirages in galaxy scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Mosenkov, A V; Reshetnikov, V P

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed several basic correlations between structural parameters of galaxies. The data were taken from various samples in different passbands which are available in the literature. We discuss disc scaling relations as well as some debatable issues concerning the so-called Photometric Plane for bulges and elliptical galaxies in different forms and various versions of the famous Kormendy relation. We show that some of the correlations under discussion are artificial (self-correlations), while others truly reveal some new essential details of the structural properties of galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) At present, we can not conclude that faint stellar discs are, on average, more thin than discs in high surface brightness galaxies. The ``central surface brightness -- thickness'' correlation appears only as a consequence of the transparent exponential disc model to describe real galaxy discs. (2) The Photometric Plane appears to have no independent physical sense. Various forms of this plane ar...

  18. Cosmology with clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, Neta A

    1995-01-01

    Rich clusters of galaxies, the largest virialized systems known, provide a powerful tool for the study of cosmology. Some of the fundamental questions that can be addressed with clusters of galaxies include: how did galaxies and large-scale structure form and evolve? What is the amount, composition and distribution of matter in the universe? I review some of the studies utilizing clusters of galaxies to investigare, among others: - The dark matter on clusters scale and the mean mass-density of the universe; - The large-scale structure of the universe; - The peculiar velocity field on large scales; - The mass-function of groups and clusters of galaxies; - The constraints placed on specific cosmological models using the cluster data.

  19. Disrupted Stars in Unusual Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star passes a little too close to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Tidal forces from the black hole cause the passing star to be torn apart, resulting in a brief flare of radiation as the stars material accretes onto the black hole. A recent study asks the following question: do TDEs occur most frequently in an unusual type of galaxy?A Trend in DisruptionsSo far, we have data from eight candidate TDEs that peaked in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. The spectra from these observations have shown an intriguing trend: many of these TDEs host galaxies exhibit weak line emission (indicating little or no current star-formation activity), and yet they show strong Balmer absorption lines (indicating star formation activity occurred within the last Gyr). These quiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies likely underwent a period of intense star formation that recently ended.To determine if TDEs are overrepresented in such galaxies, a team of scientists led by Decker French (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) has quantified the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that exhibit similar properties to those of TDE hosts.Quantifying OverrepresentationSpectral characteristics of SDSS galaxies (gray) and TDE candidate host galaxies (colored points): line emission vs. Balmer absorption. The lower right-hand box identifies thequiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies which contain most TDE events, yet are uncommon among the galaxy sample as a whole. Click for a better look! [French et al. 2016]French and collaborators compare the optical spectra of the TDE host galaxies to those of nearly 600,000 SDSS galaxies, using two different cutoffs for the Balmer absorption the indicator of past star formation. Their strictest cut, filtering for very high Balmer absorption, selected only 0.2% of the SDSS galaxies, yet 38% of the TDEs are hosted in such galaxies. Using a more relaxed cutoff selects 2.3% of

  20. Groups and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, a correlative study is performed with respect to the radio and X-ray parameters of galaxy clusters and groups of galaxies (Msub(v)-Psub(1.4); Msub(v)-Lsub(x); Lsub(x)-Psub(1.4); R-Msub(v) correlations). Special attention is paid to correlations with cD and elliptical galaxies. It is concluded that in rich clusters massive cD galaxies form; massive galaxies are able to bind a large X-ray halo; strong X-ray emitters fuel their central radio sources at a high rate; the total gas content of groups is low, which implies that the contribution of groups to the total matter density in the universe is small. (Auth.)

  1. Understanding Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V

    2006-01-01

    The old dream of integrating into one the study of micro and macrocosmos is now a reality. Cosmology, astrophysics, and particle physics intersect in a scenario (but still not a theory) of cosmic structure formation and evolution called Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model. This scenario emerged mainly to explain the origin of galaxies. In these lecture notes, I first present a review of the main galaxy properties, highlighting the questions that any theory of galaxy formation should explain. Then, the cosmological framework and the main aspects of primordial perturbation generation and evolution are pedagogically detached. Next, I focus on the ``dark side'' of galaxy formation, presenting a review on LCDM halo assembling and properties, and on the main candidates for non-baryonic dark matter. It is shown how the nature of elemental particles can influence on the features of galaxies and their systems. Finally, the complex processes of baryon dissipation inside the non-linearly evolving CDM halos, formation o...

  2. Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Radio synchrotron emission is a powerful tool to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30\\mu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100\\mu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15\\mu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the interg...

  3. The Antennae Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39) are the nearest and best-studied major merger of two gas-rich spirals in the local Universe. They are named after the characteristic pair of tidal tails that protrude out of their main galactic disks. Due to their proximity the Antennae are extremely well sampled by modern high-resolution observations over an enormous wavelength range, from radio to X-ray. This allows for a comprehensive multiwavelength approach to the present-day morpholo...

  4. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Projected Galaxy Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, D J; Norberg, Peder; Metcalfe, N; Baldry, I; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J I; Hopkins, A M; Lacey, Cedric G; Liske, J; Loveday, Jon; Palamara, David P; Robotham, A S G; Sridhar, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    We measure the projected 2-point correlation function of galaxies in the 180 deg$^2$ equatorial regions of the GAMA II survey, for four different redshift slices between z = 0.0 and z=0.5. To do this we further develop the Cole (2011) method of producing suitable random catalogues for the calculation of correlation functions. We find that more r-band luminous, more massive and redder galaxies are more clustered. We also find that red galaxies have stronger clustering on scales less than ~3 $h^{-1}$ Mpc. We compare to two different versions of the GALFORM galaxy formation model, Lacey et al (in prep.) and Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014), and find that the models reproduce the trend of stronger clustering for more massive galaxies. However, the models under predict the clustering of blue galaxies, can incorrectly predict the correlation function on small scales and under predict the clustering in our sample of galaxies with ~3$L_r$ . We suggest possible avenues to explore to improve these cluster- ing predictions....

  5. Mathematical Morphology: Star/Galaxy Differentiation & Galaxy Morphology Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, J A; Drinkwater, M J; Moore, Jason A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Drinkwater, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an application of Mathematical Morphology (MM) for the classification of astronomical objects, both for star/galaxy differentiation and galaxy morphology classification. We demonstrate that, for CCD images, 99.3 +/- 3.8 % of galaxies can be separated from stars using MM, with 19.4 +/- 7.9 % of the stars being misclassified. We demonstrate that, for photographic plate images, the number of galaxies correctly separated from the stars can be increased using our MM diffraction spike tool, which allows 51.0 +/- 6.0 % of the high-brightness galaxies that are inseparable in current techniques to be correctly classified, with only 1.4 +/- 0.5 % of the high-brightness stars contaminating the population. We demonstrate that elliptical (E) and late-type spiral (Sc-Sd) galaxies can be classified using MM at an accuracy of 91.4 +/- 7.8 %. It is a method involving less `free parameters' than current techniques, especially automated machine learning algorithms. The limitation of MM galaxy morphology based on seei...

  6. A pseudo-spectrum analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hikage, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    We present the application of the pseudo-spectrum method to galaxy-galaxy lensing. We derive explicit expressions for the pseudo-spectrum analysis of the galaxy-shear cross spectrum, which is the Fourier space counterpart of the stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing profile. The pseudo-spectrum method corrects observational issues such as the survey geometry, masks of bright stars and their spikes, and inhomogeneous noise, which distort the spectrum and also mix the E-mode and the B-mode signals. Using ray-tracing simulations in N-body simulations including realistic masks, we confirm that the pseudo-spectrum method successfully recovers the input galaxy-shear cross spectrum. We also investigate the covariance of the galaxy-shear cross spectrum using the ray-tracing simulations to show that there is an excess covariance relative to the Gaussian covariance at small scales where the shot noise is dominated in the Gaussian approximation. We find that the excess of the covariance is consistent with the expectation from t...

  7. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: Crowdsourced Morphologies for 169,944 Galaxies at 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle; Galloway, Melanie; Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, Steven; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Cheung, Edmond; Schawinski, Kevin; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project uses crowdsourced visual classifications to create large and statistically robust catalogs of detailed galaxy morphology. We present initial results for the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble dataset, which includes 169,944 images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. The galaxies span a redshift range of 0Zoo: Hubble catalog.

  8. Planetary Nebulae as Mass Tracers in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary nebula are useful kinematic tracers of the stars in all galaxy types. I review recent observationally-driven developments in the study of galaxy mass profiles. These have yielded surprising results on spiral galaxy disk masses and elliptical galaxy halo masses. A key remaining question is the coupling between PNe and the underlying stellar populations.

  9. Stars, Galaxies and Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and  whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions.  Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.

  10. Extinction in SC galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Salzer, John J.; Wegner, Gary; da Costa, Luiz N.; Freudling, Wolfram

    1994-06-01

    We analyze the photometric properties of a sample of Sbc-Sc galaxies with known redshifts, single-dish H I profiles, and Charge Coupled Device (CCD) I band images. We derive laws that relate the measured isophotal radius at muI = 23.5, magnitude, scale length, and H I flux to the face-on aspect. We find spiral galaxies to be substantially less transparent than suggested in most previous determinations, but not as opaque as claimed by Valentijn (1990). Regions in the disk farther than two or three scale lengths from the center are close to completely transparent. In addition to statistically derived relations for the inclination dependence of photometric parameters, we present the results of a modeling exercise that utilizes the 'triplex' model of Disney et al. (1989) to obtain upper limits of the disk opacity. Within the framework of that model, and with qualitative consideration of the effects of scattering on extinction, we estimate late spiral disks at I band to have central optical depths tauI(0) less than 5 and dust absorbing layers with scale heights on the order of half that of the stellar component or less. We discuss our results in light of previous determinations of internal extinction relations and point out the substantial impact of internal extinction on the scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation. We also find that the visual diameters by which large catalogs are constructed (UGC, ESO-Uppsala) are nearly proportional to face-on isophotal diameters.

  11. Abundances in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard (or mildly inhomogeneous) Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory is well confirmed by abundance measurements of light elements up to 7Li and the resulting upper limit to the number of neutrino families confirmed in accelerator experiments. Extreme inhomogeneous models with a closure density in form of baryons seem to be ruled out and there is no evidence for a cosmic 'floor' to 9Be or heavier elements predicted in some versions of those models. Galaxies show a correlation between luminous mass and abundance of carbon and heavier elements, usually attributed to escape of hot gas from shallow potential wells. Uncertainties include the role of dark matter and biparametric behaviour of ellipticals. Spirals have radial gradients which may arise from a variety of causes. In our own Galaxy one can distinguish three stellar populations - disk, halo and bulge - characterised by differing metallicity distribution functions. Differential abundance effects are found among different elements in stars as a function of metallicity and presumably age, notably in the ratio of oxygen and α-particle elements to iron. These may eventually be exploitable to set a time scale for the formation of the halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  12. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  13. Spiral galaxies in clusters. III. Gas-rich galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a 21-cm and optical survey of disk galaxies in the vicinity of the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies. The color--gas content relation [log(M/sub H//L/sub B/) vs (B-V)/sup T/0 ] for this particular cluster reveals the presence of a substantial number of blue, gas-rich galaxies. With few exceptions, the disk systems in Pegasus I retain large amounts of neutral hydrogen despite their presence in a cluster. This directly shows that environmental processes have not yet removed substantial amounts of gas from these disk galaxies. We conclude that the environment has had little or no observable effect upon the evolution of disk galaxies in Pegasus I. The overall properties of the Pegasus I spirals are consistent with the suggestion that this cluster is now at an early stage in its evolution

  14. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  15. Searching for tidal tails - investigating galaxy harassment

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J I; Sabatini, S

    2005-01-01

    Galaxy harassment has been proposed as a physical process that morphologically transforms low surface density disc galaxies into dwarf elliptical galaxies in clusters. It has been used to link the observed very different morphology of distant cluster galaxies (relatively more blue galaxies with 'disturbed' morphologies) with the relatively large numbers of dwarf elliptical galaxies found in nearby clusters. One prediction of the harassment model is that the remnant galaxies should lie on low surface brightness tidal streams or arcs. We demonstrate in this paper that we have an analysis method that is sensitive to the detection of arcs down to a surface brightness of 29 B mag/arcsec^2 and then use this method to search for arcs around 46 Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. We find no evidence for tidal streams or arcs and consequently no evidence for galaxy harassment as a viable explanation for the relatively large numbers of dwarf galaxies found in the Virgo cluster.

  16. The distribution of galaxies in voids

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, U; Einasto, J; Freudling, W; Fricke, K; Lipovetsky, V A; Pustilnik, S A; Izotov, Yu I; Richter, G; Lindner, Ulrich; Einasto, Maret; Einasto, Jaan; Freudling, Wolfram; Fricke, Klaus; Lipovetsky, Valentin; Pustilnik, Simon; Izotov, Yuri; Richter, Gotthard

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of normal (faint) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCGs) in voids by analyzing their distribution as a function of distance from the void centers and by employing nearest neighbour statistics between objects of various subsamples. We find that galaxies in voids defined by brighter galaxies tend to be concentrated close to the walls of voids in a hierarchical manner, similar to the behavior of brighter galaxies. The behavior of BCGs is in this respect similar to the one found for normal dwarf galaxies. The median nearest neighbour distance of BCGs from normal galaxies is approximately 0.7 Mpc, which indicates that these galaxies are located in outlying parts of systems of galaxies defined by normal galaxies.

  17. DISTANT CLUSTER OF GALAXIES [left

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    One of the deepest images to date of the universe, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), reveals thousands of faint galaxies at the detection limit of present day telescopes. Peering across a large volume of the observable cosmos, Hubble resolves thousands of galaxies from five to twelve billion light-years away. The light from these remote objects has taken billions of years to cross the expanding universe, making these distant galaxies fossil evidence' of events that happened when the universe was one-third its present age. A fraction of the galaxies in this image belong to a cluster located nine billion light-years away. Though the field of view (at the cluster's distance) is only two million light-years across, it contains a multitude of fragmentary objects. (By comparison, the two million light-years between our Milky Way galaxy and its nearest large companion galaxy, in the constellation Andromeda, is essentially empty space!) Very few of the cluster's members are recognizable as normal spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way), although some elongated members might be edge-on disks. Among this zoo of odd galaxies are ``tadpole-like'' objects, disturbed and apparently merging systems dubbed 'train-wrecks,' and a multitude of faint, tiny shards and fragments, dwarf galaxies or possibly an unknown population of objects. However, the cluster also contains red galaxies that resemble mature examples of today's elliptical galaxies. Their red color comes from older stars that must have formed shortly after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2. The picture was taken in intervals between May 11 and June 15, 1994 and required an 18-hour long exposure, over 32 orbits of HST, to reveal objects down to 29th magnitude. [bottom right] A close up view of the peculiar radio galaxy 3C324 used to locate the cluster. The galaxy is nine billion light-years away as measured by its spectral redshift (z=1.2), and located in the

  18. Galaxies appear simpler than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M J; Romano, J D; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-10-23

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology. PMID:18948949

  19. The evolution of galaxy habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Gobat, R

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, as well as its evolution with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone ("habitability") depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expe...

  20. Modelling nova populations in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical modelling of the evolution of classical and recurrent novae plays an important role in studies of binary evolution, nucleosynthesis and accretion physics. However, from a theoretical perspective the observed statistical properties of novae remain poorly understood. In this paper, we have produced model populations of novae using a hybrid binary population synthesis approach for differing star formation histories (SFHs): a starburst case (elliptical-like galaxies), a constant star formation rate case (spiral-like galaxies) and a composite case (in line with the inferred SFH for M31). We found that the nova rate at 10 Gyr in an elliptical-like galaxy is ˜10-20 times smaller than a spiral-like galaxy with the same mass. The majority of novae in elliptical-like galaxies at the present epoch are characterized by low-mass white dwarfs (WDs), long decay times, relatively faint absolute magnitudes and long recurrence periods. In contrast, the majority of novae in spiral-like galaxies at 10 Gyr have massive WDs, short decay times, are relatively bright and have short recurrence periods. The mass-loss time distribution for novae in our M31-like galaxy is in agreement with observational data for Andromeda. However, it is possible that we underestimate the number of bright novae in our model. This may arise in part due to the present uncertainties in the appropriate bolometric correction for novae.

  1. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  2. Constraints on Assembly Bias from Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Zentner, Andrew R.; Hearin, Andrew; Bosch, Frank C. van den; Lange, Johannes U.; Villarreal, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the newly-introduced decorated Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model using SDSS DR7 measurements of projected galaxy clustering or r-band luminosity threshold samples. The decorated HOD is a model for the galaxy-halo connection that augments the HOD by allowing for the possibility of galaxy assembly bias: galaxy luminosity may be correlated with dark matter halo properties besides mass, Mvir. We demonstrate that it is not possible to rule out galaxy assembly bias using DR7 mea...

  3. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyz...

  4. Triangulum galaxy viewed by Planck

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Nucita, A A; Chemin, L; Qadir, A; Kashin, A L; Khachatryan, H G; Sargsyan, S; Yegorian, G; Ingrosso, G; Jetzer, Ph; Vetrugno, D

    2016-01-01

    We used Planck data to study the M33 galaxy and find a substantial temperature asymmetry with respect to its minor axis projected onto the sky plane. This temperature asymmetry correlates well with the HI velocity field at 21 cm, at least within a galactocentric distance of 0.5 degree, and it is found to extend up to about 3 degrees from the galaxy center. We conclude that the revealed effect, that is, the temperature asymmetry and its extension, implies that we detected the differential rotation of the M33 galaxy and of its extended baryonic halo.

  5. XMM tests galaxy evolutions models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Current models of galaxy evolution rely critically on feedback supernova and AGN feedback processes. The energy released by past star formation and AGN activity imprints a fossil record on the thermodynamic properties of the intra-group-medium (IGM). This can be decoded by studying the X-ray emission. for an unbiased sample of groups with known galaxy and AGN properties. Therefore we propose an X-ray survey with XMM-Newton for 255 ksec to observe 17 galaxy groups with Msim10(13) M_odot selected from our Zurich ENvironmental Survey that host >8 members.

  6. Samsung Galaxy Tabs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A colorful, entertaining, and informative guide to the Samsung Galaxy family of tablets Samsung's bestselling Galaxy Tabs may come in multiple sizes, but they all share the wildly popular Android operating system and are packed with tons of top-notch tablet features. This full-color book shows you how to enjoy all the things your Galaxy Tab can do, regardless of model: browse the web, handle e-mail, manage your social media, make phone calls and video chat, read e-books, take and share photos, play music, and more. Author Dan Gookin, famous for his skill in demystifying technology, takes you

  7. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluste...

  8. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  9. HII galaxies in 4D

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    HII galaxies are clumpy and their gas kinematics can be mapped to show the global turbulent motions and the effect of massive star evolution. The distribution of their physical conditions is homogeneous and oxygen abundance is uniform. The presence of nebular HeII 4868 line seems to be higher in a low abundance galaxy, implying a harder ionization power probably due to stars in low metallicity. Innovative methods of data cube analysis, namely PCA tomography (nicknamed 4D), seem promising in revealing additional information not detected with the standard methods. I review some of our own recent work on the 3D spectroscopy of HII galaxies.

  10. Poor cluster of galaxies containing four absolutely bright Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zwicky cluster Zw 1122.3 + 6317, which contains four Markaryan galaxies, is discussed. Radial velocities are determined for three galaxies in the region of the sky occupied by this cluster. It is shown that the cluster is very open and consists mainly of spirals, that some compact ellipticals are possible cluster members, and that the Markarian galaxies are among the brightest cluster members. Spatial and kinematic characteristics of the cluster are estimated, including a mean recession velocity of 3557 km/s, a radial-velocity dispersion of 219 km/s, a virial mass of 92 trillion solar masses, a crossing time of 2.9 billion years, a luminosity of 1.1 trillion suns, and an M/L ratio of 84 (in solar units). The possibility is noted that this cluster might actually be two groups of galaxies, with mean recession velocities of approximately 3350 and 3750 km/s, projected onto each other

  11. Making galaxies passive: Insights from resolved studies of nearby galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Querejeta, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The rapid suppression of star formation, or quenching, is thought to be an important process in the evolution of the most massive galaxies, but the mechanisms involved are still hotly debated. Here, we consider two agents that control star formation and can ultimately lead to its suppression: AGN feedback and galaxy mergers. In the first part of the thesis, we study the interplay between stellar structure, nuclear activity, and molecular gas in the context of AGN feeding and feedback. We ...

  12. Joint Analysis of Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering: Methodology and Forecasts for DES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). et al.

    2015-07-19

    The joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large scale structure. Our analysis will be carried out on data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. We develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting small scale lensing, which provides halo masses, and large scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects sub-dominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. Finally, we conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that covered over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  13. Bright galaxies, dark matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V.

    This book charts two extraordinary journeys: the road to a better understanding of the structure and composition of the universe, and V. Rubin's own pathbreaking career. The scientific papers included here offer an overview of the topic that has been the major focus of her career: the motions of stars within galaxies and the evidence from these motions that most of the matter in the universe is dark. Elsewhere the author examines some of the tools of her trade - from star charts to the Hubble Telescope to some of the observatories where she has worked. The concluding section, "The astronomical life", finds V. Rubin writing candidly about the demands and rewards of her career, offering insightful portraits of colleagues, friends, and other notable women in science.

  14. Population of the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new theory of the population of the Galaxy, based on the hypothesis of explosive: simultaneous and one-time-origination of life in the universe at a certain moment of its evolutionary development, is discussed in the report. According to the proposed theory, civilizations began to arise around the present moment of the history of the universe. Their possible number is limited even when their lifetime is unlimited. The age and number of simultaneously existing civilizations when their lifetime is unlimited is determined by the duration and dispersion of the time of evolution of life on different planets from the cell level to civilization. The proposed theory explains better than Drake's theory the negative results of the search for evidence of the existence of superpowerful extraterrestrial civilizations and the noncolonization of the earth

  15. Galaxy Outflows Without Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Sharanya; Ostriker, Eve C

    2016-01-01

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have $\\approx 50-100\\,{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$ line-of-sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly-compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds $\\approx 35\\,{\\rm km\\...

  16. Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, J.; et al.

    2016-03-18

    We present galaxy-galaxy lensing results from 139 square degrees of Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data. Our lens sample consists of red galaxies, known as redMaGiC, which are specifically selected to have a low photometric redshift error and outlier rate. The lensing measurement has a total signal-to-noise of 29, including all lenses over a wide redshift range $0.2 < z < 0.8$. Dividing the lenses into three redshift bins, we find no evidence for evolution in the halo mass with redshift. We obtain consistent results for the lensing measurement with two independent shear pipelines, ngmix and im3shape. We perform a number of null tests on the shear and photometric redshift catalogs and quantify resulting systematic errors. Covariances from jackknife subsamples of the data are validated with a suite of 50 mock surveys. The results and systematics checks in this work provide a critical input for future cosmological and galaxy evolution studies with the DES data and redMaGiC galaxy samples. We fit a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model, and demonstrate that our data constrains the mean halo mass of the lens galaxies, despite strong degeneracies between individual HOD parameters.

  17. Why Galaxies Care about AGB Stars. Modelling Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maraston, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Thermally-Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase of stellar evolution has received attention only recently in galaxy evolution, but is now an important player in our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. Because it is a short but very luminous phase, bright in the near-IR where dust effects are small, the TP-AGB phase is a powerful tracer of intermediate-age stars in galaxies up to high redshift. The spectral signature of TP-AGB stars as defined by population synthesis models has been detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope in high-redshift galaxies, whose spectra show an amazing similarity to spectra of local stellar populations. Even accounting for the high uncertainty affecting the theoretical modelling of this phase, stellar population models including the TP-AGB have leveraged a better determination of galaxy ages and hence stellar masses, fundamental quantities for studying galaxy formation and evolution. They have also improved the results of semi-analytic models, which can bette...

  18. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail: panzz@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  19. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 + color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M20 planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ10) distributions at z > 0.7. At z * 10.0 M☉ green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M* 10.0 M☉ blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5

  20. Black Holes and Galaxy Metamorphosis

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K

    2001-01-01

    Supermassive black holes can be seen as an agent of galaxy transformation. In particular, a supermassive black hole can cause a triaxial galaxy to evolve toward axisymmetry by inducing chaos in centrophilic orbit families. This is one way in which a single supermassive black hole can induce large-scale changes in the structure of its host galaxy -- changes on scales far larger than the Schwarzschild radius ($O(10^{-5}) \\rm{pc}$) and the radius of influence of the black hole ($O(1)-O(100) \\rm{pc}$). We will discuss the transformative power of supermassive black holes in light of recent high resolution N-body realizations of cuspy triaxial galaxies.

  1. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  2. Largescale QSO - Galaxy Correlations Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmann, M.; Schneider, P.

    1993-04-01

    Fugmann (1990) claimed indications for correlations between Lick galaxies and high-redshift, radio-loud background sources. We re- analyze these correlations using an improved statistical method based on Spearman's rank-order test, which we have introduced recently (Bartelmann & Schneider 1993). To our surprise, we are not able to reproduce Fugmann's results, but we detect a significant correlation between moderate-redshift sources from the 1-Jansky catalog and Lick galaxies, which increases when we apply an optical flux limit to the source sample. We interpret these empirical results in terms of an amplification bias caused by gravitational light deflection by dark matter; in particular, we argue that the observed large-scale QSO-galaxy correlations can provide a proof for the association of luminous matter (galaxies) with dark matter.

  3. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  4. Extinction Curves of Lensing Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíasdóttir, Árdís

    2006-09-01

    Dust extinction causes light from distant sources to be dimmed on itsway to the observer. In cosmological studies, such as SN Ia studies,it is of great importance that the effects of dust extinction becorrectly accounted for. However, although dust properties, andhence extinction, are expected to vary with redshift, not very muchis known about the extinction properties of high redshift galaxies.This is because the methods traditionally used to study extinctioncurves are only applicable for the most nearby galaxies. Studyinggravitationally lensed quasars is an emerging method of studying thedust extinction of high redshift galaxies. I will present an ESO VLTstudy of 10 such lensing galaxies, with redshifts up to 1. The 10systems display varying amount and type of extinction, with thedoubly imaged quasar B1152+199 showing the greatest extinction with A(V)=2.4 and R_V=2.1 for a Galactic type extinction law.

  5. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  6. Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenbeck, Kai; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies, and may have a strong impact on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employ a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally l...

  7. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Athanassoula, E

    2005-01-01

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. Durin...

  8. Infrared studies of active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRAS observations of extragalactic objects are analyzed, supplemented by optical spectroscopy and 10 μm photometry. The relationship between various forms of activity in the nuclei of spiral galaxies and their mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distributions is explored. It is shown that more than 70% of galaxies with F60/F25 ≤ 3 are Seyferts, while the remainder have bright optical emission lines in their nuclear spectra. It is argued that most Seyferts are powered by their active nuclei at 25 μm, while there is some indication that Seyferts with large F60/F25 flux ratios are undergoing starbursts in the vicinity of their nuclei. The properties of a sample of bright, extragalactic IRAS sources are studied. A catalog containing total infrared and blue fluxes, distance estimates, recession velocities, and morphological classifications for these objects is presented. The brightest sources at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths are nearby, normal spiral galaxies; galaxies with disturbed or irregular morphology (often known as interacting galaxies); type 2 Seyferts; and dust-embedded type 1 Seyferts. All of these sources are dominated by thermal emission from dust. The dust in the peculiar, irregular, and Seyfert galaxies is exposed to a higher mean intensity of radiation. Moreover, these IR-active galaxies tend to have strong, compact nuclear sources at 11 μm, whether or not they contain a known Seyfert nucleus. The distinctive spectral behavior of IR-luminous galaxies is shown to result from the presence of compact, dust-dominated IR nuclear sources, which are the predominant cause of IR luminosities above 1011 L of sun

  9. Detection of galaxies with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. E.; Krone-Martins, A.; dos Anjos, S.; Ducourant, C.; Teixeira, R.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: Besides its major objective tuned to detecting the stellar galactic population, the Gaia mission experiment will also observe a large number of galaxies. In this work we intend to evaluate the number and the characteristics of the galaxies that will effectively pass the on-board selection algorithm of Gaia. Methods: The detection of objects in Gaia will be performed in a section of the focal plane known as the Sky Mapper. Considering the Video Processing Algorithm criterion of detection and the known light profiles of disc and bulges galaxies, we assess the number and the type of extra-galactic objects that will be observed by Gaia. Results: We show that the stellar disc population of galaxies will be very difficult to observe. In contrast, the spheroidal component of elliptical galaxies and bulges having higher central surface brightness and steeper brightness profile will be easier to detect. We estimate that most of the 20 000 elliptical population of nearby galaxies inside the local region up to 170 Mpc are in a state to be observed by Gaia. A similar number of bulges could also be observed, although the low luminosity bulges should escape detection. About two thirds of the more distant objects up to 600 Mpc could also be detected, increasing the total sample to half a million objects including ellipticals and bulges. The angular size of the detected objects will never exceed 4.72 arcsec, which is the size of the largest transmitted windows. Conclusions: A heterogeneous population of elliptical galaxies and bulges will be observable by Gaia. This nearby Universe sample of galaxies should constitute a very rich and interesting sample for studying their structural properties and their distribution.

  10. Dynamical friction in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, X.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    We present a simplified analytic approach to the problem of the spiraling of a massive body orbiting within the dark halo of a dwarf galaxy. This dark halo is treated as the core region of a King distribution of dark matter particles, in consistency with the observational result of dwarf galaxies having solid body rotation curves. Thus we derive a simple formula which provides a reliable and general first order solution to the problem, totally analogous to the one corresponding to the dynamic...

  11. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  12. Lopsidedness of cluster galaxies in modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out an interesting theoretical prediction for elliptical galaxies residing inside galaxy clusters in the framework of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), that could be used to test this paradigm. Apart from the central brightest cluster galaxy, other galaxies close enough to the centre experience a strong gravitational influence from the other galaxies of the cluster. This influence manifests itself only as tides in standard Newtonian gravity, meaning that the systematic acceleration of the centre of mass of the galaxy has no consequence. However, in the context of MOND, a consequence of the breaking of the strong equivalence principle is that the systematic acceleration changes the own self-gravity of the galaxy. We show here that, in this framework, initially axisymmetric elliptical galaxies become lopsided along the external field's direction, and that the centroid of the galaxy, defined by the outer density contours, is shifted by a few hundreds parsecs with respect to the densest point

  13. Internal kinematics of modelled interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Böhm, A; Kutdemir, E; Ziegler, B L

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation of galaxy-galaxy interactions and their effects on the velocity fields of disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, which include cooling, star formation with feedback, and galactic winds. Rotation curves (RCs) of the gas are extracted from these simulations in a way that follows the procedure applied in observations of distant, small, and faint galaxies as closely as possible. We show that galaxy-galaxy mergers and fly-bys significantly disturb the velocity fields and hence the RCs of the interacting galaxies, leading to asymmetries and distortions in the RCs. Typical features of disturbed kinematics are rising or falling profiles in direction to the companion galaxy and bumps in the RCs. In addition, tidal tails can leave strong imprints on the rotation curve. All these features are observable for intermediate redshift galaxies, on which we focus our investigations. The appearance of these distortions depends, however, strongly on the viewing angle. The velocity ...

  14. Gas-Rich Companions of Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Wilcots, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the VLA to search for gaseous remnants of the galaxy formation process around six extremely isolated galaxies. We found two distinct HI clouds around each of two galaxies in our sample (UGC 9762 & UGC 11124). These clouds are rotating and appear to have optical counterparts, strongly implying that they are typical dwarf galaxies. The companions are currently weakly interacting with the primary galaxy, but have short dynamical friction timescales (~1 Gyr) suggesting that these triple galaxy systems will shortly collapse into one massive galaxy. Given that the companions are consistent with being in circular rotation about the primary galaxy, and that they have small relative masses, the resulting merger will be a minor one. The companions do, however, contain enough gas that the merger will represent a significant infusion of fuel to drive future star formation, bar formation, or central activity, while building up the mass of the disk thus making these systems important pieces of the galaxy f...

  15. The star formation and chemical evolution history of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Saha, A.; Olszewski, E. W.; Mateo, M.; Starkenburg, E.; Battaglia, G.; Walker, M. G.

    2012-08-01

    We present deep photometry in the B, V and I filters from CTIO/MOSAIC for about 270 000 stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, out to a radius of rell ≈ 0.8 degrees. By combining the accurately calibrated photometry with the spectroscopic metallicity distributions of individual red giant branch stars we obtain the detailed star formation and chemical evolution history of Fornax. Fornax is dominated by intermediate age (1-10 Gyr) stellar populations, but also includes ancient (10-14 Gyr), and young (≤1 Gyr) stars. We show that Fornax displays a radial age gradient, with younger, more metal-rich populations dominating the central region. This confirms results from previous works. Within an elliptical radius of 0.8 degrees, or 1.9 kpc from the centre, a total mass in stars of 4.3 × 107 M⊙ was formed, from the earliest times until 250 Myr ago. Using the detailed star formation history, age estimates are determined for individual stars on the upper RGB, for which spectroscopic abundances are available, giving an age-metallicity relation of the Fornax dSph from individual stars. This shows that the average metallicity of Fornax went up rapidly from [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5 dex to [Fe/H] = -1.5 dex between 8-12 Gyr ago, after which a more gradual enrichment resulted in a narrow, well-defined sequence which reaches [Fe/H] ≈ -0.8 dex, ≈3 Gyr ago. These ages also allow us to measure the build-up of chemical elements as a function of time, and thus determine detailed timescales for the evolution of individual chemical elements. A rapid decrease in [Mg/Fe] is seen for the stars with [Fe/H] ≥ -1.5 dex, with a clear trend in age. Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A73

  16. Formaldehyde Densitometry of Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G; Menten, Karl M; Henkel, Christian

    2007-01-01

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a survey of the formaldehyde emission in a sample of starburst systems. By extending a technique used to derive the spatial density in star formation regions in our own Galaxy, we show how the relative intensity of the 1(10)-1(11) and 2(11)-2(12) K-doublet transitions of H2CO can provide an accurate densitometer for the active star formation environments found in starburst galaxies. Relying upon an assumed kinetic temperature and co-spatial emission and absorption from both H2CO transitions, our technique is applied to a sample of nineteen IR-bright galaxies which exhibit various forms of starburst activity. In the five galaxies of our sample where both H2CO transitions were detected we have derived spatial densities. We also use H2CO to estimate the dense gas mass in our starburst galaxy sample, finding similar mass estimates for the dense gas forming stars in these objects as derived using other dense gas tracers. A related...

  17. Mirages in galaxy scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenkov, A. V.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2014-06-01

    We analysed several basic correlations between structural parameters of galaxies. The data were taken from various samples in different passbands which are available in the literature. We discuss disc scaling relations as well as some debatable issues concerning the so-called Photometric Plane for bulges and elliptical galaxies in different forms and various versions of the famous Kormendy relation. We show that some of the correlations under discussion are artificial (self-correlations), while others truly reveal some new essential details of the structural properties of galaxies. Our main results are as follows: At present, we cannot conclude that faint stellar discs are, on average, more thin than discs in high surface brightness galaxies. The `central surface brightness-thickness' correlation appears only as a consequence of the transparent exponential disc model to describe real galaxy discs. The Photometric Plane appears to have no independent physical sense. Various forms of this plane are merely sophisticated versions of the Kormendy relation or of the self-relation involving the central surface brightness of a bulge/elliptical galaxy and the Sérsic index n. The Kormendy relation is a physical correlation presumably reflecting the difference in the origin of bright and faint ellipticals and bulges. We present arguments that involve creating artificial samples to prove our main idea.

  18. Galaxies with conspicuous optical warps

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnikov, Vladimir P; Moiseev, Alexei V; Kotov, Sergey S; Savchenko, Sergey S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of a photometric and kinematic study for a sample of 13 edge-on spiral galaxies with pronounced integral-shape warps of their stellar discs. The global structure of the galaxies is analyzed on the basis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging, in the g, r and i passbands. Spectroscopic observations are obtained with the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope. In general, galaxies of the sample are typical bright spiral galaxies satisfying the Tully-Fisher relation. Most of the galaxies reside in dense spatial environments and, therefore, tidal encounters are the most probable mechanism for generating their stellar warps. We carried out a detailed analysis of the galaxies and their warps and obtained the following main results: (i) maximum angles of stellar warps in our sample are about 20{\\deg}; (ii) warps start, on average, between 2 and 3 exponential scale lengths of a disc; (iii) stronger warps start closer to the center, weak warps start farther; (iv) warp...

  19. The Rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmassian, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher than the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b > 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy, which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35% . The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not experience mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, as a result of which the rotation was prevented.

  20. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Hrant M

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60\\%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ~ 35%. The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not have merging with other clusters and groups of galaxies, in the result of which the rotation has been prevented.

  1. Modelling nova populations in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Yungelson, L R; Gilfanov, M; Han, Zhanwen

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical modelling of the evolution of classical and recurrent novae plays an important role in studies of binary evolution, nucleosynthesis and accretion physics. However, from a theoretical perspective the observed statistical properties of novae remain poorly understood. In this paper, we have produced model populations of novae using a hybrid binary population synthesis approach for differing star formation histories (SFHs): a starburst case (elliptical-like galaxies), a constant star formation rate case (spiral-like galaxies) and a composite case (in line with the inferred SFH for M31). We found that the nova rate at 10\\;Gyr in an elliptical-like galaxy is $\\sim 10-20$ times smaller than a spiral-like galaxy with the same mass. The majority of novae in elliptical-like galaxies at the present epoch are characterized by low mass white dwarfs (WDs), long decay times, relatively faint absolute magnitudes and long recurrence periods. In contrast, the majority of novae in spiral-like galaxies at 10\\;Gyr hav...

  2. Detection of Galaxies with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Ronaldo E; Anjos, Sandra dos; Ducourant, Christine; Teixeira, Ramachrisna

    2014-01-01

    Besides its major objective tuned to the detection of the stellar galactic population the Gaia mission experiment will also observe a large number of galaxies. In this work we intend to evaluate the number and the characteristics of the galaxies that will effectively pass the onboard selection algorithm of Gaia. The detection of objects in Gaia will be performed in a section of the focal plane known as the Sky Mapper. Taking into account the Video Processing Algorithm criterion of detection and considering the known light profiles of discs and bulges galaxies we assess the number and the type of extra-galactic objects that will be observed by Gaia. We show that the stellar disk population of galaxies will be very difficult to be observed. On the contrary the spheroidal component of elliptical galaxies and bulges having higher central surface brightness and steeper brightness profile will be more easy to be detected. We estimate that most of the 20 000 elliptical population of nearby galaxies inside the local ...

  3. Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2014-01-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys - fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos - are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three co-planer flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be ...

  4. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  5. Qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Terlevich, E; Fernandes, R Cid; Morales-Luis, A B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis, and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is of general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to HII galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. A number of byprodu...

  6. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42−29+40 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  7. The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

  8. SAMI Galaxy Survey: Spectrally Dissecting 3400 Galaxies By the Dozen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Croom, S.; The SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    More than 440 mapped, less than 3000 to go in the Sydney-AAO Multi-object IFU (SAMI) Galaxy Survey! SAMI uses novel, photonic fused-optical fiber “hexabundles” that were developed successfully at The University of Sydney and the Australian Astronomical Observatory AAO), with support from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO). The SAMI Galaxy Survey, led by Assoc. Prof. Croom, is backed by an international team. This spectro-bolometric survey mitigates against “aperture effects” that may mislead when stacking single-fiber galaxy spectra. We seek to answer questions such as “what is the physical role of environment in galaxy evolution? How is stellar mass growth and angular momentum development related in galaxies? How does gas get into and out of galaxies, and how do such flows drive star formation?” SAMI maps stellar and gas properties with 13 integral-field units (IFU) plugged onto a dozen galaxies over the 1° field of the AAT prime-focus corrector. 78% of each bundle's area is filled by sixty-one 1.6-arcsec diameter fibers that are packed closely into concentric circles then their etched, thinned cladding is fused without deforming their cores. The fiber hexabundles route to the bench-mounted AAOmega double-beam spectrograph to cover simultaneously 373-570 nm at R=1730 and 620-735 nm at R=4500. Full spatial resolution of the observing site is recovered by dithered exposures totaling 3.5 hours per field. Target stellar masses generally exceed 108 M⊙, and span a range of environments: ˜650 are within clusters of virial mass 1014-15 M⊙ at 0.03 team, from rotation curve dependence on group halo mass, through galaxy winds and AGN feedback mechanisms, to oxygen abundance gradients, kinematic decomposition of galaxies into structural components to refine the T-F and FP scaling relations, and aperture effects. Our large sample size enables study of environmental dependencies. As the SAMI survey executes

  9. Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    CERN Document Server

    Clampitt, J; Kwan, J; Krause, E; MacCrann, N; Park, Y; Troxel, M A; Jain, B; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Wechsler, R H; Blazek, J; Bonnett, C; Crocce, M; Fang, Y; Gaztanaga, E; Gruen, D; Jarvis, M; Miquel, R; Prat, J; Ross, A J; Sheldon, E; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Armstrong, R; Becker, M R; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; Melchior, P; Mohr, J J; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R

    2016-01-01

    We present galaxy-galaxy lensing results from 139 square degrees of Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data. Our lens sample consists of red galaxies, known as redMaGiC, which are specifically selected to have a low photometric redshift error and outlier rate. The lensing measurement has a total signal-to-noise of 29, including all lenses over a wide redshift range $0.2 < z < 0.8$. Dividing the lenses into three redshift bins, we find no evidence for evolution in the halo mass with redshift. We obtain consistent results for the lensing measurement with two independent shear pipelines, ngmix and im3shape. We perform a number of null tests on the shear and photometric redshift catalogs and quantify resulting systematic errors. Covariances from jackknife subsamples of the data are validated with a suite of 50 mock surveys. The results and systematics checks in this work provide a critical input for future cosmological and galaxy evolution studies with the DES data and redMaGiC galaxy sample...

  10. Dwarf elliptical galaxies as ancient tidal dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dabringhausen, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) is triggered by the encounters of already existing galaxies. Their existence is predicted from numerical calculations of encountering galaxies and is also well documented with observations. The numerical calculations on the formation of TDGs furthermore predict that TDGs cannot contain significant amounts of non-baryonic dark matter. In this paper, the first exhaustive sample of TDG-candidates from observations and numerical calculations is gathered from the literature. These stellar systems are gas-rich at the present, but they will probably evolve into gas-poor objects that are indistinguishable from old dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) based on their masses and radii. Indeed, known gas-poor TDGs appear as normal dEs. According to the currently prevailing cosmological paradigm, there should also be a population of primordial galaxies that formed within haloes of dark matter in the same mass range. Due to their different composition and origin, it would be expected...

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at http://data.galaxyzoo.org/mergers.html. Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced star formation is triggered very soon after closest approach.

  12. TIDAL STIRRING OF DISKY DWARFS WITH SHALLOW DARK MATTER DENSITY PROFILES: ENHANCED TRANSFORMATION INTO DWARF SPHEROIDALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lokas, Ewa L. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Mayer, Lucio, E-mail: stelios@mps.ohio-state.edu [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-02-20

    According to the tidal stirring model, late type, rotationally supported dwarfs resembling present day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies can transform into dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) via interactions with Milky-Way-sized hosts. We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate for the first time how tidal stirring depends on the dark matter (DM) density distribution in the central stellar region of the progenitor disky dwarf. Specifically, we explore various asymptotic inner slopes {gamma} of the dwarf DM density profiles ({rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}). For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in DM halos with core-like distributions ({gamma} = 0.2) and mild density cusps ({gamma} = 0.6) demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs compared to their counterparts with steeper DM density profiles ({gamma} = 1). Such shallow DM distributions are akin to those of observed dIrrs highlighting tidal stirring as a plausible model for the Local Group (LG) morphology-density relation. When {gamma} < 1, a single pericentric passage can induce dSph formation and disky dwarfs on low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are able to transform; these new results allow tidal stirring to explain virtually all known dSphs across a wide range of distances from their hosts. A subset of disky dwarfs initially embedded in DM halos with shallow density profiles are eventually disrupted by the primary; those that survive as dSphs are generally on orbits with lower eccentricities and/or larger pericenters compared to those of typical cold dark matter satellites. The latter could explain the peculiar orbits of several LG dSphs such as Fornax, Leo I, Tucana, and Cetus.

  13. Quintessential Haloes around Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Salati, Pierre; Arbey, Alexandre; Lesgourgues, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter that binds galaxies remains an open question. The favoured candidate has been so far the neutralino. This massive species with evanescent interactions is now in difficulty. It would actually collapse in dense clumps and would therefore play havoc with the matter it is supposed to shepherd. We focus here on a massive and non-interacting charged scalar field as an alternate option to the astronomical missing mass. We investigate the classical solutions that describe the Bose condensate of such a field in gravitational interaction with matter. This simplistic model accounts quite well for the dark matter inside low-luminosity spirals whereas the agreement lessens for the brightest objects where baryons dominate. A scalar mass around m = 10^{-24} eV is derived when both high and low-luminosity spirals are fitted at the same time. Comparison with astronomical observations is made quantitative through a chi-squared analysis. We conclude that scalar fields offer a promising direction wo...

  14. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  15. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2013-01-01

    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  16. Three intervening galaxy absorbers towards GRB 060418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellison, S. L.; Vreeswijk, P.; Ledoux, C.;

    2006-01-01

    Dust, extinction: galaxies: ISM: quasars: absorption lines: gamma-rays: bursts Udgivelsesdato: 10 August......Dust, extinction: galaxies: ISM: quasars: absorption lines: gamma-rays: bursts Udgivelsesdato: 10 August...

  17. The Current Status of Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joe; Mamon, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

  18. Oxygen abundances in nearby dwarf irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen abundances are obtained by optical spectrophotometry of H II regions in seven nearby dwarf irregular galaxies. All of these yield oxygen abundances of less than 1/10 of the solar value, and most are in the range of 3-5 percent of the solar value. This suggests that observations of nearby dwarf galaxies may provide an effective means for studying the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies and, possibly, the primordial helium abundance. A strong correlation is found between the oxygen abundances and absolute magnitudes for nearby irregular galaxies. This correlation will be useful for estimating abundances of irregular galaxies without observable H II regions, and possibly as a distance indicator for irregular galaxies with known abundances. It is inferred from this relationship that infall is no more important in irregular galaxies with extremely large H I halos than in typical irregular galaxies. 72 refs

  19. Apparent discordant redshift QSO-galaxy associations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "exotic" idea proposed by Viktor Ambartsumian was that new galaxies are formed through the ejection from older active galaxies. Galaxies beget galaxies, instead of the standard scenario in which galaxies stem from the evolution of the seeds derived from fluctuations in the initial density field. This idea is in some way contained in the speculative proposal that some or all QSOs might be objects ejected by nearby galaxies, and that their redshift is not cosmological (Arp, G./M. Burbidge and others). I will discuss some of the arguments for and against this scenario; in particular, I shall talk about the existence of real physical connections in apparently discordant QSO-galaxy redshift associations. On the one hand, there are many statistical correlations of high-redshift QSOs and nearby galaxies that cannot yet be explained in terms of gravitational lensing, biases, or selection effects; and some particular configurations have very low probabilities of being a projection of background objects. Our underst...

  20. How do galaxies get their baryons?

    CERN Document Server

    Conselice, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies obtain baryons, their stars and gas, over cosmic time is traditionally approached in two different ways - theoretically and observationally. In general, observational approaches to galaxy formation include measuring basic galaxy properties, such as luminosities, stellar masses, rotation speeds, star formation rates and how these features evolve through time. Theoretically, cosmologically based models collate the physical effects driving galaxy assembly - mergers of galaxies, accretion of gas, star formation, and feedback, amongst others, to form predictions which are matched to galaxy observables. An alternative approach is to examine directly, in an observational way, the processes driving galaxy assembly, including the effects of feedback. This is a new `third way' towards understanding how galaxies are forming from gas accretion and mergers, and directly probes these effects instead of relying on simulations designed to reproduce observations. This empirical approach towards unde...

  1. DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS STEVEN BAEHR, ARUN VEDACHALAM, KIRK BORNE, AND DANIEL SPONSELLER Abstract. Collisions between pairs of galaxies usually end in...

  2. Surface Brightness Profiles of Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tugay, A V

    2014-01-01

    We built r-band surface brightness profiles by SDSS data for 16 Seyfert galaxies observed in Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Obtained profiles can be used for finding more accurate lightcurves for these galaxies.

  3. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C

    2007-01-01

    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  4. Nuclear Activity In Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Ibarra, Francisco; Krongold, Yair; Del Olmo, Ascencion; Perea, Jaime; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the incidence of AGN nuclear activity in two samples of isolated galaxies (Karachentseva, V.E. & Varela, J.). Our results show that the incidence of non-thermal nuclear activity is about 43% and 31% for galaxies with emission lines and for the total sample 40% and 27% respectively. For the first time we have a large number of bona-fide isolated galaxies (513 objects), with statistically significant number of all types. We find a clear relation between bulge mass and the incidence of nuclear activity in the sample with emission lines. This relation becomes flatter when we take into account the complete sample with no emission line galaxies. A large fration ($\\sim$70%) of elliptical galaxies or early type spirals have an active galactic nucleus and $\\sim$70% of them are LINERs. Only 3% of the AGN show the presence of broad lines (a not a single one can be classified as type 1 AGN). This is a remarkable result which is completely at odds with the unified model even if we c...

  5. How to quench a galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pontzen, Andrew; Roth, Nina; Peiris, Hiranya V; Saintonge, Amélie; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Tom; Governato, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We show how the interplay between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and merger history determines whether a galaxy quenches star formation at high redshift. We first simulate, in a full cosmological context, a galaxy of total dynamical mass $10^{12}\\,M_{\\odot}$ at $z=2$. Then we systematically alter the accretion history of the galaxy by minimally changing the linear overdensity in the initial conditions. This "genetic modification" approach allows the generation of three sets of $\\Lambda$CDM initial conditions leading to maximum merger ratios of 1:10, 1:5 and 2:3 respectively. The changes leave the final halo mass, large scale structure and local environment unchanged, providing a controlled numerical experiment. Interaction between the AGN physics and mergers in the three cases lead respectively to a star-forming, temporarily-quenched and permanently-quenched galaxy. However the differences do not primarily lie in the black hole accretion rates, but in the kinetic effects of the merger: the galaxy is resilient a...

  6. Invisible Galaxies Come to Life!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation demonstrates that an invisible galaxy shrouded in dust can become glaringly bright when viewed in infrared light. The movie begins with a visible-light view, showing a dark blob of a galaxy that is so shrouded in dust it appears invisible. The picture then transitions to what the same region of space might look like in infrared light. A galaxy appears out of the darkness, because its heated dust glows at infrared wavelengths. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope uncovered a hidden population of invisible galaxies like these using its highly sensitive infrared eyes. The dusty galaxies are among the brightest in the universe and are located 11 billion light-years away, back to a time when the universe was 3 billion years old. The universe is currently believed to be 13.5 billion years old. Astronomers are not sure what is lighting up these cosmic behemoths, but they speculate that quasars--the most luminous objects in the universe--may be lurking inside.

  7. The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Charles L; Masters, Dan; Speagle, Josh S

    2015-01-01

    The current hierarchical merging paradigm and $\\Lambda$CDM predict that the $z \\sim 4-8$ universe should be a time in which the most massive galaxies are transitioning from their initial halo assembly to the later baryonic evolution seen in star-forming galaxies and quasars. However, no evidence of this transition has been found in many high redshift galaxy surveys including CFHTLS, CANDELS and SPLASH, the first studies to probe the high-mass end at these redshifts. Indeed, if halo mass to stellar mass ratios estimated at lower-redshift continue to $z \\sim 6-8$, CANDELS and SPLASH report several orders of magnitude more $M \\sim 10^{12-13} M_\\odot$ halos than are possible to have formed by those redshifts, implying these massive galaxies formed impossibly early. We consider various systematics in the stellar synthesis models used to estimate physical parameters and possible galaxy formation scenarios in an effort to reconcile observation with theory. Although known uncertainties can greatly reduce the disparit...

  8. The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles. L.; Capak, Peter; Masters, Dan; Speagle, Josh S.

    2016-06-01

    The current hierarchical merging paradigm and ΛCDM predict that the z˜ 4-8 universe should be a time in which the most massive galaxies are transitioning from their initial halo assembly to the later baryonic evolution seen in star-forming galaxies and quasars. However, no evidence of this transition has been found in many high-redshift galaxy surveys including CFHTLS, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH), which were the first studies to probe the high-mass end at these redshifts. Indeed, if halo mass to stellar mass ratios estimated at lower-redshift continue to z˜ 6-8, CANDELS and SPLASH report several orders of magnitude more M˜ {10}12-13{M}ȯ halos than is possible to have been formed by those redshifts, implying that these massive galaxies formed impossibly early. We consider various systematics in the stellar synthesis models used to estimate physical parameters and possible galaxy formation scenarios in an effort to reconcile observation with theory. Although known uncertainties can greatly reduce the disparity between recent observations and cold dark matter merger simulations, there remains considerable tension with current theory even if taking the most conservative view of the observations.

  9. Jellyfish galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, B M; Omizzolo, A; Gullieuszik, M; Bettoni, D; Moretti, A; Paccagnella, A; Jaffe', Y L; Vulcani, B; Fritz, J; Couch, W; D'Onofrio, M

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish galaxies are galaxies that exhibit tentacles of debris material suggestive of gas stripping. We have conducted the first systematic search for jellyfish galaxies at low-z (z=0.04-0.07) in different environments. We have visually inspected B and V-band images and identified 241+153 candidates in 41+31 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 99 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. This large sample is well suited for follow-up studies of the gas and for a detailed analysis of the environments where such episodes of gas stripping occur. We present here the atlas of jellyfish candidates, a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Jellyfish candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Interestingly, convincing cases of jellyfish candidates are also found ...

  10. The galaxy-galaxy lensing contribution to the cosmic shear two point function

    OpenAIRE

    Bridle, Sarah; Abdalla, Filipe B.

    2006-01-01

    We note that galaxy-galaxy lensing by non-spherical galaxy halos produces a net anti-correlation between the shear of background galaxies and the ellipticity of foreground galaxies. This anti-correlation would contaminate the tomographic cosmic shear two point function if the effect were not taken into account. We compare the size of the galaxy-galaxy lensing contribution to the change in the cosmic shear two-point correlation function due to a change in the dark energy equation of state w of...

  11. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs

  12. Testing galaxy formation models with galaxy stellar mass functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seunghwan; Mo, HouJun; Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We compare predictions of a number of empirical models and numerical simulations of galaxy formation to the conditional stellar mass functions (CSMF) of galaxies in groups of different masses obtained recently by Lan et al. to test how well different models accommodate the data. Among all the models considered, only the model of Lu et al. can match the observational data; all other models fail to reproduce the faint-end upturn seen in the observation. The CSMFs are used to update the halo-bas...

  13. Galaxy peculiar velocities and evolution-bias

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, Will; Schafer, B.

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy bias can be split into two components: a formation-bias based on the locations of galaxy creation, and an evolution-bias that details their subsequent evolution. In this letter we consider evolution-bias in the peaks model. In this model, galaxy formation takes place at local maxima in the density field, and we analyse the subsequent peculiar motion of these galaxies in a linear model of structure formation. The peak restriction yields differences in the velocity distribution and corre...

  14. Effects of galaxy interactions in different environments

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, M. Sol; Lambas, Diego G.; Tissera, Patricia B.; Coldwell, Georgina

    2005-01-01

    We analyse star formation rates derived from photometric and spectroscopic data of galaxies in pairs in different environments using the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The two samples comprise several thousand pairs, suitable to explore into detail the dependence of star formation activity in pairs on orbital parameters and global environment. We use the projected galaxy density derived from the fifth nearest neighbour of each galaxy, with conveni...

  15. Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

  16. On Three-Dimensional Spiral Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xin-Lian; PENG Qiu-He; LONG Min; PENG Fang; ZOU Zhi-Gang

    2000-01-01

    Density waves in 3D spiral galaxies are studied. In order to eliminate the forbidden region near the corotation in the grand-design galaxies, we assume that the perturbation satisfies the stable condition Q(r) > 1 over all the disk except that at the corotation. Then, a new method is put forward here to determine some basic parameters of spiral galaxies. We apply it to our Galaxy, and the results are in good agreement with the previous results.

  17. Abundances in Damped Ly-alpha Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Molaro, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Damped Ly_alpha galaxies provide a sample of young galaxies where chemical abundances can be derived throughout the whole universe with an accuracy comparable to that for the local universe. Despite a large spread in redshift, HI column density and metallicity, DLA galaxies show a remarkable uniformity in the elemental ratios rather suggestive of similar chemical evolution if not of an unique population. These galaxies are characterized by a moderate, if any, enhancement of alpha-elements ove...

  18. Clustering of Galaxies in Brane World Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hameeda, Mir; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the clustering of galaxies using a modified Newtonian potential. This modification of the Newtonian potential occurs due to the existence of extra dimensions in brane world models. We will analyze a system of galaxies interacting with each other through this modified Newtonian potential. The partition function for this system of galaxies will be calculated, and this partition function will be used to calculate the free energy of this system of galaxies. The entropy a...

  19. Halotools: Galaxy-Halo connection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew; Tollerud, Erik; Robitaille, Thomas; Droettboom, Michael; Zentner, Andrew; Bray, Erik; Craig, Matt; Bradley, Larry; Barbary, Kyle; Deil, Christoph; Tan, Kevin; Becker, Matthew R.; More, Surhud; Günther, Hans Moritz; Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Halotools builds and tests models of the galaxy-halo connection and analyzes catalogs of dark matter halos. The core functions of the package include fast generation of synthetic galaxy populations using HODs, abundance matching, and related methods; efficient algorithms for calculating galaxy clustering, lensing, z-space distortions, and other astronomical statistics; a modular, object-oriented framework for designing galaxy evolution models; and end-to-end support for reducing halo catalogs and caching them as hdf5 files.

  20. Errors in equations for galaxy rotation speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Kenneth F.

    2003-01-01

    Shown are the errors and difficulties of the equations used for galaxy rotation speeds in the book "Galactic Dynamics" (Binney and Tremaine). A usable and accurate set of equations is then presented. The new equations allow easy determination of galaxy mass distribution from the rotation profile with no need for dark matter or any knowledge of galaxy surface light.

  1. Local redshift surveys and galaxy evolution

    OpenAIRE

    De Propris, Roberto; Colless, Matthew; Croton, Darren

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of galaxy environmental dependencies using data from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. From a combined analysis of the luminosity function, Butcher-Oemler effect and trends in H$\\alpha$ line strengths we find support for a model where galaxy properties are mainly set by initial conditions at the time of their formation.

  2. The stellar halo of the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina

    2008-01-01

    Stellar halos may hold some of the best preserved fossils of the formation history of galaxies. They are a natural product of the merging processes that probably take place during the assembly of a galaxy, and hence may well be the most ubiquitous component of galaxies, independently of their Hubble

  3. Inflation, cosmic strings, and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflationary universe models and the cosmic string theory provide two distinct ways to explain the origin of inhomogeneities in the universe on large scales. I shall summarize and compare the two mechanisms for the origin of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and mention some recent results on galaxy formation with hot dark matter and cosmic strings. (author)

  4. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core

  5. Galaxy formation from dry and hydro simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dry and wet merging on the Scaling Laws (SLs) of elliptical galaxies (Es) are discussed. It is found that the galaxy SLs, possibly established at high redshift by the fast collapse of gas-rich and clumpy stellar distributions in preexisting dark matter halos following the cosmological SLs, are compatible with a (small) number of galaxy mergers at lower redshift.

  6. Deciphering the Galaxy Guppy phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Shaddock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal breeding hobbyists have been useful to science because they identify and isolate colorcoat mutations that geneticists can in turn use in their studies of the development and differentiation ofcolor cells. This paper discusses a very interesting color mutant, the Japanese Galaxy, tracing its creationfrom back to a self-educated genetics hobbyist, Hoskiki Tsutsui. The paper discusses a constituent genepreviously studied by Dr. Violet Phang, the snakeskin gene (the linked body and fin genes Ssb and Sst.And it discusses a gene previously unknown to science, the Schimmelpfennig Platinum gene (Sc.Through crossing experiments, the author determines that the combination of these two genes producesan intermediate phenotype, the Medusa. Incorporating the Grass (Gr, another gene unknown to sciencegene into the Medusa through a crossover produces the Galaxy phenotype. Microscope studies of thesnakeskin pattern in Galaxies and snakeskins reveals some parallels with similar studies made of theZebrafish Danio.

  7. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2013-01-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via available evolution processes. The inner parts shrink and the outer parts expand, provided that some physical process transports energy or angular momentum outward. The evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks, and galaxy disks are all fundamentally similar. These processes for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. Part 1 discusses formation, growth, and death of bars. Part 2 details the slow ("secular") rearrangement of angular momentum that results from interactions between stars or gas and nonaxisymmetries such as bars. We have a heuristic understanding of how this forms outer rings, inner rings, and stuff dumped into the center. Observations show that barred galaxies have central concentrations of gas and star formation. Timescales imply that they grow central "pseudobulges" that get mistaken for ellip...

  8. Accretion flows in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady-state infall model of gas in elliptical galaxies is developed to investigate the properties and structure of the X-ray-emitting gas observed in these systems. Models have been computed for galaxies with an external pressure (as might be important for ellipticals in clusters), and for varying supernova heating rates. All the models exhibit cooling flows, with mass accretion rates of 0.1 - 0.5 solar mass/yr. A correlation between the radio luminosity and the X-ray luminosity of elliptical galaxies is examined which, in the context of the infall models, may suggest that the radio emission arises from nuclear sources that are powered by the gas accretion flow. These radio sources may also be confined effectively by the X-ray emitting gas. 26 references

  9. Thermonuclear Ignition of Dark Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2006-01-01

    Dark matter is thought to be at least an order of magnitude more abundant than luminous matter in the Universe, but there has yet to be an unambiguous identification of a wholly dark, galactic-scale structure. There is, however, increasing evidence that VIRGOHI 21 may be a dark galaxy. If VIRGOHI 21 turns out to be composed of dark stars, having approximately the same mass of stars found in luminous galaxies, it will pose an enigma within the framework of current astrophysical models, but will provide strong support for my concept, published in 1994 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, of the thermonuclear ignition of stars by nuclear fission, and the corollary, non-ignition of stars. The possibility of galactic thermonuclear ignition is discussed from that framework and leads to my suggestion that the distribution of luminous stars in a galaxy may simply be a reflection of the galactic distribution of the heavy elements.

  10. Two-Phase Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, M; Granato, G L

    2009-01-01

    We propose and test a scenario for the assembly and evolution of luminous matter in galaxies which substantially differs from that adopted by other semianalytic models. As for the dark matter (DM), we follow the detailed evolution of halos within the canonical LCDM cosmology using standard Montecarlo methods. However, when overlaying prescriptions for baryon evolution, we take into account an effect pointed out in the past few years by a number of studies mostly based on intensive N-body simulations, namely that typical halo growth occurs in two phases: an early, fast collapse phase featuring several major merger events, followed by a late, quiescent accretion onto the halo outskirts. We propose that the two modes of halo growth drive two distinct modes for the evolution of baryonic matter, favoring the development of the spheroidal and disc components of galaxies, respectively. We test this idea using the semianalytic technique. Our galaxy formation model envisages an early coevolution of spheroids and the c...

  11. Percolation technique for galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We study percolation in mass and galaxy distributions obtained in 3D simulations of the CDM, C + HDM, and the power law (n = -1) models in the Omega = 1 universe. Percolation statistics is used here as a quantitative measure of the degree to which a mass or galaxy distribution is of a filamentary or cellular type. The very fast code used calculates the statistics of clusters along with the direct detection of percolation. We found that the two parameters mu(infinity), characterizing the size of the largest cluster, and mu-squared, characterizing the weighted mean size of all clusters excluding the largest one, are extremely useful for evaluating the percolation threshold. An advantage of using these parameters is their low sensitivity to boundary effects. We show that both the CDM and the C + HDM models are extremely filamentary both in mass and galaxy distribution. The percolation thresholds for the mass distributions are determined.

  12. Statistics of the galaxy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Vicent J

    2001-01-01

    Over the last decade, statisticians have developed new statistical tools in the field of spatial point processes. At the same time, observational efforts have yielded a huge amount of new cosmological data to analyze. Although the main tools in astronomy for comparing theoretical results with observation are statistical, in recent years, cosmologists have not been generally aware of the developments in statistics and vice versa.Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution describes both the available observational data on the distribution of galaxies and the applications of spatial statistics in cosmology. It gives a detailed derivation of the statistical methods used to study the galaxy distribution and the cosmological physics needed to formulate the statistical models. Because the prevalent approach in cosmological statistics has been frequentist, the authors focus on the most widely used of these methods, but they also explore Bayesian techniques that have become popular in large-scale structure studies.Describi...

  13. AGN and their host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K.; Hirschmann, M.; Remus, R.-S.; Teklu, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations are an important tool to study the co-evolution between black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. However, in order to model the accretion onto BHs and AGN feedback we need sub-grid models which contain several free parameters. The choice of these parameters has a significant impact on the properties of the BHs and their host galaxies. Therefore, we improve the accretion model and the AGN feedback model based on both theory and observations to eliminate most free parameters. In that way, the slope of the observed relation between BH mass and stellar mass is reproduced self-consistently. We performed a few extremely large simulation runs as part of the Magneticum Pathfinder simulation set, combining a high resolution with very large cosmological volumes, enabling us to study for example dual AGN, the role of galaxy mergers and AGN clustering properties.

  14. The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tully, R Brent; Hoffman, Yehuda; Pomarède, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies congregate in clusters and along filaments, and are missing from large regions referred to as voids. These structures are seen in maps derived from spectroscopic surveys that reveal networks of structure that are interconnected with no clear boundaries. Extended regions with a high concentration of galaxies are called 'superclusters', although this term is not precise. There is, however, another way to analyse the structure. If the distance to each galaxy from Earth is directly measured, then the peculiar velocity can be derived from the subtraction of the mean cosmic expansion, the product of distance times the Hubble constant, from observed velocity. The peculiar velocity is the line-of-sight departure from the cosmic expansion and arises from gravitational perturbations; a map of peculiar velocities can be translated into a map of the distribution of matter. Here we report a map of structure made using a catalogue of peculiar velocities. We find locations where peculiar velocity flows diverge, as ...

  15. Seven poor clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, D. W.; Davis, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of 83 new redshifts from galaxies in the region of seven of the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan et al (1975) and Albert et al (1977) has been followed by an estimation of cluster masses through the application of both the virial theorem and the projected mas method. For each system, these two estimates are consistent. For the two clusters with highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocity dispersions are about 700 km/sec, while for the five other clusters, the dispersions are of the order of less than about 370 km/sec. The D or cD galaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of each system.

  16. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  17. Comparing galaxy populations in compact and loose groups of galaxies II: brightest group galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Héctor J; Muriel, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the brightest galaxies (BCGs) are studied in both compact and loose groups of galaxies in order to better understand the physical mechanisms influencing galaxy evolution in different environments. Samples of BCGs are selected in the compact groups identified by McConnachie et al. (2009), and in loose groups taken from Zandivarez & Mart\\'inez (2011). The following physical properties of the BCGs in compact groups and in subsamples of loose groups are compared, defined by their mass and total luminosity. The fraction of BCGs classified as red and/or early-type as a function of galaxy luminosity are studied. The fraction of the group's total luminosity contained in the BCG and the difference in luminosity between the BCG and the second-ranked galaxy, are also analysed. Some properties of BCGs in compact and loose groups are comparable. However, BCGs in compact groups are systematically more concentrated and have larger surface brightness than their counterparts in both, high- and low-mass l...

  18. Photometric redshift requirements for lens galaxies in galaxy-galaxy lensing analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, R; Seljak, U; Cohn, J D; Reyes, R; Cool, R

    2011-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is a valuable probe of galaxy formation and cosmology. Here we quantify the effects of using photometric redshifts (photo-z) in galaxy-galaxy lensing, for both sources and lenses, both for the immediate goal of using galaxies with photo-z as lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and as a demonstration of methodology for large, upcoming weak lensing surveys that will by necessity be dominated by lens samples with photo-z. We calculate the bias in the lensing mass calibration as well as consequences for absolute magnitude (i.e., k-corrections) and stellar mass estimates, for a large sample of SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) galaxies. The redshifts are obtained with the template based photo-z code ZEBRA on the SDSS DR8 ugriz photometry. We assemble and characterise the calibration samples (~9k spectroscopic redshifts from four surveys) to obtain photometric redshift errors and lensing biases corresponding to our full SDSS DR8 lens and source catalogues. Our tests of the calibration s...

  19. Escape of ionizing radiation from star-forming regions in Young galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razoumov, A; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10......Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10...

  20. Thermonuclear Ignition of Dark Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Dark matter is thought to be at least an order of magnitude more abundant than luminous matter in the Universe, but there has yet to be an unambiguous identification of a wholly dark, galactic-scale structure. There is, however, increasing evidence that VIRGOHI 21 may be a dark galaxy. If VIRGOHI 21 turns out to be composed of dark stars, having approximately the same mass of stars found in luminous galaxies, it will pose an enigma within the framework of current astrophysical models, but wil...

  1. Samsung Galaxy S For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Colorful guide to getting more out of your Galaxy S smartphone!Now that you've got your new Galaxy S smartphone, you've got to figure out how to use it! If you're baffled by the technology and the documentation, this book can help. Written in the fun but clear and thorough For Dummies style, this book answers all your questions. You'll find out how to do all the fun stuff: texting, social networking, using the camera, how to watch movies, and more. And you'll also learn how to handle the "housekeeping": synching your phone with your PC, using business applications, downloading apps, accessin

  2. Mapping stellar content to dark matter halos using galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing in the SDSS DR7

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The mapping between the distributions of the observed galaxy stellar mass and the underlying dark matter halos provides the crucial link from theories of large-scale structure formation to interpreting the complex phenomena of galaxy formation and evolution. We develop a novel statistical method, based on the Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), to solve for this mapping by jointly fitting the galaxy clustering and the galaxy-galaxy lensing measured from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The method, called the iHOD model, extracts maximum information from the survey by including ~80% more galaxies than the traditional HOD methods, and takes into account the incompleteness of the stellar mass samples in a statistically consistent manner. The derived stellar-to-halo mass relation not only explains the clustering and lensing of SDSS galaxies over almost four decades in stellar mass, but also successfully predicts the stellar mass functions observed in SDSS. Due to its capability of modelling significantl...

  3. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): merging galaxies and their properties

    CERN Document Server

    De Propris, Roberto; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon P; Hopkins, Andrew M; Kelvin, Lee; Loveday, Jon; Phillipps, Steve; Robotham, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    We derive the close pair fractions and volume merger rates as a function of luminosity and morphology for galaxies in the GAMA survey with -23 < M(r) < -17 at 0.01 < z < 0.22. The merger fraction is about 0.015 at all luminosities (assuming 1/2 of pairs merge) and the volume merger rate is about 0.00035 per cubic Mpc per Gyr. Dry mergers (between red or spheroidal galaxies) are uncommon and decrease with decreasing luminosity. Fainter mergers are wet, between blue or disky galaxies. Damp mergers (one of each type) follow the average of dry and wet mergers. In the brighter luminosity bin (-23 < M(r) < -20) the merger rate evolution is flat, irrespective of colour or morphology. The makeup of the merging population does not change since z = 0.2. Major mergers and dry mergers appear comparatively unimportant in the buildup of the red sequence over the past 2 Gyr. We compare the colour, morphology, environmental density and degree of activity of galaxies in pairs to those of more isolated object...

  4. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchin, R. F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Keenan, O. C.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, R.

    2016-02-01

    We have used the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to map three regions, each of 5 deg2, around the isolated galaxies NGC 1156, UGC 2082, and NGC 5523. In the vicinity of these galaxies we have detected two dwarf companions: one near UGC 2082, previously discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, and one near NGC 1156, discovered by this project and reported in an earlier paper. This is significantly fewer than the 15.4^{+1.7}_{-1.5} that would be expected from the field H I mass function from ALFALFA or the 8.9 ± 1.2 expected if the H I mass function from the Local Group applied in these regions. The number of dwarf companions detected is, however, consistent with a flat or declining H I mass function as seen by a previous, shallower, H I search for companions to isolated galaxies. We attribute this difference in H I mass functions to the different environments in which they are measured. This agrees with the general observation that lower ratios of dwarf to giant galaxies are found in lower density environments.

  5. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: The Isolated Galaxy Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Minchin, R F; Davies, J I; Karachentsev, I D; Keenan, O C; Momjian, E; Rodriguez, R; Taber, T; Taylor, R

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Arecibo L-band Feed Array to map three regions, each of 5 square degrees, around the isolated galaxies NGC 1156, UGC 2082, and NGC 5523. In the vicinity of these galaxies we have detected two dwarf companions: one near UGC 2082, previously discovered by ALFALFA, and one near NGC 1156, discovered by this project and reported in an earlier paper. This is significantly fewer than the 15.4 $^{+1.7}_{-1.5}$ that would be expected from the field HI mass function from ALFALFA or the 8.9 $\\pm$ 1.2 expected if the HI mass function from the Local Group applied in these regions. The number of dwarf companions detected is, however, consistent with a flat or declining HI mass function as seen by a previous, shallower, HI search for companions to isolated galaxies.We attribute this difference in Hi mass functions to the different environments in which they are measured. This agrees with the general observation that lower ratios of dwarf to giant galaxies are found in lower density environments.

  6. Tasking Citizen Scientists from Galaxy Zoo to Model Galaxy Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, J.; Holincheck, A.; Borne, K.; Lintott, C.; Smith, A.; Bamford, S.; Fortson, L.

    2010-06-01

    The huge data volumes across the sciences require us to consider new approaches to data analysis and simulations. In this project, we investigate how citizen scientists from GalaxyZoo.org can be tasked to address this data flood by providing the human input to classify simulations of galaxy interactions. The primary science goal in the galaxy collision project is developing numerical models for hundreds of interacting systems. With these simulations, we will determine if these collisions are unique locations in the multi-parameter phase space that defines the input parameters to our simulations. We will also correlate these dynamical parameters with the star formation and nuclear activity in these systems. Further self-consistent, high resolution models will follow from these simple matches to compare simulations directly with the observations. A secondary goal of the galaxy collision project is to create a set of human-selected matches between simulations and models which can be used as a training set for machine learning algorithms. Analysis of this data set will allow the creation of a robust fitness function for evolutionary computing algorithms that can be used to model other interacting systems.

  7. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of $ 0.267 \\pm 0.009 $, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of $0.215 \\pm 0.013$. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of $0.584 \\pm 0.006$, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlo...

  8. NGC 3934: a shell galaxy in a compact galaxy environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, D; Rampazzo, R; Marino, A; Mazzei, P; Buson, L M

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the NGC 3933 poor galaxy association, that contains NGC 3934, which is classified as a polar-ring galaxy. The multi-band photometric analysis of NGC 3934 allows us to investigate the nature of this galaxy and to re-define the NGC 3933 group members with the aim to characterize the group dynamical properties and its evolutionary phase. We imaged the group in the far (FUV,lambda = 1530A) and near (NUV, lambda=2316A) ultraviolet (UV) bands of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). From the deep optical imaging we determined the fine structure of NGC 3934. We measured the recession velocity of PGC 213894 which shows that it belongs to the NGC 3933 group. We derived the spectral energy distribution (SED) from FUV (GALEX) to far-IR emission of the two brightest members of the group. We compared a grid of smooth particle hydrodynamical (SPH) chemo-photometric simulations with the SED and the integrated properties of NGC 3934 and NGC 3933 to devise their possible formation/evolutionary scenarios. The N...

  9. Sub-millimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Toft, S; Magnelli, B; Karim, A; Zirm, A; Michalowski, M; Capak, P; Sheth, K; Schawinski, K; Krogager, J -K; Wuyts, S; Sanders, D; Man, A W S; Lutz, D; Staguhn, J; Berta, S; Mccracken, H; Krpan, J; Riechers, D

    2014-01-01

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z=2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich, starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact quiescent galaxies at z=2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z=3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z=2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses and internal velocities. As...

  10. Faraday rotation in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraday rotation in the clusters of galaxies are estimated systematically from the rotation measures of radio sources in or behind the clusters of galaxies. A cross-correlation of the Abell catalogue of rich clusters of galaxies with the catalogue of linear polarization of radio sources resulted in the identification of 10 clusters of galaxies. The average value of the rotation measures in the clusters of galaxies is about 20 rad m-2 and correspond to the well ordered magnetic field with the value of 2 x 10-7 gauss, if the electron densities is 10-4 cm-3. (author)

  11. The formation of compact groups of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马駬; 俞允强

    1999-01-01

    In the compact group of galaxies the galaxies can merge into a few massive ones in a very short time, so they must be formed very recently. On the other hand, according to the theory of structure formation, the denser system should form earlier. By analyzing the apparent paradox, we suggest that the merging process of CDM halo plays an important role in the formation of the compact groups of galaxies: it delays the formation of compact groups of galaxies, and makes the groups of galaxies much denser.

  12. Consistency of the growth rate in different environments with the 6dF Galaxy Survey: measurement of the void-galaxy & galaxy-galaxy correlation functions

    OpenAIRE

    Achitouv, Ixandra; Blake, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present a new test of gravitational physics by comparing the growth rate of cosmic structure measured around voids with that measured around galaxies in the same large-scale structure dataset, the low-redshift 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey. By fitting a self-consistent Redshift Space Distortion model to the 2D galaxy-galaxy and void-galaxy correlation functions, we recover growth rate values f\\sigma_8 = 0.36 \\pm 0.06 and 0.39 \\pm 0.11, respectively. The environmental-dependence of cosmologi...

  13. Reconstructing Galaxy Histories from Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    West, M J; Marzke, R O; Jordan, A; West, Michael J.; Cote, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O.; Jordan, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant "island universes" was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  14. Samsung Galaxy S5 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Explore Samsung's next generation Galaxy smartphone Do you want an easy-to-follow guide to everything your new Galaxy S5 smartphone can do? From the basics of texting and accessing the Internet to the most advanced features and new software apps, Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies makes the need for tech support obsolete. The Galaxy S5 is designed to be faster and more powerful than ever. This latest release in the market-leading line of smartphones is full of new features for you to explore with the help of Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies. With over 1 million apps available for the Google Android o

  15. Likelihood Functions for Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, G

    2006-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys offer great promise for measuring cosmological parameters, but survey analysis methods have not been widely studied. Using methods developed decades ago for galaxy clustering studies, it is shown that nearly exact likelihood functions can be written down for galaxy cluster surveys. The sparse sampling of the density field by galaxy clusters allows simplifications that are not possible for galaxy surveys. An application to counts in cells is explicitly tested using cluster catalogs from numerical simulations and it is found that the calculated probability distributions are very accurate at masses above several times 10^{14}h^{-1} solar masses at z=0 and lower masses at higher redshift.

  16. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground). New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams. The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.

  17. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  18. VISTA Views the Sculptor Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible

  19. GOODS-Herschel: the impact of galaxy-galaxy interactions on the far-infrared properties of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H. S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Charmandaris, V.; Daddi, E.; Le Borgne, D.; Buat, V.; Magdis, G. E.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Coia, D.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dasyra, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leiton, R.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Valtchanov, I.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We study the impact of galaxy-galaxy interactions on the far-infrared properties of galaxies and its evolution at 0 Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we investigate the dependence of galaxy properties on the morphology of and the distance to the nearest neighbor galaxy. Results: We find that the star-formation rates (SFRs) and the specific SFRs (SSFRs) of galaxies on average depend on the morphology of and the distance to the nearest neighbor galaxy in this redshift range. When a late-type galaxy has a close neighbor galaxy, the SFR and the SSFR increase as it approaches a late-type neighbor, which is supported by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) and Monte Carlo (MC) tests with a significance level of >99%. However, the SFR and the SSFR decrease or do not change much as the galaxy approaches an early-type neighbor. The bifurcations of SFRs and SSFRs depending on the neighbor's morphology seem to occur at Rn ≈ 0.5rvir,nei (virial radius of the neighbor), which is supported by K-S and MC tests with a significance level of >98%. For all redshift bins, the SSFRs of late-type galaxies interacting with late-type neighbors are increased by factors of about 1.8 ± 0.7 and 4.0 ± 1.2 compared to those of non-interacting galaxies when the pair separation is smaller than 0.5rvir,nei and 0.1rvir,nei, respectively. The dust temperature of both local and high-z late-type galaxies that strongly interact with late-type neighbors (i.e. Rn ≤ 0.1rvir,nei) appears to be higher than that of non-interacting galaxies with a significance level of 96-99%. However, the dust temperature of local late-type galaxies that strongly interact with early-type neighbors seems to be lower than or similar to that of non-interacting galaxies. Conclusions: Our results suggest that galaxy-galaxy interactions and mergers have been strongly affecting the SFR and the dust properties of star-forming galaxies over at least 8 billion years.

  20. Choirs H I galaxy groups: The metallicity of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Drinkwater, Michael J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Meurer, Gerhardt; Bekki, Kenji [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Kilborn, Virginia, E-mail: sarah@sarahsweet.com.au [Swinburne University of Technology, Mail number H30, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2014-02-10

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M{sub R} ∼ –13. We use the Dopita et al. metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all the data in this analysis. In metallicity-luminosity space, we find two subpopulations within a sample of high-confidence Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 star-forming galaxies: 52% are metal-rich giants and 48% are metal-medium galaxies. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M{sub R} = –16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity, indicating that there is an approximate floor to the metallicity of low-luminosity galaxies. Our hydrodynamical simulations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M{sub R} ∼ –16, our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 H I gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes, there is an increase in dispersion of the metallicity of our sample, suggestive of a wide range of H I content and environment. In our sample, we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6) and four (21%) very metal-poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation.

  1. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  2. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  3. Galaxy selection and the surface brightness distribution

    CERN Document Server

    McGaugh, S S; Schombert, J M

    1995-01-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney (1976) suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman (1970) was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (\\ie approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity ...

  4. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  5. Green galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhizheng; Fan, Lulu

    2013-01-01

    We present a research of morphologies, spectra and environments of $\\approx$ 2350 "green valley" galaxies at $0.20.7$. At $z<0.7$, the fractions of $M_{\\ast}<10^{10.0}M_{\\sun}$ green galaxies located in dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transiting population between blue cloud and red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of AGN feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environment conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of $M_{\\ast}<10^{10.0}M_{\\sun}$ blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at $z<0.5$.

  6. Galaxy alignments: Observations and impact on cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Donnacha; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Choi, Ami; Kiessling, Alina; Leonard, Adrienne; Rassat, Anais; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy shapes are not randomly oriented, rather they are statistically aligned in a way that can depend on formation environment, history and galaxy type. Studying the alignment of galaxies can therefore deliver important information about the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution as well as the growth of structure in the Universe. In this review paper we summarise key measurements of intrinsic alignments, divided by galaxy type, scale and environment. We also cover the statistics and formalism necessary to understand the observations in the literature. With the emergence of weak gravitational lensing as a precision probe of cosmology, galaxy alignments took on an added importance because they can mimic cosmic shear, the effect of gravitational lensing by large-scale structure on observed galaxy shapes. This makes intrinsic alignments an important systematic effect in weak lensing studies. We quantify the impact of intrinsic alignments on cosmic shear surveys and finish by reviewing practical mitigat...

  7. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  8. Global properties of infrared bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S.; Xie, Shuding; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Rice, Walter L.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared flux densities of 182 galaxies, including 50 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, were analyzed using IRAS data for 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and the results were compared with data listed in the Point Source Catalog (PSC, 1985). In addition, IR luminosities, L(IRs), colors, and warm dust masses were derived for these galaxies and were compared with the interstellar gas masses and optical luminosities of the galaxies. It was found that, for galaxies whose optical diameter measures between 5 and 8 arcmin, the PSC flux densities are underestimated by a factor of 2 at 60 microns, and by a factor of 1.5 at 100 microns. It was also found that, for 49 galaxies, the mass of warm dust correlated well with the H2 mass, and that L(IR) correlated with L(H-alpha), demonstrating that the L(IR) measures the rate of star formation in these galaxies.

  9. How Cosmic Web Detachment Drives Galaxy Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We present the Cosmic Web Detachment (CWD) model, a conceptual framework to interpret galaxy evolution in a cosmological context, providing a direct link between the star formation history of galaxies and the cosmic web. The CWD model unifies several mechanism known to disrupt or stop star formation into one single physical process and provides a natural explanation for a wide range of galaxy properties. Galaxies begin accreting star-forming gas at early times via a network of primordial highly coherent filaments. The efficient star formation phase ends when non-linear interactions with other galaxies or elements of the cosmic web detach the galaxy from its network of primordial filaments, thus ending the efficient accretion of cold gas. The stripping of the filamentary web around galaxies is the physical process responsible of star formation quenching in gas stripping, harassment, strangulation and starvation. Being a purely gravitational/mechanical process CWD acts at a more fundamental level than internal ...

  10. The lopsided distribution of satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Libeskind, Noam I; Tempel, Elmo; Ibata, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of smaller satellite galaxies around large central galaxies has attracted attention because peculiar spatial and kinematic configurations have been detected in some systems. A particularly striking example of such behavior is seen in the satellite system of the Andromeda galaxy, where around 80\\% are on the nearside of that galaxy, facing the Milky Way. Motivated by this departure from anisotropy, we examined the spatial distribution of satellites around pairs of galaxies in the SDSS. By stacking tens of thousands of satellites around galaxy pairs we found that satellites tend to bulge towards the other central galaxy, preferably occupying the space between the pair, rather than being spherically or axis-symmetrically distributed around each host. The bulging is a function of the opening angle examined and is fairly strong -- there are up to $\\sim$10\\% more satellites in the space between the pair, than expected from uniform. Consequently, it is a statistically very strong signal, being incon...

  11. Global environmental effects versus galaxy interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Josefa; Padilla, Nelson; Alonso, M Sol; Lambas, Diego G

    2009-01-01

    We explore properties of close galaxy pairs and merging systems selected from the SDSS-DR4 in different environments with the aim to assess the relative importance of the role of interactions over global environmental processes. For this purpose, we perform a comparative study of galaxies with and without close companions as a function of local density and host-halo mass, carefully removing sources of possible biases. We find that at low and high local density environments, colours and morphologies of close galaxy pairs are very similar to those of isolated galaxies. At intermediate densities, we detect significant differences, indicating that close pairs could have experienced a more rapid transition onto the red sequence than isolated galaxies. The presence of a correlation between colours and morphologies indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for the colour transformation also operates changing galaxy morphologies. Regardless of dark matter halo mass, we show that the percentage of red galaxies...

  12. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Galaxy colour gradients versus colour, structure and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Häußler, Boris; Brough, Sarah; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    Using single-component fits to SDSS/UKIDSS images of galaxies in the G09 region of the GAMA survey we study radial colour gradients across the galaxy population. We use the multiwavelength information provided by MegaMorph analysis of galaxy light profiles to calculate intrinsic colour gradients, and divide into six subsamples split by overall S\\'{e}rsic index ($n$) and galaxy colour. We find a bimodality in the colour gradients of high- and low-$n$ galaxies in all wavebands, which varies with overall galaxy luminosity. Global trends in colour gradients therefore result from combining the contrasting behaviour of a number of different galaxy populations. The ubiquity of strong negative colour gradients supports the picture of inside-out growth through gas accretion for blue, low-$n$ galaxies, and through dry minor mergers for red, high-$n$ galaxies. An exception is the blue high-n population, with properties indicative of dissipative major mergers.

  13. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  14. VLBI Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulvestad, J S

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Very Long Baseline Array and its phase-referencing capability have enabled milliarcsecond-scale imaging of radio sources at sub-millijansky sensitivity, opening the door to high-resolution imaging of Seyfert galaxies. Over the last few years, this has led to a number of interesting new results that shed light on the characteristics of the inner cores of Seyfert galaxies. These include the following: (1) classical Seyfert galaxies with steep radio spectra have a strong tendency to exhibit radio jets at milliarcsecond scales, sometimes with considerable curvature in the jets; (2) apparent speeds of jets imaged at multiple epochs generally are considerably less than c, often in the vicinity of 0.1c or less, although there sometimes are faster motions seen after strong outbursts; and (3) lower luminosity Seyfert galaxies have a much stronger tendency to show flat or somewhat inverted radio spectra, usually are unresolved on milliarcsecond scales, and probably are dominated by a combination of lo...

  15. UV Properties of Primeval Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Comment: 4 pages + 4 PS figures, LateX, Proceedings of the X Rencontres de Blois on "The Birth of Galaxies" (Blois, June 28 - July 4, 1998). Edited by B. Guiderdoni (Ed. Frontieres: Paris), in press. (see also http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html)

  16. Characteristic Scales in Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, A

    2004-01-01

    Recent data, e.g. from SDSS and 2dF, reveal a robust bi-modality in the distribution of galaxy properties, with a characteristic transition scale at stellar mass M_*~3x10^{10} Msun (near L_*), corresponding to virial velocity V~100 km/s. Smaller galaxies tend to be blue disks of young populations. They define a "fundamental line" of decreasing surface brightness, metallicity and velocity with decreasing M_*, which extends to the smallest dwarf galaxies. Galaxies above the critical scale are dominated by red spheroids of old populations, with roughly constant high surface brightens and metallicity, and they tend to host AGNs. A minimum in the virial M/L is obtained at the same magic scale. This bi-modality can be the combined imprint of several different physical processes. On smaller scales, disks are built by cold flows, and supernova feedback is effective in regulating star formation. On larger scales, the infalling gas is heated by a virial shock and star formation can be suppressed by AGN feedback. Anothe...

  17. Global extinction in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, RB; Pierce, MJ; Saunders, W; Verheijen, MAW; Witchalls, PL

    1998-01-01

    Magnitude-limited samples of spiral galaxies drawn from the Ursa Major and Pisces Clusters are used to determine their extinction properties as a function of inclination. Imaging photometry is available for 87 spirals in the B, R, I, and K' bands. Extinction causes systematic scatter in color-magnit

  18. Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Rodenbeck, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies, and may have a strong impact on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employ a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally leads to the production of two peaks in the evolution of the average magnetic field strength within 5 kpc, within 25 kpc and on scales in between 5 and 25 kpc. The latter is consistent with the peak in the magnetic field strength reported by Drzazga et al. (2011) in a merger sequence of observed galaxies. We show that the peak on the galactic scale and in the outer regions is likely due to geometrical effects, as the core of one galaxy enters the outskirts of the other one. In addition, there is a physical enhancement of t...

  19. On the occurrence of galaxy harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, D.; Lisker, T.; Olczak, C.; Spurzem, R.; Kotulla, R.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Tidal interactions of galaxies in galaxy clusters have been proposed as one potential explanation of the morphology-density relation at low masses. Earlier studies have shown that galaxy harassment is a suitable mechanism for inducing a morphological transformation from low-mass late-type disk galaxies to the abundant early-type galaxies. Aims: The efficiency of tidal transformation is expected to depend strongly on the orbit of a galaxy within the cluster halo. The orbit determines both the strength of the cluster's global tidal field and the probability of encounters with other cluster members. Here we aim to explore these dependencies. Methods: We use a combination of N-body simulation and Monte-Carlo method to study the efficiency of the transformation of late-type galaxies by tidal interactions on different orbits in a galaxy cluster. Additionally, we investigate the effect of an inclination between the disk of the infalling galaxy and its orbital plane. We compare our results to observational data to assess the possible relevance of such transformations for the existing cluster galaxy population. Results: We find that galaxies that entered a cluster from the outskirts are unlikely to be significantly transformed (stellar mass loss ≤6%). Closer to the cluster centre, tidal interactions are a more efficient mechanism (stellar mass loss up to 50%) for producing harassed galaxies. The inclination of the disk can reduce the mass loss significantly, yet it amplifies the thickening of the galaxy disk. Galaxies with smaller sizes on intermediate orbits are nearly unaffected by tidal interactions. The tidal influence on an infalling galaxy and the likelihood that it leads to galaxy harassment make a very stochastical process that depends on the galaxy's specific history. Conclusions: We conclude that harassment is a suitable mechanism that could explain the transformation of at least a fraction of galaxies inside galaxy clusters. However, the transformation

  20. Density profiles of galaxy groups and clusters from SDSS galaxy-galaxy weak lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, R; Cool, R J; Blanton, M; Hirata, C M; Brinkmann, J; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Cool, Richard J.; Blanton, Michael; Hirata, Christopher M.; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a measurement of the shape of the density profile of galaxy groups and clusters traced by 43 335 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) with spectroscopic redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The galaxies are selected such that they are the brightest within a cylindrical aperture, split into two luminosity samples, and modeled as the sum of stellar and dark matter components. We present a detailed investigation of many possible systematic effects that could contaminate our signal and develop methods to remove them, including a detected intrinsic alignment for galaxies within 100 kpc/h of LRGs which we remove using photometric redshift information. The resulting lensing signal is consistent with NFW profile dark matter halos; the SIS profile is ruled out at the 96 (conservatively) and 99.96 per cent confidence level (CL) for the fainter and brighter lens samples (respectively) when we fit using lensing data between 40 kpc/h and 2 Mpc/h with total signal-to-noise of 19 and 25 for the ...

  1. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  2. STUDYING INTERCLUSTER GALAXY FILAMENTS THROUGH STACKING gmBCG GALAXY CLUSTER PAIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method to study the photometric properties of galaxies in filaments by stacking the galaxy populations between pairs of galaxy clusters. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, this method can detect the intercluster filament galaxy overdensity with a significance of ∼5σ out to z = 0.40. Using this approach, we study the g – r color and luminosity distribution of filament galaxies as a function of redshift. Consistent with expectation, filament galaxies are bimodal in their color distribution and contain a larger blue galaxy population than clusters. Filament galaxies are also generally fainter than cluster galaxies. More interestingly, the observed filament population seems to show redshift evolution at 0.12 < z < 0.40: the blue galaxy fraction has a trend to increase at higher redshift; such evolution is parallel to the ''Butcher-Oemler effect'' of galaxy clusters. We test the dependence of the observed filament density on the richness of the cluster pair: richer clusters are connected by higher density filaments. We also test the spatial dependence of filament galaxy overdensity: this quantity decreases when moving away from the intercluster axis between a cluster pair. This method provides an economical way to probe the photometric properties of filament galaxies and should prove useful for upcoming projects like the Dark Energy Survey

  3. Neighboring Galaxies' Influence on Rotation Curve Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, J C; Castelaz, Michael W.; Hodge, John C.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation velocity asymmetry v observed in spiral galaxy HI rotation curves linearly correlates with the effective potential force from the 10 closest neighboring galaxies normalized for the test particle mass and the gravitational constant. The magnitude of the potential force from a close galaxy is proportional to the luminosity of the close galaxy and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the close galaxy to the target galaxy. The correlation coefficient is 0.99 and F test is 0.99. Also, the slope of the rotation curve in the disk region of a galaxy from rising to flat to declining is qualitatively correlated with increasing asymmetry and, hence, to the net force from other galaxies. The result is based on a sample of nine spiral galaxies with published Cepheid distances and rotation curves and with a wide range of characteristics. These relationships are interesting not only for their predictive power but also because (1) they suggest a galaxy's dynamics and the shape of its rotatio...

  4. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments

    CERN Document Server

    de Arriba, Luis Peralta; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We study the preferred environments of z~0 massive relic galaxies (M_star > 10^10 M_sun galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z~2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z~2 is ~0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M_star > 10^10 M_sun. This fraction rises to ~0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M_star > 10^10 M_sun early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, ...

  5. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

  6. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, L sub FIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 10(exp 10) solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/L sub CO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds

  7. Constraints on Assembly Bias from Galaxy Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Zentner, Andrew R; Bosch, Frank C van den; Lange, Johannes U; Villarreal, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the newly-introduced decorated Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model using SDSS DR7 measurements of projected galaxy clustering or r-band luminosity threshold samples. The decorated HOD is a model for the galaxy-halo connection that augments the HOD by allowing for the possibility of galaxy assembly bias: galaxy luminosity may be correlated with dark matter halo properties besides mass, Mvir. We demonstrate that it is not possible to rule out galaxy assembly bias using DR7 measurements of galaxy clustering alone. Moreover, galaxy samples with Mr < -20 and Mr < -20.5 favor strong central galaxy assembly bias. These samples prefer scenarios in which high-concentration are more likely to host a central galaxy relative to low-concentration halos of the same mass. We exclude zero assembly bias with high significance for these samples. Satellite galaxy assembly bias is significant for the faintest sample, Mr < -19. We find no evidence for assembly bias in the Mr < -21 sample. Assembly bi...

  8. The clustering properties of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Infante, L; Infante, L; Pritchet, C J

    1994-01-01

    The two-point angular correlation function of galaxies, \\wte, has been computed from a new survey of faint galaxies covering a 2 deg^2 area near the North Galactic Pole. This survey, which is complete to limiting magnitudes \\jmag=24 and \\fmag=23, samples angular scales as large as 1\\degpoint5. Faint galaxies are found to be more weakly clustered (by a factor of at least two) compared to galaxies observed locally. Clustering amplitudes are closer to model predictions in the red than in the blue. The weak clustering of faint galaxies cannot be explained by any plausible model of clustering evolution with redshift. However, one possible explanation of the clustering properties of intermediate redshift galaxies is that they resemble those of starburst galaxies and H II region galaxies, which are observed locally to possess weak clustering amplitudes. Our clustering amplitudes are also similar to those of nearby late-type galaxies, which are observed to be more weakly clustered than early-type galaxies A simple, s...

  9. THE GALACTIC SPIN OF AGN GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an extensive sample of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, we compare the angular momentum distribution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with non-AGN hosting late-type galaxies. To this end we characterize galactic spin through the dimensionless angular momentum parameter λ, which we estimate through simple dynamical considerations. Using a volume-limited sample, we find a considerable difference when comparing the empirical distributions of λ for AGNs and non-AGN galaxies, the AGNs showing typically low λ values and associated dispersions, while non-AGNs present higher λ values and a broader distribution. A more striking difference is found when looking at λ distributions in thin Mr cuts; while the spin of non-AGN galaxies presents an anticorrelation with Mr , with bright (massive) galaxies having low spins, AGN host galaxies present uniform values of λ at all magnitudes, a behavior probably imposed by the fact that most late-type AGN galaxies present a narrow range in color, with a typical constant λ value. We also find that the fraction of AGN hosting galaxies in our sample strongly depends on galactic spin, increasing dramatically for decreasing λ. For AGN host galaxies, we compute the mass of their supermassive black holes and find that this value tends to be higher for low spin galaxies, even at fixed luminosity, a result that could account, to a certain extent, for the spread on the luminosity-black-hole mass relation.

  10. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Quantifying Morphological Indicators of Galaxy Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Casteels, Kevin R V; Skibba, Ramin A; Masters, Karen L; Lintott, Chris J; Keel, William C; Schawinski, Kevin; Nichol, Robert C; Smith, Arfon M

    2012-01-01

    We use Galaxy Zoo 2 visual classifications to study the morphological signatures of interaction between similar-mass galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that many observable features correlate with projected pair separation; not only obvious indicators of merging, disturbance and tidal tails, but also more regular features, such as spiral arms and bars. These trends are robustly quantified, using a control sample to account for observational biases, producing measurements of the strength and separation scale of various morphological responses to pair interaction. For example, we find that the presence of spiral features is enhanced at scales 10^9.5 M_\\odot and mass ratio < 4, to be between 0.4 - 2.7 per cent.

  12. Linear potentials in galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, P D

    1995-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented a typical set of galactic rotation curves associated with the linear gravitational potential of the conformal invariant fourth order theory of gravity which has recently been advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas as a candidate alternative to the standard second order Newton-Einstein theory. Reasonable agreement with data was obtained for four representative galaxies without the need for any non-luminous or dark matter. In this paper we present the associated formalism and compare and contrast the linear potential explanation of the general systematics of galactic rotation curves and the associated Tully-Fisher relation with that of the standard dark matter theory. Additionally, we show that the conformal gravity picture appears to have survived the recent round of microlensing observations unscathed. Finally, we make a first application of the conformal theory to the larger distance scale associated with a cluster of galaxies, with the theory being found to give a reasonable value...

  13. Testing galaxy formation models with galaxy stellar mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Seunghwan; Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We compare predictions of a number of empirical models and numerical simulations of galaxy formation to the conditional stellar mass functions (CSMF) of galaxies in groups of different masses obtained recently by Lan et al. to test how well different models accommodate the data. Among all the models considered, only the model of Lu et al. can match the observational data; all other models fail to reproduce the faint-end upturn seen in the observation. The CSMFs are used to update the halo-based empirical model of Lu et al., and the model parameters obtained are very similar to those inferred by Lu et al. from a completely different set of observational constraints. The observational data clearly prefer a model in which star formation in low-mass halos changes behavior at a characteristic redshift $z_c \\sim 2$. There is also tentative evidence that this characteristic redshift depends on environments, becoming $z_c \\sim 4$ in regions that eventually evolve into rich clusters of galaxies. The constrained model ...

  14. GALAXY CLUSTERING TOPOLOGY IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY MAIN GALAXY SAMPLE: A TEST FOR GALAXY FORMATION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the topology of the main galaxy distribution using the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, examining the dependence of galaxy clustering topology on galaxy properties. The observational results are used to test galaxy formation models. A volume-limited sample defined by Mr -1 Mpc smoothing scale, with 4.8% uncertainty including all systematics and cosmic variance. The clustering topology over the smoothing length interval from 6 to 10 h -1 Mpc reveals a mild scale dependence for the shift (Δν) and void abundance (AV ) parameters of the genus curve. We find substantial bias in the topology of galaxy clustering with respect to the predicted topology of the matter distribution, which varies with luminosity, morphology, color, and the smoothing scale of the density field. The distribution of relatively brighter galaxies shows a greater prevalence of isolated clusters and more percolated voids. Even though early (late)-type galaxies show topology similar to that of red (blue) galaxies, the morphology dependence of topology is not identical to the color dependence. In particular, the void abundance parameter AV depends on morphology more strongly than on color. We test five galaxy assignment schemes applied to cosmological N-body simulations of a ΛCDM universe to generate mock galaxies: the halo-galaxy one-to-one correspondence model, the halo occupation distribution model, and three implementations of semi-analytic models (SAMs). None of the models reproduces all aspects of the observed clustering topology; the deviations vary from one model to another but include statistically significant discrepancies in the abundance of isolated voids or isolated clusters and the amplitude and overall shift of the genus curve. SAM predictions of the topology color dependence are usually correct in sign but incorrect in magnitude. Our topology tests indicate that, in these models, voids should be emptier and more connected and the threshold for galaxy

  15. A DEEP SEARCH FOR EXTENDED RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR PARTICLE DARK MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spekkens, Kristine [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Mason, Brian S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Aguirre, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Nhan, Bang, E-mail: kristine.spekkens@rmc.ca [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 391 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We present deep radio observations of four nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, designed to detect extended synchrotron emission resulting from weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter annihilations in their halos. Models by Colafrancesco et al. (CPU07) predict the existence of angularly large, smoothly distributed radio halos in such systems, which stem from electron and positron annihilation products spiraling in a turbulent magnetic field. We map a total of 40.5 deg{sup 2} around the Draco, Ursa Major II, Coma Berenices, and Willman 1 dSphs with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at 1.4 GHz to detect this annihilation signature, greatly reducing discrete-source confusion using the NVSS catalog. We achieve a sensitivity of {sigma}{sub sub} {approx}< 7 mJy beam{sup -1} in our discrete source-subtracted maps, implying that the NVSS is highly effective at removing background sources from GBT maps. For Draco we obtained approximately concurrent Very Large Array observations to quantify the variability of the discrete source background, and find it to have a negligible effect on our results. We construct radial surface brightness profiles from each of the subtracted maps, and jackknife the data to quantify the significance of the features therein. At the {approx}10' resolution of our observations, foregrounds contribute a standard deviation of 1.8 mJy beam{sup -1} {<=} {sigma}{sub ast} {<=} 5.7 mJy beam{sup -1} to our high-latitude maps, with the emission in Draco and Coma dominated by foregrounds. On the other hand, we find no significant emission in the Ursa Major II and Willman 1 fields, and explore the implications of non-detections in these fields for particle dark matter using the fiducial models of CPU07. For a WIMP mass M{sub {chi}} = 100 GeV annihilating into b b-bar final states and B = 1 {mu}G, upper limits on the annihilation cross-section for Ursa Major II and Willman I are log (({sigma}v){sub {chi}}, cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}) {approx}< -25

  16. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present maps of 12COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of LCO2-1 = (3-28) × 106 K km s–1 pc2. The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have LCO2-1 ∼6 K km s–1 pc2. We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of LCO with MB and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z☉ have LCO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their LCO per unit LB is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that LCO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low LCO/SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, αCO, changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H2 depletion time of τdep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies αCO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of αCO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf galaxies that model dust emission

  17. The Origin of Neutral Hydrogen Clouds in Nearby Galaxy Groups: Exploring the Range Of Galaxy Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chynoweth, Katie M; Polisensky, Emil; Langston, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We combine high resolution N-body simulations with deep observations of neutral hydrogen (HI) in nearby galaxy groups in order to explore two well-known theories of HI cloud formation: HI stripping by galaxy interactions and dark matter minihalos with embedded HI gas. This paper presents new data from three galaxy groups, Canes Venatici I, NGC 672, and NGC 45, and assembles data from our previous galaxy group campaign to generate a rich HI cloud archive to compare to our simulated data. We find no HI clouds in the Canes Venatici I, NGC 672, or NGC 45 galaxy groups. We conclude that HI clouds in our detection space are most likely to be generated through recent, strong galaxy interactions. We find no evidence of HI clouds associated with dark matter halos above M_HI = 10^6 M_Sun, within +/- 700 km/s of galaxies, and within 50 kpc projected distance of galaxies.

  18. Astrocladistics: a phylogenetic analysis of galaxy evolution I. Character evolutions and galaxy histories

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, D; Douzery, E J P; Verhamme, A; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Choler, Philippe; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.; Verhamme, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This series of papers is intended to present astrocladistics in some detail and evaluate this methodology in reconstructing phylogenies of galaxies. Being based on the evolution of all the characters describing galaxies, it is an objective way of understanding galaxy diversity through evolutionary relationships. In this first paper, we present the basic steps of a cladistic analysis and show both theoretically and practically that it can be applied to galaxies. For illustration, we use a sample of 50 simulated galaxies taken from the GALICS database, which are described by 91 observables (dynamics, masses and luminosities). These 50 simulated galaxies are indeed 10 different galaxies taken at 5 cosmological epochs, and they are free of merger events. The astrocladistic analysis easily reconstructs the true chronology of evolution relationships within this sample. It also demonstrates that burst characters are not relevant for galaxy evolution as a whole. A companion paper is devoted to the formalization of th...

  19. Using member galaxy luminosities as halo mass proxies of galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yi; Shen, Shiyin

    2015-01-01

    Reliable halo mass estimation for a given galaxy system plays an important role both in cosmology and galaxy formation studies. Here we set out to find the way that can improve the halo mass estimation for those galaxy systems with limited brightest member galaxies been observed. Using four mock galaxy samples constructed from semi-analytical formation models, the subhalo abundance matching method and the conditional luminosity functions, respectively, we find that the luminosity gap between the brightest and the subsequent brightest member galaxies in a halo (group) can be used to significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimation based on the luminosity of the brightest galaxy alone. Tests show that these corrections can significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimations by $\\sim 50\\%$ to $\\sim 70\\%$ in massive halos depending on which member galaxies are considered. Comparing to the traditional ranking method, we find that this method works better for groups with less than five members...

  20. Spectrophotometry of Seyfert 2 galaxies and narrow-line radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for a spectrophotometric survey of several Seyfert 2 galaxies, intermediate Seyferts, and narrow-line radio galaxies. The emission-line spectra of the galaxies are analyzed, emphasizing line intensities, reddening, temperatures, densities, line strength correlations, line widths, and redshift differences. The continuous spectra are examined, and possible ionization sources are considered. It is found that: (1) there are no distinguishing differences between the spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies and narrow-line radio galaxies; (2) the emission spectra are rich in lines from a wide range of ionization levels; (3) the continuum is starlight diluted by an underlying continuous spectrum; (4) the line widths of both classes of galaxies have the same distribution; (5) there appear to be regions of high and low ionization in the Seyfert 2 and narrow-line radio galaxies; (6) photoionization seems quite likely as the energy input to the gas; and (7) all the galaxies show a UV excess in their spectra.